Diana K VanGoethem
The purpose of this paper is to present an understanding of how the campaign to advance the recognition of homophobia as a social problem started and subsequently evolved into the modern gay rights movement. Best's work (2008) presents a natural history model of a successful social problem campaign as a cyclical one, fueled by an interactive dialog occurring between actors
Keach, Everett T., Jr.
This module is one in a series of teaching modules developed for a contemporary social studies curriculum. The purpose of this module is to develop an understanding of the sources of content to be used in an intercultural awareness curriculum and to reinforce teaching strategies learned in the other modules by applying them to the development of…
The importance of social entrepreneurship in social, cultural and economic terms is increasingly acknowledged. Drawing on data from the second Social Entrepreneurship Monitor report published by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) UK project, this article focuses on the social entrepreneurs who may grow the social enterprises of the future.…
E P Wright; M A Kiely; P Lynch; A Cull; P J Selby
A study was undertaken to describe, evaluate and categorise the social problems experienced by cancer patients. Ninety-six adult cancer patients at all stages of disease participated in either a telephone focus group discussion, a face to face focus group or an individual interview which were tape recorded and transcribed. Six experts analysed the transcripts. A total of 32 social problems
Soon after the Space Shuttle Columbia accident occurred last year, a group of CFD analysts from NASA centers and private industry was organized to help determine the cause of the accident. This group was under the direction of the Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch of the Aeroscience and Flight Mechanics Division at the Johnson Space Center. For external flow simulations, noncommercia2 CFD codes that specialize in hypersonic or high Mach number flows were used. These tools were used to determine heating rates, pressures, and temperatures for a large number of vehicle damage scenarios. Lockheed Martin Space Operations was called upon to provide CFD support in the area of internal flows within the shuttle wing cavity, and for these simulations, FLUENT 6.1 was chosen. Two large-scale, simplified models were m to understand the flow patterns once a breach of the internal wing cavity was initiated. The results were primarily used to visualize flow patterns within the wing cavity. The first CFD model included the entire lee wing without the wheel well cavity. The purpose of the first model, which did not include the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) cavity along the wing leading edge, was to visualize the flow field within the wing cavity immediately after the leading edge spar breach, This model assumed that the flow coming into the wing cavity was normal to the spar. It included all of the primary vents that allow for flow between the main cavities of the wing. A six-inch diameter hole was modeled in the spar at the approximate location where the spar breach was judged to have occurred, which was between RCC panels 8 and 9. The results of the modeling showed that at this location, the high temperature, high velocity gas stream entering the wing cavity impinged on the outboard wheel well cavity. Instrumentation in the Shuttle wheel well cavity registered abnormal temperatures during reentry, so the FLUENT results helped support the conclusion of the accident investigation team that the spar breach was in the RCC panel 8-9 area, and that the initial spar breach was likely entering the wing cavity normal to the spar. This model also showed that the flow entering the wing cavity tended to swirl within the cavity just outboard of the wheel well, and did not initially penetrate further into the rear cavities of the wing. The second CFD model was a 2-D simulation of the left wing cavity and the RCC cavity. It was used to visualize the flow through the RCC breach, through the wing spar breach, and into the wing cavity directly outboard of the wheel well. The purpose of this model was to verify whether or not it was possible for the flow to come into the wing cavity normal to the leading edge spar. The results from this 2-D model showed that the internal structure behind the RCC panels probably deflected the flow entering the RCC cavity so that it impinged normal to the spar. As in the 3-D model, this deflected flow stream was Found to impinge on the wheel well outer wall. This model again supported the conclusions regarding the location of the spar breach and how the flow behaved inside the wing cavity.
Paul, Thomas H.
Soon after the Space Shuttle Columbia accident occurred last year, a group of CFD analysts from NASA centers and private industry was organized to help determine the cause of the accident. This group was under the direction of the Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch of the Aeroscience and Flight Mechanics Division at the Johnson Space Center. For external flow simulations, noncommercial CFD codes that specialize in hypersonic or high Mach number flows were used. These tools were used to determine heating rates, pressures, and temperatures for a large number of vehicle damage scenarios. Lockheed Martin Space Operations was called upon to provide CFD support in the area of internal flows within the shuttle wing cavity, and or these simulations, FLUENT 6.1 was chosen. Two large-scale, simplified models were run to understand the flow patterns once a breach of the internal wing cavity was initiated. The results were primarily used to visualize flow patterns within the wing cavity. The first CFD model included the entire left wing without the wheel. well cavity. The purpose of the first model, which did not include the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) cavity along the wing leading edge, was to visualize the flow field within the wing cavity immediately after the leading edge spar breach, This model assumed that the flow coming into the wing cavity was nom1 to the spar. It included all o f the primary vents that allow for flow between the main cavities of the wing. A six-inch diameter hole was modeled in the spar at the approximate location where the spar breach was judged to have occurred, which was between RCC panels 8 and 9. The results of the modeling showed that at this location, the high temperature, high velocity gas stream entering the wing cavity impinged on the outboard wheel well cavity. Instrumentation in the Shuttle wheel well cavity registered abnormal temperatures during reentry, so the FLUENT results helped support the conclusion of the accident investigation team that the spar breach was in the RCC panel 8-9 area, and that the initial spar breach was likely entering the wing cavity normal to the spar. This model also showed that the flow entering the wing cavity tended to swirl within the cavity just outboard of the wheel well, and did not initially penetrate further into the rear cavities of the wing. The second CFD model was a 2-D simulation of the left wing cavity and the RCC cavity. It was used to visualize the flow through the RCC breach, through the wing spar breach, and into the wing cavity directly outboard of the wheel well. The purpose of this model was to verify whether or not it was possible for the flow to come into the wing cavity normal to the leading edge spar. The results from this 2-D model showed that the internal structure behind the RCC panels probably deflected the flow entering the RCC cavity so that it impinged normal to the spar. As in the 3-D model, this deflected flow stream was found to impinge on the wheel well outer wall. This model again supported the conclusions regarding the location of the spar breach and how the flow behaved inside the wing cavity.
on the latter problem of understanding how social annotations affect user behavior. In previous work, through to understand the effect of these signals on users' behavior. There are multiple ways in which social signals can be used in search: (a) to surface and rank important social content; (b) to signal to users which
Joseph E. McCann
Two or more social actors-individuals, groups, and organizations-engage in social problem solving when resolving or managing a shared problem. Social problem solving poses significant conceptual and control difficulties that make it highly episodic and prone to setbacks. This paper proposes a framework for understanding social problem solving and offers four guidelines for designing interventions to facilitate the process. A case
Per Persson; Jarmo Laaksolahti; Peter Lönnqvist
The ultimate purpose with socially intelligent agent (SIA) technology is not to simulate social intelligence per se, but to let an agent give an impression of social intelligence. Such user-centred SIA technology, must consider the everyday knowledge and expectations by which users make sense of real, fictive, or artificial social beings. This folk-theoretical understanding of other social beings involves several,
Mackinlay, Elizabeth; Thatcher, Kristy; Seldon, Camille
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogical approach in which students encounter a problem and systematically set about finding ways to understand the problem through dialogue and research. PBL is an active process where students take responsibility for their learning by asking their own questions about the problem and in this paper we explore…
Understanding Mobile Social Behaviour Using Smartphones Fehmi Ben Abdesslem and Tristan Henderson available to smartphone users, allowing them to share personal information with their social networks,firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT Understanding the behaviour of users as they share information with mobile social applications
Surveyed 446 late adolescents concerning their assessment of specific social issues as problems existing in contemporary American society. Subjects overwhelmingly pointed to drug use, pollution, hunger, nuclear war, and poverty as serious to very serious problems, while ageism, and racial and sexual discrimination were regarded as substantially…
Mitri, Sara; Wischmann, Steffen; Floreano, Dario; Keller, Laurent
A major challenge in studying social behaviour stems from the need to disentangle the behaviour of each individual from the resulting collective. One way to overcome this problem is to construct a model of the behaviour of an individual, and observe whether combining many such individuals leads to the predicted outcome. This can be achieved by using robots. In this review we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of such an approach for studies of social behaviour. We find that robots-whether studied in groups of simulated or physical robots, or used to infiltrate and manipulate groups of living organisms-have important advantages over conventional individual-based models and have contributed greatly to the study of social behaviour. In particular, robots have increased our understanding of self-organization and the evolution of cooperative behaviour and communication. However, the resulting findings have not had the desired impact on the biological community. We suggest reasons for why this may be the case, and how the benefits of using robots can be maximized in future research on social behaviour. PMID:22816672
in human sciences have shown that nonverbal communication is the main channel through which we express to automatically infer social signals from nonverbal behavioral cues detected through sensors? Â· Is it possiblSocial Signal Processing: Understanding Nonverbal Communication in Social Interactions Alessandro
Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511
Kammen, Daniel M.
Bikesharing in North America: Understanding the Social & Environmental Impacts American operators for 2011 #12;Bikesharing: North America As of January 2012, 19 Â· North American overview Â· Operator survey: key Eindings Â· Member survey: key
Beier, Jonathan S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.
Young infants are sensitive to self-directed social actions, but do they appreciate the intentional, target-directed nature of such behaviors? The authors addressed this question by investigating infants' understanding of social gaze in third-party interactions (N = 104). Ten-month-old infants discriminated between 2 people in mutual versus…
Lewis, Charlie; Koyasu, Masuo; Oh, Seungmi; Ogawa, Ayako; Short, Benjamin; Huang, Zhao
Much of the evidence from the West has shown links between children's developing self-control (executive function), their social experiences, and their social understanding (Carpendale & Lewis, 2006, chapters 5 and 6), across a range of cultures including China. This chapter describes four studies conducted in three Oriental cultures, suggesting…
Metzger, Leigh Ann
This report was written to clarify the terms often associated with pornography and to help readers understand the issue of pornography more clearly. The first chapter defines pornography, as it was defined by the United States Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, as "that material (which) is predominantly sexually explicit and intended…
Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah
Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. PMID:24962114
Lorne Tepperman; James Curtis
By making better predictions, we can prepare better for the future. We cannot even hope to prepare per- fectly, no matter how good our predictions may be. However, where social organization is concerned, prepar- ing is always better than being taken by surprise. Like much else in the past hundred years, the problems of the future will probably involve science
Explores how curricular changes reflect modernization and its attendant social problems. Examines influences of decentralized and centralized systems, and degree of national identity, on curriculum development. Considers types of new subjects (e.g., anti-drug education) and the risks of overloading curricula with subjects of a relatively…
Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…
Austin, M J; Martin, M
The authors' purpose in this study is to define and highlight socially inhibited behaviors among managers, explore the implications of these behaviors for the workplace, identify ways to assist inordinately shy managers, and help staff to understand and relate more effectively when subjected to an inhibited manager. The authors search for the origins of shyness, surveying the various perspectives in personality theory and within the concept of situational causality. PMID:10158870
Szell, Michael; Sinatra, Roberta; Petri, Giovanni; Thurner, Stefan; Latora, Vito
Despite the recent availability of large data sets on human movements, a full understanding of the rules governing motion within social systems is still missing, due to incomplete information on the socio-economic factors and to often limited spatio-temporal resolutions. Here we study an entire society of individuals, the players of an online-game, with complete information on their movements in a network-shaped universe and on their social and economic interactions. Such a ``socio-economic laboratory'' allows to unveil the intricate interplay of spatial constraints, social and economic factors, and patterns of mobility. We find that the motion of individuals is not only constrained by physical distances, but also strongly shaped by the presence of socio-economic areas. These regions can be recovered perfectly by community detection methods solely based on the measured human dynamics. Moreover, we uncover that long-term memory in the time-order of visited locations is the essential ingredient for modeling the trajectories.
Steinbrink, John E.; Cook, Jeremy W.
Social Security is a contemporary topic that exemplifies a social issue-centered approach to social studies, one that allows students to get beyond the school walls to analyze a contemporary topic that ultimately affects virtually everyone. In this article, the authors provide a brief history of Social Security, describe how it is funded and…
, tables, graphics · Instructions, messages, help · Collaboration & Social Media · Help, tutorialsNetwork Analysis and Visualization for Understanding Social Computing Ben Shneiderman ben, training · Search www.awl.com/DTUI Fifth Edition: March 2009 · Visualization #12;Using Vision to Think
Channon, Shelley; Crawford, Sarah; Orlowska, Danuta; Parikh, Nimmi; Thoma, Patrizia
Introduction It is well established that autistic spectrum disorder is linked to difficulties with mentalising, but the ways in which this affects everyday behaviour is less well understood. This study explored the nature and extent of difficulties in everyday social functioning in adults with Asperger's syndrome (AS), since increased understanding can enhance the development of more effective intervention strategies. Methods Individuals with AS (n = 21) were compared with healthy control participants (n = 21) on three tests of social cognition: the Mentalistic Interpretation task, which assesses interpretation of sarcasm and actions; the Social Problem Fluency task, which assesses ability to generate problem solutions; and the Social Problem Resolution task, which assesses judgement in selecting problem solutions. Results Comprehension of both sarcastic remarks and actions was impaired in those with AS on the mentalistic interpretation task. Participants with AS showed difficulties in identifying the awkward elements of everyday social scenarios, and they were also impaired in generating problem solutions but not in judging alternative solutions on the social problem fluency and resolution tasks. Conclusions These tasks potentially provide a means of profiling strengths and weaknesses in social processing, which in turn has implications for informing clinical evaluation and training. PMID:23875885
Lei Tang; Xufei Wang; Huan Liu
The prolific use of participatory Web and social networking sites is reshaping the ways in which people interact with one another. It has become a vital part of human social life in both the developed and developing world. People sharing certain similarities or affiliates tend to form communities within social media. At the same time, they participate in various online
Levine, A. L.
Attempts to apply space age management to social problems were plagued with difficulties. Recent experience in the State of Delaware and in New York City, however, indicate new possibilities. Project management as practiced in NASA was applied with promising results in programs dealing with housing and social services. Such applications are feasible, according to recent research, because project management utilizes social and behavioral approaches, as well as advanced management tools, such as PERT, to achieve results.
Bloom, P N; Novelli, W D
This article reviews the problems that arise when general marketing principles are applied to social programs. Social marketing is conceptualized as the design, implementation, and control of programs seeking to increase the acceptability of a social ideal or practice in a target group. These problems can occur in 8 basic decision-making areas: market analysis, market segmentation, product strategy development, pricing strategy development, channel strategy development, communications strategy development, organizational design and planning, and evaluation. Social marketers find that they have less good secondary data about their consumers, more problems obtaining valid and reliable measures of relevant variables, more difficulty sorting out the relative influence of determinants of consumer behavior, and more problems getting consumer research funded than marketers in the commercial sector. They tend to have less flexibility in shaping their products and more difficulty formulating product concepts. Problems associated with establishing, utilizing, and controlling distribution channels comprise another major difference between social and more conventional forms of marketing. Social marketers also find that their communications options are somewhat limited as a result of problems associated with use of paid advertisements, pressures not to use certain types of appeals in their messages, and the need to communicate large amounts of information in their messages. Moreover, social marketers must function in organizations where marketing activities are poorly understood, underappreciated, and inappropriately located. Finally, they face problems trying to define effectiveness measures or estimating the contribution their program has made toward the achievement of certain objectives. If all these problems are anticipated and handled creatively, social marketing efforts can succeed. PMID:12280283
A social navigation system collects data from its users--its community--about what they are doing, their opinions, and their decisions, aggregates this data, and provides the aggregated data--community data--back to individuals so that they can use it to guide behavior and decisions. Social navigation systems empower users with the ability to…
Chen, Jacqueline M; Hamilton, David L
Two studies investigated how people define and perceive diversity in the historically majority-group dominated contexts of business and academia. We hypothesized that individuals construe diversity as both the numeric representation of racial minorities and the social acceptance of racial minorities within a group. In Study 1, undergraduates' (especially minorities') perceptions of campus diversity were predicted by perceived social acceptance on a college campus, above and beyond perceived minority representation. Study 2 showed that increases in a company's representation and social acceptance independently led to increases in perceived diversity of the company among Whites. Among non-Whites, representation and social acceptance only increased perceived diversity of the company when both qualities were high. Together these findings demonstrate the importance of both representation and social acceptance to the achievement of diversity in groups and that perceiver race influences the relative importance of these two components of diversity. PMID:25713169
Bauminger, Nirit; Edelsztein, Hany Schorr; Morash, Janice
The present study aimed to comprehensively examine social cognition processes in children with and without learning disabilities (LD), focusing on social information processing (SIP) and complex emotional understanding capabilities such as understanding complex, mixed, and hidden emotions. Participants were 50 children with LD (age range 9.4-12.7;…
Han, Richard Y.
Towards Understanding Cyberbullying Behavior in a Semi-Anonymous Social Network Homa Hosseinmardi.email@example.com Abstract--Cyberbullying has emerged as an important and growing social problem, wherein people use online that has led to many cases of cyberbullying, some leading to suicidal behavior. We examine the occurrence
Mustaeva, F. A.
Problems of the family affect every individual. Problems have an impact on a variety of different social groups and strata, work collectives and neighborhood communities, young people, adults, children, the aged, and so on. The family's sense of well-being and the processes that affect its functioning can also hardly fail to be of concern to…
Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco
1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.
which consists in placing social software agents as facilitators of human communication. In our virtual is that previous studies focused on designing a communication environment that would simulate face experiments which include an intercultural communication experiment between Kyoto University and Stanford
Dunphy-Lelii, Sarah; LaBounty, Jennifer; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.
Traditional looking-time paradigms are often used to assess infants' attention to sociocognitive phenomena, but the link between these laboratory scenarios and real-world interactions is unclear. The current study investigated hypothesized relations between traditional social-cognitive looking-time paradigms and their real-world counterparts…
Dmitry Zinoviev; Vy Duong
All major on-line social networks, such as MySpace, Facebook, LiveJournal,\\u000aand Orkut, are built around the concept of friendship. It is not uncommon for a\\u000asocial network participant to have over 100 friends. A natural question arises:\\u000aare they all real friends of hers, or does she mean something different when\\u000ashe calls them \\
Davey, G C
This study investigated the relationship between worrying and two features of social problem solving: problem-solving ability and confidence. However, while levels of worrying were significantly related to both poor problem-solving confidence and poor perceived control over the problem-solving process, worrying was unrelated to problem-solving ability per se. The failure to find a relationship between worrying and social problem-solving skills was found separately at both low and high levels of worrying, and also when levels of trait anxiety had been controlled for. These results provide no support for the hypothesis that chronic worrying results from poor social problem-solving abilities, but the results are consistent with the belief that worrying is primarily an anxiety-related phenomenon with any problem-solving deficits occurring at the level of solution implementation rather than solution generation. PMID:8192632
Jie Meng; S. Q. Zhang
Open problems in the interpretation of the observed pair of near degenerate $\\Delta I = 1$ bands with the same parity as the chiral doublet bands are discussed. The ambiguities for the existing fingerprints of the chirality in atomic nuclei and problems in existing theory are discussed, including the description of quantum tunneling in the mean field approximation as well as the deformation, core polarization and configuration of particle rotor model (PRM). Future developments of the theoretical approach are prospected.
Ruths, Derek; Shultz, Thomas
The proposed framework is insufficient to categorize and understand current evidence on decision making. There are some ambiguities in the questions asked that require additional distinctions between correctness and accuracy, decision making and learning, accuracy and confidence, and social influence and empowerment. Social learning techniques are not all the same: Behavior copying is quite different from theory passing. Sigmoidal acquisition curves are not unique to social learning and are often mistaken for other accelerating curves. PMID:24572240
Lei Tang; Huan Liu
\\u000a The rapid growth of social networking sites enables people to connect to each other more conveniently than ever. With easy-to-use\\u000a social media, people contribute and consume contents, leading to a new form of human interaction and the emergence of online\\u000a collective behavior. In this chapter, we aim to understand group structures and properties by extracting and profiling communities\\u000a in social
Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Smith, Gregory T.
Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but which also provides within group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449
Dongwon Lee; Jaimie Yejean Park; Junha Kim; Jaejeung Kim; Junghoon Moon
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand music sharing behaviour on social networking services (SNS). This study suggests and examines a research model which focuses on the influences of user motivations, such as self-expression, ingratiation, altruism, and interactivity, on music sharing behaviour in SNS through social motivation factors. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected from 153 Korean SNS
Ruffman, Ted; Taumoepeau, Mele; Perkins, Chris
Many authors have argued that infants understand goals, intentions, and beliefs. We posit that infants' success on such tasks might instead reveal an understanding of behaviour, that infants' proficient statistical learning abilities might enable such insights, and that maternal talk scaffolds children's learning about the social world as well. We…
Hawaii at Hilo, University of
Dolphin Social Cognition and Joint Attention: Our Current Understanding Adam A. Pack1, 2 and Louis M. Herman1, 2 1 The Dolphin Institute, 420 Ward Avenue, Suite 212, Honolulu, HI 96814, USA 2 or locations. Studies of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have revealed that they understand (1) human
Fang, Lin; Mishna, Faye; Zhang, Vivian F; Van Wert, Melissa; Bogo, Marion
Accompanying the multiple benefits and innovations of social media are the complex ethical and pedagogical issues that challenge social work educators. Without a clear understanding of the blurred boundaries between public and private, the potentially limitless and unintended audiences, as well as the permanency of the information shared online, social work students who use social media can find themselves in difficult situations in their personal and professional lives. In this article, we present three scenarios that illustrate issues and complexities involving social media use by social work students, followed by a discussion and recommendations for social work educators. PMID:25321930
Fitzsimons, Nancy M; Hagemeister, Annelies K; Braun, Elizabeth J
Interpersonal violence against people with disabilities is a significant social problem. Little attention has focused on the rural context and the relevance for understanding violence. Given the dearth of literature exploring interpersonal violence, disability, and rurality, a review of rural-focused literature on domestic violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse was conducted to identify themes that could provide insight into this problem for people with disabilities. Themes include geographic isolation, traditional cultural values and norms, lack of anonymity, lack of resources, and poor response of systems. Implications for understanding interpersonal violence against rural people with disabilities and for social work practice are discussed. PMID:21827301
Talib, R; Agus, M R
One of the main characteristics of urbanization in Asia is the very rapid increase in population movement from rural to urban centers. This phenomenon has led to changing population structure, its composition and lifestyles in the cities and its fringes. As a consequent of population pressure on urban system and infrastructure, compounded by the nature of the composition of the in-migrant population, the urban concentrates are faced with several social and socio-economic problems. Although there has been a lot of interests among researchers to study the causes and effects or urbanization, there is a vacuum in the area of health implications. Planners and administrators usually give priority to the physical aspects of the urban and urbanities. Social problems and health implications thereof receives very little attention either at the level of administration or research. This paper therefore is a brave attempt to focus and draw some attention to this neglected area by looking at selected social problems and the health consequences. PMID:1342763
Sevdalis, Vassilis; Keller, Peter E
In this review article, we summarize the main findings from empirical studies that used dance-related forms of rhythmical full body movement as a research tool for investigating action understanding and social cognition. This work has proven to be informative about behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate links between perceptual and motor processes invoked during the observation and execution of spatially-temporally coordinated action and interpersonal interaction. The review focuses specifically on processes related to (a) motor experience and expertise, (b) learning and memory, (c) action, intention, and emotion understanding, and (d) audio-visual synchrony and timing. Consideration is given to the relationship between research on dance and more general embodied cognition accounts of action understanding and social cognition. Finally, open questions and issues concerning experimental design are discussed with a view to stimulating future research on social-cognitive aspects of dance. PMID:21880410
Social Behavior Problems in Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy VERONICA J. HINTON, PH University of New York, New York, New York ABSTRACT. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a chronic, 2006. Index terms: Duchenne muscular dystrophy, behavior, behavioral phenotype, social problems
Lisa Jacobs; Lisa A. Turner; Mark Faust; Margaret Stewart
Social skills and social status are important aspects of development that are likely to be influenced by an individual's ability to appropriately solve social problems. In this investigation, children (9–13 year olds) with and without mental retardation were asked to provide solutions to three types of social problems. Students were first asked to respond to open-ended questions and then were
Rice, Eric; Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta
The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and…
This article provides an overview of the psychological and social implications of infertility. After describing the evolution of current theoretical understanding in this area, it outlines typical emotional and gender-specific reactions as well as the impact of infertility on the concept of identity and loss. Key questions are presented that medical professionals can use in order to facilitate communication with
Sevdalis, Vassilis; Keller, Peter E.
In this review article, we summarize the main findings from empirical studies that used dance-related forms of rhythmical full body movement as a research tool for investigating action understanding and social cognition. This work has proven to be informative about behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate links between perceptual and motor…
Frank Hegel; Sören Krach; Tilo Kircher; Britta Wrede; Gerhard Sagerer
Anthropomorphism is one of the keys to understand the expectations people have about social robots. In this paper we address the question of how a robotpsilas actions are perceived and represented in a human subject interacting with the robot and how this perception is influenced only by the appearance of the robot. We present results of an interaction-study in which
, a robot system can estimate a human's subjective evaluation of the robot by observing his/her body-attention mechanism . In these systems, the robots identify humans' intentions from their behaviors. FurthermoreFriendly social robot that understands human's friendly relationships Takayuki Kanda 1 , Rumi Sato
Jarvela, Sanna; Jarvenoja, Hanna; Veermans, Marjaana
The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the dynamics of motivation in socially shared learning from both individual and group perspectives. Higher education students' motivation was analysed in the context of collaborative learning tasks, applying quantitative and qualitative methods. The research questions were: (1) what kind of…
Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mackerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patelli, Paolo G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eberhardt, Ariane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stradling, Seth G [Los Alamos National Laboratory
Understanding the process that enables political violence is of great value in reducing the future demand for and support of violent opposition groups. Methods are needed that allow alternative scenarios and counterfactuals to be scientifically researched. Computational social simulation shows promise in developing 'computer experiments' that would be unfeasible or unethical in the real world. Additionally, the process of modeling and simulation reveals and challenges assumptions that may not be noted in theories, exposes areas where data is not available, and provides a rigorous, repeatable, and transparent framework for analyzing the complex dynamics of political violence. This paper demonstrates the computational modeling process using two simulation techniques: system dynamics and agent-based modeling. The benefits and drawbacks of both techniques are discussed. In developing these social simulations, we discovered that the social science concepts and theories needed to accurately simulate the associated psychological and social phenomena were lacking.
Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Walsh, Trudi M.; Andrade, Brendan F.; King, Sara; Carrey, Normand J.
This study examined the association between social problem solving, conduct problems (CP), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits in elementary age children. Participants were 53 children (40 boys and 13 girls) aged 7-12 years. Social problem solving was evaluated using the Social Problem Solving Test-Revised, which requires children to produce…
Sue Kilpatrick; Stuart Auckland
The Tasmanian health system is experiencing considerable change as it shifts toward a primary health care approach with associated restructuring of rural health services. These changes will impact significantly on small isolated and socially fragmented communities such as those on the west coast of Tasmania. This paper examines how understanding social capital can support a shift towards the community participation
Does children's bias toward their own groups reflect egocentrism or social understanding? After being categorized as belonging to 1 of 2 fictitious groups, 157 six- to ten-year-olds evaluated group members and expressed preferences among neutral items. Children who expected the in-group to share their item preferences (egocentric social…
Findlay, Leanne C.; Girardi, Alberta; Coplan, Robert J.
The purpose of the current investigation was to examine both social behaviors (i.e., aggression, shyness-withdrawal, and prosocial tendencies) and social understanding (i.e., attitudes and responses to such behaviors in hypothetical peers) of empathic and low empathic children. Participants were 136 children in kindergarten and grade one. Parents…
Grunspan, Daniel Z.; Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.
Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA)…
Thomas J. D'Zurilla; Albert Maydeu-Olivares; Gail L. Kant
Age and gender differences in social problem-solving ability were examined using the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (D'Zurilla et al., 1998). In general, the results suggest that social problem-solving ability increases from young adulthood (ages 17–20) to middle-age (ages 40–55) and then decreases in older age (ages 60–80). Specifically, compared to younger adults, middle-aged individuals scored higher on positive problem orientation and
Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna
Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between social problem solving and social selfefficacy and the predictive role of social problem solving skills with social self-efficacy. The sample consists of 706 prospective teachers (362 female and 344 male) who are majoring in different fields at Mugla Sitki Kocman…
The purpose of this study is to analyze of university students' perceived social support and social problem solving. The participants were 827 (474 female and 353 male) university students. Data were collected Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (Yildirim, 2004) and Social Problem Solving (Maydeu-Olivares and D'Zurilla, 1996)…
Nancy G. Guerra; Ronald G. Slaby
Components of social problem solving (problem definition, generation and prioritization of solutions, and generation and evaluation of consequences) were assessed in high aggressive and low aggressive boys from grades 2– 3 and 5–6. When compared with their low aggressive peers, high aggressive boys at both grade levels were more likely to (1) define social problems based on the perception that
One essential methodological dichotomy introduced by Karl Jaspers into the field of psychopathology is the difference between 'understanding' ('Verstehen') and 'explaining' ('Erklären'). Jaspers emphasizes a critical epistemological divide between both methods: whereas 'explaining' relates to the attempt to consider mental disorders as consequences of impersonal natural laws, 'understanding' refers to the empathic appreciation of conflicts, hopes, and desires of an individual person. This distinction is related to the difference between 'persons' and 'things' according to Fritz Heider, founder of the so-called 'attribution theory' in social psychology that deals with our ability to ascribe mental states to others. Whereas the behavior of persons is based on psychological rules that are inherently characterized by ambiguity and uncertainty and are thus only partly predictable, the behavior of things is based on natural laws and is therefore fully predictable. This suggests a close resemblance of both accounts where 'understanding' is related to the domain of persons and 'explaining' is related to the domain of things or physical objects. Recently, understanding others has also become a central topic of modern cognitive neuroscience, constituting 'social neuroscience' targeted at explaining our human capacity of ascribing mental states to others. This shows that this distinction introduced by Jaspers still is an important and fundamental differentiation for various research fields dealing with communication and interaction between persons. PMID:23859833
Understanding the Problem Until grain sorghum develops an extensive root system, young plants may insecticide spray program for controlling sorghum midge. The distribution of soils having a potential for iron as the sorghum outgrows the deficiency. In some cases, the rate of growth may be so close to normal
Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL] [ORNL; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL] [ORNL
Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of leaders on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of followers , people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.
Popova, Yanna B.
This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones. PMID:25202286
M. Victor Minichiello
Two major approaches to the study of social problems have dominated the sociological literature. The first, the functionalist approach, carries over the familiar orientation and assumptions of the larger functionalist perspective in sociology. Social problems are seen as real social conditions harmful to society. The second and now more dominant approach, the subjective approach, draws on two larger perspectives in
This document for teachers provides four activities to develop students' ability to understand and interpret problems. These strategies help students deepen their focus and improve their problem-solving skills. The document includes both Problem Solving goals and Communication goals, as well as sample activities and specific examples related to the Wooden Legs Problem of the Week from the Math Forum. A copy of the complete problem, the scenario (with the question removed) and student handouts for applying the problem-solving strategies are also provided.
Patrick C. Jobes
The National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) has formalized the need to provide assessment of projects which have potential impacts. Many social scientists suddenly have become involved with performing social research in order to assess impacts upon human behavior. This paper describes some of the problems facing social scientists in this endeavor. Practical advice regarding their solutions is provided.
Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.
Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for…
Averdijk, Margit; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis
We investigated whether social relationships protect children against the effects of victimization on internalizing problems. We used data from the Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Victimization at age 8 years was associated with internalizing problems at age 9 years. Victims who had siblings, warm parents, and a…
Mathieu R. Despard; Gina A. N. Chowa; Lauren J. Hart
Social workers have opportunities to help clients address their financial problems through a variety of practice settings, yet little is known about how they do so. Using qualitative methods and descriptive statistics, we analyzed responses from a survey of social workers and other human service professionals (N = 56). Participants primarily characterized their clients’ financial problems as the result of
Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin
The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…
Kofler, Michael J.; Rapport, Mark D.; Bolden, Jennifer; Sarver, Dustin E.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Alderson, R. Matt
Social problems are a prevalent feature of ADHD and reflect a major source of functional impairment for these children. The current study examined the impact of working memory deficits on parent- and teacher-reported social problems in a sample of children with ADHD and typically developing boys (N = 39). Bootstrapped, bias-corrected mediation…
Kyeong-Ju Seo, Kay, Ed.; Pellegrino, Debra A., Ed.; Engelhard, Chalee, Ed.
Designing Problem-Driven Instruction with Online Social Media has the capacity to transform an educator's teaching style by presenting innovative ways to empower problem-based instruction with online social media. Knowing that not all instructors are comfortable in this area, this book provides clear, systematic design approaches for instructors…
Choi, You-Jung; Luo, Yuyan
In the present research, we investigated how 13-month-olds use their emergent theory-of-mind understanding (i.e., understanding about other people's mental states, such as their intentions, perceptions, and beliefs) and social-evaluation skills to make sense of social interactions. The infants watched three puppets (A, B, and C) interact. The results showed that after seeing Agents A and B interact in a positive manner, infants expected them to continue doing so, even after they saw B hit another agent, C, while A was absent. When A was present to witness B's harmful action, however, infants expected A to change his or her behavior and ignore B. Therefore, infants seemed to consider A's perspectives when predicting A's actions. Furthermore, if B accidentally hit C when A was present, infants seemed to accept that A could interact or not interact with B, which suggests that they had taken into account B's intention in their interpretations of the agents' interactions. PMID:25630442
China has undergone spectacular economic growth in the last 15 years. Concomitant to this growth has been a rising standard of living. This article looks at various social indicators to gauge the extent of social development in China. Compared to other developing countries, China has made great srides in the United Nations Human Development Index. However, China is still beset
Brown, Alexander L.
The reliability of a disease register as a record of the number and type of social problems was investigated in one practice of approximately 12,000 patients. A comparison with a randomly selected sample of the practice population, matched for age and sex, indicated that some social problems were not included. The types of problem concerned, and the reasons why they were not included, are discussed. PMID:6747933
Simoes, Jose; Magedanz, Thomas
Over the last years, with the rapid advance in technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible for people to take advantage of the devices and services in the surrounding environment to remain "connected" and continuously enjoy the activity they are engaged in, be it sports, entertainment, or work. Such a ubiquitous computing environment will allow everyone permanent access to the Internet anytime, anywhere and anyhow . Nevertheless, despite the evolution of services, social aspects remain in the roots of every human behavior and activities. Great examples of such phenomena are online social networks, which engage users in a way never seen before in the online world. At the same time, being aware and communicating context is a key part of human interaction and is a particularly powerful concept when applied to a community of users where services can be made more personalized and useful. Altogether, harvesting context to reason and learn about user behavior will further enhance the future multimedia vision where services can be composed and customized according to user context. Moreover, it will help us to understand users in a better way.
Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer
This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…
Thomas H. Murray
An examination of the notion of divided loyalties dilemmas in medicine, situated within their social contexts, yields insight into the contemporary social and moral position of medicine in the United States. In a review of the literature, the author identifies four concepts important to gaining an understanding of the position that divided loyalties play in medicine and the physician-patient relationship.
Soderberg, Patti D.
This study is an investigation of student understanding of population genetics and how students developed, used and revised conceptual models to solve problems. The students in this study participated in three rounds of problem solving. The first round involved the use of a population genetics model to predict the number of carriers in a population. The second round required them to revise their model of simple dominance population genetics to make inferences about populations containing three phenotype variations. The third round of problem solving required the students to revise their model of population genetics to explain anomalous data where the proportions of males and females with a trait varied significantly. As the students solved problems, they were involved in basic scientific processes as they observed population phenomena, constructed explanatory models to explain the data they observed, and attempted to persuade their peers as to the adequacy of their models. In this study, the students produced new knowledge about the genetics of a trait in a population through the revision and use of explanatory population genetics models using reasoning that was similar to what scientists do. The students learned, used and revised a model of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to generate and test hypotheses about the genetics of phenotypes given only population data. Students were also interviewed prior to and following instruction. This study suggests that a commonly held intuitive belief about the predominance of a dominant variation in populations is resistant to change, despite instruction and interferes with a student's ability to understand Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and microevolution.
Examined were relationships between children's popularity and: (1) the types of solutions children generated to common social dilemmas; (2) what they reported they would do in similar situations; (3) their statements regarding conflict participants' intent; and (4) what they expected to happen next in conflict situations. Subjects were 95…
Social security can stifle the teaching hospital's development through increasing expenses and budgetary considerations. These problems are discussed in relation to the hospital organization and university structure in Paris, France. (Author/PG)
The social and legal policies that control or prevent the use of mind-altering drugs are the main cause of the social problems arising from their use. The existing policies are ineffective; the wrong drugs receive the most attention and laws are directed at the wrong phase of the cycle of promotion, distribution and use. The following reforms are…
Buckner, Julia D; Heimberg, Richard G; Matthews, Russell A; Silgado, Jose
Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. In fact, individuals with social anxiety may be more likely to experience marijuana-related impairment than individuals with other types of anxiety. It is therefore important to determine whether constructs particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals play a role in the expression of marijuana-related problems in this vulnerable population. Given that both social avoidance and using marijuana to cope with negative affect broadly have been found to play a role in marijuana-related problems, the current study utilized a new measure designed to simultaneously assess social avoidance and using marijuana to cope in situations previously identified as anxiety-provoking among those with elevated social anxiety. The Marijuana Use to Cope with Social Anxiety Scale (MCSAS) assessed behaviors regarding 24 social situations: marijuana use to cope in social situations (MCSAS-Cope) and avoidance of social situations if marijuana was unavailable. In Study 1, we found preliminary support for the convergent and discriminant validity and internal consistency of the MCSAS scales. In Study 2, we examined if MCSAS scores were related to marijuana problems among those with (n = 44) and without (n = 44) clinically elevated social anxiety. Individuals with clinically meaningful social anxiety were more likely to use marijuana to cope in social situations and to avoid social situations if marijuana was unavailable. Of importance, MCSAS-Cope uniquely mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and marijuana-related problems. Results highlight the importance of contextual factors in assessing marijuana-related behaviors among high-risk populations. PMID:22004129
Michael J. Kofler; Mark D. Rapport; Jennifer Bolden; Dustin E. Sarver; Joseph S. Raiker; R. Matt Alderson
Social problems are a prevalent feature of ADHD and reflect a major source of functional impairment for these children. The\\u000a current study examined the impact of working memory deficits on parent- and teacher-reported social problems in a sample of\\u000a children with ADHD and typically developing boys (N?=?39). Bootstrapped, bias-corrected mediation analyses revealed that the impact of working memory deficits on
Zhang, Qingpeng; Wang, Fei-Yue; Zeng, Daniel; Wang, Tao
Background Crowd-powered search is a new form of search and problem solving scheme that involves collaboration among a potentially large number of voluntary Web users. Human flesh search (HFS), a particular form of crowd-powered search originated in China, has seen tremendous growth since its inception in 2001. HFS presents a valuable test-bed for scientists to validate existing and new theories in social computing, sociology, behavioral sciences, and so forth. Methodology In this research, we construct an aggregated HFS group, consisting of the participants and their relationships in a comprehensive set of identified HFS episodes. We study the topological properties and the evolution of the aggregated network and different sub-groups in the network. We also identify the key HFS participants according to a variety of measures. Conclusions We found that, as compared with other online social networks, HFS participant network shares the power-law degree distribution and small-world property, but with a looser and more distributed organizational structure, leading to the diversity, decentralization, and independence of HFS participants. In addition, the HFS group has been becoming increasingly decentralized. The comparisons of different HFS sub-groups reveal that HFS participants collaborated more often when they conducted the searches in local platforms or the searches requiring a certain level of professional knowledge background. On the contrary, HFS participants did not collaborate much when they performed the search task in national platforms or the searches with general topics that did not require specific information and learning. We also observed that the key HFS information contributors, carriers, and transmitters came from different groups of HFS participants. PMID:22761888
Przyrembel, Marisa; Smallwood, Jonathan; Pauen, Michael; Singer, Tania
Successful human social interaction depends on our capacity to understand other people's mental states and to anticipate how they will react to our actions. Despite its importance to the human condition, the exact mechanisms underlying our ability to understand another's actions, feelings, and thoughts are still a matter of conjecture. Here, we consider this problem from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives. In a critical review, we demonstrate that attempts to draw parallels across these complementary disciplines is premature: The second-person perspective does not map directly to Interaction or Simulation theories, online social cognition, or shared neural network accounts underlying action observation or empathy. Nor does the third-person perspective map onto Theory-Theory (TT), offline social cognition, or the neural networks that support Theory of Mind (ToM). Moreover, we argue that important qualities of social interaction emerge through the reciprocal interplay of two independent agents whose unpredictable behavior requires that models of their partner's internal state be continually updated. This analysis draws attention to the need for paradigms in social neuroscience that allow two individuals to interact in a spontaneous and natural manner and to adapt their behavior and cognitions in a response contingent fashion due to the inherent unpredictability in another person's behavior. Even if such paradigms were implemented, it is possible that the specific neural correlates supporting such reciprocal interaction would not reflect computation unique to social interaction but rather the use of basic cognitive and emotional processes combined in a unique manner. Finally, we argue that given the crucial role of social interaction in human evolution, ontogeny, and every-day social life, a more theoretically and methodologically nuanced approach to the study of real social interaction will nevertheless help the field of social cognition to evolve. PMID:22737120
Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.
In the present essay, we focus on G. Stanley Hall's contributions to the study of the role of social change for adolescent development. After introducing Hall's main ideas, we discuss recent demands adolescents face because of social change and how Hall's work could inform research on adolescent development in times of social change.
The opportunities social media provide for agential expressions of subjectivity and experiential learning, relative to social media's role in reproducing digital-era capitalism, are the subject of keen debate. There is now a burgeoning academic literature which suggests that social media users are, to a greater or lesser degree, alienated by…
Barker, Stacey L.; Floersch, Jerry E.
Over the past 2 decades the topic of spirituality and its relationship to the social work profession has taken its place as a significant and important part of the agenda for social work research, education, and practice. In this article we discuss the results of a qualitative study that addresses how a group of social work practitioners defined…
Menon, Indu S.; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chandra, Prabha S.; Thennarasu, K.
Background: Social networking is seen as a way to enhance social support and feeling of well-being. The present work explores the potentials of social networking sites as an adjunctive treatment modality for initiating treatment contact as well as for managing psychological problems. Materials and Methods: Interview schedule, Facebook intensity questionnaire were administered on 28 subjects with a combination of 18 males and 10 females. They were taken from the in-patient and out-patient psychiatry setting of the hospital. Results: Facebook was the most popular sites and used to seek emotional support on the basis of the frequent updates of emotional content that users put in their profile; reconciliations, escape from the problems or to manage the loneliness; getting information about illness and its treatment and interaction with experts and also manifested as problematic use. Conclusions: It has implications for developing social networking based adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems. PMID:25035548
van Riper, Carena J.; van Riper, Charles, III; Kyle, Gerard T.; Lee, Martha E.
Social networking is a key benefit derived from participation in conferences that bind the ties of a professional community. Building social networks can lead to satisfactory experiences while furthering participants' long- and short-term career goals. Although investigations of social networking can lend insight into how to effectively engage individuals and groups within a professional cohort, this area has been largely overlooked in past research. The present study investigates the relationship between social networking and satisfaction with the 10th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau using structural equation modelling. Results partially support the hypothesis that three dimensions of social networking – interpersonal connections, social cohesion, and secondary associations – positively contribute to the performance of various conference attributes identified in two focus group sessions. The theoretical and applied contributions of this paper shed light on the social systems formed within professional communities and resource allocation among service providers.
Kim, Eunjung; Guo, Yuqing; Koh, Chinkang; Cain, Kevin C
The goal of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between Korean immigrant discipline (e.g., positive, appropriate, and harsh discipline) and children's social competence and behavior problems. Self-report data were collected from 58 mothers and 20 fathers of children aged from 3 to 8 years. Only paternal harsh discipline was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Among specific discipline strategies, maternal physical affection, correcting misbehaviors, and reasoning were positively correlated with children's social competence. Paternal physical punishment (e.g., spanking, hitting, and raising arms) was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Immigrant fathers need to learn alternative ways of managing children's misbehaviors. PMID:21035016
Physical disability is an enormous psychosocio-economic-medical problem that affects over 24 million Americans. Public policy endorses a multi-disciplinary approach in analyzing this issue. Legislation has broadened the meaning of physical disability to include persons with mental and emotional disorders. Some of the costs associated with physical…
Numan, Muhammad; Sobolewski, Stanley
Two sections of introductory non-calculus general physics lecture courses, with a total enrolment of 120 students, were used to investigate the impact of explicit problem solving instruction on students' problem solving ability and conceptual understanding. The comparison group was instructed in textbook style problem solving strategy. Students' conceptual understanding was assessed by adminstering the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) at the begening and end of the semester. Required written rationale for multiple choice questions and responses to multistep problems were analyzed to further assess conceptual understanding and problem solving skills of the students in the two groups. A significant difference was noted in both understanding and problem solving performance.
Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Jasinska, Agnes J.
Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both), which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions. PMID:22701416
Spilt, Jantine L.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Leflot, Geertje; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde
This study aimed to understand how relationships with peers and teachers contribute to the development of internalizing problems via children's social self-concept. The sample included 570 children aged 7 years 5 months (SD = 4.6 months). Peer nominations of peer rejection, child-reported social self-concept, and teacher-reported…
Jason Wiese; Jason I. Hong; John Zimmerman
While individuals' personal social networks are extremely important in their day-to-day lives, computational systems lack meaningful representations of them. We argue that recent trends in computer-mediated communication, the ubiquity of smartphones, usage of online services, and new approaches to real-world social science experimentation have created an opportunity to dynamically generate representations of personal social networks that will be useful in
In this paper, I investigate interpersonal variation in verbal HRI with respect to the computers-as-social-actors hypothesis. The analysis of a corpus of verbal human-robot interactions shows that only a subgroup of the users treat the robot as a social actor. Thus, taking interpersonal variation into account reveals that not all users transfer social behaviors from human interactions into HRI. This
Wainwright, S P; Forbes, A
This paper offers a realist critique of social research on health inequalities. A conspectus of the field of health inequalities research identifies two main research approaches: the positivist quantitative survey and the interpretivist qualitative 'case study'. We argue that both approaches suffer from serious philosophical limitations. We suggest that a turn to realism offers a productive 'third way' both for the development of health inequality research in particular and for the social scientific understanding of the complexities of the social world in general. PMID:11186025
Edith Montgomery; Anders Foldspang
refugees. Methods: Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used for the analysis of cross-sectional data from interviews with 131 young Middle Eastern refugees residing in Denmark. Results: Participants reported a mean of 1.8 experiences of discrimination, and the prevalence of five indicators of positive social adaptation was 47-92%. Discrimination, mental problems and social adaptation were strongly mutually associated, without gender difference.
Delany-Brumsey, Ayesha; Mays, Vickie M; Cochran, Susan D
Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives. PMID:24659390
Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.
Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives. PMID:24659390
Objectives: The purpose of this article is to present a theoretical frame of reference for the study and assessment of social work from the perspective of a history of ideas. Method: The study employed an analysis of primary and secondary historical sources. Results: Social work as a practice and research field is embedded in the genesis of modern…
Little is known about the delinquency and social relations of adolescents who lack close friendships. This study compares the delinquency of "loners" and "nonloners," explores group differences within the larger social context of peers, family, and school, and assesses the efficacy of loner status as a distinct dimension of peer relationships. The…
Nath, Pamela S.; And Others
Presents model of adolescent parenting, emphasizing multiple influences that social support has on maternal personality, health and nutritional status, cognitive readiness for parenting, and actual parenting behavior and child development. Concludes life span perspective is useful in evaluating teenage mother's social support needs and individual…
Yan, Ruoh-Nan; Xu, Huimin
Taking the perspective of consumer socialization theory, this study examined the influences of different socialization agents on consumers' purchases of green products. A total of 224 surveys were distributed to students enrolled in a business-related course at a major university in the northeastern United States. The objectives were twofold. The…
similarities tend to form communities in social media. At the same time, they participate in various online collected from real-world social media sites, we conduct extensive experi- ments to evaluate group-profiling results. The pros and cons of different group-profiling strategies are analyzed with con- crete examples
Since the 1980s, Canadian legalized gambling has undergone a massive growth, resulting in numerous social problems such as crime, political corruption, and, most importantly, pathological gambling. When it comes to theorizing gambling in Canada, pathological gambling has been the centre of the attention for two related reasons: (1) the increasing concern with individual and social harms resulting from it; and
insights into human social behavior that would not have been possible without the novel use of smartphone sensing and regular surveys. Current smartphones are increasingly used as social sensors through severalUsing Social Sensing to Understand the Links Between Sleep, Mood, and Sociability Sai T Moturu
This article looks at current university reforms in Japan through two slightly different social science prisms: how social science methodologies and theories can help us understand those reforms better and how social science teaching in universities will be affected by the current reform processes. (Contains 3 tables and 7 notes.)
-management; collaboration; social learning; common property theory; adaptive management; TFW Agreement; Forest and Fish Report; forest practices Subject Terms: co-management; social learning theory; Washington State; adaptiveSOCIAL LEARNING AS A TOOL TO UNDERSTAND COMPLEX ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTIONS by Kira Furman B
Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Weaver, Addie; Schommer, Kathryn
Social support protects women from various negative consequences, yet we have little understanding of how rural women acquire and utilize social support. Using interviews of 24 women in a North Dakota community, this research sought to understand how rural women were supported as new mothers. One, familial women and partners were vital supports to…
Weimer, Amy A.; Guajardo, Nicole R.
The present study investigated relationships among false belief, emotion understanding, and social skills with 60 3- to 5-year-olds (29 boys, 31 girls) from Head Start and two other preschools. Children completed language, false belief, and emotion understanding measures; parents and teachers evaluated children's social skills. Children's false…
Understanding factors affecting perceived sociability of social software Qin Gao *, Yusen Dai, Zao Fan, Ruogu Kang Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China a r intentions. In a pilot study, 35 web users were interviewed to gain understanding of how they use social
Kreuter, Marshall W.; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.
Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have…
Schulz, Amy J.
Researchers have posited that social ties and social support may contribute to better-than-expected health outcomes among Mexican immigrants vis-ŕ-vis their US-born counterparts. However, in our review of studies examining social ties and health by immigration-related variables among this group, we found little support for this hypothesis. To better understand the social factors that contribute to the health of Mexicans in the United States, we conducted a qualitative analysis of social relationships and social context among first- and second-generation Mexican women. Our results highlight the interplay between immigration processes and social ties, draw attention to the importance of identity support and transnational social relationships, and suggest ways to reconceptualize the relationship between social contexts, social ties, and immigrant and Latino health. PMID:19833986
Objective The complexities inherent in understanding the social determinants of health are often not well-served by quantitative approaches. My aim is to show that well-designed and well-conducted ethnographic studies have an important contribution to make in this regard. Ethnographic research designs are a difficult but rigorous approach to research questions that require us to understand the complexity of people’s social and cultural lives. Approach I draw on an ethnographic study to describe the complexities of studying maternal health in a rural area in India. I then show how the lessons learnt in that setting and context can be applied to studies done in very different settings. Results I show how ethnographic research depends for rigour on a theoretical framework for sample selection; why immersion in the community under study, and rapport building with research participants, is important to ensure rich and meaningful data; and how flexible approaches to data collection lead to the gradual emergence of an analysis based on intense cross-referencing with community views and thus a conclusion that explains the similarities and differences observed. Conclusion When using ethnographic research design it can be difficult to specify in advance the exact details of the study design. Researchers can encounter issues in the field that require them to change what they planned on doing. In rigorous ethnographic studies, the researcher in the field is the research instrument and needs to be well trained in the method. Implication Ethnographic research is challenging, but nevertheless provides a rewarding way of researching complex health problems that require an understanding of the social and cultural determinants of health. PMID:22168509
Noshir S. Contractor
\\u000a Recent advances in digital technologies invite consideration of social influence and social support as processes that are\\u000a accomplished by global, flexible, adaptive, and ad hoc networks that can be created, maintained, dissolved, and reconstituted\\u000a with remarkable alacrity. This presentation describes and empirically tests a multi-theoretical multilevel (MTML) model of\\u000a the socio-technical motivations for creating, maintaining, dissolving, and reconstituting knowledge and
Stephanie Slater; Matthew J. Robson
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explain the culture-driven role and effects of social capital in Japanese-Western alliances. The authors move beyond narrow conceptualizations of relationship bonding (i.e. positive socio-psychological aspects such as trust and commitment) to explore the broader role of social capital (e.g. in destructive act recovery processes) in such alliances. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The conceptual
Dong Xu; Lei Zhang; Jiebo Luo
Nowadays, increasingly rich and massive social media data (such as texts, images, audios, videos, blogs, and so on) are being posted to the web, including social networking websites (e.g., MySpace, Facebook), photo and video sharing websites (e.g., Flickr, YouTube), and photo forums (e.g., Photosig.com and Photo.net). Recently, researchers from multidisciplinary areas have proposed to use data-driven approaches for multimedia content
Ed Watkins; Simona Baracaia
We tested the hypothesis that impaired social problem solving in depression is a consequence of state-oriented rumination, which can be ameliorated by improving awareness of mental processes. 32 currently depressed, 26 recovered depressed, and 26 never depressed participants completed the Means Ends Problem Solving Test while randomly allocated to no questions, state-oriented ruminative questions, (e.g. focusing on why you have
Janice I. Winer; Pamela L. Hilpert; Ellis L. Gesten; Emory L. Cowen; Wendy E. Schubin
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a Social Problem Solving (SPS) competence training program for kindergartners, and examined relationships between SPS skill and adjustment gains. Subjects included 63 suburban middle-classSs from three classes, who participated in the 42 lesson program, and 46 comparisonSs from two classes, who did not. Subjects were evaluated on problem solving, peer sociometric and teacher
Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.
Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA) provides the necessary tool kit for investigating questions involving relational data. We introduce basic concepts in SNA, along with methods for data collection, data processing, and data analysis, using a previously collected example study on an undergraduate biology classroom as a tutorial. We conduct descriptive analyses of the structure of the network of costudying relationships. We explore generative processes that create observed study networks between students and also test for an association between network position and success on exams. We also cover practical issues, such as the unique aspects of human subjects review for network studies. Our aims are to convince readers that using SNA in classroom environments allows rich and informative analyses to take place and to provide some initial tools for doing so, in the process inspiring future educational studies incorporating relational data.
Farmer, Thomas W.; Estell, David B.; Hall, Cristin M.; Pearl, Ruth; Van Acker, Richard; Rodkin, Philip C.
This study examines interpersonal competence configurations in relation to students' concurrent behavior problems and social risks for later adjustment difficulties. Participants are 648 (345 girls, 303 boys) fourth-grade students (65% White, 6.9% African American, 19.5% Hispanic, 4.6% Asian, and 4.0% Other) from the suburbs of a major Midwestern…
Takahashi, Fumito; Koseki, Shunsuke; Shimada, Hironori
The purposes of this study were to clarify how social problem-solving processes develop and to identify developmentally-sensitive intervention components for children's aggression. Elementary and junior-high school Japanese students (N = 1100) from urban public schools participated in the present investigation. Their alternative thinking skills,…
Cram, Andrew; Hedberg, John G.; Gosper, Maree; Dick, Geoff
Contemporary theories of problem-solving highlight that expertise is domain specific, contingent on the social context and available resources, and involves knowledge, skills, attitudes, emotions and values. Developing educational activities that incorporate all of these elements is a challenge. Through case studies, this paper outlines how…
Mathew, Saritha S.; And Others
This study investigates characteristics of juvenile delinquency and youth violence by examining attachment and social problem skills. Attachment theory integrates features of psychoanalytic theory, ethology, and cognitive psychology. Research on adolescent attachment suggests that parents continue to function as a secure base for their teenage…
Sowder, Barbara J.; Lazar, Joyce B.
