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Like much of modern scholarship, the study of socialproblems today is usually conducted in isolation from the truths of faith. Yet Catholics understand that the truths of science and the truths of faith are not in opposition but in harmony. This paper uses the Catholic concept of transcendent human dignity to integrate the scientific analysis of socialproblems with
Research has consistently found that liberals and conservatives generate different attributions for the causes of socialproblems and respond differently to people who have internal-controllable causes for needing help. Five studies using a variety of methods (the \\
Linda J. Skitka; Elizabeth Mullen; Thomas Griffin; Susan Hutchinson; Brian Chamberlin
A comprehensive understanding of the social and psychological impact of diabetes mellitus is important for informing policy and practice. One potentially significant, yet under-researched, issue is the social stigma surrounding diabetes. This narrative review draws on literature about health-related stigma in diabetes and other chronic conditions in order to develop a framework for understanding diabetes-related stigma. Our review of the literature found that people who do not have diabetes assume that diabetes is not a stigmatized condition. In contrast, people with diabetes report that stigma is a significant concern to them, experienced across many life domains, e.g., in the workplace, in relationships. The experience of diabetes-related stigma has a significant negative impact on many aspects of psychological well-being and may also result in sub-optimal clinical outcomes for people with diabetes. We propose a framework that highlights the causes (attitudes of blame, feelings of fear and disgust, and the felt need to enforce social norms and avoid disease), experiences (being judged, rejected, and discriminated against), and consequences (e.g., distress, poorer psychological well-being, and sub-optimal self-care) of diabetes-related stigma and also identifies potential mitigating strategies to reduce diabetes-related stigma and/or enhance coping and resilience amongst people with diabetes. The systematic investigation of the experiences, causes, and consequences of diabetes-related stigma is an urgent research priority. PMID:23322536
Schabert, Jasmin; Browne, Jessica L; Mosely, Kylie; Speight, Jane
Believable social interaction is not only about agents that look right but also do the right thing. To achieve this we must consider the everyday knowledge and expectations by which users make sense of real, fictive or artificial social beings. This folk-theoretical understanding of other social beings involves several, rather independent, levels such as expectations on behaviour, expectations on primitive
|This review of socialproblem novels for young adults opens with a brief background of the genre, then lists the dominant themes of socialproblem fiction and nonfiction novels that have been published in the last two years, such as alcoholism, alienation, death, growing up and self-awarness, drugs, and divorce. Other themes mentioned are…
This review of socialproblem novels for young adults opens with a brief background of the genre, then lists the dominant themes of socialproblem fiction and nonfiction novels that have been published in the last two years, such as alcoholism, alienation, death, growing up and self-awarness, drugs, and divorce. Other themes mentioned are…
This Program Memorandum covers SocialProblems, the sixth of the eleven major programs in the statewide program structure. Article VIII, Sections 3 and 4, of the Hawaii State Constitution, authorizes the State government to provide public assistance for p...
|Social phobia, a relatively obscure disorder, is receiving increased attention due to evidence suggesting that it is more prevalent and debilitative than once thought. The purpose of this article is to help counselors better understand the nature of and treatments for this disorder. Effective behavioral and pharmacological approaches are…
Once we abstract away,from questions about theory versus simulation and from questions about modularity, it can seem truistic that having a theory of mind ? being able to engage,in our everyday,folk psychological,practices or having,psychological understanding ? is fundamental to social functioning. Thus, for example, at the beginning of The Child’s Theory of Mind, Henry Wellman says (1990, p. 1): ‘Arriving
The ultimate purpose with socially intelligent agent (SIA) technology is not to simulate social intelligence per se, but to let an agent give an impression of social intelligence. Such user-centred SIA technology, must consider the everyday knowledge and expectations by which users make sense of real, fictive, or artificial social beings. This folk-theoretical understanding of other social beings involves several,
|Misconceptions about forces are very common and seem to arise from everyday experience and use of words. Ways to improve students' understanding of forces, as used in recent a IOP CD-Rom, are discussed here.|
|Surveyed 446 late adolescents concerning their assessment of specific social issues as problems existing in contemporary American society. Subjects overwhelmingly pointed to drug use, pollution, hunger, nuclear war, and poverty as serious to very serious problems, while ageism, and racial and sexual discrimination were regarded as substantially…
It has become increasingly common for education scholars to claim a social justice orientation in their work. At the same time, education programs seem to be adding statements about the importance of social justice to their mission, and a growing number of teacher education programs are fundamentally oriented around a vision of social justice.…
This report was written to clarify the terms often associated with pornography and to help readers understand the issue of pornography more clearly. The first chapter defines pornography, as it was defined by the United States Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, as "that material (which) is predominantly sexually explicit and intended…
|This report was written to clarify the terms often associated with pornography and to help readers understand the issue of pornography more clearly. The first chapter defines pornography, as it was defined by the United States Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, as "that material (which) is predominantly sexually explicit and intended…
In recent years social networking and social interactions have challenged old conceptions in the television landscape. Web applications that offer video content, networked television sets and set-top boxes, and online TV widgets are – or, will be – radically transforming how people watch and interact around television content. Since the wealth of existing solutions and approaches might be daunting to
This paper introduces social signal processing (SSP), the domain aimed at automatic understanding of social interactions through analysis of nonverbal behavior. The core idea of SSP is that nonverbal behavior is machine detectable evidence of social signals, the relational attitudes exchanged between interacting individuals. Social signals include (dis-)agreement, empathy, hostility, and any other attitude towards others that is expressed not
Second-, fourth-, and seventh-grade children evaluated story characters who were either highly or less motivated to impress an audience and had either high or low expectations of being able to accomplish their self-presentational goals. As predicted according to a self-presentation model of social anxiety, both factors were related to judgments of the character's social anxiety, especially for the older children.
Popular online social networks (OSNs) like Facebook and Twitter are changing the way users communicate and interact with the Internet. A deep understanding of user interactions in OSNs can provide important insights into questions of human social behavior, and into the design of social platforms and applications. However, recent studies have shown that a majority of user interactions on OSNs
Jing Jiang; Christo Wilson; Xiao Wang; Peng Huang; Wenpeng Sha; Yafei Dai; Ben Y. Zhao
In response to O'Brien et al., who examined predictors of child outcome among at-risk infants as possible eligibility criteria for early intervention programs, this paper notes that most biological risk factors in infants are not adequately predictive of developmental dysfunction. It stresses that when socialproblems are the cause of…
|Much of the evidence from the West has shown links between children's developing self-control (executive function), their social experiences, and their socialunderstanding (Carpendale & Lewis, 2006, chapters 5 and 6), across a range of cultures including China. This chapter describes four studies conducted in three Oriental cultures, suggesting…
This article summarises experimental results that bring together two views in contemporary science: Bayesian analysis and link prediction, to enhance the current understanding of social network analysis (SNA), particularly in value creation through social connectedness - an important, and growing, discipline within management science. Traditional link prediction methods use the values of metrics in a graph to determine where new
Anet Potgieter; A. April; Richard J. E. Cooke; I. O. Osunmakinde
Young infants are sensitive to self-directed social actions, but do they appreciate the intentional, target-directed nature of such behaviors? The authors addressed this question by investigating infants' understanding of social gaze in third-party interactions (N = 104). Ten-month-old infants discriminated between 2 people in mutual versus…
Much of the evidence from the West has shown links between children's developing self-control (executive function), their social experiences, and their socialunderstanding (Carpendale & Lewis, 2006, chapters 5 and 6), across a range of cultures including China. This chapter describes four studies conducted in three Oriental cultures, suggesting…
Theories of children's developing understanding of mind tend to emphasize either individualistic processes of theory formation, maturation, or introspection, or the process of enculturation. However, such theories must be able to account for the accumulating evidence of the role of social interaction in the development of socialunderstanding. We propose an alternative account, according to which the development of children's socialunderstanding occurs within triadic interaction involving the child's experience of the world as well as communicative interaction with others about their experience and beliefs (Chapman 1991; 1999). It is through such triadic interaction that children gradually construct knowledge of the world as well as knowledge of other people. We contend that the extent and nature of the social interaction children experience will influence the development of children's socialunderstanding. Increased opportunity to engage in cooperative social interaction and exposure to talk about mental states should facilitate the development of socialunderstanding. We review evidence suggesting that children's understanding of mind develops gradually in the context of social interaction. Therefore, we need a theory of development in this area that accords a fundamental role to social interaction, yet does not assume that children simply adopt socially available knowledge but rather that children construct an understanding of mind within social interaction. PMID:15481944
This paper proposes a socialproblems emphasis to gerontology in social work education which acknowledges the fact that the elderly are handicapped and discriminated against by social values, attitudes, and practices. The traditional integrative approach has been ineffective in educating and sensitizing students to problems and needs of the aged. The socialproblems emphasis is discussed as related to future
Our objective was to examine the neurobiology of social phobia from the perspectives of basic sciences, genetics, immunology, neuroendocrinology, neurotransmission and neuroimaging and to provide an integrated understanding of social phobia in the framework of a hypothetical neural circuit. Family and twin studies provide evidence that social phobia is heritable with significant genetic influence, and molecular genetics offers possibilities in understanding the nature of the trait that is transmitted. The biologic distinctiveness of social phobia from anxiety disorders and physiological validation of differences between generalized and discrete social phobia subtypes have been implicated in genetic, naturalistic and chemical challenge studies. Evidence of specific dysfunction of dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic and GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acid) neurotransmitter systems has been presented in animal models, challenge studies and treatment investigations. Preliminary neuroimaging research supports previous studies suggesting striatal dopaminergic dysfunction in social phobia and suggests the importance of functional circuits. A neural circuit involving the striatum, thalamus, amygdala and cortical structures may provide a framework for integrating much of the current knowledge on the neurobiology of social phobia.
Theories of children's developing understanding of mind tend to emphasize either individualistic processes of theory formation, maturation, or introspection, or the process of enculturation. However, such theories must be able to account for the accumulating evidence of the role of social interaction in the development of socialunderstanding. We propose an alternative account, according to which the development of children's
|Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…
The main problem with sensory processing is the difficulty in relating sensory input to physiological responses and perception. This is especially problematic at higher levels of processing, where complex cues elicit highly specific responses. In olfaction, this relationship is particularly obfuscated by the difficulty of characterizing stimulus statistics and perception. The core questions in olfaction are hence the so-called stimulus problem, which refers to the understanding of the stimulus, and the structure-activity and structure-odor relationships, which refer to the molecular basis of smell. It is widely accepted that the recognition of odorants by receptors is governed by the detection of physico-chemical properties and that the physical space is highly complex. Not surprisingly, ideas differ about how odor stimuli should be classified and about the very nature of information that the brain extracts from odors. Even though there are many measures for smell, there is none that accurately describes all aspects of it. Here, we summarize recent developments in the understanding of olfaction. We argue that an approach to olfactory function where information processing is emphasized could contribute to a high degree to our understanding of smell as a perceptual phenomenon emerging from neural computations. Further, we argue that combined analysis of the stimulus, biology, physiology, and behavior and perception can provide new insights into olfactory function. We hope that the reader can use this review as a competent guide and overview of research activities in olfactory physiology, psychophysics, computation, and psychology. We propose avenues for research, particularly in the systematic characterization of receptive fields and of perception. PMID:23806440
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 7-month cognitive behavioral intervention for the facilitation of the social-emotional understanding and social interaction of 15 high-functioning children (8 to 17 years old) with autism. Intervention focused on teaching interpersonal problem solving, affective knowledge, and social interaction. Preintervention and postintervention measures included observations of social interaction, measures of problem solving and of emotion
Obesity is risk-factor for the most common nowdays diseases, as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, some carcinomas, degenerative diseases of weight bearing joints (spine, hips, knees), and present a huge medical and socialproblem, as well. It causes not only somatic but mental problems as well, especially in females and younger persons. Some of them undergo risky weight reducing methods, surgical procedures, etc, to reduce their body weight and to release mentally stressing body deformities. Aim of the work is to quantify negative impaction of obesity on functionality of the knee, the key joint in everyday body activities (rising, standing, walking, and climbing). Study has analyzed 22 randomly chosen patients (5 male, 17 female) with strong degenerative alteration of the knee (osteoarthritis), who were treated on the Department for orthopedic and traumatology, Clinical center Sarajevo during 2005 and 2006. Average age was 63.6 +/- 10.6 (54-76) years, with Body Mass Index (level of obesity) 31.1 +/- 3.5 (27-38) points, and average duration of symptoms 9.1 +/- 7.4 (1-25) years. The knee functionality was assessed by Knee Society Knee Score (KSKS). Completely healthy knee has 200 points--50 points for pain free knee, 25 points for stabile knee, and forfull extension-flexion arch, both, 50 points for normal walking and stairs climbing, both. Average value of KSKS was 118.1 +/- 35.0 points. As it was expected, there were strong significant correlation between KSKS and age (r = -0.50, p = 0.015). The duration of disability correlated with KSKS (r = -0.5, p = 0.02), and level of pain (r = 0.60, p=0.00). The obesity has significantly increased level of pain in the knee (r = -0.44, p = 0.04), all patients were obese persons. Persons with reduced functional abilities avoid body activity, it causes increasing of obesity, and one makes other worse. Concerning on incidence of described problem and its impaction on society in general, it is necessary to make every effort in prevention and treatment of obesity, as important risk factor and consequence of reduced functional abilities and risk factor of most common nowadays diseases. PMID:18232277
|A study evaluated a 7-month cognitive behavioral intervention for facilitating social-emotional understanding and social interaction of 15 high-functioning children (ages 8-17) with autism. Intervention focused on interpersonal problem solving, affective knowledge, and social interaction. After treatment, children were more likely to initiate…
Maintains that when students learn about socialproblems they often feel depressed and apathetic about their ability to change these problems in society. Describes the Community Exploration Project that addresses the despair expressed by students and utilizes a student-centered approach where students discover and understand community efforts to…
In social life actions are tightly linked with emotions. The integration of affective- and action-related information has to be considered as a fundamental component of appropriate socialunderstanding. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at investigating whether an emotion (Happiness, Anger or Neutral) dynamically expressed by an observed agent modulates brain activity underlying the perception of his grasping action. As control stimuli, participants observed the same agent either only expressing an emotion or only performing a grasping action. Our results showed that the observation of an action embedded in an emotional context (agent’s facial expression), compared with the observation of the same action embedded in a neutral context, elicits higher neural response at the level of motor frontal cortices, temporal and occipital cortices, bilaterally. Particularly, the dynamic facial expression of anger modulates the re-enactment of a motor representation of the observed action. This is supported by the evidence that observing actions embedded in the context of anger, but not happiness, compared with a neutral context, elicits stronger activity in the bilateral pre-central gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, besides the pre-supplementary motor area, a region playing a central role in motor control. Angry faces not only seem to modulate the simulation of actions, but may also trigger motor reaction. These findings suggest that emotions exert a modulatory role on action observation in different cortical areas involved in action processing.
Research has argued that social interaction is a primary driving force for gamers to continue to play Massive Multiple Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs). However, one recent study argues that gamers don't really socialize with other players but play alone. Part of the confusion over whether players socialize much and\\/or enjoy socializing while playing MMORPGs may be due to the
|Social Security is a contemporary topic that exemplifies a social issue-centered approach to social studies, one that allows students to get beyond the school walls to analyze a contemporary topic that ultimately affects virtually everyone. In this article, the authors provide a brief history of Social Security, describe how it is funded and…
Much of synaesthesia research focused on colour, but not all cross-domain correspondences reported by synaesthetes are strictly sensory. For example, some synaesthetes personify letters and numbers, in additional to visualizing them in colour. First reported in the 1890s, the phenomenon has been largely ignored by scientists for more than a century with the exception of a few single-case reports. In the present study, we collected detailed self-reports on grapheme personification using a questionnaire, providing us with a comprehensive description of the phenomenology of grapheme personification. Next, we documented the behavioural consequences of personifying graphemes using a congruity paradigm involving a gender judgement task; we also examined whether personification is associated with heightened empathy as measured using Empathy Quotient and found substantial individual differences within our sample. Lastly, we present the first neuroimaging case study of personification, indicating that the precuneus activation previously seen in other synaesthesia studies may be implicated in the process. We propose that frameworks for understanding synaesthesia could be extended into other domains of cognition and that grapheme personification shares more in common with normal cognition than may be readily apparent. This benign form of hyper-mentalizing may provide a unique point of view on one of the most central problems in human cognition - understanding others' state of mind. PMID:21923789
This article examines some of the difficulties students have with understanding sound. It also illustrates the need for physics teachers to examine critically aspects of inherited and fashionable teaching analogies and demonstrations before using them.
The ever-increasing popularity of social networks opens new directions for leveraging social networks to build primitives for security and communication, in many contexts. Such primitives utilize the trust in these social networks to ensure collaboration and algorithmic properties exhibited in such networks to argue for the effectiveness of such primitives. Despite the importance of such properties and their quality to
Abedelaziz Mohaisen; Huy Tran; Nicholas Hopper; Yongdae Kim
Open problems in the interpretation of the observed pair of near-degenerate ?I = 1 bands with the same parity as the chiral doublet bands are discussed. The ambiguities for the existing fingerprints of the chirality in atomic nuclei and problems in existing theory are discussed, including the description of quantum tunneling in the mean field approximation as well as the deformation, core polarization and configuration of the particle rotor model (PRM). Future developments of the theoretical approach are anticipated.
In today's society, many women push pregnancy further away from the "right" childbearing age. Assisted reproduction, except egg donation, is unable to fully overcome the effect of age on fertility loss. The effectiveness of oocyte vitrification is demonstrated, and oocyte vitrification is allowed in the French Bioethics law of 2011. In the French law, oocyte' s cryopreservation is proposed to oocyte donors without child. Social egg freezing for non-medical reason is already legal in some countries, but leads to new debates and discussions. PMID:23972923
Belaisch-Allart, J; Brzakowski, M; Chouraqui, A; Grefenstette, I; Mayenga, J-M; Muller, E; Belaid, Y; Kulski, O
We investigated how people understand and recall simple stories. After discussing our gen- eral framework for investigating memory, we examined story grammars considered as theories of readers' memory of a story. Story grammars were found to be inadequate as grammars, as recognition devices for stories, and as predictors of recall probabilities of different statements in three test stories. An alternative
The search for alternatives to understanding time as “general linear reality” in models of policy change has usually resulted in theorists championing a single alternative; narratives, path dependency, or punctuated equilibrium. Following a suggestion by Haydu, the alternative to general linear reality is conceptualized as process sequencing. Narratives, path dependency and punctuated equilibrium are identified as different process sequencing methods
This study examined socialproblem-solving ability and peer social behavior in popular and unpopular 5-6-year-old children. The 4 most popular and 4 least popular individuals in a school class of 26 children were identified. Responses to a series of four social dilemmas were obtained, and the children were videotaped during free class activities. Popular children gave significantly more effective (p < .01) and relationship oriented (p < .05) strategies for resolving social dilemmas than unpopular children, and they were involved in more peer interactions (p < .05), were more positively reinforcing (p < .01), and showed more positive activity when alone (p < .01). PMID:8046664
This article by Brenda Krick-Morales identifies the difficulties that English Language Learners (ELLs) have with math word problems. The author identifies teaching strategies to help improve comprehension in the lower grades and in the upper grades. This article is related to "Math Instruction for English Language Learners" by Kristina Robertson, which is cataloged separately in this database.
