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1

Intercultural Understanding: The Problem and a Process. Social Studies for the Elementary School. Proficiency Module #7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is one in a series of teaching modules developed for a contemporary social studies curriculum. The purpose of this module is to develop an understanding of the sources of content to be used in an intercultural awareness curriculum and to reinforce teaching strategies learned in the other modules by applying them to the development of…

Keach, Everett T., Jr.

2

Understanding Social Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Believable social interaction is not only about agents that look right but also do the right thing. To achieve this we must consider the everyday knowledge and expectations by which users make sense of real, fictive or artificial social beings. This folk-theoretical understanding of other social beings involves several, rather independent, levels such as expectations on behaviour, expectations on primitive

Per Persson; Jarmo Laaksolahti; Peter Löonnqvist

3

Analysis: Modelling Problem Understanding  

E-print Network

Chapter 2 Analysis: Modelling Problem Understanding The work in this chapter is structured as follows: Section 2.1: Introducing Formal Object Oriented Analysis (FOOA) This section provides a brief review of object orientation and formalisation with respect to the limitations of current analysis

Gibson, J. Paul

4

The neuroscience of social understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do we understand and engage with the purposeful, emotional and mental activities of other people and how does this knowledge develop? What can recent work on mirror neurons in monkeys and human beings teach us about how the brain supports social understanding? According to Intentional Rela - tions Theory (Barresi and Moore 1996), the understanding of the self-other equivalence

John Barresi; Chris Moore

5

Social problems in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socioeconomic deprivation adversely affects health and access to healthcare. It is closely associated with problem drug use, which exacerbates the medical and social effects of poverty, and is associated with several medical problems including dental caries, vascular damage, thromboembolic disease and blood-borne virus infection. Problem drug use has increased markedly during the past 20 years, especially among women of childbearing

Mary Hepburn

2005-01-01

6

Social Problems: Sociology 231  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online syllabi and course readings offer good examples of the manner in which the Internet can enrich university courses. Dr. Frank Elwell's fall 1997 course on social problems explored the links between technological development, population growth, environmental degradation, social change and disorganization, social inequality, deviance and crime. Both the course outline and syllabus feature links to essays by Elwell, study guides, and previous exams.

Elwell, Frank W.

1997-01-01

7

Understanding Columbia's Reentry Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soon after the Space Shuttle Columbia accident occurred last year, a group of CFD analysts from NASA centers and private industry was organized to help determine the cause of the accident. This group was under the direction of the Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch of the Aeroscience and Flight Mechanics Division at the Johnson Space Center. For external flow simulations, noncommercial CFD codes that specialize in hypersonic or high Mach number flows were used. These tools were used to determine heating rates, pressures, and temperatures for a large number of vehicle damage scenarios. Lockheed Martin Space Operations was called upon to provide CFD support in the area of internal flows within the shuttle wing cavity, and or these simulations, FLUENT 6.1 was chosen. Two large-scale, simplified models were run to understand the flow patterns once a breach of the internal wing cavity was initiated. The results were primarily used to visualize flow patterns within the wing cavity. The first CFD model included the entire left wing without the wheel. well cavity. The purpose of the first model, which did not include the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) cavity along the wing leading edge, was to visualize the flow field within the wing cavity immediately after the leading edge spar breach, This model assumed that the flow coming into the wing cavity was nom1 to the spar. It included all o f the primary vents that allow for flow between the main cavities of the wing. A six-inch diameter hole was modeled in the spar at the approximate location where the spar breach was judged to have occurred, which was between RCC panels 8 and 9. The results of the modeling showed that at this location, the high temperature, high velocity gas stream entering the wing cavity impinged on the outboard wheel well cavity. Instrumentation in the Shuttle wheel well cavity registered abnormal temperatures during reentry, so the FLUENT results helped support the conclusion of the accident investigation team that the spar breach was in the RCC panel 8-9 area, and that the initial spar breach was likely entering the wing cavity normal to the spar. This model also showed that the flow entering the wing cavity tended to swirl within the cavity just outboard of the wheel well, and did not initially penetrate further into the rear cavities of the wing. The second CFD model was a 2-D simulation of the left wing cavity and the RCC cavity. It was used to visualize the flow through the RCC breach, through the wing spar breach, and into the wing cavity directly outboard of the wheel well. The purpose of this model was to verify whether or not it was possible for the flow to come into the wing cavity normal to the leading edge spar. The results from this 2-D model showed that the internal structure behind the RCC panels probably deflected the flow entering the RCC cavity so that it impinged normal to the spar. As in the 3-D model, this deflected flow stream was found to impinge on the wheel well outer wall. This model again supported the conclusions regarding the location of the spar breach and how the flow behaved inside the wing cavity.

Paul, Thomas H.

2004-01-01

8

Understanding Columbia's Reentry Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soon after the Space Shuttle Columbia accident occurred last year, a group of CFD analysts from NASA centers and private industry was organized to help determine the cause of the accident. This group was under the direction of the Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch of the Aeroscience and Flight Mechanics Division at the Johnson Space Center. For external flow simulations, noncommercia2 CFD codes that specialize in hypersonic or high Mach number flows were used. These tools were used to determine heating rates, pressures, and temperatures for a large number of vehicle damage scenarios. Lockheed Martin Space Operations was called upon to provide CFD support in the area of internal flows within the shuttle wing cavity, and for these simulations, FLUENT 6.1 was chosen. Two large-scale, simplified models were m to understand the flow patterns once a breach of the internal wing cavity was initiated. The results were primarily used to visualize flow patterns within the wing cavity. The first CFD model included the entire lee wing without the wheel well cavity. The purpose of the first model, which did not include the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) cavity along the wing leading edge, was to visualize the flow field within the wing cavity immediately after the leading edge spar breach, This model assumed that the flow coming into the wing cavity was normal to the spar. It included all of the primary vents that allow for flow between the main cavities of the wing. A six-inch diameter hole was modeled in the spar at the approximate location where the spar breach was judged to have occurred, which was between RCC panels 8 and 9. The results of the modeling showed that at this location, the high temperature, high velocity gas stream entering the wing cavity impinged on the outboard wheel well cavity. Instrumentation in the Shuttle wheel well cavity registered abnormal temperatures during reentry, so the FLUENT results helped support the conclusion of the accident investigation team that the spar breach was in the RCC panel 8-9 area, and that the initial spar breach was likely entering the wing cavity normal to the spar. This model also showed that the flow entering the wing cavity tended to swirl within the cavity just outboard of the wheel well, and did not initially penetrate further into the rear cavities of the wing. The second CFD model was a 2-D simulation of the left wing cavity and the RCC cavity. It was used to visualize the flow through the RCC breach, through the wing spar breach, and into the wing cavity directly outboard of the wheel well. The purpose of this model was to verify whether or not it was possible for the flow to come into the wing cavity normal to the leading edge spar. The results from this 2-D model showed that the internal structure behind the RCC panels probably deflected the flow entering the RCC cavity so that it impinged normal to the spar. As in the 3-D model, this deflected flow stream was Found to impinge on the wheel well outer wall. This model again supported the conclusions regarding the location of the spar breach and how the flow behaved inside the wing cavity.

Paul, Thomas

2006-01-01

9

Understanding socially intelligent agents - a multilayered phenomenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate purpose with socially intelligent agent (SIA) technology is not to simulate social intelligence per se, but to let an agent give an impression of social intelligence. Such user-centred SIA technology, must consider the everyday knowledge and expectations by which users make sense of real, fictive, or artificial social beings. This folk-theoretical understanding of other social beings involves several,

Per Persson; Jarmo Laaksolahti; Peter Lönnqvist

2001-01-01

10

A systems framework for understanding social settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we argue that attempts to change social settings have been hindered by lack of theoretical advances in understanding\\u000a key aspects of social settings and how they work in a dynamic system. We present a systems framework for understanding youths’\\u000a social settings. We focus on three aspects of settings that represent intervention targets: social processes (i.e., patterns of

Vivian Tseng; Edward Seidman

2007-01-01

11

Understanding Education for Social Justice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has become increasingly common for education scholars to claim a social justice orientation in their work. At the same time, education programs seem to be adding statements about the importance of social justice to their mission, and a growing number of teacher education programs are fundamentally oriented around a vision of social justice.…

Hytten, Kathy; Bettez, Silvia C.

2011-01-01

12

How Social Problems Are Born.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how social conditions can become social problems and argues that there are objective ways of determining the scale of a particular problem. The paper supports its argument through examinations of prohibition, the decline in tobacco consumption, and the war on drugs. (GLR)

Glazer, Nathan

1994-01-01

13

Social Issues as Social Problems: Adolescents' Perceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed 446 late adolescents concerning their assessment of specific social issues as problems existing in contemporary American society. Subjects overwhelmingly pointed to drug use, pollution, hunger, nuclear war, and poverty as serious to very serious problems, while ageism, and racial and sexual discrimination were regarded as substantially…

Roscoe, Bruce

1985-01-01

14

Bikesharing in North America: Understanding the Social &  

E-print Network

Bikesharing in North America: Understanding the Social & Environmental Impacts American operators for 2011 #12;Bikesharing: North America As of January 2012, 19 · North American overview · Operator survey: key Eindings · Member survey: key

Kammen, Daniel M.

15

Culture, Executive Function, and Social Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of the evidence from the West has shown links between children's developing self-control (executive function), their social experiences, and their social understanding (Carpendale & Lewis, 2006, chapters 5 and 6), across a range of cultures including China. This chapter describes four studies conducted in three Oriental cultures, suggesting…

Lewis, Charlie; Koyasu, Masuo; Oh, Seungmi; Ogawa, Ayako; Short, Benjamin; Huang, Zhao

2009-01-01

16

Understanding social support burden among family caregivers.  

PubMed

Despite the abundance of research on social support, both as a variable in larger studies and as a central focus of examination, there is little consensus about the relationship between social support and health outcomes. Current social support measures typically account only for frequency and size of network, and a paucity of research exists that has explained social support burden, defined as the burden associated with accessing and receiving support from others. We analyzed audio-recorded discussions by hospice family caregivers about their caregiving problems and potential solutions to examine social relationships within networks and identify the processes that influence social support seeking and receiving. Using qualitative thematic analysis, we found that caregivers providing hospice care experience social support burden resulting from perceived relational barriers between friends and family, the inclination to remain in control, recognition of the loss of the patient as a source of social support and guidance in decision making, family dynamics, and decreased availability of emotional support. Social support researchers should consider how the quality of communication and relationships within social networks impacts the provision and subsequent outcomes of social support in varying contexts. Findings from this study suggest that hospice social support resources should be tailored to the caregiver's support needs and include assessment on the type of support to be offered. PMID:24345081

Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Washington, Karla; Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Shaunfield, Sara

2014-01-01

17

The Development of Social Role Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the social role understanding of 72 children aged 5, 8, and 11 years. An illustrated story, written especially for the project, was used as the basis for conducting a semistructured interview with each child. The main aspects examined included role definition and children's understanding of the role's characteristics; and…

Hardman, Margaret A.

18

Designing Social Agents with Empathic Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the design of an agent model for a social agent capable of understanding other agents in an empathic way. The model describes how the empathic agent deals with another agent's mental states and the associated feelings, thus not only understanding the other agent's mental state but at the same time feeling the accompanying emotion of the other

Zulfiqar A. Memon; Jan Treur

2009-01-01

19

Problem Solving and Conceptual Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, presents a framework for thinking about knowledge and its organization that can account for known expert-novice differences in knowledge storage and problem solving behavior. The author argues that interpreting any relationship between the ability to answer qualitative and quantitative questions requires a model of cognition, and that PER should seek to develop assessments that monitor component aspects of developing expertise.

Gerace, William J.

2006-12-06

20

Problem Solving and Conceptual Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, presents a framework for thinking about knowledge and its organization that can account for known expert-novice differences in knowledge storage and problem solving behavior. The author argues that interpreting any relationship between the ability to answer qualitative and quantitative questions requires a model of cognition, and that PER should seek to develop assessments that monitor component aspects of developing expertise.

Gerace, William J.

2010-04-30

21

Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

O'Mara, Joanne

2002-01-01

22

The Emotional Foundations of Social Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The infant and toddler years are a watershed of development in the emotional domain. These skills lay the foundation for positive social interactions, and ultimately, academic and life success. This article describes the development of three skills that are central in creating successful relationships: expressing emotion, understanding emotion,…

Warren, Heather K.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

2008-01-01

23

The Facilitation of Social-Emotional Understanding and Social Interaction in High-Functioning Children with Autism: Intervention Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 7-month cognitive behavioral intervention for the facilitation of the social-emotional understanding and social interaction of 15 high-functioning children (8 to 17 years old) with autism. Intervention focused on teaching interpersonal problem solving, affective knowledge, and social interaction. Preintervention and postintervention measures included observations of social interaction, measures of problem solving and of emotion

Nirit Bauminger

2002-01-01

24

Understanding mobility in a social petri dish  

PubMed Central

Despite the recent availability of large data sets on human movements, a full understanding of the rules governing motion within social systems is still missing, due to incomplete information on the socio-economic factors and to often limited spatio-temporal resolutions. Here we study an entire society of individuals, the players of an online-game, with complete information on their movements in a network-shaped universe and on their social and economic interactions. Such a “socio-economic laboratory” allows to unveil the intricate interplay of spatial constraints, social and economic factors, and patterns of mobility. We find that the motion of individuals is not only constrained by physical distances, but also strongly shaped by the presence of socio-economic areas. These regions can be recovered perfectly by community detection methods solely based on the measured human dynamics. Moreover, we uncover that long-term memory in the time-order of visited locations is the essential ingredient for modeling the trajectories. PMID:22708055

Szell, Michael; Sinatra, Roberta; Petri, Giovanni; Thurner, Stefan; Latora, Vito

2012-01-01

25

Understanding Social Security: A Civic Obligation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social Security is a contemporary topic that exemplifies a social issue-centered approach to social studies, one that allows students to get beyond the school walls to analyze a contemporary topic that ultimately affects virtually everyone. In this article, the authors provide a brief history of Social Security, describe how it is funded and…

Steinbrink, John E.; Cook, Jeremy W.

2002-01-01

26

Understanding grapheme personification: a social synaesthesia?  

PubMed

Much of synaesthesia research focused on colour, but not all cross-domain correspondences reported by synaesthetes are strictly sensory. For example, some synaesthetes personify letters and numbers, in additional to visualizing them in colour. First reported in the 1890s, the phenomenon has been largely ignored by scientists for more than a century with the exception of a few single-case reports. In the present study, we collected detailed self-reports on grapheme personification using a questionnaire, providing us with a comprehensive description of the phenomenology of grapheme personification. Next, we documented the behavioural consequences of personifying graphemes using a congruity paradigm involving a gender judgement task; we also examined whether personification is associated with heightened empathy as measured using Empathy Quotient and found substantial individual differences within our sample. Lastly, we present the first neuroimaging case study of personification, indicating that the precuneus activation previously seen in other synaesthesia studies may be implicated in the process. We propose that frameworks for understanding synaesthesia could be extended into other domains of cognition and that grapheme personification shares more in common with normal cognition than may be readily apparent. This benign form of hyper-mentalizing may provide a unique point of view on one of the most central problems in human cognition - understanding others' state of mind. PMID:21923789

Amin, Maina; Olu-Lafe, Olufemi; Claessen, Loes E; Sobczak-Edmans, Monika; Ward, Jamie; Williams, Adrian L; Sagiv, Noam

2011-09-01

27

Mentalising and social problem solving in adults with Asperger's syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction It is well established that autistic spectrum disorder is linked to difficulties with mentalising, but the ways in which this affects everyday behaviour is less well understood. This study explored the nature and extent of difficulties in everyday social functioning in adults with Asperger's syndrome (AS), since increased understanding can enhance the development of more effective intervention strategies. Methods Individuals with AS (n = 21) were compared with healthy control participants (n = 21) on three tests of social cognition: the Mentalistic Interpretation task, which assesses interpretation of sarcasm and actions; the Social Problem Fluency task, which assesses ability to generate problem solutions; and the Social Problem Resolution task, which assesses judgement in selecting problem solutions. Results Comprehension of both sarcastic remarks and actions was impaired in those with AS on the mentalistic interpretation task. Participants with AS showed difficulties in identifying the awkward elements of everyday social scenarios, and they were also impaired in generating problem solutions but not in judging alternative solutions on the social problem fluency and resolution tasks. Conclusions These tasks potentially provide a means of profiling strengths and weaknesses in social processing, which in turn has implications for informing clinical evaluation and training. PMID:23875885

Channon, Shelley; Crawford, Sarah; Orlowska, Danuta; Parikh, Nimmi; Thoma, Patrizia

2013-01-01

28

Understanding the Social Navigation User Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A social navigation system collects data from its users--its community--about what they are doing, their opinions, and their decisions, aggregates this data, and provides the aggregated data--community data--back to individuals so that they can use it to guide behavior and decisions. Social navigation systems empower users with the ability to…

Goecks, Jeremy

2009-01-01

29

Space age management for social problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attempts to apply space age management to social problems were plagued with difficulties. Recent experience in the State of Delaware and in New York City, however, indicate new possibilities. Project management as practiced in NASA was applied with promising results in programs dealing with housing and social services. Such applications are feasible, according to recent research, because project management utilizes social and behavioral approaches, as well as advanced management tools, such as PERT, to achieve results.

Levine, A. L.

1973-01-01

30

Social Information Processing and Emotional Understanding in Children with LD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to comprehensively examine social cognition processes in children with and without learning disabilities (LD), focusing on social information processing (SIP) and complex emotional understanding capabilities such as understanding complex, mixed, and hidden emotions. Participants were 50 children with LD (age range 9.4-12.7;…

Bauminger, Nirit; Edelsztein, Hany Schorr; Morash, Janice

2005-01-01

31

Cooperative problem solving in a social carnivore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous field researchers have described cooperative hunting in social carnivores, but experimental evidence of cooperative problem solving typically derives from laboratory studies of nonhuman primates. We present the first experimental evidence of cooperation in a social carnivore, the spotted hyaena, Crocuta crocuta. Eight captive hyaenas, paired in 13 combinations, coordinated their behaviour temporally and spatially to solve cooperation tasks that

Christine M. Drea; Allisa N. Carter

2009-01-01

32

Problems and challenges in social marketing.  

PubMed

This article reviews the problems that arise when general marketing principles are applied to social programs. Social marketing is conceptualized as the design, implementation, and control of programs seeking to increase the acceptability of a social ideal or practice in a target group. These problems can occur in 8 basic decision-making areas: market analysis, market segmentation, product strategy development, pricing strategy development, channel strategy development, communications strategy development, organizational design and planning, and evaluation. Social marketers find that they have less good secondary data about their consumers, more problems obtaining valid and reliable measures of relevant variables, more difficulty sorting out the relative influence of determinants of consumer behavior, and more problems getting consumer research funded than marketers in the commercial sector. They tend to have less flexibility in shaping their products and more difficulty formulating product concepts. Problems associated with establishing, utilizing, and controlling distribution channels comprise another major difference between social and more conventional forms of marketing. Social marketers also find that their communications options are somewhat limited as a result of problems associated with use of paid advertisements, pressures not to use certain types of appeals in their messages, and the need to communicate large amounts of information in their messages. Moreover, social marketers must function in organizations where marketing activities are poorly understood, underappreciated, and inappropriately located. Finally, they face problems trying to define effectiveness measures or estimating the contribution their program has made toward the achievement of certain objectives. If all these problems are anticipated and handled creatively, social marketing efforts can succeed. PMID:12280283

Bloom, P N; Novelli, W D

1981-01-01

33

Towards Understanding Cyberbullying Behavior in a Semi-Anonymous Social Network  

E-print Network

Towards Understanding Cyberbullying Behavior in a Semi-Anonymous Social Network Homa Hosseinmardi.ghasemianlangroodi@colorado.edu Abstract--Cyberbullying has emerged as an important and growing social problem, wherein people use online that has led to many cases of cyberbullying, some leading to suicidal behavior. We examine the occurrence

Han, Richard Y.

34

Understanding the Problem. Problem Solving and Communication Activity Series. The Math Forum: Problems of the Week  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Different techniques for understanding a problem can lead to ideas for never-used-before solutions. Good problem-solvers use a problem-solving strategy and may come back to it frequently while they are working on the problem to refine their strategy, see if they can find better solutions, or find other questions. Writing is an integral part of…

Math Forum @ Drexel, 2009

2009-01-01

35

Understanding visual behaviour The problems of modelling and understanding visual  

E-print Network

of abnormality? In our example, a person waving on a beach could be just greeting somebody, swatting an insect to wave to, an insect to swat, or rough water to be rescued from can be detected using visual information of modelling and understanding human actions and behaviours captured in image sequences. This requires not only

Gong, Shaogang

36

The Social Problems of Today's Family  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems of the family affect every individual. Problems have an impact on a variety of different social groups and strata, work collectives and neighborhood communities, young people, adults, children, the aged, and so on. The family's sense of well-being and the processes that affect its functioning can also hardly fail to be of concern to…

Mustaeva, F. A.

2010-01-01

37

The Social Context of Infant Intention Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional looking-time paradigms are often used to assess infants' attention to sociocognitive phenomena, but the link between these laboratory scenarios and real-world interactions is unclear. The current study investigated hypothesized relations between traditional social-cognitive looking-time paradigms and their real-world counterparts…

Dunphy-Lelii, Sarah; LaBounty, Jennifer; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.

2014-01-01

38

Networks in Social Policy Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.

Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco

2012-08-01

39

Developing Understanding and Social Skills through Cooperative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study has two parallel research agenda: (1) the development of social skills and pedagogical content knowledge in teacher candidates as they work collaboratively in pairs, and (2) the development of conceptual understanding and social skills in elementary school students who are taught by teacher candidates with cooperative learning…

Ferrer, Lourdes M.

2004-01-01

40

Understanding Students' Interactions: Why Varied Social Tasks Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many social interactions between school-age children contain both competitive and cooperative elements. In order to gain a better understanding of how students at risk for emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) negotiate social exchanges in cooperative and competitive-related tasks in comparison with non-EBD students: (a) prosocial; (b)…

Rinaldi, Christina M.; Kates, Allison D.; Welton, Christine

2008-01-01

41

Understanding the transmission access and wheeling problem  

SciTech Connect

Institutional and regulatory changes in the uses of the nation's bulk power transmission systems that fail to recognize the technical complexity of the systems and the planning and operating problems involved can be disruptive of system reliability and of economic incentive needed for new facilities and technology. This article reviews basic technical and economic considerations connected with the transmission access problem. 2 figures.

Casazza, J.A.

1985-10-31

42

Dolphin Social Cognition and Joint Attention: Our Current Understanding  

E-print Network

Dolphin Social Cognition and Joint Attention: Our Current Understanding Adam A. Pack1, 2 and Louis M. Herman1, 2 1 The Dolphin Institute, 420 Ward Avenue, Suite 212, Honolulu, HI 96814, USA 2 or locations. Studies of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have revealed that they understand (1) human

Hawaii at Hilo, University of

43

STATUS QUO PROBLEM IN SOCIAL SECURITY REFORMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several papers show that a privatization of the social security system will not be politically supported by the current generations. The asymmetry in the timing of welfare gains and losses is what generates a status quo bias in favor of the unfunded system. We explore a simple mechanism to offset the status quo problem using a general-equilibrium overlapping generations model

JUAN CARLOS CONESA; CARLOS GARRIGA

2003-01-01

44

Less Drinking, Yet More Problems: Understanding African American Drinking and Related Problems  

PubMed Central

Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but which also provides within group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Smith, Gregory T.

2013-01-01

45

Social Studies Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding Sociology Concepts within Social Studies Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims at investigating social studies student teachers' levels of understanding sociology concepts within social studies curriculum. Study group of the research consists of 266 teacher candidates attending the Department of Social Studies, Faculty of Education, Kastamonu University during 2012 to 2013 education year. A semi-structured…

Karatekin, Kadir

2013-01-01

46

Reading and Understanding Written Math Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article by Brenda Krick-Morales identifies the difficulties that English Language Learners (ELLs) have with math word problems. The author identifies teaching strategies to help improve comprehension in the lower grades and in the upper grades. This article is related to "Math Instruction for English Language Learners" by Kristina Robertson, which is cataloged separately in this database.

Brenda Krick-Morales

2006-01-01

47

Understanding the Public's Health Problems: Applications of Symbolic Interaction to Public Health.  

PubMed

Public health has typically investigated health issues using methods from the positivistic paradigm. Yet these approaches, although they are able to quantify the problem, may not be able to explain the social reasons of why the problem exists or the impact on those affected. This article will provide a brief overview of a sociological theory that provides methods and a theoretical framework that has proven useful in understanding public health problems and developing interventions. PMID:25475083

Maycock, Bruce

2015-01-01

48

Captured by Motion: Dance, Action Understanding, and Social Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this review article, we summarize the main findings from empirical studies that used dance-related forms of rhythmical full body movement as a research tool for investigating action understanding and social cognition. This work has proven to be informative about behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate links between perceptual and motor…

Sevdalis, Vassilis; Keller, Peter E.

2011-01-01

49

Friendly social robot that understands human's friendly relationships  

E-print Network

, a robot system can estimate a human's subjective evaluation of the robot by observing his/her body-attention mechanism [7]. In these systems, the robots identify humans' intentions from their behaviors. FurthermoreFriendly social robot that understands human's friendly relationships Takayuki Kanda 1 , Rumi Sato

Kanda, Takayuki

50

Understanding Islamist political violence through computational social simulation  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the process that enables political violence is of great value in reducing the future demand for and support of violent opposition groups. Methods are needed that allow alternative scenarios and counterfactuals to be scientifically researched. Computational social simulation shows promise in developing 'computer experiments' that would be unfeasible or unethical in the real world. Additionally, the process of modeling and simulation reveals and challenges assumptions that may not be noted in theories, exposes areas where data is not available, and provides a rigorous, repeatable, and transparent framework for analyzing the complex dynamics of political violence. This paper demonstrates the computational modeling process using two simulation techniques: system dynamics and agent-based modeling. The benefits and drawbacks of both techniques are discussed. In developing these social simulations, we discovered that the social science concepts and theories needed to accurately simulate the associated psychological and social phenomena were lacking.

Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mackerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patelli, Paolo G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eberhardt, Ariane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stradling, Seth G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

51

Learning to Understand the Problems Faced by Cleveland: America's First Community Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategy and Impact. The Cleveland Foundation's initial purpose was to alleviate the social ills facing Cleveland, beginning with poverty. Its strategy would be to study the city in detail and to gain a deeper understanding of the problems it faced. Within six weeks of the creation of The Cleveland Foundation, Frederick Goff expressed his intention that the Foundation conduct \\

Steven Schindler

52

Understanding Climate Policy Using Participatory Agent-Based Social Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated assessment models (IAMs) have been widely applied to questions of climate change policy—such as the effects of\\u000a abating greenhouse gas emissions, balancing impacts, adaptation and mitigation costs, understanding processes of adaptation,\\u000a and evaluating the potential for technological solutions. In almost all cases, the social dimensions of climate policy are\\u000a poorly represented. Econometric models look for efficient optimal solutions. Decision

Thomas E. Downing; Scott Moss; Claudia Pahl-wostl

2000-01-01

53

Using Social Development Lenses to Understand E-Government Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

As governments at different levels and all around the world are increasingly using the Web to enhance and improve their services, understanding e-government development and exploring factors that affect e-government development have become important research topics. The purpose of this research is to investigate factors explaining e-government development in terms of social development lenses. Based on growth and regional development

Keng Siau; Yuan Long

2006-01-01

54

Analysis of Social Problem Solving and Social Self-Efficacy in Prospective Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between social problem solving and social selfefficacy and the predictive role of social problem solving skills with social self-efficacy. The sample consists of 706 prospective teachers (362 female and 344 male) who are majoring in different fields at Mugla Sitki Kocman…

Erozkan, Atilgan

2014-01-01

55

The Investigation of Social Problem Solving Abilities of University Students in Terms of Perceived Social Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to analyze of university students' perceived social support and social problem solving. The participants were 827 (474 female and 353 male) university students. Data were collected Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (Yildirim, 2004) and Social Problem Solving (Maydeu-Olivares and D'Zurilla, 1996)…

Tras, Zeliha

2013-01-01

56

Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…

Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

2007-01-01

57

Rethinking conformity and imitation: divergence, convergence, and social understanding  

PubMed Central

Social and developmental psychologists have stressed the pervasiveness and strength of humans’ tendencies to conform and to imitate, and social anthropologists have argued that these tendencies are crucial to the formation of cultures. Research from four domains is reviewed and elaborated to show that divergence is also pervasive and potent, and it is interwoven with convergence in a complex set of dynamics that is often unnoticed or minimized. First, classic research in social conformity is reinterpreted in terms of truth, trust, and social solidarity, revealing that dissent is its most salient feature. Second, recent studies of children’s use of testimony to guide action reveal a surprisingly sophisticated balance of trust and prudence, and a concern for truth and charity. Third, new experiments indicate that people diverge from others even under conditions where conformity seems assured. Fourth, current studies of imitation provide strong evidence that children are both selective and faithful in who, what, and why they follow others. All of the evidence reviewed points toward children and adults as being engaged, embodied partners with others, motivated to learn and understand the world, others, and themselves in ways that go beyond goals and rules, prediction and control. Even young children act as if they are in a dialogical relationship with others and the world, rather than acting as if they are solo explorers or blind followers. Overall, the evidence supports the hypothesis that social understanding cannot be reduced to convergence or divergence, but includes ongoing activities that seek greater comprehensiveness and complexity in the ability to act and interact effectively, appropriately, and with integrity. PMID:25071687

Hodges, Bert H.

2014-01-01

58

Analysis of Online Social Networks to Understand Information Sharing Behaviors Through Social Cognitive Theory  

SciTech Connect

Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of leaders on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of followers , people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.

Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL] [ORNL; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

59

Narrativity and enaction: the social nature of literary narrative understanding  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones. PMID:25202286

Popova, Yanna B.

2014-01-01

60

Understanding Customer Problem Troubleshooting from Storage System Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Customer problem troubleshooting has been a crit- ically important issue for both customers and system providers. This paper makes two major contributions to better understand this topic. First, it provides one of the first characteristic stud- ies of customer problem troubleshooting using a large set (636,108)of real world customer cases reported from 100,000 commercially deployed storage systems in the last

Weihang Jiang; Chongfeng Hu; Shankar Pasupathy; Arkady Kanevsky; Zhenmin Li; Yuanyuan Zhou

2009-01-01

61

Understanding social insurance: fairness, affordability, and the 'modernization' of Social Security and Medicare.  

PubMed

Americans have been urged for several decades to view Social Security and Medicare as political relics--both unaffordable and unfair in light of contemporary demographic and fiscal circumstances and the practices of modern financial markets and modern medicine. Proposals abound for "modernizing" both systems to emphasize choice, competition, and individual ownership. This paper contends that critics of Social Security and Medicare have misanalyzed the problems of both programs and are urging misdirected reforms. The critics, we argue, are often wrong factually and sometimes confused conceptually. More fundamentally, these critiques and proposals are either ignorant of or hostile to the fundamental logic of social insurance. PMID:16551642

Marmor, Theodore R; Mashaw, Jerry L

2006-01-01

62

Understanding and avoiding potential problems in implementing automation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technology-driven efforts to implement automation often encounter problems due to lack of acceptance or begrudging acceptance by the personnel involved. It is argued in this paper that the level of automation perceived by an individual heavily influences whether or not the automation is accepted by that individual. The factors that appear to affect perceived level of automation are discussed. Issues considered include the impact of automation on the system and the individual, correlates of acceptance, problems and risks of automation, and factors influencing alienation. Based on an understanding of these issues, a set of eight guidelines is proposed as a possible means of avoiding problems in implementing automation.

Rouse, W. B.; Morris, N. M.

1985-11-01

63

Understanding and avoiding potential problems in implementing automation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology-driven efforts to implement automation often encounter problems due to lack of acceptance or begrudging acceptance by the personnel involved. It is argued in this paper that the level of automation perceived by an individual heavily influences whether or not the automation is accepted by that individual. The factors that appear to affect perceived level of automation are discussed. Issues considered include the impact of automation on the system and the individual, correlates of acceptance, problems and risks of automation, and factors influencing alienation. Based on an understanding of these issues, a set of eight guidelines is proposed as a possible means of avoiding problems in implementing automation.

Rouse, W. B.; Morris, N. M.

1985-01-01

64

The Problem of Wife Abuse: The Interrelationship of Social Policy and Social Work Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses feminist perspective and problem of wife abuse to illustrate how ideology affects social policy and direct practice models. Warns that society and social work seek to address problem by developing programs to treat victims rather than abusers. Suggests that social work recommit itself to model that focuses on person-in-environment to avoid…

Davis, Liane V.; Hagen, Jan L.

1992-01-01

65

Social Emotional Optimization Algorithm for Nonlinear Constrained Optimization Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear programming problem is one important branch in operational research, and has been successfully applied to various real-life problems. In this paper, a new approach called Social emotional optimization algorithm (SEOA) is used to solve this problem which is a new swarm intelligent technique by simulating the human behavior guided by emotion. Simulation results show that the social emotional optimization algorithm proposed in this paper is effective and efficiency for the nonlinear constrained programming problems.

Xu, Yuechun; Cui, Zhihua; Zeng, Jianchao

66

Age Moderates the Relationship between Social Support and Psychosocial Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the association between social support from various sources and psychosocial problems, and how these associations vary over the life span. Finds that perceived social support and contact with social network members appears to have beneficial effects for all participants, as evidenced through reduced symptoms of depression and loneliness.…

Segrin, Chris

2003-01-01

67

Social Competence and Behavior Problems in Chinese Preschoolers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated social competence and problem behaviors of 370 Chinese preschoolers. Found anxiety-withdrawal, anger-aggression, and social competence factors related to age and gender differences. Found high reliability and validity for the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation (SCBE-30) scale in this Chinese sample. (DLH)

Chen, Qin; Jiang, Yong

2002-01-01

68

An Empirical Method for Assessing Social Problem Solving in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a multimethod social problem-solving battery for schizophrenia is described. The battery is unique in that empirical methods were used throughout its development. The battery includes components that tap skills for response generation and response evaluation. The behavioral components of social problem solving are assessed in an extended role-play format. Individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, as well

Margaret D. Sayers; Alan S. Bellack; Julie H. Wade; Melanie E. Bennett; Pattey Fong

1995-01-01

69

Designing Problem-Driven Instruction with Online Social Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designing Problem-Driven Instruction with Online Social Media has the capacity to transform an educator's teaching style by presenting innovative ways to empower problem-based instruction with online social media. Knowing that not all instructors are comfortable in this area, this book provides clear, systematic design approaches for instructors…

Kyeong-Ju Seo, Kay, Ed.; Pellegrino, Debra A., Ed.; Engelhard, Chalee, Ed.

2012-01-01

70

Social Context of Drinking and Alcohol Problems among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for…

Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

2008-01-01

71

Compassion Fatigue: Communication and Burnout toward Social Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study establishes the construct of “compassion fatigue,” encompassing desensitization and emotional burnout, as a phenomenon associated with pervasive communication about social problems. The study marks the first-known empirical investigation of compassion fatigue as it relates to media coverage and interpersonal communication about social problems. A telephone survey methodology was used to measure compassion fatigue among a general, adult population

Katherine N. Kinnick; Dean M. Krugman; Glen T. Cameron

1996-01-01

72

Social Problem Solving and Health Behaviors of Undergraduate Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship of social problem solving to health behaviors as reported by 126 undergraduate students. Findings revealed significant relationships between elements of social problem solving and wellness and accident prevention behaviors, and traffic and substance risk taking. However, correlations revealed differences between men and…

Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others

1997-01-01

73

Do Social Relationships Protect Victimized Children against Internalizing Problems?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether social relationships protect children against the effects of victimization on internalizing problems. We used data from the Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Victimization at age 8 years was associated with internalizing problems at age 9 years. Victims who had siblings, warm parents, and a…

Averdijk, Margit; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

2014-01-01

74

Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

2013-01-01

75

Problem Solving and Community Activity Series: Understanding the Problem with Wooden Legs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document for teachers provides four activities to develop students' ability to understand and interpret problems. These strategies help students deepen their focus and improve their problem-solving skills. The document includes both Problem Solving goals and Communication goals, as well as sample activities and specific examples related to the Wooden Legs Problem of the Week from the Math Forum. A copy of the complete problem, the scenario (with the question removed) and student handouts for applying the problem-solving strategies are also provided.

Ray, Max; Weimar, Stephen; Regis, Troy P.

2011-01-01

76

Social skill and aging: principles and problems.  