Research problems and issues concerning socialization are identified in an effort to aid member agencies of the Interagency Panel on Early Childhood Research and Development in establishing priorities in research. Discussed in Part I are: (1) the development of intergroup and intragroup attitudes and behaviors--stages in their development; the…
Oklahoma City Public School System, OK.
These model lessons from the primary grades are on the techniques of advertising drawn from a unit on, "Creating and Producing Tools and Techniques". They include behaviorial objectives, teaching and motivational strategies, evaluation techniques. The model lessons follow the problem solving inquiry approach in social studies using multimedia…
Louis A. Penner
Volunteerism is described and defined and then a model of the decision to volunteer is presented. Data from an archival analysis of volunteering after the September 11, 2001 attacks and an on-line survey of volunteers are presented in support of the model. Finally, the implications of increasing volunteerism for the solution of social problems are considered. The focus of this
Paul J. Heald; James C. Smith
One fundamental impetus for the development of modern law stems from the need to settle disputes between neighbors. Indeed, the focus of the most-cited article in law review history, Ronald Coase's The Problem of Social Cost, is firmly on the issue of how the law should deal with someone who interferes with the use of a neighbor's property. The myriad
Jacobs, Abigail Z; Ugander, Johan; Clauset, Aaron
Online social networks represent a popular and highly diverse class of social media systems. Despite this variety, each of these systems undergoes a general process of online social network assembly, which represents the complicated and heterogeneous changes that transform newly born systems into mature platforms. However, little is known about this process. For example, how much of a network's assembly is driven by simple growth? How does a network's structure change as it matures? How does network structure vary with adoption rates and user heterogeneity, and do these properties play different roles at different points in the assembly? We investigate these and other questions using a unique dataset of online connections among the roughly one million users at the first 100 colleges admitted to Facebook, captured just 20 months after its launch. We first show that different vintages and adoption rates across this population of networks reveal temporal dynamics of the assembly process, and that assembly is onl...
Paveglio, Travis B.; Jakes, Pamela J.; Carroll, Matthew S.; Williams, Daniel R.
The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management.
Paveglio, Travis B; Jakes, Pamela J; Carroll, Matthew S; Williams, Daniel R
The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management. PMID:19238478
McCrady, Barbara S.; Zucker, Robert A.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Ammon, Lyndsay; Ames, Genevieve M.; Longabaugh, Richard
This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the 2005 Annual Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, Santa Barbara, California, June 25–30. The overall goal of the symposium was to consider the broad impact of the social environment on the development of and successful or unsuccessful resolution of drinking problems. The presentations addressed multiple social environmental influences including: the influence of children on parents (Dr. Zucker), the influence of peers and parents on adolescents (Dr. Molina), the influence of family members on adult drinking (Dr. McCrady), the influence of adult peers/friends (Dr. Kaskutas), and the influence of the occupational environment (Dr. Ames). Dr. Longabaugh, the symposium discussant, addressed models for understanding the relationships between social influences and drinking problems. PMID:16573588
Jostad, Jeremy; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen
Relationships are a critical component to the experience of an outdoor adventure education (OAE) program, therefore, more fruitful ways of investigating groups is needed. Social network analysis (SNA) is an effective tool to study the relationship structure of small groups. This paper provides an explanation of SNA and shows how it was used by the…
MONIQUE A. M. GIGNAC; CATHERINE L. BACKMAN; AILEEN M. DAVIS; DIANE LACAILLE; CRISTINA A. MATTISON; PAMELA MONTIE; ELIZABETH M. BADLEY
Objective. To assess the importance of different social roles in the lives of people with osteoarthritis (OA), and satisfaction with time spent in roles and role performance, as well as the relationship of demographic, health, and psychological factors to role perceptions. Methods. Sixty women and 27 men (age 42-86 yrs) with hip or knee OA were recruited from rehabilitation programs
Gaddie, Julie A.
The United States has a long history of searching for utopian possibilities of public school, amidst a steady stream of population mobility. Horace Mann proclaimed that schools would be able to assimilate the millions of immigrants arriving during the late 1700s. He promised that schools could end poverty, crime and social injustice. Today, public…
Gerald A. Gladstein
Reviews the literature of social and developmental psychology on empathy theory and research. These 2 subdisciplines differ in their definitions and measures from each other, as well as from the counseling\\/psychotherapy area. At the same time, all 3 disciplines identify 2 major types of empathy: (a) affective empathy, or feeling the same way as another person, and (b) cognitive or
Backett-Milburn, Kathryn; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah
Children's differing social circumstances and experiences are part of the pathways implicated in health and illness in adulthood. However, children's own perspectives tend to be absent from adult-defined data about health and illness. Little...
Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Merry, Carroll E., Ed.
This document contains abstracts and the complete texts of 19 papers that were presented at a conference held to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. The following papers are included: "Microwave Society and Crock-Pot Government" (Bill Graves); "Citizen Participation, Social Capital and…
In this paper, I use principles of civic education and social psychology to identify four main classroom contributors to students' pessimistic appraisals of their ability to improve social problems: authoritarian teaching methods, a culture of "doom and gloom," little attention to solutions to social problems, and no linkage of social problems to…
Martha E. Arterberry; Kathleen M. Cain; Stephanie A. Chopko
Children’s problem solving while working by themselves or with a partner was investigated to explore whether young children are susceptible to social facilitation and social loafing. Five?year?olds were asked to complete easy or hard puzzles, either alone or with a partner. Half of the children were given instructions indicating that their performance would be evaluated and the other half were
Jennifer Skeem; Jennifer Eno Louden; Sarah Manchak; Sarah Vidal; Eileen Haddad
Probationers with co-occurring mental and substance abuse problems (PCPs) are both subject to considerable social control,\\u000a and at high risk of probation failure. In this study, we screened 601 probationers for symptoms, interviewed 82 identified\\u000a PCPs about their relationships, and then followed these PCPs for eight months to record treatment nonadherence and other probation\\u000a violations. First, PCPs’ social networks were
Price, Michael H.
The author cites statements by Augustus DeMorgan (1831) and three educational commissions organized during the mid-nineteenth century to show that concern with understanding of mathematics has long been a concern of mathematics educators. (SD)
, for their continued guidance throughout this process. We would like to thank Mrs. Jennie Hawks, our sponsor, who to prevent the decay of the local churches. This resulted in a global understanding of the surrounding social
Qiaona Hong; Sunghun Kim; S. C. Cheung; Christian Bird
With the increase of large scale software projects, software development and maintenance demand the participation of a group of developers instead of individuals. Therefore having a thorough understanding of the group of developers is critical in terms of improving development and maintenance quality and reducing cost. In contrast to most commercial software endeavors, developers in open source software (OSS) projects
Shelton, Nancy Rankie; McDermott, Morna
Enlisting pre-service teachers to engage in critical thought about diversity, equity, democracy, and power relationships is a challenging responsibility. The authors' work at a large urban community's metropolitan university in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States is designed to help pre-service teachers understand these concepts at a…
A study investigated the role of the Saudi Arabian social studies curriculum in helping Saudi students to understand other cultures. Analysis of the content of social studies textbooks revealed that they cover a wide range of cultural information related to countries from around the world. Saudi students start their cultural education in grade 5…
The ideas of Vygotsky [Vygotsky, L. S. (1987). "Thinking and speech." In "The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky," (Vol. 1). New York: Plenum. (Original work published 1934.)] have been increasingly influential in accounting for social-environmental influences on the development of social understanding (SU). In the first part of this article, I…
Leanh Nguyen; Douglas Frye
Preschoolers' understanding of belief, desire, and emotion was assessed in a new false belief task that explored children's mental state reasoning about social situations. The social analog task presented a change in a partner's play activity rather than a change in the location of a physical object. Two main differences from the usual pattern of theory of mind results were
Friendship estimation model for social robots to understand human relationships Takayuki Kanda, Hiroshi Ishiguro ATR Intelligent Robotics Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai, Seikacho, Sorakugun Kyoto, 619-0288, JAPAN E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract This paper reports our friendship estimation model for social robots
Spunt, Robert P; Lieberman, Matthew D
Much social-cognitive processing is believed to occur automatically; however, the relative automaticity of the brain systems underlying social cognition remains largely undetermined. We used functional MRI to test for automaticity in the functioning of two brain systems that research has indicated are important for understanding other people's behavior: the mirror neuron system and the mentalizing system. Participants remembered either easy phone numbers (low cognitive load) or difficult phone numbers (high cognitive load) while observing actions after adopting one of four comprehension goals. For all four goals, mirror neuron system activation showed relatively little evidence of modulation by load; in contrast, the association of mentalizing system activation with the goal of inferring the actor's mental state was extinguished by increased cognitive load. These results support a dual-process model of the brain systems underlying action understanding and social cognition; the mirror neuron system supports automatic behavior identification, and the mentalizing system supports controlled social causal attribution. PMID:23221019
Helen Crabtree; Carole Roberts; Christine Tyler
Abstract This paper reports on a study which compares the teaching of business and business related subjects in one English university and a number of associated tertiary (post-16) colleges. The research was carried out to explore similarities and differences in the teaching and learning environments in these two sectors in order to gain a better understanding of why some students
Ludden, Alison Bryant
The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…
Population education is the focus of this quinmester curriculum guide for secondary students. By examining and comparing past population theories of Malthus and Marx with present theories students will better understand the present situation, cultural attitudes toward the problems, and the ecological consequences of overpopulation. Objectives are…
Hu, Dehui; Rebello, N. Sanjay
This study focuses on students' use of the mathematical concept of differentials in physics problem solving. For instance, in electrostatics, students need to set up an integral to find the electric field due to a charged bar, an activity that involves the application of mathematical differentials (e.g., "dr," "dq"). In…
Prescott, Katrina R; Wilkie, Andrew O M
Over the past two decades, combined advances in genetics, developmental biology and biochemistry have transformed the study of human birth defects. This review describes the importance of genome architecture, parent of origin effects (imprinting), molecular pathophysiology, developmental pathways, mosaicism and cancer predisposition syndromes in the understanding of birth defects. This knowledge can be applied to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic information, counselling and sometimes even treatment of these conditions. PMID:17585097
Lisa J. Crockett; C. Raymond Bingham; Joanne S. Chopak; Judith R. Vicary
Prior research has pointed to several distinct processes that may affect the timing of first intercourse among adolescents. In the present study, the role of six hypothesized processes was assessed in a sample of 289 rural adolescent boys and girls. Results support the importance of family socialization and problem-behavior for both sexes, the role of biological factors for boys, and
Since the 1980s, Canadian legalized gambling has undergone a massive growth, resulting in numerous social problems such as crime, political corruption, and, most importantly, pathological gambling. When it comes to theorizing gambling in Canada, pathological gambling has been the centre of the attention for two related reasons: (1) the increasing…
Corbin, William R.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Fromme, Kim
Broad social motives (not specific to alcohol use) have been established as an important predictor of alcohol use and problems among college students, but we have little understanding of the mechanisms through which such motives operate. Thus, the current study examined broad social motives prior to college entry as a predictor of college drinking/problems and sought to identify potential mechanisms through which they are associated with increased risk. Participants comprised a sample of 2,245 incoming college students (59.9% women) transitioning from high school through the college years. The first web-based survey was completed during the summer prior to matriculation with participants reporting on their behavior during the spring of high school senior year. Additional surveys were administered each academic semester through the fall of the fourth year. High school social motives were examined as a predictor of changes in alcohol use/problems from high school through senior year, with changes in descriptive norms, personal drinking values, and alcohol expectancies from high school to sophomore year examined as possible mediators of these relations. Descriptive norms, personal drinking values, and alcohol expectancies were robust mediators of broad social motives for both alcohol use and problems. Although there were a few differences by race/ethnicity in the alcohol use model, the mechanisms through which broad social motives operated were largely invariant across groups. These findings shed light on important mechanisms that can be targeted in prevention programs, particularly those that target groups who are likely to be high in broad social motives (e.g., fraternity/sorority members). PMID:21126828
Mary P. Martinasek; Rita D. DeBate; Ashley G. Walvoord; Stephanie T. Melton; David Himmelgreen; Tammy D. Allen; Robert J. McDermott
The family dinner is a valued tradition that affords opportunities for social interaction and attachment, as well as sharing events of the day, role modeling, connectedness, and problem solving. Guided by the social-marketing framework, this study explored factors associated with the frequency of the family dinner among working mothers with children ages 8–11 years. A qualitative design was used, employing
Carol Briscoe; David Stout
This study reports our understanding of the views on problem-solving developed by prospective elementary teachers as a result\\u000a of experiencing problem centered learning in an integrated math-science methods course. The course was designed to assist\\u000a the prospective teachers to develop their problem solving skills in mathematics and science contexts and to develop problem-solving\\u000a activities that integrate mathematics and science to
Lemerise, Elizabeth A.; Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Kelley, Brenna M.; Bowersox, April L.; Waford, Rachel N.
The social goals and social problem-solving of children who varied in social adjustment were examined in the context of hypothetical ambiguous provocation situations in which provocateurs' emotion displays were systematically manipulated. Children rated the importance of six different social goals and explained how they would solve the problems.…
LeMoyne, Terri; Davis, Jean Marie
In this article, the authors argue that one approach to teaching Introduction to Social Problems is to structure the course content around taken-for-granted beliefs that many students have about the social world. In doing so, the authors discuss the social construction of social problems, how sociology differs from common sense, and the importance…
Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…
Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang
The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was…
Siu, Andrew M. H.; Shek, Daniel T. L.
Social problem solving is the cognitive-affective-behavioral process by which people attempt to resolve real-life problems in a social environment, and is of key importance in the management of emotions and well-being. This paper reviews a series of studies on social problem solving conducted by the authors. First, we developed and validated the…
Gaigher, E.; Rogan, J. M.; Braun, M. W. H.
A study on the effect of a structured problem-solving strategy on problem-solving skills and conceptual understanding of physics was undertaken with 189 students in 16 disadvantaged South African schools. This paper focuses on the development of conceptual understanding. New instruments, namely a solutions map and a conceptual index, are…
Over the past thirty years, researchers have documented a remarkable growth in children's social understanding between toddlerhood and the early school years. However, it is still unclear why some children's awareness of others' thoughts and feelings lags so far behind that of their peers. Based on research that spans an extended developmental…
Streissguth, Ann P.
Summarizes facts about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), including physical and mental symptoms; cause; prevalence overall and in Indian communities; and problems of infants, children, and adults with FAS. Emphasizes the importance of public awareness, professional education, and provision of community services to prevent FAS. Outlines specific…
Brandone, Amanda C
During the first year of life, infants possess some of the key social-cognitive abilities required for success in a social world: Infants interpret others' actions in terms of their intentions and can use this understanding prospectively to generate predictions about others' behavior. Exactly how these foundational abilities develop is currently unknown. The goal of this study was to shed light on the developmental mechanisms underlying changes in infants' understanding of intentional actions by documenting relations between infants' intention understanding and other emerging social (joint attention) and motor (means-end and self-locomotion) abilities. Using eye tracking, 8- to 11-month-olds infants' (N = 80) ability to visually predict the goal of an ongoing successful or failed intentional action was examined in relation to their developing means-end, self-locomotion, and joint attention abilities. Results confirmed previous findings showing improvements in infants' ability to interpret and make predictions about others' failed intentional actions. Importantly, results also indicated that parent-report measures of infants' initiating-joint-attention and self-locomotion abilities were associated with the ability to visually predict the outcome of a failed reaching action. These data support the view that infants' social and motor experiences may contribute to changes in their social-cognitive abilities. In particular, joint-attentive social interactions that occur with increasing frequency as infants learn to crawl and walk may shape infants' understanding of others as intentional agents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25689000
Saeed, Saqib; Rohde, Markus; Wulf, Volker
Recent literature has highlighted that most civil society organizations lack IT appropriation in their work practices. There is strong need to focus on this application area to empower these organizations by IT capabilities. As there is not much literature about the specific needs assessment of voulantary organizations, there is a need to carry out ethnographic studies to better understand IT requirements of this sector. In this paper we have investigated the organizing process of the World Social Forum 2006 event in Karachi, Pakistan. World Social Forum is an important gathering of social movements and voulantary organizations across the globe, and organizing such an event requires extensive communication and effective planning skills. The objective of this paper is to highlight the need and importance of this research issue. Our intention is to introduce appropriate technology in the organizing process to facilitate social activists.
Bradbury, E.M. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA) California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))
Despite intensive investigation of mammalian chromosomes, we are still largely ignorant of the basic rules that govern their organization, structure, and functions. This situation results from the current limitations in available technologies to elucidate the structures of such complex biological systems. Whereas the powerful techniques of molecular biology have successfully addressed at high resolution functional problems at the level of nucleic acid sequences, many lower resolution questions concerning the architecture of the cell nucleus, long range order in chromosomes, and higher order chromatin structures remain largely unanswered. Techniques are now emerging that should help to remedy this situation. The use of confocal microscopy with molecular probes will tell us at the level of the light microscope a great deal about the organization of the nucleus and how it changes in different cell types; advanced light sources have the potential to image hydrated biological systems down to 10 nm, and scanning electron tunneling and atomic force microscopies have demonstrated their ability to image molecules though their ability to usefully image biomolecules such as DNA remains to be demonstrated. 32 refs., 6 figs.
King, J. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States)
Though viruses infect the cells of all groups of animals, plants, and microorganisms, their structures follow a limited number of general themes; spherical or cylindrical shells built of hundreds of repeated protein subunits enclosing a nucleic acid - DNA or RNA - genome. Since the 1960s it has been known that the protein shells of spherical viruses in fact conform to icosahedral symmetry or to subtle deviations from icosahedral symmetry. The construction of the shell lattices and the transformations they go through in the different stages of the viral life cycle are not fully understood. The shells contain the nucleic in a highly condensed state, of unknown coiling/organization. Features of the well studied bacterial viruses will be reviewed, with examples from adenoviruses, herpesviruses, poliovirus, and HIV. The emergence of new viral disease has led to increased interest in the development of agents which interfere with virus reproduction at the level of the assembly or function of the organized particle. Recently computational approaches to the problem of virus assembly have made important contributions to clarifying shell assembly processes. 1 ref.
A key challenge of data-driven social science is the gathering of high quality multi-dimensional datasets. A second challenge relates to design and execution of structured experimental interventions in-situ, in a way ...
Izumi, Alisa Sau-Lin
While there has been much discussion of cognitive processes underlying effective scientific teaching, less is known about the response nature of assessments targeting processes of scientific reasoning specific to biology content. This study used multiple-choice (m-c) and short-answer essay student responses to evaluate progress in high-order reasoning skills. In a pilot investigation of student responses on a non-content-based test of scientific thinking, it was found that some students showed a pre-post gain on the m-c test version while showing no gain on a short-answer essay version of the same questions. This result led to a subsequent research project focused on differences between alternate versions of tests of scientific reasoning. Using m-c and written responses from biology tests targeted toward the skills of (1) reasoning with a model and (2) designing controlled experiments, test score frequencies, factor analysis, and regression models were analyzed to explore test format differences. Understanding the format differences in tests is important for the development of practical ways to identify student gains in scientific reasoning. The overall results suggested test format differences. Factor analysis revealed three interpretable factors---m-c format, genetics content, and model-based reasoning. Frequency distributions on the m-c and open explanation portions of the hybrid items revealed that many students answered the m-c portion of an item correctly but gave inadequate explanations. In other instances students answered the m-c portion incorrectly yet demonstrated sufficient explanation or answered the m-c correctly and also provided poor explanations. When trying to fit test score predictors for non-associated student measures---VSAT, MSAT, high school grade point average, or final course grade---the test scores accounted for close to zero percent of the variance. Overall, these results point to the importance of using multiple methods of testing and of further research and development in the area of assessment of scientific reasoning.
Alissa C. Bell; Thomas J. D’Zurilla
This study examined the role of social problem solving as a moderator and a mediator of the relationship between daily stressful\\u000a events and adjustment in a sample of 259 college students. Problem solving was assessed by the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised,\\u000a which provides scores for global problem-solving ability as well as five specific problem-solving dimensions, namely, positive\\u000a problem orientation, negative problem
Kuah-Pearce, Khun Eng
This paper will explore the social engagement of Buddhists through their active voluntary works - works that result in the development of a religious philanthropic culture. Through three case examples, this paper will examine how the sangha and individual Buddhists understand social suffering and compassion and attempt to integrate their understanding of Buddhist virtues and values in their daily life where the performance of voluntary works is seen as Buddhist spiritualism. In this process, the individuals seek to understand the key principles of Buddhism that are of direct relevance to their daily existence and their quest to be a compassionate self. Foremost are two notions of yebao (karma) and gan-en (gratitude) and how through compassionate practices and gratitude for those who accepted compassionate acts, they would be rewarded with good karma. Here, pursuing compassionate acts and the alleviation of social suffering is the pursuit of this-worldly spiritualism. PMID:24559267
Aust, Patricia H.
Describes and distinguishes between symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder without (ADD) and with hyperactivity (ADHD). Notes that confusion exists in distinguishing between problems related to ADD and ADHD and problems related to other causes. A fictitious case study demonstrates problems of families with children with ADD and ADHD. A multimodal…
Salehyar, Mohammad H.; Keenan, Louanne; Patterson, Steven; Amin, Maryam
Objectives The purpose of the study was: (a) to better understand the concept of social capital and its potential role in oral health of children in a First Nations community and (b) to identify the strengths and resources in terms of social capital and a health promotion model that the community has at its disposal to address its oral health issues. Methods In this qualitative case study, participants were purposively selected in a First Nations community: Seven individual interviews and two focus groups involving 18 parents/care givers were selected. Putnam's concept of social capital guided all the interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed using the NVivo software. Results The community was close-knit and seemed to have strong moral fibre, which encouraged members to help each other. A strong bonding social capital was also found among the members, especially inside the clans (families). A need for improvement in bridging social capital that would help the community to reach external resources was observed. While members of the community were actively involved in religious rituals and cultural ceremonies, more efforts seemed to be required to recruit volunteers for other events or programs. Active engagement of community members in any program requires that members be given a voice as well as some ownership of the process. Mobilizing or building community's social capital can play a role when planning future interventions. Conclusions A better understanding of social capital may enhance the community's investment and efforts by reinforcing healthy oral behaviours and improving access to external resources. With more dynamic collaboration, it may be possible to create more sustainable community-based oral health promotion programs. PMID:25623814
Salehyar, Mohammad H; Keenan, Louanne; Patterson, Steven; Amin, Maryam
Objectives. The purpose of the study was: (a) to better understand the concept of social capital and its potential role in oral health of children in a First Nations community and (b) to identify the strengths and resources in terms of social capital and a health promotion model that the community has at its disposal to address its oral health issues. Methods. In this qualitative case study, participants were purposively selected in a First Nations community: Seven individual interviews and two focus groups involving 18 parents/care givers were selected. Putnam's concept of social capital guided all the interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed using the NVivo software. Results. The community was close-knit and seemed to have strong moral fibre, which encouraged members to help each other. A strong bonding social capital was also found among the members, especially inside the clans (families). A need for improvement in bridging social capital that would help the community to reach external resources was observed. While members of the community were actively involved in religious rituals and cultural ceremonies, more efforts seemed to be required to recruit volunteers for other events or programs. Active engagement of community members in any program requires that members be given a voice as well as some ownership of the process. Mobilizing or building community's social capital can play a role when planning future interventions. Conclusions. A better understanding of social capital may enhance the community's investment and efforts by reinforcing healthy oral behaviours and improving access to external resources. With more dynamic collaboration, it may be possible to create more sustainable community-based oral health promotion programs. PMID:25623814
Long, Jennifer; Harré, Niki; Atkinson, Quentin D
Understanding how communities change requires examining how individuals' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by those around them. This paper investigates behavior change across a large social network following a recycling intervention in a New Zealand high school community. We used a mixed methods design, combining focus group data with social network analysis from two waves of a questionnaire that measured friendship networks; recycling and littering behaviors; perceived behavioral norms; and teacher, friend, and parent encouragement for these behaviors. Recycling behavior increased significantly over the course of our study. Supporting the importance of social networks in this context, both littering and recycling behavior showed clear social clustering. Further, the degree of change in an individuals' littering and recycling behavior across time was predicted by friends' prior behavior. Focus group data provided insight into students' perceptions of social interactions and how these contributed to littering and recycling behavior. PMID:24327210
McGraw, Lisa A.; Young, Larry J.
Unlike most mammalian species, the prairie vole is highly affiliative, forms enduring social bonds between mates, and displays biparental behavior. Over two decades of research in this species has enhanced our understanding of the neurobiological basis not only of monogamy, social attachment and nurturing behaviors, but also other aspects of social cognition. Because social cognitive deficits are hallmarks of many psychiatric disorders, discoveries made in prairie voles may direct novel treatment strategies for disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. With the ongoing development of molecular, genetic and genomic tools for this species, prairie voles will likely maintain their current trajectory becoming an unprecedented model organism for basic and translational research focusing on the biology of the social brain. PMID:20005580
Maller, Cecily Jane
The importance of recognising structure and agency in health research to move beyond methodological individualism is well documented. To progress incorporating social theory into health, researchers have used Giddens' and Bourdieu's conceptualisations of social practice to understand relationships between agency, structure and health. However, social practice theories have more to offer than has currently been capitalised upon. This article delves into contemporary theories of social practice as used in consumption and sustainability research to provide an alternative, and more contextualised means, of understanding and explaining human action in relation to health and wellbeing. Two key observations are made. Firstly, the latest formulations of social practice theory distinguish moments of practice performance from practices as persistent entities across time and space, allowing empirical application to explain practice histories and future trajectories. Secondly, they emphasise the materiality of everyday life, foregrounding things, technologies and other non-humans that cannot be ignored in a technologically dependent social world. In concluding, I argue the value of using contemporary social practice theories in health research is that they reframe the way in which health outcomes can be understood and could inform more effective interventions that move beyond attitudes, behaviour and choices. PMID:25601064
McFalls, Joseph A.; And Others
Maintains that the "python analogy," often used to help students understand the negative societal impact of unusually small or large age cohorts, is better replaced by the social tunnel analogy, which is diagramed and illustrated with reference to the educational problems experienced in the United States as a result of the World War II baby boom.…
Canessa, Nicola; Alemanno, Federica; Riva, Federica; Zani, Alberto; Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mannara, Nicola; Perani, Daniela; Cappa, Stefano F.