Math classes can boring and distant to most students. The solution seems to be to pull away from traditional teaching practices and move towards learning styles. Every student does not learn in the same exact way. Enabling learners to approach something as complex as a mathematical word problem through graphing helps the learner process the data calculated, and integrating technology
Historically, girls have evoked images of sweetness and light, purity and beauty. In this fairytale land of youth, girls are\\u000a angels and princesses, characterized by positive adjustment and certainly not by behavioral or emotional problems. However,\\u000a as Mae West observed, in reality female children and adolescents are much more complex, with both positive and negative aspects\\u000a to their development and
|A social navigation system collects data from its users--its community--about what they are doing, their opinions, and their decisions, aggregates this data, and provides the aggregated data--community data--back to individuals so that they can use it to guide behavior and decisions. Social navigation systems empower users with the ability to…
Although exposure to stress is a central component of the stress process paradigm, little research has explicitly sought to identify antecedents of stress exposure. Based on a probability sample of 1393 adults aged 18-55 residing in Toronto, Canada, this research examines the effects of social status, past adversity, social and personal resources and history of mental disorder on recent exposure
The present study investigated two issues related to children's social status and problem solving: the content of problem-solving measures and judgments of the quality of responses to socialproblems. Three types of socialproblem situations were studied: peer entry\\/initiation, maintaining social interaction, and management of conflict. The quality of children's strategies for solving these problems was rated on two dimensions:
The rapid growth of socio-technical systems, social media and social networking websites has raised the importance of understanding the determinants of their success. The pressure to understand success is increased by the shift from playful discretionary applications to mission critical applications in government, business, and civic settings. These include homeland defense, energy sustainability, environmental conservation, disaster response, and community safety.
|Forty-four fourth- and fifth-grade boys with and without learning disabilities (LD) completed a semi-structured interview measure of interpersonal understanding. They were also rated by their teachers on social adaptation in the classroom. Interpersonal understanding and social adaptation were positively correlated, and children with LD exhibited…
The article—which also serves as Editorial—seeks to trace some of the fundamental problems that the comparative social and cultural sciences have had to cope with since their emergence and gradual consolidation, in the course of the nineteenth century. To this end, the article adopts a historical line of analysis, which is meant to throw into relief the very succession of
Social work is one of the least understood services in home health care. Frequently, social work ers are limited to the provision of concrete services, such as linkage with community resources or long-term planning. Social workers are capable of providing a wide range of services beyond community resources, including short-term therapy and crisis intervention. Clear understand ing and interpretation of
Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.
|In contrast to typically developing children, children with autism rarely exhibit cooperative social behavior. To examine whether this problem reflects global developmental delays or autism-specific deficits, the present study compared cooperation, emotional understanding, personality characteristics, and social behavior of 10 children with…
|When the word problems of forty-five sixth-grade students were examined, multiple levels of understanding and misunderstanding multiplication were exposed. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the potential of problem writing as a technique for assessing the depths of students' mathematical understandings. Discussions include sample…
In an effort to better understand the cognitive and emotional self-perceptions of rejected children, the present study investigated the manner in which 292 sociometrically categorized fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children explained positive and negative outcomes to social events. Rejected and neglected children were compared to average and popular children on the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire modified to assess the
A cross-sectional, correlational study of 30 children, 3 to 5 years old, investigated relations between their theory of mind development and social interaction, controlling for age and general language ability. Children's overall performance on 4 standard false belief tasks was associated with their production of joint proposals and explicit role assignments during a 10 minute session of pretend play, False
Like computers before them, social robots can be used as a fundamental research tool. Indeed, they can help us to turn our attention from putative inner modules to thinking about the flow and emergence of human intellectual powers. In so doing, much can be gained from seeking solutions to MacDorman's person problem: how can human bodies - and perhaps robot
Given a snapshot of a social network, can we infer which new interactions among its members are likely to occur in the near future? We formalize this question as the link prediction problem, and develop approaches to link prediction based on measures the \\
Interpersonal violence against people with disabilities is a significant socialproblem. Little attention has focused on the rural context and the relevance for understanding violence. Given the dearth of literature exploring interpersonal violence, disability, and rurality, a review of rural-focused literature on domestic violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse was conducted to identify themes that could provide insight into this problem for people with disabilities. Themes include geographic isolation, traditional cultural values and norms, lack of anonymity, lack of resources, and poor response of systems. Implications for understanding interpersonal violence against rural people with disabilities and for social work practice are discussed. PMID:21827301
Fitzsimons, Nancy M; Hagemeister, Annelies K; Braun, Elizabeth J
Objective Emerging research indicates that overweight children with social impairments are less responsive to weight control interventions over the long term. A better understanding of the breadth and psychosocial correlates of socialproblems among overweight youth is needed to optimize long-term weight outcomes. Methods A total of 201 overweight children, aged 7–12 years, participated in a randomized controlled trial of two weight maintenance interventions following family-based behavioral weight loss treatment. Children with HIGH (T?65) versus LOW (T<65) scores on the Child Behavior Checklist SocialProblems subscale were compared on their own and their parents’ pre-treatment levels of psychosocial impairment using multivariate analysis of variance. Hierarchical regression was used to identify parent and child predictors of socialproblems in the overall sample. Results HIGH (n=71) children evidenced greater eating disorder psychopathology and lower self-worth, as well as a range of interpersonal difficulties, compared to LOW children (n=130; ps<.05). Compared to parents of LOW children, parents of HIGH children reported greater levels of their own general psychopathology (p<.05). Parent psychopathology significantly added to the prediction of socialproblems in the full sample beyond child sex and z-BMI (ps<.01). Conclusion A substantial minority of overweight youth experience deficits across the social domain, and such deficits appear to be associated with impairment in a broad range of other psychosocial domains. Augmenting weight loss interventions with specialized treatment components to address child and parent psychosocial problems could enhance socially-impaired children’s long-term weight outcomes and decrease risk for later development of psychiatric disturbances.
Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Aspen, Vandana Passi; Tibbs, Tiffany L.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frankel, Fred; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.
Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but also provides within-group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within-group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23477449
Zapolski, Tamika C B; Pedersen, Sarah L; McCarthy, Denis M; Smith, Gregory T
\\u000a The rapid growth of social networking sites enables people to connect to each other more conveniently than ever. With easy-to-use\\u000a social media, people contribute and consume contents, leading to a new form of human interaction and the emergence of online\\u000a collective behavior. In this chapter, we aim to understand group structures and properties by extracting and profiling communities\\u000a in social
This paper presents an application of the Critical Social Theory (CST) in understanding cyberspace behavior. CST can be used as one of qualitative methodologies in IS research. However most prior IS research utilized a very narrowly drawn insight from CST without historical and social context considered. This study tries to apply a general concept of CST for the purpose of
\\u000a Since the early days of gene therapy at the end of the 1980s, both the scientific community and the public have perceived\\u000a the ethical and socialproblems intrinsic to this discipline. On one hand, the technologies for gene transfer are still largely\\u000a experimental and thus pose important safety issues. On the other hand, the objective of several gene therapy applications
Poor social functioning is a prevalent complaint of unipolar depression, but subjective experiences of social interactions have not been systematically studied. A limited number of qualitative researchers have specifically addressed the social difficulties in depression. We conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with 11 depressed women. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. Five themes emerged. The first two, diminished desire to socially interact and fear of social interactions, encompass perceptions that have not been previously reported. The third theme, the pressure to adhere to social norms, provided support for previous findings. The final two themes, the perceptions of others and isolation, elaborated on existing knowledge. We found that difficulties with social engagements are much broader than previously reported, with a lack of interest in others, being too emotionally overloaded to interact, perceptions that other people will not understand how women with depression are feeling, and fears of being a burden all contributing to the difficulties experienced in depression. PMID:21498827
Rice, Niamh M; Grealy, Madeleine A; Javaid, Aisha; Millan Serrano, Rosa
Purpose – To discuss the importance of understanding corporate social responsibility (CSR) by analysing the issues that comprise CSR. Without this understanding it will not be possible for organisations to develop responsible brands. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper draws on the existing business and marketing literature to define four aspects of issue complexity. It also draws on a range of real
Interpersonal violence against people with disabilities is a significant socialproblem. Little attention has focused on the rural context and the relevance for understanding violence. Given the dearth of literature exploring interpersonal violence, disability, and rurality, a review of rural-focused literature on domestic violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse was conducted to identify themes that could provide insight into this
Nancy M. Fitzsimons; Annelies K. Hagemeister; Elizabeth J. Braun
Broad social motives (not specific to alcohol use) have been established as an important predictor of alcohol use and problems among college students, but we have little understanding of the mechanisms through which such motives operate. Thus, the current study examined broad social motives prior to college entry as a predictor of college drinking\\/problems and sought to identify potential mechanisms
The following article reports on a small-scale, exploratory study of aggressive and "problem" behaviour in pre-school children. This project was conceived in the wider context of anxieties about childhood and New Labour's policy focus on "anti-social" behaviour in children. Based on interviews with nursery staff and parents in addition to…
This study examined the association between socialproblem solving, conduct problems (CP), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits\\u000a in elementary age children. Participants were 53 children (40 boys and 13 girls) aged 7–12 years. Socialproblem solving was\\u000a evaluated using the SocialProblem Solving Test-Revised, which requires children to produce solutions to eight hypothetical\\u000a socialproblems, including five problems involving acquiring a desired
Daniel A. Waschbusch; Trudi M. Walsh; Brendan F. Andrade; Sara King; Normand J. Carrey
|This study aims at investigating social studies student teachers' levels of understanding sociology concepts within social studies curriculum. Study group of the research consists of 266 teacher candidates attending the Department of Social Studies, Faculty of Education, Kastamonu University during 2012 to 2013 education year. A semi-structured…
Many social interactions between school?age children contain both competitive and cooperative elements. In order to gain a better understanding of how students at risk for emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) negotiate social exchanges in cooperative and competitive?related tasks in comparison with non?EBD students: (a) prosocial; (b) negative; and (c) conflict behaviours were assessed. Fifty?seven children at risk for EBD and
Christina M. Rinaldi; Allison D. Kates; Christine Welton
The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and…
|The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers…
In contrast to typically developing children, children with autism rarely exhibit cooperative social behavior. To examine whether this problem reflects global developmental delays or autism-specific deficits, the present study compared cooperation, emotional understanding, personality characteristics, and social behavior of 10 children with autism who had average IQ to those of 16 children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Technology-driven efforts to implement automation often encounter problems due to lack of acceptance or begrudging acceptance by the personnel involved. It is argued in this paper that the level of automation perceived by an individual heavily influences whether or not the automation is accepted by that individual. The factors that appear to affect perceived level of automation are discussed. Issues considered include the impact of automation on the system and the individual, correlates of acceptance, problems and risks of automation, and factors influencing alienation. Based on an understanding of these issues, a set of eight guidelines is proposed as a possible means of avoiding problems in implementing automation.
The purpose of this study is to assess the ways in which mass media play a significant role in constructing the sociocultural meanings embedded in the public's understanding of breast cancer as a socialproblem, a disease, and personal illness experience....
|Explores possible relationships between the mass media of communication and socialproblems by three-way comparisons between the incidence of socialproblems suggested in media portrayals, conceptions of the incidence of these problems held by the public, and the relative frequency of such problems reflected in statistics accumulated by official…
In this article, the authors explore the application of Event Structure Analysis in understanding the linkages between events in planned social change. An illustrative example from the Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent and Chronic Juvenile Offenders is used to highlight the key features of Event Structure Analysis.
William Stevenson; Heidi Zinzow; Sanjeev Sridharan
While moral panic remains a key sociological concept, it has been criticized for its lack of explanatory force. This article reports the results of a study designed to examine whether a social psychological approach to moral panic can (a) theorize the content as well as process of moral panic, and (b) understand both the cause and the impact of this
|The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the dynamics of motivation in socially shared learning from both individual and group perspectives. Higher education students' motivation was analysed in the context of collaborative learning tasks, applying quantitative and qualitative methods. The research questions were: (1) what kind of…
|Purpose: Although implementation fidelity is an important component in the evaluation of school health promotion programs, it assumes that teaching is the most relevant teacher role. To understand the social context of program implementation, a qualitative study was undertaken with the aim of identifying the schoolteacher's role in implementing…
Cargo, Margaret; Salsberg, Jon; Delormier, Treena; Desrosiers, Serge; Macaulay, Ann C.
Online Social Networks (OSNs) have already attracted more than half a billion users. However, our understanding of which OSN fea- tures attract and keep the attention of these users is poor. S tudies thus far have relied on surveys or interviews of OSN users or fo- cused on static properties, e. g., the friendship graph, gat hered via sampled crawls.
Fabian Schneider; Anja Feldmann; Balachander Krishnamurthy; Walter Willinger
Cognitive impairment is a recognized feature of Parkinson's disease (PD), which, even if mild, can impact some aspects of a patient's ability to deal with everyday life. The current study examined the ability to solve socialproblems in three groups of participants: PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI); PD patients with no evidence of cognitive impairment (PD-N); and non-PD age-matched controls. All participants completed measures examining their ability to understand the actions and sarcastic remarks of others; provide a range of, and select, optimal solutions to socialproblems; and their self-perception of problem-solving abilities. Deficits emerged in the PD-MCI, but not the PD-N, group, suggesting that difficulties related to pathophysiological changes are associated with cognitive impairment and not PD per se. The findings are discussed with reference to the substrate of executive function and social cognition, and their implications for social interaction and everyday problem solving for people with PD. PMID:23067384
Anderson, Rachel J; Simpson, Anna C; Channon, Shelley; Samuel, Michael; Brown, Richard G
A recent article [Vinkovic D, Kirman A (2006) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:19261–19265] showing that the Schelling model has a physical analogue extends our understanding of the model. However, prior research has already outlined a mathematical basis for the Schelling model and simulations based on it have already enhanced our understanding of the social dynamics that underlie the model, something that the physical analogue does not address. Research in social science has provided a formal basis for the segregative outcomes resulting from the residential selection process and simulations have replicated relevant spatial outcomes under different specifications of the residential dynamics. New and increasingly detailed survey data on preferences demonstrates the embeddedness of the Schelling selection process in the social behaviors of choosing alternative residential compositions. It also demonstrates that, in the multicultural context, seemingly mild preferences for living with similar neighbors carry the potential to be strong determinants for own race selectivity and residential segregation.
Understanding the process that enables political violence is of great value in reducing the future demand for and support of violent opposition groups. Methods are needed that allow alternative scenarios and counterfactuals to be scientifically researched. Computational social simulation shows promise in developing 'computer experiments' that would be unfeasible or unethical in the real world. Additionally, the process of modeling and simulation reveals and challenges assumptions that may not be noted in theories, exposes areas where data is not available, and provides a rigorous, repeatable, and transparent framework for analyzing the complex dynamics of political violence. This paper demonstrates the computational modeling process using two simulation techniques: system dynamics and agent-based modeling. The benefits and drawbacks of both techniques are discussed. In developing these social simulations, we discovered that the social science concepts and theories needed to accurately simulate the associated psychological and social phenomena were lacking.
Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mackerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patelli, Paolo G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eberhardt, Ariane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stradling, Seth G [Los Alamos National Laboratory
The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and were more likely to have HIV risk and anti-social
A representative from the Philippines at the 15th Asian Parliamentarians' Meeting presented the issues concerning social and cultural barriers that often hamper the formulation of reproductive health policies. The recent Asian economic crisis has made the attainment of International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) goals more difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. Declining exchange rates and fiscal restraint are threatening full implementation of comprehensive reproductive health programs. The controversial aspects of noncompliance with ICPD goals are those that pertain to social and cultural barriers that often derail plans for formulating national reproductive health and reproductive rights statements and policies. An example of this kind of derailing is the Catholic Church's opposition to plans to legislate a national population and development policy in the Philippines, particularly when they concern the issues of adolescent sexuality and reproductive rights. In addition, the political commitment to adolescents' rights to reproductive health in some Asian countries seems to be weak. This is largely attributable to the perception of adolescent sexuality as taboo. Lastly, misconceptions about actual adolescent sexual behavior, needs, knowledge, views and problems abound among parents, political leaders, policy-makers, religious leaders, teachers and adolescents themselves. PMID:12349203
In this thesis, a computer program (BEATRIX) is presented which takes as input an English statement of a physics problem and a figure associated with it, understands the two kinds of input in combination, and produces a data structure containing a model of the physical objects described and the relationships between them. BEATRIX provides a mouse-based graphic interface with which the user sketches a picture and enters English sentences; meanwhile, BEATRIX creates a neutral internal representation of the picture similar to the which might be produced as the output of a vision system. It then parses the text and the picture representation, resolves the references between objects common to the two data sources, and produces a unified model of the problem world. The correctness and completeness of this model has been validated by applying it as input to a physics problem-solving program currently under development. Two descriptions of a world are said to be coreferent when they contain references to overlapping sets of objects. Resolving coreferences to produce a correct world model is a common task in scientific and industrial problem-solving: because English is typically not a good language for expressing spatial relationships, people in these fields frequently use diagrams to supplement textual descriptions. Elementary physics problems from college-level textbooks provide a useful and convenient domain for exploring the mechanisms of coreference. Because flexible, opportunistic control is necessary in order to recognize coreference and to act upon it, the understanding module of BEATRIX uses a blackboard control structure. The blackboard knowledge sources serve to identify physical objects in the picture, parse the English text, and resolve coreferences between the two. We believed that BEATRIX demonstrates a control structure and collection of knowledge that successfully implements understanding of text and picture by computer. We also believe that this organization can be applied successfully to similar understanding tasks in domains other than physics problem -solving, where data such as the output from vision systems and speech understanders can be used in place of text and pictures.
Recent studies suggest that five-year-old children can add and compare large numerical quantities through approximate representations of number. However, the nature of this understanding and its susceptibility to influence from canonical, learned mathematics remain unclear. The present study examined whether children's early competence depends on the canonical problem format (i.e., arithmetic operations presented on the left-hand side of space). Children
Does children's bias toward their own groups reflect egocentrism or socialunderstanding? After being categorized as belonging to 1 of 2 fictitious groups, 157 six- to ten-year-olds evaluated group members and expressed preferences among neutral items. Children who expected the in-group to share their item preferences (egocentric social…
In the efficient social choice problem, the goal is to assign values, subject to side constraints, to a set of variables to maximize the total utility across a population of agents, where each agent has private information about its utility function. In this paper we model the social choice problem as a distributed constraint optimization problem (DCOP), in which each
Life stressors and social resources among late-middle-aged problem and nonproblem drinkers were studied. Problem drinkers (n = 501) reported more negative life events, chronic stressors, and social resource deficits than did nonproblem drinkers (n = 609). In a comparison of problem drinkers, men reported more ongoing stressors involving finances and friends, and fewer resources from children, extended-family members, and friends
Based on theories of social-cognitive development, the present study investigated the yet unknown social structure that underlies the concept of empathy in adolescence. A total of 3.159 seventh graders (13.67 years, 56% girls) from 166 school classes participated by providing information on empathy, related psychosocial factors, and friendship patterns. Social network analyses were used to measure a comprehensive representation of adolescents' social environment by covering individual, group, class, and school characteristics. Multilevel models revealed that individual characteristics as well as contextual factors predict adolescents' level of empathy. Findings indicate that empathy is mirrored in the social structure of adolescents supporting the hypothesis that social demands, which continuously grow with the amount of embeddedness, shape their socialunderstanding. PMID:22681757
This article argues that traditional approaches to reproductive health are concerned with safe motherhood. In the discourse of reproductive health, safe motherhood is defined as the ability to bear and raise children, and to plan and space births for safe pregnancy, focusing strictly on the biological abilities of women [Reproductive Health Matters, 2005, 13: 34]. This fails to account for how women construct, negotiate and maintain their health within their own cultural context. To understand how social context influences meanings of health, in-depth interviews were conducted with young Nepalese women living in poverty. Centralizing women's voices not only creates opportunities for exploring how local context shapes meanings of health but also allows alternative health meanings of the cultural participants to emerge. In particular, by highlighting narratives we are able to understand how women actively (re)construct dominant meanings of reproductive health and in turn act upon meanings that are socially and culturally relevant. PMID:21564393
Integrated assessment models (IAMs) have been widely applied to questions of climate change policy—such as the effects of\\u000a abating greenhouse gas emissions, balancing impacts, adaptation and mitigation costs, understanding processes of adaptation,\\u000a and evaluating the potential for technological solutions. In almost all cases, the social dimensions of climate policy are\\u000a poorly represented. Econometric models look for efficient optimal solutions. Decision
\\u000a Social behavior is a core deficit area of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Therefore, considerable literature in the ABA field\\u000a has been developed to address this problem area. Specific behaviors treated and ABA techniques used will be the focus of the\\u000a chapter. A critical appraisal of current status and future directions will also be provided.
Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, this study examined mothers' socialization of child emotion in suburban middle-class families in Gujarat, India. In particular, a community sample of 602 children, 6 to 8 years, was screened for emotional\\/behavioral problems using a parent-report measure standardized with this population. Based on the screening, four groups of children were formed: those with
News media play critical rôles in public understandings of health issues. Media presentation of scientific evidence seems to involve the 'facts', which are then discussed and interpreted by various 'experts'. From an ethnomethodological or social constructionist perspective, however, news 'facts' themselves are socially constituted. Examining how health science is reported thus offers important insight into the social construction of health
This prospective, longitudinal study examines individual differences in two conceptu- ally related but empirically distinct domains of social-cognitive competence (cognitive interpretive understanding and interpersonal perspective co-ordination) as modera- tors of the relation between peer rejection and neglect and behavioral and emotional problems in grades 2 and 3. As expected, peer rejection and neglect increased risks for behavioral and emotional problems
Wendy L. G. Hoglund; Christopher E. Lalonde; Bonnie J. Leadbeater
|Examines the association between social support from various sources and psychosocial problems, and how these associations vary over the life span. Finds that perceived social support and contact with social network members appears to have beneficial effects for all participants, as evidenced through reduced symptoms of depression and loneliness.…
Sound use of hospital social work services is not achieved when workers rely on other health personnel for referrals. The authors propose a screening mechanism to identify patients at what they term high levels of social risk and to restore the initiative to social work staff. Relevant principles and problems are also discussed. PMID:10248422
The results of two studies focusing on the socialproblem solving skills of African American preadolescent youth are detailed. In the first study data from a sample of 150 African American children, ages 9 to 11 years, was used to examine the association between type of youth socialproblem solving approaches applied to hypothetical risk situations and time spent in
Dorian E. Traube; Kelly Taber Chasse; Mary M. McKay; Anjali M. Bhorade; Roberta Paikoff; Stacie D. Young
This study establishes the construct of “compassion fatigue,” encompassing desensitization and emotional burnout, as a phenomenon associated with pervasive communication about socialproblems. The study marks the first-known empirical investigation of compassion fatigue as it relates to media coverage and interpersonal communication about socialproblems. A telephone survey methodology was used to measure compassion fatigue among a general, adult population
Katherine N. Kinnick; Dean M. Krugman; Glen T. Cameron
The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among socialproblem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between socialproblem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…
|Compared 11 adolescents with a history of stealing to 11 nonstealers. Results reveal that stealers showed a tendency not to consider the passage of time necessary for solving socialproblems. Furthermore, adolescents with delinquency tendencies showed a cognitive bias for generating ineffective solutions to hypothetical socialproblems. Treatment…
|Designing Problem-Driven Instruction with Online Social Media has the capacity to transform an educator's teaching style by presenting innovative ways to empower problem-based instruction with online social media. Knowing that not all instructors are comfortable in this area, this book provides clear, systematic design approaches for instructors…
Kyeong-Ju Seo, Kay, Ed.; Pellegrino, Debra A., Ed.; Engelhard, Chalee, Ed.
|The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among socialproblem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between socialproblem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…
|Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for…
Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.
Purpose – This paper aims to examine characteristics that contribute to leaders' emergence and development as social advocates in their organizations and communities. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Building on theories of socialproblems, influence, and impression management, this paper examines how advocacy is affected by needs and situational conditions. Advocacy is the act of supporting an idea, need, person, or group. Advocates
|This book of readings, compiled for use in college level courses, provides for students a base of information about social studies curriculum. The first section deals with varied criticisms of public school organization. Section Two provides an historical perspective and an examination of what has been happening in social studies education in the…
Two major approaches to the study of socialproblems have dominated the sociological literature. The first, the functionalist approach, carries over the familiar orientation and assumptions of the larger functionalist perspective in sociology. Socialproblems are seen as real social conditions harmful to society. The second and now more dominant approach, the subjective approach, draws on two larger perspectives in
Background To understand how infectious agents disseminate throughout a population it is essential to capture the social model in a realistic manner. This paper presents a novel approach to modeling the propagation of the influenza virus throughout a realistic interconnection network based on actual individual interactions which we extract from online social networks. The advantage is that these networks can be extracted from existing sources which faithfully record interactions between people in their natural environment. We additionally allow modeling the characteristics of each individual as well as customizing his daily interaction patterns by making them time-dependent. Our purpose is to understand how the infection spreads depending on the structure of the contact network and the individuals who introduce the infection in the population. This would help public health authorities to respond more efficiently to epidemics. Results We implement a scalable, fully distributed simulator and validate the epidemic model by comparing the simulation results against the data in the 2004-2005 New York State Department of Health Report (NYSDOH), with similar temporal distribution results for the number of infected individuals. We analyze the impact of different types of connection models on the virus propagation. Lastly, we analyze and compare the effects of adopting several different vaccination policies, some of them based on individual characteristics -such as age- while others targeting the super-connectors in the social model. Conclusions This paper presents an approach to modeling the propagation of the influenza virus via a realistic social model based on actual individual interactions extracted from online social networks. We implemented a scalable, fully distributed simulator and we analyzed both the dissemination of the infection and the effect of different vaccination policies on the progress of the epidemics. The epidemic values predicted by our simulator match real data from NYSDOH. Our results show that our simulator can be a useful tool in understanding the differences in the evolution of an epidemic within populations with different characteristics and can provide guidance with regard to which, and how many, individuals should be vaccinated to slow down the virus propagation and reduce the number of infections.
Research was initiated by anthropologists in twelve counties in Kentucky to study critical social conditions. The research was based on three basic policy assumptions: (1) a society can only afford to finance science activity whose findings can be utilize...
BackgroundPeople with elevated social anxiety seem vulnerable to marijuana-related impairment. Yet little work has examined core facets of social anxiety that may be especially related to marijuana-related problems.
Julia D. Buckner; Richard G. Heimberg; Norman B. Schmidt
Life stressors and social resources among late-middle-aged problem and nonproblem drinkers were studied. Problem drinkers (n = 501) reported more negative life events, chronic stressors, and social resource deficits than did nonproblem drinkers (n = 609). In a comparison of problem drinkers, men reported more ongoing stressors involving finances and friends, and fewer resources from children, extended-family members, and friends than did women. Women who are problem drinkers reported more negative life events, more ongoing difficulties with spouses and extended-family members, and fewer resources from spouses. Among both the problem and nonproblem drinkers, more stressors were associated with fewer social resources, but only within certain life domains. Late-middle-aged adults' chronic stressors and social resources helped explain their drinking behavior, depression, and self-confidence even after sex, marital status, and negative life events were considered. PMID:2278671
The revised UCLA measure of loneliness was strongly correlated to measures of alcohol problems (adverse consequences, perceived problem drinker status, coping functions) when controlling for level of alcohol consumption. It was not strongly related to retrospective and self-monitoring measures of alcohol consumption or to most alcohol-related social variables. Both loneliness and alcohol problems were related to external locus of control
|This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates socialproblem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…
|AN ATTEMPT IS MADE TO RELATE THE PROBLEM OF THE HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUT TO HIS EARLY SCHOOL EXPERIENCES. ALTHOUGH NO DATA ARE AVAILABLE AT PRESENT TO SUPPORT THE IDEA THAT THE PRESCHOOL PROGRAM COULD REDUCE THE INCIDENCE OF LATER DROPOUT, IT IS SUGGESTED THAT THE PROBLEM OF THE HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUT SHOULD BE FOCUSED ON THE TRANSITION BETWEEN PRESCHOOL…
Objectives To estimate the prevalence of positive screens for social-emotional problems among preschool-aged children in a low-income clinical population and to explore the family context and receptivity to referrals to help guide development of interventions. Design Observational, cross-sectional study. Setting Two urban primary care clinics. Participants A total of 254 parents of 3- and 4-year-old children at 2 urban primary care clinics. Main Outcome Measures Score on a standardized screen for social-emotional problems (Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional) and answers to additional survey questions about child care arrangements, parental depressive symptoms, and attitudes toward preschool and behavioral health referrals. Results Twenty-four percent (95% CI, 16.5%-31.5%) of children screened positive for social-emotional problems. Among those screening positive, 45% had a parent with depressive symptoms, and 27% had no nonparental child care. Among parents of children who screened positive for social-emotional problems, 79% reported they would welcome or would not mind a referral to a counselor or psychologist; only 16% reported a prior referral. Conclusions In a clinical sample, 1 in 4 low-income preschool-aged children screened positive for social-emotional problems, and most parents were amenable to referrals to preschool or early childhood mental health. This represents an opportunity for improvement in primary prevention and early intervention for social-emotional problems.
Brown, Courtney M.; Copeland, Kristen A.; Sucharew, Heidi; Kahn, Robert S.
This study examined the performance of adults with an acquired brain injury (ABI) on social cognition tasks assessing mentalistic interpretation and socialproblem-solving. These tasks were based on an earlier version described by Channon and Crawford (1999). Twenty participants with an ABI (10 resulting from a traumatic brain injury, 10 from a cerebrovascular accident), were found to be impaired relative to 20 matched control participants in interpreting scenarios involving either actions or sarcastic remarks on the Mentalistic Interpretation Task. When problem-solving ability was examined, the participants with an ABI were poorer at solving socialproblems on the SocialProblem Resolution Task, and generated fewer responses on the SocialProblem Fluency Task. They also had greater difficulty in detecting the awkward elements of the social situations, and in selecting appropriate solutions from a range of alternatives. These tasks provide a potential clinical tool for pinpointing an individual's strengths and weaknesses in everyday social communication and problem-solving, which can serve as the basis for designing individualised rehabilitation programmes. PMID:20526955
Complex environmental health problems—like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning—are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as “wicked problems” wherein stakeholders may have conflicting interpretations of the problem and the science behind it, as
Marshall W. Kreuter; Christopher De Rosa; Elizabeth H. Howze; Grant T. Baldwin
Over the last years, with the rapid advance in technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible for people to take advantage of the devices and services in the surrounding environment to remain "connected" and continuously enjoy the activity they are engaged in, be it sports, entertainment, or work. Such a ubiquitous computing environment will allow everyone permanent access to the Internet anytime, anywhere and anyhow . Nevertheless, despite the evolution of services, social aspects remain in the roots of every human behavior and activities. Great examples of such phenomena are online social networks, which engage users in a way never seen before in the online world. At the same time, being aware and communicating context is a key part of human interaction and is a particularly powerful concept when applied to a community of users where services can be made more personalized and useful. Altogether, harvesting context to reason and learn about user behavior will further enhance the future multimedia vision where services can be composed and customized according to user context. Moreover, it will help us to understand users in a better way.
The social and legal policies that control or prevent the use of mind-altering drugs are the main cause of the socialproblems arising from their use. The existing policies are ineffective; the wrong drugs receive the most attention and laws are directed at the wrong phase of the cycle of promotion, distribution and use. The following reforms are…
|This book presents a substantive overview of the issues in curriculum development and implementation faced by social studies educators. The book offers contemporary perspectives on some of the most enduring problems facing the social studies. The collection of essays provides readers with a systematic investigation of a broad range of issues of…
Many of the diseases seen in the clinic are actually symptoms of socialproblems. It is often easier for the physician to treat the symptoms than to be a coach and help the patient to assume responsibility in order to improve quality of life, social situation, and relations. If the physician ignores the signs of the disease as a symptom
Soren Ventegodt; Mohammed Morad; Isack Kandel; Joav Merrick
Socialproblems are a prevalent feature of ADHD and reflect a major source of functional impairment for these children. The\\u000a current study examined the impact of working memory deficits on parent- and teacher-reported socialproblems in a sample of\\u000a children with ADHD and typically developing boys (N?=?39). Bootstrapped, bias-corrected mediation analyses revealed that the impact of working memory deficits on
Michael J. Kofler; Mark D. Rapport; Jennifer Bolden; Dustin E. Sarver; Joseph S. Raiker; R. Matt Alderson
This paper reports research into the linguistic and extra-linguistic or social-cognitive structure of problem presentation contexts. The effects of textual and social syntax were investigated, including the specific structure of the problem text by which situations, processes, actions, and number relations are implicitly or explicitly expressed,…
Social insects present many phenomena seen in all organisms but in more extreme forms and with larger sample sizes than those observable in most natural populations of vertebrates. Microsatellites are proving very much more informative than allozymes for the analysis of population biological problems, and prolifically polymorphic markers are fairly readily developed. In addition, the male-haploid genetic system of many social insects facilitates genetic analysis. The ability to amplify DNA from sperm stored in a female's sperm storage device enables the determination of mating types long after the death of the short-lived males, in addition to information on the degree of mixing of sperm from different males. Mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences are also proving important, not only in phylogenetic studies but also in molecular population genetics, as a tracer of female movements. Mitochondrial markers have definitively shown the movement of females between colonies, challenging models giving exclusive primacy to kin selection as the explanation for multiqueen colonies, in Australian meat ants, Iridomyrmex purpureus, and the aridzone queenless ant Rhytidoponera sp. 12. Microsatellite and mtDNA variation are being studied in Camponotus consobrinus sugar ants, showing an unexpected diversity of complexity in colony structure, and microsatellites have shown that transfer of ants between nests of the weaver ant Polyrhachis doddi must be slight, despite an apparent lack of hostility. PMID:9378143
Crozier, R H; Oldroyd, B P; Tay, W T; Kaufmann, B E; Johnson, R N; Carew, M E; Jennings, K M
|Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have…
Kreuter, Marshall W.; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.
Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. In fact, individuals with social anxiety may be more likely to experience marijuana-related impairment than individuals with other types of anxiety. It is therefore important to determine whether constructs particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals play a role in the expression of marijuana-related problems in this vulnerable population. Given
Julia D. Buckner; Richard G. Heimberg; Russell A. Matthews; Jose Silgado
Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. In fact, individuals with social anxiety may be more likely to experience marijuana-related impairment than individuals with other types of anxiety. It is therefore important to determine whether constructs particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals play a role in the expression of marijuana-related problems in this vulnerable population. Given that both social avoidance and using marijuana to cope with negative affect broadly have been found to play a role in marijuana-related problems, the current study utilized a new measure designed to simultaneously assess social avoidance and using marijuana to cope in situations previously identified as anxiety-provoking among those with elevated social anxiety. The Marijuana Use to Cope with Social Anxiety Scale (MCSAS) assessed behaviors regarding 24 social situations: marijuana use to cope in social situations (MCSAS-Cope) and avoidance of social situations if marijuana was unavailable. In Study 1, we found preliminary support for the convergent and discriminant validity and internal consistency of the MCSAS scales. In Study 2, we examined if MCSAS scores were related to marijuana problems among those with (n = 44) and without (n = 44) clinically elevated social anxiety. Individuals with clinically meaningful social anxiety were more likely to use marijuana to cope in social situations and to avoid social situations if marijuana was unavailable. Of importance, MCSAS-Cope uniquely mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and marijuana-related problems. Results highlight the importance of contextual factors in assessing marijuana-related behaviors among high-risk populations. PMID:22004129
Buckner, Julia D; Heimberg, Richard G; Matthews, Russell A; Silgado, Jose
Social network systems are significant scaffolds for political, economic, and sociocultural change. This is in part due to the widespread availability of sophisticated network technologies and the concurrent emergence of rich media Web sites. Social network sites provide new opportunities for social-technological research. Since we can inexpensively collect electronic records (over extended periods) of social data spanning diverse populations, it
Hari Sundaram; Yu-Ru Lin; Munmun De Choudhury; Aisling Kelliher
This prospective, longitudinal study examines individual differences in two conceptually related but empirically distinct domains of social-cognitive competence (cognitive interpretive understanding and interpersonal perspective co-ordination) as moderators of the relation between peer rejection and neglect and behavioral and emotional problems in…
Hoglund, Wendy L. G.; Lalonde, Christopher E.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.
Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to experiencing alcohol-related problems. However, research has thus far failed to identify factors that seem to account for this relationship. The present study utilized a measure designed to assess alcohol-related behaviors related to social situations previously identified as anxiety-provoking among those with elevated social anxiety. The Drinking to Cope with Social Anxiety
Family physicians will have increasing numbers of patients with arthritis in their practices during the 1990s. Medical management is often complicated by subclinical psychologic, social, and emotional problems, and other problems of everyday living that affect the care of these people. The author reviews some typical patients with arthritis and offers practical suggestions about non-medical treatments that can assist them.
New opportunities for systematic collaboration between neuroscience and social science have opened up in recent years, and some of the potentials and the problems that accompany them are explored with reference to Damasio's work. Systematic collaboration and integration might yield benefits for metatheoretical, theoretical and substantive inquiry, but will be impeded by language, conceptual and methodological problems. Strategies to facilitate
|A study was conducted to determine which contemporary and anticipated societal problems may be amenable to treatment with the aid of communication resources. This paper first discusses the initial phase of the study, in which a search was conducted to determine the social science rationale for societal problem research, evidence of previous…
Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have conflicting interpretations of the problem and the science behind it, as well as different values, goals, and life experiences. Accordingly, policy makers, public health professionals, and other stakeholders who grapple with these problems cannot expect to effectively resolve them by relying solely on expert-driven approaches to problem solving. Rather, they need to acknowledge that wicked environmental health problems are most likely to yield to (1) the application of effective community health promotion skills, (2) a sustained commitment to sound toxicological and epidemiological science, (3) the application of systems thinking, and (4) transparent communication among all stakeholders. PMID:15296628
Kreuter, Marshall W; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H; Baldwin, Grant T
This paper describes the ways that students’ problem-solving behaviors evolve when solving multi-faceted, context-rich problems\\u000a within a web-based learning environment. During the semester, groups of two or three students worked on five physics problems\\u000a that required drawing on more than one concept and, hence, could not be readily solved with simple “plug-and-chug” strategies.\\u000a The problems were presented to students in
Pavlo D. Antonenko; Craig A. Ogilvie; Dale S. Niederhauser; John Jackman; Piyamart Kumsaikaew; Rahul R. Marathe; Sarah M. Ryan
The goal of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between Korean immigrant discipline (e.g., positive, appropriate, and harsh discipline) and children's social competence and behavior problems. Self-report data were collected from 58 mothers and 20 fathers of children aged from 3 to 8 years. Only paternal harsh discipline was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Among specific discipline strategies, maternal physical affection, correcting misbehaviors, and reasoning were positively correlated with children's social competence. Paternal physical punishment (e.g., spanking, hitting, and raising arms) was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Immigrant fathers need to learn alternative ways of managing children's misbehaviors. PMID:21035016
Kim, Eunjung; Guo, Yuqing; Koh, Chinkang; Cain, Kevin C
Background Crowd-powered search is a new form of search and problem solving scheme that involves collaboration among a potentially large number of voluntary Web users. Human flesh search (HFS), a particular form of crowd-powered search originated in China, has seen tremendous growth since its inception in 2001. HFS presents a valuable test-bed for scientists to validate existing and new theories in social computing, sociology, behavioral sciences, and so forth. Methodology In this research, we construct an aggregated HFS group, consisting of the participants and their relationships in a comprehensive set of identified HFS episodes. We study the topological properties and the evolution of the aggregated network and different sub-groups in the network. We also identify the key HFS participants according to a variety of measures. Conclusions We found that, as compared with other online social networks, HFS participant network shares the power-law degree distribution and small-world property, but with a looser and more distributed organizational structure, leading to the diversity, decentralization, and independence of HFS participants. In addition, the HFS group has been becoming increasingly decentralized. The comparisons of different HFS sub-groups reveal that HFS participants collaborated more often when they conducted the searches in local platforms or the searches requiring a certain level of professional knowledge background. On the contrary, HFS participants did not collaborate much when they performed the search task in national platforms or the searches with general topics that did not require specific information and learning. We also observed that the key HFS information contributors, carriers, and transmitters came from different groups of HFS participants.