PubMed

Over the last two decades it has become increasingly recognized that concepts of skill, formulated originally for sensory-motor tasks such as industrial operations, can be applied to interaction between people. The need for social skills in the interactions between old people, their contemporaries, and younger people with whom they have contact, are explored, and suggestions are made for training social skills in order to improve human relations with and between the elderly. It is also argued that present ideas, favoring opportunities for older people to live in communities with those of like mind, can lessen the need for social skills by reducing the social demands of institutional living. PMID:6671800

Welford, A T

1983-01-01

77

Broken heart stories: understanding Aboriginal women's cardiac problems.  

PubMed

Many Aboriginal communities call heart problems, and in particular cardiovascular disease, "White man's sickness." At the same time, Aboriginal women present with some of the highest rates of this disease. Against this backdrop, we explored how women with cardiac problems understand their heart health and used narrative-discursive methods to analyze interviews conducted with women from two First Nations in North America. The women told stories that were riddled with contradictions, unfolding a complicated personal and cultural reality of living with cardiovascular disease. In many stories, heart disease was described as resulting from a "community imbalance" in the wake of colonialism whereby the women had to take over the traditional roles of men. Their ideas of heart disease risk and healing flowed from this understanding. They derived a sense of strength, however, from their ability to undertake both gender roles. Based on our findings, we provide some recommendations for cardiac care. PMID:24172021

Medved, Maria I; Brockmeier, Jens; Morach, Judy; Chartier-Courchene, Lori

2013-12-01

78

Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

2012-01-01

79

Social cognitive problem solving and childhood adjustment: Qualitative and topological analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social-cognitive problem solving (SCPS) has been proposed and often accepted as relating positively to social and emotional adjustment, yet empirical support has been inconsistent. This study assessed the SCPS skills of 150 middle-class 6- to 11-year-old children through the use of qualitative, quantitative, and topological measures. Six quality dimensions were employed: Effectiveness, Inappropriateness, Aggressiveness, Passivity, Affective Understanding, and Interpersonal Content.

Gary L. Fischler; Philip C. Kendall

1988-01-01

80

Exposure to Violence, Social Information Processing, and Problem Behavior in Preschool Children  

PubMed Central

Understanding the mechanisms by which early risk factors for social maladjustment contribute to disruptive behaviors in social settings is vital to developmental research and practice. A major risk factor for social maladjustment is early exposure to violence which was examined in this short-term longitudinal study in relation to social information processing patterns and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 256 preschool children. Data on exposure to violence were obtained via parent report, data on social information processing were obtained via child interview, and data on child problem behavior were obtained via teacher report. Findings supported the hypothesis that, compared to children not exposed to violence, children reported to witness and/or experience violence are more likely to attribute hostile intent to peers, generate aggressive responses, and evaluate socially unaccepted responses (aggressive and inept) as socially suitable. The former were also found to exhibit higher levels of externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Finally, social information processing mediated the link between exposure to violence and problem behavior thus supporting this study’s general approach which argues that the link between exposure to violence and children’s problem behaviors are better understood within the context of their perceptions about social relationships. PMID:23011955

Ziv, Yair

2012-01-01

81

High school students' understanding and problem solving in population genetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is an investigation of student understanding of population genetics and how students developed, used and revised conceptual models to solve problems. The students in this study participated in three rounds of problem solving. The first round involved the use of a population genetics model to predict the number of carriers in a population. The second round required them to revise their model of simple dominance population genetics to make inferences about populations containing three phenotype variations. The third round of problem solving required the students to revise their model of population genetics to explain anomalous data where the proportions of males and females with a trait varied significantly. As the students solved problems, they were involved in basic scientific processes as they observed population phenomena, constructed explanatory models to explain the data they observed, and attempted to persuade their peers as to the adequacy of their models. In this study, the students produced new knowledge about the genetics of a trait in a population through the revision and use of explanatory population genetics models using reasoning that was similar to what scientists do. The students learned, used and revised a model of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to generate and test hypotheses about the genetics of phenotypes given only population data. Students were also interviewed prior to and following instruction. This study suggests that a commonly held intuitive belief about the predominance of a dominant variation in populations is resistant to change, despite instruction and interferes with a student's ability to understand Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and microevolution.

Soderberg, Patti D.

82

Social Problems of Drug Use and Drug Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social and legal policies that control or prevent the use of mind-altering drugs are the main cause of the social problems arising from their use. The existing policies are ineffective; the wrong drugs receive the most attention and laws are directed at the wrong phase of the cycle of promotion, distribution and use. The following reforms are…

Fort, Joel

83

Social-Cognitive Competence, Peer Rejection and Neglect, and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Middle Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This prospective, longitudinal study examines individual differences in two conceptually related but empirically distinct domains of social-cognitive competence (cognitive interpretive understanding and interpersonal perspective co-ordination) as moderators of the relation between peer rejection and neglect and behavioral and emotional problems in…

Hoglund, Wendy L. G.; Lalonde, Christopher E.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

2008-01-01

84

The Problem of the Other in Research on Theory of Mind and Social Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of research on theory of mind and research on social development yields divergent conclusions regarding young children’s awareness of the nature of the internal states of others. This divergence partially reflects methodological differences between the two paradigms, but also more fundamental differences in researchers’ framing of the problem of understanding others’ mental states as either an intrapsychic or an

Cybele Raver; Bonnie J Leadbeater

1993-01-01

85

Understanding Social Media Use as Alienation: A Review and Critique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The opportunities social media provide for agential expressions of subjectivity and experiential learning, relative to social media's role in reproducing digital-era capitalism, are the subject of keen debate. There is now a burgeoning academic literature which suggests that social media users are, to a greater or lesser degree, alienated by…

Reveley, James

2013-01-01

86

Illuminating the dark matter of social neuroscience: Considering the problem of social interaction from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives  

PubMed Central

Successful human social interaction depends on our capacity to understand other people's mental states and to anticipate how they will react to our actions. Despite its importance to the human condition, the exact mechanisms underlying our ability to understand another's actions, feelings, and thoughts are still a matter of conjecture. Here, we consider this problem from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives. In a critical review, we demonstrate that attempts to draw parallels across these complementary disciplines is premature: The second-person perspective does not map directly to Interaction or Simulation theories, online social cognition, or shared neural network accounts underlying action observation or empathy. Nor does the third-person perspective map onto Theory-Theory (TT), offline social cognition, or the neural networks that support Theory of Mind (ToM). Moreover, we argue that important qualities of social interaction emerge through the reciprocal interplay of two independent agents whose unpredictable behavior requires that models of their partner's internal state be continually updated. This analysis draws attention to the need for paradigms in social neuroscience that allow two individuals to interact in a spontaneous and natural manner and to adapt their behavior and cognitions in a response contingent fashion due to the inherent unpredictability in another person's behavior. Even if such paradigms were implemented, it is possible that the specific neural correlates supporting such reciprocal interaction would not reflect computation unique to social interaction but rather the use of basic cognitive and emotional processes combined in a unique manner. Finally, we argue that given the crucial role of social interaction in human evolution, ontogeny, and every-day social life, a more theoretically and methodologically nuanced approach to the study of real social interaction will nevertheless help the field of social cognition to evolve. PMID:22737120

Przyrembel, Marisa; Smallwood, Jonathan; Pauen, Michael; Singer, Tania

2012-01-01

87

Social Determinants and Their Unequal Distribution: Clarifying Policy Understandings  

PubMed Central

Public health policy in older industrialized societies is being reconfigured to improve population health and to address inequalities in the social distribution of health. The concept of social determinants is central to these policies, with tackling the social influences on health seen as a way to reduce health inequalities. But the social factors promoting and undermining the health of individuals and populations should not be confused with the social processes underlying their unequal distribution. This distinction is important because, despite better health and improvement in health determinants, social disparities persist. The article argues that more emphasis on social inequalities is required for a determinants-oriented approach to be able to inform policies to address health inequalities. PMID:15016245

Graham, Hilary

2004-01-01

88

An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence  

PubMed Central

Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both), which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions. PMID:22701416

Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Jasinska, Agnes J.

2012-01-01

89

Social Networking Sites: An Adjunctive Treatment Modality for Psychological Problems  

PubMed Central

Background: Social networking is seen as a way to enhance social support and feeling of well-being. The present work explores the potentials of social networking sites as an adjunctive treatment modality for initiating treatment contact as well as for managing psychological problems. Materials and Methods: Interview schedule, Facebook intensity questionnaire were administered on 28 subjects with a combination of 18 males and 10 females. They were taken from the in-patient and out-patient psychiatry setting of the hospital. Results: Facebook was the most popular sites and used to seek emotional support on the basis of the frequent updates of emotional content that users put in their profile; reconciliations, escape from the problems or to manage the loneliness; getting information about illness and its treatment and interaction with experts and also manifested as problematic use. Conclusions: It has implications for developing social networking based adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems. PMID:25035548

Menon, Indu S.; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chandra, Prabha S.; Thennarasu, K.

2014-01-01

90

Children's Social Self-Concept and Internalizing Problems: The Influence of Peers and Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to understand how relationships with peers and teachers contribute to the development of internalizing problems via children's social self-concept. The sample included 570 children aged 7 years 5 months (SD = 4.6 months). Peer nominations of peer rejection, child-reported social self-concept, and teacher-reported…

Spilt, Jantine L.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Leflot, Geertje; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

2014-01-01

91

Understanding Social Work in the History of Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The purpose of this article is to present a theoretical frame of reference for the study and assessment of social work from the perspective of a history of ideas. Method: The study employed an analysis of primary and secondary historical sources. Results: Social work as a practice and research field is embedded in the genesis of modern…

Soydan, Haluk

2012-01-01

92

Understanding Adolescent Parenting: The Dimensions and Functions of Social Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents model of adolescent parenting, emphasizing multiple influences that social support has on maternal personality, health and nutritional status, cognitive readiness for parenting, and actual parenting behavior and child development. Concludes life span perspective is useful in evaluating teenage mother's social support needs and individual…

Nath, Pamela S.; And Others

1991-01-01

93

Understanding and Accommodating Online Social Communities: A Common Sense Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online social networks such as Facebook have changed the context and definitions of socialization. Focusing on teacher use, this article considers the size and impact of these forums and the importance many young professionals feel toward them. Themed as a common sense approach, the author uses anecdotal points and discussions with…

Lennon, Sean M.

2013-01-01

94

Understanding Social Presence in Text-Based Online Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on key aspects of a theory generative study into social presence in text-based online learning environments. The focus of the article is the nature of social presence as experienced by online learners in those environments. Employing a collective case study design, the study accessed online learners' experience-based heuristic…

Kehrwald, Benjamin

2008-01-01

95

Understanding Green Purchase Behavior: College Students and Socialization Agents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taking the perspective of consumer socialization theory, this study examined the influences of different socialization agents on consumers' purchases of green products. A total of 224 surveys were distributed to students enrolled in a business-related course at a major university in the northeastern United States. The objectives were twofold. The…

Yan, Ruoh-Nan; Xu, Huimin

2010-01-01

96

Problem Social Behavior in the Workplace: An Analysis of Social Behavior Problems in a Supported Employment Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study used job-trainer logs and two rating scales to investigate social problems encountered by 43 supported employees with mental retardation. Logs indicated 58% experienced one or more incidents of interpersonal difficulty during their employment tenure and 40% of the problems could be described as sexuality-related. (Author/CR)

Reitman, David; Drabman, Ronald S.; Speaks, Lynda V.; Burkley, Sherrel; Rhode, Paula C.

1999-01-01

97

Understanding University Reform in Japan through the Prism of the Social Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article looks at current university reforms in Japan through two slightly different social science prisms: how social science methodologies and theories can help us understand those reforms better and how social science teaching in universities will be affected by the current reform processes. (Contains 3 tables and 7 notes.)

Goodman, Roger

2008-01-01

98

False Belief, Emotion Understanding, and Social Skills among Head Start and Non-Head Start Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated relationships among false belief, emotion understanding, and social skills with 60 3- to 5-year-olds (29 boys, 31 girls) from Head Start and two other preschools. Children completed language, false belief, and emotion understanding measures; parents and teachers evaluated children's social skills. Children's false…

Weimer, Amy A.; Guajardo, Nicole R.

2005-01-01

99

A sound understanding of environmental issues comes from a recognition of the interconnectedness of social and biophysical factors. As our comprehension  

E-print Network

of social and biophysical factors. As our comprehension of these relationships has grown, the role of equity a student's research, problem-solving, interpersonal, communication and administrative skills within the context of understanding broad environmental dynamics. You will examine the historical, scientific, social

Edwards, Paul N.

100

Does Neighborhood Social Capital Buffer the Effects of Maternal Depression on Adolescent Behavior Problems?  

PubMed Central

Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives. PMID:24659390

Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

2014-01-01

101

Understanding social influence using network analysis and machine learning  

E-print Network

If we are to enact better policy, fight crime and decrease poverty, we will need better computational models of how society works. In order to make computational social science a useful reality, we will need generative ...

Adjodah, Dhaval D. K. (Adjodlah, Dhaval Dhamnidhi Kumar)

2013-01-01

102

Tackling complexities in understanding the social determinants of health: the contribution of ethnographic research  

PubMed Central

Objective The complexities inherent in understanding the social determinants of health are often not well-served by quantitative approaches. My aim is to show that well-designed and well-conducted ethnographic studies have an important contribution to make in this regard. Ethnographic research designs are a difficult but rigorous approach to research questions that require us to understand the complexity of people’s social and cultural lives. Approach I draw on an ethnographic study to describe the complexities of studying maternal health in a rural area in India. I then show how the lessons learnt in that setting and context can be applied to studies done in very different settings. Results I show how ethnographic research depends for rigour on a theoretical framework for sample selection; why immersion in the community under study, and rapport building with research participants, is important to ensure rich and meaningful data; and how flexible approaches to data collection lead to the gradual emergence of an analysis based on intense cross-referencing with community views and thus a conclusion that explains the similarities and differences observed. Conclusion When using ethnographic research design it can be difficult to specify in advance the exact details of the study design. Researchers can encounter issues in the field that require them to change what they planned on doing. In rigorous ethnographic studies, the researcher in the field is the research instrument and needs to be well trained in the method. Implication Ethnographic research is challenging, but nevertheless provides a rewarding way of researching complex health problems that require an understanding of the social and cultural determinants of health. PMID:22168509

2011-01-01

103

Social capital in Japanese-Western alliances: understanding cultural effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explain the culture-driven role and effects of social capital in Japanese-Western alliances. The authors move beyond narrow conceptualizations of relationship bonding (i.e. positive socio-psychological aspects such as trust and commitment) to explore the broader role of social capital (e.g. in destructive act recovery processes) in such alliances. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The conceptual

Stephanie Slater; Matthew J. Robson

2012-01-01

104

Understanding Classrooms through Social Network Analysis: A Primer for Social Network Analysis in Education Research  

PubMed Central

Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA) provides the necessary tool kit for investigating questions involving relational data. We introduce basic concepts in SNA, along with methods for data collection, data processing, and data analysis, using a previously collected example study on an undergraduate biology classroom as a tutorial. We conduct descriptive analyses of the structure of the network of costudying relationships. We explore generative processes that create observed study networks between students and also test for an association between network position and success on exams. We also cover practical issues, such as the unique aspects of human subjects review for network studies. Our aims are to convince readers that using SNA in classroom environments allows rich and informative analyses to take place and to provide some initial tools for doing so, in the process inspiring future educational studies incorporating relational data.

Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.

2014-01-01

105

Understanding Wicked Problems: A Key to Advancing Environmental Health Promotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have…

Kreuter, Marshall W.; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.

2004-01-01

106

Understanding social complexity within the wildland-urban interface: a new species of human habitation?  

PubMed

The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management. PMID:19238478

Paveglio, Travis B; Jakes, Pamela J; Carroll, Matthew S; Williams, Daniel R

2009-06-01

107

Understanding Social Complexity Within the Wildland-Urban Interface: A New Species of Human Habitation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management.

Paveglio, Travis B.; Jakes, Pamela J.; Carroll, Matthew S.; Williams, Daniel R.

2009-06-01

108

Understanding knowledge sharing in virtual communities: An integration of social capital and social cognitive theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biggest challenge in fostering a virtual community is the supply of knowledge, namely the willingness to share knowledge with other members. This paper integrates the Social Cognitive Theory and the Social Capital Theory to construct a model for investigating the motivations behind people's knowledge sharing in virtual communities. The study holds that the facets of social capital — social

Chao-min Chiu; Meng-Hsiang Hsu; Eric T. G. Wang

2006-01-01

109

Children's Interpretive Understanding, Moral Judgments, and Emotion Attributions: Relations to Social Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated interpretive understanding, moral judgments, and emotion attributions in relation to social behaviour in a sample of 59 5-year-old, 123 7-year-old, and 130 9-year-old children. Interpretive understanding was assessed by two tasks measuring children's understanding of ambiguous situations. Moral judgments and emotion…

Malti, Tina; Gasser, Luciano; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

2010-01-01

110

The Problem of Social Cost in a Genetically Modified Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

One fundamental impetus for the development of modern law stems from the need to settle disputes between neighbors. Indeed, the focus of the most-cited article in law review history, Ronald Coase's The Problem of Social Cost, is firmly on the issue of how the law should deal with someone who interferes with the use of a neighbor's property. The myriad

Paul J. Heald; James C. Smith

2006-01-01

111

Fatherless America: Confronting Our Most Urgent Social Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States is rapidly becoming a fatherless society. Fatherlessness is the leading cause of declining child well-being, providing the impetus behind social problems such as crime, domestic violence, and adolescent pregnancy. Challenging the basic assumptions of opinion leaders in academia and in the media, this book debunks the prevailing…

Blankenhorn, David

112

Understanding student pathways in context-rich problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the ways that students’ problem-solving behaviors evolve when solving multi-faceted, context-rich problems\\u000a within a web-based learning environment. During the semester, groups of two or three students worked on five physics problems\\u000a that required drawing on more than one concept and, hence, could not be readily solved with simple “plug-and-chug” strategies.\\u000a The problems were presented to students in

Pavlo D. Antonenko; Craig A. Ogilvie; Dale S. Niederhauser; John Jackman; Piyamart Kumsaikaew; Rahul R. Marathe; Sarah M. Ryan

113

Understanding the Complexity of Economic, Ecological, and Social Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchies and adaptive cycles comprise the basis of ecosystems and social-ecological systems across scales. Together they\\u000a form a panarchy. The panarchy describes how a healthy system can invent and experiment, benefiting from inventions that create\\u000a opportunity while being kept safe from those that destabilize because of their nature or excessive exuberance. Each level\\u000a is allowed to operate at its own

C. S. Holling

2001-01-01

114

Social balance as a satisfiability problem of computer science.  

PubMed

Reduction of frustration was the driving force in an approach to social balance as it was recently considered by Antal [T. Antal, P. L. Krapivsky, and S. Redner, Phys. Rev. E 72, 036121 (2005)]. We generalize their triad dynamics to k-cycle dynamics for arbitrary integer k. We derive the phase structure, determine the stationary solutions, and calculate the time it takes to reach a frozen state. The main difference in the phase structure as a function of k is related to k being even or odd. As a second generalization we dilute the all-to-all coupling as considered by Antal to a random network with connection probability w<1. Interestingly, this model can be mapped to a satisfiability problem of computer science. The phase of social balance in our original interpretation then becomes the phase of satisfaction of all logical clauses in the satisfiability problem. In common to the cases we study, the ideal solution without any frustration always exists, but the question actually is as to whether this solution can be found by means of a local stochastic algorithm within a finite time. The answer depends on the choice of parameters. After establishing the mapping between the two classes of models, we generalize the social-balance problem to a diluted network topology for which the satisfiability problem is usually studied. On the other hand, in connection with the satisfiability problem we generalize the random local algorithm to a p-random local algorithm, including a parameter p that corresponds to the propensity parameter in the social balance problem. The qualitative effect of the inclusion of this parameter is a bias towards the optimal solution and a reduction of the needed simulation time. PMID:17358393

Radicchi, Filippo; Vilone, Daniele; Yoon, Sooeyon; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

2007-02-01

115

Image understanding of oblique ionograms: the autoscaling problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an image understanding system for oblique ionograms, which are a two dimensional measurement of the high frequency properties of the ionosphere. The system for image understanding of oblique ionograms (called “autoscaling”) presented here involves three stages. Firstly, the ionogram is filtered by estimating the noise in each pixel of the image by fitting orthogonal second order multinomials

Nicholas J. Redding

1996-01-01

116

Conceptual Understanding in Social Education. ACER Research Monograph No. 45.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the results of a 1992 survey of students' economic, geographical, cultural, historical, and political understandings in the state of Victoria (Australia). The conception of some 2,900 students in Years 5 and 9 in government, Catholic and independent schools are investigated and described. The survey is one of a series of…

Doig, Brian; And Others

117

Getting Vygotskian about Theory of Mind: Mediation, Dialogue, and the Development of Social Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ideas of Vygotsky [Vygotsky, L. S. (1987). "Thinking and speech." In "The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky," (Vol. 1). New York: Plenum. (Original work published 1934.)] have been increasingly influential in accounting for social-environmental influences on the development of social understanding (SU). In the first part of this article, I…

Fernyhough, Charles

2008-01-01

118

The Culture Gap: Some Problems in Understanding English Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the English curriculum, a course to provide familiarity with Western culture may prevent the problem of foreign students' misunderstanding Western literature. This problem was observed at Iran Girls' College during an American literature short story class conducted for advanced seniors, none of whom had been in America but whose English…

Tezer, Phyllis

119

Using educational technologies to understand how learners solve problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine how a highly interactive educational technology program Child Growth & Development in the first 12 months of life was used to investigate the problem solving behaviour of learners. This preliminary study was also used to evaluate the study instruments ahead of a more substantial investigation. The design of the program was informed by Problem Based

Kristine A. Elliott; Gregor E. Kennedy

120

Key Indicators of the Transition from Social to Problem Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the International Gambling Conference: Policy, Practice and Research in 2004 (Clarke, eCommunity-International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 3:29–40, 2005), a paper was presented which proposed key indicators of the transition from social to problem gambling and to recovery, based on a review of literature on factors leading to substance abuse. They included availability of gambling activities, lack of

Dave Clarke; Samson Tse; Max Abbott; Sonia Townsend; Pefi Kingi; Wiremu Manaia

2006-01-01

121

General Problems of Collecting and Understanding World Energy Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to improve the understanding of the available world energy supply data, which are being imperfectly interpreted and increasingly used. There are basic differences in reserves concepts and definitions between the primary energy resources. There is insufficient knowledge to justify the apparent precision of original measurements of most energy resources. The collection of energy data is in many

D. C. Ion

1974-01-01

122

Understanding the Problems of Transition into Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper reports on a study which compares the teaching of business and business related subjects in one English university and a number of associated tertiary (post-16) colleges. The research was carried out to explore similarities and differences in the teaching and learning environments in these two sectors in order to gain a better understanding of why some students

Helen Crabtree; Carole Roberts; Christine Tyler

123

The Problem is People, Social Studies: 6425.07.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Population education is the focus of this quinmester curriculum guide for secondary students. By examining and comparing past population theories of Malthus and Marx with present theories students will better understand the present situation, cultural attitudes toward the problems, and the ecological consequences of overpopulation. Objectives are…

Ratchford, Frank

124

Understanding Knowledge Sharing between IT Professionals--An Integration of Social Cognitive and Social Exchange Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was…

Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang

2012-01-01

125

Embeddedness and Empathy: How the Social Network Shapes Adolescents' Social Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on theories of social-cognitive development, the present study investigated the yet unknown social structure that underlies the concept of empathy in adolescence. A total of 3.159 seventh graders (13.67 years, 56% girls) from 166 school classes participated by providing information on empathy, related psychosocial factors, and friendship…

Wolfer, Ralf; Cortina, Kai S.; Baumert, Jurgen

2012-01-01

126

Social Orientation: Problem Behavior and Motivations Toward Interpersonal Problem Solving Among High Risk Adolescents  

PubMed Central

A model of problematic adolescent behavior that expands current theories of social skill deficits in delinquent behavior to consider both social skills and orientation toward the use of adaptive skills was examined in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 113 male and female adolescents. Adolescents were selected on the basis of moderate to serious risk for difficulties in social adaptation in order to focus on the population of youth most likely to be targeted by prevention efforts. Structural equation modeling was used to examine cross-sectional data using multiple informants (adolescents, peers, and parents) and multiple methods (performance test and self-report). Adolescent social orientation, as reflected in perceived problem solving effectiveness, identification with adult prosocial values, and self-efficacy expectations, exhibited a direct association to delinquent behavior and an indirect association to drug involvement mediated by demonstrated success in using problem solving skills. Results suggest that the utility of social skill theories of adolescent problem behaviors for informing preventive and remedial interventions can be enhanced by expanding them to consider adolescents’ orientation toward using the skills they may already possess. PMID:16929380

Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Allen, Joseph P.

2006-01-01

127

Sociology provides the conceptual and methodological framework to understand society. Its primary goal is to stimulate thinking about society, applying imagination and critical analysis to the many facets of social life.  

E-print Network

Sociology provides the conceptual and methodological framework to understand society. Its primary facets of social life. Using the conceptual and methodological tools that sociology provides,we gain; the application of sociology can lead to a better understanding of social problems and issues and suggest how

Seldin, Jonathan P.

128

Methodological Problems in the Study of Organized Crime as a Social Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The secrecy of participants, the confidentiality of materials collected by investigative agencies, and the filters or screens on the perceptive apparatus of informants and investigators pose serious methodological problems for the social scientist who would change the state of knowledge about organized crime. There is overwhelming evidence that an organization variously called \\

Donald R. Cressey

1967-01-01

129

Social Realism and the Problem of the Problem of Knowledge in the Sociology of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines from a Social Realist perspective a set of issues in the sociology of education regarding the problem of knowledge. It focuses upon the issue of relativism associated with the constructionist approach that since the time of the New Sociology of Education in the 1970s has constituted in different forms the dominant perspective…

Moore, Rob

2013-01-01

130

Debunking Common Sense and the Taken for Granted: A Pedagogical Strategy for Teaching Social Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors argue that one approach to teaching Introduction to Social Problems is to structure the course content around taken-for-granted beliefs that many students have about the social world. In doing so, the authors discuss the social construction of social problems, how sociology differs from common sense, and the importance…

LeMoyne, Terri; Davis, Jean Marie

2011-01-01

131

Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

Dereli-Iman, Esra

2013-01-01

132

The Social fMRI: Measuring, Understanding, and Designing Social Mechanisms in the Real World  

E-print Network

A key challenge of data-driven social science is the gathering of high quality multi-dimensional datasets. A second challenge relates to design and execution of structured experimental interventions in-situ, in a way ...

Aharony, Nadav

133

Social networks as the context for understanding employment services utilization among homeless youth.  

PubMed

Little is known about the factors associated with use of employment services among homeless youth. Social network characteristics have been known to be influential in motivating people's decision to seek services. Traditional theoretical frameworks applied to studies of service use emphasize individual factors over social contexts and interactions. Using key social network, social capital, and social influence theories, this paper developed an integrated theoretical framework that capture the social network processes that act as barriers or facilitators of use of employment services by homeless youth, and understand empirically, the salience of each of these constructs in influencing the use of employment services among homeless youth. We used the "Event based-approach" strategy to recruit a sample of 136 homeless youth at one drop-in agency serving homeless youth in Los Angeles, California in 2008. The participants were queried regarding their individual and network characteristics. Data were entered into NetDraw 2.090 and the spring embedder routine was used to generate the network visualizations. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of the network characteristics on use of employment services. The study findings suggest that social capital is more significant in understanding why homeless youth use employment services, relative to network structure and network influence. In particular, bonding and bridging social capital were found to have differential effects on use of employment services among this population. The results from this study provide specific directions for interventions aimed to increase use of employment services among homeless youth. PMID:24780279

Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric

2014-08-01

134

Shared Understanding, Informed Participation, and Social Creativity Ń Objectives for the Next Generation of Collaborative Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex design problems require more knowledge than any single person possesses because the knowledge relevant to a problem is usually distributed among stakeholders. Bringing different and often controversial points of view together to create a shared understanding among these stakeholders can lead to new insights, new ideas, and new artifacts. New media that allow owners of problems to contribute to

Gerhard Fischer

135

Conceptual understanding of social capital in a First Nations community: a social determinant of oral health in children  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of the study was: (a) to better understand the concept of social capital and its potential role in oral health of children in a First Nations community and (b) to identify the strengths and resources in terms of social capital and a health promotion model that the community has at its disposal to address its oral health issues. Methods In this qualitative case study, participants were purposively selected in a First Nations community: Seven individual interviews and two focus groups involving 18 parents/care givers were selected. Putnam's concept of social capital guided all the interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed using the NVivo software. Results The community was close-knit and seemed to have strong moral fibre, which encouraged members to help each other. A strong bonding social capital was also found among the members, especially inside the clans (families). A need for improvement in bridging social capital that would help the community to reach external resources was observed. While members of the community were actively involved in religious rituals and cultural ceremonies, more efforts seemed to be required to recruit volunteers for other events or programs. Active engagement of community members in any program requires that members be given a voice as well as some ownership of the process. Mobilizing or building community's social capital can play a role when planning future interventions. Conclusions A better understanding of social capital may enhance the community's investment and efforts by reinforcing healthy oral behaviours and improving access to external resources. With more dynamic collaboration, it may be possible to create more sustainable community-based oral health promotion programs. PMID:25623814

Salehyar, Mohammad H.; Keenan, Louanne; Patterson, Steven; Amin, Maryam

2015-01-01

136

The prairie vole: an emerging model organism for understanding the social brain  

PubMed Central

Unlike most mammalian species, the prairie vole is highly affiliative, forms enduring social bonds between mates, and displays biparental behavior. Over two decades of research in this species has enhanced our understanding of the neurobiological basis not only of monogamy, social attachment and nurturing behaviors, but also other aspects of social cognition. Because social cognitive deficits are hallmarks of many psychiatric disorders, discoveries made in prairie voles may direct novel treatment strategies for disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. With the ongoing development of molecular, genetic and genomic tools for this species, prairie voles will likely maintain their current trajectory becoming an unprecedented model organism for basic and translational research focusing on the biology of the social brain. PMID:20005580

McGraw, Lisa A.; Young, Larry J.

2009-01-01

137

Semantically-based priors and nuanced knowledge core for Big Data, Social AI, and language understanding.  

PubMed

Noise-resistant and nuanced, COGBASE makes 10 million pieces of commonsense data and a host of novel reasoning algorithms available via a family of semantically-driven prior probability distributions. Machine learning, Big Data, natural language understanding/processing, and social AI can draw on COGBASE to determine lexical semantics, infer goals and interests, simulate emotion and affect, calculate document gists and topic models, and link commonsense knowledge to domain models and social, spatial, cultural, and psychological data. COGBASE is especially ideal for social Big Data, which tends to involve highly implicit contexts, cognitive artifacts, difficult-to-parse texts, and deep domain knowledge dependencies. PMID:25022322

Olsher, Daniel

2014-10-01

138

Liquid Metal Embrittlement: new understanding for an old problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When liquid metals are brought into contact with other polycrystalline metals, deep liquid-filled grooves often form at the intersections of grain boundaries and the solid-liquid interface. In some systems, e.g., Al-Ga, Cu-Bi and Ni-Bi, the liquid film quickly penetrates deep into the solid along the grain boundaries and leads to brittle, intergranular fracture under the influence of modest stresses. This is a form of liquid metal embrittlement (LME). This phenomenon is ubiquitous in material processing and is particularly important in nuclear reactor scenarios in which liquid metals are used as coolants and as spallation targets. The penetration of a liquid phase along the grain boundary is a complex phenomenon, involving several different types of simultaneous processes. The tendency for and rate of LME are also sensitive to externally controllable factors such as temperature and applied stress. Because of the interplay between the underlying phenomena that occur in LME, it has been difficult to perform experiments that can be interpreted to understand which processes control LME and which are simply parasitic. We study LME by performing molecular dynamics simulations of an Al bicrystal in contact with liquid Ga and investigate how Ga penetrates along the grain boundaries during the early stages of the wetting process. We use the simulation results to propose a new mechanism for LME and compare it with general trends gleaned from a series of LME experimental studies.

Srolovitz, David

2008-03-01

139

Problems in understanding the organization, structure and function of chromosomes  

SciTech Connect

Despite intensive investigation of mammalian chromosomes, we are still largely ignorant of the basic rules that govern their organization, structure, and functions. This situation results from the current limitations in available technologies to elucidate the structures of such complex biological systems. Whereas the powerful techniques of molecular biology have successfully addressed at high resolution functional problems at the level of nucleic acid sequences, many lower resolution questions concerning the architecture of the cell nucleus, long range order in chromosomes, and higher order chromatin structures remain largely unanswered. Techniques are now emerging that should help to remedy this situation. The use of confocal microscopy with molecular probes will tell us at the level of the light microscope a great deal about the organization of the nucleus and how it changes in different cell types; advanced light sources have the potential to image hydrated biological systems down to 10 nm, and scanning electron tunneling and atomic force microscopies have demonstrated their ability to image molecules though their ability to usefully image biomolecules such as DNA remains to be demonstrated. 32 refs., 6 figs.

Bradbury, E.M. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA) California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

1990-01-01

140

The Social Tunnel Versus the Python: A New Way to Understand the Impact of Baby Booms and Baby Busts on a Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that the "python analogy," often used to help students understand the negative societal impact of unusually small or large age cohorts, is better replaced by the social tunnel analogy, which is diagramed and illustrated with reference to the educational problems experienced in the United States as a result of the World War II baby boom.…

McFalls, Joseph A.; And Others

1986-01-01

141

Measurements of student understanding on complex scientific reasoning problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there has been much discussion of cognitive processes underlying effective scientific teaching, less is known about the response nature of assessments targeting processes of scientific reasoning specific to biology content. This study used multiple-choice (m-c) and short-answer essay student responses to evaluate progress in high-order reasoning skills. In a pilot investigation of student responses on a non-content-based test of scientific thinking, it was found that some students showed a pre-post gain on the m-c test version while showing no gain on a short-answer essay version of the same questions. This result led to a subsequent research project focused on differences between alternate versions of tests of scientific reasoning. Using m-c and written responses from biology tests targeted toward the skills of (1) reasoning with a model and (2) designing controlled experiments, test score frequencies, factor analysis, and regression models were analyzed to explore test format differences. Understanding the format differences in tests is important for the development of practical ways to identify student gains in scientific reasoning. The overall results suggested test format differences. Factor analysis revealed three interpretable factors---m-c format, genetics content, and model-based reasoning. Frequency distributions on the m-c and open explanation portions of the hybrid items revealed that many students answered the m-c portion of an item correctly but gave inadequate explanations. In other instances students answered the m-c portion incorrectly yet demonstrated sufficient explanation or answered the m-c correctly and also provided poor explanations. When trying to fit test score predictors for non-associated student measures---VSAT, MSAT, high school grade point average, or final course grade---the test scores accounted for close to zero percent of the variance. Overall, these results point to the importance of using multiple methods of testing and of further research and development in the area of assessment of scientific reasoning.

Izumi, Alisa Sau-Lin

142

Understanding and acting on the growing childhood and adolescent weight crisis: a role for social work.  

PubMed

The childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate. Numerous individual, family, community, and social factors contribute to overweight and obesity in children and are explored. If left unaddressed, the epidemic of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity may lead to amplified problems for individual children--including acute and chronic physical and psychological complications--and for the larger social environment. National efforts by researchers in a myriad of disciplines are underway to address this the issue at the individual, family, and community levels. These efforts include many steps with which social workers should seek to align themselves in terms of their own research and collaborative research and several barriers that hold practice implications for social workers. The importance of social work intervention and collaboration within primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention levels is explored. PMID:20506868

Lawrence, Shawn; Hazlett, Rebekah; Hightower, Peggy

2010-05-01

143

Parsing protection and risk for problem behavior versus pro-social behavior among US and Chinese adolescents.  