Decoding others' intentions is a crucial aspect of social cognition. Neuroimaging studies suggest that inferring immediate goals engages the neural system for action understanding (i.e. mirror system), while the decoding of long-term intentions requires the system subserving the attribution of mental states (i.e. mentalizing). A controversial issue, stimulated by recent inconsistent results, concerns whether the two systems are concurrently vs. exclusively involved in intention understanding. This issue is particularly relevant in the case of social interactions, whose processing has been mostly, but not uncontroversially, associated with the mentalizing system. We tested the alternative hypothesis that the relative contribution of the two systems in intention understanding may also depend on the shared goal of interacting agents. To this purpose, 27 participants observed social interactions differing in their cooperative vs. affective shared goal during functional-Magnetic-Resonance-Imaging. The processing of both types of interactions activated the right temporo-parietal junction involved in mentalizing on action goals. Additionally, whole-brain and regions-of-interest analyses showed that the action understanding system (inferior prefrontal-parietal cortex) was more strongly activated by cooperative interactions, while the mentalizing-proper system (medial prefrontal cortex) was more strongly engaged by affective interactions. These differences were modulated by individual differences in empathizing. Both systems can thus be involved in understanding social intentions, with a relative weighting depending on the specific shared goal of the interaction. PMID:22848759
K. M. Dunn; P. R. Croft; G. I. Hackett
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of sexual problems with social, physical, and psychological problems. DESIGN: An anonymous postal questionnaire survey. SETTING: Four general practices in England. PARTICIPANTS: 789 men and 979 women responding to a questionnaire sent to a stratified random sample of the adult general population (n = 4000). MAIN RESULTS: Strong physical, social, and psychological associations were
Li, Wanqing; Mai, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chao
The Default Mode Network (DMN) has been found to be involved in various domains of cognitive and social processing. The present article will review brain connectivity results related to the DMN in the fields of social understanding of others: emotion perception, empathy, theory of mind, and morality. Most of the reviewed studies focused on healthy subjects with no neurological and psychiatric disease, but some studies on patients with autism and psychopathy will also be discussed. Common results show that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) plays a key role in the social understanding of others, and the subregions of the MPFC contribute differently to this function according to their roles in different subsystems of the DMN. At the bottom, the ventral MPFC in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem and its connections with emotion regions are mainly associated with emotion engagement during social interactions. Above, the anterior MPFC (aMPFC) in the cortical midline structures (CMS) and its connections with posterior and anterior cingulate cortex contribute mostly to making self-other distinctions. At the top, the dorsal MPFC (dMPFC) in the dMPFC subsystem and its connection with the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) are primarily related to the understanding of other's mental states. As behaviors become more complex, the related regions in frontal cortex are located higher. This reflects the transfer of information processing from automatic to cognitive processes with the increase of the complexity of social interaction. Besides the MPFC and TPJ, the connectivities of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) also show some changes during tasks from the four social fields. These results indicate that the DMN is indispensable in the social understanding of others. PMID:24605094
Hall, Brian J; Tol, Wietse A; Jordans, Mark J D; Bass, Judith; de Jong, Joop T V M
Little is known about the role of cognitive social capital among war-affected youth in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the longitudinal association between cognitive social capital and mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms), functioning, and received social support of children in Burundi. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews with 176 children over three measurement occasions over the span of 4-months. Cognitive social capital measured the degree to which children believed their community was trustworthy and cohesive. Mental health measures included the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) (Birleson, 1981), the Child Posttraumatic Symptom Scale (Foa et al., 2001), and a locally constructed scale of functional impairment. Children reported received social support by listing whether they received different types of social support from self-selected key individuals. Cross-lagged path analytic modeling evaluated relationships between cognitive social capital, symptoms and received support separately over baseline (T1), 6-week follow-up (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3). Each concept was treated and analyzed as a continuous score using manifest indicators. Significant associations between study variables were unidirectional. Cognitive social capital was associated with decreased depression between T1 and T2 (B = -.22, p < .001) and T2 and T3 (? = -.25, p < .001), and with functional impairment between T1 and T2 (? = -.15, p = .005) and T2 and T3 (? = -.14, p = .005); no association was found for PTSD symptoms at either time point. Cognitive social capital was associated with increased social support between T1 and T2 (? = .16, p = .002) and T2 and T3 (? = .16, p = .002). In this longitudinal study, cognitive social capital was related to a declining trajectory of children's mental health problems and increases in social support. Interventions that improve community relations in war-affected communities may alter the trajectories of resource loss and gain with conflict-affected children. PMID:24922609
Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; Williams, David R.; House, James S.
Objectives Researchers have posited that one potential explanation for the better-than-expected health outcomes observed among some Latino immigrants, vis-ŕ-vis their U.S.-born counterparts, may be the strength of their social ties and social support among immigrants. Methods We examined the association between nativity status and social ties using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study’s Latino subsample, which includes Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Latinos. First, we used Ordinary Least Squares [OLS] regression methods to model the effect of nativity status on five outcomes: informal social integration; social network diversity; network size; instrumental support; and informational support. Using multilevel mixed effects regression models, we estimated the association between Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition on our outcomes, and whether these relationships varied by nativity status. Lastly, we examined the relationship between social ties and immigrants’ length of time in the United States. Results After controlling for individual-level characteristics, immigrant Latinos had significantly lower levels of social ties than their U.S.-born counterparts for all our outcomes, except for informational support. Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition was positively associated with being socially integrated and having larger and more diverse social networks. The associations between two of our outcomes (informal social integration and network size) and living in a neighborhood with greater concentrations of Latinos and immigrants were stronger for U.S.-born Latinos than for immigrant Latinos. U.S.-born Latinos maintained a significant socialties advantage compared to immigrants—regardless of length of time in the United States—for informal social integration, network diversity, and network size. Conclusion At the individual level, our findings challenge the assumption that Latino immigrants would have larger networks and/or higher levels of support and social integration than their U.S.-born counterparts. Our study underscores the importance of understanding the contexts that promote the development of social ties. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding Latino and immigrant social ties and health outcomes. PMID:23947776
Establishing the decision context for a management problem is the critical first step for effective decision analysis. Understanding the decision context allow stakeholders and decision-makers to integrate the societal, environmental, and economic considerations that must be con...
Langeveld, Johannes H.; Gundersen, Knut K.; Svartdal, Frode
The main purpose of the present study was to explore how social competence reduces behavioral problems. Based on previous findings, we assume that increased social competence can be regarded as a mediating factor in reducing behavior problems. All participants (children and adolescents, n = 112) received an intervention intended to increase social…
Schumacher, Robin F.; Fuchs, Lynn S.
The purpose of this study was to assess whether understanding relational terminology (i.e., more, less, and fewer) mediates the effects of intervention on compare word problems. Second-grade classrooms (n = 31) were randomly assigned to 3 conditions: researcher-designed word-problem intervention, researcher-designed calculation intervention, or business-as-usual (teacher-designed) control. Students in word-problem intervention classrooms received instruction on the compare problem type, which included a focus on understanding relational terminology within compare word problems. Analyses, which accounted for variance associated with classroom clustering, indicated that (a) compared to the calculation intervention and business-as-usual conditions, word-problem intervention significantly increased performance on all three subtypes of compare problems and on understanding relational terminology; and (b) the intervention effect was fully mediated by students’ understanding of relational terminology for 1 subtype of compare problems and partially mediated by students’ understanding of relational terminology for the other 2 subtypes. PMID:22221461
Wong, Donna Kam Pun; Lam, Debbie Oi Bing
This study evaluated the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) in social work education. The participants were 132 second-year social work students who took the core courses of Social Work Theory and Practice and Skills Laboratory in the PBL mode. A 40-item scale was used to measure the students' perceptions of their social work knowledge,…
Rochat, Philippe, Ed.
In recent years, much stimulating research has emerged in relation to children's theories of mind, construed as the understanding of others' intentions, beliefs, and desires. Within that context, there is renewed interest in the developmental origins of social cognition. An expression of that new interest, this book assembles current…
Sociological research investigating boys' masculinity performances has commonly recognised the importance of peer group cultures in identity construction. Whilst such work has undoubtedly offered important and useful frameworks for interpreting and understanding boys' behaviour in schools, the article argues that social psychological theories of…
in a Japanese elementary school to verify this hy- pothesis. In the experiment, two "Robovie" robots were placedAn Approach for a Social Robot to Understand Human Relationships: Friendship Estimation through Interaction with Robots Takayuki Kanda1 and Hiroshi Ishiguro1,2 1 ATR, Intelligent Robotics and Communication
Williamson, Troy Lee
Reported is a study to: (1) measure the initial social attitudes of college freshmen toward science in comparison to their understanding of science, and (2) evaluate changes in the freshmen attitudes which may occur during the students' first academic year in a science course. The 413 students in this study were enrolled in one of the following…
The focus in this article is on issues of social cohesion and citizenship as they relate to students' understandings of religion and religious identity. The article draws on data gathered from a study conducted at a highly diverse English comprehensive school and is set amid broader anxieties about religion, community disharmony and national…
Milligan, Andrea; Wood, Bronwyn
Teaching for conceptual understanding has been heralded as an effective approach within many curriculum frameworks internationally in an age of rapid and constant change around what counts as "knowledge". Drawing from research and experience within the social studies curriculum, this paper reflects on some of the largely unstated and unexplored…
Popliger, Mina; Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela
Children tell prosocial lies for self- and other-oriented reasons. However, it is unclear how motivational and socialization factors affect their lying. Furthermore, it is unclear whether children's moral understanding and evaluations of prosocial lie scenarios (including perceptions of vignette characters' feelings) predict their actual prosocial…
Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Francoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie
Patterns of development of ToM belief abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM belief abilities were examined. EDEI-R [Perron-Borelli M. (1996). "Echelles Differentielles…
Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Francoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie
Patterns of development of ToM-emotion abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM-emotion abilities were examined. EDEI-R (Perron-Borelli, M. (1996). "Echelles Differentielles…
Hartley, Robyn; Horne, Jackie
This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report, "Social and Economic Benefits of Improved Adult Literacy: Towards a Better Understanding," and is an added resource for further information. The original document is a feasibility study which explores the frameworks and methodologies available for determining and…
Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for multi-sectoral action, which requires research and policy on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping health outcomes. Most conceptual tools available to researchers tend to focus on singular and specific social determinants of health (SDH) (e.g. social capital, empowerment, social inclusion). However, a new and innovative conceptual framework, known as social quality theory, facilitates a more complex and complete understanding of the SDH, with its focus on four domains: social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security, all within the same conceptual framework. This paper provides both an overview of social quality theory in addition to findings from a national survey of social quality in Australia, as a means of demonstrating the operationalisation of the theory. Methods Data were collected using a national random postal survey of 1044 respondents in September, 2009. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results Statistical analysis revealed that people on lower incomes (less than $45000) experience worse social quality across all of the four domains: lower socio-economic security, lower levels of membership of organisations (lower social cohesion), higher levels of discrimination and less political action (lower social inclusion) and lower social empowerment. The findings were mixed in terms of age, with people over 65 years experiencing lower socio-economic security, but having higher levels of social cohesion, experiencing lower levels of discrimination (higher social inclusion) and engaging in more political action (higher social empowerment). In terms of gender, women had higher social cohesion than men, although also experienced more discrimination (lower social inclusion). Conclusions Applying social quality theory allows researchers and policy makers to measure and respond to the multiple sources of oppression and advantage experienced by certain population groups, and to monitor the effectiveness of interventions over time. PMID:21819576
Holland, Sally; Burgess, Stephen; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge
This article discusses some new ways in which social work research can explore the interaction between neighbourhoods and child and adult wellbeing. The authors note that social work practices are often criticised for taking an individualistic approach and paying too little attention to the service user’s environment. The article uses examples of research projects from Chile, the United States of America and Wales, to discuss the use of spatially oriented research methods for understanding neighbourhood factors. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods approaches that are particularly appropriate for investigating social work relevant topics are discussed in turn, including quantitative and qualitative uses for geographical information systems (GIS), hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) for analysing spatially clustered data and qualitative mobile interviews. The article continues with a discussion of the strengths and limitations of using spatially orientated research designs in social work research settings and concludes optimistically with suggestions for future directions in this area. PMID:21738281
Batel, Susana; Devine-Wright, Patrick
In the past few years, social research has been examining what contributes to the attitude-behaviour gap in people's responses to large-scale renewable energy technologies. The NIMBY explanation for the gap has long dominated that area of research, but has also been criticised. Alternative proposals to NIMBY were advanced, but it is still evident that some of those maintain presuppositions of NIMBY and that this area of research needs more integration, namely at a theoretical level. In this paper we argue that to overcome those aspects it is relevant, first, to situate the promotion of renewable energy production as a social change process in today's societies, and, second, to therefore consider the socio-psychological aspects involved in people's responses to social change. We discuss specifically how the Theory of Social Representations may help us with that and contribute to a better understanding of people's responses to renewable energy technologies. PMID:24448027
Yates, Jennifer L.
The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…
Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay
This study investigates how students understand and apply the area under the curve concept and the integral-area relation in solving introductory physics problems. We interviewed 20 students in the first semester and 15 students from the same cohort in the second semester of a calculus-based physics course sequence on several problems involving…
Verboom, Charlotte E.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Ormel, Johan
Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between depressive problems and three types of functioning in…
Vera Bernard-Opitz; N. Sriram; Sharul Nakhoda-Sapuan
Children with autism have difficulty in solving social problems and in generating multiple solutions to problems. They are, however, relatively skilled in responding to visual cues such as pictures and animations. Eight distinct social problems were presented on a computer, along with a choice of possible solutions, and an option to produce alternative solutions. Eight preschool children with autism and
Mason, Michael J.
This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and…
Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer
Nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in catchments is a 'wicked' problem that threatens water quality, water security, ecosystem health and biodiversity, and thus the provision of ecosystem services that support human livelihoods and wellbeing from local to global scales. However, it is a difficult problem to manage because water catchments are linked human and natural systems that are complex, dynamic, multi-actor, and multi-scalar in nature. This in turn raises questions about understanding and influencing change across multiple levels of planning, decision-making and action. A key challenge in practice is enabling implementation of local management action, which can be influenced by a range of factors across multiple levels. This paper reviews and synthesises important 'enabling' capacities that can influence implementation of local management action, and develops a conceptual framework for understanding and analysing these in practice. Important enabling capacities identified include: history and contingency; institutional arrangements; collaboration; engagement; vision and strategy; knowledge building and brokerage; resourcing; entrepreneurship and leadership; and reflection and adaptation. Furthermore, local action is embedded within multi-scalar contexts and therefore, is highly contextual. The findings highlight the need for: (1) a systemic and integrative perspective for understanding and influencing change for managing the wicked problem of NPS water pollution; and (2) 'enabling' social and institutional arenas that support emergent and adaptive management structures, processes and innovations for addressing NPS water pollution in practice. These findings also have wider relevance to other 'wicked' natural resource management issues facing similar implementation challenges. PMID:23792915
Lawrence, Shawn; Hazlett, Rebekah; Hightower, Peggy
The childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate. Numerous individual, family, community, and social factors contribute to overweight and obesity in children and are explored. If left unaddressed, the epidemic of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity may lead to amplified problems for individual…
Brownell, Celia A.; Ramani, Geetha B.; Zerwas, Stephanie
One- and two-year old peer dyads were presented with a simple cooperative task. Age differences were found in amount of coordinated activity, monitoring the peer’s activity and location in relation to the goal, and attempting to achieve the goal when the peer was (or was not) available as a partner. One-year-olds’ coordinated actions appeared more coincidental than cooperative whereas older children appeared to be more actively cooperating toward a shared goal. Differences in coordinated activity with peers were associated with differences in attention-sharing with an adult and with language about self and other. The ability to cooperate with peers, becoming a true social partner, develops over the second and third years of life in concert with growing social understanding. PMID:16942491
This study investigated seventh grade learners' decision making about genetic engineering concepts and applications. A social network analyses supported by technology tracked changes in student understanding with a focus on social and conceptual influences. Results indicated that several social and conceptual mechanisms potentially affected how…
The Faculty of Social Science at Western understands how important your dreams are and knows by designing your degree to suit your dreams and ambitions. As one of the largest and most diverse Social you to your destination. #12;The Faculty of Social Science your dreams... are unique require
Bender, Kimberly; Negi, Nalini; Fowler, Dawnovise N.
This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students' commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors' process of assimilation,…
Landry, Susan H.; Smith, Karen E.; Swank, Paul R.
A major objective of this chapter is to present a novel, ecologically sensitive social problem-solving task for school-aged children that captures the complexity of social and cognitive demands placed on children in naturalistic situations. Competence on this task correlates with a range of skills including executive functions, verbal reasoning,…
In this paper we focus on the parallel computation of large - scale equilibrium and optimization problems arising in the social and economic sciences. In particular, we consider problems which can be visualized and ...
Peter K. Jonason; Gregory D. Webster; A. Elizabeth Lindsey
Social animals, like humans, need to interact with others, but this is not always possible. When genuine social interaction is lacking, individuals may seek out or use sources of interaction that co-opt agency detection mechanisms vis-ŕ-vis the human voice and images of people, called social snacking. Study 1 (N = 240) found that ratings of how alone participants felt were
How behavior and institutions are affected by social relations is one of the classic questions of social theory. This paper concerns the extent to which economic action is embedded in structures of social relations, in modern industrial society. Although the usual neoclas- sical accounts provide an \\
Landers, Daniel M., Ed.
This book is an outgrowth of a conference on "Sport and Social Deviance," attended by people interested in the newly emerging interdisciplinary area concerned with the social scientific analysis of sport, play, and games. This anthology, which has contributions from many different authors, is intended to provide social scientists, physical…
Kerry Chamberlain; Damian Oneill
Socio-economic differentials in health are widely documented, but little research has examined the experience and understanding of health using a qualitative approach and contrasting social location. This study examined perceptions of health and smoking in fifteen higher SES and fifteen lower SES smokers. The study focused on smoking because it is widely recognised as a health-damaging behaviour. A semi-structured open-ended
Social sustainability is an important, but often neglected, aspect of determining the success of small-scale water systems. This paper reviews ethnographic approaches for understanding how indigenous knowledge enhances social sustainability of small-scale water systems, particularly in small-scale water systems threatened by water scarcity. After reviewing the literature on common-pool and traditional resource management strategies, the paper will focus on the case of a community-managed small-scale water system in Cochabamba, Bolivia. This study uses ethnographic evidence to demonstrate how indigenous institutions can be used to manage a small-scale urban water system sustainably. Several factors were crucial to the institution's success. First, indigenous residents had previous experience with common management of rural irrigation systems which they were able to adapt for use in an urban environment. Second, institutional rules were designed to prioritize the conservation of the water source. Third, indigenous Andean social values of uniformity, regularity, and transparency ensured that community members perceived the system as legitimate and complied with community rules. Fourth, self-governance enabled community members to quickly adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as seasonal scarcity and groundwater overdraft. The paper concludes with a discussion of the promise and limitations of ethnographic approaches and indigenous knowledge for understanding social sustainability in small-scale water systems.
Kreindler, Sara A; Dowd, Damien A; Dana Star, Noah; Gottschalk, Tania
Context One of health care's foremost challenges is the achievement of integration and collaboration among the groups providing care. Yet this fundamentally group-related issue is typically discussed in terms of interpersonal relations or operational issues, not group processes. Methods We conducted a systematic search for literature offering a group-based analysis and examined it through the lens of the social identity approach (SIA). Founded in the insight that group memberships form an important part of the self-concept, the SIA encompasses five dimensions: social identity, social structure, identity content, strength of identification, and context. Findings Our search yielded 348 reports, 114 of which cited social identity. However, SIA-citing reports varied in both compatibility with the SIA's metatheoretical paradigm and applied relevance to health care; conversely, some non-SIA-citers offered SIA-congruent analyses. We analyzed the various combinations and interpretations of the five SIA dimensions, identifying ten major conceptual currents. Examining these in the light of the SIA yielded a cohesive, multifaceted picture of (inter)group relations in health care. Conclusions The SIA offers a coherent framework for integrating a diverse, far-flung literature on health care groups. Further research should take advantage of the full depth and complexity of the approach, remain sensitive to the unique features of the health care context, and devote particular attention to identity mobilization and context change as key drivers of system transformation. Our article concludes with a set of “guiding questions” to help health care leaders recognize the group dimension of organizational problems, identify mechanisms for change, and move forward by working with and through social identities, not against them. PMID:22709391
Davis, Larry E.; Bangs, Ralph L.
In 2002, the School of Social Work at the University of Pittsburgh established the Center on Race and Social Problems (CRSP). CRSP, which is the first race research center to be housed in a school of social work, has six foci: economic disparities; educational disparities; interracial group relations; mental health; youth, families, and elderly;…
Romano, Rosalie M.
In 1933, Dewey presented a speech in which he linked democracy, social class, and teacher activism as integral factors when addressing educational issues. This article argues that those issues include social issues as well. It examines democracy, social class, and present problems in the preparation of teachers, organized around the 1933 questions…
Macy, Rebecca J.; Ferron, Joelle; Crosby, Carmen
Although most social work professionals may expect that women who experience partner violence will sustain acute physical injuries, social workers may be less knowledgeable about the chronic health problems with which violence survivors often struggle. To inform social work practice, we reviewed and synthesized the recently published research on…
Gracaliz P. Dimuro; Antônio C. R. Costa; Luciano V. Goncalves
Regulation of social exchanges refers to controlling social exchanges between agents so that the balance of exchange values involved in the exchanges are continuously kept - as far as possible - near to equilibrium. Previous work modeled the social exchange regulation problem as a POMDP, and defined the policyToBDIplans algorithm to extract BDI plans from POMDP models, so that the
Parikh, Tapan S.
Apps for Social Justice: Motivating Computer Science Learning with Design and Real-World Problem describe a twelve-week Apps for Social Justice course that we taught at an after-school program. Students read social justice literature, identified local community needs, and went through a design process
Mayo, L. H.
The contextual approach is discussed which undertakes to demonstrate that technology assessment assists in the identification of the full range of implications of taking a particular action and facilitates the consideration of alternative means by which the total affected social problem context might be changed by available project options. It is found that the social impacts of an application on participants, institutions, processes, and social interests, and the accompanying interactions may not only induce modifications in the problem contest delineated for examination with respect to the design, operations, regulation, and use of the posited application, but also affect related social problem contexts.
Jaclyn Lauren Balkan
Parental depression and emotion socialization, and the impact of their relationship on preschool children's behavior problems, has not been extensively studied. Given that children, from minority, disadvantaged backgrounds are at familial and socio-cultural risk for behavioral problems, this is an important area of research. This study proposed a risk-resilience model to investigate the roles of parental depression and emotion socialization
Fite, Paula J.; Rathert, Jamie L.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani
The current study examined whether social problems accounted for the relation between reactive aggression and withdrawn/depressed symptoms in a sample of 147 children (54.4% male) ranging from 5 to 13 years of age (M = 8.22 years) who attended a community based after-school program. Findings suggested that indeed social problems mediated the link…
Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien
This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social…
Karen R. Gouze
This study examined the relationship between two cognitive processing variables-attention and social problem solving-and aggression in preschoolage boys. The 43 participants were administered two selective attention tasks that assess children's tendency to focus on aggressive versus cooperative social situations, the Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving Test developed by Shure and Spivack, and the information and block design subtests of the Wechsler
The purpose of this study was to examine communication skills, interpersonal problem solving skills, and social self-efficacy perception of adolescents and the predictive role of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. This study is a quantitative and relational study aimed at examining the…
van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Wijnroks, Lex; Vermeer, Adri; Matthys, Walter
Relations among externalizing behavior, therapeutic context (community care vs. residential care), and social problem-solving by children with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intelligence were examined. Participants were 186 children (12 to 14 years of age) who responded to a video-based social problem-solving task. Of these, 130…
Eugene S. Urbain; Philip C. Kendall
Reviews training studies of interpersonal problem solving, family problem solving, verbally mediated self-control applied to social behavior, and social perspective taking with children. Treatment procedures and outcome data are examined. Although some encouraging results have been reported, the need for assessments of behavioral adjustment, better control group procedures, and more long-term follow-up reports is noted. Specific deficits in social–cognitive abilities,
Mumford, Michael D.; Antes, Alison L.; Caughron, Jared J.; Connelly, Shane; Beeler, Cheryl
In the present study, 258 doctoral students working in the health, biological, and social sciences were asked to solve a series of field-relevant problems calling for creative thought. Proposed solutions to these problems were scored with respect to critical creative thinking skills such as problem definition, conceptual combination, and idea generation. Results indicated that health, biological, and social scientists differed with respect to their skill in executing various operations, or processes, involved in creative thought. Interestingly, no differences were observed as a function of the students’ level of experience. The implications of these findings for understanding cross-field, and cross-experience level, differences in creative thought are discussed. PMID:20936085
House, James S.
Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…
Wickes, Rebecca; Hipp, John R; Sargeant, Elise; Homel, Ross
In the neighborhood effects literature, collective efficacy is viewed as the key explanatory process associated with the spatial distribution of a range of social problems. While many studies usefully focus on the consequences of collective efficacy, in this paper we examine the task specificity of collective efficacy and consider the individual and neighborhood factors that influence residents' perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy for specific tasks. Utilizing survey and administrative data from 4,093 residents nested in 148 communities in Australia, we distinguish collective efficacy for particular threats to social order and assess the relative importance of social cohesion and neighborhood social ties to the development of collective efficacy for violence, delinquency and civic/political issues. Our results indicate that a model separating collective efficacy for specific problems from social ties and the more generalized notions of social cohesion is necessary when understanding the regulation potential of neighborhoods. PMID:23812906
In conversations between immigrants and officials, problems of understanding are often noticeable. About 280 recordings realised at the Argentine Aliens' Department and at several public authorities in Germany show that knowledge divergences regarding linguistic, cultural and institutional knowledge result in (sometimes grave) difficulties of…
Dahsah, Chanyah; Coll, Richard K.
Stoichiometry and related concepts are an important part of student learning in chemistry. In this interpretive-based inquiry, we investigated Thai Grade 10 and 11 students' conceptual understanding and ability to solve numerical problems for stoichiometry-related concepts. Ninety-seven participants completed a purpose-designed survey instrument…
Chatterjea, Kalyani; Chang, Chew-Hung; Lim, Ee-Peng; Zhang, Jun; Theng, Yin-Leng; Go, Dion Hoe-Lian
Fieldwork remains the mainstay in the study of geography and in the analysis of the environmental processes. However, an in-depth understanding of the environmental and geographical processes requires extensive as well as intensive fieldwork that involves time and substantial effort, both of which may pose a problem within a given curriculum time.…
Bisht, Ramila; Pitchforth, Emma; Murray, Susan F
National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India - a 'rising power' with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health related commodities provide some excellent examples of illuminating social science. Future research agendas on health systems issues need to include innovative empirical work that captures the dynamics of transnational processes and that links macro-level change to fine-grained observations of social life. PMID:22963264
Clark-Polner, Elizabeth; Clark, Margaret S.
Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all) do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1) all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger), and (2) relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: (a) we describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others’ emotions, providing help, and receiving help) that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. (b) We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research. PMID:24723868
Background The use of social media by health care organizations is growing and provides Web-based tools to connect patients, caregivers, and providers. Objective The aim was to determine the use and factors predicting the use of social media for health care–related purposes among medically underserved primary care patients. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to 444 patients of a federally qualified community health center. Results Community health center patients preferred that their providers use email, cell phones for texting, and Facebook and cell phone apps for sharing health information. Significantly more Hispanic than white patients believed their providers should use Facebook (P=.001), YouTube (P=.01), and Twitter (P=.04) for sharing health information. Use and intentions to use social media for health-related purposes were significantly higher for those patients with higher subjective norm scores. Conclusions Understanding use and factors predicting use can increase adoption and utilization of social media for health care–related purposes among underserved patients in community health centers. PMID:25427823
Gesell, Sabina B.; Bess, Kimberly D.; Barkin, Shari L.