Zhang, Qingpeng; Wang, Fei-Yue; Zeng, Daniel; Wang, Tao
Socially constructed marketing imageries (e.g. e-atmospherics) help consumers while making choices and decisions. Still, human and retailing technology interactions are rarely evaluated from a social practice perspective. This article explores the potential impact of socially constructed e-atmospherics on impulse buying. A framework with three interrelated factors, namely social acoustic, co-construction and mundane language enactment is analysed. The way these allow
Ronan de Kervenoael; D. Selcen O. Aykac; Mark Palmer
The purpose of this study has been and continues to be an assessment of the ways in which mass media play a significant role in constructing the public's understanding of breast cancer as a socialproblem, a disease, and personal illness experience. This ...
The purpose of this study is to assess the ways in which mass media play a significant role in constructing the public's understanding of breast cancer as a socialproblem, a disease, and personal illness experience. This third annual report contains resu...
The purpose of this study is to assess the ways in which mass media play a significant role in constructing the public's understanding of breast cancer as a socialproblem, a disease, and personal illness experience. This second annual report contains res...
In the present essay, we focus on G. Stanley Hall's contributions to the study of the role of social change for adolescent development. After introducing Hall's main ideas, we discuss recent demands adolescents face because of social change and how Hall's work could inform research on adolescent development in times of social change.
|Over the past 2 decades the topic of spirituality and its relationship to the social work profession has taken its place as a significant and important part of the agenda for social work research, education, and practice. In this article we discuss the results of a qualitative study that addresses how a group of social work practitioners defined…
|It is apparent from current research and professional experience that body image has a strong social basis, but the form of such comparisons is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine likely forms of the social basis of adolescent body image. This study compares two approaches to the social basis of body image to ask to what…
Over the past 2 decades the topic of spirituality and its relationship to the social work profession has taken its place as a significant and important part of the agenda for social work research, education, and practice. In this article we discuss the results of a qualitative study that addresses how a group of social work practitioners defined…
It is apparent from current research and professional experience that body image has a strong social basis, but the form of such comparisons is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine likely forms of the social basis of adolescent body image. This study compares two approaches to the social basis of body image to ask to what extent…
We evaluate trends in social capital since 1952 and assess explanations for the observed declines. We examine both social capital centered in the community and in the home and argue that the decline in social capital has been over-stated. Controlling for education, there have been small declines in the probability of volunteering, larger declines in group membership, and still larger
This study explores users' continuance intention in online social network by synthesizing Bhattacherjee's IS continuance theory as basis with flow theory, the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), and social capital theory. The integrated model was empirically tested with 260 online social network users. The results indicate that all hypothesized paths are supported by our data. Based
Social capital is one of the influential concepts in social sciences to understand contemporary societies. It has been found to influence many aspects of social life, directly or indirectly. It is also increasingly explored in relation to Information and Communications Technol- ogy (ICT). Nevertheless, social capital is a challenging variable to research, in part because of its multiple divergent definitions
Background It is important for prevention of social class disparities to know how ethnic disparities in social class arise among migrant\\u000a children. We contribute to this understanding by examining the role of problem behaviour in adolescence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Prospective observational study with 753 Dutch native and 217 Turkish migrant adolescents (11–18 year) followed for 10 years.\\u000a Internalising and externalising problems were assessed in adolescence and
Floor V. A. van Oort; Jan van der Ende; Alfons A. M. Crijnen; Frank C. Verhulst; Johan P. Mackenbach; Inez M. A. Joung
Successful human social interaction depends on our capacity to understand other people's mental states and to anticipate how they will react to our actions. Despite its importance to the human condition, the exact mechanisms underlying our ability to understand another's actions, feelings, and thoughts are still a matter of conjecture. Here, we consider this problem from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives. In a critical review, we demonstrate that attempts to draw parallels across these complementary disciplines is premature: The second-person perspective does not map directly to Interaction or Simulation theories, online social cognition, or shared neural network accounts underlying action observation or empathy. Nor does the third-person perspective map onto Theory-Theory (TT), offline social cognition, or the neural networks that support Theory of Mind (ToM). Moreover, we argue that important qualities of social interaction emerge through the reciprocal interplay of two independent agents whose unpredictable behavior requires that models of their partner's internal state be continually updated. This analysis draws attention to the need for paradigms in social neuroscience that allow two individuals to interact in a spontaneous and natural manner and to adapt their behavior and cognitions in a response contingent fashion due to the inherent unpredictability in another person's behavior. Even if such paradigms were implemented, it is possible that the specific neural correlates supporting such reciprocal interaction would not reflect computation unique to social interaction but rather the use of basic cognitive and emotional processes combined in a unique manner. Finally, we argue that given the crucial role of social interaction in human evolution, ontogeny, and every-day social life, a more theoretically and methodologically nuanced approach to the study of real social interaction will nevertheless help the field of social cognition to evolve.
In this paper we examine how a highly interactive educational technology program Child Growth & Development in the first 12 months of life was used to investigate the problem solving behaviour of learners. This preliminary study was also used to evaluate the study instruments ahead of a more substantial investigation. The design of the program was informed by Problem Based
Within the English curriculum, a course to provide familiarity with Western culture may prevent the problem of foreign students' misunderstanding Western literature. This problem was observed at Iran Girls' College during an American literature short story class conducted for advanced seniors, none of whom had been in America but whose English…
|Within the English curriculum, a course to provide familiarity with Western culture may prevent the problem of foreign students' misunderstanding Western literature. This problem was observed at Iran Girls' College during an American literature short story class conducted for advanced seniors, none of whom had been in America but whose English…
Social networking is a key benefit derived from participation in conferences that bind the ties of a professional community. Building social networks can lead to satisfactory experiences while furthering participants' long- and short-term career goals. Although investigations of social networking can lend insight into how to effectively engage individuals and groups within a professional cohort, this area has been largely overlooked in past research. The present study investigates the relationship between social networking and satisfaction with the 10th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau using structural equation modelling. Results partially support the hypothesis that three dimensions of social networking – interpersonal connections, social cohesion, and secondary associations – positively contribute to the performance of various conference attributes identified in two focus group sessions. The theoretical and applied contributions of this paper shed light on the social systems formed within professional communities and resource allocation among service providers.
van Riper, Carena J.; van Riper, Charles, III; Kyle, Gerard T.; Lee, Martha, E.
Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both), which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions.
Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Jasinska, Agnes J.
Computer-supported creativity techniques can help people finding creative solutions for their problems. However, real-life\\u000a creative processes demand a high level of flexibility of the support systems, which are normally tailored for one specific\\u000a creativity technique only. We present a model for creativity-technique based problem solving processes that incorporates a\\u000a variety of creativity techniques and can be a promising starting point
We aimed to assess the prevalence of social-emotional problems of Turkish children in early childhood and to understand their association with various bio-psycho-social risk factors, in order to establish guidelines in planning training programs for parents and professionals. Data from a representative sample of 1507 boys (54.3%) and 1268 girls (45.7%) aged 10-48 months were collected. The primary caregivers (mothers=91.4%) completed the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and a form designed to gather information about various bio-psycho-social risk factors. Based on the caregiver terms, a total of 1626 children (60.1%) were reported to experience social-emotional problems. However, based on the BITSEA-problem clinical (1.5 SD) cut-off scores, 9.3% (9.1% of boys; 9.5% of girls) of all children were found to experience social-emotional problems. The variables, that showed a significant association with BITSEA-problem scores in pairwise comparisons, were entered in logistic regression analysis to determine the variables that predict the group with scores of above clinical cut-point. Higher total score of BSI of the primary caregiver, being separated from the mother for more than a month, and lower income of the family were found to be significant predictors of social-emotional problems. Caregiver reports highlight that maternal variables of mothers' psychological well-being, education and access to sources of support are closely related to the social-emotional wellbeing of their off-spring. The findings obtained from this study may be used for detection of prioritized domains in terms of management of preventive mental health services. PMID:23347970
Recent advances in digital technologies invite consideration of social influence and social support as processes that are accomplished by global, flexible, adaptive, and ad hoc networks that can be created, maintained, dissolved, and reconstituted with remarkable alacrity. This presentation describes and empirically tests a multi-theoretical multilevel (MTML) model of the socio-technical motivations for creating, maintaining, dissolving, and reconstituting knowledge and social networks.
In this paper, I investigate interpersonal variation in verbal HRI with respect to the computers-as-social-actors hypothesis. The analysis of a corpus of verbal human-robot interactions shows that only a subgroup of the users treat the robot as a social actor. Thus, taking interpersonal variation into account reveals that not all users transfer social behaviors from human interactions into HRI. This
Understanding the mechanisms by which early risk factors for social maladjustment contribute to disruptive behaviors in social settings is vital to developmental research and practice. A major risk factor for social maladjustment is early exposure to violence, which was examined in this short-term longitudinal study in relation to social information processing (SIP) patterns and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 256 preschool children. Data on exposure to violence were obtained via parent report, data on SIP were obtained via child interview, and data on child problem behavior were obtained via teacher report. Findings supported the hypothesis that, compared to children not exposed to violence, children reported to witness and/or experience violence are more likely to attribute hostile intent to peers, generate aggressive responses, and evaluate socially unaccepted responses (aggressive and inept) as socially suitable. The former were also found to exhibit higher levels of externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Finally, SIP mediated the link between exposure to violence and problem behavior thus supporting this study's general approach, which argues that the link between exposure to violence and children's problem behaviors are better understood within the context of their perceptions about social relationships. PMID:23011955
Since the 1980s, Canadian legalized gambling has undergone a massive growth, resulting in numerous socialproblems such as crime, political corruption, and, most importantly, pathological gambling. When it comes to theorizing gambling in Canada, pathological gambling has been the centre of the attention for two related reasons: (1) the increasing concern with individual and social harms resulting from it; and
Over the past two decades, combined advances in genetics, developmental biology and biochemistry have transformed the study of human birth defects. This review describes the importance of genome architecture, parent of origin effects (imprinting), molecular pathophysiology, developmental pathways, mosaicism and cancer predisposition syndromes in the understanding of birth defects. This knowledge can be applied to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic information,
|Objectives: The purpose of this article is to present a theoretical frame of reference for the study and assessment of social work from the perspective of a history of ideas. Method: The study employed an analysis of primary and secondary historical sources. Results: Social work as a practice and research field is embedded in the genesis of…
|Taking the perspective of consumer socialization theory, this study examined the influences of different socialization agents on consumers' purchases of green products. A total of 224 surveys were distributed to students enrolled in a business-related course at a major university in the northeastern United States. The objectives were twofold. The…
Objectives: The purpose of this article is to present a theoretical frame of reference for the study and assessment of social work from the perspective of a history of ideas. Method: The study employed an analysis of primary and secondary historical sources. Results: Social work as a practice and research field is embedded in the genesis of modern…
This paper presents an overview of the psycho-social aspects of social loafing and free riding in a traditional and distance learning environment. A brief literature review and summaries of frequently cited antecedents and their mitigating factors are reviewed for application by instructors, designers, and administrators in distance education. Distance learning administrative issues related to providing support to instructors to address
|Objective: To estimate associations between trajectories of conduct problems and social-cognitive competences through childhood into early adolescence. Method: A prospective population-based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) recruited in the prenatal period (13,988 children alive at 12 months) formed the basis…
Oliver, Bonamy R.; Barker, Edward D.; Mandy, William P. L.; Skuse, David H.; Maughan, Barbara
|This study examines interpersonal competence configurations in relation to students' concurrent behavior problems and social risks for later adjustment difficulties. Participants are 648 (345 girls, 303 boys) fourth-grade students (65% White, 6.9% African American, 19.5% Hispanic, 4.6% Asian, and 4.0% Other) from the suburbs of a major Midwestern…
Farmer, Thomas W.; Estell, David B.; Hall, Cristin M.; Pearl, Ruth; Van Acker, Richard; Rodkin, Philip C.
Volunteerism is described and defined and then a model of the decision to volunteer is presented. Data from an archival analysis of volunteering after the September 11, 2001 attacks and an on-line survey of volunteers are presented in support of the model. Finally, the implications of increasing volunteerism for the solution of socialproblems are considered. The focus of this
|The United States is rapidly becoming a fatherless society. Fatherlessness is the leading cause of declining child well-being, providing the impetus behind socialproblems such as crime, domestic violence, and adolescent pregnancy. Challenging the basic assumptions of opinion leaders in academia and in the media, this book debunks the prevailing…
The purposes of this study were to clarify how socialproblem-solving processes develop and to identify developmentally-sensitive intervention components for children's aggression. Elementary and junior-high school Japanese students (N = 1100) from urban public schools participated in the present investigation. Their alternative thinking skills,…
|These model lessons from the primary grades are on the techniques of advertising drawn from a unit on, "Creating and Producing Tools and Techniques". They include behaviorial objectives, teaching and motivational strategies, evaluation techniques. The model lessons follow the problem solving inquiry approach in social studies using multimedia…
|Research problems and issues concerning socialization are identified in an effort to aid member agencies of the Interagency Panel on Early Childhood Research and Development in establishing priorities in research. Discussed in Part I are: (1) the development of intergroup and intragroup attitudes and behaviors--stages in their development; the…
The plea of this bulletin, the second and full revision of The Problems Approach and the Social Studies copyrighted in 1955 and 1960, is for teachers to do more with the reflective method in their classrooms. It draws upon the latest and most pertinent insights distilled from research, theory, and practice associated with reflective thinking;…
|"Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" presents findings from research examining the influence of collective socialization, concentration of disadvantage, and prevalence of crime on conduct problems among African…
Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004
|Contemporary theories of problem-solving highlight that expertise is domain specific, contingent on the social context and available resources, and involves knowledge, skills, attitudes, emotions and values. Developing educational activities that incorporate all of these elements is a challenge. Through case studies, this paper outlines how…
Cram, Andrew; Hedberg, John G.; Gosper, Maree; Dick, Geoff
Over the past two decades, combined advances in genetics, developmental biology and biochemistry have transformed the study of human birth defects. This review describes the importance of genome architecture, parent of origin effects (imprinting), molecular pathophysiology, developmental pathways, mosaicism and cancer predisposition syndromes in the understanding of birth defects. This knowledge can be applied to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic information, counselling and sometimes even treatment of these conditions.
The World Wide Web has evolved from a collection of static HTML pages to an assortment of Web 2.0 applications. Online social networking in particular is becoming more popular by the day since the establishment of SixDegrees in 1997. Millions of people use social networking web sites daily, such as Facebook, My-Space, Orkut, and LinkedIn. A side-effect of this growth
Andreas Makridakis; Elias Athanasopoulos; Spyros Antonatos; Demetres Antoniades; Sotiris Ioannidis; Evangelos P. Markatos
Nowadays, increasingly rich and massive social media data (such as texts, images, audios, videos, blogs, and so on) are being posted to the web, including social networking websites (e.g., MySpace, Facebook), photo and video sharing websites (e.g., Flickr, YouTube), and photo forums (e.g., Photosig.com and Photo.net). Recently, researchers from multidisciplinary areas have proposed to use data-driven approaches for multimedia content
The goal of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between Korean immigrant discipline (e.g., positive, appropriate, harsh discipline) and children’s social competence and behavior problems. Self-report data were collected from 58 mothers and 20 fathers of children aged from three and eight. Only paternal harsh discipline was positively correlated with children’s behavior problems. Among specific discipline strategies, maternal physical affection, correcting misbehaviors, and reasoning were positively correlated with children’s social competence. Paternal physical punishment (e.g., spanking, hitting, raising arms) was positively correlated with children’s behavior problems. Immigrant fathers need to learn alternative ways of managing children’s misbehaviors.
Kim, Eunjung; Guo, Yuqing; Koh, Chinkang; Cain, Kevin C.
Novices and experts used the same metaphors to understand and solve problems with negative numbers. Results suggest that the metaphors used by both the children and the adults are central to understanding arithmetic. (Author/MM)
Integration among sciences is critical in order to address some of our most pressing problems. Because of the inherent complexity of natural systems, and the increasing complexity of human demands on them, narrowly-focused approaches are no longer sufficient. USGS Workshop on Enhancing Integrated Science, November 1998. The Mid-Continent Geographic Science Center is actively participating in several integrated science studies that include research partners from the other disciplines of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), other Federal and State agencies, universities, and private non-government organizations. The following three examples illustrate the diversity of these studies.
|Social support protects women from various negative consequences, yet we have little understanding of how rural women acquire and utilize social support. Using interviews of 24 women in a North Dakota community, this research sought to understand how rural women were supported as new mothers. One, familial women and partners were vital supports…
Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Weaver, Addie; Schommer, Kathryn
|Background: Difficulties with social interaction and understanding lie at the heart of the communication disorder that characterises the autism spectrum. This study sought to improve social communication for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by means of a groupwork intervention focusing on social and emotional perspective-taking,…
Focusing on the social environment as well as the individual should both enhance our understanding of HIV transmission and assist in the development of more effective prevention programs. Networks are an important aspect of drug injectors' social environment. We distinguish between (1) risk networks (the people among whom HIV risk behaviors occur) as vectors of disease transmission, and (2) social
Alan Neaigus; Samuel R. Friedman; Richard Curtis; Don C. Des Jarlais; R. Terry Furst; Benny Jose; Patrice Mota; Bruce Stepherson; Meryl Sufian; Thomas Ward; Jerome W. Wright
|This article looks at current university reforms in Japan through two slightly different social science prisms: how social science methodologies and theories can help us understand those reforms better and how social science teaching in universities will be affected by the current reform processes. (Contains 3 tables and 7 notes.)|
Examined the relations between adolescent boys' social goals of dominance, revenge, avoidance, and affiliation and (1) self-reported negative adolescent outcomes; (2) subjective sense of self-esteem; and (3) externalizing, internalizing, and prosocial behaviors, as rated by peers and teachers. Results indicated that social goal values were related to diverse aspects of self-, teacher-, and peer-reported social and behavioral functioning, with a consistent association found between a range of delinquent, substance-using, and behavioral difficulties, and endorsement of high goal values for dominance and revenge and low goal values for affiliation. Results also indicated that teacher-identified aggressive boys differed from nonaggressive boys in the value they placed on social goals, with aggressive boys placing a higher value on goals of dominance and revenge, and lower value on goals for affiliation. Finally social goal choice had a clear relation to the socialproblem-solving differences of aggressive and nonaggressive boys. PMID:8491928
Objective The complexities inherent in understanding the social determinants of health are often not well-served by quantitative approaches. My aim is to show that well-designed and well-conducted ethnographic studies have an important contribution to make in this regard. Ethnographic research designs are a difficult but rigorous approach to research questions that require us to understand the complexity of people’s social and cultural lives. Approach I draw on an ethnographic study to describe the complexities of studying maternal health in a rural area in India. I then show how the lessons learnt in that setting and context can be applied to studies done in very different settings. Results I show how ethnographic research depends for rigour on a theoretical framework for sample selection; why immersion in the community under study, and rapport building with research participants, is important to ensure rich and meaningful data; and how flexible approaches to data collection lead to the gradual emergence of an analysis based on intense cross-referencing with community views and thus a conclusion that explains the similarities and differences observed. Conclusion When using ethnographic research design it can be difficult to specify in advance the exact details of the study design. Researchers can encounter issues in the field that require them to change what they planned on doing. In rigorous ethnographic studies, the researcher in the field is the research instrument and needs to be well trained in the method. Implication Ethnographic research is challenging, but nevertheless provides a rewarding way of researching complex health problems that require an understanding of the social and cultural determinants of health.