PubMed

This study investigates the different roles played by protective factors and risk factors-and by particular protective and risk factors-when the concern is with accounting for adolescent problem behavior than when the concern is with accounting for adolescent pro-social behavior. The protective and risk factor literature on adolescent problem behavior reveals considerable conceptual and operational ambiguity; an aim of the present study was to advance understanding in this domain of inquiry by providing a systematic conceptualization of protection and risk and of their measurement. Within the systematic framework of Problem Behavior Theory, four protective and four risk factors are assessed in a cross-national study of both problem behavior and pro-social behavior involving large adolescent samples in China (N = 1,368) and the US (N = 1,087), in grades 9, 10, and 11; females 56 %, US; 50 %, China. The findings reveal quite different roles for protection and risk, and for particular protective and risk factors, when the outcome criterion is problem behavior than when it is pro-social behavior. The protective factor, Controls Protection, which engages rule and regulations and sanctions in the adolescent's ecology, emerges as most important in influencing problem behavior, but it plays a relatively minor role in relationship to pro-social behavior. By contrast, Models Protection, the presence of pro-social models in the adolescent's ecology, and Support Protection, the presence of interest and care in that same ecology, have no significant relationship to problem behavior variation, but they are both the major predictors of variation in pro-social behavior. The findings are robust across the samples from the two very diverse societies. These results suggest that greater attention be given to protection in problem behavior research and that a more nuanced perspective is needed about the roles that particular protective and risk factors play in reducing problem behavior and in promoting pro-social behavior. PMID:24797283

Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S

2014-07-01

144

The social impact of dental problems and visits.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this analysis was to assess selected social consequences of maintaining oral health and treating oral diseases. The associations among socioeconomic and demographic factors with time lost from work or school and reductions in normal activities are explored. METHODS. Data were gathered as part of the 1989 National Health Interview Survey from 50,000 US households (117,000 individuals), representing 240 million persons. The oral health care supplement was analyzed using the software SUDAAN to produce standard errors for estimates based on complex multistage sample designs. RESULTS. Because of dental visits or problems, 148,000 hours of work were lost per 100,000 workers, 117,000 hours of school were lost per 100,000 school-age children, and 17,000 activity days beyond work and school time were restricted per 100,000 individuals in 1989. Exploratory analyses suggest that sociodemographic groups have different patterns of such time loss and of reduced normal activities. CONCLUSIONS. Overall, there is low social impact individually from dental visits and oral conditions. At the societal level, however, such problems and treatments among disadvantaged groups appear to have a greater impact. PMID:1456343

Gift, H C; Reisine, S T; Larach, D C

1992-01-01

145

Understanding The Decision Context: DPSIR, Decision Landscape, And Social Network Analysis  

EPA Science Inventory

Establishing the decision context for a management problem is the critical first step for effective decision analysis. Understanding the decision context allow stakeholders and decision-makers to integrate the societal, environmental, and economic considerations that must be con...

146

Predictors of Children's Prosocial Lie-Telling: Motivation, Socialization Variables, and Moral Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children tell prosocial lies for self- and other-oriented reasons. However, it is unclear how motivational and socialization factors affect their lying. Furthermore, it is unclear whether children's moral understanding and evaluations of prosocial lie scenarios (including perceptions of vignette characters' feelings) predict their actual prosocial…

Popliger, Mina; Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela

2011-01-01

147

Do Social and Cognitive Deficits Curtail Musical Understanding? Evidence from Autism and Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism experience difficulties in understanding social affective cues, and it has been suggested that such deficits will generalize to music. In order to investigate this proposal, typically developing individuals and children with autism and Down syndrome were compared on tasks measuring perception of affective and movement states…

Heaton, Pamela; Allen, Rory; Williams, Kerry; Cummins, Omar; Happe, Francesca

2008-01-01

148

Socializing Infants toward a Cultural Understanding of Expressing Negative Affect: A Bakhtinian Informed Discursive Psychology Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane, everyday interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian theorizing, it claims that caregivers' appraisals of…

Demuth, Carolin

2013-01-01

149

Early Social Cognition: Understanding Others in the First Months of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, much stimulating research has emerged in relation to children's theories of mind, construed as the understanding of others' intentions, beliefs, and desires. Within that context, there is renewed interest in the developmental origins of social cognition. An expression of that new interest, this book assembles current…

Rochat, Philippe, Ed.

150

Understanding NUI-supported Nomadic Social Places in a Brazilian Health Care Facility  

E-print Network

and Communication Technologies (ICT) play an important role in redefining public spaces by multiply- ingUnderstanding NUI-supported Nomadic Social Places in a Brazilian Health Care Facility Roberto an ethnographic study with a community of Brazilian health care professionals at a chronic care hospital. We

British Columbia, University of

151

Theory of Mind "Emotion", Developmental Characteristics and Social Understanding in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patterns of development of ToM-emotion abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM-emotion abilities were examined. EDEI-R (Perron-Borelli, M. (1996). "Echelles Differentielles…

Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Francoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

2008-01-01

152

The Role of Conceptual Understanding in Solving Word Problems: Two-Step Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work studies the difficulties children have solving two-step word problems of a given structure (e.g., 7 lollypops/2 chocolate bars X 6 chocolate bars). Thirty-six children between the ages of 9 and 14 years were individually observed solving problems of the above type. Other tasks, repetition of the problem and model recognition, were used…

Quintero, Ana Helvia

153

Association of sexual problems with social, psychological, and physical problems in men and women: a cross sectional population survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of sexual problems with social, physical, and psychological problems. DESIGN: An anonymous postal questionnaire survey. SETTING: Four general practices in England. PARTICIPANTS: 789 men and 979 women responding to a questionnaire sent to a stratified random sample of the adult general population (n = 4000). MAIN RESULTS: Strong physical, social, and psychological associations were

K. M. Dunn; P. R. Croft; G. I. Hackett

1999-01-01

154

Social Competence as a Mediating Factor in Reduction of Behavioral Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of the present study was to explore how social competence reduces behavioral problems. Based on previous findings, we assume that increased social competence can be regarded as a mediating factor in reducing behavior problems. All participants (children and adolescents, n = 112) received an intervention intended to increase social

Langeveld, Johannes H.; Gundersen, Knut K.; Svartdal, Frode

2012-01-01

155

Poor Social Skills Are a Vulnerability Factor in the Development of Psychosocial Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presumes that poor social skills are thought to make people vulnerable to psychosocial problems pursuant to the experience of stressful life events. Indicates that lower social skills scores of a group of college freshmen were predictive of a worsening of psychosocial problems. Finds that social skills interacted with stressful life events to…

Segrin, Chris; Flora, Jeanne

2000-01-01

156

A complementary marriage of perspectives: understanding organizational social context using mixed methods.  

PubMed

BackgroundOrganizational factors impact the delivery of mental health services in community settings. Mixed-methods analytic approaches have been recommended, though little research within implementation science has explicitly compared inductive and deductive perspectives to understand their relative value in understanding the same constructs. The purpose of our study is to use two different paradigmatic approaches to deepen our understanding of organizational social context. We accomplish this by using a mixed-methods approach in an investigation of organizational social context in community mental health clinics.MethodsNineteen agencies, representing 23 sites, participated. Enrolled participants included 130 therapists, 36 supervisors, and 22 executive administrators. Quantitative data was obtained via the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measure. Qualitative data, comprised of direct observation with spot sampling generated from agency visits, was coded using content analysis and grounded theory. The present study examined elements of organizational social context that would have been missed if only quantitative data had been obtained and utilized mixed methods to investigate if stratifying observations based on quantitative ratings from the OSC resulted in the emergence of differential themes.ResultsFour of the six OSC constructs were commonly observed in field observations (i.e., proficiency, rigidity, functionality, stress), while the remaining two constructs were not frequently observed (i.e., resistance, engagement). Constructs emerged related to organizational social context that may have been missed if only quantitative measurement was employed, including those around the physical environment, commentary about evidence-based practice initiatives, leadership, cultural diversity, distrust, and affect. Stratifying agencies by żbest,ż żaverage,ż and żworstż organizational social context impacted interpretation for three constructs (affect, stress, and leadership).ConclusionsResults support the additive value of integrating inductive and deductive perspectives in implementation science research. This synthesis of approaches facilitated a more comprehensive understanding and interpretation of the findings than would have been possible if either methodology had been employed in isolation. PMID:25417095

Beidas, Rinad S; Wolk, Courtney L Benjamin; Walsh, Lucia M; Evans, Arthur C; Hurford, Matthew O; Barg, Frances K

2014-11-23

157

Enhancing social cognition by training children in emotion understanding: a primary school study.  

PubMed

We investigated whether training school-age children in emotion understanding had a significant effect on their social cognition. Participants were 110 children (mean age=7 years 3 months) assigned to training and control conditions. Over a 2-month intervention program, after the reading of illustrated scenarios based on emotional scripts, the training group was engaged in conversations on emotion understanding, whereas the control group was simply asked to produce a drawing about the story. The training group outperformed the control group on emotion comprehension, theory of mind, and empathy, and the positive training outcomes for emotion understanding remained stable over 6 months. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24280639

Ornaghi, Veronica; Brockmeier, Jens; Grazzani, Ilaria

2014-03-01

158

Towards a better understanding of people's responses to renewable energy technologies: Insights from Social Representations Theory.  

PubMed

In the past few years, social research has been examining what contributes to the attitude-behaviour gap in people's responses to large-scale renewable energy technologies. The NIMBY explanation for the gap has long dominated that area of research, but has also been criticised. Alternative proposals to NIMBY were advanced, but it is still evident that some of those maintain presuppositions of NIMBY and that this area of research needs more integration, namely at a theoretical level. In this paper we argue that to overcome those aspects it is relevant, first, to situate the promotion of renewable energy production as a social change process in today's societies, and, second, to therefore consider the socio-psychological aspects involved in people's responses to social change. We discuss specifically how the Theory of Social Representations may help us with that and contribute to a better understanding of people's responses to renewable energy technologies. PMID:24448027

Batel, Susana; Devine-Wright, Patrick

2014-01-20

159

Complex problems require complex solutions: the utility of social quality theory for addressing the Social Determinants of Health  

PubMed Central

Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for multi-sectoral action, which requires research and policy on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping health outcomes. Most conceptual tools available to researchers tend to focus on singular and specific social determinants of health (SDH) (e.g. social capital, empowerment, social inclusion). However, a new and innovative conceptual framework, known as social quality theory, facilitates a more complex and complete understanding of the SDH, with its focus on four domains: social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security, all within the same conceptual framework. This paper provides both an overview of social quality theory in addition to findings from a national survey of social quality in Australia, as a means of demonstrating the operationalisation of the theory. Methods Data were collected using a national random postal survey of 1044 respondents in September, 2009. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results Statistical analysis revealed that people on lower incomes (less than $45000) experience worse social quality across all of the four domains: lower socio-economic security, lower levels of membership of organisations (lower social cohesion), higher levels of discrimination and less political action (lower social inclusion) and lower social empowerment. The findings were mixed in terms of age, with people over 65 years experiencing lower socio-economic security, but having higher levels of social cohesion, experiencing lower levels of discrimination (higher social inclusion) and engaging in more political action (higher social empowerment). In terms of gender, women had higher social cohesion than men, although also experienced more discrimination (lower social inclusion). Conclusions Applying social quality theory allows researchers and policy makers to measure and respond to the multiple sources of oppression and advantage experienced by certain population groups, and to monitor the effectiveness of interventions over time. PMID:21819576

2011-01-01

160

Does Understanding Relational Terminology Mediate Effects of Intervention on Compare Word Problems?  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess whether understanding relational terminology (i.e., more, less, and fewer) mediates the effects of intervention on compare word problems. Second-grade classrooms (n = 31) were randomly assigned to 3 conditions: researcher-designed word-problem intervention, researcher-designed calculation intervention, or business-as-usual (teacher-designed) control. Students in word-problem intervention classrooms received instruction on the compare problem type, which included a focus on understanding relational terminology within compare word problems. Analyses, which accounted for variance associated with classroom clustering, indicated that (a) compared to the calculation intervention and business-as-usual conditions, word-problem intervention significantly increased performance on all three subtypes of compare problems and on understanding relational terminology; and (b) the intervention effect was fully mediated by students’ understanding of relational terminology for 1 subtype of compare problems and partially mediated by students’ understanding of relational terminology for the other 2 subtypes. PMID:22221461

Schumacher, Robin F.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

2012-01-01

161

Does understanding relational terminology mediate effects of intervention on compare word problems?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess whether understanding relational terminology (i.e., more, less, and fewer) mediates the effects of intervention on compare word problems. Second-grade classrooms (N=31) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: researcher-designed word-problem intervention, researcher-designed calculation intervention, or business-as-usual (teacher-designed) control. Students in word-problem intervention classrooms received instruction on the compare problem type, which included a focus on understanding relational terminology within compare word problems. Analyses, which accounted for variance associated with classroom clustering, indicated that (a) compared with the calculation intervention and business-as-usual conditions, word-problem intervention significantly increased performance on all three subtypes of compare problems and on understanding relational terminology, and (b) the intervention effect was fully mediated by students' understanding of relational terminology for one subtype of compare problems and partially mediated by students' understanding of relational terminology for the other two subtypes. PMID:22221461

Schumacher, Robin F; Fuchs, Lynn S

2012-04-01

162

Understanding and Acting on the Growing Childhood and Adolescent Weight Crisis: A Role for Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate. Numerous individual, family, community, and social factors contribute to overweight and obesity in children and are explored. If left unaddressed, the epidemic of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity may lead to amplified problems for individual…

Lawrence, Shawn; Hazlett, Rebekah; Hightower, Peggy

2010-01-01

163

Elementary Students' Construction of Proportional Reasoning Problems: Using Writing to Generalize Conceptual Understanding in Mathematics  

E-print Network

364 Elementary Students' Construction of Proportional Reasoning Problems: Using Writing of proportional tasks with focused discussion and concept development by the teacher. In order to understand the proportional reasoning tasks. Introduction Proportionality is one of those important mathematical topics

Spagnolo, Filippo

164

Continuity in Problems of Social Functioning in Adulthood: A Cumulative Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an ongoing longitudinal study involving 145 women and 152 men, this study analyzed the continuity in and accumulation of problems of social functioning from age 27 (year 1986) to age 36 (year 1995), and studied sex differences in these processes. The accumulation of problems of social functioning (e.g., poor financial standing, poor intimate relationships, and drinking problems) was

Anna Rönkä; Ulla Kinnunen; Lea Pulkkinen

2001-01-01

165

Problems and prospects for the social support-reactivity hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social support and integration have been linked to health and longevity in many correlational studies. To explain how social\\u000a relationship might enhance health, investigators are examining the effects of social support on physiological processes implicated\\u000a in disease. Much of this research focuses on testing the social support-reactivity hypothesis, which maintains that social\\u000a support enhances health by reducing psychobiologic reactivity to

Stephen J. Lepore

1998-01-01

166

Students' Understanding and Application of the Area under the Curve Concept in Physics Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how students understand and apply the area under the curve concept and the integral-area relation in solving introductory physics problems. We interviewed 20 students in the first semester and 15 students from the same cohort in the second semester of a calculus-based physics course sequence on several problems involving…

Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay

2011-01-01

167

Complex Problem Solving in Radiologic Technology: Understanding the Roles of Experience, Reflective Judgment, and Workplace Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…

Yates, Jennifer L.

2011-01-01

168

Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students' commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors' process of assimilation,…

Bender, Kimberly; Negi, Nalini; Fowler, Dawnovise N.

2010-01-01

169

Using Memes and Memetic Processes to Explain Social and Conceptual Influences on Student Understanding about Complex Socio-Scientific Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated seventh grade learners' decision making about genetic engineering concepts and applications. A social network analyses supported by technology tracked changes in student understanding with a focus on social and conceptual influences. Results indicated that several social and conceptual mechanisms potentially affected how…

Yoon, Susan

2008-01-01

170

What can alienation theory contribute to an understanding of social inequalities in health?  

PubMed

This article examines both the contribution and the limitations of research that has sought to develop a causal understanding of the psychosocial dimension of inequalities in health. The article seeks to revive interest in Marx's theory of alienation in developing the case for an alternative materialist conceptualization that is able to postulate the pathways from alienation as a psychosocial generative structure to social inequalities in health outcomes within late modern societies. PMID:18724577

Crinson, Iain; Yuill, Chris

2008-01-01

171

Understanding Learning Culturally: Overcoming the Dualism Between Social and Individual Views of Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies limitations within the current literature on understanding learning. Overcoming these limitations entails\\u000a replacing dualist views of learning as either individual or social, by using a theory of learning cultures and a cultural\\u000a theory of learning, which articulate with each other. To do this, we argue that it is possible and indeed necessary to combine\\u000a major elements of

Phil Hodkinson; Gert Biesta; David James

2008-01-01

172

Silos and Social Identity: The Social Identity Approach as a Framework for Understanding and Overcoming Divisions in Health Care  

PubMed Central

Context One of health care's foremost challenges is the achievement of integration and collaboration among the groups providing care. Yet this fundamentally group-related issue is typically discussed in terms of interpersonal relations or operational issues, not group processes. Methods We conducted a systematic search for literature offering a group-based analysis and examined it through the lens of the social identity approach (SIA). Founded in the insight that group memberships form an important part of the self-concept, the SIA encompasses five dimensions: social identity, social structure, identity content, strength of identification, and context. Findings Our search yielded 348 reports, 114 of which cited social identity. However, SIA-citing reports varied in both compatibility with the SIA's metatheoretical paradigm and applied relevance to health care; conversely, some non-SIA-citers offered SIA-congruent analyses. We analyzed the various combinations and interpretations of the five SIA dimensions, identifying ten major conceptual currents. Examining these in the light of the SIA yielded a cohesive, multifaceted picture of (inter)group relations in health care. Conclusions The SIA offers a coherent framework for integrating a diverse, far-flung literature on health care groups. Further research should take advantage of the full depth and complexity of the approach, remain sensitive to the unique features of the health care context, and devote particular attention to identity mobilization and context change as key drivers of system transformation. Our article concludes with a set of “guiding questions” to help health care leaders recognize the group dimension of organizational problems, identify mechanisms for change, and move forward by working with and through social identities, not against them. PMID:22709391

Kreindler, Sara A; Dowd, Damien A; Dana Star, Noah; Gottschalk, Tania

2012-01-01

173

Problems, acceptance and social inequality: a study of the deformed leprosy patients and their families.  

PubMed

Though the impact of social inequality on health conditions is widely known, its impact on the chronic and stigmatized disease, leprosy, has received little attention. Deformity sometimes leads to disabilities and to handicaps causing problems to the patient and his family. In this paper an attempt has been made to understand the impact of social inequality, prevalent in the form of the caste system in India on the deformed leprosy patients and on their families. This impact was examined in terms of the problems faced by the patients. A sample of 150 deformed patients and their families, drawn from two districts in Tamil Nadu, was selected for the study. About 57% of the deformed patients experienced their deformity as a handicap which caused social and economic problems while the rest did not. Of the three caste groups, the Lower Caste group experienced more severe economic problems while the Upper Caste group faced more social problems. The extent of acceptance of deformed patients in their family varied significantly among those facing and not facing problems due to their deformity. The deformed patients without any handicap were accepted in a large majority of their families (82%) regardless of their caste status. In contrast the deformed but handicapped patients were accepted differentially among the three caste groups with the Upper group accepting them in most of their families (80%) while in the Lower group much less number of families (54%) did. All the families of the deformed but not handicapped patients desired to keep their patients till their death irrespective of their caste status. On the contrary, while all the families in the Upper Caste group expressed their willingness to keep their handicapped patients in the family till their death, 10% in the Middle and 22% in the Lower Caste groups did not want to do so. This suggests the gradual marginalization, rejection and dehabilitation of the affected. Thus, one's caste status can be a broad indicator of the nature and the extent of handicaps and acceptance in the family. This factor needs to be appropriately taken care of for rehabilitation and disability management in leprosy control programmes. PMID:7500821

Kopparty, S N

1995-09-01

174

Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

How behavior and institutions are affected by social relations is one of the classic questions of social theory. This paper concerns the extent to which economic action is embedded in structures of social relations, in modern industrial society. Although the usual neoclas- sical accounts provide an \\

Mark Granovetter

1985-01-01

175

Social Problems in Athletics; Essays in the Sociology of Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is an outgrowth of a conference on "Sport and Social Deviance," attended by people interested in the newly emerging interdisciplinary area concerned with the social scientific analysis of sport, play, and games. This anthology, which has contributions from many different authors, is intended to provide social scientists, physical…

Landers, Daniel M., Ed.

176

Probing adults' conceptual understanding and transfer of learning via problem posing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper reports on two experiments in which high performing university students having finished an introductory physics course were asked to pose mechanics questions. In Experiment 1, subjects were given problem situations (i.e. a story line accompanied with a diagram from which problems could be constructed) and asked to generate "textbook-like" problems that could be solved with specific concepts (e.g. conservation of mechanical energy, Newton's Second Law). In Experiment 2, subjects were given Concept Scenarios (i.e. a description of the physics principles and concepts that apply to a problem and the order in which they apply) and asked to generate problems that matched the scenarios. Interviews conducted immediately following the experiment asked the subjects to explain how the problems posed matched either the specified concepts, or the Concept Scenarios. Findings indicate that, when followed by an interview, problem solving is a powerful assessment tool for probing students' understanding of physics concepts, as well as their ability to transfer their knowledge to novel contexts. In many instances, students posed appropriate solvable problems, yet displayed major flaws in conceptual understanding. This suggests that even good novices are lacking in the way their conceptual knowledge is organized in memory and linked to problem contexts and procedures. Suggestions for using problem posing as a pedagogical tool are presented.

Mestre, Jose P.

2006-06-09

177

The Center on Race and Social Problems at the University of Pittsburgh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002, the School of Social Work at the University of Pittsburgh established the Center on Race and Social Problems (CRSP). CRSP, which is the first race research center to be housed in a school of social work, has six foci: economic disparities; educational disparities; interracial group relations; mental health; youth, families, and elderly;…

Davis, Larry E.; Bangs, Ralph L.

2007-01-01

178

Partner Violence and Survivors' Chronic Health Problems: Informing Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most social work professionals may expect that women who experience partner violence will sustain acute physical injuries, social workers may be less knowledgeable about the chronic health problems with which violence survivors often struggle. To inform social work practice, we reviewed and synthesized the recently published research on…

Macy, Rebecca J.; Ferron, Joelle; Crosby, Carmen

2009-01-01

179

Effect of explicit problem solving instruction on high school students' problem-solving performance and conceptual understanding of physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this study a two-sample, pre/posttest, quasi-experimental design was used to investigate the effect of explicit problem-solving instruction on high school students' conceptual understanding of physics. Eight physics classes, with a total of 145 students, were randomly assigned to either a treatment or comparison group. The four treatment classes were taught how to use an explicit problem-solving strategy, while the four comparison classes were taught how to use a textbook problem-solving strategy. Students' problem-solving performance and conceptual understanding were assessed both before and after instruction. The results indicated that the explicit strategy improved the quality and completeness of students' physics representations more than the textbook strategy, but there was no difference between the two strategies on match of equations with representations, organization, or mathematical execution. In terms of conceptual understanding, there was no overall difference between the two groups; however, there was a significant interaction between the sex of the students and group. The explicit strategy appeared to benefit female students, while the textbook strategy appeared to benefit male students. The implications of these results for physics instruction are discussed.

Huffman, Douglas

2005-11-17

180

Social Problems as a Mediator of the Link between Reactive Aggression and Withdrawn/Depressed Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined whether social problems accounted for the relation between reactive aggression and withdrawn/depressed symptoms in a sample of 147 children (54.4% male) ranging from 5 to 13 years of age (M = 8.22 years) who attended a community based after-school program. Findings suggested that indeed social problems mediated the link…

Fite, Paula J.; Rathert, Jamie L.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani

2012-01-01

181

How Activists and Media Frame Social Problems: Critical Events versus Performance Trends for Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the process by which a social problem is redefined in response to a critical events, such as economic depressions, environmental disasters, intense physical confrontations, or strategic initiatives by a social movement organization. Examines a conservative movement's attempt to redefine "the problem" of the schools at the time of a tax…

Pride, Richard A.

1995-01-01

182

The Effect of Communication Skills and Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills on Social Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine communication skills, interpersonal problem solving skills, and social self-efficacy perception of adolescents and the predictive role of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. This study is a quantitative and relational study aimed at examining the…

Erozkan, Atilgan

2013-01-01

183

Social Capital in Mutual Funds: The Implications for Agency Problem, Governance, and Synergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although agency problem, governance, and synergy in mutual fund industry have been studied in financia l literature, the implications of social capital for these issues have not been studied. Using 12,809 investments in open-ended mutual funds collected from Taiwan, this study finds that social capital between mutual funds and their inves tors results in agency problems. The reciprocal relationships betwe

Cheng-Min Chuang

2009-01-01

184

Understanding India, globalisation and health care systems: a mapping of research in the social sciences  

PubMed Central

National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India – a ‘rising power’ with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health related commodities provide some excellent examples of illuminating social science. Future research agendas on health systems issues need to include innovative empirical work that captures the dynamics of transnational processes and that links macro-level change to fine-grained observations of social life. PMID:22963264

2012-01-01

185

Relations of social problem solving with interpersonal competence in Japanese students.  

PubMed

To clarify the relations of the dimensions of social problem solving with those of interpersonal competence in a sample of 234 Japanese college students, Japanese versions of the Social Problem-solving Inventory-Revised and the Social Skill Scale were administered. Pearson correlations between the two sets of variables were low, but higher within each set of subscales. Cronbach's alpha was low for four subscales assessing interpersonal competence. PMID:22420125

Sumi, Katsunori

2011-12-01

186

Exploring the Relationships of Women’s Sexual Assault Disclosure, Social Reactions, and Problem Drinking  

PubMed Central

The goal of this exploratory study was to examine correlates of sexual assault disclosure and social reactions in female victims with and without drinking problems. An ethnically diverse sample of sexual assault survivors was recruited from college, community, and mental health agencies. Ethnic minority women were less likely to disclose assault, and women with a greater number of traumatic life events disclosed assault more often. Although there were no differences in disclosure likelihood by drinking status; of those disclosing, problem drinkers told more support sources and received more negative and positive social reactions than nonproblem drinkers. Correlates of receiving negative social reactions were similar for normal and problem drinkers; however, negative social reactions to assault disclosure were related to more problem drinking for women with less frequent social interaction. Implications for future research and possible support interventions with problem-drinking victims are provided. PMID:18309039

Ullman, Sarah E.; Starzynski, Laura L.; Long, Susan M.; Mason, Gillian E.; Long, LaDonna M.

2013-01-01

187

The impact of perceived self-efficacy on mental time travel and social problem solving.  

PubMed

Current models of autobiographical memory suggest that self-identity guides autobiographical memory retrieval. Further, the capacity to recall the past and imagine one's self in the future (mental time travel) can influence social problem solving. We examined whether manipulating self-identity, through an induction task in which students were led to believe they possessed high or low self-efficacy, impacted episodic specificity and content of retrieved and imagined events, as well as social problem solving. Compared to individuals in the low self efficacy group, individuals in the high self efficacy group generated past and future events with greater (a) specificity, (b) positive words, and (c) self-efficacious statements, and also performed better on social problem solving indices. A lack of episodic detail for future events predicted poorer performance on social problem solving tasks. Strategies that increase perceived self-efficacy may help individuals to selectively construct a past and future that aids in negotiating social problems. PMID:22019214

Brown, Adam D; Dorfman, Michelle L; Marmar, Charles R; Bryant, Richard A

2012-03-01

188

Cross-Field Differences in Creative Problem-Solving Skills: A Comparison of Health, Biological, and Social Sciences  

PubMed Central

In the present study, 258 doctoral students working in the health, biological, and social sciences were asked to solve a series of field-relevant problems calling for creative thought. Proposed solutions to these problems were scored with respect to critical creative thinking skills such as problem definition, conceptual combination, and idea generation. Results indicated that health, biological, and social scientists differed with respect to their skill in executing various operations, or processes, involved in creative thought. Interestingly, no differences were observed as a function of the students’ level of experience. The implications of these findings for understanding cross-field, and cross-experience level, differences in creative thought are discussed. PMID:20936085

Mumford, Michael D.; Antes, Alison L.; Caughron, Jared J.; Connelly, Shane; Beeler, Cheryl

2010-01-01

189

Social Psychology, Social Science, and Economics: Twentieth Century Progress and Problems, Twenty-First Century Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…

House, James S.

2008-01-01

190

Brief Report: Difficulty in Understanding Social Acting (But Not False Beliefs) Mediates the Link Between Autistic Traits and Ingroup Relationships  

PubMed Central

Why do individuals with more autistic traits experience social difficulties? Here we examined the hypothesis that these difficulties stem in part from a challenge in understanding social acting, the prosocial pretense that adults routinely produce to maintain positive relationships with their ingroup. In Study 1, we developed a self-administered test of social-acting understanding: participants read stories in which a character engaged in social acting and rated the appropriateness of the character’s response. Adults who scored 26 or higher on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) questionnaire gave significantly lower ratings than comparison participants (AQ <26). Study 2 found that difficulty in understanding social acting, but not false beliefs, mediated the link between autistic traits and perceived ingroup relationships. PMID:23334807

Baillargeon, Reneée

2014-01-01

191

Learning in friendship groups: developing students’ conceptual understanding through social interaction  

PubMed Central

The role that student friendship groups play in learning was investigated here. Employing a critical realist design, two focus groups on undergraduates were conducted to explore their experience of studying. Data from the “case-by-case” analysis suggested student-to-student friendships produced social contexts which facilitated conceptual understanding through discussion, explanation, and application to “real life” contemporary issues. However, the students did not conceive this as a learning experience or suggest the function of their friendships involved learning. These data therefore challenge the perspective that student groups in higher education are formed and regulated for the primary function of learning. Given these findings, further research is needed to assess the role student friendships play in developing disciplinary conceptual understanding. PMID:25309488

Senior, Carl; Howard, Chris

2014-01-01

192

How A.I. and multi-robot systems research will accelerate our understanding of social animal behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of social insect behavior has significantly influenced A.I. and multi-robot systems' research (e.g. ant algorithms and swarm robotics). In this work, however, we focus on the opposite question, namely: \\

Tucker Balch; Frank Dellaert; Adam Feldman; Andrew Guillory; Charles Isbell; Zia Khan; Andrew Stein; Hank Wilde

193

The Relationship between Second-Order False Belief and Display Rules Reasoning: The Integration of Cognitive and Affective Social Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate the relation between cognitive and affective social understanding, Japanese 4- to 8-year-olds received tasks of first- and second-order false beliefs and prosocial and self-presentational display rules. From 6 to 8 years, children comprehended display rules, as well as second-order false belief, using social pressures justifications…

Naito, Mika; Seki, Yoshimi

2009-01-01

194

Cognitive shifting as a predictor of progress in social understanding in high-functioning adolescents with autism: A prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although striking and pervasive failure of social understanding is commonly viewed as a major defining characteristic of people with autism, few follow-up reports were published that have focused on improvement of social intelligence. In this prospective study in which 17 high-functioning adolescents with autism were involved, cognitive shifting as measured by card sorting tests, unlike overall intelligence, was shown to

Hans J. C. Berger; Karel P. M. van Spaendonck; Martin W. I. M. Horstink; Elly L. Buytenhuijs; Patty W. J. M. Lammers; Alexander R. Cools

1993-01-01

195

Understanding the Assessment of Psychotropic Drug Harms in Clinical Trials to Improve Social Workers' Role in Medication Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this integrative review is to facilitate social work practitioners' understanding of how psychotropic drug harms are assessed in clinical trials and to make specific suggestions for social workers' increased involvement in detecting drug harms in their clients. The authors undertook a comprehensive review of interdisciplinary…

Hughes, Shannon; Cohen, David

2010-01-01

196

Intersectional understandings of disability and implications for a social justice reform agenda in education policy and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the multiple and shifting ways in which disability intersects with other sources of social disadvantage. Disablism forms part of an intricate web of social conditions that subjugate certain forms of ‘student-subjects' and create compounding forms of oppression and exclusion that need to be addressed through relevant education policy and practice. Intersectional understandings of disability expose the multiple

Anastasia Liasidou

2012-01-01

197

Problem drinking's associations with social structure and mental health care: race/ethnicity differences.  

PubMed

This research used a nationally representative sample of 12,756 respondents self-identified as White, Black, Hispanic, or Asian to examine problem drinking in relationship to social structure and mental healthcare factors. Associations between problem drinking and particular factors varied by racial/ethnic group. Results also indicated that Whites' problem-drinking rates were higher than those of Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Americans sometimes use alcohol to manage stress stemming from social disadvantage and inadequate material resources. Across racial/ethnic groups, drinking level was associated with the type and degree of such disadvantage. Additionally, the presence of a mental health problem was associated with problem drinking. PMID:25052882

Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C; Howell, Rebecca J

2014-01-01

198

The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producersâ?? attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A â??multi-methodâ?ť or â??mixed methodâ?ť research methodology was employed for each case study.

Dr. Theresa L. Selfa; Dr. Richard Goe; Dr. Laszlo Kulcsar; Dr. Gerad Middendorf; Dr. Carmen Bain

2013-02-11

199

Social Uptake of Scientific Understanding of Seismic Hazard in Sumatra and Cascadia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of science within hazard mitigation cannot be underestimated. Robust mitigation polices rely strongly on a sound understanding of the science underlying potential natural disasters and the transference of that knowledge from the scientific community to the general public via governments and policy makers. We aim to investigate how and why the public's knowledge, perceptions, response, adjustments and values towards science have changed throughout two decades of research conducted in areas along and adjacent to the Sumatran and Cascadia subduction zones. We will focus on two countries subject to the same potential hazard, but which encompass starkly contrasting political, economic, social and environmental settings. The transfer of scientific knowledge into the public/ social arena is a complex process, the success of which is reflected in a community's ability to withstand large scale devastating events. Although no one could have foreseen the magnitude of the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, the social devastation generated underscored the stark absence of mitigation measures in the nations most heavily affected. It furthermore emphasized the need for the design and implementation of disaster preparedness measures. Survey of existing literature has already established timelines for major events and public policy changes in the case study areas. Clear evidence exists of the link between scientific knowledge and its subsequent translation into public policy, particularly in the Cascadia context. The initiation of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program following the Cape Mendocino earthquake in 1992 embodies this link. Despite a series of environmental disasters with recorded widespread fatalities dating back to the mid 1900s and a heightened impetus for scientific research into tsunami/ earthquake hazard following the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, the translation of science into the public realm is not widely obvious in the Sumatran context. This research aims to further investigate how the enhanced understanding of earthquake and tsunami hazards is being used to direct hazard mitigation strategies and enables direct comparison with the scientific and public policy developments in Cascadia.

Shannon, R.; McCloskey, J.; Guyer, C.; McDowell, S.; Steacy, S.

2007-12-01

200

Socially Shared Metacognition of Dyads of Pupils in Collaborative Mathematical Problem-Solving Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how metacognition appears as a socially shared phenomenon within collaborative mathematical word-problem solving processes of dyads of high-achieving pupils. Four dyads solved problems of different difficulty levels. The pupils were 10 years old. The problem-solving activities were videotaped and transcribed in terms of…

Iiskala, Tuike; Vauras, Marja; Lehtinen, Erno; Salonen, Pekka

2011-01-01

201

Home Away Home: Better Understanding of the Role of Social Support in Predicting Cross-Cultural Adjustment among International Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have examined international students' adjustment problems, yet, these studies have not explored the mechanisms through which social support operates in the context of stressful events in predicting cross-cultural adjustment among international students. Using Barrera's (1988) models of social support, the present study…

Baba, Yoko; Hosoda, Megumi

2014-01-01

202

Family Day Care Educators: An Exploration of Their Understanding and Experiences Promoting Children's Social and Emotional Wellbeing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to explore family day care (FDC) educators' knowledge of child social and emotional wellbeing and mental health problems, the strategies used to promote children's wellbeing, and barriers and opportunities for promoting children's social and emotional wellbeing. Thirteen FDC educators participated in individual semi-structured…

Davis, Elise; Priest, Naomi; Davies, Belinda; Smyth, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Herrman, Helen; Sims, Margaret; Harrison, Linda; Cook, Kay; Marshall, Bernie; Williamson, Lara

2012-01-01

203

Access to generic drugs in the 1950s: the politics of a social problem.  

PubMed Central

From the published literature of the 1950s, the social history of anti-substitution law is analyzed in terms of sociological theory on the construction of social problems. The analysis reveals how the substitution of generic drugs for prescribed brands came to be recognized as a social problem in need of remedial legislation. The most influential party in the process was the brand-drug industry which centered the debate on matters of public health and professionalism instead of industrial profitability. The industry was able to form a coalition of interests and establish the saliency and legitimacy of the problem, even though there was no objective evidence to establish brand substitution as a hazard to health. The case fits well into the theory of social problem construction. Other issues in health care, particularly drug issues can be studied from this same perspective. PMID:7065335

Facchinetti, N J; Dickson, W M

1982-01-01

204

Parenting Practices and Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Moderating Effects of Socially Demanding Kin Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…

Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang

2012-01-01

205

The Relationship between Training Availability and Social Workers' Ability to Treat Problem Drinkers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An explanatory cross sectional investigation was employed to assess how well master's level social work (MSW) programs in the State of New York prepare students for practice with problem drinkers. Five hundred and fifty questionnaires were mailed to members of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW). A non-probability sample, consisting…

Richardson, Marchette A.