Background. Antiobesity interventions have generally failed. Research now suggests that interventions must be informed by an understanding of the social environment. Objective. To examine if new social networks form between families participating in a group-level pediatric obesity prevention trial. Methods. Latino parent-preschool child dyads (N = 79) completed the 3-month trial. The intervention met weekly in consistent groups to practice healthy lifestyles. The control met monthly in inconsistent groups to learn about school readiness. UCINET and SIENA were used to examine network dynamics. Results. Children's mean age was 4.2 years (SD = 0.9), and 44% were overweight/obese (BMI ? 85th percentile). Parents were predominantly mothers (97%), with a mean age of 31.4 years (SD = 5.4), and 81% were overweight/obese (BMI ? 25). Over the study, a new social network evolved among participating families. Parents selectively formed friendship ties based on child BMI z-score, (t = 2.08; P < .05). This reveals the tendency for mothers to form new friendships with mothers whose children have similar body types. Discussion. Participating in a group-level intervention resulted in new social network formation. New ties were greatest with mothers who had children of similar body types. This finding might contribute to the known inability of parents to recognize child overweight. PMID:22655175
PATTERSON, DAVID A.; Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), Silver
Most prevention and intervention activities directed toward HIV/AIDS and alcohol and other drug use separately as well as the combining of the two (e.g., those who are both HIV/AIDS and using alcohol and other drugs) comes in the form of specific, individualized therapies without consideration of social influences that may have a greater impact on this population. Approaching this social problem from the narrowed view of individualized, mi-cro solutions disregards the larger social conditions that affect or perhaps even are at the root of the problem. This paper analyzes the social problem of HIV/AIDS and alcohol and other drug abuse using three sociological perspectives—social construction theory, ethnomethodology, and conflict theory—informing the reader of the broader influences accompanying this problem. PMID:23264724
Patterson, David A; Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, Silver
Most prevention and intervention activities directed toward HIV/AIDS and alcohol and other drug use separately as well as the combining of the two (e.g., those who are both HIV/AIDS and using alcohol and other drugs) comes in the form of specific, individualized therapies without consideration of social influences that may have a greater impact on this population. Approaching this social problem from the narrowed view of individualized, mi-cro solutions disregards the larger social conditions that affect or perhaps even are at the root of the problem. This paper analyzes the social problem of HIV/AIDS and alcohol and other drug abuse using three sociological perspectives-social construction theory, ethnomethodology, and conflict theory-informing the reader of the broader influences accompanying this problem. PMID:23264724
Abstract Objective. To estimate the frequency of psychological and social classification codes employed by general practitioners (GPs) and to explore the extent to which GPs ascribed health problems to biomedical, psychological, or social factors. Design. A cross-sectional survey based on questionnaire data from GPs. Setting. Danish primary care. Subjects. 387 GPs and their face-to-face contacts with 5543 patients. Main outcome measures. GPs registered consecutive patients on registration forms including reason for encounter, diagnostic classification of main problem, and a GP assessment of biomedical, psychological, and social factors’ influence on the contact. Results. The GP-stated reasons for encounter largely overlapped with their classification of the managed problem. Using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC-2-R), GPs classified 600 (11%) patients with psychological problems and 30 (0.5%) with social problems. Both codes for problems/complaints and specific disorders were used as the GP's diagnostic classification of the main problem. Two problems (depression and acute stress reaction/adjustment disorder) accounted for 51% of all psychological classifications made. GPs generally emphasized biomedical aspects of the contacts. Psychological aspects were given greater importance in follow-up consultations than in first-episode consultations, whereas social factors were rarely seen as essential to the consultation. Conclusion. Psychological problems are frequently seen and managed in primary care and most are classified within a few diagnostic categories. Social matters are rarely considered or classified. PMID:23281962
Goodkind, Jessica R.; Gonzales, Melissa; Malcoe, Lorraine H.; Espinosa, Judith
Measurement of social stressors among Hispanic women is a growing and important area of study, particularly in terms of understanding explanatory mechanisms for health disparities. This study involved adaptation of the Hispanic Stress Inventory and the Latin American Stress Inventory to create a measure of social stressors specifically for both…
Hart, Daniel; Edelstein, Wolfgang
Investigates the relationship of children's self-understanding to social class, community type (modern or traditional), and teachers' ratings for 73 12 year olds in Reykjavik (Iceland) and 21 12 year olds in traditional villages in Iceland. Children in higher social classes offer more psychological descriptions. The inadvisability of generalizing…
Science has often been viewed, by the majority of our educators and the general public, as being objective and emotionless. Based on this view, our educators teach science in the same manner, objectively and in an abstract form. This manner of teaching has hindered our learners' ability for active learning and distanced them from the subject matter. In this action research, I have examined holistic science pedagogy in conjunction with a constructivism theory. In holistic science pedagogy, scientific knowledge is combined with subjective personal experiences and social issues. There is an interaction between student and scientific data when the student's context, relationships, and lived experiences that play a role in the scientific recognition of the world were incorporated into the learning process. In this pedagogical model, the factual content was viewed from the context of social and ethical implications. By empowering learners with this ability, science knowledge will no longer be exclusive to a select group. This process empowers the general population with the ability to understand scientific knowledge and therefore the ability to make informed decisions based on this knowledge. The goal was to make curriculum developers more conscious of factors that can positively influence the learning process and increase student engagement and understanding within the science classroom. The holistic approach to science pedagogy has enlightened and empowered our adult learners more effectively. Learners became more actively engaged in their own process of learning. Teachers must be willing to listen and implement student suggestions on improving the teaching/learning process. Teachers should be willing to make the effort in connecting with their students by structuring courses so the topics would be relevant to the students in relation to real world and social/ethical and political issues. Holistic science pedagogy strives for social change through the empowerment of adult learners with scientific knowledge. This research has demonstrated that learners can better understand the decision-making process and more easily relate their experiences, and therefore their knowledge, to social/political and ethical issues.
Why do individuals with more autistic traits experience social difficulties? Here we examined the hypothesis that these difficulties stem in part from a challenge in understanding social acting, the prosocial pretense that adults routinely produce to maintain positive relationships with their ingroup. In Study 1, we developed a self-administered test of social-acting understanding: participants read stories in which a character engaged in social acting and rated the appropriateness of the character’s response. Adults who scored 26 or higher on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) questionnaire gave significantly lower ratings than comparison participants (AQ <26). Study 2 found that difficulty in understanding social acting, but not false beliefs, mediated the link between autistic traits and perceived ingroup relationships. PMID:23334807
Lewis, B A; O'Neill, H K
Standardized questionnaires were administered to 116 male and female undergraduates to examine how social deficits and alcohol expectancies relate to alcohol use. Participants were classified as either problem or nonproblem drinkers based on the Rutgers Collegiate Substance Abuse Screening Test. Problem drinkers reported experiencing social anxiety, shyness, and lower self-esteem to a greater extent than nonproblem drinkers. Problem drinkers also held more positive alcohol expectancies than nonproblem drinkers. Contrary to our hypotheses, however, particular types of alcohol expectancies did not interact with specific areas of social functioning to influence problem drinking. Overall, these findings suggest that problem drinkers have positive expectations about the immediate effects of alcohol consumption even though drinking is linked to long-term impairment in social functioning. PMID:10795955
Senior, Carl; Howard, Chris
The role that student friendship groups play in learning was investigated here. Employing a critical realist design, two focus groups on undergraduates were conducted to explore their experience of studying. Data from the “case-by-case” analysis suggested student-to-student friendships produced social contexts which facilitated conceptual understanding through discussion, explanation, and application to “real life” contemporary issues. However, the students did not conceive this as a learning experience or suggest the function of their friendships involved learning. These data therefore challenge the perspective that student groups in higher education are formed and regulated for the primary function of learning. Given these findings, further research is needed to assess the role student friendships play in developing disciplinary conceptual understanding. PMID:25309488
Tucker Balch; Frank Dellaert; Adam Feldman; Andrew Guillory; Charles Isbell; Zia Khan; Andrew Stein; Hank Wilde
Our understanding of social insect behavior has significantly influenced A.I. and multi-robot systems' research (e.g. ant algorithms and swarm robotics). In this work, however, we focus on the opposite question, namely: \\
John E. Lochman; Louise B. Lampron
This study was designed to assess specific social problem-solving, perceived competence, and selfesteem characteristics of 20 aggressive and 18 nonaggressive boys. Significant behavioral differences existed between the groups. The problem-solving measure provided for qualitative assessment of specific problem solutions that children consider, varying according to the interpersonal context of conflicts with peers, teachers, and parents and to the level of
Ana-Maria Bliuc; Robert A. Ellis; Peter Goodyear; Daniela Muntele Hendres
This research focuses on understanding how socio-psychological dimensions such as student social identity and student perceptions\\u000a of their learning community affect learning at university. To do this, it integrates ideas from phenomenographic research\\u000a into student learning with ideas from research on social identity. In two studies (N?=?110, and N?=?97) the relationships between student social identity, perceptions of the learning community,
Hughes, Shannon; Cohen, David
The purpose of this integrative review is to facilitate social work practitioners' understanding of how psychotropic drug harms are assessed in clinical trials and to make specific suggestions for social workers' increased involvement in detecting drug harms in their clients. The authors undertook a comprehensive review of interdisciplinary…
Asselin, Martha Jo
With the rising number of major crises on college campuses today (Security on Campus Inc., 2009), institutions of higher education can benefit from understanding of how social networks may be used in times of emergency. What is currently known about the usage of social networks is not integral to the current practices of crisis management that are…
This article explores the multiple and shifting ways in which disability intersects with other sources of social disadvantage. Disablism forms part of an intricate web of social conditions that subjugate certain forms of ‘student-subjects' and create compounding forms of oppression and exclusion that need to be addressed through relevant education policy and practice. Intersectional understandings of disability expose the multiple
Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Ellis, Robert A.; Goodyear, Peter; Hendres, Daniela Muntele
This research focuses on understanding how socio-psychological dimensions such as student social identity and student perceptions of their learning community affect learning at university. To do this, it integrates ideas from phenomenographic research into student learning with ideas from research on social identity. In two studies (N = 110, and N…
Isbell, Charles L.
of social animal behavior, details of their implementation, and quantitative experimental results using themHow A.I. and multi-robot systems research will accelerate our understanding of social animal animal behavior?." As we show, we are able to contribute at several levels: First, using algorithms
Daniel L. Wann
This article presents a theoretical model designed to account for the positive relationship between identification with a local sport team and social psychological health. This model, labeled the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model, predicts that team identification facilitates well-being by increasing social connections for the fan. Two forms of social connections are developed through team identification: enduring and temporary. Although
Shimabukuro, Carolina; Putrino, Natalia; Helbling, Julia; Tognetti, Sandra; Bentosela, Mariana
Dogs are able to solve different problems by trial and error learning, but it seems that they cannot understand the means-end connection. Some studies suggest that dogs' performance is influenced by their breed and by the level of familiarity with the person they interact with. In our study, we assess individual differences in both social and non-social responses in a problem-solving task during the acquisition, extinction, and reacquisition phases. In order to investigate the effect of familiarity, in the first experiment, the human present during the task was either a familiar (the dog's owner) or unfamiliar person. In the second experiment, we compared breeds (Retrievers and Shepherds) that had previously shown differences in a communicative task. The results revealed that all groups learned the task and became more efficient in the acquisition trials. These non-social responses diminished during extinction, where an increase in social responses was observed. With regard to individual differences, dogs were more persistent in searching the reward during the second extinction trial when the owner was present (in contrast with a stranger), and also looked longer at the unfamiliar person at the beginning of the acquisition trial. On the other hand, Retrievers showed greater social motivation during reacquisition and Shepherds picked up more bones during the third acquisition trial, thus suggesting a more persistent search of the reward. These findings highlight the relevance of studying different learning schedules as well as individual differences in problem-solving ability so as to improve selection and training techniques. PMID:25682735
Perl, Martin L.
Professional societies have been reluctant to enter actively into the public processes by which decisions are made on economic, social, and political issues. This reluctance comes from (1) fears about the status of the profession and the professional society, (2) fears about economic reprisal, (3) potential conflicts between the goals of a philosophy of trade unionism and the goals of a philosophy of professional social responsibility, and (4) domination of some professional societies by nonprofessional business, industrial, or administrative groups. This reluctance has been justified by the development of a myth that the professional can exercise individual social responsibility while maintaining the neutrality of his institutions and societies. This myth must be ignored because our public decision-making processes can only function properly if groups, such as professional societies, actively enter that decision-making process. PMID:4691329
Hagen, Kristine Amlund; Myers, Barbara J; Mackintosh, Virginia H
This study investigated the effects of hope, social support, and stress on behavioral problems in a high-risk group of 65 children of incarcerated mothers. Children with low levels of hope had more externalizing and internalizing problems. Children who perceived less social support had more externalizing problems, and children who had experienced more life stressors reported more internalizing problems. Regression analyses indicated that hope contributed unique variance to both internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems after social support and stress were controlled. These findings suggest that being confident in one's ability to overcome challenges and having a positive outlook function as protective factors, whereas being less hopeful may place a child at risk for developing adjustment problems. Whether it is possible to foster agency and teach pathways to children with lower levels of hope is discussed. PMID:15839758
Shannon, R.; McCloskey, J.; Guyer, C.; McDowell, S.; Steacy, S.
The importance of science within hazard mitigation cannot be underestimated. Robust mitigation polices rely strongly on a sound understanding of the science underlying potential natural disasters and the transference of that knowledge from the scientific community to the general public via governments and policy makers. We aim to investigate how and why the public's knowledge, perceptions, response, adjustments and values towards science have changed throughout two decades of research conducted in areas along and adjacent to the Sumatran and Cascadia subduction zones. We will focus on two countries subject to the same potential hazard, but which encompass starkly contrasting political, economic, social and environmental settings. The transfer of scientific knowledge into the public/ social arena is a complex process, the success of which is reflected in a community's ability to withstand large scale devastating events. Although no one could have foreseen the magnitude of the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, the social devastation generated underscored the stark absence of mitigation measures in the nations most heavily affected. It furthermore emphasized the need for the design and implementation of disaster preparedness measures. Survey of existing literature has already established timelines for major events and public policy changes in the case study areas. Clear evidence exists of the link between scientific knowledge and its subsequent translation into public policy, particularly in the Cascadia context. The initiation of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program following the Cape Mendocino earthquake in 1992 embodies this link. Despite a series of environmental disasters with recorded widespread fatalities dating back to the mid 1900s and a heightened impetus for scientific research into tsunami/ earthquake hazard following the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, the translation of science into the public realm is not widely obvious in the Sumatran context. This research aims to further investigate how the enhanced understanding of earthquake and tsunami hazards is being used to direct hazard mitigation strategies and enables direct comparison with the scientific and public policy developments in Cascadia.
Dr. Theresa L. Selfa; Dr. Richard Goe; Dr. Laszlo Kulcsar; Dr. Gerad Middendorf; Dr. Carmen Bain
The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producersâ?? attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A â??multi-methodâ?ť or â??mixed methodâ?ť research methodology was employed for each case study.
Siu, Andrew M. H.; Shek, Daniel T. L.
This study evaluated the dimensionality of the construct of social problem solving and examined the relationships between social problem solving and empathy, emotional well-being and family well-being in a sample of secondary school students in Hong Kong (N = 1462). The participants completed measures of social problem solving (the 25-item short…
Dan Gustafsson; Niclas Olofsson; Florence Andersson; Berit Lindberg; Jens Schollin
Objective: The responsibility for treating children with asthma has gradually shifted from the medical health service to the family and parents, which may cause new psycho-social problems in the family. This study aimed at describing the psycho-social effects on families having a child with asthma, and at determining whether a relation exists between the medical severity of disease and psycho-social
, security and surveillance, and data collection for the social sciences. I believe that understanding human in AI, in areas such as story understanding and commonsense reasoning, tried to tackle the problem head, without first solving AI-complete problems of vision or language understanding; and third, there were
Arponen, Vesa Petri Juhani
This thesis develops a multidisciplinarily grounded account of the cultural causes of environmental problems discussed as a question in philosophical and sociological theory of social action. The approach is articulated ...
Brown, Sue; And Others
The document, one of 11 in a series developed by the Hawaii Integration Project, focuses on the social studies topic of understanding prejudice. The curriculum is designed for grades 4-6 and includes in its first unit an exploration of the dynamics of groups and group membership. In the three lessons students experience the feelings of acceptance…
Molinari, Deana L.
This grounded theory article focuses on the role of social communications during an online group problem-solving class. The proposed theory states that students working collaboratively and asynchronously with people they do not know use social comments to overcome emotional and geographical distance feelings. The subthemes of self-revelation,…
Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry
It has been suggested that people engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) because they (a) experience heightened physiological arousal following stressful events and use NSSI to regulate experienced distress and (b) have deficits in their social problem-solving skills that interfere with the performance of more adaptive social responses. However,…
Martin, Julie P.; Stack, Dale M.; Serbin, Lisa A.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Ledingham, Jane
This study examined the contribution of maternal childhood histories of aggression and social withdrawal to the prediction of mother-child social problem solving in the next generation. Fifty-seven women (M = 37.32 years), previously rated (on a version of the pupil evaluation inventory) by their peers during childhood on measures of aggression…
Jee, Sandra H.; Conn, Anne-Marie; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Blumkin, Aaron; Baldwin, Constance D.; Szilagyi, Moira A.
Background: Little is known about how best to implement behavioral screening recommendations in practice, especially for children in foster care, who are at risk for having social-emotional problems. Two validated screening tools are recommended for use with young children: the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE) identifies…
McManama O'Brien, Kimberly H.; Berzin, Stephanie C.; Kelly, Michael S.; Frey, Andy J.; Alvarez, Michelle E.; Shaffer, Gary L.
School social workers frequently serve as the primary mental health providers to youths with mental health problems. Although school social workers play a primary role in care, many students also receive outside counseling services. Previous research has not examined whether practice approaches differ when considering mental health practice with…
Purpose – This paper aims to provide an overview of social exclusion and the way in which people with mental health problems are excluded from mainstream society in contemporary Britain. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents the main findings of the work of the Royal College of Psychiatrists Scoping Group on Social Exclusion and Mental Health. Findings – An individual is
Franberg, Gun-Marie; Wrethander, Marie
This article examines a growing and distressing social phenomenon, namely, bullying, the historical development, social dimensions, and political impact of which are taken into account and subjected to reflection and critical consideration. It describes both the progress of and problems with the concept of bullying. It also reflects on the…
As a social justice leader who was a principal of a high performing school I have wondered if the outcomes that we achieved were significantly different for our students than the rest of the State because of my emphasis on social justice problems and what I considered indicators of success. I have also wondered if my actions were idiosyncratic or…
Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto
Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in…
Severiens, Sabine E.; Schmidt, Henk G.
The present study explores the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) on social and academic integration and study progress. Three hundred and five first-year students from three different psychology curricula completed a questionnaire on social and academic integration. Effects of a full-fledged PBL environment were compared to (1) effects of a…
Baba, Yoko; Hosoda, Megumi
Numerous studies have examined international students' adjustment problems, yet, these studies have not explored the mechanisms through which social support operates in the context of stressful events in predicting cross-cultural adjustment among international students. Using Barrera's (1988) models of social support, the present study…
George Galster; Anne Zobel
In recent years, US policy-makers have given increasing emphasis to geographically dispersing recipients of housing subsidies, based on the assumption that residence in concentrated poverty neighbourhoods abets socially dysfunctional be- haviours. The paper assesses this assumption, both theoretically and through a meta- analysis of extant empirical studies. It demonstrates how only modest differences in the functional relationship between spatially concentrated
Current interest in social media for educational purposes has led many to consider the importance of literacy development in online spaces (e.g., new media literacies, digital literacies, etc.). Relying heavily upon New Literacy Studies (NLS) as a base, these approaches treat literacy expansively to include socio-cultural factors beyond mere skill…
Steele, Marcee M.
Because of recent legislation, many students with mild disabilities enroll in high school social studies courses in general education rather than special education settings. Therefore, teachers may have students with learning disabilities, behavioral disorders, communication disorders, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in their history,…
O'Brien, Emma; Hamburg, Ileana
This paper highlights reasons for SMEs low uptake of training and argues that current offerings are not suitable for their needs. It highlights the need to leverage the benefits of work based learning through the use of technology. Social media and web 2.0 has significantly changed the way people learn and access knowledge. The body of knowledge…
Benson-Amram, Sarah; Heinen, Virginia K; Gessner, Amelia; Weldele, Mary L; Holekamp, Kay E
Social learning can have profound evolutionary consequences because it drives the diffusion of novel behaviours among individuals and promotes the maintenance of traditions within populations. We inquired whether spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), generalist carnivores living in complex, primate-like societies, acquire information from conspecifics about a novel problem-solving task. Previously, we presented wild hyenas with a food-access puzzle and found that social learning opportunities did not affect problem-solving success among observers, but did reduce observers' neophobia. However, we had little control over which individuals observed conspecifics solve the problem, and few wild hyenas were successful. Therefore, we conducted an experiment in captivity where we controlled observer access to two demonstration styles. Again, social learning opportunities did not affect problem-solving success, but tended to reduce neophobia among captive observers. Social learning opportunities also influenced problem-solving style. Captive hyenas showed limited evidence for directed social learning; low-ranking individuals paid closer attention to demonstrators than high-ranking individuals, although this greater attention did not result in greater success. We conclude that wild and captive hyenas exploit social learning opportunities similarly, and that the limited social learning shown by hyenas on this task is likely based on localized stimulus enhancement. PMID:25245305
Van Sickle, Ronald L.; Hoge, John D.
Recent developments in the field of cognitive psychology, particularly in the area of information processing, have shed light on the way people think in order to make decisions and solve problems. In addition, cooperative learning research has provided evidence of the effectiveness of cooperatively structured group work aimed at problem solving.…
Lust, Nancy L.
This learning module, one in a series of 127 performance-based teacher education learning packages focusing upon specific professional competencies of vocational teachers, deals with counseling exceptional students with personal and social problems. Addressed in the individual learning experiences are the following topics: understanding the…
Katherine L. Dixon-Gordon; Alexander L. Chapman; Nathalie Lovasz; Kris Walters
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with poor social problem solving and problems with emotion regulation. In this study, the social problem-solving performance of undergraduates with high (n = 26), mid (n = 32), or low (n = 29) levels of BPD features was assessed with the Social Problem-Solving Inventory—Revised and using the means-ends problem-solving procedure before and after a
BENDER, KIMBERLY; NEGI, NALINI; FOWLER, DAWNOVISE N.
This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students’ commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors’ process of assimilation, and to reflect on their ethnic and racial identity as a means toward increased self-awareness and future culturally responsive practice. Content analysis revealed 11 themes, including students’ enlightenment of their privilege, experiences of cultural loss, and acknowledgment of biases as integral parts of culturally responsive practice. Implications for social work education and research are addressed. PMID:23255873
The development of social marketing, as an important area of analysis and research, has opened up multiple opportunities for organizations to engage in society’s problems. Whether we talk about non-profit organizations engaged in health or environmental programs or private companies willing to act responsibly, their goal is a common one: to help improve people's lives by promoting responsible behaviour in
Neal, Jennifer Watling
Social network analysis can enrich school-based research on children's peer relationships. Unfortunately, accurate network analysis requires near-complete data on all students and is underutilized in school-based research because of low rates of parental consent. This article advocates Krackhardt's cognitive social structures (CSS) as a solution…
Hubbard, Julie A.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
Using a detailed classification of 25 social strategies, this study investigated the relationship between children's sociometric status and their use of social strategies. Subjects were 220 boys, 5 to 7 years of age, who were classified into sociometric status types of popular, average, or rejected. Each subject generated as many responses as…
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education…
Luque, John S.; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Bynum, Shalanda A.; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Wells, Kristen J.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Gwede, Clement K.; Meade, Cathy D.
The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of the Community Network Program sites funded (2005–10) by the National Cancer Institute’s Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities. TBCCN was tasked to form a sustainable, community-based partnership network focused on the goal of reducing cancer health disparities among racial–ethnic minority and medically underserved populations. This article reports evaluation outcome results from a social network analysis and discusses the varying TBCCN partner roles—in education, training, and research—over a span of three years (2007–09). The network analysis included 20 local community partner organizations covering a tricounty area in Southwest Florida. In addition, multiple externally funded, community-based participatory research pilot projects with community–academic partners have either been completed or are currently in progress, covering research topics including culturally targeted colorectal and prostate cancer screening education, patient navigation focused on preventing cervical cancer in rural Latinas, and community perceptions of biobanking. The social network analysis identified a trend toward increased network decentralization based on betweenness centrality and overall increase in number of linkages, suggesting network sustainability. Degree centrality, trust, and multiplexity exhibited stability over the three-year time period. These results suggest increased interaction and interdependence among partner organizations and less dependence on the cancer center. Social network analysis enabled us to quantitatively evaluate partnership network functioning of TBCCN in terms of network structure and information and resources flows, which are integral to understanding effective coalition practice based on Community Coalition Action Theory ( Butterfoss and Kegler 2009). Sharing the results of the social network analysis with the partnership network is an important component of our coalition building efforts. A comprehensive baseline needs assessment for the next five-year funding phase (2010–15) of TBCCN Community Networks Program Centers (CNP Center) is under way to further evaluate the growth and sustainability of the partnership network, with an emphasis on community-based intervention research that takes into account culture and literacy. [social network, health care disparities, cancer screening] PMID:24363957
Fernández-Martínez, J. L.; Fernández-Muńiz, Z.; Pallero, J. L. G.; Pedruelo-González, L. M.
Anyone working on inverse problems is aware of their ill-posed character. In the case of inverse problems, this concept (ill-posed) proposed by J. Hadamard in 1902, admits revision since it is somehow related to their ill-conditioning and the use of local optimization methods to find their solution. A more general and interesting approach regarding risk analysis and epistemological decision making would consist in analyzing the existence of families of equivalent model parameters that are compatible with the prior information and predict the observed data within the same error bounds. Otherwise said, the ill-posed character of discrete inverse problems (ill-conditioning) originates that their solution is uncertain. Traditionally nonlinear inverse problems in discrete form have been solved via local optimization methods with regularization, but linear analysis techniques failed to account for the uncertainty in the solution that it is adopted. As a result of this fact uncertainty analysis in nonlinear inverse problems has been approached in a probabilistic framework (Bayesian approach), but these methods are hindered by the curse of dimensionality and by the high computational cost needed to solve the corresponding forward problems. Global optimization techniques are very attractive, but most of the times are heuristic and have the same limitations than Monte Carlo methods. New research is needed to provide uncertainty estimates, especially in the case of high dimensional nonlinear inverse problems with very costly forward problems. After the discredit of deterministic methods and some initial years of Bayesian fever, now the pendulum seems to return back, because practitioners are aware that the uncertainty analysis in high dimensional nonlinear inverse problems cannot (and should not be) solved via random sampling methodologies. The main reason is that the uncertainty “space” of nonlinear inverse problems has a mathematical structure that is embedded in the forward physics and also in the observed data. Thus, problems with structure should be approached via linear algebra and optimization techniques. This paper provides new insights to understand uncertainty from a deterministic point of view, which is a necessary step to design more efficient methods to sample the uncertainty region(s) of equivalent solutions.
Hoffmann, Michael; Borenstein, Jason
As a committee of the National Academy of Engineering recognized, ethics education should foster the ability of students to analyze complex decision situations and ill-structured problems. Building on the NAE's insights, we report about an innovative teaching approach that has two main features: first, it places the emphasis on deliberation and on self-directed, problem-based learning in small groups of students; and second, it focuses on understanding ill-structured problems. The first innovation is motivated by an abundance of scholarly research that supports the value of deliberative learning practices. The second results from a critique of the traditional case-study approach in engineering ethics. A key problem with standard cases is that they are usually described in such a fashion that renders the ethical problem as being too obvious and simplistic. The practitioner, by contrast, may face problems that are ill-structured. In the collaborative learning environment described here, groups of students use interactive and web-based argument visualization software called "AGORA-net: Participate - Deliberate!". The function of the software is to structure communication and problem solving in small groups. Students are confronted with the task of identifying possible stakeholder positions and reconstructing their legitimacy by constructing justifications for these positions in the form of graphically represented argument maps. The argument maps are then presented in class so that these stakeholder positions and their respective justifications become visible and can be brought into a reasoned dialogue. Argument mapping provides an opportunity for students to collaborate in teams and to develop critical thinking and argumentation skills. PMID:23420467
Muldoon, Orla T
The present paper reviews the literature that has assessed the psychological impact of political violence on children. Concern for those growing up in situations of political violence has resulted in two areas of research within psychology: the first considers children as victims of conflict and considers the mental health consequences of political violence. The second considers children as protagonists or aggressors in conflict and considers related moral and attitudinal consequences of exposure to political violence. These two literatures are most often considered separately. Here the two strands of research are brought together using a social identity framework, allowing apparently divergent findings to be integrated into a more coherent understanding of the totality of consequences for children and young people growing up in situations of armed conflict. PMID:23988453
Sternheim, Lot; Startup, Helen; Pretorius, Natalie; Johnson-Sabine, Eric; Schmidt, Ulrike; Channon, Shelley
People with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) have well-documented socio-emotional and neurocognitive impairments. As yet, little is known about their ability to solve problems in social situations, although a link with cognitive avoidance has been suggested. This study explored social problem-solving (SPS), using an experimental task. Secondly, the role of cognitive avoidance in SPS was investigated. Individuals with AN (n=31) and healthy controls (HC; n=39) completed the Social Problem Resolution Task which consists of problem scenarios involving awkward everyday social situations. Participants were asked to generate both the optimal solution and their personal solution. Solutions were rated in terms of how socially sensitive and practically effective they were. AN patients produced relatively poorer personal solutions compared to optimal solutions than HC participants and had higher scores on a measure of cognitive avoidance than the HC group. In AN patients, cognitive avoidance was partially associated with poor SPS. These findings suggest that whilst people with AN have no difficulty in generating socially sensitive and effective solutions to problems, but may have difficulty applying this knowledge to themselves. PMID:22809854
This thesis examines community engagement as a form of conflict prevention in order to obtain the social license to operate (SLO) in Alberta's oil and gas industry. It does this by answering the question: what are the key elements of the Social License to Operate and how can these elements be applied to community engagement/consultation in a way that prevents conflicts in Alberta's oil and gas industry? The underlying assumption of this thesis is that building good relationships and working collaboratively functions as a form of conflict prevention and that this in turn leads to the SLO. This thesis outlines the key features of both successful community engagement and of the SLO, to provide a guideline for what is needed to obtain the SLO. Data was collected from semi-structured interviews and through a literature review. The data analysis concluded that there are direct parallels between the key elements of effective community engagement and the key elements of the SLO as identified in the interviews. These parallels are: knowing the community, addressing community needs, corporate social responsibility, relationship building, follow through and evidence for what has been done, executive buy-in, excellent communication, and open dialogue, all within a process which is principled (there is trust, understanding, transparency and respect), inclusive, dynamic, flexible, ongoing, and long-term. Moreover, the key elements of effective community engagement and of the SLO identified in the interviews also overlapped with those found in the literature review, with only one exception. The literature review explicitly named early involvement as a key element of both effective community engagement and the SLO, whereas the interview participants only explicitly indicated it as a key factor of community engagement and implied it to be a key element of the SLO.