Over the past two decades, interest in Holocaust education has grown substantially as individual states, starting in the 1980s, began to mandate and/or recommend Holocaust studies as part of the social studies curriculum. As a result, these mandates and/or interest in the Holocaust have spawned any number of curriculum products, some of which seek…
Objective. To assess the importance of different social roles in the lives of people with osteoarthritis (OA), and satisfaction with time spent in roles and role performance, as well as the relationship of demographic, health, and psychological factors to role perceptions. Methods. Sixty women and 27 men (age 42-86 yrs) with hip or knee OA were recruited from rehabilitation programs
MONIQUE A. M. GIGNAC; CATHERINE L. BACKMAN; AILEEN M. DAVIS; DIANE LACAILLE; CRISTINA A. MATTISON; PAMELA MONTIE; ELIZABETH M. BADLEY
We conducted focus group interviews with students who were current peer health educators at a mid-sized university to determine what factors motivate individuals to volunteer for a peer health education program. Specifically, we asked the participants questions designed to explore their life experiences, their expectations of the peer education program, and their motivations. Constructs from social learning theory were used
Growing evidence documents pervasive and powerful stigmatization, discrimination, and prejudice directed towards individuals with mental illness. However, little is known about stigma towards individuals with substance disorders. This study examined the relationship between familiarity, perceived dangerousness, fear, and desired social distance towards individuals with substance dependence to alcohol, marijuana, and heroin. This study found that for marijuana and heroin, familiarity
Reviews the literature of social and developmental psychology on empathy theory and research. These 2 subdisciplines differ in their definitions and measures from each other, as well as from the counseling\\/psychotherapy area. At the same time, all 3 disciplines identify 2 major types of empathy: (a) affective empathy, or feeling the same way as another person, and (b) cognitive or
Recently, Twitter has emerged as a popular platform for discovering real-time information on the Web, such as news stories and people's reaction to them. Like the Web, Twitter has become a target for link farming, where users, especially spammers, try to acquire large numbers of follower links in the social network. Acquiring followers not only increases the size of a
|The findings of this study indicated that children's capacity to comprehend television advertising is primarily a developmental phenomenon, although social and experiential factors may have a moderate positive and a minor negative influence, respectively. Research subjects were 289 elementary school boys of first, third, and fifth grade levels,…
|In order to examine their willingness to disclose, subjects were given a questionnaire to test the relative contributions to such willingness of stimulus person (teacher, friend, parent, stranger), situation (home, college, public place, social situation), individual differences, and response mode (e.g., sexual behavior, voting preference). The…
The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management.
Paveglio, Travis B.; Jakes, Pamela J.; Carroll, Matthew S.; Williams, Daniel R.
The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management. PMID:19238478
Paveglio, Travis B; Jakes, Pamela J; Carroll, Matthew S; Williams, Daniel R
Probationers with co-occurring mental and substance abuse problems (PCPs) are both subject to considerable social control,\\u000a and at high risk of probation failure. In this study, we screened 601 probationers for symptoms, interviewed 82 identified\\u000a PCPs about their relationships, and then followed these PCPs for eight months to record treatment nonadherence and other probation\\u000a violations. First, PCPs’ social networks were
Jennifer Skeem; Jennifer Eno Louden; Sarah Manchak; Sarah Vidal; Eileen Haddad
|A study on the effect of a structured problem-solving strategy on problem-solving skills and conceptual understanding of physics was undertaken with 189 students in 16 disadvantaged South African schools. This paper focuses on the development of conceptual understanding. New instruments, namely a solutions map and a conceptual index, are…
The biggest challenge in fostering a virtual community is the supply of knowledge, namely the willingness to share knowledge with other members. This paper integrates the Social Cognitive Theory and the Social Capital Theory to construct a model for investigating the motivations behind people's knowledge sharing in virtual communities. The study holds that the facets of social capital — social
Understanding food selection will require considerably more than reductionist analyses of the internal workings of individual animals. To understand food choice we will have to examine not only the physiology and behavior of individuals, but also the biological and social environments within which individuals select items to ingest. The biological environment determines patterns of food availability and, over evolutionary time,
Four groups were composed of children referred for friendship problems (age range: 6 to 12 years old). One group was diagnosed with both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD), one group with ADHD only, one group with ODD only and one group with neither disorder. Parents and teachers were given questionnaires to rate the social behavior of
The secrecy of participants, the confidentiality of materials collected by investigative agencies, and the filters or screens on the perceptive apparatus of informants and investigators pose serious methodological problems for the social scientist who would change the state of knowledge about organized crime. There is overwhelming evidence that an organization variously called \\
Authors in this collection offer both critique and contextualist counterpoint to the standard, "official" histories of the field-successive editions of the Handbook of Social Psychology in 1954, 1968, 1985, and 1998. Unlike mainstream histories, the collected studies do not together constitute a seamless chronicle of continual progress for practitioners in a research area seeking social science status, viability, and legitimacy. Rather the authors focus on choice points, crises, and debates (some still ongoing), pay special heed to non-mainstream branches and voices, question numerous assumptions concerning the interrelationships among social psychological methodology, ontology (Danziger; MacMartin & Winston; Stam, Radtke, & Lubek), boundaries (Good), and individualisms (moral, political, and/or methodological). The specific contributions of Floyd and Gordon Allport are discussed from several perspectives as they helped define and shape and write the history of the field (Lubek & Apfelbaum; Parkovnick; Greenwood; Chung), and bridge it to neighboring areas (personality) and disciplines (psychology and sociology) (Nicholson; Barenbaum; Cherry). The constraints, origin myths, insensitivities, and omissions of standard histories are pointed out (Samelson), some partial correctives are advanced, and a more generative role for future historical studies is suggested. PMID:11054729
In order to apply office automation in a meaningful fashion, it is apparent that some understanding of the office is necessary. Most descriptive studies of the office have placed great emphasis on manifest office actions, suggesting that offices are the embodiment of these actions. The meanings of these actions or tasks, however, have been given scant attention. There exist a
|This study examined whether practice with arithmetic problems presented in a nontraditional problem format improves understanding of mathematical equivalence. Children (M age = 8;0; N = 90) were randomly assigned to practice addition in one of three conditions: (a) traditional, in which problems were presented in the traditional "operations on…
McNeil, Nicole M.; Fyfe, Emily R.; Petersen, Lori A.; Dunwiddie, April E.; Brletic-Shipley, Heather
identification, selection, implementation, and evaluation. The course will include advanced content on process, problems, and programs specific to the concentration areas in the MSSW program. By the end of the semester, students should be able to apply their knowledge of the social policy process to selected policy issues related to their area of concentration. Course Objectives Upon completion of this
|Since the 1980s, Canadian legalized gambling has undergone a massive growth, resulting in numerous socialproblems such as crime, political corruption, and, most importantly, pathological gambling. When it comes to theorizing gambling in Canada, pathological gambling has been the centre of the attention for two related reasons: (1) the increasing…
Prior research has pointed to several distinct processes that may affect the timing of first intercourse among adolescents. In the present study, the role of six hypothesized processes was assessed in a sample of 289 rural adolescent boys and girls. Results support the importance of family socialization and problem-behavior for both sexes, the role of biological factors for boys, and
Lisa J. Crockett; C. Raymond Bingham; Joanne S. Chopak; Judith R. Vicary
|A study involving 117 children with and without mental retardation in grades 1 through 5 found children with mental retardation had difficulty recognizing benign intention social cues that accompanied a negative event, had difficulty varying their social strategies to fit the social conflict, and often suggested appealing to authority. (Contains…
Leffert, James S.; Siperstein, Gary N.; Millikan, Emily
Online communities are the gatherings of like-minded people, brought together in cyberspace by shared interests. The shared interest has hidden social capital aspects and can be of bridging or bonding type .Creating such communities is not a big challenge but sustaining member's participation is. This study examines the formation and maintenance of social capital in social network sites. In addition
S. S. Phulari; S. D. Khamitkar; N. K. Deshmukh; P. U. Bhalchandra; S. N. Lokhande; A. R. Shinde
|The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…
The regulation and control of alcoholic beverages has received considerable attention in recent years as a potentially viable means of reducing socialproblems related to alcohol use and abuse. The full range of socialproblems, of which a proportion are ...
|A study investigated the role of the Saudi Arabian social studies curriculum in helping Saudi students to understand other cultures. Analysis of the content of social studies textbooks revealed that they cover a wide range of cultural information related to countries from around the world. Saudi students start their cultural education in grade 5…
Domestic violence or intimate personal violence, a matter once considered private, has gained increased attention as a public health crisis. In their efforts to better understand and prevent this behavior, social science researchers and epidemiologists have discovered the link between early exposure to violence and spousal abuse. This paper uses Albert Bandura's social learning theory to explain interpersonal and intergenerational
|In this article, the authors argue that one approach to teaching Introduction to SocialProblems is to structure the course content around taken-for-granted beliefs that many students have about the social world. In doing so, the authors discuss the social construction of socialproblems, how sociology differs from common sense, and the…
In this article, the authors argue that one approach to teaching Introduction to SocialProblems is to structure the course content around taken-for-granted beliefs that many students have about the social world. In doing so, the authors discuss the social construction of socialproblems, how sociology differs from common sense, and the importance…
Assesses the social and environmental problems of 132 patients seen in a primary care clinic at a university-affiliated Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center. Prevalent socialproblems included financial difficulties, personal stress, family problems, legal concerns, and employment concerns. Findings suggest a clear need for social work…
The energy-environment crisis may be viewed in terms of action, values, and the foreseen future. The same is true for any socialproblem. A socialproblem is indicated and authenticated by values-oriented acts to reject some component of the expected future. But the defining values intrinsic to the definition of a given socialproblem are not the same as the
The article is devoted to the problems of personnel management on the basis of social networks of scientific societies. The development of social networks, their application problems in scientific societies and application problems of intellectual analysis technologies in them are analyzed. It is indicated that automatic selection of the experts from social networks of scientific societies will support objective administrative
The family dinner is a valued tradition that affords opportunities for social interaction and attachment, as well as sharing events of the day, role modeling, connectedness, and problem solving. Guided by the social-marketing framework, this study explored factors associated with the frequency of the family dinner among working mothers with children ages 8–11 years. A qualitative design was used, employing
Mary P. Martinasek; Rita D. DeBate; Ashley G. Walvoord; Stephanie T. Melton; David Himmelgreen; Tammy D. Allen; Robert J. McDermott
In this article, we explore how Javanese women identify and speak of symptoms of depression in late pregnancy and early postpartum and describe their subjective accounts of mood disorders. The study, conducted in the East Java region of Indonesia in 2000, involved in-depth interviews with a subgroup of women (N = 41) who scored above the cutoff score of 12/13 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) during pregnancy, at six weeks postpartum, or on both occasions. This sample was taken from a larger cohort study (N cohort = 488) researching the sociocultural factors that contribute to women's emotional well-being in early motherhood. The women used a variety of Indonesian and Javanese terms to explain their emotional states during pregnancy and in early postpartum, some of which coincided with the feelings described on the EPDS and others of which did not. Women attributed their mood variations to multiple causes including: premarital pregnancy, chronic illness in the family, marital problems, lack of support from partners or family networks, their husband's unemployment, and insufficient family income due to giving up their own paid work. We argue for the importance of understanding the context of childbearing in order to interpret the meaning of depression within complex social, cultural, and economic contexts. PMID:17205386
Although the adverse consequences of changes in social behavior following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are well documented, relatively little is known about possible underlying neuropsychological deficits. Following a model originally developed for social behavior deficits in schizophrenia, we investigated whether impairments in emotion recognition, understanding of other people's intentions ("theory of mind"), and cognitive flexibility soon after first TBI or 1 year later were associated with self and proxy ratings of behavior following TBI. Each of the three functions was assessed with two separate tests, and ratings of behavior were collected on three questionnaires. Patients with TBI (n = 33) were impaired in emotion recognition, "theory of mind," and cognitive flexibility compared with matched orthopedic controls (n = 34). Proxy ratings showed increases in behavioral problems 1 year following injury in the TBI group but not in the control group. However, test performance was not associated with questionnaire data. Severity of the impairments in emotion recognition, understanding intention, and flexibility were unrelated to the severity of behavioral problems following TBI. These findings failed to confirm the used model for social behavior deficits and may cast doubt on the alleged link between deficits in emotion recognition or theory of mind and social functioning. PMID:18282329
Milders, Maarten; Ietswaart, Magdalena; Crawford, John R; Currie, David
Twenty-eight children with autism and 33 MLD children were given two tasks tapping socialunderstanding and a control task tapping probability understanding. For each task there was a measure of eye gaze (where children looked when anticipating the return of a story character or an object) and a verbal measure (a direct question). We found that eye gaze was better
Experts in cognitive domains differ from non-experts in how they represent problems and knowledge, and in their epistemic understandings of tasks in their domain of expertise. This study investigates whether task-specific epistemic understanding also underlies the representation of knowledge on an everyday reasoning task on which the competent…
This study addresses students' intuitive understanding of energy and momentum and their problem solving ability. The subjects of this research were students who had experiences with conservation of energy and momentum. Nine undergraduate students completed event-based Interviews with three related events which composed of Event I: Simple collisions, Event II: Newton's cradle and Event III: Gauss gun. Their intuitive understanding
This study examined the role of socialproblem solving as a moderator and a mediator of the relationship between daily stressful\\u000a events and adjustment in a sample of 259 college students. Problem solving was assessed by the SocialProblem-Solving Inventory-Revised,\\u000a which provides scores for global problem-solving ability as well as five specific problem-solving dimensions, namely, positive\\u000a problem orientation, negative problem
The lack of belonging or frequent exposure to social ostracism has maladaptive psychological and physical consequences. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the neural processes of social ostracism. Previously, Williams (2009) showed a decrease in theta power in the frontal lobe when female participants were ostracized in a virtual chat-room. Using male and female Illinois Wesleyan college students,
The lack of belonging or frequent exposure to social ostracism has maladaptive psychological and physical consequences. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the neural processes of social ostracism. Previously, Williams (2009) showed a decrease in theta power in the frontal lobe when female participants were ostracized in a virtual chat-room. Using male and female Illinois Wesleyan college students,
The National Council of Teachers of English (2008) defines "literacy" as a collection of cultural and communicative practices shared among members of particular groups. Classrooms are cultures in which the development of these practices not only reflects the social studies, but also expands knowledge of the social studies while fostering civic…
The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was used with 252 IT professionals from IT companies and departments in Taiwan. Structural equation
|Based on theories of social-cognitive development, the present study investigated the yet unknown social structure that underlies the concept of empathy in adolescence. A total of 3.159 seventh graders (13.67 years, 56% girls) from 166 school classes participated by providing information on empathy, related psychosocial factors, and friendship…
Based on theories of social-cognitive development, the present study investigated the yet unknown social structure that underlies the concept of empathy in adolescence. A total of 3.159 seventh graders (13.67 years, 56% girls) from 166 school classes participated by providing information on empathy, related psychosocial factors, and friendship…
Traditionally, consumers used the Internet to simply expend content: they read it, they watched it, and they used it to buy products and services. Increasingly, however, consumers are utilizing platforms—such as content sharing sites, blogs, social networking, and wikis—to create, modify, share, and discuss Internet content. This represents the social media phenomenon, which can now significantly impact a firm's reputation,
Jan H. Kietzmann; Kristopher Hermkens; Ian P. McCarthy; Bruno S. Silvestre
|The purpose of this study was to assess whether understanding relational terminology (i.e., "more, less," and "fewer") mediates the effects of intervention on compare word problems. Second-grade classrooms (N = 31) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: researcher-designed word-problem intervention, researcher-designed calculation…
This case study presents reflections on a research intervention conducted at the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The subject was the practice of administration. Its objective became to understand its “wicked problems” and to create action principles. It was an analytical research effort as well as a learning intervention. Wicked problems are those that have a large impact on an
|This study explored high school students' collaborative efforts in solving qualitative physics problems. It aimed to investigate whether and how confronting students with varying views help to improve their problem solving skills and develop better understanding of the underlying physics concepts. The varying views were provided to 18 grade 12…
This study investigates how students understand and apply the area under the curve concept and the integral-area relation in solving introductory physics problems. We interviewed 20 students in the first semester and 15 students from the same cohort in the second semester of a calculus-based physics course sequence on several problems involving…
The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of sexual problems with social, physical, and psychological problems. DESIGN: An anonymous postal questionnaire survey. SETTING: Four general practices in England. PARTICIPANTS: 789 men and 979 women responding to a questionnaire sent to a stratified random sample of the adult general population (n = 4000). MAIN RESULTS: Strong physical, social, and psychological associations were
OBJECTIVE To explore physicians’ awareness of and responses to type 2 diabetic patients’ social and emotional difficulties. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted semistructured interviews with 19 physicians. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS Three themes emerged: 1) physicians’ awareness of patients’ social and emotional difficulties: physicians recognized the frequency and seriousness of patients’ social and emotional difficulties; 2) physicians’ responses to patients’ social and emotional difficulties: many reported that intervening with these difficulties was challenging with few treatment options beyond making referrals, individualizing care, and recommending more frequent follow-up visits; and 3) the impact of patients’ social and emotional difficulties on physicians: few available patient treatment options, time constraints, and a perceived lack of psychological expertise contributed to physicians’ feeling frustrated, inadequate, and overwhelmed. CONCLUSIONS Recognition and understanding of physicians’ challenges when treating diabetes patients’ social and emotional difficulties are important for developing programmatic interventions.
Beverly, Elizabeth A.; Hultgren, Brittney A.; Brooks, Kelly M.; Ritholz, Marilyn D.; Abrahamson, Martin J.; Weinger, Katie
A growing number of studies demonstrate associations among false-belief understanding (FBU), executive function (EF), and social competence. This study extends previous studies by exploring longitudinal associations among FBU and its correlates within a low-income sample of preschoolers attending Head Start. Sixty-eight children (time 1 mean age = 5 years 2 months) were assessed over their preschool and kindergarten years. Results indicated bidirectional relations between FBU and social competence; FBU in preschool was positively associated with social competence in kindergarten and social competence in preschool was positively associated with FBU in kindergarten. Preschool EF was positively associated with social competence both in preschool and kindergarten and with FBU in preschool. Mediation analyses suggest that the bidirectional longitudinal link between FBU and social competence was independent of EF. These findings extend the FBU literature by examining its development and correlates in early childhood. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
This paper reports on two experiments in which high performing university students having finished an introductory physics course were asked to pose mechanics questions. In Experiment 1, subjects were given problem situations (i.e. a story line accompanied with a diagram from which problems could be constructed) and asked to generate "textbook-like" problems that could be solved with specific concepts (e.g. conservation of mechanical energy, Newton's Second Law). In Experiment 2, subjects were given Concept Scenarios (i.e. a description of the physics principles and concepts that apply to a problem and the order in which they apply) and asked to generate problems that matched the scenarios. Interviews conducted immediately following the experiment asked the subjects to explain how the problems posed matched either the specified concepts, or the Concept Scenarios. Findings indicate that, when followed by an interview, problem solving is a powerful assessment tool for probing students' understanding of physics concepts, as well as their ability to transfer their knowledge to novel contexts. In many instances, students posed appropriate solvable problems, yet displayed major flaws in conceptual understanding. This suggests that even good novices are lacking in the way their conceptual knowledge is organized in memory and linked to problem contexts and procedures. Suggestions for using problem posing as a pedagogical tool are presented.
|This study examined the roles of social competence and social support as potential mediators of the association between psychopathology and functional outcomes in a middle school sample (n = 521). Participants were stratified into four psychopathology risk groups (depression only, conduct problems only, comorbid depression and conduct problems,…
Rockhill, Carol M.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Katon, Wayne J.
In addition to currently fueling the nonprofit sector of the economy, volunteering is a key ingredient in community-based or cooperative models of economic exchange, including customer coproduction. The purpose of this study is to develop knowledge about pro-social attitudes of volunteers. Behavioral Reasoning Theory (BRT) provides a framework for understanding how volunteers’ values and reasons for volunteering influence volunteers’ pro-social
In this study we used a participatory qualitative research approach—photovoice—to collect information about African American men’s perceptions of the factors that influenced their own health and the health of their communities. Photovoice was conducted as part of the “Men as Navigators (MAN) for Health” project, an evaluation of a male lay health advisor (LHA) intervention in central North Carolina. Twelve African American men living in both urban and rural communities took photographs and discussed the photos in six photo discussion sessions. Analysis involved identifying recurring themes from the photos and transcriptions of photo discussions. The results suggest that race and racism, male gender socialization, and social networks and social capital all have important influences on African American men’s health. The implications for further research and public health practice are discussed.