2007-01-01

206

Schooling and Traditional Collaborative Social Organization of Problem Solving by Mayan Mothers and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional indigenous social organization in the Americas has been characterized as involving horizontal multiparty engagements, in contrast with schooling, which often relies on hierarchy and division of labor. This study examined whether the social organization of problem solving of Guatemalan Mayan indigenous mothers and children varied with the mothers' extent of experience with school. We observed 47 mothers as they

Pablo Chavajay; Barbara Rogoff

2002-01-01

207

An Investigation of Preschool Classroom Behavioral Adjustment Problems and Social-Emotional School Readiness Competencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the unique relationship between multiple dimensions of classroom behavioral adjustment problems and salient social-emotional competencies for urban Head Start children. These relationships were investigated using a hierarchical model that controlled for the variance in social-emotional outcomes attributed to age, gender, and…

Fantuzzo, John W.; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca; Fusco, Rachel A.; McWayne, Christine

2005-01-01

208

Physiological Arousal, Distress Tolerance, and Social Problem-Solving Deficits among Adolescent Self-Injurers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been suggested that people engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) because they (a) experience heightened physiological arousal following stressful events and use NSSI to regulate experienced distress and (b) have deficits in their social problem-solving skills that interfere with the performance of more adaptive social responses. However,…

Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

2008-01-01

209

Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in…

Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

2011-01-01

210

MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AND JOB SATISFACTION AMONGST SOCIAL WORKERS IN THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social workers are susceptible to mental health problems that could lead to develop burnout symptoms and trau- matic stress. This study examined the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress and burnout and its relationship to the job satisfaction in 180 social workers who work in schools, hospitals, welfare centers, and NGOs, in Abu Dhabi (39%) and Alain(61%) cities, (mean age=36.4). The

S. A. Musa

211

Social Insurance and Tort Liability: The Problem of Alternative Remedies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning with workmen's compensation in 1910 and getting great impetus from the depression of the 1930's, social insurance legislation has grown apace in America. Such legislation is based on a faith that the general welfare is best served by protecting individuals from the consequences of pecuniary loss through such vicissitudes of life as accident, old age, sickness, and unemployment. The

James Fleming Jr

1952-01-01

212

PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS FROM THE SOCIAL SCIENTIST'S VIEWPOINT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

REVIEWED FROM A SOCIAL SCIENTIST'S VIEWPOINT IS THE EFFECT OF THE SUPREME COURT'S 1954 BROWN DECISION ON PATTERNS OF DEFACTO SEGREGATION IN NORTHERN COMMUNITIES. THE DECISION HAD PROFOUND EFFECTS ON DE FACTO SEGREGATION, PARTICULARLY IN RELATION TO THE DEMOCRATIC IDEALS OF EQUALITY AND TO THE DAMAGED SELF-IMAGE CREATED BY SEGREGATED SCHOOLS. IT…

CLARK, KENNETH

213

Organisational Problem Based Learning and Social Communities for SMEs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights reasons for SMEs low uptake of training and argues that current offerings are not suitable for their needs. It highlights the need to leverage the benefits of work based learning through the use of technology. Social media and web 2.0 has significantly changed the way people learn and access knowledge. The body of knowledge…

O'Brien, Emma; Hamburg, Ileana

2013-01-01

214

Social Networking Sites, Literacy, and the Authentic Identity Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current interest in social media for educational purposes has led many to consider the importance of literacy development in online spaces (e.g., new media literacies, digital literacies, etc.). Relying heavily upon New Literacy Studies (NLS) as a base, these approaches treat literacy expansively to include socio-cultural factors beyond mere skill…

Kimmons, Royce

2014-01-01

215

Limited social learning of a novel technical problem by spotted hyenas.  

PubMed

Social learning can have profound evolutionary consequences because it drives the diffusion of novel behaviours among individuals and promotes the maintenance of traditions within populations. We inquired whether spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), generalist carnivores living in complex, primate-like societies, acquire information from conspecifics about a novel problem-solving task. Previously, we presented wild hyenas with a food-access puzzle and found that social learning opportunities did not affect problem-solving success among observers, but did reduce observers' neophobia. However, we had little control over which individuals observed conspecifics solve the problem, and few wild hyenas were successful. Therefore, we conducted an experiment in captivity where we controlled observer access to two demonstration styles. Again, social learning opportunities did not affect problem-solving success, but tended to reduce neophobia among captive observers. Social learning opportunities also influenced problem-solving style. Captive hyenas showed limited evidence for directed social learning; low-ranking individuals paid closer attention to demonstrators than high-ranking individuals, although this greater attention did not result in greater success. We conclude that wild and captive hyenas exploit social learning opportunities similarly, and that the limited social learning shown by hyenas on this task is likely based on localized stimulus enhancement. PMID:25245305

Benson-Amram, Sarah; Heinen, Virginia K; Gessner, Amelia; Weldele, Mary L; Holekamp, Kay E

2014-11-01

216

A SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS APPROACH TO UNDERSTAND CHANGES IN A CANCER DISPARITIES COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIP NETWORK  

PubMed Central

The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of the Community Network Program sites funded (2005–10) by the National Cancer Institute’s Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities. TBCCN was tasked to form a sustainable, community-based partnership network focused on the goal of reducing cancer health disparities among racial–ethnic minority and medically underserved populations. This article reports evaluation outcome results from a social network analysis and discusses the varying TBCCN partner roles—in education, training, and research—over a span of three years (2007–09). The network analysis included 20 local community partner organizations covering a tricounty area in Southwest Florida. In addition, multiple externally funded, community-based participatory research pilot projects with community–academic partners have either been completed or are currently in progress, covering research topics including culturally targeted colorectal and prostate cancer screening education, patient navigation focused on preventing cervical cancer in rural Latinas, and community perceptions of biobanking. The social network analysis identified a trend toward increased network decentralization based on betweenness centrality and overall increase in number of linkages, suggesting network sustainability. Degree centrality, trust, and multiplexity exhibited stability over the three-year time period. These results suggest increased interaction and interdependence among partner organizations and less dependence on the cancer center. Social network analysis enabled us to quantitatively evaluate partnership network functioning of TBCCN in terms of network structure and information and resources flows, which are integral to understanding effective coalition practice based on Community Coalition Action Theory ( Butterfoss and Kegler 2009). Sharing the results of the social network analysis with the partnership network is an important component of our coalition building efforts. A comprehensive baseline needs assessment for the next five-year funding phase (2010–15) of TBCCN Community Networks Program Centers (CNP Center) is under way to further evaluate the growth and sustainability of the partnership network, with an emphasis on community-based intervention research that takes into account culture and literacy. [social network, health care disparities, cancer screening] PMID:24363957

Luque, John S.; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Bynum, Shalanda A.; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Wells, Kristen J.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Gwede, Clement K.; Meade, Cathy D.

2013-01-01

217

Cognitive predictors of skill acquisition on social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between social problem solving ability, clinical features and cognitive\\u000a functions, and determine the predictors of benefit from social problem solving training in 63 patients with schizophrenia.\\u000a We administered Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Digit Span Test, Continuous Performance\\u000a Test (CPT) and the Assessment of Interpersonal

Alp Üçok; Sibel Çak?r; Zekiye Çetinkaya Duman; Aysun Di?cigil; Pinar Kandemir; Hatice Atl?

2006-01-01

218

The relation between understanding and practice in problem-based medical education.  

PubMed

The importance of conceptions of the soundness of medical education are considered briefly. This leads to the question of misconceptions. A pervasive misconception characterized by the separation of understanding from action and practice, illustrated by two examples from the literature on medical education, is discussed. Questions as to the soundness of medical education are usually approached in terms of empirical inquiry; this paper takes a different, complementary, approach. Five medical faculties in Australia, Sweden and the UK. Problem-based medical course staff and students. The practical effect of the separation between action and practice is illustrated in the question of problem-solving as conceived in transitional semiproblem-based curricula in common with traditional curricula, limiting the development of sound professional education. The centrality of the misconception generates a widespread approach to the curriculum, described as the 'Convenient peg' model. In contrast, the 'Growing web' model enables the design of rigorous problem-based curricula which acknowledge that action and practice are necessarily related to understanding in a way unrecognized in the 'Convenient peg' model. Consequently, rigorous problem-based curricula embody a thoroughly integrated curriculum enabling improved medical education. PMID:10336771

Margetson, D B

1999-05-01

219

Community engagement as conflict prevention: Understanding the social license to operate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis examines community engagement as a form of conflict prevention in order to obtain the social license to operate (SLO) in Alberta's oil and gas industry. It does this by answering the question: what are the key elements of the Social License to Operate and how can these elements be applied to community engagement/consultation in a way that prevents conflicts in Alberta's oil and gas industry? The underlying assumption of this thesis is that building good relationships and working collaboratively functions as a form of conflict prevention and that this in turn leads to the SLO. This thesis outlines the key features of both successful community engagement and of the SLO, to provide a guideline for what is needed to obtain the SLO. Data was collected from semi-structured interviews and through a literature review. The data analysis concluded that there are direct parallels between the key elements of effective community engagement and the key elements of the SLO as identified in the interviews. These parallels are: knowing the community, addressing community needs, corporate social responsibility, relationship building, follow through and evidence for what has been done, executive buy-in, excellent communication, and open dialogue, all within a process which is principled (there is trust, understanding, transparency and respect), inclusive, dynamic, flexible, ongoing, and long-term. Moreover, the key elements of effective community engagement and of the SLO identified in the interviews also overlapped with those found in the literature review, with only one exception. The literature review explicitly named early involvement as a key element of both effective community engagement and the SLO, whereas the interview participants only explicitly indicated it as a key factor of community engagement and implied it to be a key element of the SLO.

Knih, Dejana

220

Understanding Farmers’ Forecast Use from Their Beliefs, Values, Social Norms, and Perceived Obstacles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the accuracy of weather and climate forecasts is continuously improving and new information retrieved from climate data is adding to the understanding of climate variation, use of the forecasts and climate information by farmers in farming decisions has changed little. This lack of change may result from knowledge barriers and psychological, social, and economic factors that undermine farmer motivation to use forecasts and climate information. According to the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the motivation to use forecasts may arise from personal attitudes, social norms, and perceived control or ability to use forecasts in specific decisions. These attributes are examined using data from a survey designed around the TPB and conducted among farming communities in the region of eastern Nebraska and the western U.S. Corn Belt. There were three major findings: 1) the utility and value of the forecasts for farming decisions as perceived by farmers are, on average, around 3.0 on a 0 7 scale, indicating much room to improve attitudes toward the forecast value. 2) The use of forecasts by farmers to influence decisions is likely affected by several social groups that can provide “expert viewpoints” on forecast use. 3) A major obstacle, next to forecast accuracy, is the perceived identity and reliability of the forecast makers. Given the rapidly increasing number of forecasts in this growing service business, the ambiguous identity of forecast providers may have left farmers confused and may have prevented them from developing both trust in forecasts and skills to use them. These findings shed light on productive avenues for increasing the influence of forecasts, which may lead to greater farming productivity. In addition, this study establishes a set of reference points that can be used for comparisons with future studies to quantify changes in forecast use and influence.

Hu, Qi; Pytlik Zillig, Lisa M.; Lynne, Gary D.; Tomkins, Alan J.; Waltman, William J.; Hayes, Michael J.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Artikov, Ikrom; Hoffman, Stacey J.; Wilhite, Donald A.

2006-09-01

221

How does money memorize social interactions? Understanding time-homogeneity in monetary systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how money shapes and memorizes our social interactions is central to modern life. There are many schools of thought on as to how monetary systems contribute to crises or boom/bust cycles and how monetary policy can try to avert them. We find that statistical physics gives a refreshing perspective [1-3]. We analyze how credit mechanisms introduce non-locality and time-heterogeneity to the monetary memory. Motivated by an analogy to particle physics, locality and time-homogeneity can be imposed to monetary systems. As a result, a full reserve banking system [4] is complemented with a bi-currency system of non-bank assets (``money'') and bank assets (``antimoney''). Payment can either be made by passing on money or by receiving antimoney. As a result, a free floating exchange rate between non-bank assets and bank assets is established. Interestingly, this monetary memory allows for credit creation by the simultaneous transfer of money and antimoney at a negotiated exchange rate. We analyze this novel mechanism of liquidity transfer in a model of random social interactions, yielding analytical results for all relevant distributions and the price of liquidity under the conditions of a fully transparent credit market.[4pt] [1] European Physical Journal B 17, 723729 (2000).[0pt] [2] Reviews of Modern Physics 81, 1703 (2009).[0pt] [3] Physica A 321, 605--618 (2003).[0pt] [4] Ryan-Collins, Greenham, Werner, Jackson, Where Does Money Come From? positivemoney.org.uk.

Braun, Dieter; Schmitt, Matthias; Schacker, Andreas

2013-03-01

222

Understanding the Professional Socialization of Canadian Physical Therapy Students: A Qualitative Investigation  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: To understand the professional socialization of physical therapy (PT) students. Method: Forty-two students enrolled in our newly developed master's degree programme wrote three-page reflective journals on a critical learning incident after each of three selected clinical experiences. The journals were coded and analyzed, and major themes were identified and described. A separate cohort of 44 students participated in focus groups after the same three clinical experiences to check the trustworthiness of the results. Results: Following the first placement, the main themes coded were emotions, self-confidence, professionalism in the real world, communication, and learning by doing. After the intermediate placement, major themes were idealism versus realism, depth of communication with clients, and breadth of communication with family members and colleagues. Aspects of clinical learning were variable, and self-confidence remained an issue. After the final placement, most students were deeply engaged with their clients and self-confidence had developed to the point of self-efficacy. Tensions increased between the concept of ideal practice and the pragmatics of actual practice, and the concept of self as protégé (rather than as object of the supervisor's evaluation) emerged. The themes were subsequently assembled in a booklet with representative quotations. Conclusion: These results contribute to foundational knowledge required by PT educators, including clinical instructors, by explicitly describing the professional socialization of PT students. PMID:20145748

Deborah Lucy, S.; Bisbee, Leslie; Conti-Becker, Angela

2009-01-01

223

Cognitive conflict links behavioral inhibition and social problem solving during social exclusion in childhood  

PubMed Central

Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by heightened negative affect and social reticence to unfamiliar peers. In a longitudinal study, 291 infants were assessed for BI at 24 and 36 months of age. At age 7, N2 amplitude was measured during a Flanker task. Also at age 7, children experienced social exclusion in the lab during an interaction with an unfamiliar peer and an experimenter. Our findings indicate that children characterized as high in BI, relative to those low in BI, had larger (i.e., more negative) N2 amplitudes. Additionally, among children with a large N2, BI was positively related to withdrawal and negatively related to assertiveness during social exclusion. These findings suggest that variations in conflict detection among behaviorally inhibited children plays a role in their social behavior during stressful social situations.

Lahat, Ayelet; Walker, Olga L.; Lamm, Connie; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

2015-01-01

224

Social strain, couple dynamics and gender differences in gambling problems: evidence from Chinese married couples.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the influence of couple dynamics on gender differences in gambling behavior remains meager. Building on general strain theory from the sociology of deviance and stress crossover theory from social psychology, we argue that the strain encountered by one partner in a social setting may affect his or her spouse. For instance, the wife of a man under more social strain may experience more strain in turn and thus be at a higher risk of developing disordered gambling than the wife of a man under less social strain. Using community survey data of 1620 Chinese married couples, we performed multilevel dyad analyses to address social strain and couple dynamics, in addition to their roles as predictors of gambling behavior in both spouses. This was a community survey of Hong Kong and therefore was not representative of China. Based on the DSM-IV screen, the rates of probable problem gambling and pathological gambling among male partners (12.8% vs. 2.5%) were twice those among female partners (5.2% vs. 0.3%). We also found that the social strain experienced by a male partner significantly predicted both his and his wife's likelihood of developing gambling problems. Although a female partner's exposure to social strain was a significant correlate of her gambling problem, it had no significant association with her husband's gambling behavior. These results suggest that the cross-spouse transference of social strain may be a gendered process. PMID:25452063

Cheung, Nicole W T

2015-02-01

225

Understanding the social and economic contexts surrounding women engaged in street-level prostitution.  

PubMed

Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for economic compensation. Due to the sexual promiscuity surrounding prostitution, women involved in prostitution constitute a high-risk group for contracting and transmitting STDs, including HIV. Prostitution is not only a public health concern, but also an economic one. Cities throughout the United States spent an average of $7.5 to $16 million per year enforcing prostitution laws and addressing negative outcomes associated with prostitution. Thus, women involved in prostitution are a cause for concern from both public health and economic perspectives. However, little is known about why women remain in this type of behavior given the risks prostitution presents, and even less is known about how to intervene and interrupt the complex cycle of prostitution. Thus, the purpose of this study was to understand what factors contribute to a woman's decision to remain in prostitution. A series of interviews were conducted with 12 women engaged in street-level prostitution. Results of the study revealed that drug use not only spurs entry into prostitution, but also contributes to the tenure of prostitution. Further, social support and economic stability are plausible reasons for women remaining in prostitution. These findings lead us to recommendations for policy and program development. Women involved in prostitution are a highly marginalized population, rarely recognized as individuals with life histories. Understanding why women remain in prostitution is important, because until these determinants are known, intervention programs designed to interrupt the cycle, and ultimately prevent prostitution, cannot be formulated. PMID:21142598

Murphy, Lyn Stankiewicz

2010-12-01

226

Towards an Understanding of How Students Use Representations In Physics Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skill with different representations and multiple representations is highly valued in physics, and prior work has shown that novice physics students can struggle with the representations typically used in solving physics problems. There exists work in PER examining student use of representations and multiple representations, but there have been no comprehensive attempts to understand what factors influence how introductory students succeed or fail in using representations in physics. This thesis is such an attempt, and is organized around four main goals and results. First, we establish that representation is a major factor in student performance, and uncover some of the mechanisms by which representation can affect performance, including representation-dependent cueing. Second, we study the effect of different instructional environments on student learning of multiple representation use during problem solving, and find that courses that are rich in representations can have significant impacts on student skills. Third, we evaluate the role of meta- representational skills in solving physics problems at the introductory level, and find that the meta-representational abilities that we test for in our studies are poorly developed in introductory students. Fourth, we characterize the differences in representation use between expert and novice physics problem solvers, and note that the major differences appear not to lie in whether representations are used, but in how they are used. With these results in hand, we introduce a model of student use of representations during physics problem solving. This model consists of a set of practical heuristics plus an analysis framework adapted from cultural-constructivist theory. We demonstrate that this model can be useful in understanding and synthesizing our results, and we discuss the instructional implications of our findings.

Kohl, Patrick B.

2010-06-30

227

From Bayes to Tarantola: New insights to understand uncertainty in inverse problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anyone working on inverse problems is aware of their ill-posed character. In the case of inverse problems, this concept (ill-posed) proposed by J. Hadamard in 1902, admits revision since it is somehow related to their ill-conditioning and the use of local optimization methods to find their solution. A more general and interesting approach regarding risk analysis and epistemological decision making would consist in analyzing the existence of families of equivalent model parameters that are compatible with the prior information and predict the observed data within the same error bounds. Otherwise said, the ill-posed character of discrete inverse problems (ill-conditioning) originates that their solution is uncertain. Traditionally nonlinear inverse problems in discrete form have been solved via local optimization methods with regularization, but linear analysis techniques failed to account for the uncertainty in the solution that it is adopted. As a result of this fact uncertainty analysis in nonlinear inverse problems has been approached in a probabilistic framework (Bayesian approach), but these methods are hindered by the curse of dimensionality and by the high computational cost needed to solve the corresponding forward problems. Global optimization techniques are very attractive, but most of the times are heuristic and have the same limitations than Monte Carlo methods. New research is needed to provide uncertainty estimates, especially in the case of high dimensional nonlinear inverse problems with very costly forward problems. After the discredit of deterministic methods and some initial years of Bayesian fever, now the pendulum seems to return back, because practitioners are aware that the uncertainty analysis in high dimensional nonlinear inverse problems cannot (and should not be) solved via random sampling methodologies. The main reason is that the uncertainty “space” of nonlinear inverse problems has a mathematical structure that is embedded in the forward physics and also in the observed data. Thus, problems with structure should be approached via linear algebra and optimization techniques. This paper provides new insights to understand uncertainty from a deterministic point of view, which is a necessary step to design more efficient methods to sample the uncertainty region(s) of equivalent solutions.

Fernández-Martínez, J. L.; Fernández-Muńiz, Z.; Pallero, J. L. G.; Pedruelo-González, L. M.

2013-11-01

228

Collaborating in Social Networks: The Problem Solving Activity Leading to Interaction - 'Struggle' Analysis Framework (SAF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effect of problem solving activity during computer- supported collaborative problem solving in digital social networks and introduces the 'Struggle Analysis Framework (SAF)', for analyzing interactions in these networks; interactions will be called 'struggle'. A study of collaborative modeling has been contacted in the frame of an authentic educational activity among students in a secondary school and

Tzanavaris Spyros

229

Social and Socio-Mathematical Norms in Collaborative Problem-Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the notions of social and socio-mathematical norms we investigate how these are established during the interactions of pre-service teachers who solve mathematical problems. Norms identified in relevant studies are found in our case too; moreover, we have found norms related to particular aspects of the problems posed. Our results show…

Tatsis, Konstantinos; Koleza, Eugenia

2008-01-01

230

An Approach for Addressing the Multiple Testing Problem in Social Policy Impact Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In social policy evaluations, the multiple testing problem occurs due to the many hypothesis tests that are typically conducted across multiple outcomes and subgroups, which can lead to spurious impact findings. This article discusses a framework for addressing this problem that balances Types I and II errors. The framework involves specifying…

Schochet, Peter Z.

2009-01-01

231

Adjective Check List Correlates of Social Conflict Problems in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses ability of Adjective Check List (ACL) to distinguish between clients of a college mental health facility who admitted to social alienation as a primary or secondary problem and clients who denied the importance of this problem- Scores on scales measuring affiliation and heterosexuality and an affiliation minus succorance" index differed…

Heilbrun, Alfred B., Jr.

1970-01-01

232

Family Business or Social Problem? The Cost of Unreported Domestic Violence  

E-print Network

(Domestic Abuse), D62 (Externalities), I21 (Analysis of Education) Keywords: Peer Effects, ExternalitiesFamily Business or Social Problem? The Cost of Unreported Domestic Violence Scott E. Carrell* UC in problems such as domestic violence is typically motivated by concerns regarding equity, rather than

Behmer, Spencer T.

233

The Construction of Elder Abuse as a Social Problem: A Canadian Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the referral structure (and the primary definers within this structure) in terms of which elder abuse is being defined as a social problem in Canada and interest groups are being mobilized to deal with the alleged problem. Preliminary research indicates that the major impetus is, in the main, not coming from organizations of…

Leroux, Thomas G.; Petrunik, Michael

234

The Problem of Social Cost in a Genetically Modified Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Part I of this Article, we apply the Coase Theorem and its most useful corollary to the problem of pollen drift. We conclude that the liability of pollen polluters should be governed by balancing rules against nuisance law, to be applied on a case-by-case basis, rather than by a blanket liability or immunity rule. We also conclude that truly

Paul J. Heald; James C. Smith

2006-01-01

235

Current Domestic Problems, Social Studies: 6416.18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secondary students learn to deal objectively with domestic issues and problems in this quinmester elective course. Emphasis is upon providing students with an opportunity for indepth study in critical thinking on current controversial issues, using activity units as a principal teaching technique. The objectives are for students to identify and…

Moore, John A.

236

Mental Health, School Problems, and Social Networks: Modeling Urban Adolescent Substance Use  

PubMed Central

This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and relations with parents, on substance use. Results of path modeling with AMOS showed that the model provided a very good fit to the data and demonstrated partial mediation effects of social network quality on substance use. The standardized mediated effect of school problems on substance use, mediated by social network quality, was 0.13 (p < .01, 95% CI [.072, .189]). An effect size measure was applied to determine what proportion of the total effect was mediated by the intervening (social network quality) variable and produced a 0.34 effect size. The results highlight the potential preventive role of social network quality in addressing urban adolescent substance use. PMID:21063779

2011-01-01

237

A Comparison of Two Peer-Referenced Assessment Techniques with Parent and Teacher Ratings of Social Skills and Problem Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship of parent and teacher ratings of social skills and problem behaviors, using the Social Skills Rating System with two peer-reference measures, were examined with 101 fifth- and sixth-graders. Teacher ratings of social skills, problem behaviors, and academic competence showed moderate correlations with both peer measures. (Contains…

Wright, Dan; Torrey, Gregory K.

2001-01-01

238

The relationship between childhood inattentive-hyperactive behavior problems and perceived family social functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inattentive-hyperactive children present numerous behavior problems including restlessness, inattention, impulsivity, failure to follow directions, and poor task completion. These difficulties have a disruptive effect on all their major social environments. This study investigated the relationships between childhood inattentive-hyperactive behavior problems and family psychosocial functioning. Specifically, it was hypothesized that this behavior problem pattern, found in children diagnosed as having attention-deficit

Doris Elaine Dunaway

1995-01-01

239

[Ecology and social organization of African tropical forest primates: aid in understanding retrovirus transmission].  

PubMed

The risk of transmission of primate viruses to humans is great because of their genetic proximity. It is now clear that the HIV group of retroviruses came from primates and that the origin of HIV1 is the chimpanzee subspecies of Central Africa, Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Many African primates are natural hosts of retroviruses and details of the natural history of both hosts and viruses are essential to understand the evolution of the latter. Data on the demography, ecology and behaviour of three species of primates (gorillas, chimpanzees and mandrills), studied in the Lopé Reserve in Central Gabon since 1983, are analysed to identify the factors that allow, or favour, disease transmission within each species, between different species and between primates and humans. The comparison of the relative degree of risk suggests that of the three species, chimpanzees are the most susceptible to exposure to infection both from conspecifics and from other species. With respect to humans, the comparative analysis suggests greater exposure to viruses of mandrills and gorillas than to those of chimpanzees. For primates, major risk factors are: large social groups; bites inflicted in fights; social grooming; and predation on mammals. However, given that contacts between social groups of the same species are rare, the spread of a virus through a population will be slow and uncertain. Hunting wild animals is the behaviour most likely to provide transmission routes for primate viruses into human populations because of the high probability of blood-blood contact. Not only the hunters themselves, but also women who prepare bush meat for cooking and people involved in trade of carcasses are at high risk of transmission of pathogens. Hunting of bush meat is increasing in Central Africa due to the economic recession and the spread of logging into the forests of the interior of the region. To counter the significant risk of transmission of known, as well as new, diseases from primates to humans, urgent measures are needed to attack the root causes of commercial hunting which is not only risk to public health but also a serious threat to biodiversity in the region. PMID:11030048

Tutin, C E

2000-07-01

240

Testing problem-solving capacities: differences between individual testing and social group setting.  

PubMed

Testing animals individually in problem-solving tasks limits distractions of the subjects during the test, so that they can fully concentrate on the problem. However, such individual performance may not indicate the problem-solving capacity that is commonly employed in the wild when individuals are faced with a novel problem in their social groups, where the presence of a conspecific influences an individual's behaviour. To assess the validity of data gathered from parrots when tested individually, we compared the performance on patterned-string tasks among parrots tested singly and parrots tested in social context. We tested two captive groups of orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) with several patterned-string tasks. Despite the differences in the testing environment (singly vs. social context), parrots from both groups performed similarly. However, we found that the willingness to participate in the tasks was significantly higher for the individuals tested in social context. The study provides further evidence for the crucial influence of social context on individual's response to a challenging situation such as a problem-solving test. PMID:24668582

Krasheninnikova, Anastasia; Schneider, Jutta M

2014-09-01

241

Memory Functioning and Negative Symptoms as Differential Predictors of Social Problem Solving Skills in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Neurocognition in general, and memory functioning in particular, as well as symptoms have all been shown to be related to social problem solving (SPS) in schizophrenia. However, few studies have directly compared the relative contribution of neurocognition vs. psychiatric symptoms to the components of SPS. Method Sixty outpatients (aged 21 – 65) who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered a broad battery of memory tests and assessed for severity of positive and negative symptoms as part of a baseline assessment of a study of psychiatric rehabilitation. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the contribution of memory functioning vs. symptoms on receiving, processing, and sending skill areas of social problem solving ability. Results An index of verbal learning was the strongest predictor of processing skills whereas negative symptoms were the strongest predictor of sending skills. Positive symptoms were not related to any of the three skill areas of social problem solving. Conclusions Memory functioning and psychiatric symptoms differentially predict selected areas of social problem solving ability in persons with schizophrenia. Consistent with other reports, positive symptoms were not related to social problem solving. Consideration of both neurocognition and negative symptoms may be important to the development of rehabilitation interventions in this area of functioning. PMID:23235142

Ventura, Joseph; Tom, Shelley R.; Jetton, Chris; Kern, Robert S.

2014-01-01

242

Course Objective 1 1a, 1c, 1e, 1f Discuss the Biological/Psychological/Social models and their interaction for understanding health and disease.  

E-print Network

consequences of common social and public health factors and in advocating for optimal of patients with conditions such as: Alzheimer's disease, depression, alcohol abuse the Biological/Psychological/Social models and their interaction for understanding health

Myers, Lawrence C.

243

Is self-generated thought a means of social problem solving?  

PubMed Central

Appropriate social problem solving constitutes a critical skill for individuals and may rely on processes important for self-generated thought (SGT). The aim of the current study was to investigate the link between SGT and social problem solving. Using the Means-End Problem Solving task (MEPS), we assessed participants' abilities to resolve daily social problems in terms of overall efficiency and number of relevant means they provided to reach the given solution. Participants also performed a non-demanding choice reaction time task (CRT) and a moderately-demanding working memory task (WM) as a context in which to measure their SGT (assessed via thought sampling). We found that although overall SGT was associated with lower MEPS efficiency, it was also associated with higher relevant means, perhaps because both depend on the capacity to generate cognition that is independent from the hear and now. The specific content of SGT did not differentially predict individual differences in social problem solving, suggesting that the relationship may depend on SGT regardless of its content. In addition, we also found that performance at the WM but not the CRT was linked to overall better MEPS performance, suggesting that individuals good at social processing are also distinguished by their capacity to constrain attention to an external task. Our results provide novel evidence that the capacity for SGT is implicated in the process by which solutions to social problems are generated, although optimal problem solving may be achieved by individuals who display a suitable balance between SGT and cognition derived from perceptual input. PMID:24391621

Ruby, Florence J. M.; Smallwood, Jonathan; Sackur, Jerome; Singer, Tania

2013-01-01

244

The relationship between social skill and family problem-solving following very severe closed head injury.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between level of social skill and family problem-solving behaviour in a group of 18, community dwelling, very severe closed head injury (CHI) patients who had suffered their injury at least 18 months previously, and who were still in contact with rehabilitation services. The main findings of this study were a positive relationship between CHI patients' level of social skill and their rate of positive effect, and an inverse relationship between the CHI patients' level of social skill and the rate of facilitative behaviour displayed by relatives during problem-solving interactions. It is suggested that socially unskilled CHI patients may be more demanding to interact with, and that this may cause a significant burden for their relatives. PMID:1873606

Godfrey, H P; Knight, R G; Bishara, S N

1991-01-01

245

Applicability of the Social Development Model to Urban Ethnic Minority Youth: Examining the Relationship between External Constraints, Family Socialization, and Problem Behaviors  

PubMed Central

The development of preventive interventions targeting adolescent problem behaviors requires a thorough understanding of risk and protective factors for such behaviors. However, few studies examine whether different cultural and ethnic groups share these factors. This study is an attempt to fill a gap in research by examining similarities and differences in risk factors across racial and ethnic groups. The social development model has shown promise in organizing predictors of problem behaviors. This article investigates whether a version of that model can be generalized to youth in different racial and ethnic groups (N = 2,055, age range from 11 to 15), including African American (n = 478), Asian Pacific Islander (API) American (n = 491), multiracial (n = 442), and European American (n = 644) youth. The results demonstrate that common risk factors can be applied to adolescents, regardless of their race and ethnicity. The findings also demonstrate that there are racial and ethnic differences in the magnitudes of relationships among factors that affect problem behaviors. Further study is warranted to develop a better understanding of these differential magnitudes. PMID:21625351

Choi, Yoonsun; Harachi, Tracy W.; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Catalano, Richard F.

2011-01-01

246

Understanding the Different Types of Social Support Offered by Audience to A-List Diary-Like and Informative Bloggers  

PubMed Central

Abstract Blogs offer audiences a forum through which they can exchange ideas and provide feedback about the everyday lives and experiences of the bloggers. Such interactions and communication between audiences and bloggers could be regarded as a kind of social support. The present study aims to identify and compare the types of social support offered by audiences to continuous popular diary-like and informative bloggers, and to explore the possible benefits that bloggers may obtain from such social support. Content analysis was used to analyze the 485 and 390 comments provided by the audiences to the A-list diary-like and informative blog posts, respectively. Results reveal that validation, compliment, and encouragement are the most common types of social support given by audiences to A-list bloggers. Chi-square test results show that the audiences offer more encouragement-type of social support to diary-like bloggers and more complimentary and informational social support to informative bloggers. Such types of social support may enhance A-list bloggers' self-esteem, boost their confidence, promote their self-understanding, and help them obtain the benefits of social validation, which in turn encourage bloggers to commit continuous self-disclosure. PMID:23363225

Wang, Li-Ling; Xu, Yi-Ting

2013-01-01

247

Understanding the link between changes in social support and changes in outcomes with the sociometric badge  

E-print Network

The goal of this thesis is to show that social support created through face-to-face interaction is a driving factor in a number of important outcomes. Through a series of studies we show that social support, operationalized ...

Waber, Benjamin Nathan

2011-01-01

248

Strengthening Social and Emotional Competence in Young Children—The Foundation for Early School Readiness and Success Incredible Years Classroom Social Skills and Problem-Solving Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of young children to manage their emotions and behaviors and to make meaningful friendships is an important prerequisite for school readiness and academic success. Socially com- petent children are also more academically successful and poor social skills are a strong predictor of academic failure. This article describes The Incredible Years Dinosaur Social Skills and Problem- Solving Child Training

Carolyn Webster-Stratton; M. Jamila Reid

249

Social-Motivational Processes and Interpersonal Relationships: Implications for Understanding Motivation at School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social-motivational processes and socialization experiences can play a critical role in students' academic success. However, the search for specific mechanisms and processes that explain these social influences on motivation is still in its inception. The purpose of this article was to begin to articulate some of these processes in the hope that more precise explanations of influence will emerge. The

Kathryn R. Wentzel

1999-01-01

250

Understanding Social Media Culture and its Ethical Challenges for Art Therapists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses ethics in the context of the participatory culture of social media as it relates to art therapy. The authors present the view that social media formats are important venues for expression that contribute to interpersonal connections and social learning via the active participation of their members. To make informed ethical…

Belkofer, Christopher M.; McNutt, Jill V.

2011-01-01

251

Understanding Social Signals in Multi-party Conversations: Automatic Recognition of  

E-print Network

--Any social interaction is characterized by roles, patterns of behavior recognized as such by the interacting individuals, detect conflict, assess engagement or spot conversation highlights. This work presents some future directions. Index Terms--Social signals, AMI meetings Corpus, role recog- nition, social

Vinciarelli, Alessandro

252

Ambivalence About Interpersonal Problems and Traits Predicts Cross-Situational Variability of Social Behavior.  

PubMed

Multiple theoretical perspectives suggest that maladjusted personality is characterized by not only distress, but also opposing or "ambivalent" self-perceptions and behavioral lability across social interactions. However, the degree to which ambivalence about oneself predicts cross-situational variability in social behavior has not been examined empirically. Using the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) as a nomological framework, the present study investigated the extent to which endorsing opposing or "ambivalent" tendencies on IPC measures predicted variability in social behavior across a range of hypothetical interpersonal scenarios (Part 1; N?=?288) and naturalistic social interactions (Part 2; N?=?192). Ambivalent responding for interpersonal problems and traits was associated with measures of distress, maladaptive interpersonal tendencies, and greater variability of social behavior across both hypothetical and daily social interactions, though more consistently for interpersonal problems. More conservative tests suggested that ambivalence predicted some indexes of behavioral variability even when accounting for mean levels and squared means of social behaviors, vector length, gender, and depressive symptoms. Results suggest that processes theorized as typifying personality disorder may apply more broadly to personality maladjustment occurring outside of clinical samples. PMID:25046450

Erickson, Thane M; Newman, Michelle G; Peterson, Jessica; Scarsella, Gina

2014-07-21

253

Cross-Field Differences in Creative Problem-Solving Skills: A Comparison of Health, Biological, and Social Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 258 doctoral students working in the health, biological, and social sciences were asked to solve a series of field-relevant problems calling for creative thought. Proposed solutions to these problems were scored with respect to critical creative thinking skills such as problem definition, conceptual combination, and idea generation. Results indicated that health, biological, and social scientists differed with

Michael D. Mumford; Alison L. Antes; Jared J. Caughron; Shane Connelly; Cheryl Beeler

2010-01-01

254

Setting goals, solving problems, and seeking social support: developing adolescents' abilities through a life skills program.  