Hu, Qi; Pytlik Zillig, Lisa M.; Lynne, Gary D.; Tomkins, Alan J.; Waltman, William J.; Hayes, Michael J.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Artikov, Ikrom; Hoffman, Stacey J.; Wilhite, Donald A.
Although the accuracy of weather and climate forecasts is continuously improving and new information retrieved from climate data is adding to the understanding of climate variation, use of the forecasts and climate information by farmers in farming decisions has changed little. This lack of change may result from knowledge barriers and psychological, social, and economic factors that undermine farmer motivation to use forecasts and climate information. According to the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the motivation to use forecasts may arise from personal attitudes, social norms, and perceived control or ability to use forecasts in specific decisions. These attributes are examined using data from a survey designed around the TPB and conducted among farming communities in the region of eastern Nebraska and the western U.S. Corn Belt. There were three major findings: 1) the utility and value of the forecasts for farming decisions as perceived by farmers are, on average, around 3.0 on a 0 7 scale, indicating much room to improve attitudes toward the forecast value. 2) The use of forecasts by farmers to influence decisions is likely affected by several social groups that can provide “expert viewpoints” on forecast use. 3) A major obstacle, next to forecast accuracy, is the perceived identity and reliability of the forecast makers. Given the rapidly increasing number of forecasts in this growing service business, the ambiguous identity of forecast providers may have left farmers confused and may have prevented them from developing both trust in forecasts and skills to use them. These findings shed light on productive avenues for increasing the influence of forecasts, which may lead to greater farming productivity. In addition, this study establishes a set of reference points that can be used for comparisons with future studies to quantify changes in forecast use and influence.
Kaczmarek, Lukasz D; Dr??kowski, Dariusz
Massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) escapists are individuals who indulge in the MMORPG environment to avoid real world problems. Though a relationship between escapism and deteriorated well-being has been established, little is known about particular pathways that mediate this relationship. In the current study, we examined this topic by testing an integrative model of MMORPG escapism, which includes game realism beliefs, gaming time, offline social support, and online social support for offline problems. MMORPG players (N=1,056) completed measures of escapist motivation, game realism beliefs, social support, well-being, and reported gaming time. The tested structural equation model had a good fit to the data. We found that individuals with escapist motivation endorsed stronger game realism beliefs and spent more time playing MMORPGs, which, in turn, increased online support but decreased offline social support. Well-being was favorably affected by both online and offline social support, although offline social support had a stronger effect. The higher availability of online social support for offline problems did not compensate for the lower availability of offline support among MMORPG escapists. Understanding the psychological factors related to depletion of social resources in MMORPG players can help optimize MMORPGs as leisure activities. PMID:24605951
Cultural neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field of research that investigates interrelations among culture, mind and the brain. Drawing on both the growing body of scientific evidence on cultural variation in psychological processes and the recent development of social and cognitive neuroscience, this emerging field of research aspires to understand how culture as an amalgam of values, meanings, conventions, and artifacts that constitute daily social realities might interact with the mind and its underlying brain pathways of each individual member of the culture. In this article, following a brief review of studies that demonstrate the surprising degree to which brain processes are malleably shaped by cultural tools and practices, the authors discuss cultural variation in brain processes involved in self-representations, cognition, emotion and motivation. They then propose (i) that primary values of culture such as independence and interdependence are reflected in the compositions of cultural tasks (i.e. daily routines designed to accomplish the cultural values) and further (ii) that active and sustained engagement in these tasks yields culturally patterned neural activities of the brain, thereby laying the ground for the embodied construction of the self and identity. Implications for research on culture and the brain are discussed. PMID:20592042
Deborah Lucy, S.; Bisbee, Leslie; Conti-Becker, Angela
ABSTRACT Purpose: To understand the professional socialization of physical therapy (PT) students. Method: Forty-two students enrolled in our newly developed master's degree programme wrote three-page reflective journals on a critical learning incident after each of three selected clinical experiences. The journals were coded and analyzed, and major themes were identified and described. A separate cohort of 44 students participated in focus groups after the same three clinical experiences to check the trustworthiness of the results. Results: Following the first placement, the main themes coded were emotions, self-confidence, professionalism in the real world, communication, and learning by doing. After the intermediate placement, major themes were idealism versus realism, depth of communication with clients, and breadth of communication with family members and colleagues. Aspects of clinical learning were variable, and self-confidence remained an issue. After the final placement, most students were deeply engaged with their clients and self-confidence had developed to the point of self-efficacy. Tensions increased between the concept of ideal practice and the pragmatics of actual practice, and the concept of self as protégé (rather than as object of the supervisor's evaluation) emerged. The themes were subsequently assembled in a booklet with representative quotations. Conclusion: These results contribute to foundational knowledge required by PT educators, including clinical instructors, by explicitly describing the professional socialization of PT students. PMID:20145748
Schochet, Peter Z.
In social policy evaluations, the multiple testing problem occurs due to the many hypothesis tests that are typically conducted across multiple outcomes and subgroups, which can lead to spurious impact findings. This article discusses a framework for addressing this problem that balances Types I and II errors. The framework involves specifying…
Diane Rae Davis; Diana M. DiNitto
This study examines gender differences in 16 social and psychological problems among substance abusers and nonsubstance abusers in a community population to determine whether such differences are simply a reflection of differences between men and women in the general population. Data were gathered from 119 respondents using the Addiction Severity Index. Loglinear analysis suggests that problems typically attributed to “being
Diane C. Jones; Annette U. Rickel; Richard L. Smith
Examined the relation of nurturant and restrictive maternal childrearing practices and maternal education to the types of social problem-solving strategies used by 72 preschoolers (mean age 4 yrs 7 mo). Children were administered the Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving Test, and mothers completed the Child Rearing Practices Report. Maternal variables successfully predicted 5 out of 9 strategies identified. Restrictiveness was positively
Nathan Caplan; Stephen D. Nelson
Discusses the definition of problems and causal attribution bias in psychological research into social problems. An analysis of the literature on blacks covered in Psychological Abstracts during a 6-mo period indicates the types of variables studied (person vs. situation) and the causal relationships between them. It is concluded that too much research emphasis is placed on \\
Jeanne M. Logsdon
Cross-sectoral collaboration to address social problems is becoming more widespread. To assess the potential for the formation of cross-sectoral collaborations, this article explores the two most critical factors that influence an organization's willingness to participate: its stakes in solving the problem relative to its fundamental interests, and its degree of perceived interdependence with other groups in devising a solution. Two
This paper examines the effect of problem solving activity during computer- supported collaborative problem solving in digital social networks and introduces the 'Struggle Analysis Framework (SAF)', for analyzing interactions in these networks; interactions will be called 'struggle'. A study of collaborative modeling has been contacted in the frame of an authentic educational activity among students in a secondary school and
Sajida Abdul Hassan; Panos Vostanis; John Bankart
There are limited studies examining risk factors associated with child mental health problems in developing countries. To explore the association between social and educational factors and child mental health problems among primary school age children in Karachi, children aged 5–11 years were randomly selected from 27 mainstream schools in Karachi. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and a socio-demographic checklist were
Sajida Abdul Hassan; Panos Vostanis; John Bankart
There are limited studies examining risk factors associated with child mental health problems in developing countries. To explore the association between social and educational factors and child mental health problems among primary school age children in Karachi, children aged 5–11 years were randomly selected from 27 mainstream schools in Karachi. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and a socio-demographic checklist were
Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul
Adolescents who like each other may become more similar to each other with regard to internalizing and externalizing problems, though it is not yet clear which social mechanisms explain these similarities. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed four mechanisms that may explain similarity in adolescent peer networks with regard to externalizing and internalizing problems: selection, socialization, avoidance and withdrawal. At three moments during one school-year, we asked 542 adolescents (8th grade, M-age = 13.3 years, 51 % female) to report who they liked in their classroom, and their own internalizing and externalizing problems. Adolescents tend to prefer peers who have similar externalizing problem scores, but no significant selection effect was found for internalizing problems. Adolescents who share the same group of friends socialize each other and then become more similar with respect to externalizing problems, but not with respect to internalizing problems. We found no significant effects for avoidance or withdrawal. Adolescents may choose to belong to a peer group that is similar to them in terms of externalizing problem behaviors, and through peer group socialization (e.g., enticing, modelling, mimicking, and peer pressure) become more similar to that group over time. PMID:25119729
Araoye, Margaret O
Infertility is of public health importance in Nigeria and many other developing nations because of its high prevalence and especially due to its serious social implications. A review of the epidemiology of infertility in Nigeria and other parts of Sub-Saharan Africa is presented and socio-cultural issues including the social impact on couples are discussed. The major cause of infertility in Africa is infection--STDs, post-abortal and puerperal sepsis. Beliefs about causes, and failure of orthodox methods of treatment have led many couples to seek solution from traditional doctors and faith healers without success. Infertility causes marital disharmony, which often leads to divorce. Women are often blamed for the infertility and men engage in polygyny in an attempt to have children. The couple can also suffer stress from the management of the infertility. Adoption is not popular and assisted reproduction has medico-legal implications. Preventive measures are suggested, including counselling at every stage of the management. PMID:14529236
Murphy, Lyn Stankiewicz
Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for economic compensation. Due to the sexual promiscuity surrounding prostitution, women involved in prostitution constitute a high-risk group for contracting and transmitting STDs, including HIV. Prostitution is not only a public health concern, but also an economic one. Cities throughout the United States spent an average of $7.5 to $16 million per year enforcing prostitution laws and addressing negative outcomes associated with prostitution. Thus, women involved in prostitution are a cause for concern from both public health and economic perspectives. However, little is known about why women remain in this type of behavior given the risks prostitution presents, and even less is known about how to intervene and interrupt the complex cycle of prostitution. Thus, the purpose of this study was to understand what factors contribute to a woman's decision to remain in prostitution. A series of interviews were conducted with 12 women engaged in street-level prostitution. Results of the study revealed that drug use not only spurs entry into prostitution, but also contributes to the tenure of prostitution. Further, social support and economic stability are plausible reasons for women remaining in prostitution. These findings lead us to recommendations for policy and program development. Women involved in prostitution are a highly marginalized population, rarely recognized as individuals with life histories. Understanding why women remain in prostitution is important, because until these determinants are known, intervention programs designed to interrupt the cycle, and ultimately prevent prostitution, cannot be formulated. PMID:21142598
Machiline Xiong; Paul Jesilow
Between September 1998 and May 2001, eight Hmong teenagers took their own lives in one urban community. Newspaper accounts attempted to establish the suicides as an outgrowth of problems brought about by the Hmong immigration to the United States. In particular, the clash between the Hmong and American cultures was fingered as the cause of the suicides. Other explanations were
Moore, John A.
Secondary students learn to deal objectively with domestic issues and problems in this quinmester elective course. Emphasis is upon providing students with an opportunity for indepth study in critical thinking on current controversial issues, using activity units as a principal teaching technique. The objectives are for students to identify and…
Krasomski G; Stelmach W; Kowalska A
Purpose: Urinary incontinence is a disease due to which women have suffered for many centuries. But there is some optimistic side to the problem, too; such illnesses can be treated and prevented. The aim of the work was to evaluate the fre- quency of occurring such cases among women and to evaluate the chosen risk factors influencing this illness. Material
Cooperative problem solving in a social carnivore Christine M. Drea a,b,c,*, Allisa N. Carter d,1 described cooperative hunting in social carnivores, but experimental evidence of cooperative problem solving of cooperation in a social carnivore, the spotted hyaena, Crocuta crocuta. Eight captive hyaenas, paired in 13
Austin, C R
Professor Austin explores four main areas in this paper. First of all he outlines the physical development of sex differentiation in the embryo. He develops this by describing the clinical manifestations of abnormality which can appear at that stage. Professor Austin points out that there are relatively few people with abnormalities and that those who do show homosexual tendencies are not noticeably different from the norm in terms of their sexual equipment and hormone levels. It is much more likely that their psychological and social development has a greater influence in differentiating them sexually. The last section of the paper is a synopsis of society's reactions to homosexuality or bisexuality which term in Professor Austin's opinion is more accurate and descriptive of the condition. PMID:691017
Krasheninnikova, Anastasia; Schneider, Jutta M
Testing animals individually in problem-solving tasks limits distractions of the subjects during the test, so that they can fully concentrate on the problem. However, such individual performance may not indicate the problem-solving capacity that is commonly employed in the wild when individuals are faced with a novel problem in their social groups, where the presence of a conspecific influences an individual's behaviour. To assess the validity of data gathered from parrots when tested individually, we compared the performance on patterned-string tasks among parrots tested singly and parrots tested in social context. We tested two captive groups of orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) with several patterned-string tasks. Despite the differences in the testing environment (singly vs. social context), parrots from both groups performed similarly. However, we found that the willingness to participate in the tasks was significantly higher for the individuals tested in social context. The study provides further evidence for the crucial influence of social context on individual's response to a challenging situation such as a problem-solving test. PMID:24668582
Choi, Yoonsun; Harachi, Tracy W; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Catalano, Richard F
The development of preventive interventions targeting adolescent problem behaviors requires a thorough understanding of risk and protective factors for such behaviors. However, few studies examine whether different cultural and ethnic groups share these factors. This study is an attempt to fill a gap in research by examining similarities and differences in risk factors across racial and ethnic groups. The social development model has shown promise in organizing predictors of problem behaviors. This article investigates whether a version of that model can be generalized to youth in different racial and ethnic groups (N = 2,055, age range from 11 to 15), including African American (n = 478), Asian Pacific Islander (API) American (n = 491), multiracial (n = 442), and European American (n = 644) youth. The results demonstrate that common risk factors can be applied to adolescents, regardless of their race and ethnicity. The findings also demonstrate that there are racial and ethnic differences in the magnitudes of relationships among factors that affect problem behaviors. Further study is warranted to develop a better understanding of these differential magnitudes. PMID:21625351
Choi, Yoonsun; Harachi, Tracy W.; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Catalano, Richard F.
The development of preventive interventions targeting adolescent problem behaviors requires a thorough understanding of risk and protective factors for such behaviors. However, few studies examine whether different cultural and ethnic groups share these factors. This study is an attempt to fill a gap in research by examining similarities and differences in risk factors across racial and ethnic groups. The social development model has shown promise in organizing predictors of problem behaviors. This article investigates whether a version of that model can be generalized to youth in different racial and ethnic groups (N = 2,055, age range from 11 to 15), including African American (n = 478), Asian Pacific Islander (API) American (n = 491), multiracial (n = 442), and European American (n = 644) youth. The results demonstrate that common risk factors can be applied to adolescents, regardless of their race and ethnicity. The findings also demonstrate that there are racial and ethnic differences in the magnitudes of relationships among factors that affect problem behaviors. Further study is warranted to develop a better understanding of these differential magnitudes. PMID:21625351
Sabine E. Severiens; Henk G. Schmidt
The present study explores the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) on social and academic integration and study progress.\\u000a Three hundred and five first-year students from three different psychology curricula completed a questionnaire on social and\\u000a academic integration. Effects of a full-fledged PBL environment were compared to (1) effects of a conventional lecture-based\\u000a learning environment, and (2) effects of a learning
Carolyn Webster-Stratton; M. Jamila Reid
The ability of young children to manage their emotions and behaviors and to make meaningful friendships is an important prerequisite for school readiness and academic success. Socially com- petent children are also more academically successful and poor social skills are a strong predictor of academic failure. This article describes The Incredible Years Dinosaur Social Skills and Problem- Solving Child Training
Erickson, Thane M; Newman, Michelle G; Peterson, Jessica; Scarsella, Gina
Multiple theoretical perspectives suggest that maladjusted personality is characterized by not only distress, but also opposing or "ambivalent" self-perceptions and behavioral lability across social interactions. However, the degree to which ambivalence about oneself predicts cross-situational variability in social behavior has not been examined empirically. Using the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) as a nomological framework, the present study investigated the extent to which endorsing opposing or "ambivalent" tendencies on IPC measures predicted variability in social behavior across a range of hypothetical interpersonal scenarios (Part 1; N?=?288) and naturalistic social interactions (Part 2; N?=?192). Ambivalent responding for interpersonal problems and traits was associated with measures of distress, maladaptive interpersonal tendencies, and greater variability of social behavior across both hypothetical and daily social interactions, though more consistently for interpersonal problems. More conservative tests suggested that ambivalence predicted some indexes of behavioral variability even when accounting for mean levels and squared means of social behaviors, vector length, gender, and depressive symptoms. Results suggest that processes theorized as typifying personality disorder may apply more broadly to personality maladjustment occurring outside of clinical samples. PMID:25046450
Waber, Benjamin Nathan
The goal of this thesis is to show that social support created through face-to-face interaction is a driving factor in a number of important outcomes. Through a series of studies we show that social support, operationalized ...
Agyemang, Kwame Jesse Asamoah
While there is voluminous research on the Black male athlete, the literature does not touch on the notion of social responsibility. Thus, the purpose of this study was to garner perceptions of Black male athlete social responsibility (BMASR) from...
MacIntyre, Tadhg E.; Igou, Eric R.; Campbell, Mark J.; Moran, Aidan P.; Matthews, James
For over a century, psychologists have investigated the mental processes of expert performers – people who display exceptional knowledge and/or skills in specific fields of human achievement. Since the 1960s, expertise researchers have made considerable progress in understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie such exceptional performance. Whereas the first modern studies of expertise were conducted in relatively formal knowledge domains such as chess, more recent investigations have explored elite performance in dynamic perceptual-motor activities such as sport. Unfortunately, although these studies have led to the identification of certain domain-free generalizations about expert-novice differences, they shed little light on an important issue: namely, experts’ metacognitive activities or their insights into, and regulation of, their own mental processes. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the present paper argues that metacognitive processes and inferences play an important if neglected role in expertise. In particular, we suggest that metacognition (including such processes as “meta-attention,” “meta-imagery” and “meta-memory,” as well as social aspects of this construct) provides a window on the genesis of expert performance. Following a critique of the standard empirical approach to expertise, we explore some research on “metacognition” and “metacognitive inference” among experts in sport. After that, we provide a brief evaluation of the relationship between psychological skills training and metacognition and comment on the measurement of metacognitive processes. Finally, we summarize our conclusions and outline some potentially new directions for research on metacognition in action. PMID:25360126
This article focuses on the comparatively neglected role of the social sciences (including economics) and of assumptions about the social functioning of the scientific community in projections about climate change and about societies' responses to changing climates and related environmental phenomena. Using an approach informed by social constructionism and science and technology studies, it examines the part played by the
Morganson, Valerie J.; Jones, Meghan P.; Major, Debra A.
Enrollment of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors is disproportionately small and declining. This study examines social coping to explain the gender gap. Women undergraduates reported using significantly more social coping than did men. Multiple regression analyses revealed that social coping was a stronger…
Toronto, University of
Social Media Jian Zhao, Liang Gou, Fei Wang, and Michelle Zhou a e b c d Fig. 1. A person's emotional footprints on social media (e.g., Twitter and Facebook). Such data not only disclose a person's demographics from this person's social media text. Compared to other visual text analytic systems, our work offers
Belkofer, Christopher M.; McNutt, Jill V.
This article discusses ethics in the context of the participatory culture of social media as it relates to art therapy. The authors present the view that social media formats are important venues for expression that contribute to interpersonal connections and social learning via the active participation of their members. To make informed ethical…
Kathryn R. Wentzel
Social-motivational processes and socialization experiences can play a critical role in students' academic success. However, the search for specific mechanisms and processes that explain these social influences on motivation is still in its inception. The purpose of this article was to begin to articulate some of these processes in the hope that more precise explanations of influence will emerge. The
Cutri, Adrián; Hammermüller, Erica; Zubieta, Ana; Müller Opet, Beatriz; Miguelez, Lilia
Child labor is a complex problem that violates the fundamental rights of children and affects their psychophysical development. Child labor affects 215 million children in the world and 115 million perform activities defined as the "worst forms of child labor". Most child labor is in agriculture (60%), where the majority are unpaid family workers, compared to 26% in services and 7% in industry. Argentina has adopted the abolitionist position, promoting prevention and eradication within an inclusive public policy aimed to all children can exercise their rights. The Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría endorses this approach and proposes a course of action: the health team training, and dissemination of the risks of child labor and occupational teenager safety standards. As pediatricians we must be involved in defending children rights, and be able to detect any situation of child labor, and protect the health of children and adolescents. The joint interaction with family, community and other sectors of society will strengthen the network needed to implement child labor eradication policies. PMID:22859332
precise, and to understand which measures of ``proximity'' in a network lead to the most accurate link prediction based on measures for analyzing the ``proximity'' of nodes in a network. Experiments on large co interaction, collaboration, or influence between entities. Natural examples of social networks include the set
precise, and to understand which measures of "proximity" in a network lead to the most accurate link prediction based on measures for analyzing the "proximity" of nodes in a network. Experiments on large co interaction, collaboration, or influence between entities. Natural examples of social networks include the set
Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.
This study investigated individual differences in sixth-grade students (N = 181; 47% girls, ethnically diverse) use of friends as a coping resource when dealing with a social stressor with another peer at school. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized three factor structure of coping with friends: mastery, avoidance, and…
Adams, Laura L.
The purpose of this study was to take an exploratory look at how university teachers come to understand their experience in educational practice and their professional role as teachers who integrate instructional technology into their coursework using the framework provided by Wenger's Social Theory of Learning. University faculty who teach in a…
Knott, Fiona; Dunlop, Aline-Wendy; Mackay, Tommy
Social interaction and understanding in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are key areas of concern to practitioners and researchers alike. However, there is a relative lack of information about the skills and competencies of children and young people with ASD who access ordinary community facilities including mainstream education. In particular,…
Using an AB design with generalization, this study sought to determine the effectiveness of presenting videotaped emotions and Social Stories[TM] to teach a 9-year-old child with Asperger syndrome to recognize and understand emotions in himself and to generalize them to other situations in his home. Data collected in the child's home showed an…
Daher, Wajeeh M.
Mathematical learning and teaching are increasingly seen as a multimodal experience involved in cultural and social semiotic registers and means, and as such social-cultural semiotic analysis is expected to shed light on learning and teaching processes occurring in the mathematics classroom. In this research, three social-cultural semiotic…
Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro
In this article we compare students' understanding of vector concepts in problems with no physical context, and with three mechanics contexts: force, velocity, and work. Based on our "Test of Understanding of Vectors," a multiple-choice test presented elsewhere, we designed two isomorphic shorter versions of 12 items each: a test…
Long, C G; Fulton, B; Dolley, O; Hollin, C R
Problem-solving interventions are a feature of overall medium secure treatment programmes. However, despite the relevance of such treatment to personality disorder there are few descriptions of such interventions for women. Beneficial effects for women who completed social problem-solving group treatment were evident on a number of psychometric assessments. A treatment non-completion rate of one-third raises questions of both acceptability and timing of cognitive behavioural interventions. PMID:22021591
Dionne C. Godette; Erika Edwards; Chandra L. Ford; Lee Strunin; Timothy Heeren; Ichiro Kawachi
Objectives. Using data from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, this study examined prevalence of drinking and related problems among five racial\\/ethnic groups aged 18–30.Design. Logistic regression analyses examined influences of gender and social status on alcohol-related problems among blacks, controlling for demographics.Results. Black drinkers were significantly less likely to be high-risk or risky\\/heavy episodic drinkers
Margaret R. Beam; Virginia Gil-Rivas; Ellen Greenberger; Chuansheng Chen
This study examined risk and protection for adolescent problem behavior and depressive symptomatology in an average-risk sample of 11th graders. Using a socioecological perspective, we aggregated risk factors for adolescent problem behavior and depressed mood by 3 social contexts: i.e., family and peer contexts, and a context comprising the most important nonparental adult (“VIP”) in respondents' lives. Protective factors associated
Wang, Jing; Matthews, Judith T.; Sereika, Susan M.; Chasens, Eileen R.; Ewing, Linda J.; Burke, Lora E.
Problem solving is a key component of weight loss programs. The Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R) has not been evaluated in weight loss studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometrics of the SPSI-R. Cronbach's a (0.95 for total score; 0.67-0.92 for subscales) confirmed internal consistency reliability. The…
The article examines how recent research and writing regarding the neurological impact of trauma and early attachment experiences might inform our understanding of sexual behavior problems, particularly in dealing with children and adolescents. The author suggests that neurologically based processing difficulties contribute to many of the behavioral and learning problems exhibited by these clients and argues for a treatment approach
Colin P. Ratcliffe
This paper presents a simple and effective technique for teaching Newton's Laws of Motion for rigid-body problems, and extends existing Free Body Diagram methods to include a Kinematics Diagram. Students find that this approach makes dynamics problems understandable. Several worked examples are included.
Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Brand, Ann E.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Usher, Barbara; Hastings, Paul D.; Kendziora, Kimberly; Garside, Rula B.
There is a paucity of research on how mothers and fathers socialize emotion in their adolescent sons and daughters. This study was based on 220 adolescents (range 11- to 16-years-old) who exhibit a range of emotional and behavioral problems and their parents. Parental responses to their children's displays of sadness, anger and fear were assessed.…
Ferro, Gregory E.
Students, whether they are academic or vocational-technical majors, need to interpret social studies problems by use of the scientific approach rather than by the use of fatalism, supernaturalism, and superstition. To ensure this outcome, secondary school curricula must provide enriching experiences through modern instructional techniques which…
California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.
This introductory packet provides an introduction to recent efforts to synthesize fundamental social and interpersonal areas of competence and problem functioning, while framing the discussion within the classification scheme developed by the American Pediatric Association. The range of interventions discussed is consistent with that framework,…
French, Laurence A.
The extent to which the social maladjusted female role among the Eastern Band of Cherokees is a consequence of cultural ambivalence is investigated. The 28 problem families were examined in light of the adolescent/accommodative perspective whereby Federal paternalism is viewed as perpetuating a dependent adolescent behavioral life style among…
At Aalborg University (AAU) we are known to work with problem-based learning (PBL) in a particular way designated "The Aalborg PBL model." In PBL the focus is on participant control, knowledge sharing, collaboration among participants, which makes it interesting to consider the integration of social media in the learning that takes place. In this…
Coltrane, Scott; Adams, Michele
Although divorce rates have been stable or dropping for two decades, Americans seem anxious about the state of marriage. This article examines reasons for this collective anxiety, documenting how the divorce "problem" has been framed by organizations promoting conservative family values. Also identifies social contexts associated with cyclical…
Walker, Olga L.; Henderson, Heather A.
The goals of the current study were to examine whether children's social problem solving (SPS) skills are a mechanism through which temperament influences later academic achievement and whether sex moderates these associations. The participants included 1117 children enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of…
Dreer, Laura E.; Ronan, George F.; Ronan, Donna W.; Dush, David M.; Elliott, Timothy R.