Ornelas, India J.; Amell, Jim; Tran, Anh N.; Royster, Michael; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Eng, Eugenia
High social anxiety is related to marijuana problems, yet the nature of this relation remains unclear. We examined relations between marijuana effect expectancies, social anxiety, and marijuana among undergraduates (N=337). Social anxiety was related positively to Negative Expectancies and negatively to Tension Reduction Expectancies. Among socially anxious individuals, greater belief that marijuana produces Cognitive and Behavioral Impairment was associated with
Although research has found an association between social anxiety and alcohol use in noncollege samples, results have been mixed for college samples. College students face many novel social situations in which they may drink to reduce social anxiety. In the current study, the authors tested a model of college problem drinking, incorporating social anxiety and related psychosocial variables among 228
Unlike most mammalian species, the prairie vole is highly affiliative, forms enduring social bonds between mates, and displays biparental behavior. Over two decades of research in this species has enhanced our understanding of the neurobiological basis not only of monogamy, social attachment and nurturing behaviors, but also other aspects of social cognition. Because social cognitive deficits are hallmarks of many psychiatric disorders, discoveries made in prairie voles may direct novel treatment strategies for disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. With the ongoing development of molecular, genetic and genomic tools for this species, prairie voles will likely maintain their current trajectory becoming an unprecedented model organism for basic and translational research focusing on the biology of the social brain.
As a social identity anchored in a system of guiding beliefs and symbols, religion ought to serve a uniquely powerful function in shaping psychological and social processes. Religious identification offers a distinctive "sacred" worldview and "eternal" group membership, unmatched by identification with other social groups. Thus, religiosity might be explained, at least partially, by the marked cognitive and emotional value that religious group membership provides. The uniqueness of a positive social group, grounded in a belief system that offers epistemological and ontological certainty, lends religious identity a twofold advantage for the promotion of well-being. However, that uniqueness may have equally negative impacts when religious identity itself is threatened through intergroup conflict. Such consequences are illustrated by an examination of identities ranging from religious fundamentalism to atheism. Consideration of religion's dual function as a social identity and a belief system may facilitate greater understanding of the variability in its importance across individuals and groups. PMID:20089847
More than a decade of research from the perspective of system-justification theory (Jost & Banaji, 1994) has demonstrated that people engage in motivated psychological processes that bolster and support the status quo. We propose that this motive is highly contextual: People do not justify their social systems at all times but are more likely to do so under certain circumstances.
Developing competency in problem solving and enhancing conceptual understanding are primary objectives in introductory physics, and many techniques and tools are available to help instructors achieve them. Pedagogically, we use an easy-to-implement intervention, the ACCESS protocol, to develop and assess problem-solving skills in our SCALE-UP classroom environment for algebra-based physics. Based on our research and teaching experience, an important question has emerged: while primarily targeting improvements in problem-solving and cognitive development, is it necessary that conceptual understanding be compromised? To address this question, we gathered and analyzed information about student abilities, backgrounds, and instructional preferences. We report on our progress and give insights into matching the instructional tools to student profiles in order to achieve optimal learning in group-based active learning. The ultimate goal of our work is to integrate individual student learning needs into a pedagogy that moves students closer to expert-like status in problem solving.
Developing competency in problem solving and enhancing conceptual understanding are primary objectives in introductory physics, and many techniques and tools are available to help instructors achieve them. Pedagogically, we use an easy-to-implement intervention, the ACCESS protocol, to develop and assess problem-solving skills in our SCALE-UP classroom environment for algebra-based physics. Based on our research and teaching experience, an important question has emerged: while primarily targeting improvements in problem-solving and cognitive development, is it necessary that conceptual understanding be compromised? To address this question, we gathered and analyzed information about student abilities, backgrounds, and instructional preferences. We report on our progress and give insights into matching the instructional tools to student profiles in order to achieve optimal learning in group-based active learning. The ultimate goal of our work is to integrate individual student learning needs into a pedagogy that moves students closer to expert-like status in problem solving.
Ridenour, J.; Feldman, G.; Teodorescu, R.; Medsker, L.; Benmouna, N.
Social support and integration have been linked to health and longevity in many correlational studies. To explain how social\\u000a relationship might enhance health, investigators are examining the effects of social support on physiological processes implicated\\u000a in disease. Much of this research focuses on testing the social support-reactivity hypothesis, which maintains that social\\u000a support enhances health by reducing psychobiologic reactivity to
Maintains that the "python analogy," often used to help students understand the negative societal impact of unusually small or large age cohorts, is better replaced by the social tunnel analogy, which is diagramed and illustrated with reference to the educational problems experienced in the United States as a result of the World War II baby boom.…
The purpose of this conceptual paper was to examine the theoretical underpinnings of problem solving and social capital within the context of entrepreneurial activities and develop a model to explain the phenomenon that occurs during the problem solving process. An analysis of the literature found salient themes in both problem solving and social capital theories that supported a process one
|This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and…
Children with autism have difficulty in solving socialproblems and in generating multiple solutions to problems. They are, however, relatively skilled in responding to visual cues such as pictures and animations. Eight distinct socialproblems were presented on a computer, along with a choice of possible solutions, and an option to produce alternative solutions. Eight preschool children with autism and
Vera Bernard-Opitz; N. Sriram; Sharul Nakhoda-Sapuan
The social constructionist approach to research on social issues provides a conceptual means in understanding how specific problems are generated and handled by institutional claims-makers, including the state and mass media. In neighborhood research, the voice of adolescent residents is seldom heard, let alone the value of their claims in relation to the state's construction. This article endeavors to address
A prospective design was used to examine the relation between socialproblem-solving ability and later psychological stress in college students during the first semester of the academic year. A new socialproblem-solving inventory measured not only general ability, but also more specific components of the problem-solving process (e.g., problem orientation, problem-solving skills; D'Zurilla & Nezu, 1990). The results of a
The present paper introduces a novel approach to understanding failures of self-regulation in chronic dieters. Traditional approaches to this problem have focused on consciously controlled processes of eating regulation, such as the realisation that one has overeaten, or the experience of food cravings. We argue, however, that dieters' problem might rather lie in their sensitivity to the hedonic aspects of
One accepted and straightforward approach to understand the genesis of social cogni- tion - as of any particular human neoformation - is to look for specific developmental disorders in the hope to find clear double dissociations. In this regard, contrasting subjects with autistic spec- trum disorders on the one hand and subjects with Williams syndrome on the other has gained
This article presents the findings of a research initiative which explored Greek teachers' perceptions and understandings on what constitutes social and emotional competencies and how these competencies can best be enhanced within the classroom. In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 elementary school teachers in two different geographical…
Social interaction and understanding in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are key areas of concern to practitioners and researchers alike. However, there is a relative lack of information about the skills and competencies of children and young people with ASD who access ordinary community facilities including mainstream education. In particular, contributions by parents and their children have been under-utilized. Using two
Existing sport tourism studies are largely rooted in the positivist tradition. This study explores the culture of one particular sport tourism 'social world', that of distance running, and in doing so begins to develop an understanding of the motivations, behaviour patterns and experiences of the distance runner as sport tourist. Research was undertaken at four major international distance running events
Purpose – The objectives of this paper are to describe the “affordable drugs movement” and present a social marketing framework to place major developments within a meaningful theoretical context. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Specific examples are used to illustrate the framework and its utility in understanding the complexities of the pharmaceutical market. Methods to research the dynamics of the market are also
|This qualitative phenomenological research study explored the social categorization diversity management experiences of NCAA Division I, II and III athletic coaches. The research study used a combination of questionnaire, observation and coaching interviews to obtain an understanding of the skills, tools and techniques that these coaches used to…
|Patterns of development of ToM-emotion abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, socialunderstanding and ToM-emotion abilities were examined. EDEI-R (Perron-Borelli, M. (1996). "Echelles Differentielles…
|Sibling relationship quality and socialunderstanding (second-order false belief, conflict interpretation, and narrative conflict perspective references) were examined as unique and interactive correlates of sibling conflict behavior in 62 dyads (older M age = 8.39 years and younger M age = 6.06 years). High-quality relationships were associated…
Sociological research investigating boys' masculinity performances has commonly recognised the importance of peer group cultures in identity construction. Whilst such work has undoubtedly offered important and useful frameworks for interpreting and understanding boys' behaviour in schools, the article argues that social psychological theories of intergroup relations also proffer important insights. Drawing upon interview and survey data, the article focuses on
|A growing number of studies demonstrate associations among false-belief understanding (FBU), executive function (EF), and social competence. This study extends previous studies by exploring longitudinal associations among FBU and its correlates within a low-income sample of preschoolers attending Head Start. Sixty-eight children (time 1 mean age…
|Children with autism experience difficulties in understandingsocial affective cues, and it has been suggested that such deficits will generalize to music. In order to investigate this proposal, typically developing individuals and children with autism and Down syndrome were compared on tasks measuring perception of affective and movement states…
Children with autism experience difficulties in understandingsocial affective cues, and it has been suggested that such deficits will generalize to music. In order to investigate this proposal, typically developing individuals and children with autism and Down syndrome were compared on tasks measuring perception of affective and movement states…
Patterns of development of ToM belief abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, socialunderstanding and ToM belief abilities were examined. EDEI-R [Perron-Borelli M. (1996). "Echelles Differentielles…
Patterns of development of ToM-emotion abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, socialunderstanding and ToM-emotion abilities were examined. EDEI-R (Perron-Borelli, M. (1996). "Echelles Differentielles…
The internet has become a participatory place where everyone can contribute and interact with others. In health in particular, social media have changed traditional patient–physician relationships. Patients are organising themselves in groups, sharing observations and helping each other, although there is still little evidence of the effectiveness of these online communities on people's health. To understand why and how people
This article reviews experimental and ethnographic studies conducted by our research group to examine the role of multiple representations in understanding science. It examines the differences between expert chemists and chemistry students in their representational skills and in their use of representations in science laboratories. It describes the way scientists use the material and social affordances of multiple representations to
|Children tell prosocial lies for self- and other-oriented reasons. However, it is unclear how motivational and socialization factors affect their lying. Furthermore, it is unclear whether children's moral understanding and evaluations of prosocial lie scenarios (including perceptions of vignette characters' feelings) predict their actual…
Children tell prosocial lies for self- and other-oriented reasons. However, it is unclear how motivational and socialization factors affect their lying. Furthermore, it is unclear whether children’s moral understanding and evaluations of prosocial lie scenarios (including perceptions of vignette characters’ feelings) predict their actual prosocial behaviors. These were explored in two studies. In Study 1, 72 children (36 second graders
The Government of India is implementing a new policy which dramatically increases funding for a cash transfer program targeted to the poor elderly. The expansion of this ?social pension? in terms of coverage and benefit levels is taking place with little understanding of poverty among India?s elderly or its determinants. This paper finds that households with elderly members do not
|This article presents the findings of a research initiative which explored Greek teachers' perceptions and understandings on what constitutes social and emotional competencies and how these competencies can best be enhanced within the classroom. In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 elementary school teachers in two different geographical…
In the age of the `return to the empirical' in which the theoretical disputes of an earlier era seem to have fallen silent, we seek to excavate the intellectual conditions for reviving theoretical debate, for it is upon this recovery that deeper understanding of the nature and purpose of empirical social science depends. We argue against the all too frequent
The aim of this article is to identify some of the difficult areas in researching the South African social security system, and to offer suggestions as to the kind of further research that is needed to improve our understanding over time. The article starts with a brief ‘tour’ through some of the articles dealing with the subject that have already
Two studies explored the relation of task understanding to performance in the Wason selection tasks, in which subjects successfully solve tasks involving either social exchange situations or cheating detection content and perspective. Findings indicate that previous results (Gigerenzer and Hug, 1992) could be attributed to three general properties…
Poor socialproblem-solving skills may account for some criminal behaviours in mentally disordered offenders, and socialproblem-solving may be mediated by personality traits. We examined the relationship between personality and socialproblem-solving in 52 mentally disordered offenders, (38 mentally ill and 14 personality disordered) detained in a regional secure unit. Since t-tests indicated no differences between the mentally ill and
Mary McMurran; Vincent Egan; Marie Blair; Cathryn Richardson
|Stoichiometry and related concepts are an important part of student learning in chemistry. In this interpretive-based inquiry, we investigated Thai Grade 10 and 11 students' conceptual understanding and ability to solve numerical problems for stoichiometry-related concepts. Ninety-seven participants completed a purpose-designed survey instrument…
|Qualitative analyses of 2 clients' psychotherapies (client centered and process-experiential) investigated the developmental progression from formulating a problem to achieving an understanding of it. The results elaborated one segment in the 8-stage Assimilation of Problematic Experiences Sequence (APES), through which problematic parts of a…
Brinegar, Meredith Glick; Salvi, Lisa M.; Stiles, William B.; Greenberg, Leslie S.
Investigated kindergartners' unary and binary understanding of additive commutativity using performance on tasks involving change-add-to and part-part-whole word problems, respectively. Found that data were inconsistent with models put forth by Baroody and Gannon and by Resnick and suggest three alternate theoretical explanations. Success on tasks…
Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Baroody, Arthur J.; Tiilikainen, Sirpa
|In conversations between immigrants and officials, problems of understanding are often noticeable. About 280 recordings realised at the Argentine Aliens' Department and at several public authorities in Germany show that knowledge divergences regarding linguistic, cultural and institutional knowledge result in (sometimes grave) difficulties of…
Past research on problem alcohol use in college students has found a strong and fairly consistent relationship between two broadband personality dimensions (viz., negative emotionality, behavioral undercontrol) and problem alcohol use (PAU), but has failed to examine possible mechanisms that account for this relationship. The present study sought to examine the extent to which negative problem orientation (NPO) accounted for
Past research on problem alcohol use in college students has found a strong and fairly consistent relationship between two broadband personality dimensions (viz., negative emotionality, behavioral undercontrol) and problem alcohol use (PAU), but has failed to examine possible mechanisms that account for this relationship. The present study sought to examine the extent to which negative problem orientation (NPO) accounted for
Social network analysis is a tool set whose uses range from measuring the impact of marketing campaigns to disrupting clandestine terrorist organizations. Social network analysis tools are primarily focused on the structure of relationships between actors...
This article discusses some new ways in which social work research can explore the interaction between neighbourhoods and child and adult wellbeing. The authors note that social work practices are often criticised for taking an individualistic approach and paying too little attention to the service user’s environment. The article uses examples of research projects from Chile, the United States of America and Wales, to discuss the use of spatially oriented research methods for understanding neighbourhood factors. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods approaches that are particularly appropriate for investigating social work relevant topics are discussed in turn, including quantitative and qualitative uses for geographical information systems (GIS), hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) for analysing spatially clustered data and qualitative mobile interviews. The article continues with a discussion of the strengths and limitations of using spatially orientated research designs in social work research settings and concludes optimistically with suggestions for future directions in this area.
Social animals, like humans, need to interact with others, but this is not always possible. When genuine social interaction is lacking, individuals may seek out or use sources of interaction that co-opt agency detection mechanisms vis-à-vis the human voice and images of people, called social snacking. Study 1 (N = 240) found that ratings of how alone participants felt were
Peter K. Jonason; Gregory D. Webster; A. Elizabeth Lindsey
How behavior and institutions are affected by social relations is one of the classic questions of social theory. This paper concerns the extent to which economic action is embedded in structures of social relations, in modern industrial society. Although the usual neoclas- sical accounts provide an \\
|The childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate. Numerous individual, family, community, and social factors contribute to overweight and obesity in children and are explored. If left unaddressed, the epidemic of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity may lead to amplified problems for individual…
The empirical work involved an extension of the standard CVM to include social psychological drivers and to test their power in explaining willingness to pay (WTP). Investigating the motives that drive responses to CVM surveys was a key concern because of the range of problems which have been encountered in CVM surveys in the past. Specific attention was given to
Clive L. Spash; Kevin C Urama; Wendy Kenyon; Rob Burton; Gary Hill
Though the impact of social inequality on health conditions is widely known, its impact on the chronic and stigmatized disease, leprosy, has received little attention. Deformity sometimes leads to disabilities and to handicaps causing problems to the patient and his family. In this paper an attempt has been made to understand the impact of social inequality, prevalent in the form of the caste system in India on the deformed leprosy patients and on their families. This impact was examined in terms of the problems faced by the patients. A sample of 150 deformed patients and their families, drawn from two districts in Tamil Nadu, was selected for the study. About 57% of the deformed patients experienced their deformity as a handicap which caused social and economic problems while the rest did not. Of the three caste groups, the Lower Caste group experienced more severe economic problems while the Upper Caste group faced more socialproblems. The extent of acceptance of deformed patients in their family varied significantly among those facing and not facing problems due to their deformity. The deformed patients without any handicap were accepted in a large majority of their families (82%) regardless of their caste status. In contrast the deformed but handicapped patients were accepted differentially among the three caste groups with the Upper group accepting them in most of their families (80%) while in the Lower group much less number of families (54%) did. All the families of the deformed but not handicapped patients desired to keep their patients till their death irrespective of their caste status. On the contrary, while all the families in the Upper Caste group expressed their willingness to keep their handicapped patients in the family till their death, 10% in the Middle and 22% in the Lower Caste groups did not want to do so. This suggests the gradual marginalization, rejection and dehabilitation of the affected. Thus, one's caste status can be a broad indicator of the nature and the extent of handicaps and acceptance in the family. This factor needs to be appropriately taken care of for rehabilitation and disability management in leprosy control programmes. PMID:7500821
The present study aims at clarifying the nature of the Theory of Mind (ToM) deficits associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). ToM is the ability to attribute mental states such as intentions and beliefs to others in order to understand and predict their behaviour and to behave accordingly. Several neuroimaging studies reported the prefrontal cortices as the brain region underlying a key ToM ability, i.e. the comprehension of social intentions. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortices in patients with ALS has been indicated by a range of neuroimaging studies. The frontal syndrome that appears to characterize up to 50% of ALS has been noted to be similar to the profile that characterizes patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative condition characterised by ToM deficits. In the present paper, we hypothesize that the performance of patients with ALS is significantly worse than healthy controls' performance on tasks requiring the comprehension of social contexts, whereas patients' performance is comparable to healthy controls' performance on tasks not requiring the comprehension of social contexts. To this end, we tested 15 patients with ALS with an experimental protocol that distinguishes between private (non-social) intentions and social intentions. The pattern of results followed the experimental hypothesis: the performance of patients with ALS and healthy controls significantly differed on the comprehension of social context only, with an impairment in patients with ALS. Single case analysis confirmed the findings at an individual level. The present study is the first which has examined and compared the understanding of social and non-social contexts in patients with ALS and shown a specific and selective deficit in the former only. The current findings further support the notion of a continuum of cognitive dysfunction ranging from ALS to FTD, with parallel cognitive profiles in both disorders.
In this commentary I discuss the utility of Thomas Kuhn’s perspectives on ‘paradigms’, the conduct of ‘normal science’ and the nature of scientific progress and debate over time for understanding the conduct of debate in the social sciences (of, in this case, sport). I argue that although the social sciences do not possess the paradigm?relative structure of the natural sciences,
This study addresses students' intuitive understanding of energy and momentum and their problem solving ability. The subjects of this research were students who had experiences with conservation of energy and momentum. Nine undergraduate students completed event-based Interviews with three related events which composed of Event I: Simple collisions, Event II: Newton's cradle and Event III: Gauss gun. Their intuitive understanding was explored through three well-defined items involving Event I and II. The interviews revealed that most students explained the two events by utilizing their intuitive understanding rather than scientific conceptions. Then problem-solving thinking was identified through ill-defined problems involving Event III. From the Gauss gun setting, students were asked to explain how Gauss gun works, how to build the highest power Gauss gun and interpret the graph of mass and distance of steel ball after collisions. Research findings showed that students who have fairly good command of basic knowledge, tended to use of problem solving strategies as expected. For example, a student who understood the perfectly transferring energy and momentum of the equal mass of balls, was able to identify the possible factors for design more effective Gauss gun reasonably. However, most of the students were unable to use suitable vocabulary in providing reasons and explanations for certain problem-solving procedures. Thus, lacking basic knowledge can impede problem-solving thinking. It is hope that these findings will serve as a reference for educators in improving the learning and teaching of energy and momentum in general and problem solving instruction in particular.
Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime
Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime
Jennifer Jie Xu; G. Alan Wang; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau
Justifications for energy education which place a high priority on energy understanding within social systems and social education are presented and classroom opportunities for teaching about the energy crisis are examined. With regard to social studies, the goals of energy education are moral sensitivity and action. (RM)
Compared to other cognitive measures, socialproblem solving has received little attention in research on gender differences. In the present study, the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Procedure and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) were administered to 207 adolescents to examine socialproblem-solving skills as a function of subject gender, PAQ type, and gender of protagonist. Hypotheses were that superior problem solving would
The authors examined the use of a socialproblem-solving intervention to treat selective mutism with 2 sisters in an elementary school setting. Both girls were taught to answer teacher questions in front of their classroom peers during regular classroom instruction. Each girl received individualized instruction from a therapist and was taught to discriminate salient social cues, select an appropriate social
Mark OReilly; Deirdre McNally; Jeff Sigafoos; Giulio E. Lancioni; Vanessa Green; Chaturi Edrisinha; Wendy Machalicek; Audrey Sorrells; Russell Lang; Robert Didden
The concept of ‘social exclusion’ has become central to the UK government's political philosophy. The need to combat the causes and deal with the symptoms of ‘social exclusion’ has become vital to many policy initiatives. The use of heritage resources to help deal with socialproblems has been practised since the early years of the 19th century and can provide
Consistent with developmental cascade notions, the present study investigated (a) associations between trajectories of interparental conflict and early externalizing problems during childhood and (b) early trajectories of externalizing problems as a pathway by which interparental conflict impacts children’s social competence in preadolescence. Participants were 235 children and their parents and teachers. Children were assessed annually for 3 years, beginning when they were in kindergarten. Parents provided reports of interparental conflict and child externalizing problems. Children’s social competence (prosocial behavior, socialproblems) was assessed approximately 5 years later via parent and teacher reports. Results from parallel process models indicated that changes in interparental conflict were positively associated with changes in externalizing problems during childhood. Further, demonstrating pathways consistent with notions of developmental cascades, early trajectories of externalizing problems accounted for the longitudinal link between early trajectories of interparental conflict and children’s socialproblems in preadolescence.
KOUROS, CHRYSTYNA D.; CUMMINGS, E. MARK; DAVIES, PATRICK T.
Consistent with developmental cascade notions, the present study investigated (a) associations between trajectories of interparental conflict and early externalizing problems during childhood and (b) early trajectories of externalizing problems as a pathway by which interparental conflict impacts children's social competence in preadolescence. Participants were 235 children and their parents and teachers. Children were assessed annually for 3 years, beginning when they were in kindergarten. Parents provided reports of interparental conflict and child externalizing problems. Children's social competence (prosocial behavior, socialproblems) was assessed approximately 5 years later via parent and teacher reports. Results from parallel process models indicated that changes in interparental conflict were positively associated with changes in externalizing problems during childhood. Further, demonstrating pathways consistent with notions of developmental cascades, early trajectories of externalizing problems accounted for the longitudinal link between early trajectories of interparental conflict and children's socialproblems in preadolescence. PMID:20576176
Kouros, Chrystyna D; Cummings, E Mark; Davies, Patrick T
High social anxiety is related to marijuana problems, yet the nature of this relation remains unclear. We examined relations between marijuana effect expectancies, social anxiety, and marijuana among undergraduates (N=337). Social anxiety was related positively to Negative Expectancies and negatively to Tension Reduction Expectancies. Among socially anxious individuals, greater belief that marijuana produces Cognitive and Behavioral Impairment was associated with greater marijuana use rates. Negative Expectancies mediated the social anxiety-marijuana problems link. These data provide new insight into problematic marijuana use among this high-risk group. PMID:18694625
One- and two-year old peer dyads were presented with a simple cooperative task. Age differences were found in amount of coordinated activity, monitoring the peer’s activity and location in relation to the goal, and attempting to achieve the goal when the peer was (or was not) available as a partner. One-year-olds’ coordinated actions appeared more coincidental than cooperative whereas older children appeared to be more actively cooperating toward a shared goal. Differences in coordinated activity with peers were associated with differences in attention-sharing with an adult and with language about self and other. The ability to cooperate with peers, becoming a true social partner, develops over the second and third years of life in concert with growing socialunderstanding.
|This longitudinal study investigated prospective links between social isolation and adjustment problems among 166 (77 girls, 89 boys) Finnish children ages 7 to 9. Peer nominations for social engagement and self-reports of internalizing and externalizing problems were collected in the spring of the 1st and 2nd grade. Friendship moderated…
Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
Parents and teachers reported that 6- to 8-year-old boys with developmental delays were less able to regulate their emotions than nondelayed boys matched on chronological age. Compared to nondelayed boys, boys with developmental delays had more socialproblems, which persisted and increased over a 3-year period. Children's ability to regulate their emotions explained significant variance in their socialproblems after
|The main purpose of the present study was to explore how social competence reduces behavioral problems. Based on previous findings, we assume that increased social competence can be regarded as a mediating factor in reducing behavior problems. All participants (children and adolescents, n = 112) received an intervention intended to increase…
Langeveld, Johannes H.; Gundersen, Knut K.; Svartdal, Frode
|The author provides a preliminary assessment of the extent to which a sample of 264 school social workers are aware of the Internet-related problems children are experiencing and proposes ways in which Internet-related problems could affect youths' social and academic competence and performance in a school setting. The findings have implications…
This study examined the relationship between two cognitive processing variables-attention and socialproblem solving-and aggression in preschoolage boys. The 43 participants were administered two selective attention tasks that assess children's tendency to focus on aggressive versus cooperative social situations, the Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving Test developed by Shure and Spivack, and the information and block design subtests of the Wechsler
Focuses on the process by which a socialproblem is redefined in response to a critical events, such as economic depressions, environmental disasters, intense physical confrontations, or strategic initiatives by a social movement organization. Examines a conservative movement's attempt to redefine "the problem" of the schools at the time of a tax…
|This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social…
The concerns of social studies teachers in the islands of the English-speaking Caribbean represent an under-researched area. This study investigated the perceived problems in teaching elementary school social studies in the Eastern Caribbean. A distinctive group of teachers, who have had some years of teaching experiences prior to their formal teacher education, respondents in this study perceived three major problems
|Relations among externalizing behavior, therapeutic context (community care vs. residential care), and socialproblem-solving by children with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intelligence were examined. Participants were 186 children (12 to 14 years of age) who responded to a video-based socialproblem-solving task. Of these, 130…
van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Wijnroks, Lex; Vermeer, Adri; Matthys, Walter
This study examines the perception of the status of women in Israel as a socialproblem, its cognitive structure and its correlates. The 994 respondents included a sample of university students, nurses, and female army officers. In general, the results suggest that feminist issues are perceived as less severe than most other socialproblems and that men perceive feminist issues
Lauer and Lauer (2008) encourage college students to assess the validity of information and arguments by rec- ognizing fallacies when thinking about socialproblems. The current study examines college students' responses to such fallacies with use of a questionnaire consisting of statements about five different socialproblems: poverty, crime, racism, substance abuse, and gambling. Students responded to four statements (three
This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and relations with parents, on substance use. Results of path modeling with AMOS showed that the model provided a very good fit to the data and demonstrated partial mediation effects of social network quality on substance use. The standardized mediated effect of school problems on substance use, mediated by social network quality, was 0.13 (p < .01, 95% CI [.072, .189]). An effect size measure was applied to determine what proportion of the total effect was mediated by the intervening (social network quality) variable and produced a 0.34 effect size. The results highlight the potential preventive role of social network quality in addressing urban adolescent substance use.
Presents a comparative sociology of education, using case studies from Canada, India, and China. In each case, government or others attempted to promote social change through introducing relevance into the curriculum. States that modern schools cannot escape having a role in social change. (CH)
Social support is commonly assumed to protect people from the experience of psychological distress and to enhance well-being. However, past research shows that the effectiveness of social support from family members and friends varies over the life span. Both the stage model of life satisfaction and compensatory processes associated with aging provide accounts for why this may be the case.
It was hypothesized that the tendency to find positive correlations between various measures of personality traits may accrue because of the willingness of S to ascribe to himself either socially desirable or undesirable attitudes on several samples of his self-attitudes. It was found that social desirability did influence the probability of ascribing to oneself items from several kinds of questionnaires,
This paper proposes a model which explains the process of learning about computation in terms of well-accepted software engineering concepts, and argues that our approach to understanding how problem-solving skills are acquired is an innovation over well-accepted learning theories and models. It examines how it all students make sense of computational processes; by reporting on experimental observations that have been
Recent studies suggest that 5-year-olds can add and compare large numerical quantities through approximate representations of number. However, the nature of this understanding and its susceptibility to environmental influences remain unclear. We examined whether children's early competence depends on the canonical problem format (i.e., arithmetic operations presented on the left side). Sixty children from middle-to-high-SES backgrounds (Experiment 1) and 47
Nicole M. McNeil; Mary Wagner Fuhs; M. Claire Keultjes; Matthew H. Gibson
The goal of this exploratory study was to examine correlates of sexual assault disclosure and social reactions in female victims with and without drinking problems. An ethnically diverse sample of sexual assault survivors was recruited from college, community, and mental health agencies. Ethnic minority women were less likely to disclose assault, and women with a greater number of traumatic life events disclosed assault more often. Although there were no differences in disclosure likelihood by drinking status; of those disclosing, problem drinkers told more support sources and received more negative and positive social reactions than nonproblem drinkers. Correlates of receiving negative social reactions were similar for normal and problem drinkers; however, negative social reactions to assault disclosure were related to more problem drinking for women with less frequent social interaction. Implications for future research and possible support interventions with problem-drinking victims are provided. PMID:18309039
Ullman, Sarah E; Starzynski, Laura L; Long, Susan M; Mason, Gillian E; Long, Ladonna M
Based on writings from different periods in the life of Eugen Bleuler, the present work represents a consistent recognizable concept of ethics, social order and race hygiene in his scientific work. These subjects are set by Bleuler in a more general connection of nature and culture; it can be shown that the scientific understanding of social and cultural phenomena is founded on principles which can be easily identified by looking at nature. Bleuler's position is a clear-cut deterministic and materialistic one; the crisis of the post-world-war era can be solved only by rational reasonable ethics rules of a science applied on social questions. Bleuler outlines the general importance of race hygiene; practical consequences of this position remain unaffected. Euthanasia is to be planed in certain cases of difficult and incurable disease - including also mental illness; mental deficiency as such does not legitimize a such step yet. PMID:14661160
This paper identifies limitations within the current literature on understanding learning. Overcoming these limitations entails\\u000a replacing dualist views of learning as either individual or social, by using a theory of learning cultures and a cultural\\u000a theory of learning, which articulate with each other. To do this, we argue that it is possible and indeed necessary to combine\\u000a major elements of
Previous research suggests that parental abuse and neglect can have adverse effects on children’s peer relationships and self-perceptions.\\u000a Emerging theoretical and empirical work suggests that children’s socialunderstanding and empathy could play a key role as\\u000a mediators of these effects, but we have little knowledge about the viability of such a model in explaining the everyday experiences\\u000a of children in
Socio-economic differentials in health are widely documented, but little research has examined the experience and understanding of health using a qualitative approach and contrasting social location. This study examined perceptions of health and smoking in fifteen higher SES and fifteen lower SES smokers. The study focused on smoking because it is widely recognised as a health-damaging behaviour. A semi-structured open-ended
Presents findings of an analysis of Italian seventh grade students' understanding of capitalism and socialism. Reports that knowledge of the topics was rather poor. Concludes that students who had studied the topics more thoroughly had somewhat, but not substantially, greater understanding of capitalism and socialism. Calls for more research. (SG)
|This study investigated seventh grade learners' decision making about genetic engineering concepts and applications. A social network analyses supported by technology tracked changes in student understanding with a focus on social and conceptual influences. Results indicated that several social and conceptual mechanisms potentially affected how…
|This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students' commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors' process of…
Bender, Kimberly; Negi, Nalini; Fowler, Dawnovise N.
This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students' commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors' process of assimilation,…
Bender, Kimberly; Negi, Nalini; Fowler, Dawnovise N.
This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students' commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic\\/racial background and ancestors' process of assimilation, and to reflect on their ethnic and racial identity as a means toward
Social sustainability is an important, but often neglected, aspect of determining the success of small-scale water systems. This paper reviews ethnographic approaches for understanding how indigenous knowledge enhances social sustainability of small-scale water systems, particularly in small-scale water systems threatened by water scarcity. After reviewing the literature on common-pool and traditional resource management strategies, the paper will focus on the case of a community-managed small-scale water system in Cochabamba, Bolivia. This study uses ethnographic evidence to demonstrate how indigenous institutions can be used to manage a small-scale urban water system sustainably. Several factors were crucial to the institution's success. First, indigenous residents had previous experience with common management of rural irrigation systems which they were able to adapt for use in an urban environment. Second, institutional rules were designed to prioritize the conservation of the water source. Third, indigenous Andean social values of uniformity, regularity, and transparency ensured that community members perceived the system as legitimate and complied with community rules. Fourth, self-governance enabled community members to quickly adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as seasonal scarcity and groundwater overdraft. The paper concludes with a discussion of the promise and limitations of ethnographic approaches and indigenous knowledge for understandingsocial sustainability in small-scale water systems.
Water resources modeling, a well-established tool in water resources planning and management practice, facilitates understanding of the physical and socio-economic processes impacting the wellbeing of humans and ecosystems. While watershed models continue to become more holistic, there is a need for appropriate frameworks and tools for integrated conceptualization of problems to provide reliable qualitative and quantitative bases for policy selection. In recent decades, water resources professionals have become increasingly cognizant of important feedback relationships within water resources systems. We contend that a systems thinking paradigm is required to facilitate characterization of the closed-loop nature of these feedbacks. Furthermore, a close look at different water resources issues reveals that, while many water resources problems are essentially very similar in nature, they continuously appear in different geographical locations. In the systems thinking literature, a number of generic system structures known as system archetypes have been identified to describe common patterns of problematic behavior within systems. In this research, we identify some main system archetypes governing water resources systems, demonstrating their benefits for holistic understanding of various classes of persistent water resources problems. Using the eutrophication problem of Lake Allegan, Michigan, as a case study, we illustrate how the diagnostic tools of system dynamics modeling can facilitate identification of problematic feedbacks within water resources systems and provide insights for sustainable development.
|Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…
The relations between early emotional and behavioral problems in classroom situations and peer social competence were examined for a representative sample of urban Head Start children. Behavior problems were assessed within the context of routine peer, teacher, and structured learning classroom situations early in the preschool year. Two path…
Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Dominguez, Ximena; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Rouse, Heather L.; Fantuzzo, John W.
Researchers typically employ either peer or self-reports to assess involvement in bullying. In this study, we examined the merits of each method for the identification of child characteristics related to victimization and bullying others. Accordingly, we investigated the difference between these two methods with regard to their relationship with social adjustment (i.e., perceived popularity, likeability, and self-perceived social acceptance) and internalizing problems (i.e., anxiety, depression, and self-worth) in 1192 Dutch school children, aged 9 to 12 years. Perceived popularity and likeability were more strongly correlated with peer reports than self-reports, for both victimization and for bullying others. Self-perceived social acceptance correlated equally strong with peer and self- reports of victimization. Furthermore, peer reports of bullying were also correlated with self-perceived social acceptance, whereas self-reports of bullying were not. All internalizing problems showed stronger relations with self-reports than peer reports; although only the relation between self-reported victimization and internalizing problems was of practical significance. Despite our findings indicating that using only one type of report could be efficient for examining the relation between bullying behaviors and separate child characteristics, both types of report are necessary for a complete understanding of the personal and social well-being of the children involved. PMID:23245499
Bouman, Thijs; van der Meulen, Matty; Goossens, Frits A; Olthof, Tjeert; Vermande, Marjolijn M; Aleva, Elisabeth A
The purpose of this article is to develop knowledge and learning on the best way to automate organisational activities in deep mines that could lead to the creation of harmony between the human, technical and the social system, towards increased productivity. The findings showed that though the introduction of high-level technological tools in the work environment disrupted the social relations developed over time amongst the employees in most situations, the technological tools themselves became substitute social collaborative partners to the employees. It is concluded that, in developing a digitised mining production system, knowledge of the social collaboration between the humans (miners) and the technology they use for their work must be developed. By implication, knowledge of the human's subject-oriented and object-oriented activities should be considered as an important integral resource for developing a better technological, organisational and human interactive subsystem when designing the intelligent automation and digitisation systems for deep mines. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study focused on understanding the social collaboration between humans and the technologies they use to work in underground mines. The learning provides an added knowledge in designing technologies and work organisations that could better enhance the human-technology interactive and collaborative system in the automation and digitisation of underground mines. PMID:21973002
Sanda, M-A; Johansson, J; Johansson, B; Abrahamsson, L
Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the development of social cognition: food. We begin by reviewing the available literature on infants' and children's development in the food domain and identify situations in which children evidence both successes and failures in their interactions with foods. We focus specifically on the role that other people play in guiding what children eat and argue that understanding patterns of successes and failures in the food domain requires an appreciation of eating as a social phenomenon. We next propose a series of questions for future research and suggest that examining food selection as a social phenomenon can shed light on mechanisms underlying children's learning from others and provide ideas for promoting healthy social relationships and eating behaviors early in development. PMID:22390670
Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D; DeJesus, Jasmine M
The oral research community needs an understanding of the social causes, consequences, and costs of disease in relation to oral health. This workshop concluded that HIV infection constitutes a special dental need requiring specific arrangements to facilitate oral care for infected persons. Oral manifestations of HIV infection affect everyday life, but more evidence is needed on the effects of interventions to alleviate these impacts. Other oral health habits add to the burden of HIV/AIDS-associated oral diseases and compete with them for resources. These problems are most acute where the prevalence of HIV is high and resources are scarce. Effective health promotion is therefore important in these areas. Without data on the utility of oral health care in developing countries, practical approaches are guided by societal and multidisciplinary principles. There are also important ethical considerations. PMID:21441492
Umadevi, K R; Blignaut, E; Glick, M; Nasir, E; Yengopal, V; Younai, F; Robinson, P G
A model of problematic adolescent behavior that expands current theories of social skill deficits in delinquent behavior to consider both social skills and orientation toward the use of adaptive skills was examined in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 113 male and female adolescents. Adolescents were selected on the basis of moderate to serious risk for difficulties in social
This study examined socialproblem-solving performance in high-functioning schizophrenia (n=26) and its relation to neurocognition. Ten healthy controls were used as a comparison group. Socialproblem-solving was assessed with the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (AIPSS) method. The schizophrenia group was outperformed by healthy controls on all AIPSS measures, reaching statistical significance for sending skills. Exploration of the internal
Anja Vaskinn; Kjetil Sundet; Christina M. Hultman; Svein Friis; Ole A. Andreassen
This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with\\u000a a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection\\u000a in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and relations with parents,\\u000a on substance use. Results
This paper introduces the concept of xenoracism to social work in order to increase practitioners' awareness of the ever-shifting parameters of exclusionary discourses and to provide social work with a more in-depth understanding of current social policy for asylum seekers. It argues that social work continues to rely on outdated views and old-fashioned definitions of racism yet exclusionary discourses have
The hospital environment is characterized by time pressure, uncertain information, conflicting goals, high stakes, stress, and dynamic conditions. These demands mean there is a need for nurses with socialproblem-solving skills. This study set out to (1) investigate the socialproblem-solving ability of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students in Macao and (2) identify the association between communication skill, clinical interaction, interpersonal dysfunction, and socialproblem-solving ability. All nursing students were recruited in one public institute through the census method. The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The study used the Chinese version of the SocialProblem Solving Inventory short form (C-SPSI-R), Communication Ability Scale (CAS), Clinical Interactive Scale (CIS), and Interpersonal Dysfunction Checklist (IDC). Macao nursing students were more likely to use the two constructive or adaptive dimensions rather than the three dysfunctional dimensions of the C-SPSI-R to solve their problems. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that communication ability (ß=.305, p<.0001), clinical interaction (ß=.129, p=.047), and interpersonal dysfunction (ß=-.402, p<.0001) were associated with socialproblem-solving after controlling for covariates. Macao has had no problem-solving training in its educational curriculum; an effective problem-solving training should be implemented as part of the curriculum. With so many changes in healthcare today, nurses must be good socialproblem-solvers in order to deliver holistic care. PMID:23141038
Most prevention and intervention activities directed toward HIV/AIDS and alcohol and other drug use separately as well as the combining of the two (e.g., those who are both HIV/AIDS and using alcohol and other drugs) comes in the form of specific, individualized therapies without consideration of social influences that may have a greater impact on this population. Approaching this socialproblem from the narrowed view of individualized, mi-cro solutions disregards the larger social conditions that affect or perhaps even are at the root of the problem. This paper analyzes the socialproblem of HIV/AIDS and alcohol and other drug abuse using three sociological perspectives—social construction theory, ethnomethodology, and conflict theory—informing the reader of the broader influences accompanying this problem.