PubMed

The Going for the Goal (GOAL) program is designed to teach adolescents life skills. There have been few efforts to assess whether the skills that GOAL is designed to teach are being learned by adolescents involved in the program. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of GOAL on the acquisition of skills in the areas of setting goals, solving problems, and seeking social support. Interviews were conducted with twenty adolescents. Those who participated in GOAL reported that they had learned how to set goals, to solve problems effectively, and to seek the appropriate type of social support. PMID:17536477

Forneris, Tanya; Danish, Steven J; Scott, David L

2007-01-01

255

How Do Young Adolescents Cope with Social Problems? An Examination of Social Goals, Coping with Friends, and Social Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated individual differences in sixth-grade students (N = 181; 47% girls, ethnically diverse) use of friends as a coping resource when dealing with a social stressor with another peer at school. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized three factor structure of coping with friends: mastery, avoidance, and…

Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.

2012-01-01

256

The Native American adolescent: social network structure and perceptions of alcohol induced social problems.  

PubMed

Race/ethnicity and the structure of an adolescent's social network are both important factors in the etiology of delinquent behavior. Yet, much of the minority-group delinquency literature overlooks the Native American youth population that traditionally exhibits high rates of alcohol use and abuse. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we compare the structural characteristics of school-based friendship networks of American Indian youth and other racial/ethnic groups. Our core sample for the descriptive analysis consists of 70,841 youth (Caucasian = 42,096; Black = 13,554; Asian = 4,758; Hispanic = 4,464; American Indian = 3,426; Other = 2,543; Female = 50%). We find that Native American youth generally occupy similar social positions within school hierarchies compared to other minority groups. However, American Indian youth have fewer ties at the school level than Caucasian youth, including reports of fewer reciprocated friendships, a smaller number of in-school friends, and membership in less cohesive personal networks. We also focus on the detrimental social and physical consequences of alcohol use during adolescence and offer an extended consequences model (n = 5,841) that includes the interactive effects of race/ethnicity, age, and drinking influences on relationships with friends (Caucasian = 59%; Black = 19%; Asian = 7%; Hispanic = 7%; American Indian = 5%; Other = 3%; Female = 54%). American Indian youth are no more likely than other youth to report personal drinking as being detrimental to social relationships with parents, peers, and romantic partners. We address ties between our findings and criminal justice policies and practices, as well as the implications for similar network analyses involving other racial/ethnic groups. PMID:24061859

Rees, Carter; Freng, Adrienne; Winfree, L Thomas

2014-03-01

257

Social Network Influences on Service Use among Urban, African American Youth with Mental Health Problems  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the associations between the size and quality of African American adolescents' social networks and their mental health service use, and to examine whether these social networks characteristics moderate the association between need for services due to emotional or behavioral difficulties and use of services. Method Participants were a community sample of African American adolescents (N=465; 46.2% female; mean age 14.78) initially recruited in 1st grade for participation in an evaluation of two preventive intervention trials. Social network influences and adolescents' mental health service use in schools and the community were accessed. Results A significant positive association between adolescents' perception that their social network was helpful and their use of school mental health services was identified. The significant associations between need for services for anxiety, depression, or behavior problems, and school and outpatient service use were moderated by size of the social network. Specifically, among youth in need of services for anxiety or depression, school-based service use was higher for those with larger social networks. Conclusions Implications for enhancing access to formal mental health services include further examination of key social network influences that potentially serve as facilitators or barriers to formal help-seeking. The findings also suggest that it might be important to integrate social network members into interventions to address the mental health needs of adolescents. PMID:20864006

Lindsey, Michael A.; Barksdale, Crystal L.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

2010-01-01

258

Understanding African American Men’s Perceptions of Racism, Male Gender Socialization, and Social Capital Through Photovoice  

PubMed Central

In this study we used a participatory qualitative research approach—photovoice—to collect information about African American men’s perceptions of the factors that influenced their own health and the health of their communities. Photovoice was conducted as part of the “Men as Navigators (MAN) for Health” project, an evaluation of a male lay health advisor (LHA) intervention in central North Carolina. Twelve African American men living in both urban and rural communities took photographs and discussed the photos in six photo discussion sessions. Analysis involved identifying recurring themes from the photos and transcriptions of photo discussions. The results suggest that race and racism, male gender socialization, and social networks and social capital all have important influences on African American men’s health. The implications for further research and public health practice are discussed. PMID:19201993

Ornelas, India J.; Amell, Jim; Tran, Anh N.; Royster, Michael; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Eng, Eugenia

2009-01-01

259

[Child labour: a social problem that we are committed to].  

PubMed

Child labor is a complex problem that violates the fundamental rights of children and affects their psychophysical development. Child labor affects 215 million children in the world and 115 million perform activities defined as the "worst forms of child labor". Most child labor is in agriculture (60%), where the majority are unpaid family workers, compared to 26% in services and 7% in industry. Argentina has adopted the abolitionist position, promoting prevention and eradication within an inclusive public policy aimed to all children can exercise their rights. The Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría endorses this approach and proposes a course of action: the health team training, and dissemination of the risks of child labor and occupational teenager safety standards. As pediatricians we must be involved in defending children rights, and be able to detect any situation of child labor, and protect the health of children and adolescents. The joint interaction with family, community and other sectors of society will strengthen the network needed to implement child labor eradication policies. PMID:22859332

Cutri, Adrián; Hammermüller, Erica; Zubieta, Ana; Müller Opet, Beatriz; Miguelez, Lilia

2012-08-01

260

Manipulatives and Problem Situations as Escalators for Students' Geometric Understanding: A Semiotic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical learning and teaching are increasingly seen as a multimodal experience involved in cultural and social semiotic registers and means, and as such social-cultural semiotic analysis is expected to shed light on learning and teaching processes occurring in the mathematics classroom. In this research, three social-cultural semiotic…

Daher, Wajeeh M.

2014-01-01

261

Developing methods for understanding social behavior in a 3D virtual learning environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study of developing and implementing methods to capture, code and comprehend reciprocal social interactions in a three-dimensional virtual learning environment (3D VLE). The environment, iSocial, is being developed to help youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) develop social competencies. The approach to identifying, classifying and coding behavior in the 3D VLE uses an adaptation of

Matthew Schmidt; James M. Laffey; Carla Schmidt; Xianhui Wang; Janine Stichter

262

Psychometric Evaluation of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised among Overweight or Obese Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving is a key component of weight loss programs. The Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R) has not been evaluated in weight loss studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometrics of the SPSI-R. Cronbach's a (0.95 for total score; 0.67-0.92 for subscales) confirmed internal consistency reliability. The…

Wang, Jing; Matthews, Judith T.; Sereika, Susan M.; Chasens, Eileen R.; Ewing, Linda J.; Burke, Lora E.

2013-01-01

263

Understanding Students' Adaptation to Graduate School: An Integration of Social Support Theory and Social Learning Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contemporary business world demands adaptive individuals (Friedman & Wyman, 2005). Adaptation is essential for any life transition. It often involves developing coping mechanisms, strategies, and seeking of social support. Adaptation occurs in many settings from moving to a new culture, taking a new job, starting or finishing an…

Tsay, Crystal Han-Huei

2012-01-01

264

The social construction of social problems: the case of elder abuse and neglect.  

PubMed

The interaction and inter-penetrability overlap of abuse and neglect has been previously described. Therefore, the question is not whether a distinction can be made between the two, but how specific events are constructed into abuse and/or neglect based on how each of the protagonists involved (researchers, professional workers, family members, and the older persons themselves) make sense of abuse and neglect. The purpose of this paper is to explore the social and psychological construction of elder abuse and neglect and illustrate the theoretical constructs using case material and its application to the field. PMID:23664037

Eisikovits, Zvi; Koren, Chaya; Band-Winterstein, Tova

2013-08-01

265

Cognitive predictors of skill acquisition on social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between social problem solving ability, clinical features and cognitive functions, and determine the predictors of benefit from social problem solving training in 63 patients with schizophrenia. We administered Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Digit Span Test, Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (AIPSS). Only BPRS-positive symptoms subscale was negatively related to AIPSS on linear regression analysis. After the completion of the pretest, the patients were randomized to either problem solving training (n = 32) or control groups (n = 31). Patients in training group received 6 weeks problem solving training in-group modality, and those in control group were treated as usual. We readministered AIPSS at the end of 6 weeks. There were significant changes from pretest to posttest on AIPSS-total, AIPSS-receiving skills, and AIPSS-processing skills score in training group but not in control group. The number of correct answers in WCST and CPT hit rate were the predictors of post-training AIPSS scores in training group. Our findings suggest that skill acquisition on social problem solving is related with cognitive flexibility and sustained attention. PMID:16783500

Uçok, Alp; Cakir, Sibel; Duman, Zekiye Cetinkaya; Di?cigil, Aysun; Kandemir, Pinar; Atli, Hatice

2006-09-01

266

Social problem-solving skills following childhood traumatic brain injury and its association with self-regulation and social and behavioural functioning.  

PubMed

This study examines social problem-solving skills following childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its association with self-regulation, and social and behavioural functioning. Participants included 65 children with moderate to severe TBI and 65 children without TBI, all between 6 and II years of age. Social problem-solving, self-regulation, and social and behavioural functioning were assessed 2-5 years following injury. Children were administered a newly developed semi-structured task to assess their solutions to hypothetical situations involving social problems or dilemmas. When compared with uninjured children, those with TBI suggested avoidant and aggressive solutions more often and assertive solutions less often in response to the hypothetical situations. Children's self-regulatory skills, as measured by the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT), Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) and the Delay of Gratification Task (DGT), collectively accounted for significant variance in their solutions to social problems, such that better self-regulation predicted more assertive solutions and fewer aggressive solutions. Assertive solutions were positively related to parent- and teacher-rated social and behavioural outcomes, whereas aggressive solutions were negatively related to the outcomes. The difficulties in social problem-solving skills demonstrated by children with TBI may help account for their poor social and behavioural functioning. PMID:19331015

Ganesalingam, Kalaichelvi; Yeates, Keith Owen; Sanson, Ann; Anderson, Vicki

2007-09-01

267

The Winning Ways of a Losing Strategy: Educationalizing Social Problems in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, David Labaree examines the paradox of educationalization in the American context. He argues that, like most modern Western societies, the United States has displayed a strong tendency over the years for educationalizing social problems, even though schools have repeatedly proven that they are an ineffective mechanism for solving…

Labaree, David F

2008-01-01

268

Social and Behavioral Problems of Children with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Archival data from a survey of parent observations was used to determine the prevalence of social and behavioral problems in children with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). Parent observations were surveyed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for 61 children with ACC who were selected from the archive based on criteria of motor…

Badaruddin, Denise H.; Andrews, Glena L.; Bolte, Sven; Schilmoeller, Kathryn J.; Schilmoeller, Gary; Paul, Lynn K.; Brown, Warren S.

2007-01-01

269

Family Business or Social Problem? The Cost of Unreported Domestic Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social interest in problems such as domestic violence is typically motivated by concerns regarding equity, rather than efficiency. However, we document that taking steps to reduce domestic violence by reporting it yields substantial benefits to external parties. Specifically, we find that although children exposed to as-yet-unreported domestic…

Carrell, Scott E.; Hoekstra, Mark

2012-01-01

270

The Impact of Social Space Design on Students’ Behavioral Problems in Middle Schools  

E-print Network

This study examined the impact of social space design on student behavioral problems in middle schools. A mixed-method approach was used in the form of focus groups and surveys with teachers and students from four central Texas middle schools (7th...

Schneider, Raechel

2011-08-08

271

Social Support, Negative Life Events and Emotional Problems Among Norwegian Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships between negative life events, perceived social support and emotional problems were assessed in a national representative sample of 1,053 adolescents in eighth grade. Thirty-one percent of the adolescents reported that they had experienced at least one negative life event during the last year. Serious illness or injury among close…

Murberg, Terje A.; Bru, Edvin

2004-01-01

272

Self-Reported Life Events, Social Support and Psychological Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Several studies have reported relationships between life events and psychological problems in people with intellectual disabilities. In contrast to the general literature, data have consistently been collected via proxy informants and putative moderator variables such as social support have not been examined. Materials and Methods:…

Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hastings, Richard P.; Crowe, Rachel; Pemberton, Jemma

2011-01-01

273

Scaffolding Teachers Integrate Social Media into a Problem-Based Learning Approach?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Aalborg University (AAU) we are known to work with problem-based learning (PBL) in a particular way designated "The Aalborg PBL model." In PBL the focus is on participant control, knowledge sharing, collaboration among participants, which makes it interesting to consider the integration of social media in the learning that takes place. In this…

Buus, Lillian

2012-01-01

274

Pro-Social Behaviour and Behaviour Problems Independently Predict Maternal Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities generally report more stress than other parents. Child behavioural features, and specifically their behaviour problems, have been shown to account for some of the variation in parents' experience of stress. However, there has been no exploration of whether the child's pro-social

Beck, Alexandra; Hastings, Richard; Daley, Dave; Stevenson, Jim

2004-01-01

275

Adolescent Gender Differences in Alcohol Problem Behaviors and the Social Contexts of Drinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of over 1300 high school students examined gender differences in the social context of drinking associated with 4 alcohol problem behaviors (high intensity drinking, binge drinking, driving while intoxicated, and riding with an intoxicated driver). Student surveys revealed significant multivariate interaction effects between gender and…

Treiman, Katherine A.; Beck, Kenneth H.

1996-01-01

276

Social Problem Solving through Science: An Approach to Critical, Place-Based, Science Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Social Problem Solving through Science (SPSS) project engaged middle school-aged youth in the study of local environmental challenges with implications for human health and well-being, both globally and locally. Students considered environmental risk factors in a series of structured activities to develop background knowledge on environmental…

Buxton, Cory A.

2010-01-01

277

Examination of a Social Problem-Solving Intervention to Treat Selective Mutism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the use of a social problem-solving intervention to treat selective mutism with 2 sisters in an elementary school setting. Both girls were taught to answer teacher questions in front of their classroom peers during regular classroom instruction. Each girl received individualized instruction from a therapist and was taught to…

O'Reilly, Mark; McNally, Deirdre; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Green, Vanessa; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Machalicek, Wendy; Sorrells, Audrey; Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert

2008-01-01

278

The Saga of Sally, Sammy and the Red Pen: Facilitating Children's Social Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes innovation and creativity as an alternative to violent response to anger or frustration. Discusses prerequisites for success of social problem approach to conflict resolution and presents six specific steps to this approach and its benefits for both teacher and children. (HTH)

Dinwiddie, Sue A.

1994-01-01

279

A Developmental Comparison Between Preschool and Middle School Social Problem Solving in Two Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies were conducted to investigate the nature and development of creative social problem solving among older and younger children in Sweden and the United States. First, the behaviors of older children were investigated formally in a large-scale experimental study of California 10-year-olds. Results indicated that children receiving…

Lundsteen, Sara W.

280

Sickle Cell Screening: Medical, Legal, Ethical, Psychological and Social Problems; A Sickle Cell Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, sickle cell screening programs have been initiated by community groups, health centers, hospitals, medical schools, health departments, school systems, city and State governments, various branches of the Federal Government, fraternal and social clubs, and other organizations. Problems have resulted from mass sickle cell screening,…

Bowman, James E.

281

Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

2012-01-01

282

An Interpersonal Problem Solving Approach to Teaching Social Skills to Socially Rejected Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral interpersonal problem solving (IPS) training program was evaluated with 35 poorly accepted second, third, and fourth graders. Group 1 received instruction in IPS and included only Ss low in peer acceptance; group 2 consisted of Ss low in peer acceptance who participated in IPS with same sex and grade Ss…

Vaughn, Sharon; Lancelotta, Gary

283

Understanding Social Nature of an Online Community of Practice for Learning to Teach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is aimed to explore the social nature of membership in an online community of practice (NETwork, Nurturing Elementary Teachers' work) whose purpose is to support pre-service and in-service teachers with a collaborative virtual space for learning how to teach. Path analysis was employed to explore the relationships among social

Tsai, I-Chun

2012-01-01

284

Building an Intentional Culture of Social Justice: Increasing Understanding and Competence in the Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes one Catholic university's efforts to strengthen its mission commitment to social justice by providing quality faculty development to a large cross-section of full-time faculty. The purpose of this initiative is to provide faculty with the tools and knowledge necessary to embed Catholic Social Teaching in their course…

Doyle, Denise; Connelly, Robert

2011-01-01

285

Understanding and Designing for Interactional Privacy Needs within Social Networking Sites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Interpersonal boundary regulation" is a way to optimize social interactions when sharing and connecting through Social Networking Sites (SNSs). The theoretical foundation of much of my research comes from Altman's work on privacy management in the physical world. Altman believed that "we should attempt to design responsive…

Wisniewski, Pamela J.

2012-01-01

286

Understanding and Changing Older Adults' Perceptions and Learning of Social Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults' perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious, and to…

Xie, Bo; Watkins, Ivan; Golbeck, Jen; Huang, Man

2012-01-01

287

Current Issues Perspectives and Reviews Understanding Social Behaviour with the Help  

E-print Network

of complexity, a new kind of explanation has been developed for social behaviour. It shows how patterns causation and evolution of social behaviour. Furthermore, it may influence our theories about (phylogenetic) history of species, are only rarely studied. Usually, investigators develop theories about

Richner, Heinz

288

Understanding and Changing Older Adults' Perceptions and Learning of Social Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults’ perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious, and to the eventual willingness to actually contribute content. Privacy was

Bo Xie; Ivan Watkins; Jen Golbeck; Man Huang

2012-01-01

289

Connectedness, social support and internalising emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents displaced by the Chechen conflict  

PubMed Central

The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents. PMID:22443099

Betancourt, Theresa S.; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton

2013-01-01

290

A consistent and understandable method of teaching Newton's Laws of Motion for the solution of rigid-body problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a simple and effective technique for teaching Newton's Laws of Motion for rigid-body problems, and extends existing Free Body Diagram methods to include a Kinematics Diagram. Students find that this approach makes dynamics problems understandable. Several worked examples are included.

Colin P. Ratcliffe

1992-01-01

291

[Social media, children and pediatricians].  

PubMed

Using social media web sites is a common activity for children, and any site that allows social interaction (social network, games, virtual worlds...) is a social media site. Pediatricians are in a position to help families understand the benefits and the risks of these sites, and to diagnose problems in children and adolescents as cyberbullying, depression, and post traumatic disorder. PMID:22119289

Le Heuzey, M-F

2012-01-01

292

The association of BMI and social distance towards obese individuals is mediated by sympathy and understanding.  

PubMed

The desire for social distance towards individuals with obesity as part of the stigmatization process has not been investigated. The aims of this study include: (a) determining the prevalence of social distance and its domains in a population-based sample; (b) reporting levels of emotional response; and (c) investigating the association of BMI, emotional response and social distance. The data were derived from a large population based telephone survey in Germany (total n = 3,003, this sub-sample n = 1008). Emotional response to individuals with obesity was assessed for the emotions discomfort, pity, insecurity, amusement, sympathy, help and incomprehension (5-point Likert scale). Social distance was measured on a 5-point Likert scale covering different areas of social interaction. This served as the dependent variable for a linear regression model and mediation models that included BMI and emotional response. Social distance was highest for job recommendation, introduction to a friend, someone with obesity marrying into the family and renting out a room. Means of emotional responses were highest for pity (Mean = 2.58), sympathy (Mean = 2.87) and wanting to help (M = 2.76). In regression analyses, incomprehension (b = 1.095, p < 0.001) and sympathy (b = -0.833, p < 0.001) and the respondents' own BMI (b = -0.145, p < 0.001) were significantly associated to the overall amount of social distance. Mediation models revealed a significant mediation effect of BMI through sympathy (b = -0.229, % of total effect through mediation = 10.3%) and through incomprehension (b = -0.057, % of total effect through mediation = 27.5%) on social distance. Social distance towards individuals with obesity is prevalent in the general public in Germany and it is associated with emotional responses. Altering the emotional responses may, therefore, be a starting point in anti-stigma interventions. Evoking sympathy and lowering incomprehension may result in lower overall social distance. PMID:25577288

Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Schomerus, Georg; Link, Bruce; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

2015-03-01

293

Validation of the SSRS-T, Preschool Level as a Measure of Positive Social Behavior and Conduct Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence for the validity of the Social Skills Rating System for Teachers, Preschool Level (SSRS-T) as a measure of positive social skills and conduct problems was examined in a sample of Head Start preschoolers. One feature of the study was the comparative analysis of the original published factor structure of the Social Skills Scale (i.e.,…

Rich, Erika Carpenter; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Nangle, Douglas W.

2008-01-01

294

Embodied motivation: using a goal systems framework to understand the preference for social and physical warmth.  

PubMed

Embodiment research has primarily focused on metaphor-assimilative effects (e.g., perceiving someone to be socially warmer when holding a warm object). Research shows these effects can occur by activating metaphor-associated knowledge constructs. This account is not sufficient, however, for explaining complementary effects--for example, the tendency to prefer social warmth when experiencing physical coldness (Experiment 1). We suggest that socially warm events are considered a means for achieving the goal of reducing physical coldness. Guided by this basic hypothesis and the principles of a goal systems framework, we examine whether the basic relationship between goals and means explains complementary embodiment effects. We find that socially warm activities are preferred over control activities when people are primed with the goal of reducing physical coldness, but not when primed with the concept of coldness (Experiment 2). We also find that activating an alternative goal decreases the attractiveness of socially warm activities when people are feeling cold (Experiment 3). Finally, we examine the effect of social coldness on preferences for physical warmth, showing that the attractiveness of physically warm items among socially excluded people is decreased by activating an alternative goal (Experiment 4). These results suggest that complementary embodiment effects follow the principles of goal activation. PMID:25437131

Zhang, Yan; Risen, Jane L

2014-12-01

295

Understanding the relationship between social support and physical and mental well-being among jail detainees living with HIV.  

PubMed

Inmates face a disproportionate burden of HIV. This study sought to explore the relationship between social support and physical and mental well-being and the possibility that housing stability moderates this relationship among jail detainees living with HIV. Data for this cross-sectional analysis come from 438 clients who underwent a structured interview. Results indicate a significant positive relationship between social support and both types of well-being (ps < .05); the experience of homelessness was associated with less mental well-being (p < .01). There was no evidence of moderation. Results highlight the importance of social support and economic considerations in understanding well-being among HIV+ jail detainees. PMID:23933949

Arriola, Kimberly J; Spaulding, Anne C; Booker, Cristina A; Williams, Chyvette; Avery, Ann; Porter, Norma J; Jordan, Alison O; Loewenthal, Helen; Frew, Paula M

2015-01-01

296

Evaluating the Effect of Social Conversation on Learning, Interaction, and Perceived Interdependence in a Collaborative Math Problem Solving Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore the effect of social prompts offered by a computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment on student attitudes and behavior towards each other. We do this by experimentally contrasting collaboration in two configurations, one that presents students with social questions in between math problems and then uses the answers to those problems to tailor the cover

Rohit Kumar; Gahgene Gweon; Mahesh Joshi; Yue Cui; Adaeze Nwaigwe; Carolyn P. Rosé

297

Some Cognitive Characteristics of Night-Sky Watchers: Correlations between Social Problem-Solving, Need for Cognition, and Noctcaelador  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationship between night-sky watching and self-reported cognitive variables: need for cognition and social problem-solving. University students (N = 140) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, the Need for Cognition Scale, and the Social Problem Solving Inventory. The results indicated that an interest in the night-sky was…

Kelly, William E.

2005-01-01

298

Executive Function as a Mediator in the Link between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Cognitive processes and mechanisms underlying the strong link between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social problems remain unclear. Limited knowledge also exists regarding a subgroup of youth with ADHD who do not have social problems. This study investigated the extent to which executive function (EF) mediated the…

Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

2013-01-01

299

Mothers' and Fathers' Responsive Problem Solving with Early Adolescents: Do Gender, Shyness, and Social Acceptance Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed the extent to which youths' (n = 231) shyness and social acceptance in preadolescence were associated with parents' responsive problem solving 1 year later after controlling for initial levels of parents' problem solving. Teachers (n = 176) completed assessments of youths' shyness and social acceptance, and parents (n = 231 married…

Miller, Scott R.; Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma M.

2010-01-01

300

The Use of Social Marketing to Influence the Development of Problem Gambling in the UK: Implications for Public Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the authors present and debate the theoretical case for the use of social marketing to help reduce problem gambling in the public health context of the UK. Is triangulated between the key theories and principles of social marketing, the key literature and its theoretical application to the debate about reducing problem gambling in…

Powell, Jane E.; Tapp, Alan J.

2009-01-01

301

The Benefits of Restoration in Urbanizing Watersheds: Developing Value Indicators and Understanding Social Barriers and Opportunities  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological restoration can reestablish ecosystem services (ES) that provide important social benefits, but managers with limited funds and resources are forced to prioritize potential restoration sites. Prioritizing restoration sites based on ecological functioning and expected ...

302

Broadening Our Understanding and Assessment of Personal and Social Responsibility: A Challenge to Researchers and Practitioners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education literature has focused narrowly on social responsibility to the exclusion of personal responsibility. This chapter challenges higher education researchers and practitioners to include behaviors related to personal responsibility in their research and educational agendas.

Trosset, Carol

2013-01-01

303

Iranian senior nursing managers’ experiences and understanding of social capital in the nursing profession  

PubMed Central

Background: This study aimed to explore the role of social capital within the context of the nursing profession in Iran, based on the experience and perspectives of senior nursing managers. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using the Graneheim and Lundman content analysis method. Using purposive sampling, 26 senior nursing managers from the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, the College of Nursing and Midwifery, the Iranian Nursing Organization, nursing associations and hospitals were selected, who participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Results: Content analysis revealed three main themes (social capital deficit, applying multiple strategies, and cultivating social capital) as well as eight categories which included professional remoteness, deficiency in professional potency, deficiency in professional exchanges, accumulation of personal social capital, accumulation of professional social capital, socio-political strategies, psychological–cognitive strategies, and ethical/spiritual strategies. The results show the perceived level of social capital in nursing in Iran, the application of some key strategies, and the principal rewards accrued from active participation in improving the social capital in nursing environment and profession. Conclusions: Efforts should be made to strengthen the social capital and apply key strategies with the aim of achieving personal and professional benefits for nurses, their patients, and co-workers, and for the delivery of healthcare in general. In this respect, the role of senior managers is vital in stimulating collective action within the profession, planning for the development of a culture of participation in healthcare services, helping to develop all fields of the profession, and developing and strengthening intra- and inter-professional exchanges and networking. PMID:25400673

Manoochehri, Houman; Lolaty, Hamideh Azimi; Hassani, Parkhideh; Arbon, Paul; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin

2014-01-01

304

An Algorithm for Critical Nodes Problem in Social Networks Based on Owen Value  

PubMed Central

Discovering critical nodes in social networks has many important applications. For finding out the critical nodes and considering the widespread community structure in social networks, we obtain each node's marginal contribution by Owen value. And then we can give a method for the solution of the critical node problem. We validate the feasibility and effectiveness of our method on two synthetic datasets and six real datasets. At the same time, the result obtained by using our method to analyze the terrorist network is in line with the actual situation. PMID:25006592

Wang, Xue-Guang

2014-01-01

305

Adolescent Peer Relationships and Behavior Problems Predict Young Adults' Communication on Social Networking Websites  

PubMed Central

This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13–14 years and again at ages 20–22 years. At ages 20–22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship quality on their web pages were coded by observers. Results suggested that youths who had been better adjusted at ages 13–14 years were more likely to be using social networking web pages at ages 20–22 years, after statistically controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and parental income. Overall, youths' patterns of peer relationships, friendship quality, and behavioral adjustment at ages 13–14 years and at ages 20–22 years predicted similar qualities of interaction and problem behavior on their social networking websites at ages 20–22 years. Findings are consistent with developmental theory asserting that youths display cross-situational continuity in their social behaviors and suggest that the conceptualization of continuity may be extended into the online domain. PMID:20053005

Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Evans, Meredyth A.; Hare, Amanda L.

2010-01-01

306

Impact of social problem-solving training on aggressive boys: skill acquisition, behavior change, and generalization.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of social problem-solving training on the behavior of five aggressive boys. Acquisition of problem-solving skills and changes in classroom behavior were evaluated using multiple-baseline designs within and across subjects. A generalization-programming procedure to promote the use of problem-solving skills in the natural environment was introduced across children in multiple-baseline fashion. Direct observation and behavior ratings were used to evaluate the treatment. Results indicated that each subject acquired the problem-solving skills at levels comparable to well-adjusted peers. Only one child showed behavioral improvement coincident with problem-solving skill acquisition. Three others showed moderate behavior change after the generalization-programming procedure was introduced. Only one child's gains on teacher ratings were maintained at the 6-month followup. The results suggest that cognitive-behavioral treatment of childrens' aggressive behavior may produce changes of limited magnitude and durability. PMID:8463502

Guevremont, D C; Foster, S L

1993-02-01

307

Alcohol and drug problems among diverse health and social service populations.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. This study responds to clinical and research interest in identifying alcohol- and drug-related problems in health and social service agency populations. These problems are associated with a variety of illnesses and social problems, and community agencies serve important screening functions. METHODS. Indicators of problematic alcohol and drug use are compared across representative samples of clients within a county's alcohol, mental health, and drug treatment systems; hospital emergency rooms; primary health clinics; criminal justice and welfare systems; and general population. RESULTS. Agencies followed a consistent rank ordering in the prevalence of substance abuse indicators. Highest prevalences were found in the populations of behavioral health agencies, including alcohol, drug, and mental health treatment facilities and criminal justice, followed by welfare agencies. General medical agencies served populations with the lowest prevalence and problem severity. CONCLUSION. Health and social service agencies provide significant opportunities for the screening and referral of individuals with problematic alcohol and drug use. Although behavioral agencies have higher potential for referral and intervention, general medical services may be more effective in conducting prevention and early case-finding activities. PMID:8498619

Weisner, C; Schmidt, L

1993-01-01

308

Coping and social problem solving correlates of asthma control and quality of life.  

PubMed

In a sample of adults with asthma receiving care and medication in an outpatient pulmonary clinic, this study tested for statistical associations between social problem-solving styles, asthma control, and asthma-related quality of life. These variables were measured cross sectionally as a first step toward more systematic application of social problem-solving frameworks in asthma self-management training. Recruitment occurred during pulmonology clinic service hours. Forty-four adults with physician-confirmed diagnosis of asthma provided data including age, gender, height, weight, race, income, and comorbid conditions. The Asthma Control Questionnaire, the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Short Form), and peak expiratory force measures offered multiple views of asthma health at the time of the study. Maladaptive coping (impulsive and careless problem-solving styles) based on transactional stress models of health were assessed with the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form. Controlling for variance associated with gender, age, and income, individuals reporting higher impulsive-careless scores exhibited significantly lower scores on asthma control (? = 0.70, p = 0.001, confidence interval (CI) [0.37-1.04]) and lower asthma-related quality of life (? = 0.79, p = 0.017, CI [0.15-1.42]). These findings suggest that specific maladaptive problem-solving styles may uniquely contribute to asthma health burdens. Because problem-solving coping strategies are both measureable and teachable, behavioral interventions aimed at facilitating adaptive coping and problem solving could positively affect patient's asthma management and quality of life. PMID:24431407

McCormick, Sean P; Nezu, Christine M; Nezu, Arthur M; Sherman, Michael; Davey, Adam; Collins, Bradley N

2014-02-01

309

Integrating Social Science, Environmental Science, and Engineering to Understand Vulnerability and Resilience to Environmental Hazards in the Bengal Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In populated delta environments, it is impossible to separate human and natural systems. Human activities change the landscape by altering the dynamics of water and sediment and in return, humans themselves are affected by the natural and anthropogenic changes to the landscape. Such interactions can also have significant impacts on the ecology and natural resources of a delta system, affecting local and regional food supply, livelihoods, and economies, particularly in developing nations. Successful adaptation to environmental change in a strongly coupled human-natural system, such as the Bengal delta, requires understanding how the physical environment and the changing social, political, and economic conditions of people's lives interact. Research on human-delta interactions has largely focused on macro-scale effects from major dams, water diversions, and catchment-scale land use; but at the smaller scale of households and communities, decisions, actions, and outcomes may occur abruptly and have significant local impacts (positive or negative). Southwest Bangladesh experiences profound environmental problems at the local human-landscape interface, including groundwater salinity, soil fertility, conflicting land-use practices, management of engineering structures, and declining land-surface elevations. The impacts of climate-induced sea-level rise, especially with respect to population migration, receive great attention and concern, but neither sea level rise nor migration occurs against a background of static physical or human environments. For example, changing land use (e.g., building embankments, which affect drainage, sediment transport, and the evolution of tidal channels; and the transformation of rice fields to shrimp aquaculture, which affects soil chemistry, labor markets, river ecology, and possibly the integrity of embankments) can significantly change the impact that sea level rise will have on flood hazards and the resulting effect on people living on the delta. Assessing the impacts of climate change and other environmental stresses on delta populations and designing effective responses will require understanding interactions between the physical and human environments at multiple scales. As part of a multidisciplinary research project drawing on sedimentology, hydrology, remote-sensing, engineering, political science, sociology, psychology, and anthropology we are studying the interactions of human and natural systems in coastal Bangladesh to understand conditions that contribute to vulnerability and resilience at both the household and the community level. Building on Elinor Ostrom's socioecological systems approach, we have developed a theoretical framework for studying vulnerability and resilience when coupled human-natural systems are subject to significant changes and exogenous forcings. We will report on this framework using examples of successful and unsuccessful interventions to manage or mitigate exposure to environmental hazards, and we will also report on progress toward using our framework to identify and understand factors that contribute to the success or failure of such projects.

Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Goodbred, S. L.

2013-12-01

310

Using Students' Representations Constructed during Problem Solving to Infer Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The differences in the types of representations constructed during successful and unsuccessful problem-solving episodes were investigated within the context of graduate students working on problems that involve concepts from 2D-NMR. Success at problem solving was established by having the participants solve five problems relating to material just…

Domin, Daniel; Bodner, George

2012-01-01

311

Seasonal Variation and Homes: Understanding the Social Experiences of Older Adults  

PubMed Central

There has been limited research on the importance of seasons in the lives of older adults. Previous research has highlighted seasonal fluctuations in physical functioning—including limb strength, range of motion, and cardiac death—the spread of influenza in seasonal migration patterns. In addition, older adults experience isolation for various reasons, such as decline of physical and cognitive ability, lack of transportation, and lack of opportunities for social interaction. There has been much attention paid to the social isolation of older adults, yet little analysis about how the isolation changes throughout the year. Based on findings from an ethnographic study of older adults (n = 81), their family members (n = 49), and supportive professionals (n = 46) as they embark on relocation from their homes, this study analyzes the processes of moving for older adults. It examines the seasonal fluctuations of social isolation because of the effect of the environment on the social experiences of older adults. Isolation occurs because of the difficulty inclement weather causes on social interactions and mobility. The article concludes with discussion of the ways that research and practice can be designed and implemented to account for seasonal variation. PMID:24761536

Perry, Tam E.

2014-01-01

312

Base Rates of Social Skills Acquisition/Performance Deficits, Strengths, and Problem Behaviors: An Analysis of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally…

Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.

2010-01-01

313

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS VIEW POVERTY AS A SOCIAL PROBLEM, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT SEMINAR (5TH, MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY, SEPTEMBER 11-14, 1966).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT SEMINAR, WHICH FOCUSED ON RELATING VARIOUS SOCIAL SCIENCES TO THE ISSUES OF POVERTY, INCLUDED PAPERS ON SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF POVERTY, POLITICAL PARTICIPATION BY THE POOR, MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT NEEDS, GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS IN POVERTY, URBAN PLANNING, POLICE SERVICES, APPLICATIONS OF ANTHROPOLOGY, PROBLEMS IN SOCIAL WORK…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing.

314

Everyday social and conversation applications of theory-of-mind understanding by children with autism-spectrum disorders or typical development.  