We examined social problem-solving skills and binge drinking among 286 undergraduate men (N = 90) and women (N = 196). The sample consisted of primarily first-year students (39%), sophomores (27%), juniors (21%), and seniors (13%), with an average age of 20. The makeup of the sample was predominantly Caucasian. Men were more likely than women to…
Suveg, Cynthia; Jacob, Marni L.; Payne, Mary
We examined the relations between parental interpersonal sensitivity and youth social problems and explored the mediational role of child emotion dysregulation. Mothers (N = 42; M age = 39.38) and fathers (N = 41; M age = 39.38) of youth aged 7-12 (N = 42; M age = 9.12) completed measures of their own interpersonal sensitivity and reported on…
Carr, Amanda G.; Caskie, Grace I. L.
This study examined (a) whether a developmental model or a model in which all subscales' measurement errors are correlated best explains the relationships among White racial identity (WRI) statuses, and (b) social problem-solving (SPS) skills as a predictor of WRI. Path analysis was conducted with a sample of 255 White undergraduate students from…
This study examined the impact of social space design on student behavioral problems in middle schools. A mixed-method approach was used in the form of focus groups and surveys with teachers and students from four central Texas middle schools (7th...
Wilson, Beverly J.; Fernandes-Richards, Siobhan; Aarskog, Cyrena; Osborn, Teresa; Capetillo, Darla
Parents and teachers reported that 6- to 8-year-old boys with developmental delays were less able to regulate their emotions than nondelayed boys matched on chronological age. Compared to nondelayed boys, boys with developmental delays had more social problems, which persisted and increased over a 3-year period. Children's ability to regulate…
Labaree, David F
In this essay, David Labaree examines the paradox of educationalization in the American context. He argues that, like most modern Western societies, the United States has displayed a strong tendency over the years for educationalizing social problems, even though schools have repeatedly proven that they are an ineffective mechanism for solving…
Secer, Zarife; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay
The aim of this research was to establish the effect of a social problem-solving training program for 8th grade students. In the experimental group, 14 students were 14 years old and 1 student was 15 years old. In the control group, 13 students were 14 years old and 2 students were 15 years old. The Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) was administered…
Nadia B. Kuley; Durand F. Jacobs
The present study examined the relationships between dissociative experiences, sensation seeking scores, and gambling behavior. On the basis of the frequency of their gambling behavior and responses to the Gamblers Anonymous Twenty Questions, subjects were designated as either problem gamblers (N=30) or social gamblers (N=30).
Wintersteen, Betty A.
A study was conducted at North Shore Community College (NSCC) to determine the academic and social problems or needs of returning women students over 35 years of age and to develop a model support system for these students. Questionnaires were administered to 50 randomly selected older women students, 9 counselors, 35 faculty members, and 12…
Carrell, Scott E.; Hoekstra, Mark
Social interest in problems such as domestic violence is typically motivated by concerns regarding equity, rather than efficiency. However, we document that taking steps to reduce domestic violence by reporting it yields substantial benefits to external parties. Specifically, we find that although children exposed to as-yet-unreported domestic…
McIntosh, Ruth; Vaughn, Sharon
This study examined the aggressive behaviors of children through peer ratings to teacher ratings of problem behaviors and social skills and peer ratings of friendship. Peer data are valid measures and may be more accurate than teacher or self measures because peers are more likely to be present when aggression occurs. This study examines a peer…
Frauenknecht, Marianne; Black, David R.
This paper makes a case that decision making (DM) is not social problem solving (SPS) and DM is subordinate and subsumed within SPS. Both terms are defined and distinguished. Confusion between SPS and DM is widespread and has occurred for at least four decades. DM, not SPS, has been established as one of the seven National Health Education…
Massetti, Greta M.; Crean, Hugh; Johnson, Deborah; DuBois, David; Ji, Peter
Interventions that aim to promote social competence, reduce problem behavior, and improve school climate are common at all levels of schooling. This whole-school focus, coupled with researchers' concerns about contamination or spillover effects in evaluations that randomly assign classrooms or students to conditions, as well as advances in…
Emmanuel, Patrick A.M.
Problems of research and data collection in the West Indies include that territories without campuses are smaller and poorer, generally have no indigenous social science personnel so that research has to be undertaken by people unfamiliar with the environment, and that responses to interviews tend to be particularly unreliable because people are…
Lundsteen, Sara W.
Several studies were conducted to investigate the nature and development of creative social problem solving among older and younger children in Sweden and the United States. First, the behaviors of older children were investigated formally in a large-scale experimental study of California 10-year-olds. Results indicated that children receiving…
Buxton, Cory A.
The Social Problem Solving through Science (SPSS) project engaged middle school-aged youth in the study of local environmental challenges with implications for human health and well-being, both globally and locally. Students considered environmental risk factors in a series of structured activities to develop background knowledge on environmental…
Bowman, James E.
In recent years, sickle cell screening programs have been initiated by community groups, health centers, hospitals, medical schools, health departments, school systems, city and State governments, various branches of the Federal Government, fraternal and social clubs, and other organizations. Problems have resulted from mass sickle cell screening,…
Plowright, David; Watkins, Mary
This article provides a critical analysis and evaluation of how an inquiry-based learning (IBL) approach to learning and teaching was introduced into the curriculum of a large and well-established social work programme at a UK university. A rationale for the initiative is provided, in particular the rejection of the term problem-based learning…
Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.
The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…
Laura E. Dreer; George F. Ronan; Donna W. Ronan; David M. Dush; Timothy R. Elliott
We examined social problem-solving skills and binge drinking among 286 undergraduate men (N = 90) and women (N = 196). The sample consisted of primarily first-year students (39%), sophomores (27%), juniors (21%), and seniors (13%), with an average age of 20. The makeup of the sample was predominantly Caucasian. Men were more likely than women to be classified as binge
Betancourt, Theresa S.; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton
The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents. PMID:22443099
Angell, Amber M; Solomon, Olga
Outside of the epidemiological surveillance studies of autism prevalence, health records of children diagnosed with autism have not been sufficiently examined, yet they provide an important lens for showing how autism diagnosis, services and interventions are negotiated, coordinated and choreographed by families and practitioners across multiple settings. This article provides a multifaceted understanding of these processes from an ethnographic and discourse analytic perspective that reveals structural and interactional phenomena contributing to disparities in autism diagnosis and services. We consider health records as dualistic, material-discursive artifacts that are socio-interactionally co-constructed and variably interpreted, contested and utilized across home, school and clinic contexts. We chronicle several families' experiences of their children's autism diagnoses and interventions and describe ways in which health records are socially constructed, curated and placed in the middle of clinical encounters. We show how the parents in our study draw upon health records' material-discursive properties to display epistemic authority, expertise and knowledge in interactions with healthcare and school professionals involved in authorizing and planning their children's care. We describe how the parents experience the health records' clinical portrayals of their children and themselves, and how the parents' portrayals of their children are tacitly ratified or negated in the health records. The data include health record reviews, narrative interviews with parents and practitioners, and clinical observations. These data were collected between October 2009 and August 2012 as part of a larger study on disparities in autism diagnosis, interventions and services experienced by African American children with autism and their families living in Los Angeles County, California. Our analysis reveals the central role of health records in maintaining continuity of an autism diagnosis, interventions and services. This article contributes to enhanced professional awareness, parent-professional partnerships, and equity in the provision of healthcare and human services related to autism. PMID:25042544
Vaughn, Sharon; Lancelotta, Gary
The effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral interpersonal problem solving (IPS) training program was evaluated with 35 poorly accepted second, third, and fourth graders. Group 1 received instruction in IPS and included only Ss low in peer acceptance; group 2 consisted of Ss low in peer acceptance who participated in IPS with same sex and grade Ss…
GERALD R. ADAMS; SHEILA K. MARSHALL
This essay focuses on the socialization of identity formation. It provides a theory about the developmental social psychology of identity. A set of propositions are derived from the authors'reading, research, cultural observations and clinical experience regarding adolescent identity formation. The essay covers the socialization process, nature of the self, processes of growth and development, person-in-context, and a statement on the
Tsay, Crystal Han-Huei
The contemporary business world demands adaptive individuals (Friedman & Wyman, 2005). Adaptation is essential for any life transition. It often involves developing coping mechanisms, strategies, and seeking of social support. Adaptation occurs in many settings from moving to a new culture, taking a new job, starting or finishing an…
Comby, Emeline; Le Lay, Yves-François; Piégay, Hervé
The case study of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) pollutions of the Rhône River (France) offers the possibility of studying criteria for the construction of social problems that result from chemical pollution (2005-2010). We investigated the dynamics of competition that create and define pollution as a social problem and entail its decline. News outlets are crucial for determining how an environmental issue emerges locally or nationally; this study used newspapers to highlight the potential of new outlets as a data source to analyze discourse variability, science-policy-media connections and the hydrosphere. Media coverage was based on a content analysis and textual data analysis of 75 articles. Analytical frameworks such as the Downs Model and the Public Arena Model (Hilgartner and Bosk, 1988) that consider time and stakeholders were tested to determine how human alteration of the hydrosphere can become a social problem and to analyze different communication strategies held by stakeholders. In terms of management, we described the temporal dynamics of the social problem based on the case study and considered an explanation of the selections. We considered the organization of particular stakeholders who define the social problem from its beginning to end by focusing on their discourses, relationships, decision-making and political choices, and scientific studies. Despite some biases, newspapers are useful for retrospectively evaluating the emergence of a social problem in the public arena by describing it through discourse and then understanding the temporal patterns of information. Despite uncertainties and information flow, decisions are made and science is translated to the public. PMID:24646671
Taylor, J C; Carr, E G
The effects of problem behavior displayed by two groups of children with developmental disabilities was investigated. One group of children exhibited problem behavior under conditions of low adult attention and was referred to as the attention-seeking or AS behavior profile group. A second group of children exhibited problem behavior under conditions of high adult attention and was referred to as the socially avoidant or SA behavior profile group. A third group of nonproblem children (NP) was examined for comparison purposes. Pairs of children were placed in a teaching situation, and the effects of child problem behavior upon adult instructional behavior were measured. Results indicated that child behavior affected adult behavior and that different child behavior profiles affected adults differentially. Adults responded to the problem behaviors of the AS behavior profile group by increasing attention, providing higher levels of physical contact, and presenting academic tasks that required continuous adult-child interaction. Conversely, the same adults responded to the problem behaviors of the SA behavior profile group by reducing attention, providing lower levels of physical contact, and presenting academic tasks that required little adult-child interaction. The data indicated that these child effects were powerful, immediate, and durable. Theoretical implications concerning reciprocal social influence and the operant theory of child problem behavior are discussed. Applied implications concerning treatment selection and maintenance are also explored. PMID:1385702
Neece, C.; Baker, B.
Background Parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) typically report elevated levels of parenting stress, and child behaviour problems are a strong predictor of heightened parenting stress. Interestingly, few studies have examined child characteristics beyond behaviour problems that may also contribute to parenting stress. The present longitudinal study examined the contribution of child social skills to maternal parenting stress across middle childhood, as well as the direction of the relationship between child social skills and parenting stress. Method Families of children with ID (n = 74) or typical development (TD) (n = 115) participated over a 2-year period. Maternal parenting stress, child behaviour problems and child social skills were assessed at child ages six and eight. Results Child social skills accounted for unique variance in maternal parenting stress above and beyond child intellectual status and child behaviour problems. As the children matured, there was a significant interaction between child social skills and behaviour problems in predicting parenting stress. With respect to the direction of these effects, a cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that early parenting stress contributed to later social skills difficulties for children, but the path from children’s early social skills to later parenting stress was not supported, once child behaviour problems and intellectual status were accounted for. Conclusion When examining parenting stress, child social skills are an important variable to consider, especially in the context of child behaviour problems. Early parenting stress predicted child social skills difficulties over time, highlighting parenting stress as a key target for intervention. PMID:18513339
This study is aimed to explore the social nature of membership in an online community of practice (NETwork, Nurturing Elementary Teachers' work) whose purpose is to support pre-service and in-service teachers with a collaborative virtual space for learning how to teach. Path analysis was employed to explore the relationships among social…
Seldin, Jonathan P.
, politics, the family, religion, race, the history of anthropological thought, social movements, gender. Alone among the social sciences, Anthropology studies human experience in every part of the world, from. Anthropology attempts to see the world from many diverse points of view, such as those of peasants, religious
Bigler, Rebecca S; Clark, Caitlin
Prior work has detailed the constructivist processes that lead individuals to categorize others along particular dimensions (e.g., gender) and generate the content (e.g., stereotypes) and affect (e.g., prejudices) associated with social groups. The inherence heuristic is a novel mechanism that appears to shape the content and rigidity of children's social stereotypes and prejudices. PMID:25388029
Bo Xie; Ivan Watkins; Jen Golbeck; Man Huang
An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults’ perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious, and to the eventual willingness to actually contribute content. Privacy was
Service users are increasingly involved in health and social care education, whilst the government is committed to increasing access to employment for people with mental health needs. The benefits of involving service users in social work education have been identified, including increasing skills, confidence, and building capacity; yet there is…
Roy F. Baumeister; Lauren E. Brewer; Dianne M. Tice; Jean M. Twenge
The need to belong is a powerful motivational basis for interpersonal behavior, and it is thwarted by social exclusion and rejection. Laboratory work has uncovered a destructive set of consequences of being socially excluded, such as increased aggressiveness and reduced helpfulness toward new targets. Rejected persons do, however, exhibit a cautious interest in finding new friends. Theory and intuition associate
Xie, Bo; Watkins, Ivan; Golbeck, Jen; Huang, Man
An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults' perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious, and to…
Ladin, K; Hanto, D W
Although the National Organ Transplant Act calls for equity in access to transplantation, scarcity and racial disparities persist. To date, even the most comprehensive models have been unable to adequately explain these racial disparities, leaving policymakers unsure how best to intervene. Previous individual-level analyses, which have implicated risk factors such as race, financial status, cultural beliefs, unemployment, lack of commitment to surgery and lack of continuous access to care, overlook contextual and social network exposures. Social networks present a compelling way to examine cumulative risk clustered across individuals. Social networks have been shown to influence health outcomes and health behaviors through various pathways, including shared social capital, engaging in similar or group risky behaviors, diffusion of information and adopting or propagating social norms. Precursors to chronic kidney disease, including obesity, have been shown to spread through social networks. Social network analysis can reveal shared risks between potential donors and recipients in a given network, clarifying the likelihood of finding an appropriate match through either direct donation or paired exchanges. This paper presents a novel application of social network analysis to transplantation, illustrating implications for disparities and future clinical interventions. PMID:20055801
Skeels, Meredith McLain
Friends, family, and community provide important support and help to patients who face an illness. Unfortunately, keeping a social network informed about a patient's health status and needs takes effort, making it difficult for people who are sick and exhausted from illness. Members of a patient's social network are often eager to help, but can be…
Blumstein, Daniel T.; Ebensperger, Luis A.; Hayes, Loren D.; Vásquez, Rodrigo A.; Ahern, Todd H.; Burger, Joseph Robert; Dolezal, Adam G.; Dosmann, Andy; González-Mariscal, Gabriela; Harris, Breanna N.; Herrera, Emilio A.; Lacey, Eileen A.; Mateo, Jill; McGraw, Lisa A.; Olazábal, Daniel; Ramenofsky, Marilyn; Rubenstein, Dustin R.; Sakhai, Samuel A.; Saltzman, Wendy; Sainz-Borgo, Cristina; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Stewart, Monica L.; Wey, Tina W.; Wingfield, John C.; Young, Larry J.
Social interactions among conspecifics are a fundamental and adaptively significant component of the biology of numerous species. Such interactions give rise to group living as well as many of the complex forms of cooperation and conflict that occur within animal groups. Although previous conceptual models have focused on the ecological causes and fitness consequences of variation in social interactions, recent developments in endocrinology, neuroscience, and molecular genetics offer exciting opportunities to develop more integrated research programs that will facilitate new insights into the physiological causes and consequences of social variation. Here, we propose an integrative framework of social behavior that emphasizes relationships between ultimate-level function and proximate-level mechanism, thereby providing a foundation for exploring the full diversity of factors that underlie variation in social interactions, and ultimately sociality. In addition to identifying new model systems for the study of human psychopathologies, this framework provides a mechanistic basis for predicting how social behavior will change in response to environmental variation. We argue that the study of non-model organisms is essential for implementing this integrative model of social behavior because such species can be studied simultaneously in the lab and field, thereby allowing integration of rigorously controlled experimental manipulations with detailed observations of the ecological contexts in which interactions among conspecifics occur. PMID:20661457
Brett J. Butler; Mary Tyrrell; Geoff Feinberg; Scott VanManen; Larry Wiseman; Scott Wallinger
Social marketing—the use of commercial marketing techniques to effect positive social change—is a promising means by which to develop more effective and efficient outreach, policies, and services for family forest owners. A hierarchical, multivariate analysis based on landowners' attitudes reveals four groups of owners to whom programs can be tailored: woodland retreat, working the land, supplemental income, and ready to
Ali, Saba Rasheed; Fall, Kevin; Hoffman, Tina
Unemployment is a stark reality in today's economic climate, and many Americans report a fear of loss or decrease in social status as a result of unexpected unemployment. Despite vocational psychology's emphasis on work as a domain of life, very little exploration on how social class shifts impact workers has been conducted. One way to rectify the…
Donald J. Robinaugh; Luana Marques; Lara N. Traeger; Elizabeth H. Marks; Sharon C. Sung; J. Gayle Beck; Mark H. Pollack; Naomi M. Simon
Poor social support in the aftermath of a traumatic event is a well-established risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adult trauma survivors. Yet, a great deal about the relationship between social support and PTSD remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed data from 102 survivors of a serious motor vehicle accident (MVA) at 4 weeks (Time 1)
Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Schomerus, Georg; Link, Bruce; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
The desire for social distance towards individuals with obesity as part of the stigmatization process has not been investigated. The aims of this study include: (a) determining the prevalence of social distance and its domains in a population-based sample; (b) reporting levels of emotional response; and (c) investigating the association of BMI, emotional response and social distance. The data were derived from a large population based telephone survey in Germany (total n = 3,003, this sub-sample n = 1008). Emotional response to individuals with obesity was assessed for the emotions discomfort, pity, insecurity, amusement, sympathy, help and incomprehension (5-point Likert scale). Social distance was measured on a 5-point Likert scale covering different areas of social interaction. This served as the dependent variable for a linear regression model and mediation models that included BMI and emotional response. Social distance was highest for job recommendation, introduction to a friend, someone with obesity marrying into the family and renting out a room. Means of emotional responses were highest for pity (Mean = 2.58), sympathy (Mean = 2.87) and wanting to help (M = 2.76). In regression analyses, incomprehension (b = 1.095, p < 0.001) and sympathy (b = -0.833, p < 0.001) and the respondents' own BMI (b = -0.145, p < 0.001) were significantly associated to the overall amount of social distance. Mediation models revealed a significant mediation effect of BMI through sympathy (b = -0.229, % of total effect through mediation = 10.3%) and through incomprehension (b = -0.057, % of total effect through mediation = 27.5%) on social distance. Social distance towards individuals with obesity is prevalent in the general public in Germany and it is associated with emotional responses. Altering the emotional responses may, therefore, be a starting point in anti-stigma interventions. Evoking sympathy and lowering incomprehension may result in lower overall social distance. PMID:25577288
Le Heuzey, M-F
Using social media web sites is a common activity for children, and any site that allows social interaction (social network, games, virtual worlds...) is a social media site. Pediatricians are in a position to help families understand the benefits and the risks of these sites, and to diagnose problems in children and adolescents as cyberbullying, depression, and post traumatic disorder. PMID:22119289
Miller, Scott R.; Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma M.
We assessed the extent to which youths' (n = 231) shyness and social acceptance in preadolescence were associated with parents' responsive problem solving 1 year later after controlling for initial levels of parents' problem solving. Teachers (n = 176) completed assessments of youths' shyness and social acceptance, and parents (n = 231 married…
Fuchs, Don M.
Intervention aimed at the development of social support networks provides a means for preventing some of the physical, emotional, and social problems of both long-term and transient rural residents. Individuals living in rural and remote communities face several contextual problems, including distance, personal and professional isolation, unique…
Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Background: Cognitive processes and mechanisms underlying the strong link between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social problems remain unclear. Limited knowledge also exists regarding a subgroup of youth with ADHD who do not have social problems. This study investigated the extent to which executive function (EF) mediated the…
Kelly, William E.
This study explored the relationship between night-sky watching and self-reported cognitive variables: need for cognition and social problem-solving. University students (N = 140) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, the Need for Cognition Scale, and the Social Problem Solving Inventory. The results indicated that an interest in the night-sky was…
Maples, James N.; Taylor, William V.
In this instructional article, we describe a non-traditional course assignment in which we ask students in our social problems courses to write, illustrate, and present a children's book about a social problem as part of the process of learning. Over the course of the semester, students utilize guided handouts to create a children's book…
Zach-Vanhorn, Sara M.
This research was conducted to explore predictors and moderators of bullying involvement, social and emotional problems, vocabulary knowledge, and crimes. There was one main research question: (1) Is there a the relationship between adolescents with social and emotional problems as measured by the SDQ (Goodman, 1997) and adolescents'…
Korhonen, Marie; Luoma, Ilona; Salmelin, Raili K.; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Tamminen, Tuula
Group-based modeling techniques are increasingly used in developmental studies to explore the patterns and co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing problems. Social competence has been found to reciprocally influence internalizing and externalizing problems, but studies on its associations with different patterns of these problems are…
Discovering critical nodes in social networks has many important applications. For finding out the critical nodes and considering the widespread community structure in social networks, we obtain each node's marginal contribution by Owen value. And then we can give a method for the solution of the critical node problem. We validate the feasibility and effectiveness of our method on two synthetic datasets and six real datasets. At the same time, the result obtained by using our method to analyze the terrorist network is in line with the actual situation. PMID:25006592
Xie, Bo; Watkins, Ivan; Golbeck, Jen; Huang, Man
An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults’ perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious and to the eventual willingness to actually contribute content. Privacy was the primary concern and key perceptual barrier to adoption. Effective educational strategies were developed to overcome privacy concerns, including: 1) introducing the concepts before introducing the functions; 2) responding to privacy concerns; and 3) making social media personally relevant. PMID:22639483
George B. Cunningham; Alison J. Doherty; Melanie J. Gregg
In an effort to understand the under-representation of women in coaching, social cognitive career theory was used to examine\\u000a the influence of sex on the head coaching intentions, and antecedents to those intentions, among male and female assistant\\u000a coaches of women’s teams. Data were collected from 66 assistant coaches who represent 15 different sports within the Ontario\\u000a University Athletics league.
Higher education literature has focused narrowly on social responsibility to the exclusion of personal responsibility. This chapter challenges higher education researchers and practitioners to include behaviors related to personal responsibility in their research and educational agendas.
Van de Belt, Tom H; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Kool, Rudolf B
Background Insight into the quality of health care is important for any stakeholder including patients, professionals, and governments. In light of a patient-centered approach, it is essential to assess the quality of health care from a patient’s perspective, which is commonly done with surveys or focus groups. Unfortunately, these “traditional” methods have significant limitations that include social desirability bias, a time lag between experience and measurement, and difficulty reaching large groups of people. Information on social media could be of value to overcoming these limitations, since these new media are easy to use and are used by the majority of the population. Furthermore, an increasing number of people share health care experiences online or rate the quality of their health care provider on physician rating sites. The question is whether this information is relevant to determining or predicting the quality of health care. Objective The goal of our research was to systematically analyze the relation between information shared on social media and quality of care. Methods We performed a scoping review with the following goals: (1) to map the literature on the association between social media and quality of care, (2) to identify different mechanisms of this relationship, and (3) to determine a more detailed agenda for this relatively new research area. A recognized scoping review methodology was used. We developed a search strategy based on four themes: social media, patient experience, quality, and health care. Four online scientific databases were searched, articles were screened, and data extracted. Results related to the research question were described and categorized according to type of social media. Furthermore, national and international stakeholders were consulted throughout the study, to discuss and interpret results. Results Twenty-nine articles were included, of which 21 were concerned with health care rating sites. Several studies indicate a relationship between information on social media and quality of health care. However, some drawbacks exist, especially regarding the use of rating sites. For example, since rating is anonymous, rating values are not risk adjusted and therefore vulnerable to fraud. Also, ratings are often based on only a few reviews and are predominantly positive. Furthermore, people providing feedback on health care via social media are presumably not always representative for the patient population. Conclusions Social media and particularly rating sites are an interesting new source of information about quality of care from the patient’s perspective. This new source should be used to complement traditional methods, since measuring quality of care via social media has other, but not less serious, limitations. Future research should explore whether social media are suitable in practice for patients, health insurers, and governments to help them judge the quality performance of professionals and organizations. PMID:24566844
Arent Greve; Janet W. Salaff
In this paper we suggest how social network analysis, in contrast to looking at physical space, can be used to trace the social\\u000a and economic location of ethnic enclaves. Taking skilled workers immigrating to Canada from China as an example, we analyze\\u000a critically how split labor market theories describe materialist and structural factors that determine immigrants’ limited\\u000a options. Cultural theories
Manoochehri, Houman; Lolaty, Hamideh Azimi; Hassani, Parkhideh; Arbon, Paul; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin
Background: This study aimed to explore the role of social capital within the context of the nursing profession in Iran, based on the experience and perspectives of senior nursing managers. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using the Graneheim and Lundman content analysis method. Using purposive sampling, 26 senior nursing managers from the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, the College of Nursing and Midwifery, the Iranian Nursing Organization, nursing associations and hospitals were selected, who participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Results: Content analysis revealed three main themes (social capital deficit, applying multiple strategies, and cultivating social capital) as well as eight categories which included professional remoteness, deficiency in professional potency, deficiency in professional exchanges, accumulation of personal social capital, accumulation of professional social capital, socio-political strategies, psychological–cognitive strategies, and ethical/spiritual strategies. The results show the perceived level of social capital in nursing in Iran, the application of some key strategies, and the principal rewards accrued from active participation in improving the social capital in nursing environment and profession. Conclusions: Efforts should be made to strengthen the social capital and apply key strategies with the aim of achieving personal and professional benefits for nurses, their patients, and co-workers, and for the delivery of healthcare in general. In this respect, the role of senior managers is vital in stimulating collective action within the profession, planning for the development of a culture of participation in healthcare services, helping to develop all fields of the profession, and developing and strengthening intra- and inter-professional exchanges and networking. PMID:25400673
O'Reilly, Mark; McNally, Deirdre; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E; Green, Vanessa; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Machalicek, Wendy; Sorrells, Audrey; Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert
The authors examined the use of a social problem-solving intervention to treat selective mutism with 2 sisters in an elementary school setting. Both girls were taught to answer teacher questions in front of their classroom peers during regular classroom instruction. Each girl received individualized instruction from a therapist and was taught to discriminate salient social cues, select an appropriate social response, perform the response, and evaluate her performance. The girls generalized the skills to their respective regular classrooms and maintained the skills for up to 3 months after the removal of the intervention. Experimental control was demonstrated using a multiple baseline design across participants. Limitations of this study and issues for future research are discussed. PMID:18285505
Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Cook, Clayton R.; Vance, Michael J.; Kettler, Ryan
One of the most consistent findings in rating scale research with children and adolescents is the modest agreement among different informants' ratings. The present study systematically explored patterns of agreement among teachers, parents/caregivers, and students in domains of social skills and problem behaviors using the Social Skills…
Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.
Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally…
Explores high school students' collaborative efforts in solving qualitative physics problems and investigates how and whether confronting students with varying views improves problem solving skills. (Contains 22 references.) (DDR)
Chitiyo, Morgan; Chitiyo, George; Chitiyo, Jonathan; Oyedele, Victoria; Makoni, Richard; Fonnah, Davidson; Chipangure, Luke
Problem behaviour continues to present a challenge for school-teachers worldwide. Since school-teachers around the globe have different conceptualisations of what constitutes problem behaviour, the purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of Zimbabwean school-teachers about their perceived causes of problem behaviour among students in…
Lower, Stephen K.