PubMed

Children with autism-spectrum disorders (ASD) often fail laboratory false-belief tests of theory of mind (ToM). Yet how this impacts on their everyday social behavior is less clear, partly owing to uncertainty over which specific everyday conversational and social skills require ToM understanding. A new caregiver-report scale of these everyday applications of ToM was developed and validated in two studies. Study 1 obtained parent ratings of 339 children (85 with autism; 230 with Asperger's; 24 typically-developing) on the new scale and results revealed (a) that the scale had good psychometric properties and (b) that children with ASD had significantly more everyday mindreading difficulties than typical developers. In Study 2, we directly tested links between laboratory ToM and everyday mindreading using teacher ratings on the new scale. The sample of 25 children included 15 with autism and 10 typical developers aged 5-12 years. Children in both groups who passed laboratory ToM tests had fewer everyday mindreading difficulties than those of the same diagnosis who failed. Yet, intriguingly, autistic ToM-passers still had more problems with everyday mindreading than younger typically-developing ToM-failers. The possible roles of family conversation and peer interaction, along with ToM, in everyday social functioning were considered. PMID:18810310

Peterson, Candida C; Garnett, Michelle; Kelly, Adrian; Attwood, Tony

2009-02-01

315

Socioscientific Issues: A Path Towards Advanced Scientific Literacy and Improved Conceptual Understanding of Socially Controversial Scientific Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates the use of socioscientific issues (SSI) in the high school science classroom as an introduction to argumentation and socioscientific reasoning, with the goal of improving students' scientific literacy (SL). Current research is reviewed that supports the likelihood of students developing a greater conceptual understanding of scientific theories as well as a deeper understanding of the nature of science (NOS), through participation in informal and formal forms of argumentation in the context of SSI. Significant gains in such understanding may improve a student's ability to recognize the rigor, legitimacy, and veracity of scientific claims and better discern science from pseudoscience. Furthermore, students that participate in significant SSI instruction by negotiating a range of science-related social issues can make significant gains in content knowledge and develop the life-long skills of argumentation and evidence-based reasoning, goals not possible in traditional lecture-based science instruction. SSI-based instruction may therefore help students become responsible citizens. This synthesis also suggests that that the improvements in science literacy and NOS understanding that develop from sustained engagement in SSI-based instruction will better prepare students to examine and scrutinize socially controversial scientific theories (i.e., evolution, global warming, and the Big Bang).

Pinzino, Dean William

316

Examination of a social problem-solving intervention to treat selective mutism.  

PubMed

The authors examined the use of a social problem-solving intervention to treat selective mutism with 2 sisters in an elementary school setting. Both girls were taught to answer teacher questions in front of their classroom peers during regular classroom instruction. Each girl received individualized instruction from a therapist and was taught to discriminate salient social cues, select an appropriate social response, perform the response, and evaluate her performance. The girls generalized the skills to their respective regular classrooms and maintained the skills for up to 3 months after the removal of the intervention. Experimental control was demonstrated using a multiple baseline design across participants. Limitations of this study and issues for future research are discussed. PMID:18285505

O'Reilly, Mark; McNally, Deirdre; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E; Green, Vanessa; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Machalicek, Wendy; Sorrells, Audrey; Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert

2008-03-01

317

Experiments are the key to understanding socially acquired knowledge in cetaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We agree with Rendell and Whitehead that cetaceans acquire knowledge from caretakers and peers, and that a clear understanding of this process can provide insight into the evolution of mammalian cognition. The passive observational methods they advocate, however, are inadequate for determining what cetaceans know. Only by experimentally investigating the cognition of cetaceans can we hope to understand what they

Eduardo Mercado; Caroline M. DeLongb

2001-01-01

318

Group therapy with adolescents who have learning disabilities and social\\/emotional problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents group therapy with adolescents who have learning disabilities and social\\/emotional problems. First, the\\u000a paper reviews the literature on psychosocial development and interventions offered to these adolescents. There is agreement\\u000a in the literature that group therapy is beneficial for adolescents. Learning disabled adolescents meet the criteria for receiving\\u000a this intervention. Despite this, review of the literature suggests that

Faye Mishna; Janice Kaiman; Sandra Little; Elizabeth Tarshis

1994-01-01

319

Parenting Practices and Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Moderating Effects of Socially Demanding Kin Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother’s emotional support, behavioral control\\/monitoring, family organization\\u000a and psychological control with adolescent’s internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged,\\u000a African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother’s psychological control were positively associated\\u000a with adolescent’s internalizing problems. Demanding kin relations also moderated the association of control\\/monitoring, family\\u000a organization, and psychological

Ronald D. Taylor; Elizabeth I. Lopez; Mia Budescu; Rebecca Kang McGill

320

Understanding Infants' and Children's Social Learning about Foods: Previous Research and New Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the…

Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; DeJesus, Jasmine M.

2013-01-01

321

Understanding health systems, health economies and globalization: the need for social science perspectives  

PubMed Central

The complex relationship between globalization and health calls for research from many disciplinary and methodological perspectives. This editorial gives an overview of the content trajectory of the interdisciplinary journal ‘Globalization and Health’ over the first six years of production, 2005 to 2010. The findings show that bio-medical and population health perspectives have been dominant but that social science perspectives have become more evident in recent years. The types of paper published have also changed, with a growing proportion of empirical studies. A special issue on ‘Health systems, health economies and globalization: social science perspectives’ is introduced, a collection of contributions written from the vantage points of economics, political science, psychology, sociology, business studies, social policy and research policy. The papers concern a range of issues pertaining to the globalization of healthcare markets and governance and regulation issues. They highlight the important contribution that can be made by the social sciences to this field, and also the practical and methodological challenges implicit in the study of globalization and health. PMID:22938504

2012-01-01

322

Social learning of predators in the dark: understanding the role of visual, chemical and mechanical information  

PubMed Central

The ability of prey to observe and learn to recognize potential predators from the behaviour of nearby individuals can dramatically increase survival and, not surprisingly, is widespread across animal taxa. A range of sensory modalities are available for this learning, with visual and chemical cues being well-established modes of transmission in aquatic systems. The use of other sensory cues in mediating social learning in fishes, including mechano-sensory cues, remains unexplored. Here, we examine the role of different sensory cues in social learning of predator recognition, using juvenile damselfish (Amphiprion percula). Specifically, we show that a predator-naive observer can socially learn to recognize a novel predator when paired with a predator-experienced conspecific in total darkness. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that when threatened, individuals release chemical cues (known as disturbance cues) into the water. These cues induce an anti-predator response in nearby individuals; however, they do not facilitate learnt recognition of the predator. As such, another sensory modality, probably mechano-sensory in origin, is responsible for information transfer in the dark. This study highlights the diversity of sensory cues used by coral reef fishes in a social learning context. PMID:23804616

Manassa, R. P.; McCormick, M. I.; Chivers, D. P.; Ferrari, M. C. O.

2013-01-01

323

Bachelor of Social Work Students and Mental Health Stigma: Understanding Student Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bachelor-level social work students (n = 198) at a midsized Midwestern public university were surveyed to evaluate their attitudes toward those with mental health concerns. Additionally, students were surveyed regarding their willingness to seek treatment for their own mental health needs. Results of the analyses suggest that the majority of…

Zellmann, Karen T.; Madden, Elissa E.; Aguiniga, Donna M.

2014-01-01

324

Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

2009-01-01

325

Understanding Implementation and Effectiveness of "Strong Start K-2" on Social-Emotional Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Strong Start K-2" is a social-emotional learning curriculum, designed for use with children in kindergarten through grade 2. The objectives of this study were twofold. First, authors aimed to evaluate the feasibility and quality of "Strong Start" implementation. Additionally authors examined the effect of "Strong Start" on first grade students'…

Whitcomb, Sara A.; Merrell, Kenneth W.

2012-01-01

326

Understanding How Social and Emotional Skill Deficits Contribute to School Failure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of children are entering kindergarten without the skills that enable them to be successful in an academic setting. However, it is not children's cognitive skills that concern educators; it is their social and emotional skill deficits that are most troublesome. This article discusses how family and community risk factors can…

Whitted, Kathryn S.

2011-01-01

327

Understanding Parent-Child Social Informant Discrepancy in Youth with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated discrepancies between parent- and self-reported social functioning among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Three distinct samples showed discrepancies indicating that parents viewed their children as performing one standard deviation below a standardization mean, while youth viewed themselves as comparably-skilled…

Lerner, Matthew D.; Calhoun, Casey D.; Mikami, Amori Yee; De Los Reyes, Andres

2012-01-01

328

Understanding the Role of the ‘Self’ in the Social Priming of Mimicry  

PubMed Central

People have a tendency to unconsciously mimic other's actions. This mimicry has been regarded as a prosocial response which increases social affiliation. Previous research on social priming of mimicry demonstrated an assimilative relationship between mimicry and prosociality of the primed construct: prosocial primes elicit stronger mimicry whereas antisocial primes decrease mimicry. The present research extends these findings by showing that assimilative and contrasting prime-to-behavior effect can both happen on mimicry. Specifically, experiment 1 showed a robust contrast priming effect where priming antisocial behaviors induces stronger mimicry than priming prosocial behaviors. In experiment 2, we manipulated the self-relatedness of the pro/antisocial primes and further revealed that prosocial primes increase mimicry only when the social primes are self-related whereas antisocial primes increase mimicry only when the social primes are self-unrelated. In experiment 3, we used a novel cartoon movie paradigm to prime pro/antisocial behaviors and manipulated the perspective-taking when participants were watching these movies. Again, we found that prosocial primes increase mimicry only when participants took a first-person point of view whereas antisocial primes increase mimicry only when participants took a third-person point of view, which replicated the findings in experiment 2. We suggest that these three studies can be best explained by the active-self theory, which claims that the direction of prime-to-behavior effects depends on how primes are processed in relation to the ‘self’. PMID:23565208

Wang, Yin; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

2013-01-01

329

Trouble at School: Understanding School Discipline Systems as Nets of Social Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Getting in trouble at school is often a student's first point of entry into the school-to-prison pipeline. What trouble entails is shaped by underlying and complex notions of justice that operate in a given school setting. These notions of justice shape the range of responses social actors use to address students who break school rules. These…

Irby, Decoteau J.

2014-01-01

330

Understanding social engagement in autism: being different in perceiving and sharing affordances.  

PubMed

In the current paper I will argue that the notion of affordances offers an alternative to theory of mind (ToM) approaches in studying social engagement in general and in explaining social engagement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) specifically. Affordances are the possibilities for action offered by the environment. In contrast to ToM approaches, the concept of affordances implies the complementarity of person and environment and rejects the dualism of mind and behavior. In line with the Gibsonian idea that a child must eventually perceive the affordances of the environment for others as well for herself in order to become socialized, I will hypothesize that individuals with ASD often do not perceive the same affordances in the environment as other people do and have difficulties perceiving others' affordances. This can lead to a disruption of interpersonal behaviors. I will further argue that the methods for studying social engagement should be adapted if we want to take interaction into account. PMID:25136327

Hellendoorn, Annika

2014-01-01

331

SAT Performance: Understanding the Contributions of Cognitive/Learning and Social/Personality Factors  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY This study identifies a number of sources of individual differences in SAT performance by examining the simultaneous contributions of factors from two otherwise disparate research areas, namely cognition/learning and social/personality. Preliminary analysis revealed that just the cognitive/learning measures accounted for 37.8, 41.4 and 21.9% of the variance in SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT performance, respectively while just the social/personality measures accounted for 21.4, 18.2 and 17.3% of the variance. When combined, cognitive/learning and social/personality factors accounted for even larger amounts of variance in performance; specifically 43.4, 44.6 and 28% for the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT, respectively. Finally, the results revealed that three measures consistently predicted performance on the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT; two measures were the learning/cognitive factors of working memory and integration of new text-based information with information from long-term memory and one measure was the social/personality factor, test anxiety. PMID:21804694

HANNON, BRENDA; MCNAUGHTON-CASSILL, MARY

2011-01-01

332

Using Social Network Analysis to Understand Sense of Community in an Online Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses social network analysis (SNA) in an innovative way to describe interaction and explain how interaction influences sense of community of students in online learning environments. The findings reveal differences on sense of community between two similarly structured online courses, and show unique interaction patterns for students in…

Shen, Demei; Nuankhieo, Piyanan; Huang, Xinxin; Amelung, Christopher; Laffey, James

2008-01-01

333

A framework for understanding the social and emotional development of gifted and talented adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does the process of adolescence produce different reactions and repercussions among gifted and talented adolescents than their normal peers? Identifying the origins of social and emotional concerns among these unique adolescents is the first step in designing an effective counseling program. This article probes patterns of adolescent development believed to exist among both normal and gifted students, and previews issues

Thomas M. Buescher

1985-01-01

334

E Pluribus Unum--From DNA to Social Systems: Understanding Physical Activity through an Integrated Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latter half of the 20th century witnessed the dramatic rise of specialization in the subdisciplines of kinesiology, which resulted in scholarly development, but fragmentation. A need is articulated herein for an "issues-based" approach to research that will attract scholars from multiple subdisciplines, address compelling challenges of social

Hatfield, Bradley D.

2008-01-01

335

A Social Identity Approach to Understanding the Impact of Television Messages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between exposure to stereotypical media messages regarding race/ethnicity and subsequent social judgments among undergraduate students. Investigates the association between Whites' evaluations of self and other (Latino) as a result of varying media content pertaining to criminality stereotypes. Notes that the findings…

Mastro, Dana E.

2003-01-01

336

Understanding Solitude: Young Children's Attitudes and Responses toward Hypothetical Socially Withdrawn Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the present study was to explore young children's attitudes and responses to different forms of social withdrawal by eliciting responses to hypothetical vignettes. Participants included 137 children (49 boys, 88 girls) in kindergarten and grade 1 classes (M[subscript age] = 75.94 months, SD = 9.03) in Ottawa, Canada. Parents rated…

Coplan, Robert J.; Girardi, Alberta; Findlay, Leanne C.; Frohlick, Sherri L.

2007-01-01

337

Understanding the Role of Technology in a Secondary School Social Studies Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has shown that technology is extremely important when used in the classroom because it enhances student learning. It is imperative that teachers learn the best practices for use of technology in the classroom. Using interviews, questionnaires, and observations with social studies teachers in a rural school district in Central New…

Gardner, Jacob D.

2011-01-01

338

Online Community and User-Generated Content: Understanding the Role of Social Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Models of user generated content (UGC) creation such as Facebook, MySpace, and YouTube are facing robust growth accelerated by the adoption of Web 2.0 technologies and standards. These business models offer a fascinating avenue for exploring the role of social influence online. This dissertation is motivated by the success of YouTube, which is…

Oh, Jeong Ha

2010-01-01

339

Understanding the Learning of Values Using a Domains-of-Socialization Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The narratives that emerging adults wrote about a time when they learned an important moral, value or lesson were explored in order to determine the characteristics of events that lead to internalized values as well as to compare the way different kinds of moral values are socialized. Lessons resulting from misbehavior were reported most…

Vinik, Julia; Johnston, Megan; Grusec, Joan E.; Farrell, Renee

2013-01-01

340

Understanding Academic Performance of International Students: The Role of Ethnicity, Academic and Social Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 3 million students study outside their home country, primarily at a Western university. A common belief among educators is that international students are insufficiently adjusted to higher education in their host country, both academically and socially. Furthermore, several groups of international students experience considerable amounts…

Rienties, Bart; Beausaert, Simon; Grohnert, Therese; Niemantsverdriet, Susan; Kommers, Piet

2012-01-01

341

The Awkward Moments Test: A Naturalistic Measure of Social Understanding in Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen adults with high-functioning autism, 2 with Asperger syndrome, and 10 controls matched for intellectual ability and reading competence were shown excerpts of films showing characters in social situations. Adults with autism and Asperger syndrome were most impaired in their ability to answer questions about the films requiring mind-reading…

Heavey, Lisa; Phillips, Wendy; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Rutter, Michael

2000-01-01

342

Trial Registration: Understanding and Preventing Reporting Bias in Social Work Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Randomized controlled trials are considered the gold standard for evaluating social work interventions. However, published reports can systematically overestimate intervention effects when researchers selectively report large and significant findings. Publication bias and other types of reporting biases can be minimized through prospective trial…

Harrison, Bronwyn A.; Mayo-Wilson, Evan

2014-01-01

343

Understanding Associations of Control Beliefs, Social Relations, and Well-Being in Older Adults with Osteoarthritis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Control beliefs and social relationships have been individually assessed in relation to adaptation to chronic illness, although only rarely together. Further, some control scales show psychometric limitations in older adult samples. To address these concerns, a scale assessing external control was created by factor analyzing the items from…

Ferreira, Vanessa M.; Sherman, Aurora M.

2006-01-01

344

Towards a differentiated understanding of active travel behaviour: Using social theory to explore everyday commuting  

PubMed Central

Fostering physical activity is an established public health priority for the primary prevention of a variety of chronic diseases. One promising population approach is to seek to embed physical activity in everyday lives by promoting walking and cycling to and from work (‘active commuting’) as an alternative to driving. Predominantly quantitative epidemiological studies have investigated travel behaviours, their determinants and how they may be changed towards more active choices. This study aimed to depart from narrow behavioural approaches to travel and investigate the social context of commuting with qualitative social research methods. Within a social practice theory framework, we explored how people describe their commuting experiences and make commuting decisions, and how travel behaviour is embedded in and shaped by commuters' complex social worlds. Forty-nine semi-structured interviews and eighteen photo-elicitation interviews with accompanying field notes were conducted with a subset of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort, based in the UK. The findings are discussed in terms of three particularly pertinent facets of the commuting experience. Firstly, choice and decisions are shaped by the constantly changing and fluid nature of commuters' social worlds. Secondly, participants express ambiguities in relation to their reasoning, ambitions and identities as commuters. Finally, commuting needs to be understood as an embodied and emotional practice. With this in mind, we suggest that everyday decision-making in commuting requires the tactical negotiation of these complexities. This study can help to explain the limitations of more quantitative and static models and frameworks in predicting travel behaviour and identify future research directions. PMID:22486840

Guell, C.; Panter, J.; Jones, N.R.; Ogilvie, D.

2012-01-01

345

Exploring and Understanding Online Assistance for Problem Gamblers: The Pathways Disclosure Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem gambling rates are increasing, but few of those requiring help receive it; stigma is often cited as a reason why treatment is not forthcoming. Such is the context for this study, possibly the first to examine Internet-based help for gambling problems. The study ex- plored problem gamblers' use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) as a facet of their recovery. Fifty

G. Cooper

2004-01-01

346

Understanding the Causes and Management of Problem Behaviour in Zimbabwean Schools: Teacher Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem behaviour continues to present a challenge for school-teachers worldwide. Since school-teachers around the globe have different conceptualisations of what constitutes problem behaviour, the purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of Zimbabwean school-teachers about their perceived causes of problem behaviour among students in…

Chitiyo, Morgan; Chitiyo, George; Chitiyo, Jonathan; Oyedele, Victoria; Makoni, Richard; Fonnah, Davidson; Chipangure, Luke

2014-01-01

347

The social competence and behavioral problem substrate of new- and recent-onset childhood epilepsy.  

PubMed

This study examined patterns of syndrome-specific problems in behavior and competence in children with new- or recent-onset epilepsy compared with healthy controls. Research participants consisted of 205 children aged 8-18, including youth with recent-onset epilepsy (n=125, 64 localization-related epilepsy [LRE] and 61 idiopathic generalized epilepsy [IGE]) and healthy first-degree cousin controls (n=80). Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist for children aged 6-18 (CBCL/6-18) from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Dependent variables included Total Competence, Total Problems, Total Internalizing, Total Externalizing, and Other Problems scales. Comparisons of children with LRE and IGE with healthy controls were examined followed by comparisons of healthy controls with those having specific epilepsy syndromes of LRE (BECTS, Frontal/Temporal Lobe, and Focal NOS) and IGE (Absence, Juvenile Myoclonic, and IGE NOS). Children with LRE and/or IGE differed significantly (p<0.05) from healthy controls, but did not differ from each other, across measures of behavior (Total Problems, Total Internalizing, Total Externalizing, and Other Problems including Thought and Attention Problems) or competence (Total Competence including School and Social). Similarly, children with specific syndromes of LRE and IGE differed significantly (p<0.05) from controls across measures of behavior (Total Problems, Total Internalizing, and Other Problems including Attention Problems) and competence (Total Competence including School). Only on the Thought Problems scale were there syndrome differences. In conclusion, children with recent-onset epilepsy present with significant behavioral problems and lower competence compared with controls, with little syndrome specificity whether defined broadly (LRE and IGE) or narrowly (specific syndromes of LRE and IGE). PMID:24374977

Almane, Dace; Jones, Jana E; Jackson, Daren C; Seidenberg, Michael; Hermann, Bruce P

2014-02-01

348

Expanding understanding of service exchange and value co-creation: a social construction approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to service-dominant logic (S-D logic), all providers are service providers, and service is the fundamental basis of exchange. Value is co-created with customers and assessed on the basis\\u000a of value-in-context. However, the extensive literature on S-D logic could benefit from paying explicit attention to the fact\\u000a that both service exchange and value co-creation are influenced by social forces. The

Bo Edvardsson; Bĺrd Tronvoll; Thorsten Gruber

2011-01-01

349

Understanding academic performance of international students: the role of ethnicity, academic and social integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 3 million students study outside their home country, primarily at a Western university. A common belief among educators\\u000a is that international students are insufficiently adjusted to higher education in their host country, both academically and\\u000a socially. Furthermore, several groups of international students experience considerable amounts of stress while adapting to\\u000a the culture of the host-institute. Several researchers argue

Bart Rienties; Simon Beausaert; Therese Grohnert; Susan Niemantsverdriet; Piet Kommers

350

Exposure to violence, social cognitive processing, and sleep problems in urban adolescents.  

PubMed

Exposure to violence is associated with elevated levels of sleep problems in adolescence, which contributes to poor mental and physical health and impaired academic performance. However, reasons underlying the associations between exposure to violence and sleep difficulty have not been examined. This study tested a social cognitive processing path model linking experiences of witnessing and directly experiencing community violence and sleep problems. Participants were 362 early adolescents (M age = 12.45 years, SD = 0.59; range 11-14 years; 48.9 % male; 51 % Latino/a; 34 % black) from urban communities enrolled in a middle-school-based intervention study on the east coast of the United States that was designed to reduce the negative effects of exposure to violence. All youth in the current study reported witnessing or directly experiencing community violence. Adolescents completed four school-based assessments over an 18-month period, reporting on their exposure to community violence, sleep problems, intrusive thoughts about and social constraints in talking about violence, and life events. A path model that included both victimization and witnessing violence revealed that wave 1 witnessing violence, but not victimization, was associated with elevated social constraints in talking about violence at wave 2, which was associated with elevated intrusive thoughts at wave 3, which was associated with poor sleep quality at wave 4. Prior levels of all constructs were controlled in the analysis, in addition to life events, single parent household status, children's age and sex, intervention condition, and school. Youth exposed to violence may benefit from help in processing their experiences, thus reducing social constraints in talking about their experiences and associated intrusive thoughts. This is turn may improve sleep outcomes. PMID:25218396

Kliewer, Wendy; Lepore, Stephen J

2015-02-01

351

Evaluating the cognitive process of students participating in a service-learning experience while enrolled in a collegiate social problems class  

E-print Network

This study evaluated the cognitive process of students participating in a 20-hour service-learning experience while enrolled in a collegiate Social Problems course. This study examined student attitudes about social problems and their ability...

Pracht, Dale Wayne

2007-09-17

352

A Comparison of the Parenting Dimensions that Lead to Positive Social Problem Solving in the Children from Traditional Versus Children from Same-sex Parent Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building social competence is an important task of childhood. Effective social problem solving is a vital skill in the development of social competence. Although there are myriad factors that influence a child’s learning of social problem solving skills, the quality of the interaction between parents and children has been found to be a pivotal influence. Although much research focuses on

Karen Joan Taratuski

2010-01-01

353

Treating Conduct Problems and Strengthening Social and Emotional Competence in Young Children: The Dina Dinosaur Treatment Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Dina Dinosaur Social, Emotional and Problem Solving Child Training Program for young children with conduct problems. The program emphasizes training children in skills such as emotional literacy, empathy or perspective taking, friendship and communication skills, anger management, interpersonal problem solving, and…

Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Reid, M. Jamila

2003-01-01

354

The effects of students' reasoning abilities on conceptual understandings and problem-solving skills in introductory mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if there are relationships among freshmen\\/first year students' reasoning abilities, conceptual understandings and problem-solving skills in introductory mechanics. The sample consisted of 165 freshmen science education prospective teachers (female = 86, male = 79; age range 17-21) who were enrolled in an introductory physics course. Data collection was done during the fall

S. Ates; E. Cataloglu

2007-01-01

355

The effects of students' cognitive styles on conceptual understandings and problem-solving skills in introductory mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if there are relationship among freshmen students' Field depended or field independent (FD\\/FI) cognitive style, conceptual understandings, and problem solving skills in mechanics. The sample consisted of 213 freshmen (female = 111, male = 102; age range 17–21) who were enrolled in an introductory physics course required for science education prospective teachers.

Salih Ates; Erdat Cataloglu

2007-01-01

356

The Effects of Students' Cognitive Styles on Conceptual Understandings and Problem-Solving Skills in Introductory Mechanics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if there are relationships among freshmen students' Field depended or field independent (FD/FI) cognitive style, conceptual understandings, and problem solving skills in mechanics. The sample consisted of 213 freshmen (female = 111, male = 102; age range 17-21) who were enrolled in an introductory physics…

Ates, Salih; Cataloglu, Erdat

2007-01-01

357

Understanding L2 Speaking Problems: Implications for ESL Curriculum Development in a Teacher Training Institution in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the result of a study that aimed to identify the problems with oral English skills of ESL (English as a second language) students at a tertiary teacher training institution in Hong Kong. The study, by way of semi-structured interview, addresses the gap in our understanding of the difficulties ESL students encountered in their…

Gan, Zhengdong

2012-01-01

358

An ecological public health approach to understanding the relationships between sustainable urban environments, public health and social equity.  

PubMed

The environmental determinants of public health and social equity present many challenges to a sustainable urbanism-climate change, water shortages and oil dependency to name a few. There are many pathways from urban environments to human health. Numerous links have been described but some underlying mechanisms behind these relationships are less understood. Combining theory and methods is a way of understanding and explaining how the underlying structures of urban environments relate to public health and social equity. This paper proposes a model for an ecological public health, which can be used to explore these relationships. Four principles of an ecological public health-conviviality, equity, sustainability and global responsibility-are used to derive theoretical concepts that can inform ecological public health thinking, which, among other things, provides a way of exploring the underlying mechanisms that link urban environments to public health and social equity. Theories of more-than-human agency inform ways of living together (conviviality) in urban areas. Political ecology links the equity concerns about environmental and social justice. Resilience thinking offers a better way of coming to grips with sustainability. Integrating ecological ethics into public health considers the global consequences of local urban living and thus attends to global responsibility. This way of looking at the relationships between urban environments, public health and social equity answers the call to craft an ecological public health for the twenty-first century by re-imagining public health in a way that acknowledges humans as part of the ecosystem, not separate from it, though not central to it. PMID:23661624

Bentley, Michael

2014-09-01

359

Solving problems in social-ecological systems: definition, practice and barriers of transdisciplinary research.  

PubMed

Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments. PMID:23475660

Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid

2013-03-01

360

Understanding Black Male Athlete Social Responsibility (BMASR): A Case Study of an NBA Franchise  

E-print Network

of Oklahoma Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. John N. Singer While there is voluminous research on the Black male athlete, the literature does not touch on the notion of social responsibility. Thus, the purpose of this study was to garner perceptions...?e, Michelle. You were there every step of the way. Medo wo paa! Finally, I would like to express gratitude to my dissertation committee chair, Dr. John N. Singer. I could not have asked for a better advisor, mentor, and friend. Without his tutelage...

Agyemang, Kwame Jesse Asamoah

2012-07-16

361

Teaching for Historical Understanding: Perspectives from a High School Social Studies Department  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined the issue of history education and its failure to understand and implement the most effective teaching and learning strategies for the discipline. It did this by conducting interviews, observations, and a focus group with a group of history teachers in a suburban high school in New England. While aiming to explain…

Jones, Christopher S.

2013-01-01

362

Conversations with Siblings and with Friends: Links between Relationship Quality and Social Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates features of interaction between children that are linked to the development of understanding of mind, and asks whether these associations are evident across different relationships. Comparisons are made of the naturally occurring conversations in a sample of 43 4-year-old children, each observed with a sibling and with a…

Cutting, Alexandra L.; Dunn, Judy

2006-01-01

363

Articulating Scientific Practice: Understanding Dean Hamer's "Gay Gene" Study as Overlapping Material, Social and Rhetorical Registers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rhetoricians have tried to develop a better understanding of the connection between words and things, but these attempts often employ a logic of representation that undermines a full examination of materiality and the complexity of scientific practice. A logic of articulation offers a viable alternative by focusing attention on the linkages…

Lynch, John A.

2009-01-01

364

Emotion, Understanding, and Social Skills among Boys at Risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing interest in the role of emotional competence in middle school children's adjustment and functioning, yet many populations remain underresearched. Few studies have explored the emotional competence, especially emotion understanding, of children with, or at risk of, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and even fewer…

Kats-Gold, Inna; Priel, Beatriz

2009-01-01

365

The Role of Presentation and Response Format in Understanding, Preconceptions and Alternative Concepts in Algebra Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that students have great difficulty solving certain algebra word problems. These solutions, moreover, appear to be due to some situational factors characteristic of algebra problems, e.g., presentation and response format. This study investigates students' preconceptions, post facto alternative concepts based on key features of…

Abouchedid, Kamal; Nasser, Ramzi

366

Cardiac autonomic imbalance by social stress in rodents: understanding putative biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Exposure to stress or traumatic events can lead to the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition to the debilitating consequences on mental health, patients with psychiatric disorders also suffer from autonomic imbalance, making them susceptible to a variety of medical disorders. Emerging evidence utilizing spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), a reliable non-invasive measure of cardiovascular autonomic regulation, indicates that patients with depression and various anxiety disorders (i.e., panic, social, generalized anxiety disorders, and post traumatic stress disorder) are characterized by decreased HRV. Social stressors in rodents are ethologically relevant experimental stressors that recapitulate many of the dysfunctional behavioral and physiological changes that occur in psychological disorders. In this review, evidence from clinical studies and preclinical stress models identify putative biomarkers capable of precipitating the comorbidity between disorders of the mind and autonomic dysfunction. Specifically, the role of corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y and inflammation are investigated. The impetus for this review is to highlight stress-related biomarkers that may prove critical in the development of autonomic imbalance in stress -related psychiatric disorders. PMID:25206349

Wood, Susan K.

2014-01-01

367

Schoolwide Social-Behavioral Climate, Student Problem Behavior, and Related Administrative Decisions: Empirical Patterns from 1,510 Schools Nationwide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Office discipline referral (ODR) data provide useful information about problem behavior and consequence patterns, social-behavioral climates, and effects of social-behavioral interventions in schools. The authors report patterns of ODRs and subsequent administrative decisions from 1,510 schools nationwide that used the School-Wide Information…

Spaulding, Scott A.; Irvin, Larry K.; Horner, Robert H.; May, Seth L.; Emeldi, Monica; Tobin, Tary J.; Sugai, George

2010-01-01

368

Effectiveness of Leisure Time Activities Program on Social Skills and Behavioral Problems in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of leisure time activities program in individuals with intellectual disabilities in terms of developing social skills and reducing behavioral problems. Social skills assessment scale, behavioral assessment form for children and young adults, and teacher's report forms were used in…

Eratay, Emine

2013-01-01

369

Childhood behavior problems and peer selection and socialization: risk for adolescent alcohol use.  

PubMed

To date, research examining the role of peers in the development of substance use has focused almost exclusively on externalizing behavior problems without considering internalizing behavior problems. This is a notable omission in the literature, because there is some evidence to suggest that internalizing behavior increases risk for substance use, and peers are considered to be among the strongest proximal influences of substance use. The current study considered both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and examined peer socialization and selection models of alcohol use using a 2-year longitudinal design. We examined potential reciprocal relations between internalizing and externalizing behavior and affiliations with delinquent peers, and how these variables predicted initiation of alcohol use. Participants were 86 children (71% male) ranging from 9-12 years of age (M=10.87). Results were consistent with socialization, whereby delinquent peer affiliations were associated with increases in externalizing behavior, and subsequently early initiation of alcohol use. There was also evidence to suggest that internalizing behavior served as a protective factor for delinquent peer affiliations and for early initiation of alcohol use. Implications of these findings for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed. PMID:16266788

Fite, Paula J; Colder, Craig R; O'Connor, Roisin M

2006-08-01

370

Understanding trust and confidence: two paradigms and their significance for health and social care.  

PubMed

Trusting agents characteristically anticipate beneficial outcomes, under conditions of uncertainty, in their engagement with others. However, debates about trust incorporate different interpretations of risk, uncertainty, calculation, affect, morality and motivation in explaining when trust is appropriate and how it operates. This article argues that discussions about trust have produced a concept without coherent boundaries and with little operational value. Two paradigms are identified, which distinguish the characteristics of trust and confidence. It is argued that a reliance on confidence in human affairs makes trust redundant and that this has undesirable moral consequences. Discussion is illustrated by the UK Government's 'modernisation' policy in health and social care, which privileges confidence in systems over trust in moral agents. PMID:16453947

Smith, Carole

2005-01-01

371

Can Problem Solving Affect the Understanding of Rational Numbers in the Middle School Setting?  

E-print Network

statistically significant difference in the performance of these two groups. Effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported to support the findings. When examining subgroups, the study showed the structured problem solving stratey not only...

Meredith, Krystal B.

2010-07-14

372

Understanding factors influencing vulnerable older people keeping warm and well in winter: a qualitative study using social marketing techniques  

PubMed Central

Objectives To understand the influences and decisions of vulnerable older people in relation to keeping warm in winter. Design A qualitative study incorporating in-depth, semi-structured individual and group interviews, framework analysis and social marketing segmentation techniques. Setting Rotherham, South Yorkshire, UK. Participants 50 older people (>55) and 25 health and social care staff underwent individual interview. The older people also had household temperature measurements. 24 older people and 19 health and social care staff participated in one of the six group interviews. Results Multiple complex factors emerged to explain whether vulnerable older people were able to keep warm. These influences combined in various ways that meant older people were not able to or preferred not to access help or change home heating behaviour. Factors influencing behaviours and decisions relating to use of heating, spending money, accessing cheaper tariffs, accessing benefits or asking for help fell into three main categories. These were situational and contextual factors, attitudes and values, and barriers. Barriers included poor knowledge and awareness, technology, disjointed systems and the invisibility of fuel and fuel payment. Findings formed the basis of a social marketing segmentation model used to develop six pen portraits that illustrated how factors that conspire against older people being able to keep warm. Conclusions The findings illustrate how and why vulnerable older people may be at risk of a cold home. The pen portraits provide an accessible vehicle and reflective tool to raise the capacity of the NHS in responding to their needs in line with the Cold Weather Plan. PMID:22798252

Lusambili, Adelaide; Homer, Catherine; Abbott, Joanne; Cooke, Joanne Mary; Stocks, Amanda Jayne; McDaid, Kathleen Anne

2012-01-01

373

Applying Social Network Analysis to Understand the Knowledge Sharing Behaviour of Practitioners in a Clinical Online Discussion Forum  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge Translation (KT) plays a vital role in the modern health care community, facilitating the incorporation of new evidence into practice. Web 2.0 tools provide a useful mechanism for establishing an online KT environment in which health practitioners share their practice-related knowledge and experiences with an online community of practice. We have implemented a Web 2.0 based KT environment—an online discussion forum—for pediatric pain practitioners across seven different hospitals in Thailand. The online discussion forum enabled the pediatric pain practitioners to share and translate their experiential knowledge to help improve the management of pediatric pain in hospitals. Objective The goal of this research is to investigate the knowledge sharing dynamics of a community of practice through an online discussion forum. We evaluated the communication patterns of the community members using statistical and social network analysis methods in order to better understand how the online community engages to share experiential knowledge. Methods Statistical analyses and visualizations provide a broad overview of the communication patterns within the discussion forum. Social network analysis provides the tools to delve deeper into the social network, identifying the most active members of the community, reporting the overall health of the social network, isolating the potential core members of the social network, and exploring the inter-group relationships that exist across institutions and professions. Results The statistical analyses revealed a network dominated by a single institution and a single profession, and found a varied relationship between reading and posting content to the discussion forum. The social network analysis discovered a healthy network with strong communication patterns, while identifying which users are at the center of the community in terms of facilitating communication. The group-level analysis suggests that there is strong interprofessional and interregional communication, but a dearth of non-nurse participants has been identified as a shortcoming. Conclusions The results of the analysis suggest that the discussion forum is active and healthy, and that, though few, the interprofessional and interinstitutional ties are strong. PMID:23211783

Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

2012-01-01

374

Reducing Bullying: Application of Social Cognitive Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social cognitive theory (SCT) is an important heuristic for understanding the complexity of bullying behaviors and the social nature of involvement in bullying. Bullying has been heralded as a social relationship problem, and the interplay between the individual and his or her social environment supports this conceptualization. SCT has been used…

Swearer, Susan M.; Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Myers, Zachary R.

2014-01-01

375

Developing more effective social marketing strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The reason for this paper is to better understand why many social marketing campaigns produce poor results and to propose a model to guide social marketing strategic planning to improve program outcomes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a conceptual paper which discusses a new social marketing model to remove upstream causes of target social problems. Findings – It appears

Walter Wymer

2011-01-01

376

42 CFR 484.34 - Condition of participation: Medical social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...supervision of a qualified social worker, and in accordance with the plan of care. The social worker assists the physician...understanding the significant social and emotional factors...problems, participates in the development of the plan of care,...

2014-10-01

377

Using Science to Promote Preservice Teacher Understanding of Problem Solving in Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preservice elementary teachers need to be given the experiences of integrating mathematics with other subjects. They need to go into the classroom with the understanding that mathematics is not an isolated topic. This article describes a paper airplane activity that was presented in a class of preservice elementary education teachers to show how…

Tobias, Jennifer M.; Ortiz, Enrique

2007-01-01

378

How Trauma and Attachment Can Impact Neurodevelopment: Informing Our Understanding and Treatment of Sexual Behaviour Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last several years there has been a notable increase in neurological and neurodevelopmental research, with a keen interest in applying this research to our understanding of everyday human learning and behaviour. One aspect of this research has examined how the experience of trauma in childhood can affect neurodevelopment with implications…

Creeden, Kevin

2009-01-01

379

Eight Problems for the Mirror Neuron Theory of Action Understanding in Monkeys and Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of mirror neurons in macaque frontal cortex has sparked a resurgence of interest in motor\\/embodied theories of cognition. This critical review examines the evidence in support of one of these theories, namely, that mirror neurons provide the basis of action understanding. It is argued that there is no evidence from monkey data that directly tests this theory, and

Gregory Hickok

2009-01-01

380

Problem Posing: What Can It Tell Us about Students' Mathematical Understanding?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, at Snowbird, Utah, members of the [mu]-group from the University of British Columbia, under the guidance of Dr. Susan Pirie, engaged in an innovative, continuous session of linked papers which consider the notion and nature of mathematical understanding and reviewed a number of different theories and approaches to this phenomenon. We…

Pirie, Susan E. B.

381

Social meets molecular: Combining phylogenetic and latent class analyses to understand HIV-1 transmission in Switzerland.  

PubMed

Switzerland has a complex human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic involving several populations. We examined transmission of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) in a national cohort study. Latent class analysis was used to identify socioeconomic and behavioral groups among 6,027 patients enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study between 2000 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence data, available for 4,013 patients, was used to identify transmission clusters. Concordance between sociobehavioral groups and transmission clusters was assessed in correlation and multiple correspondence analyses. A total of 2,696 patients were infected with subtype B, 203 with subtype C, 196 with subtype A, and 733 with recombinant subtypes (mainly CRF02_AG and CRF01_AE). Latent class analysis identified 8 patient groups. Most transmission clusters of subtype B were shared between groups of gay men (groups 1-3) or between the heterosexual groups "heterosexual people of lower socioeconomic position" (group 4) and "injection drug users" (group 8). Clusters linking homosexual and heterosexual groups were associated with "older heterosexual and gay people on welfare" (group 5). "Migrant women in heterosexual partnerships" (group 6) and "heterosexual migrants on welfare" (group 7) shared non-B clusters with groups 4 and 5. Combining approaches from social and molecular epidemiology can provide insights into HIV-1 transmission and inform the design of prevention strategies. PMID:24821749

Avila, Dorita; Keiser, Olivia; Egger, Matthias; Kouyos, Roger; Böni, Jürg; Yerly, Sabine; Klimkait, Thomas; Vernazza, Pietro L; Aubert, Vincent; Rauch, Andri; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Günthard, Huldrych F; Stadler, Tanja; Spycher, Ben D

2014-06-15

382

A comparison of children with and without learning disabilities on social problem-solving skill, school behavior, and family background.  

PubMed

The study compared 86 children with learning disabilities (LD) with 86 matched children without learning disabilities (NLD) on three domains of variables: social problem-solving skill, teacher-rated school behavior and competence, and family background. The children with LD and the NLD group differed on variables in all three domains. More specifically, the children with LD were able to generate fewer alternatives for solving social problem situations, showed less tolerance for frustration and less adaptive assertiveness, and had more overall classroom behavior problems and less personal and social competence in a variety of areas as rated by teachers. Children having LD also showed more family background difficulties (e.g., lack of educational stimulation at home, economic difficulties). The findings suggest the need for greater attention to social and behavioral remediation for children with LD and greater involvement of their families, in addition to the cognitive and academic remediation emphasized in existing curricula for children with LD. PMID:2303738

Toro, P A; Weissberg, R P; Guare, J; Liebenstein, N L

1990-02-01

383

Confronting Inequity in Special Education, Part I: Understanding the Problem of Disproportionality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is one in a series developed by NASP's African American Subcommittee for school psychologists and other educators working with culturally and linguistically diverse student populations. In this article, part one of two addressing disproportionality, the subcommittee presents an overview of the problem of disproportionate…

Sullivan, Amanda L.; A'Vant, Elizabeth; Baker, John; Chandler, Daphne; Graves, Scott; McKinney, Edward; Sayles, Tremaine

2009-01-01

384

Understanding the Effects of Databases as Cognitive Tools in a Problem-Based Multimedia Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the potential of using computer databases as cognitive tools to share learners' cognitive load and facilitate learning in a multimedia problem-based learning (PBL) environment designed for sixth graders. Two research questions were: (a) can the computer database tool share sixth-graders' cognitive load? and…

Li, Rui; Liu, Min

2007-01-01

385

A Scheme for Understanding Group Processes in Problem-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify, describe and interpret group processes occurring in tutorials in problem-based learning. Another aim was to investigate if a combination of Steiner's (Steiner, I. D. (1972). "Group process and productivity". New York: Academic Press.) theory of group work and Bion's (Bion, W. R. (1961). "Experiences in…

Hammar Chiriac, Eva

2008-01-01

386

Children's Understanding of Globes as a Model of the Earth: A Problem of Contextualizing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual representations play an important role in science teaching. The way in which visual representations may help children to acquire scientific concepts is a crucial test in the debate between constructivist and socio-cultural oriented researchers. In this paper, the question is addressed as a problem of how to contextualize conceptions and…

Ehrlen, Karin

2008-01-01

387

A Simple Assignment that Enhances Students' Ability to Solve Organic Chemistry Synthesis Problems and Understand Mechanisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organic chemistry students typically struggle with the retrosynthetic approach to solving synthesis problems because most textbooks present the chemistry grouped by "reactions of the functional group". In contrast, the retrosynthetic approach requires the student to envision "reactions that yield the functional group". A second challenge is the…

Teixeira, Jennifer; Holman, R. W.

2008-01-01

388

The New Workforce Generation: Understanding the Problems Facing Parental Involvement in Jordanian Kindergartens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate the problems facing parental involvement in Jordanian kindergartens from the parents' perspectives. A 36-item questionnaire that addressed five domains was designed by the researchers and distributed among the study participants. The study sample consisted of 297 parents of kindergarten children from various…

Ihmeideh, Fathi; Khasawneh, Samer; Mahfouz, Safi; Khawaldeh, Moustafa

2008-01-01

389

Between Tradition and Modernization: Understanding the Problem of Female Bedouin Dropouts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study discusses the problem of Bedouin girls dropping out from the public school system in the Negev region of Israel. Data show that this phenomenon results from a conflict between the modern Israeli institutes' perception of modernity (which promote coeducation) and the Bedouin traditions that remain the cultural ethos of the girls'…

Abu-Rabia-Queder, Sarab

2006-01-01

390

Reciprocal Teaching as a Comprehension Strategy for Understanding Mathematical Word Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ms. Johnson was concerned about the inconsistent performance of several of her students in solving mathematical word problems. A number of her students were one to two grade levels below their grade placement in reading, spoke English as a second language, and had identified reading disabilities. On mathematics assignments that required minimal…

Van Garderen, Delinda

2004-01-01

391

The Problem of Projects: Understanding the Theoretical Underpinnings of Project-Led PBL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many years there has been a sharp division between project-based learning, and problem-based learning, with the former adopting a more technical rationalist approach while the latter adopts a more Socratic or dialogic approach. This article argues that current notions of project-based learning are too narrow and that combining the two…

Hanney, Roy; Savin-Baden, Maggi

2013-01-01

392

Equipping School Psychologists to Address Another Risky BehaviorThe Case for Understanding Youth Problem Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

School psychologists are assuming an increasingly important role in ensuring youth have the mental and emotional health to succeed academically. Although considerable attention has been paid to a number of adolescent high-risk behaviors including drug and alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and sexually transmitted diseases, little attention has been paid to youth gambling behaviors. Youth problem gambling has been largely overlooked

Laurie Dickson; Jeffrey L. Derevensky

2006-01-01

393

Emotion Discourse, Social Cognition, and Social Skills in Children with and without Developmental Delays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined parent-child emotion discourse, children's independent social information processing, and social skills outcomes in 146 families of 8-year-olds with and without developmental delays. Children's emergent social-cognitive understanding (internal state understanding, perspective taking, and causal reasoning and problem solving)…

Fenning, Rachel M.; Baker, Bruce L.; Juvonen, Jaana

2011-01-01

394

Eight Problems for the Mirror Neuron Theory of Action Understanding in Monkeys and Humans  

PubMed Central

The discovery of mirror neurons in macaque frontal cortex has sparked a resurgence of interest in motor/embodied theories of cognition. This critical review examines the evidence in support of one of these theories, namely that the mirror neurons provide the basis of action understanding. It is argued that there is no evidence from monkey data that directly tests this theory, and evidence from humans makes a strong case against the position. PMID:19199415

Hickok, Gregory

2009-01-01

395

Aggression-Related Hostility Bias and Social Problem-Solving Deficits in Adult Males with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attributional bias and social problem-solving deficits in two groups of adult males (aggressive vs. nonaggressive) with mild mental retardation were investigated. When presented with vignettes depicting various problem situations, aggressive participants were less accurate in correctly identifying interpersonal intent, characterized by more…

Basquill, Mark F.; Nezu, Christine Maguth; Nezu, Arthur M.; Klein, Tamara L.

2004-01-01

396

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Problem Solving Training and of Cognitive-Emotional Rehabilitation on Neurocognition, Social Cognition and Social Functioning in People with Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective: Social cognition and Problem Solving (PS) impairments are common characteristics in patients with schizophrenia. Experimental neuropsychological findings support the hypothesis that schizophrenia is characterized by a broad range of heterogeneous cognitive impairments. Since that time Problem Solving Training has been employed as a core strategy in a wide variety of therapeutic settings. Renewed interest in cognitive functioning, including social Problem Solving skills and social cognition in schizophrenia, has led us to reconsider the potential value of metacognitive strategy as a rehabilitation strategy. Methods: The present study reports the results obtained by 24 persons with schizophrenia who were randomly assigned to one of two training session groups: Cognitive-Emotional Rehabilitation (REC) vs Problem Solving Training (PST). Both treatments were administered to small groups composed of subjects suffering from schizophrenic disorders over a 12 months period: primary measures of clinical, social outcomes and secondary measures of cognitive and Problem Solving functions were conducted at 0, and 12 months. Results: Results showed that both training methods were found to be effective in psychopathological measures and in social functioning. On cognitive function improvements were specific to the rehabilitative approach. PST are mainly improved capacities for planning and memory, while the REC improved measures such as social cognition Theory of mind and emotion recognition. Conclusion: The results confirmed that it is no necessary to divide the rehabilitation training in treatments directed to specific domains. The conceptualization and applicability of PST and REC its implications for persons with schizophrenia, and future studies in this research area have also been discussed. PMID:21792373

Veltro, Franco; Mazza, Monica; Vendittelli, Nicola; Alberti, Mirella; Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

2011-01-01

397

Theory of mind and the social brain: implications for understanding the genetic basis of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies in schizophrenia have recently made significant progress in our understanding of the complex genetic architecture of this disorder. Many genetic loci have been identified and now require functional investigation. One approach involves studying their correlation with neuroimaging and neurocognitive endophenotypes. Theory of Mind (ToM) deficits are well established in schizophrenia and they appear to fulfill criteria for being considered an endophenotype. We aim to review the behavioral and neuroimaging-based studies of ToM in schizophrenia, assess its suitability as an endophenotype, discuss current findings, and propose future research directions. Suitable research articles were sourced from a comprehensive literature search and from references identified through other studies. ToM deficits are repeatable, stable, and heritable: First-episode patients, those in remission and unaffected relatives all show deficits. Activation and structural differences in brain regions believed important for ToM are also consistently reported in schizophrenia patients at all stages of illness, although no research to date has examined unaffected relatives. Studies using ToM as an endophenotype are providing interesting genetic associations with both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and specific copy number variations (CNVs) such as the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. We conclude that ToM is an important cognitive endophenotype for consideration in future studies addressing the complex genetic architecture of schizophrenia, and may help identify more homogeneous clinical sub-types for further study. PMID:23927712

Martin, A K; Robinson, G; Dzafic, I; Reutens, D; Mowry, B

2014-01-01

398

Breadth and depth involvement: Understanding Internet gambling involvement and its relationship to gambling problems.  

PubMed

The "involvement effect" refers to the finding that controlling for gambling involvement often reduces or eliminates frequently observed game-specific associations with problem gambling. In other words, broader patterns of gambling behavior, particularly the number of types of games played over a defined period, contribute more to problem gambling than playing specific games (e.g., lottery, casino, Internet gambling). This study extends this burgeoning area of inquiry in three primary ways. First, it tests independently and simultaneously the predictive power of two gambling patterns: breadth involvement (i.e., the number of games an individual plays) and depth involvement (i.e., the number of days an individual plays). Second, it includes the first involvement analyses of actual betting activity records that are associated with clinical screening information. Third, it evaluates and compares the linearity of breadth and depth effects. We conducted analyses of the actual gambling activity of 1,440 subscribers to the bwin.party gambling service who completed an online gambling disorder screen. In all, 11 of the 16 games we examined had a significant univariate association with a positive screen for gambling disorder. However, after controlling for breadth involvement, only Live Action Internet sports betting retained a significant relationship with potential gambling-related problems. Depth involvement, though significantly related to potential problems, did not impact game-based gambling disorder associations as much as breadth involvement. Finally, breadth effects appeared steeply linear, with a slight quadratic component manifesting beyond four games played, but depth effects appeared to have a strong linear component and a slight cubic component. PMID:23915365

LaPlante, Debi A; Nelson, Sarah E; Gray, Heather M

2014-06-01

399

Understanding and helping the children of problem drinkers: a systems-psychodynamic perspective.  

PubMed

A brief overview of some of the psychological sequelae associated with parental alcohol abuse emphasises the variety of coping mechanisms utilised by children. In order to understand the experience from the child's perspective and assess possible effects on development, a psychodynamic-systems model is introduced. In-depth case material is then presented which attempts to utilise the proposed theoretical integration. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the possible implications of the psychodynamic-system viewpoint for effective treatment. PMID:8040919

McCartney, J

1994-01-01

400

The Anti-Social Model of Disability THE ANTI-SOCIAL MODEL OF DISABILITY  

E-print Network

.dewsbury@lancaster.ac.uk Abstract Social theories are usually developed to enable a clearer understanding of a situation or problem policy. Nevertheless, the utility of social theory in general is based around claims to provide a clearerThe Anti-Social Model of Disability 1 THE ANTI-SOCIAL MODEL OF DISABILITY GUY DEWSBURY1 , KAREN

Sommerville, Ian

401

Social problem-solving skills training: A competence-building intervention with second- to fourth-grade children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 42-lesson social problem-solving (SPS) train&g program was conducted for 563 suburban and urban second-fourth graders. The study addressed three questions: (a) Does training enhance SPS skills? (b) Does it improve behavioral adjustment? and (c) Are problem-solving and adjustive gains related? Program children improved more than controls in (a) offering solutions to hypothetical problem situations, (b) independently attempting to resolve

Roger P. Weissberg; Ellis L. Gesten; Charles L. Carnrike; Paul A. Toro; Bruce D. Rapkin; Edward Davidson; Emory L. Cowen

1981-01-01

402

Social influence on temptation: perceived descriptive norms, temptation and restraint, and problem drinking among college students  

PubMed Central

Temptation and restraint have long been associated with problematic drinking. Among college students, social norms are one of the strongest predictors of problematic drinking. To date, no studies have examined the association between temptation and restraint and perceived descriptive norms on drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. The purpose of this study was to examine whether perceived descriptive norms moderated the relationship between temptation and restraint and drinking outcomes among college students. Participants were 1,095 college students from a large, public, culturally-diverse, southern university who completed an online survey about drinking behaviors and related attitudes. Drinks per week and alcohol-related problems were examined as a function of perceived descriptive norms, Cognitive Emotional Preoccupation (CEP) (temptation), and Cognitive Behavioral Control (CBC) (restraint). Additionally, drinking outcomes were examined as a function of the two-way interactions between CEP and perceived descriptive norms and CBC and perceived descriptive norms. Results indicated that CEP and perceived descriptive norms were associated with drinking outcomes. CBC was not associated with drinking outcomes. Additionally, perceived descriptive norms moderated the association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems. There was a positive association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems, especially for those higher on perceived descriptive norms. College students who are very tempted to drink may drink more heavily and experience alcohol-related problems more frequently if they have greater perceptions that the typical student at their university/college drinks a lot. PMID:24064190

Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

2013-01-01

403

New toxics, new poverty: a social understanding of the freebase cocaine/Paco in Buenos Aires, Argentina.  

PubMed

Included within the field of research on changes in drug use patterns and vulnerability are conditions of emergency related to economic crisis, wars, and political conflict. This study addresses the complex connections between the rapid propagation of freebase cocaine (FBC)-locally known as "pasta base" or "Paco" in Argentina and the normalization of the consequences of Argentina's 2001-2002 political-economic crisis. On the basis of the results of an ethnographic study carried out in three neighborhoods of the Greater Buenos Aires area between 2001 and 2005, this article aims to analyze how changes in the material and social living conditions are interrelated with the high toxicity of FBC/Paco and engender the emerging compulsion of its consumption and deterioration to the bodies, subjectivities, and social activities of active drug users from these shantytowns. By analyzing the changes in transactions directly or indirectly involving drugs-specifically those ranging from cocaine to FBC/Paco-we can argue how structural poverty, "new poverty," is not only associated with the expansion of FBC/Paco but is also shaped by its use, modes of consumption, associated health problems, and sufferings. PMID:21707470

Epele, María E

2011-01-01

404

The Social and Health Problems of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Izmir, Turkey  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe how AIDS, as well as the stigma associated with it, affects the lives of HIV positive patients and their family members. Materials and Methods: Three large state hospitals in the metropolitan area of Izmir participated in the study. Six focus groups were conducted with people infected with HIV (n=32) and their family members (n=11). Participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire to assess their HIV/AIDS knowledge and to convey how the stigma had affected them. Results: The most important problems identified were society and work-related social problems and access to health services. The patients and their family members stated that education was needed to correct misconceptions about HIV and to help them cope with related problems. We found that patients and their family members were sensitive about disclosure. Conclusion: We determined the education, counseling and support needs of HIV-infected patients and their families. Additionally, we found that health personnel who monitor the patients should make more efforts on patients’ education and counselling.

Kose, Sukran; Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Mermut, Gulsen; Kaptan, Figen; Ozbel, Yusuf

2012-01-01

405

A single impurity in an ideal atomic Fermi gas: current understanding and some open problems  

E-print Network

We briefly review some current theoretical and experimental aspects of the problem of a single spinless impurity in a 3D polarised atomic Fermi gas at zero temperature where the interactions can be tuned using a wide Feshbach resonance. We show that various few-body states in vacuum composed of the impurity and background gas atoms (single impurity, dimer, trimer, tetramer) give rise to corresponding dressed states ({\\em polaron}, {\\em dimeron}, {\\em trimeron}, {\\em tetrameron}) in the gas and inherit many of their characteristics. We study the ground state focussing on the choice of wave function and its properties. We raise a few unsolved problems: whether the polaron and dimeron are really separate branches, what other few-body states might exist, the nature of the groundstate for large numbers of particle-hole pairs and why is the polaron ansatz so good. We then turn to the excited states, and to the calculation of the effective mass. We examine the bounds on the effective mass and raise a conjecture about that of composite quasiparticle states.

Zhihao Lan; Carlos Lobo

2014-04-11

406

The effects of students' reasoning abilities on conceptual understandings and problem-solving skills in introductory mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine if there are relationships among freshmen/first year students' reasoning abilities, conceptual understandings and problem-solving skills in introductory mechanics. The sample consisted of 165 freshmen science education prospective teachers (female = 86, male = 79; age range 17-21) who were enrolled in an introductory physics course. Data collection was done during the fall semesters in two successive years. At the beginning of each semester, the force concept inventory (FCI) and the classroom test of scientific reasoning (CTSR) were administered to assess students' initial understanding of basic concepts in mechanics and reasoning levels. After completing the course, the FCI and the mechanics baseline test (MBT) were administered. The results indicated that there was a significant difference in problem-solving skill test mean scores, as measured by the MBT, among concrete, formal and postformal reasoners. There were no significant differences in conceptual understanding levels of pre- and post-test mean scores, as measured by FCI, among the groups. The Benferroni post hoc comparison test revealed which set of reasoning levels showed significant difference for the MBT scores. No statistical difference between formal and postformal reasoners' mean scores was observed, while the mean scores between concrete and formal reasoners and concrete and postformal reasoners were statistically significantly different.

Ates, S.; Cataloglu, E.

2007-11-01

407

An ecological approach to understanding youth smoking trajectories: problems and prospects.  

PubMed

Non-random patterns of aggregate youth smoking rates and trajectories across communities suggest that individual-level characteristics cannot account fully for the behavior in question. Instead, at least part of the explanation must lie somewhere within the community context. Such community-level contextual effects can impact directly both group and individual-level behavior (e.g. main effects), and they can also condition the effects of individual-level factors on individual behaviors (e.g. moderating effects). This paper reviews previous research examining community-level contextual effects regarding smoking and substance use more generally and identifies important limitations of this extant work, thus defining an agenda for future empirical studies. Next, the (in)compatibility of previous empirical findings with current theoretical models is discussed. In offering an alternative to these existing models, the paper concludes with presentation and discussion of a multi-level, integrated model of adolescent smoking trajectories. In this model, community/institutional forces are presumed to impact smoking above and beyond individual-level main effects. These posited community-level forces are broad and varied, representing school characteristics, neighborhood demographic characteristics, religious culture, media influence, economic context, health services and so on. In addition to exhibiting contextual main effects, the effects of community in the proposed multilevel model can be mediated by community-level processes, including the processes of control and socialization discussed herein. Also, community-level characteristics may interact in producing certain tobacco-use outcomes and, perhaps most importantly, they may moderate or condition the effects of interindividual differences on smoking. PMID:12752362

Wilcox, Pamela

2003-05-01

408

The Assessment of Alexithymia in Medical Settings: Implications for Understanding and Treating Health Problems  

PubMed Central

The construct of alexithymia encompasses the characteristics of difficulty identifying feelings, difficulty describing feelings, externally oriented thinking, and a limited imaginal capacity. These characteristics are thought to reflect deficits in the cognitive processing and regulation of emotions and to contribute to the onset or maintenance of several medical and psychiatric disorders. This article reviews recent methods for assessing alexithymia and examines how assessing alexithymia can inform clinical practice. Alexithymia is associated with heightened physiological arousal, the tendency to notice and report physical symptoms, and unhealthy compulsive behaviors. Alexithymic patients may respond poorly to psychological treatments, although perhaps not to cognitive-behavioral techniques, and it is unclear whether alexithymia can be improved through treatment. Interpretive problems regarding alexithymia include its overlap with other traits, whether it is secondary to illness or trauma, the possibility of subtypes, and low correlations among multiple measures. Nonetheless, we encourage the assessment of alexithymia in applied settings. PMID:18001224

Lumley, Mark A.; Neely, Lynn C.; Burger, Amanda J.

2010-01-01

409

False belief understanding goes to school: On the social-emotional consequences of coming early or late to a first theory of mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research report describes a search for possible relations between children's developing theories of mind and aspects of their social-emotional maturity conducted by comparing the performance of 3-year-olds on measures of false belief understanding with teacher ratings of certain of their social-emotional skills and behaviours. The intuitions guiding this exploratory effort were, not only that a working grasp of the

Chris E. Lalonde; Michael J. Chandler

1995-01-01

410

The Problem of Privilege: Male Social Work Students' Preservice Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Male social work students are a numerical minority in Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) programs, a reality that warrants exploration as the academy strives for greater diversity within preservice social work programs. The present qualitative phenomenological study examined how male social work students in one BSW university program perceived their…

Giesler, Mark A.

2013-01-01

411

Restructuring of Enterprise Social Assets in Russia: Trends, Problems, Possible Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

August 1996What to do about social services that Russia's state enterprises have traditionally provided is a major issue in enterprise restructuring and public policy reform. If taxes and the provision of social services are rationalized at the time those social assets are divested, pioneering steps could be taken in restructuring the social sector.Public enterprises in the formerly socialist countries have

Lev M. Freinkman; Irina Starodubrovskaya

1999-01-01

412

The Process of Scientific Inquiry as It Relates to the Creation/Evolution Controversy: I. A Serious Social Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe how the increased level of religiosity in the United States is correlated with the resistance to the teaching of evolution and argue that this is a social, rather than scientific, issue. Our goal is to foster teachers' understanding of the philosophy of biology and encourage them to proactively deal with creationism at all levels,…

Miller, Jon S.; Toth, Ronald

2014-01-01

413

Emotional Support Consistency and Teacher-Child Relationships Forecast Social Competence and Problem Behaviors in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' ratings of conflict and closeness as well as observed emotional support are known predictors of children's social functioning. Consistency in emotional support represents an emerging line of research. The goal of the present study is to understand whether the relation between the consistency of teachers' emotional support…

Brock, Laura L.; Curby, Timothy W.

2014-01-01

414

Poststroke Depression: Social Workers' Role in Addressing an Underrecognized Psychological Problem for Couples Who Have Experienced Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depression is the most common psychological challenge faced by many individuals and families following stroke. Fortunately, poststroke depression is treatable, and even preventable, if social work and other rehabilitation practitioners understand the most common risk factors and become familiar with measures for assessing for depression among…

McCarthy, Michael J.; Powers, Laurie E.; Lyons, Karen S.

2011-01-01

415

Effects of Cooperative Learning and Problem-Solving Strategies on Junior Secondary School Students' Achievement in Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: There is no doubt, Social Studies as a course of discipline that gained its entrance in Nigeria School Curriculum shortly after its independence, precisely, 1963 is at its infancy. A discipline of such nature that came when there was eagerness for a course of study that could assist in understanding and finding solutions to the…

Adeyemi, Babatunde A.

2008-01-01

416

Coexisting social conditions and health problems among clients seeking treatment for illicit drug use in Finland: The HUUTI study  

PubMed Central

Background Illicit drug use is an important public health problem. Identifying conditions that coexist with illicit drug use is necessary for planning health services. This study described the prevalence and factors associated with social and health problems among clients seeking treatment for illicit drug use. Methods We carried out cross-sectional analyses of baseline data of 2526 clients who sought treatment for illicit drug use at Helsinki Deaconess Institute between 2001 and 2008. At the clients’ first visit, trained clinicians conducted face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compute adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with social and health problems. Results The mean age of the clients was 25 years, 21% (n?=?519) were homeless, 54% (n?=?1363) were unemployed and 7% (n?=?183) had experienced threats of violence. Half of the clients (50%, n?=?1258) were self-referred and 31% (n?=?788) used opiates as their primary drugs of abuse. Hepatitis C (25%, n?=?630) was more prevalent than other infectious diseases and depressive symptoms (59%, n?=?1490) were the most prevalent psychological problems. Clients who were self-referred to treatment were most likely than others to report social problems (AOR?=?1.86; 95% CI?=?1.50–2.30) and psychological problems (AOR?=?1.51; 95% CI?=?1.23–1.85). Using opiates as primary drugs of abuse was the strongest factor associated with infectious diseases (AOR?=?3.89; 95% CI?=?1.32–11.46) and for reporting a combination of social and health problems (AOR?=?3.24; 95% CI?=?1.58–6.65). Conclusion The existence of illicit drug use with other social and health problems could lead to increased utilisation and cost of healthcare services. Coexisting social and health problems may interfere with clients’ treatment response. Our findings support the call for integration of relevant social, medical and mental health support services within drug treatment programmes. PMID:23617549

2013-01-01

417

Social problems in disaster victim identification following the 2006 Pangandaran tsunami.  

PubMed

Disasters, both natural and man-made, are inevitable. Interpol and the ICRC have produced Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) Guidelines to assist examiners in the identification of disaster victims. Nevertheless, problems remain in DVI practice, as was evident following the 2006 tsunami in Pangandaran, a popular tourist destination in West Java, Indonesia. The problems included the desire of families to bury their relatives quickly, the decomposed condition of the dead bodies, the inadequate security which hampered the identification process, the shortage of space to conduct identification, and the lack of understanding by local police and the community. Despite these challenges, simplified identification did take place. Due to these challenges, however, academics and the government have begun workshops for both professionals and non-professionals in an attempt to introduce DVI to society. These workshops have been attended by government officers, members of the public, religious figures, military personnel, fire department employees, SAR, journalists, NGOs, and regional police officers. It is anticipated that these individuals will convey the importance of DVI practice to others within their professions and communities. We propose that future identification processes be streamlined, so that they are both quicker and more efficient. This would minimise the problems experienced in DVI, particularly when there are a large number of victims. PMID:19251458

Fitrasanti, Berlian I; Syukriani, Yoni F

2009-04-01

418

Acculturating Indian Immigrant Men in New York City: Applying the Social Capital Construct to Understand Their Experiences and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study qualitatively explored social capital available to individuals (N = 17) within a community-based purposive sample of adult male immigrants from India in New York City (NYC). Analysis of in-depth\\u000a interview data identified possible pathways for social capital’s influences upon acculturative stress. The study defined social\\u000a capital in terms of the participants’ social relationships among peers, in the workplace, and with

Gauri Bhattacharya

2008-01-01

419

Understanding Social Justice Leadership: An International Exploration of the Perspectives of Two School Leaders in Costa Rica and England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is an examination of two social justice leaders, one in Costa Rica and one in England. It is part of the International Study of Leadership Development Network, a multi-nation study of social justice and educational leadership. A brief discussion of the philosophy of social justice and an examination of the macro and micro context in…

Slater, Charles; Potter, Ian; Torres, Nancy; Briceno, Fernando

2014-01-01

420

Sexual Understanding, Sources of Information and Social Networks; the Reports of Young People with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Non-Disabled Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Sexual development plays a vital part in young people's emotional adjustment. Method: This study compared the sexual understanding of 30 adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) and 30 non-disabled adolescents, along with their reports of where they obtained sexual information, and the nature of their social networks…

Jahoda, A.; Pownall, J.

2014-01-01

421

“Ethical blowback”: the missing piece in the corporate governance puzzle – the risks to a company which fails to understand and respect its social contract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to discuss the risks to a company that fails to understand and respect its social contract. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper provides a viewpoint on the “ethical blowback”. Findings – The paper argues that two forces that are now influencing corporate governance reform can provoke ethical blowback, namely: Sarbanes-Oxley style regulatory initiatives; and

Thomas Donaldson

2007-01-01

422

Exploring the Association between Cognitive Functioning and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social Understanding and Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ,…

Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L.; Hill, Trenesha

2012-01-01

423

Exploring the Association Between Cognitive Functioning and Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social Understanding and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2–9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ, and parents completed measures of remaining variables. ASD diagnosis was associated with level of

Laura A. Niditch; R. Enrique Varela; Jodi L. Kamps; Trenesha Hill

2012-01-01

424

Social cognition in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The topic of social cognition has attracted considerable interest in schizophrenia over the last several years. This construct generally refers to the detection, processing, and utilization of social information and, within the field of schizophrenia, includes several skills such as recognizing emotion, understanding the thoughts and intentions of others, and interpreting social cues. Individuals with schizophrenia show significant impairments in social cognition, and these impairments are strongly related to functional outcome. Treating social cognition yields significant improvements in real-world outcomes, including social functioning and social skill. Importantly, social cognitive abilities are linked to specific neural circuits that have been shown to be abnormal in individuals with schizophrenia. Investigations of these neural networks in patients have also demonstrated that brain activation is significantly correlated with social functioning, which suggests that abnormal activation in social cognitive networks may serve as a mechanism for social dysfunction in schizophrenia. Among the many challenges in this area is the issue of measurement. There is disagreement about which tasks best measure social cognition and many existing measures show poor psychometric properties. A recent project, called the Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study, aims to address these problems by providing the field with a well-validated battery of social cognitive tasks that can be used in treatment outcome trials. Research is honing in on the potential mechanisms of social cognitive impairment in patients, and with improved measurement, there is promise for optimizing behavioral and pharmacologic interventions and remediation strategies. PMID:24919166

Pinkham, Amy E

2014-01-01

425

The Role of Pragmatic Language Use in Mediating the Relation between Hyperactivity and Inattention and Social Skills Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In the present study, the authors explored whether pragmatic language use was associated with, and perhaps accounted for, the social skills problems that children with varying levels of hyperactivity and inattention experience. Method: A community sample of 54 children aged 9-11 years participated. Pragmatic language use, hyperactivity…

Leonard, Melinda A.; Milich, Richard; Lorch, Elizabeth P.

2011-01-01

426

Student Perceptions of Facilitators' Social Congruence, Use of Expertise and Cognitive Congruence in Problem-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In problem-based learning (PBL), the role of a tutor or facilitator is different from what is typically considered as the role of a traditional teacher. In addition to being a subject-matter expert, the facilitator is also expected to be "socially" and "cognitively congruent". In this study, we analyze the survey responses from…

Yew, Elaine H. J.; Yong, Janice J. Y.

2014-01-01

427

What Do Pupils and Textbooks Do with Each Other? : Methodological Problems of Research on Socialization through Educational Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School textbooks are assumed to be important socializers. However, because of the complexity and methodological stumbling blocks involved in the subject matter, the impact of specific textbooks and the interaction between pupils and textbooks have seldom been studied. I discuss the methodological problems in explorations of the role of school…

Kalmus, Veronika

2004-01-01

428

Disease versus Social-Learning Models of Alcoholism in the Prediction of Alcohol Problem Recognition, Help-Seeking, and Stigma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined college students' (n=254) attitudes after they were presented with either a disease or social learning view of alcoholism. Presentation of a disease view strengthened endorsement of that model, but attitudes toward alcoholics, treatment effectiveness, problem recognition, and help-seeking were not significantly different between the…

Rather, Bruce C.

1991-01-01

429

Comparison of Direct Instruction and Problem Solving Approach in Teaching Social Skills to Children with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was aimed at comparing the effectiveness and efficiency of direct instruction and problem solving approaches in teaching social skills to children with mental retardation. The design was adapted alternating treatment design. The subjects of the study consist of a girl and a boy between the ages of 11 and 13 who are mentally retarded. In…

Dagseven Emecen, Deniz

2011-01-01

430

Pollution: Problems and Solutions. Grade Nine, Unit One, 9.1 Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ninth grade unit of the FICSS series (Focus on Inner City Social Studies -- see SO 008 271) studies the economic and political realities of the inner city. This document, the first unit of the 9th grade section, deals with the ecological crises involving pollution and its causes. Specific problems include air pollution, pesticides, herbicides,…

Jamison, Sandra; Campbell, Bruce

431

A Current Review of Multisystemic Therapy: A Social-Ecological Approach to the Treatment of Conduct Problems among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A current empirical review of the treatment efficacy of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) for adolescent conduct problems (CP) was conducted. Conclusions based on this review suggest that MST can be a very powerful alternative to the usual legal and social service approaches (e.g. justice system, day treatment programs) used in the treatment of…

Harpell, Jody V.; Andrews, Jac

2006-01-01

432

Effects of Problem-Solving Method on Secondary School Students' Achievement and Retention in Social Studies, in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of problem-solving method of teaching on secondary school students' achievement and retention in Social Studies. The study adopted the quasi-experimental, pre-test, post-test, control group design. The sample for the study consisted of 240 Junior Secondary School Class II students randomly selected from six…

Abdu-Raheem, B. O.

2012-01-01

433

Assessing Social Competence and Behavior Problems in a Sample of Italian Preschoolers Using the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The main goals of this study were to examine the factor validity of the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation (SCBE-30) scale using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis and to test factor invariance across gender in a sample of Italian preschool-age children (241 boys, 252 girls). The concurrent…

Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; MacKinnon, David P.