A brief overview of CHEMEX--a problem-solving, tutorial style computer-assisted instructional course--is provided and sample problems are offered. In CHEMEX, students receive problems in advance and attempt to solve them before moving through the computer program, which assists them in overcoming difficulties and serves as a review mechanism.…
Linda J. Skitka; Elizabeth Mullen; Thomas Griffin; Susan Hutchinson; Brian Chamberlin
attributional judgments under varying levels of cognitive load) explored whether these differences could be explained by (a) underlying dispositional differences in the tendency to see the causes of behavior as personally or situationally located, (b) ideological scripts, or (c) differences in the motivation to correct personal attributions. Results were most consistent with the motivated correction explanation. The findings shed further
Richmond, Chantelle A.M.; Ross, Nancy A.; Egeland, Grace M.
Objectives. We examined the importance of social support in promoting thriving health among indigenous Canadians, a disadvantaged population. Methods. We categorized the self-reported health status of 31625 adult indigenous Canadians as thriving (excellent, very good) or nonthriving (good, fair, poor). We measured social support with indices of positive interaction, emotional support, tangible support, and affection and intimacy. We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to estimate odds of reporting thriving health, using social support as the key independent variable, and we controlled for educational attainment and labor force status. Results. Compared with women reporting low levels of social support, those reporting high levels of positive interaction (odds ratio [OR]=1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.2, 1.6), emotional support (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.8, 2.4), and tangible support (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2, 1.5) were significantly more likely to report thriving health. Among men, only emotional support was significantly related to thriving health (OR=1.7; 95% CI=1.5, 1.9). Thriving health status was also significantly mediated by age, aboriginal status (First Nations, Métis, or Inuit), educational attainment, and labor force status. Conclusions. Social support is a strong determinant of thriving health, particularly among women. Research that emphasizes thriving represents a positive and necessary turn in the indigenous health discourse. PMID:17761564
Perry, Tam E.
There has been limited research on the importance of seasons in the lives of older adults. Previous research has highlighted seasonal fluctuations in physical functioning—including limb strength, range of motion, and cardiac death—the spread of influenza in seasonal migration patterns. In addition, older adults experience isolation for various reasons, such as decline of physical and cognitive ability, lack of transportation, and lack of opportunities for social interaction. There has been much attention paid to the social isolation of older adults, yet little analysis about how the isolation changes throughout the year. Based on findings from an ethnographic study of older adults (n = 81), their family members (n = 49), and supportive professionals (n = 46) as they embark on relocation from their homes, this study analyzes the processes of moving for older adults. It examines the seasonal fluctuations of social isolation because of the effect of the environment on the social experiences of older adults. Isolation occurs because of the difficulty inclement weather causes on social interactions and mobility. The article concludes with discussion of the ways that research and practice can be designed and implemented to account for seasonal variation. PMID:24761536
Pinzino, Dean William
This thesis investigates the use of socioscientific issues (SSI) in the high school science classroom as an introduction to argumentation and socioscientific reasoning, with the goal of improving students' scientific literacy (SL). Current research is reviewed that supports the likelihood of students developing a greater conceptual understanding of scientific theories as well as a deeper understanding of the nature of science (NOS), through participation in informal and formal forms of argumentation in the context of SSI. Significant gains in such understanding may improve a student's ability to recognize the rigor, legitimacy, and veracity of scientific claims and better discern science from pseudoscience. Furthermore, students that participate in significant SSI instruction by negotiating a range of science-related social issues can make significant gains in content knowledge and develop the life-long skills of argumentation and evidence-based reasoning, goals not possible in traditional lecture-based science instruction. SSI-based instruction may therefore help students become responsible citizens. This synthesis also suggests that that the improvements in science literacy and NOS understanding that develop from sustained engagement in SSI-based instruction will better prepare students to examine and scrutinize socially controversial scientific theories (i.e., evolution, global warming, and the Big Bang).
Savas, Jessica A; Huang, Karen E; Tuchayi, Sara Moradi; Feldman, Steven R
Atopic dermatitis is a very common chronic skin disease. With increasing number of patients searching social media outlets such as Facebook for medical information, social media can be used by physicians as a powerful educational tool. We analyzed the unmoderated Q&A series on Facebook begun by members of National Eczema Association Scientific Advisory Committee. Four respondents accounted for more than 50% of all responses and the most common were negative posts about topical steroids (61%). Possible strategies to accomplish the safe dissemination of information in a public forum may include a moderator role for physicians. PMID:25244178
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) on freshmen engineering students' beliefs about physics and physics learning (referred to as epistemological beliefs) and conceptual understanding of physics. The multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts and the Colorado learning attitudes about…
Ates, Salih; Cataloglu, Erdat
The purpose of this study was to determine if there are relationships among freshmen students' Field depended or field independent (FD/FI) cognitive style, conceptual understandings, and problem solving skills in mechanics. The sample consisted of 213 freshmen (female = 111, male = 102; age range 17-21) who were enrolled in an introductory physics…
Alibali, Martha W.; Kao, Yvonne S.; Brown, Alayna N.; Nathan, Mitchell J.; Stephens, Ana C.
This study investigated middle school students' conceptual understanding of algebraic equations. Participants in the study--257 sixth- and seventh-grade students--were asked to solve one set of algebraic equations and to generate story problems corresponding with another set of equations. Structural aspects of the equations, including the number…
This paper reports the result of a study that aimed to identify the problems with oral English skills of ESL (English as a second language) students at a tertiary teacher training institution in Hong Kong. The study, by way of semi-structured interview, addresses the gap in our understanding of the difficulties ESL students encountered in their…
Zydney, Janet Mannheimer
This study investigated the effectiveness of multiple scaffolding tools in helping students understand a complex problem. In order to support students with this task, a multimedia learning environment was developed based on the cognitive flexibility theory (CFT) and scaffolding through computer-based tools. Seventy-nine 10th-grade students in an…
Linda S. Steinberg; Drew H. Gitomer
In this paper we describe Hydrive, an operational computer-based intelligent tutoring system built to help Air Force technicians develop generalizable skills for troubleshooting hydraulics systems. We use Hydrive as an example of how effective training and assessment is developed from a coherent understanding of a target task and how this understanding can be consistently represented in all aspects of a
Irby, Decoteau J.
Getting in trouble at school is often a student's first point of entry into the school-to-prison pipeline. What trouble entails is shaped by underlying and complex notions of justice that operate in a given school setting. These notions of justice shape the range of responses social actors use to address students who break school rules. These…
Seldin, Jonathan P.
, race, the history of anthropological thought, gender, medicine and applied anthropology. A Bachelor. Alone among the social sciences, Anthropology studies human experience in every part of the world, from tiny traditional communities to modern metropoles, and in every period of history and prehistory
Burnett, Stephanie; Thompson, Stephanie; Bird, Geoffrey; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne
Recent developmental cognitive neuroscience research has supported the notion that puberty and adolescence are periods of profound socio-emotional development. The current study was designed to investigate whether the onset of puberty marks an increase in the awareness of complex, or “mixed,” emotions. Eighty-three female participants (aged 9–16 years) were divided into three groups according to a self-report measure of puberty stage (early-, mid- and post-puberty). Participants were presented with emotional scenarios, and used four linear scales to rate their emotional response to each scenario. Scenarios were designed to evoke social emotions (embarrassment or guilt) or basic emotions (anger or fear), where social emotions are defined as those which require the representation of others' mental states. We measured the relative complexity or “mixedness” of emotional responses, that is, the degree to which participants reported feeling more than one emotion for a given scenario. We found that mixed emotion reporting increased between early- and post-puberty for social emotion scenarios, and showed no relationship with age, whereas there was no change in mixed emotion reporting for basic emotion scenarios across age or puberty groups. This suggests that the awareness of mixed emotions develops during the course of puberty, and that this development is specific to social emotions. Results are discussed in the context of brain development across puberty and adolescence, with speculation regarding the potential implications for education. PMID:22211052
Takayuki Kanda; Hiroshi Ishiguro
This paper reports our research efforts on social robots that recognize interpersonal relation- ships. These investigations are carried out by observing group behaviors while the robot interacts with people. Our humanoid robot interacts with children by speaking and making various gestures. It identi- fies individual children by using a wireless tag system, which helps to promote interaction such as the
Oh, Jeong Ha
Models of user generated content (UGC) creation such as Facebook, MySpace, and YouTube are facing robust growth accelerated by the adoption of Web 2.0 technologies and standards. These business models offer a fascinating avenue for exploring the role of social influence online. This dissertation is motivated by the success of YouTube, which is…
Spino, Margie A.; Dinnebeil, Laurie A.; McInerney, William F.
The purpose of this article is to introduce and describe a model of social power and influence developed by Erchul and Raven (1997). This model describes the decision-making process a consultant would engage in to choose, implement, evaluate as well as the use of strategies that they might use to influence another person to act in a particular…
Perez, Patricia A.; McDonough, Patricia M.
Through interviews and focus groups with 106 high school juniors and seniors, this research examined the college choice process for Latina and Latino students in the greater Los Angeles basin. Using chain migration theory within a social capital framework, the results indicated that as primarily first-generation college students, the students in…
Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Milburn, JoAnne Fellows
This book affirms that the behaviors of young people from culturally diverse populations need to be viewed from a cultural perspective, and that instruction should affirm students and empower them to achieve maximally as well as to benefit others. A theme that underlies the entire book is the advocacy of direct instruction in social skills,…
Hatfield, Bradley D.
The latter half of the 20th century witnessed the dramatic rise of specialization in the subdisciplines of kinesiology, which resulted in scholarly development, but fragmentation. A need is articulated herein for an "issues-based" approach to research that will attract scholars from multiple subdisciplines, address compelling challenges of social…
Ferreira, Vanessa M.; Sherman, Aurora M.
Control beliefs and social relationships have been individually assessed in relation to adaptation to chronic illness, although only rarely together. Further, some control scales show psychometric limitations in older adult samples. To address these concerns, a scale assessing external control was created by factor analyzing the items from…
L. Thomas Winfree; Christine S. Sellers; Dennis L. Clason
Tests of theories that attempt to explain why individuals currently use drugs are widespread; however, the theoretical examinations of abstention from drugs and the cessation of their use are rare. For its part, social learning theory has been supported consistently in its delineation of the process by which substance use is learned. We propose that cessation and abstention are also
Manassa, R. P.; McCormick, M. I.; Chivers, D. P.; Ferrari, M. C. O.
The ability of prey to observe and learn to recognize potential predators from the behaviour of nearby individuals can dramatically increase survival and, not surprisingly, is widespread across animal taxa. A range of sensory modalities are available for this learning, with visual and chemical cues being well-established modes of transmission in aquatic systems. The use of other sensory cues in mediating social learning in fishes, including mechano-sensory cues, remains unexplored. Here, we examine the role of different sensory cues in social learning of predator recognition, using juvenile damselfish (Amphiprion percula). Specifically, we show that a predator-naive observer can socially learn to recognize a novel predator when paired with a predator-experienced conspecific in total darkness. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that when threatened, individuals release chemical cues (known as disturbance cues) into the water. These cues induce an anti-predator response in nearby individuals; however, they do not facilitate learnt recognition of the predator. As such, another sensory modality, probably mechano-sensory in origin, is responsible for information transfer in the dark. This study highlights the diversity of sensory cues used by coral reef fishes in a social learning context. PMID:23804616
Reio, Thomas G., Jr.
The influence of selected discrete emotions on socialization-related learning and perception of workplace adaptation was examined in an exploratory study. Data were collected from 233 service workers in 4 small and medium-sized companies in metropolitan Washington, D.C. The sample members' average age was 32.5 years, and the sample's racial makeup…
Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; DeJesus, Jasmine M.
Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the…
Harrison, Bronwyn A.; Mayo-Wilson, Evan
Randomized controlled trials are considered the gold standard for evaluating social work interventions. However, published reports can systematically overestimate intervention effects when researchers selectively report large and significant findings. Publication bias and other types of reporting biases can be minimized through prospective trial…
Zellmann, Karen T.; Madden, Elissa E.; Aguiniga, Donna M.
Bachelor-level social work students (n = 198) at a midsized Midwestern public university were surveyed to evaluate their attitudes toward those with mental health concerns. Additionally, students were surveyed regarding their willingness to seek treatment for their own mental health needs. Results of the analyses suggest that the majority of…
Rienties, Bart; Beausaert, Simon; Grohnert, Therese; Niemantsverdriet, Susan; Kommers, Piet
More than 3 million students study outside their home country, primarily at a Western university. A common belief among educators is that international students are insufficiently adjusted to higher education in their host country, both academically and socially. Furthermore, several groups of international students experience considerable amounts…
Cole, Pamela M.; Dennis, Tracy A.; Smith-Simon, Kristen E.; Cohen, Laura H.
Preschool-age children's ability to verbally generate strategies for regulating anger and sadness, and to recognize purported effective strategies for these emotions, were examined in relation to child factors (child age, temperament, and language ability) and maternal emotion socialization (supportiveness and structuring in response to child…
The complex relationship between globalization and health calls for research from many disciplinary and methodological perspectives. This editorial gives an overview of the content trajectory of the interdisciplinary journal ‘Globalization and Health’ over the first six years of production, 2005 to 2010. The findings show that bio-medical and population health perspectives have been dominant but that social science perspectives have become more evident in recent years. The types of paper published have also changed, with a growing proportion of empirical studies. A special issue on ‘Health systems, health economies and globalization: social science perspectives’ is introduced, a collection of contributions written from the vantage points of economics, political science, psychology, sociology, business studies, social policy and research policy. The papers concern a range of issues pertaining to the globalization of healthcare markets and governance and regulation issues. They highlight the important contribution that can be made by the social sciences to this field, and also the practical and methodological challenges implicit in the study of globalization and health. PMID:22938504
Simon Gächter; Benedikt Herrmann
Two economically important elements of social capital are trust and disciplining free-riders. Most of current research focuses on trust. We argue that research should shift focus toward informal sanctions. We present two experimental studies from Switzerland, Byelorussia and Russia to support this argument. Our first study elicits trust and cooperative preferences in a public goods game and finds almost no
In the current paper I will argue that the notion of affordances offers an alternative to theory of mind (ToM) approaches in studying social engagement in general and in explaining social engagement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) specifically. Affordances are the possibilities for action offered by the environment. In contrast to ToM approaches, the concept of affordances implies the complementarity of person and environment and rejects the dualism of mind and behavior. In line with the Gibsonian idea that a child must eventually perceive the affordances of the environment for others as well for herself in order to become socialized, I will hypothesize that individuals with ASD often do not perceive the same affordances in the environment as other people do and have difficulties perceiving others’ affordances. This can lead to a disruption of interpersonal behaviors. I will further argue that the methods for studying social engagement should be adapted if we want to take interaction into account. PMID:25136327
Sulsky, Lorne M.; Kline, Theresa J. B.
Employing the social learning theory (SLT) perspective on training, we analysed the effects of alternative frame-of-reference (FOR) training protocols on various criteria of training effectiveness. Undergraduate participants (N = 65) were randomly assigned to one of four FOR training conditions and a control condition. Training effectiveness was…
Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca
Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…
Joshua D. Clapp; J. Gayle Beck
Network orientation is conceptualized as an individual's attitudes and expectations regarding the usefulness of support networks in coping with stress. The present research examined the potential for network orientation to explicate the well documented association between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and attenuated social support. Data collected from survivors of serious motor vehicle trauma (N=458) were used to test the hypothesis
Kliewer, Wendy; Lepore, Stephen J
Exposure to violence is associated with elevated levels of sleep problems in adolescence, which contributes to poor mental and physical health and impaired academic performance. However, reasons underlying the associations between exposure to violence and sleep difficulty have not been examined. This study tested a social cognitive processing path model linking experiences of witnessing and directly experiencing community violence and sleep problems. Participants were 362 early adolescents (M age = 12.45 years, SD = 0.59; range 11-14 years; 48.9% male; 51% Latino/a; 34% black) from urban communities enrolled in a middle-school-based intervention study on the east coast of the United States that was designed to reduce the negative effects of exposure to violence. All youth in the current study reported witnessing or directly experiencing community violence. Adolescents completed four school-based assessments over an 18-month period, reporting on their exposure to community violence, sleep problems, intrusive thoughts about and social constraints in talking about violence, and life events. A path model that included both victimization and witnessing violence revealed that wave 1 witnessing violence, but not victimization, was associated with elevated social constraints in talking about violence at wave 2, which was associated with elevated intrusive thoughts at wave 3, which was associated with poor sleep quality at wave 4. Prior levels of all constructs were controlled in the analysis, in addition to life events, single parent household status, children's age and sex, intervention condition, and school. Youth exposed to violence may benefit from help in processing their experiences, thus reducing social constraints in talking about their experiences and associated intrusive thoughts. This is turn may improve sleep outcomes. PMID:25218396
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Reid, M. Jamila
This article describes the Dina Dinosaur Social, Emotional and Problem Solving Child Training Program for young children with conduct problems. The program emphasizes training children in skills such as emotional literacy, empathy or perspective taking, friendship and communication skills, anger management, interpersonal problem solving, and…
Pracht, Dale Wayne
This study evaluated the cognitive process of students participating in a 20-hour service-learning experience while enrolled in a collegiate Social Problems course. This study examined student attitudes about social problems and their ability...
Affinnih, Yahya H
This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti-drug laws or legislation, or of establishing a drug control agency. They are also cooperating regionally to coordinate drug control measures and working with the Organization of African Unity (OAU). In addition, almost all the sub-Saharan African countries are signatories to all United Nations drug conventions. Since the drug problem in Africa has international origins, it will take concerted international cooperation and coordinated effort to combat the "social cancer" of drugs. PMID:11913904
Jacob Benesty; Dennis R. Morgan; M. M. Sondhi
Teleconferencing systems employ acoustic echo cancelers to reduce echoes that result from coupling between the loudspeaker and microphone. To enhance the sound realism, two-channel audio is necessary. However, in this case (stereophonic sound) the acoustic echo cancellation problem is more difficult to solve because of the necessity to uniquely identify two acoustic paths. We explain these problems in detail and
Students in an introductory macroeconomics course practice applying their knowledge of monetary and fiscal policy to specific economic scenarios. During multiple rounds of problem solving facilitated by this send-a-problem, students identify how policy changes can be used in reaction to specific economic conditions or events. They also evaluate such policy changes in terms of resultant impacts on equilibrium conditions.
Abouchedid, Kamal; Nasser, Ramzi
Research indicates that students have great difficulty solving certain algebra word problems. These solutions, moreover, appear to be due to some situational factors characteristic of algebra problems, e.g., presentation and response format. This study investigates students' preconceptions, post facto alternative concepts based on key features of…
Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid
Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments. PMID:23475660
Bo Edvardsson; Bĺrd Tronvoll; Thorsten Gruber
According to service-dominant logic (S-D logic), all providers are service providers, and service is the fundamental basis of exchange. Value is co-created with customers and assessed on the basis\\u000a of value-in-context. However, the extensive literature on S-D logic could benefit from paying explicit attention to the fact\\u000a that both service exchange and value co-creation are influenced by social forces. The
Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A.C.; Rodriguez, Lori A.
Objective To examine the association between acculturation, birthplace, and alcohol-related social problems across Hispanic national groups. Method 5,224 Hispanic adults (18+ years) were interviewed using a multistage cluster sample design in Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. Results Multivariate analysis shows no association between acculturation and problems among men or women. Birthplace is a risk factor for social problems among both genders. Among men, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and South/Central Americans are more likely to report social problems than Cuban Americans. Other risk factors for men are unemployment, a higher volume of drinking, and a higher frequency of binge drinking. Among women, Mexican American origin and binge drinking are also risk factors for reporting problems. Conclusions U.S.-born Hispanics may experience stress and other detrimental effects to health because of their minority status, which may increase the likelihood of more drinking and the development of alcohol-related problems. PMID:22438607
Tikka, Pia; Väljamäe, Aleksander; de Borst, Aline W.; Pugliese, Roberto; Ravaja, Niklas; Kaipainen, Mauri; Takala, Tapio
We outline general theoretical and practical implications of what we promote as enactive cinema for the neuroscientific study of online socio-emotional interaction. In a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) setting, participants are immersed in cinematic experiences that simulate social situations. While viewing, their physiological reactions—including brain responses—are tracked, representing implicit and unconscious experiences of the on-going social situations. These reactions, in turn, are analyzed in real-time and fed back to modify the cinematic sequences they are viewing while being scanned. Due to the engaging cinematic content, the proposed setting focuses on living-by in terms of shared psycho-physiological epiphenomena of experience rather than active coping in terms of goal-oriented motor actions. It constitutes a means to parametrically modify stimuli that depict social situations and their broader environmental contexts. As an alternative to studying the variation of brain responses as a function of a priori fixed stimuli, this method can be applied to survey the range of stimuli that evoke similar responses across participants at particular brain regions of interest. PMID:23125829
Choi, Namkee G.; Marti, C. Nathan; Bruce, Martha L.; Hegel, Mark T.
The goal of problem-solving therapy is to teach patients systematic coping skills. For many homebound older adults, coping skills must also include both personal and social (help-seeking) resourcefulness. This study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived resourcefulness and depressive symptoms at postintervention and potential mediating effect of the resourcefulness among 121 low-income homebound older adults who participated in a pilot randomized controlled trial testing feasibility and preliminary efficacy of telehealth-PST. Resourcefulness Scale for Older Adults was used to measure personal and social resourcefulness. Only personal resourcefulness scores were significantly associated with depression outcomes at postintervention, and neither resourcefulness scores were significantly associated with group assignment. Analysis found no mediation effect of resourcefulness. The findings call for further research on potential mediators for the potentially effective depression treatment that could be sustained in the real world for low-income homebound older adults who have limited access to psychotherapy as a treatment modality. PMID:23768675
ALICE S. CARTER; F. ELIZABETH GARRITY-ROKOUS; RACHEL CHAZAN-COHEN; CHRISTINA LITTLE; MARGARET J. BRIGGS-GOWAN
ObjectiveTo examine relations between maternal depression (in pure and comorbid forms) and mother–infant interactions, infant attachment, and toddler social-emotional problems and competencies. A second objective was to explore sex differences.
Background The patient-nurse relationship is a traditional concern of healthcare research. However, patient-nurse interaction is under examined from a social perspective. Current research focuses mostly on specific contexts of care delivery and experience related to medical condition or illness, or to nurses’ speciality. Consequentially, this paper is about the social meanings and understandings at play within situated patient-nurse interaction in the community practice setting in a transforming healthcare service. Methods Grounded theory methodology was used and the research process was characterised by principles of theoretical sensitivity and constant comparative analysis. The field of study was four health centres in the community. The participants were patients and nurses representative of those attending or working in the health centres and meeting there by scheduled appointment. Data collection methods were observations, informal interviews and semi-structured interviews. Results Key properties of ‘Being a good patient, being a good nurse’, ‘Institutional experiences’ and ‘Expectations about healthcare’ were associated with the construction of a category entitled ‘Experience’. Those key properties captured that in an evolving healthcare environment individuals continually re-constructed their reality of being a patient or nurse as they endeavoured to perform appropriately; articulation of past and present healthcare experiences was important in that process. Modus operandi in role as patient was influenced by past experiences in healthcare and by those in non-healthcare institutions in terms of engagement and involvement (or not) in interaction. Patients’ expectations about interaction in healthcare included some uncertainly as they strived to make sense of the changing roles and expertise of nurses and, differentiating between the roles and expertise of nurses and doctors. Conclusions The importance of social meanings and understandings in patient-nurse interaction is not fully apparent to nurses, but important in the patient experience. Seeking understanding from a social perspective makes a contribution to enhancing knowledge about patient-nurse interaction with subsequent impact on practice, in particular the development of the patient-nurse relationship. The implications are that the meanings and understandings patients and nurses generate from experiences beyond and within their situated interaction are pivotal to the development of their relationship in the transforming community healthcare environment. PMID:22950713
Hoglund, Wendy L.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.
Peer victimization has been linked concurrently and over time with multiple adjustment problems. However, the reasons for this multi-finality in victimization are not well understood. The current study examines social-cognitive processes (hostile attributions, social perspective awareness, and interpersonal skills) as mediators of the relations…
Ioannou, Andri; Brown, Scott W.; Hannafin, Robert D.; Boyer, Mark A.
This study investigated whether using multimedia-based instructional material in a problem-based social studies simulation enhances student learning about world issues, increases interest in social studies, and generates positive attitudes toward the instruction. The GlobalEd Project, a Web-based international negotiation simulation embedded in…
The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of leisure time activities program in individuals with intellectual disabilities in terms of developing social skills and reducing behavioral problems. Social skills assessment scale, behavioral assessment form for children and young adults, and teacher's report forms were used in…
Hackley, Chris; Bengry-Howell, Andrew; Griffin, Christine; Mistral, Willm; Szmigin, Isabelle
In this article, we critically reflect on the constitution of the UK's alcohol problem in the government's "Safe, Social, Sensible" policy document, referring to findings from a 3-year ESRC funded study on young people, alcohol and identity. We suggest that discursive themes running throughout "Safe, Sensible, Social" include "shared…
In his Die beiden Grundprobleme der Erkenntnistheorie Popper explains that different epistemological positions can be regarded as attempts to solve the problems of induction and\\u000a demarcation. Inspired by Popper's approach, I consider Ludwig von Mises' epistemological position as an endeavor to resolve\\u000a those problems with respect to the special situation of the social sciences. Mises states that the theoretical social
Dalke, Diedrich L.
employer1s business only brings 5 with it idleness, deprivation and suffering* It is the economic position of the present day laboring man that demands social insurance* Other industrial countries have already met this problem of social insurance... laws far superior to ours, in deed, we may well say that we are at present where England was twentyfive years ago* Germany, also; has met the problem and solved it in the form of triple insurance for workingmen, namely, insurance against accident...
Dale S. Bond; Roseann M. Lyle; Marlene K. Tappe; Roger S. Seehafer; Thomas J. D'Zurilla
This study evaluated the importance of exercise mode, social problem-solving ability, gender, and age in relation to anxiety and perceived daily hassles. Adult participants were classified as moderate aerobic exercisers, T'ai Chi exercisers, or sedentary via completion of a questionnaire. Social problem-solving ability, state and trait anxiety, and frequency and severity of daily hassles were measured. As predicted, scores indicating
Niditch, Laura A; Varela, R Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L; Hill, Trenesha
This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ, and parents completed measures of remaining variables. ASD diagnosis was associated with level of anxiety, and level of IQ explained this relation. IQ was significantly and positively associated with anxiety. Tests of a developmental model to explain the relation between IQ and anxiety showed that social understanding and aggression mediated the relation for toddlers. For preschool- and early elementary school-aged children, respectively, three-way interactions between IQ, social understanding, and aggression predicted anxiety, and graphs of the interactions suggest that the association between IQ and anxiety is increasingly driven by either aggression or social understanding over the course of childhood. PMID:22417187
Lynch, John A.
Rhetoricians have tried to develop a better understanding of the connection between words and things, but these attempts often employ a logic of representation that undermines a full examination of materiality and the complexity of scientific practice. A logic of articulation offers a viable alternative by focusing attention on the linkages…
Jones, Christopher S.
This qualitative study examined the issue of history education and its failure to understand and implement the most effective teaching and learning strategies for the discipline. It did this by conducting interviews, observations, and a focus group with a group of history teachers in a suburban high school in New England. While aiming to explain…
Magnus S. MAGNUSSON
The dynamics of interaction between actors making up an organized system is a complex matter where myriads of events are constantly happening within ever changing spatial and temporal contexts that determine the ultimate meaning, effect and function of each event. For the understanding of such systems quantification alone is not enough, matters of pattern and structure must be considered. It
Kats-Gold, Inna; Priel, Beatriz
There is growing interest in the role of emotional competence in middle school children's adjustment and functioning, yet many populations remain underresearched. Few studies have explored the emotional competence, especially emotion understanding, of children with, or at risk of, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and even fewer…