2015-01-01

434

Promoting Social Development and Preventing Health and Behavior Problems during the Elementary Grades: Results from the Seattle Social Development Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) is a longitudinal study of 808 multiethnic urban children sampled and surveyed at age 10 as they entered the fifth grade. The study includes a quasi-experimental test of a preventive intervention program. The SSDP was created by nesting an experimental intervention study, initiated at first-grade entry, within the larger longitudinal panel study. Eighteen elementary

J. David Hawkins; Brian H. Smith; Karl G. Hill; Rick Kosterman; Richard F. Catalano; Robert D. Abbott

2007-01-01

435

Is Discrimination against Evangelical Christians a Problem in Social Work Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the literature regarding discrimination by social work practitioners and educators against evangelical Christian social workers. We examine the methodology of articles that compare religiosity and political ideology between social workers and the general population and also of articles that address discrimination against…

Bolen, Rebecca M.; Dessel, Adrienne B.

2013-01-01

436

In Search of Practitioner-Based Social Capital: A Social Network Analysis Tool for Understanding and Facilitating Teacher Collaboration in a US-Based STEM Professional Development Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the first in a series of studies on the informal advice networks of a community of teachers in an in-service professional development program. The aim of the research was to use Social Network Analysis as a methodological tool to reveal the social networks developed by the teachers, and to examine whether these networks…

Baker-Doyle, Kira J.; Yoon, Susan A.

2011-01-01

437

Data Mining and Privacy of Social Network Sites' Users: Implications of the Data Mining Problem.  

PubMed

This paper explores the potential of data mining as a technique that could be used by malicious data miners to threaten the privacy of social network sites (SNS) users. It applies a data mining algorithm to a real dataset to provide empirically-based evidence of the ease with which characteristics about the SNS users can be discovered and used in a way that could invade their privacy. One major contribution of this article is the use of the decision forest data mining algorithm (SysFor) to the context of SNS, which does not only build a decision tree but rather a forest allowing the exploration of more logic rules from a dataset. One logic rule that SysFor built in this study, for example, revealed that anyone having a profile picture showing just the face or a picture showing a family is less likely to be lonely. Another contribution of this article is the discussion of the implications of the data mining problem for governments, businesses, developers and the SNS users themselves. PMID:24916538

Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Islam, Md Zahidul

2014-06-12

438

Social Problem-Solving in Early Childhood: Developmental Change and the Influence of Shyness  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine developmental change and the influence of shyness on social problem-solving (SPS). At 24, 36, and 48 months, children (N=570) were observed while interacting with an unfamiliar peer during an SPS task and at 24 months, maternal report of shyness was collected. Results showed that across the full sample, children displayed low but stable levels of withdrawn SPS and increasing levels of SPS competence over development. In addition, results showed that 24-month shyness was associated with high-increasing and high-decreasing withdrawn SPS trajectories compared to the low-increasing withdrawn SPS trajectory. Shyness was also associated with the low-increasing compared to the high-increasing SPS competence trajectory. Findings demonstrate the development of SPS competence over early childhood, as well as the influence of early shyness on this developmental course, with some shy children showing improvement in SPS skills and others continuing to show SPS difficulties over time. PMID:24039325

Walker, Olga L.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Henderson, Heather A.

2013-01-01

439

Sociology is the analytical study of human social behaviour. It helps us to understand why we behave the way we do and it helps us to identify the social pressures which we experience in our daily lives.  

E-print Network

Sociology is the analytical study of human social behaviour. It helps us to understand why we lives. Sociology teaches us to be more aware of the fictions and myths that influence our lives. It also. The Department of Sociology at the University of Lethbridge facilitates awareness of the impact of groups

Seldin, Jonathan P.

440

Adolescent Problem Behavior and Problem Driving in Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among drivers younger than age 35, making problem driving behavior among young drivers a significant public concern. Effective intervention requires a better understanding of the antecedents of problem driving. Problem behavior theory, social control theory, and Kandel's model of substance use…

Bingham, C. Raymond; Shope, Jean T.

2004-01-01

441

I. ASCRC General Education Form Dept/Program Social Work Course # SW 100S  

E-print Network

development of social welfare programs Students will hear from guest speakers who represent a wide variety needs. Analyze social problems, using theories of social work Students write a research paper exploring the history and development of social welfare programs in America. #12;Understand how social welfare programs

Vonessen, Nikolaus

442

Some social implications of psychoanalytic theory: a social work perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we approached the bifurcation of the micro-macro theory problem in social work by exploring the social implications of psychodynamic theory. The implications of the various streams of psychodynamic theory lead to some very different questions, concerns and possible solutions. Throughout we attend to the following themes: the centrality of understanding human subjectivity (conscious and unconscious), identity and

Brian Rasmussen; Daniel Salhani

2010-01-01

443

Prospects and Problems of Transferring Quality-Improvement Methods from Health Care to Social Services: Two Case Studies  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This study examines the use of quality-improvement (QI) methods in social services. Particularly the key aspects—generalizable knowledge, interprofessional teamwork, and measurements—are studied in projects from the QI program Forum for Values in Sweden. Methods: This is a mixed-method case study. Two projects using standard QI methods and tools as used in health care were chosen as critical cases to highlight some problems and prospects with the use of QI in social services. The cases were analyzed through documented results and qualitative interviews with participants one year after the QI projects ended. Results: The social service QI projects led to measurable improvements when they used standard methods and tools for QI in health care. One year after the projects, the improvements were either not continuously measured or not reported in any infrastructure for measurements. The study reveals that social services differ from health care regarding the availability and use of evidence, the role of professional expertise, and infrastructure for measurements. Conclusions: We argue that QI methods as used in health care are applicable in social services and can lead to measurable improvements. The study gives valuable insights for QI, not only in social services but also in health care, on how to assess and sustain improvements when infrastructures for measurements are lacking. In addition, when one forms QI teams, the focus should be on functions instead of professions, and QI methods can be used to support implementation of evidence-based practice. PMID:24867549

Neubeck, Truls; Elg, Mattias; Schneider, Thomas; Andersson-Gäre, Boel

2014-01-01

444

Understanding the Factors That Influence the Adoption and Meaningful Use of Social Media by Physicians to Share Medical Information  

PubMed Central

Background Within the medical community there is persistent debate as to whether the information available through social media is trustworthy and valid, and whether physicians are ready to adopt these technologies and ultimately embrace them as a format for professional development and lifelong learning. Objective To identify how physicians are using social media to share and exchange medical information with other physicians, and to identify the factors that influence physicians’ use of social media as a component of their lifelong learning and continuing professional development. Methods We developed a survey instrument based on the Technology Acceptance Model, hypothesizing that technology usage is best predicted by a physician’s attitudes toward the technology, perceptions about the technology’s usefulness and ease of use, and individual factors such as personal innovativeness. The survey was distributed via email to a random sample of 1695 practicing oncologists and primary care physicians in the United States in March 2011. Responses from 485 physicians were analyzed (response rate 28.61%). Results Overall, 117 of 485 (24.1%) of respondents used social media daily or many times daily to scan or explore medical information, whereas 69 of 485 (14.2%) contributed new information via social media on a daily basis. On a weekly basis or more, 296 of 485 (61.0%) scanned and 223 of 485 (46.0%) contributed. In terms of attitudes toward the use of social media, 279 of 485 respondents (57.5%) perceived social media to be beneficial, engaging, and a good way to get current, high-quality information. In terms of usefulness, 281 of 485 (57.9%) of respondents stated that social media enabled them to care for patients more effectively, and 291 of 485 (60.0%) stated it improved the quality of patient care they delivered. The main factors influencing a physician’s usage of social media to share medical knowledge with other physicians were perceived ease of use and usefulness. Respondents who had positive attitudes toward the use of social media were more likely to use social media and to share medical information with other physicians through social media. Neither age nor gender had a significant impact on adoption or usage of social media. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, the use of social media applications may be seen as an efficient and effective method for physicians to keep up-to-date and to share newly acquired medical knowledge with other physicians within the medical community and to improve the quality of patient care. Future studies are needed to examine the impact of the meaningful use of social media on physicians’ knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors in practice. PMID:23006336

Wasko, Molly; Vartabedian, Bryan Steven; Miller, Robert S; Freiherr, Desirae D; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar

2012-01-01

445

Everyday social and conversation applications of theory-of-mind understanding by children with autism-spectrum disorders or typical development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with autism-spectrum disorders (ASD) often fail laboratory false-belief tests of theory of mind (ToM). Yet how this\\u000a impacts on their everyday social behavior is less clear, partly owing to uncertainty over which specific everyday conversational\\u000a and social skills require ToM understanding. A new caregiver-report scale of these everyday applications of ToM was developed\\u000a and validated in two studies. Study

Candida C. Peterson; Michelle Garnett; Adrian Kelly; Tony Attwood

2009-01-01

446

Cross-informant agreement for ratings for social skill and problem behavior ratings: an investigation of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales.  

PubMed

One of the most consistent findings in rating scale research with children and adolescents is the modest agreement among different informants' ratings. The present study systematically explored patterns of agreement among teachers, parents/caregivers, and students in domains of social skills and problem behaviors using the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS; F. M. Gresham & S. N. Elliott, 2008). Two subsamples from the normative sample of the SSIS-RS were used. The first sample of participants consisted of 168 students who had all 3 informants (parent, teacher, and self) complete the SSIS-RS scales, which was necessary to assess agreement across different raters. The second sample consisted of 164 students who had raters in a similar or same role (father-mother, teacher-teacher). The results replicated an extensive literature showing that cross-informant agreements for social skills and problem behaviors are weak to moderate. The current study invoked multitrait-multimethod logic to interpret the correlations among raters derived from different informants and showed that the convergent validity coefficients were consistently stronger than the discriminant validity correlations. Implications for assessment practices and future research are discussed. PMID:20230162

Gresham, Frank M; Elliott, Stephen N; Cook, Clayton R; Vance, Michael J; Kettler, Ryan

2010-03-01

447

Symptoms of Mental Health Problems: Children's and Adolescents' Understandings and Implications for Gender Differences in Help Seeking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their…

MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen

2013-01-01

448

Understanding Women's Risk for HIV Infection Using Social Dominance Theory and the Four Bases of Gendered Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theoretical models to date have fallen short of accounting for the alarming worldwide rates of HIV infection in women through heterosexual contact. In this article, social dominance theory and the four bases of gendered power--force, resource control, social obligations, and consensual ideologies--are used to organize and explain international…

Rosenthal, Lisa; Levy, Sheri R.

2010-01-01

449

College Student Capacity for Socially Responsible Leadership: Understanding Norms and Influences of Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined college students' capacities for socially responsible leadership using theoretical measures grounded in the social change model of leadership development (HERI, 1996). Findings represent responses from 50,378 participants enrolled at 52 colleges and universities across the United States. Students scored highest on the…

Dugan, John P.; Komives, Susan R.; Segar, Thomas C.

2008-01-01

450

A Multidimensional Approach to Understanding Under-Eating in Homebound Older Adults: The Importance of Social Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between medical, functional, economic, oral health, social, religious, and psychological factors and under-eating in homebound older adults. The focus of the study was on identifying potentially modifiable factors amenable to social and behavioral interventions. Design and Methods: A…

Locher, Julie L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Robinson, Caroline O.; Roth, David L.; West, Delia Smith; Burgio, Kathryn L.

2008-01-01

451

Learning in Social Action: A Contribution to Understanding Informal Education. Global Perspectives on Adult Education and Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book argues the importance of the incidental learning that can occur when people become involved in voluntary organizations, social struggles, and political activity. Chapter 1 introduces the case studies of informal learning in social struggle used to develop the argument and outlines the theoretical framework within which the case studies…

Foley, Griff

452

Frameworks for Understanding the Nature of Interactions, Networking, and Community in a Social Networking Site for Academic Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a new social networking site, Cloudworks, which has been developed to enable discussion and sharing of learning and teaching ideas/designs and to promote reflective academic practice. The site aims to foster new forms of social and participatory practices (peer critiquing, sharing, user-generated content, aggregation, and…

Conole, Grainne; Galley, Rebecca; Culver, Juliette

2011-01-01

453

Students and tutors' social representations of assessment in problem-based learning tutorials supporting change  

PubMed Central

Background Medical programmes that implement problem-based learning (PBL) face several challenges when introducing this innovative learning method. PBL relies on small group as the foundation of study, and tutors facilitate learning by guiding the process rather than teaching the group. One of the major challenges is the use of strategies to assess students working in small groups. Self-, peer- and tutor-assessment are integral part of PBL tutorials and they're not easy to perform, especially for non experienced students and tutors. The undergraduate PBL medical programme was introduced in 2003, and after two years the curriculum committee decided to evaluate the tutorial assessment in the new program. Methods A random group of ten students, out of a cohort of sixty, and ten tutors (out of eighteen) were selected for semi-structured interviews. The social representations' theory was used to explore how the students and tutors made sense of "assessment in tutorials". The data were content analyzed using software for qualitative and quantitative processing of text according to lexicological distribution patterns. Results Even though students and tutors are aware of the broader purpose of assessment, they felt that they were not enough trained and confident to the tutorial assessment. Assigning numbers to complex behaviors on a regular basis, as in tutorials, is counter productive to cooperative group learning and self assessment. Tutors believe that students are immature and not able to assess themselves and tutors. Students believe that good grades are closely related to good oral presentation skills and also showed a corporative attitude among themselves (protecting each other from poor grades). Conclusion Faculty training on PBL tutorials' assessment process and a systematic strategy to evaluate new programs is absolutely necessary to review and correct directions. It is envisaged that planners can make better-informed decisions about curricular implementation, review and reform when information of this nature is made available to them. PMID:19500408

Bollela, Valdes R; Gabarra, Manoel HC; da Costa, Caetano; Lima, Rita CP

2009-01-01

454

Meeting the Critical Need for Trauma Education in Social Work: A Problem-Based Learning Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing imperative to prepare MSW social work students for trauma-informed evidence-based practice. Given strong recommendations and promising developments within social work education and practice in this regard, a clinical elective for the advanced-year MSW student that combines the guiding principles of trauma theory and…

Strand, Virginia C.; Abramovitz, Robert; Layne, Christopher M.; Robinson, Howard; Way, Ineke

2014-01-01

455

Assessing the Social Acceptability of the Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the clinical utility of the functional analysis is well established, its social acceptability has received minimal attention. The current study assessed the social acceptability of functional analysis procedures among 10 parents and 3 teachers of children who had recently received functional analyses. Participants completed a 9-item…

Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter

2011-01-01

456

Phenomenological Characteristics, Social Problems, and the Economic Impact Associated with Chronic Skin Picking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors collected data on the demographic characteristics, phenomenology, and social and economic impact of skin picking. A total of 92 participants completed an anonymous, Internet-based survey through a link to the Trichotillomania Learning Center's home page. Results indicated that skin pickers experienced social,…

Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.

2006-01-01

457

Problem eating behaviors related to social factors and body weight in preschool children: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight\\/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and body weight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating

Lise Dubois; Anna Farmer; Manon Girard; Kelly Peterson; Fabiola Tatone-Tokuda

2007-01-01

458

Understanding the social context of fatal road traffic collisions among young people: a qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroners’ records  

PubMed Central

Background Deaths and injuries on the road remain a major cause of premature death among young people across the world. Routinely collected data usually focuses on the mechanism of road traffic collisions and basic demographic data of those involved. This study aimed to supplement these routine sources with a thematic analysis of narrative text contained in coroners’ records, to explore the wider social context in which collisions occur. Methods Thematic analysis of narrative text from Coroners’ records, retrieved from thirty-four fatalities among young people (16–24 year olds) occurring as a result of thirty road traffic collisions in a rural county in the south of England over the period 2005–2010. Results Six key themes emerged: social driving, driving experience, interest in motor vehicles, driving behaviour, perception of driving ability, and emotional distress. Social driving (defined as a group of related behaviours including: driving as a social event in itself (i.e. without a pre-specified destination); driving to or from a social event; driving with accompanying passengers; driving late at night; driving where alcohol or drugs were a feature of the journey) was identified as a common feature across cases. Conclusions Analysis of the wider social context in which road traffic collisions occur in young people can provide important information for understanding why collisions happen and developing targeted interventions to prevent them. It can complement routinely collected data, which often focuses on events immediately preceding a collision. Qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroner’s records may provide a way of providing this type of information. These findings provide additional support for the case for Graduated Driver Licensing programmes to reduce collisions involving young people, and also suggest that road safety interventions need to take a more community development approach, recognising the importance of social context and focusing on social networks of young people. PMID:24460955

2014-01-01

459

Self-understanding in high-functioning males with autism spectrum disorders : relationship with social functioning and theory of mind.  

E-print Network

??Doctor of Philosophy%%%Aim. This study aims to investigate self-understanding in young males with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to determine whether self-understanding is related… (more)

Martin, Fiona Barbouttis

2009-01-01

460

A longitudinal examination of the bidirectional association between sleep problems and social ties at university: the mediating role of emotion regulation.  

PubMed

Despite the growing body of research linking sleep problems and social ties, research investigating the direction of effects between these two constructs is lacking. Furthermore, there remains a dearth of research examining the mechanisms that may explain the association between sleep problems and social ties within a longitudinal design. The present 3-year longitudinal study addressed two research questions: (1) Is there a bidirectional association between sleep problems and social ties at university? and (2) Does emotion regulation mediate the association between sleep problems and social ties at university? Participants (N = 942, 71.5 % female; M = 19.01 years at Time 1, SD = 0.90) were university students who completed annual assessments of sleep problems, social ties, and emotion regulation, for three consecutive years. Results of path analysis indicated that the bidirectional association between sleep problems and social ties was statistically significant (controlling for demographics, sleep-wake inconsistency, sleep duration, and alcohol). Analyses of indirect effects indicated that emotion regulation mediated this link, such that better sleep quality (i.e., less sleep problems) led to more effective emotion regulation, which, subsequently, led to more positive social ties. In addition, more positive social ties led to more effective emotion regulation, which, in turn, led to less sleep problems. The findings highlight the critical role that emotional regulation plays in the link between sleep problems and social ties, and emphasize the need for students as well as university administration to pay close attention to both the sleep and social environment of university students. PMID:24578222

Tavernier, Royette; Willoughby, Teena

2015-02-01

461

Changes in social competence in young children treated because of conduct problems as viewed by multiple informants.  

PubMed

In the present study changes in social competence were examined in a clinic sample of 127 children aged 4-8. The children were recruited to a controlled treatment study because of conduct problems at home and were randomised to the Incredible Years parent training (PT), combined PT and child therapy (CT) or a waiting-list control-group. Assessments were conducted pre- and post-treatment and at a one-year follow-up by multiple informants (mother, father, teacher and child). Parent training combined with child treatment showed most improvement in child social competence based on mother, father and child reports, however, father reports showed positive results for children treated with PT only. Treated mothers and fathers showed a decrease in correlations in their reports of social competence in the child after treatment as compared to parents in the waiting-list condition. No generalisation effects to peer-relationships in day-care/school were found, neither on teacher or child reports. A broad perspective using multiple informants from different settings is needed when effects of treatment of young children with conduct problems are evaluated and should include various aspects of social competence. PMID:17401611

Drugli, May Britt; Larsson, Bo; Clifford, Graham

2007-09-01

462

Press coverage of a social problem in Singapore: An analysis of content, modes and styles of communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how Singapore's newspapers are able to play a nation?building role whilst still maintaining their individuality. It aims to discover the similarities and differences among the newspapers by analysing a wide cross?section of articles on a social problem over a span of four and a half years.The study found that the Singapore press responded to the government's campaign

Alfred Choi

1999-01-01

463

Conceptual Shifts Needed to Understand the Dynamic Interactions of Genes, Environment, Epigenetics, Social Processes, and Behavioral Choices  

PubMed Central

Social and behavioral research in public health is often intimately tied to profound, but frequently neglected, biological influences from underlying genetic, environmental, and epigenetic events. The dynamic interplay between the life, social, and behavioral sciences often remains underappreciated and underutilized in addressing complex diseases and disorders and in developing effective remediation strategies. Using a case-study format, we present examples as to how the inclusion of genetic, environmental, and epigenetic data can augment social and behavioral health research by expanding the parameters of such studies, adding specificity to phenotypic assessments, and providing additional internal control in comparative studies. We highlight the important roles of gene–environment interactions and epigenetics as sources of phenotypic change and as a bridge between the life and social and behavioral sciences in the development of robust interdisciplinary analyses. PMID:23927503

Niculescu, Mihai D.; Jackson, Robert T.

2013-01-01

464

Using modeling to understand how athletes in different disciplines solve the same problem: swimming versus running versus speed skating.  

PubMed

Every new competitive season offers excellent examples of human locomotor abilities, regardless of the sport. As a natural consequence of competitions, world records are broken every now and then. World record races not only offer spectators the pleasure of watching very talented and highly trained athletes performing muscular tasks with remarkable skill, but also represent natural models of the ultimate expression of human integrated muscle biology, through strength, speed, or endurance performances. Given that humans may be approaching our species limit for muscular power output, interest in how athletes improve on world records has led to interest in the strategy of how limited energetic resources are best expended over a race. World record performances may also shed light on how athletes in different events solve exactly the same problem-minimizing the time required to reach the finish line. We have previously applied mathematical modeling to the understanding of world record performances in terms of improvements in facilities/equipment and improvements in the athletes' physical capacities. In this commentary, we attempt to demonstrate that differences in world record performances in various sports can be explained using a very simple modeling process. PMID:21725112

de Koning, Jos J; Foster, Carl; Lucia, Alejandro; Bobbert, Maarten F; Hettinga, Florentina J; Porcari, John P

2011-06-01

465

Understanding silence in problem-based learning: a case study at an English medium university in Asia.  

PubMed

Problem-based learning (PBL) has increasingly been employed as a teaching and learning approach in many disciplines in higher education. Since PBL might be regarded as a dramatic departure from what students have experienced before entry to undergraduate studies, it is necessary to examine how first year undergraduate students adapt to the high level of knowledge and communication demands that PBL entails. In particular, there is a need to examine Asian undergraduate students' silence in PBL tutorials. This article reports on a study that explored first year dental students' practices and perceptions of silence in PBL tutorials at an English medium university in Asia. Eight successive PBL tutorials sessions were videotaped. Significant episodes of silence in these tutorials were then identified, edited and extracted into one media file per tutorial. The participants were invited to attend stimulated recall interviews during which they viewed the edited excerpts. In the stimulated recall interviews, they were encouraged to freely recall about, and comment on, their own and their groups' interaction processes. Students' practices and perceptions of silence are likely to affect knowledge construction and group dynamics in PBL tutorials. Analysis revealed that students' silence can be regarded as a positive and constructive means of participation and learning contributing to the success of an ongoing PBL process. Interactional control (e.g. turn taking, exchange ideas and topic control) and non-verbal behavior in PBL tutorials can be highlighted to assist facilitators' understanding of silence. PMID:23895282

Jin, Jun

2014-01-01

466

Blunted Cortisol Responses to Stress Signal Social and Behavioral Problems Among Maltreated/Bullied 12-Year-Old Children  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that early-life stress such as physical maltreatment has long-lasting effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and is associated with blunted HPA axis reactivity in adulthood. Few studies have investigated whether blunted HPA axis reactivity observed in children exposed to early-life stress signals social, emotional, and behavioral problems. Methods Participants were 190 12-year-old children (50.5% males) recruited from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994 to 1995 cohort of families with twins. Cortisol responses to psychosocial stress were measured in maltreated/ bullied (n = 64) and comparison children (n = 126). We ascertained maltreatment and bullying victimization using mothers’ reports and assessed children’s social, emotional, and behavioral problems at ages 5 and 12 using mothers’ and teachers’ reports. Results Piecewise multilevel growth curve analyses indicated that maltreated/bullied and comparison children showed distinct cortisol responses to stress. Specifically, maltreated/bullied children had lower cortisol responses than comparison children who exhibited a significant increase. Lower cortisol responses were, in turn, associated with more social and behavioral problems among maltreated/bullied children. Conclusions These findings provide support for the influence of childhood harm on blunted HPAaxis reactivity and its potential impacton children’s functioning. Our findings emphasize the need to integrate stress biomarkers in guiding prevention efforts for young victims. PMID:21839988

Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Odgers, Candice L.; Danese, Andrea; Bowes, Lucy; Shakoor, Sania; Papadopoulos, Andrew S.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

2013-01-01

467

Social Problem Solving and Depressive Symptoms Over Time: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy, Brief Supportive Psychotherapy, and Pharmacotherapy  

PubMed Central

Objective Depression is associated with poor social problem-solving, and psychotherapies that focus on problem-solving skills are efficacious in treating depression. We examined the associations between treatment, social problem solving, and depression in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of psychotherapy augmentation for chronically depressed patients who failed to fully respond to an initial trial of pharmacotherapy (Kocsis et al., 2009). Method Participants with chronic depression (n = 491) received Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), which emphasizes interpersonal problem-solving, plus medication; Brief Supportive Psychotherapy (BSP) plus medication; or medication alone for 12 weeks. Results CBASP plus pharmacotherapy was associated with significantly greater improvement in social problem solving than BSP plus pharmacotherapy, and a trend for greater improvement in problem solving than pharmacotherapy alone. In addition, change in social problem solving predicted subsequent change in depressive symptoms over time. However, the magnitude of the associations between changes in social problem solving and subsequent depressive symptoms did not differ across treatment conditions. Conclusions It does not appear that improved social problem solving is a mechanism that uniquely distinguishes CBASP from other treatment approaches. PMID:21500885

Klein, Daniel N.; Leon, Andrew C.; Li, Chunshan; D’Zurilla, Thomas J.; Black, Sarah R.; Vivian, Dina; Dowling, Frank; Arnow, Bruce A.; Manber, Rachel; Markowitz, John C.; Kocsis, James H.

2011-01-01

468

Different social network and social support characteristics, nervous problems and insomnia: Theoretical and methodological aspects on some results from the population study 'men born in 1914', Malmö, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A representative sample of 68-year-old men in the Swedish city of Malmö, were interviewed in detail regarding their social network, social support and social influence as a part of an extensive examination of their health status. Emphasis in this paper is put on the definition and operationalization of different social network, social support and social influence characteristics included in a

B. S. Hanson; P.-O. Östergren

1987-01-01

469

Understanding veterinary students' use of and attitudes toward the social networking site, Facebook, to assist in developing curricula to address online professionalism.  

PubMed

Social media is an increasingly common form of communication, with Facebook being the preferred social-networking site among post-secondary students. Numerous studies suggest post-secondary students practice high self-disclosure on Facebook. Research evaluating veterinary students' use of social media found a notable proportion of student-posted content deemed inappropriate. Lack of discretion in posting content can have significant repercussions for aspiring veterinary professionals, their college of study, and the veterinary profession they represent. Veterinarians-in-training at three veterinary colleges across Canada were surveyed to explore their use of and attitude toward the social networking site, Facebook. Students were invited to complete an online survey with questions relating to their knowledge of privacy in relation to using Facebook, their views on the acceptability of posting certain types of information, and their level of professional accountability online. Linear regression modeling was used to further examine factors related to veterinary students' disclosure of personal information on Facebook. Need for popularity (p<.01) and awareness of consequences (p<.001) were found to be positively and negatively associated, respectively, with students' personal disclosure of information on Facebook. Understanding veterinary students' use of and attitudes toward social media, such as Facebook, reveals a need, and provides a basis, for developing educational programs to address online professionalism. Educators and administrators at veterinary schools may use this information to assist in developing veterinary curricula that addresses the escalating issue of online professionalism. PMID:22951465

Coe, Jason B; Weijs, Cynthia A; Muise, Amy; Christofides, Emily; Desmarais, Serge

2012-01-01

470

Understanding social and sexual networks of sexual minority men and transgender women in Guatemala city to improve HIV prevention efforts.  

PubMed

Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties. PMID:25418236

Tucker, C; Arandi, C Galindo; Bolańos, J Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G; Barrington, C

2014-11-01

471

Distinguishing between Positive and Negative Social Bonding in Problem Drinking among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To reduce problem drinking, interventions must be directed toward those factors associated with problem drinking. Purpose: This study examined how perceptions of the role of alcohol related to problem drinking among a convenience sample of 301 college students. Methods: Fifteen items concerned with drinking behavior or perceptions…

Zullig, Keith J.; Young, Michael; Hussain, Mohammad

2010-01-01

472

Effects of Problem-Based Learning on University Students’ Epistemological Beliefs About Physics and Physics Learning and Conceptual Understanding of Newtonian Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of problem-based learning on students’ beliefs about physics and physics learning and\\u000a conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. The study further examines the relationship between students’ beliefs about\\u000a physics and their conceptual understanding of mechanics concepts. Participants were 124 Turkish university students (PBL = 55,\\u000a traditional = 69) enrolled in a calculus-based introductory physics class. Students’ beliefs about physics and

Mehmet Sahin

2010-01-01

473

The Narrative Construction of Differing Conceptions of the Person in the Development of Young Children's Social Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used a systematic interpretive analysis of preschoolers' spontaneous narratives over the school year to study the development of their conceptions of the person. Found that girls constructed a socially embedded and interdependent person who becomes increasingly individuated and self-consciously responsible. Boys created a separate and agonistic…

Richner, Elizabeth S.; Nicolopoulou, Ageliki

2001-01-01

474

Understanding the Role of Social, Teaching and Cognitive Presence in Hybrid Courses: Student Perspectives on Learning and Pedagogical Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of hybrid learning (a blend of face-to-face and distance learning) is rapidly increasing in higher education. However, educational leaders have raised concerns about the proliferation of hybrid programming as an efficiency measure without appropriate attention to learning. This study examined the relationship between social, teaching and…

Voegele, Janelle DeCarrico

2012-01-01

475

Social Understanding and Self-Regulation Predict Pre-Schoolers' Sharing with Friends and Disliked Peers: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined longitudinal relations between early measures of prosocial action in infancy as well as cognitive and social-cognitive abilities, and the sharing behaviour of preschool children. The results reveal relations between delay-of-gratification at 24 months and inhibitory control at 30 months, and children's sharing at 5 years.…

Paulus, Markus; Licata, Maria; Kristen, Susanne; Thoermer, Claudia; Woodward, Amanda; Sodian, Beate

2015-01-01

476

Collaborative Partner or Social Tool? New Evidence for Young Children's Understanding of Joint Intentions in Collaborative Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some children's social activities are structured by joint goals. In previous research, the criterion used to determine this was relatively weak: if the partner stopped interacting, did the child attempt to re-engage her? But re-engagement attempts could easily result from the child simply realizing that she needs the partner to reach her own goal…

Warneken, Felix; Grafenhain, Maria; Tomasello, Michael

2012-01-01

477

Understanding the Role of Entertainment Media in the Sexual Socialization of American Youth: A Review of Empirical Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the nature/prevalence of sexual content on television and in magazines. Describes theoretical mechanisms outlining potential socializing influences. Reviews evidence indicating that frequent/involved exposure to sexually oriented media genres relates to greater acceptance of stereotypical/casual attitudes about sex, higher expectations…

Ward, L. Monique

2003-01-01

478

Dealing with wicked problems: conducting a causal layered analysis of complex social psychological issues.  

PubMed

Causal layered analysis (CLA) is an emerging qualitative methodology adopted in the discipline of planning as an approach to deconstruct complex social issues. With psychologists increasingly confronted with complex, and "wicked" social and community issues, we argue that the discipline of psychology would benefit from adopting CLA as an analytical method. Until now, the application of CLA for data interpretation has generally been poorly defined and overwhelming for the novice. In this paper we propose an approach to CLA that provides a method for the deconstruction and analysis of complex social psychological issues. We introduce CLA as a qualitative methodology well suited for psychology, introduce the epistemological foundations of CLA, define a space for it adoption within the discipline, and, outline the steps for conducting a CLA using an applied example. PMID:24384605

Bishop, Brian J; Dzidic, Peta L

2014-03-01

479

Localization of social communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental problem in the social science and network theory is a gap between local communication and global information sharing. Due to the limited availability of empirical data, previous works on large-scale social communication mainly focused on the topological structure, lacking of knowledge on human behavior and individual activity, such as where individual lives, how far one lives from his friends, which are expected to play important roles in social communication. Here we studied the contribution of individual activity to social communication as well as the interplay between individual activity and topological structure, finding emergence of a typical communication distance between two friends, indicating a localization feature in social networks. Moreover, this localization phenomenon is associated with typological clustering, suggesting an integrating theory in understanding social behaviors.

Wang, Dashun; Song, Chaoming; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

2010-03-01

480

Emotion Discourse, Social Cognition, and Social Skills in Children with and without Developmental Delays  

PubMed Central

This study examined parent-child emotion discourse, children’s independent social information processing, and social skills outcomes in 146 families of 8-year-olds with and without developmental delays. Children’s emergent social-cognitive understanding (internal state understanding, perspective taking, and causal reasoning/problem solving) was coded in the context of parent-child conversations about emotion, and children were interviewed separately to assess social problem solving. Mothers, fathers, and teachers reported on children’s social skills. The proposed strengths-based model partially accounted for social skills differences between typically developing children and children with delays. A multigroup analysis of the model linking emotion discourse to social skills through children’s prosocial problem solving suggested that processes operated similarly across the two groups. Implications for ecologically focused prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:21410465

Fenning, RM; Baker, BL; Juvonen, J

2009-01-01

481

Social Determinants of Self-Reported Health in Women and Men: Understanding the Role of Gender in Population Health  

PubMed Central

Background Women and men share similar health challenges yet women report poorer health. The study investigates the social determinants of self-reported health in women and men, and male-female differences in health. Methods Data on 103154 men and 125728 women were analysed from 57 countries in the World Health Survey 2002–2004. Item Response Theory was used to construct a composite measure of health. Associations between health and determinants were assessed using multivariate linear regression. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition partitioned the inequality in health between women and men into an “explained" component that arises because men and women differ in social and economic characteristics, and an “unexplained" component due to the differential effects of these characteristics. Decomposition was repeated for 18 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region and 19 countries in the WHO European region. Results Women's health was significantly lower than men's. Health was associated with education, household economic status, employment, and marital status after controlling for age. In the pooled analysis decomposition showed that 30% of the inequality was “explained", of which almost 75% came from employment, education, marital status. The differential effects of being in paid employment increased the inequality. When countries in Africa and Europe were compared, the “explained" component (31% and 39% respectively) was largely attributed to the social determinants in the African countries and to women's longevity in the European countries. Being in paid employment had a greater positive effect on the health of males in both regions. Conclusions Ways in which age and the social determinants contribute to the poorer health status of women compared with men varies between groups of countries. This study highlights the need for action to address social structures, institutional discrimination and harmful gender norms and roles that differently influence health with ageing. PMID:22514667

Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Amin, Avni; Araujo de Carvalho, Islene; Beard, John; Boerma, Ties; Kowal, Paul; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath

2012-01-01

482

Aspekte und Probleme der linguistischen Analyse schichtenspezifischen Sprachgebrauchs. Studien und Berichte 31 (Aspects and Problems of the Linguistic Analysis of Language Usage Within Specific Social Levels. Studies and Reports No. 31).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a study of linguistic variability among social levels in West Germany and of the problems associated with doing such an analysis. The data, ordered according to sex and social levels, were collected from young children retelling narratives heard on tapes. The report represents a comprehensive study of the children's syntactic performance…

Klann, Gisela

483

Mental Illness, Behavior Problems, and Social Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the behavioral characteristics of adults with Down syndrome (DS) without dementia. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychopathology and social behavior among adults with DS compared to adults with nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). Thirty-four adults with DS were individually matched with 34…

Straccia, Claudio; Baggio, Stéphanie; Barisnikov, Koviljka

2014-01-01

484

Facilitating the Authoring of Multimedia Social Problem Solving Skills Instructional Modules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Difficulties in social skills are generally considered defining characteristics of High-Functioning Autism (HFA). These difficulties interfere with the educational experiences and quality of life of individuals with HFA, and interventions must be highly individualized to be effective. I explore ways technologies may play a role in assisting…

Boujarwah, Fatima A.

2012-01-01

485

Social Problems and America's Youth: Why School Reform Won't Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the schools to achieve racial balance, eliminate poverty, fight drug abuse, prevent pregnancy, and reduce youth suicide is too large a task. Teachers and principals should address educational issues, not unmet social needs. To improve the educational performance of the schools, the quality of life for youth must first be improved. (MSE)

Rittenmeyer, Dennis C.

1987-01-01

486

Effects of Problem Solving Strategy on the Social Deprivation--Satiation Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty elementary school students were divided into four groups based on level of pretest approval and response strategy shown on a "probe" following treatment. The efficacy of a social stimulus was tested using a two-choice discrimination learning task in which every correct response was reinforced with the word "good." (Author/JMB)

Funderburk, Frank R.

1978-01-01