PATTERSON, DAVID A.; Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), Silver
Tests the efficacy of socialproblem-solving therapy for unipolar depression and examines the relative contribution of training in the problem-orientation component of the overall model. This process involves various beliefs, assumptions, appraisals, and expectations concerning life’s problems and one’s problem-solving ability. It is conceptually distinct from the remaining four problem-solving components that are specific goal-directed tasks. A dismantling research design,
Skill with different representations and multiple representations is highly valued in physics, and prior work has shown that novice physics students can struggle with the representations typically used in solving physics problems. There exists work in PER examining student use of representations and multiple representations, but there have been no comprehensive attempts to understand what factors influence how introductory students succeed or fail in using representations in physics. This thesis is such an attempt, and is organized around four main goals and results. First, we establish that representation is a major factor in student performance, and uncover some of the mechanisms by which representation can affect performance, including representation-dependent cueing. Second, we study the effect of different instructional environments on student learning of multiple representation use during problem solving, and find that courses that are rich in representations can have significant impacts on student skills. Third, we evaluate the role of meta- representational skills in solving physics problems at the introductory level, and find that the meta-representational abilities that we test for in our studies are poorly developed in introductory students. Fourth, we characterize the differences in representation use between expert and novice physics problem solvers, and note that the major differences appear not to lie in whether representations are used, but in how they are used. With these results in hand, we introduce a model of student use of representations during physics problem solving. This model consists of a set of practical heuristics plus an analysis framework adapted from cultural-constructivist theory. We demonstrate that this model can be useful in understanding and synthesizing our results, and we discuss the instructional implications of our findings.
Skill with different representations and multiple representations is highly valued in physics, and prior work has shown that novice physics students can struggle with the representations typically used in solving physics problems. There exists work in PER examining student use of representations and multiple representations, but there have been no comprehensive attempts to understand what factors influence how introductory students succeed or fail in using representations in physics. This thesis is such an attempt, and is organized around four main goals and results. First, we establish that representation is a major factor in student performance, and uncover some of the mechanisms by which representation can affect performance, including representation-dependent cueing. Second, we study the effect of different instructional environments on student learning of multiple representation use during problem solving, and find that courses that are rich in representations can have significant impacts on student skills. Third, we evaluate the role of meta-representational skills in solving physics problems at the introductory level, and find that the meta-representational abilities that we test for in our studies are poorly developed in introductory students. Fourth, we characterize the differences in representation use between expert and novice physics problem solvers, and note that the major differences appear not to lie in whether representations are used, but in how they are used. With these results in hand, we introduce a model of student use of representations during physics problem solving. This model consists of a set of practical heuristics plus an analysis framework adapted from cultural-constructivist theory. We demonstrate that this model can be useful in understanding and synthesizing our results, and we discuss the instructional implications of our findings.
|This study investigated how metacognition appears as a socially shared phenomenon within collaborative mathematical word-problem solving processes of dyads of high-achieving pupils. Four dyads solved problems of different difficulty levels. The pupils were 10 years old. The problem-solving activities were videotaped and transcribed in terms of…
Iiskala, Tuike; Vauras, Marja; Lehtinen, Erno; Salonen, Pekka
Anticipated regret is an important determinant in risky decision making, however only a few studies have explored its role in problem gambling. This study tested for differences in the anticipation of regret among social and problem gamblers and examined how these differences affect risk preferences in a gambling task. The extent of problem gambling was assessed using the South Oaks
National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India - a 'rising power' with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health related commodities provide some excellent examples of illuminating social science. Future research agendas on health systems issues need to include innovative empirical work that captures the dynamics of transnational processes and that links macro-level change to fine-grained observations of social life. PMID:22963264
Professional societies have been reluctant to enter actively into the public processes by which decisions are made on economic, social, and political issues. This reluctance comes from (1) fears about the status of the profession and the professional society, (2) fears about economic reprisal, (3) potential conflicts between the goals of a philosophy of trade unionism and the goals of a philosophy of professional social responsibility, and (4) domination of some professional societies by nonprofessional business, industrial, or administrative groups. This reluctance has been justified by the development of a myth that the professional can exercise individual social responsibility while maintaining the neutrality of his institutions and societies. This myth must be ignored because our public decision-making processes can only function properly if groups, such as professional societies, actively enter that decision-making process.
Background. Antiobesity interventions have generally failed. Research now suggests that interventions must be informed by an understanding of the social environment. Objective. To examine if new social networks form between families participating in a group-level pediatric obesity prevention trial. Methods. Latino parent-preschool child dyads (N = 79) completed the 3-month trial. The intervention met weekly in consistent groups to practice healthy lifestyles. The control met monthly in inconsistent groups to learn about school readiness. UCINET and SIENA were used to examine network dynamics. Results. Children's mean age was 4.2 years (SD = 0.9), and 44% were overweight/obese (BMI ? 85th percentile). Parents were predominantly mothers (97%), with a mean age of 31.4 years (SD = 5.4), and 81% were overweight/obese (BMI ? 25). Over the study, a new social network evolved among participating families. Parents selectively formed friendship ties based on child BMI z-score, (t = 2.08; P < .05). This reveals the tendency for mothers to form new friendships with mothers whose children have similar body types. Discussion. Participating in a group-level intervention resulted in new social network formation. New ties were greatest with mothers who had children of similar body types. This finding might contribute to the known inability of parents to recognize child overweight.
Gesell, Sabina B.; Bess, Kimberly D.; Barkin, Shari L.
|Social phobia can be conceptualized from a social work perspective as an extreme shyness that can be overcome with cognitive learning and behavioral rehearsal. This article reviews the biopsychosocial causes of social phobia and presents a summary of cognitive and behavioral interventions with empirically demonstrated effectiveness. (Author)|
In this paper, I attempt to describe the implications of dynamical approaches to science for research in the experimental study of behavior. I discuss the differences between classical and dynamical science, and focus on how dynamical science might see replication differently from classical science. Focusing on replication specifically, I present some problems that the classical approach has in dealing with dynamics and multiple causation. I ask about the status and meaning of “error” variance, and whether it may be a potent source of information. I show how a dynamical approach can handle the sort of control by past events that is hard for classical science to understand. These concerns require, I believe, an approach to variability that is quite different from the one most researchers currently employ. I suggest that some of these problems can be overcome by a notion of “behavioral state,” which is a distillation of an organism's history.
Sex selection by sperm sorting seems ethically acceptable for social reasons. Sex selection after preimplantation embryo sexing results in the use of non-trivial means (discard healthy embryos) to fulfill a trivial desire. In this case, proportionality between means and ends is missing, and cultural reasons should not be accepted to justify its use. PMID:12408541
|Construction of an idealized decision-making model discloses four major curriculum and instruction perspectives within the rubric of the new social studies. The matrix is based upon the decision contexts of content and process and is designed to help differentiate between varying intellectual positions, techniques, and strategies. Patterns of…
In the present study, the authors investigated what prosocial-assertive, passive, and coercive strategies 6-year-olds (N = 257) would propose in response to stories about 2 socially challenging situations: displacing another child in a game and obtaining a toy from another child. The scenarios also varied the gender composition of the characters. Participants' verbalizations while acting out their responses using toy
Vanessa A. Green; Antonius H. N. Cillessen; Ruth Rechis; Meagan M. Patterson; Julie Milligan Hughes
This paper presents an application of social network theory to the analysis of asymmetric attack events in the current Iraq conflicts. Specifically, the degrees of centrality and closeness centrality are studied with respect to event locations (cities), claims by insurgent groups, and event occurrences. Data for analysis was obtained during the month of August 4-6, 2006. Although the sample size
Although many economists do a serious and respectable work, main stream economic theory contains an almost complete disregard for the importance of social, cultural and political structures which are the very foundation of the society. Worse than that, such disregard is developed into arrogance when representatives and textbook maintain the illusions of economic main stream science as value free, and
Sex selection by sperm sorting seems ethically acceptable for social reasons. Sex selection after preimplantation embryo sexing results in the use of non-trivial means (discard healthy embryos) to fulfill a trivial desire. In this case, proportionality between means and ends is missing, and cultural reasons should not be accepted to justify its use.
|Reviews the articles on counselor and supervisory self-efficacy in this issue of JCP (Larson's Social Cognitive Model of Counselor Training is the theme). Provides advice about cafeteria-style theorizing, and deals with definitional and measurement issues (particularly the definition of counselor self-efficacy). Discusses relationship issues and…
This two-part program, first broadcast in April 2000, is being rebroadcast in response to requests from judges and court personnel for information that will help them deal more effectively with the fast growing Social Security disability docket. Part one ...
Science has often been viewed, by the majority of our educators and the general public, as being objective and emotionless. Based on this view, our educators teach science in the same manner, objectively and in an abstract form. This manner of teaching has hindered our learners' ability for active learning and distanced them from the subject matter. In this action research, I have examined holistic science pedagogy in conjunction with a constructivism theory. In holistic science pedagogy, scientific knowledge is combined with subjective personal experiences and social issues. There is an interaction between student and scientific data when the student's context, relationships, and lived experiences that play a role in the scientific recognition of the world were incorporated into the learning process. In this pedagogical model, the factual content was viewed from the context of social and ethical implications. By empowering learners with this ability, science knowledge will no longer be exclusive to a select group. This process empowers the general population with the ability to understand scientific knowledge and therefore the ability to make informed decisions based on this knowledge. The goal was to make curriculum developers more conscious of factors that can positively influence the learning process and increase student engagement and understanding within the science classroom. The holistic approach to science pedagogy has enlightened and empowered our adult learners more effectively. Learners became more actively engaged in their own process of learning. Teachers must be willing to listen and implement student suggestions on improving the teaching/learning process. Teachers should be willing to make the effort in connecting with their students by structuring courses so the topics would be relevant to the students in relation to real world and social/ethical and political issues. Holistic science pedagogy strives for social change through the empowerment of adult learners with scientific knowledge. This research has demonstrated that learners can better understand the decision-making process and more easily relate their experiences, and therefore their knowledge, to social/political and ethical issues.
This study examined the role of instrumentality, expressivity, satisfaction with social support, and size of the social network in predicting problem-solving appraisal in both male and female college students. Two-hundred fifteen primarily white undergraduates (137 female, 78 male) completed the Problem Solving Inventory, Social Support Inventory, Personal Attribute Questionnaire, and Social Network. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that for both men
Given to the remarkable profitability of digital items in social virtual worlds (SVWs), such as SecondLife, Cyworld, and Habbo Hotel, it has become crucial to understand SVW users' postadoption behaviors toward digital items. This study develops a theoretical framework to examine key antecedents of users' intentions to repurchase and recommend digital items. Data collected from 256 users of digital items were empirically tested against the research model. The analysis results indicate that both user satisfaction and a perceived value play an important role in establishing users' postadoption intentions about digital items. Moreover, the results clearly show what roles perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, and perceived fee play in SVW environments. PMID:22924676
The SocialProblem Solving Inventory-Revised Scale (SPSI-R) has been shown to be a reliable and valid self-report measure of socialproblem-solving abilities. In busy medical and rehabilitation settings, a brief and efficient screening version with psychometric properties similar to the SPSI-R would have numerous benefits including decreased patient and caregiver assessment burden and administration/scoring time. Thus, the aim of the current study was to identify items from the SPSI-R that would provide for a more efficient assessment of global socialproblem-solving abilities. This study consisted of three independent samples: 121 persons in low-vision rehabilitation (M age=71 years old, SD=15.53), 301 persons living with diabetes mellitus (M age=58, and SD=14.85), and 131 family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities (M age=56 years old, SD=12.15). All persons completed a version of the SPSI-R, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Using Rasch scaling of the SPSI-R short-form, we identified a subset of 10 items that reflected the five-component model of socialproblem solving. The 10 items were separately validated on the sample of persons living with diabetes mellitus and the sample of family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities. Results indicate that the efficient 10-item version, analyzed separately for all three samples, demonstrated good reliability and validity characteristics similar to the established SPSI-R short form. The 10-item version of the SPSI-R represents a brief, effective way in which clinicians and researchers in busy health care settings can quickly assess global problem-solving abilities and identify those persons at-risk for complicated adjustment. Implications for the assessment of socialproblem-solving abilities are discussed. PMID:19267395
Dreer, Laura E; Berry, Jack; Rivera, Patricia; Snow, Marsha; Elliott, Timothy R; Miller, Doreen; Little, Todd D
The SocialProblem Solving Inventory-Revised Scale (SPSI-R) has been shown to be a reliable and valid self-report measure of socialproblem-solving abilities. In busy medical and rehabilitation settings, a brief and efficient screening version with psychometric properties similar to the SPSI-R would have numerous benefits including decreased patient and caregiver assessment burden and administration/scoring time. Thus, the aim of the current study was to identify items from the SPSI-R that would provide for a more efficient assessment of global socialproblem-solving abilities. This study consisted of three independent samples: 121 persons in low-vision rehabilitation (M age = 71 years old, SD = 15.53), 301 persons living with diabetes mellitus (M age = 58, and SD = 14.85), and 131 family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities (M age = 56 years old, SD = 12.15). All persons completed a version of the SPSI-R, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Using Rasch scaling of the SPSI-R short-form, we identified a subset of 10 items that reflected the five-component model of socialproblem solving. The 10 items were separately validated on the sample of persons living with diabetes mellitus and the sample of family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities. Results indicate that the efficient 10-item version, analyzed separately for all three samples, demonstrated good reliability and validity characteristics similar to the established SPSI-R short form. The 10-item version of the SPSI-R represents a brief, effective way in which clinicians and researchers in busy health care settings can quickly assess global problem-solving abilities and identify those persons at-risk for complicated adjustment. Implications for the assessment of socialproblem-solving abilities are discussed.
Dreer, Laura E.; Berry, Jack; Rivera, Patricia; Snow, Marsha; Elliott, Timothy R.; Miller, Doreen; Little, Todd D.
|Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…
Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang
|Interpersonal problem solving skills training, an approach to increasing social support and decreasing stress, was found to be a relevant and potentially helpful service intervention with three single parents and one couple, all of whom had developmentally disabled children. (CL)|
The purposes of this study were to identify Humanities and Social Sciences Students' problems in reading English and their causes, and to set guidelines for content improvement and better teaching-learning management of the course \\
The paper describes in a very concise manner the importance of social policy in solving certain societal problems that are influenced on the one hand by ethical values and realpolitik power structures on the other. Social policy as a means of societal policy itself is not governed by ethical principles, it can however be used as a tool of transforming society. However, apart from the necessary political power, certain economic preconditions have to be fulfilled in order to realise sociopolitical ideas and a "socially just" distribution of the national income. Social measures thus are a compromise between societal policy and political and economic power, aimed at eliminating societal problems that have resulted, or could result, in political activities of individual groups. People with disabilities therefore should not be content with pointing out existing societal problems but should act as political pressure group in order to force solution of their problems. PMID:7624592
Interpersonal problem solving skills training, an approach to increasing social support and decreasing stress, was found to be a relevant and potentially helpful service intervention with three single parents and one couple, all of whom had developmentally disabled children. (CL)
The correlation of migrant workers and other socialproblems are studied from the aspects of the concept of â€œmigrant workersâ€ and social discrimination, â€œnew generationâ€ and mobility of social class and the sex structure of new generation migrant workers. The results show that the â€œworkerâ€ in the â€œmigrant workerâ€ comes from the â€œwork for other peopleâ€; although the â€œmigrant workerâ€
The proportion of elderly people in the Czech population is increasing. Old age is often associated with loneliness, which significantly leads to a medical institutionalization. In addition to that, depression, dementia, and alcohol abuse may occur as a result and cause of further deterioration. We describe a case of a woman who has spent substantial part of the last five years of her life being hospitalized at departments of psychiatry, neurology, and internal medicine respectively. Social factors played an important role in this development. The vicious circle of loneliness, depression, and institutionalization of elderly people may be overcome in several ways, e.g. by an adequate physical, mental, and social activity, self-education, psychotherapy, outpatients nursing care, and an early diagnostics and treatment of depression. PMID:14626568
The article explores problem gambling in poker. The distinctions between chance and skill and between bank games and social games are applied to demonstrate how poker is structurally different from most other gambling games. Bank games are organised around a central actor such as the house, the casino or the bookmaker. In social games, players compete against each other on
|Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing…
Purpose – This paper aims to provide an overview of social exclusion and the way in which people with mental health problems are excluded from mainstream society in contemporary Britain. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents the main findings of the work of the Royal College of Psychiatrists Scoping Group on Social Exclusion and Mental Health. Findings – An individual is
|This study examined the contribution of maternal childhood histories of aggression and social withdrawal to the prediction of mother-child socialproblem solving in the next generation. Fifty-seven women (M = 37.32 years), previously rated (on a version of the pupil evaluation inventory) by their peers during childhood on measures of aggression…
Martin, Julie P.; Stack, Dale M.; Serbin, Lisa A.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Ledingham, Jane
|It has been suggested that people engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) because they (a) experience heightened physiological arousal following stressful events and use NSSI to regulate experienced distress and (b) have deficits in their socialproblem-solving skills that interfere with the performance of more adaptive social responses.…
This article focuses on the process by which a socialproblem is redefined in response to a critical event. Critical events are contextually dramatic happenings, such as economic depressions, environmental disasters, intense physical confrontations, strategic initiatives by a social movement organization, or new public policies. A critical event focuses public attention, which is itself a scarce resource in the claims?making
|Objective: This study examined childhood behavior problems at ages 10 and 11 years as predictors of young adult depression, social phobia, and violence at age 21 years. Method: Data were collected as part of the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study of 808 elementary school students from high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle.…
Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lengua, Liliana J.; McCauley, Elizabeth
|School social workers frequently serve as the primary mental health providers to youths with mental health problems. Although school social workers play a primary role in care, many students also receive outside counseling services. Previous research has not examined whether practice approaches differ when considering mental health practice with…
McManama O'Brien, Kimberly H.; Berzin, Stephanie C.; Kelly, Michael S.; Frey, Andy J.; Alvarez, Michelle E.; Shaffer, Gary L.
A programme for training social skills to a group of 6?year?old children was developed and evaluated. The group consisted of eight children, four boys and four girls; three of these were considered to be at risk of developing emotional and behavioural problems. The targeted skills were supporting, cooperating, establishing social contacts, participating, reducing aggression and handling conflict situations. The theoretical
Annlaug Flem; Ragnar Thygesen; Harald Valås; Elin Magnes
|Background: Little is known about how best to implement behavioral screening recommendations in practice, especially for children in foster care, who are at risk for having social-emotional problems. Two validated screening tools are recommended for use with young children: the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE) identifies…
Jee, Sandra H.; Conn, Anne-Marie; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Blumkin, Aaron; Baldwin, Constance D.; Szilagyi, Moira A.
|The problems mankind faces are of such overwhelming importance that it is easy to see why we are interested in integrating the academic disciplines to study war, violence, and social change. Could not the behavioral sciences, properly mobilized, enable us to reduce the probabilities of war and violence, and make social change more tolerable?…
We confronted 151, 5th and 6th elementary grade pupils with a quantitative problem in a mathematics or religion class, to examine the influence of the context on pupils’ understanding and solution of such problems inside and outside the mathematics class. Pupils were first asked to solve a problem about fair sharing either during a mathematics or a religion class. Afterwards,
We confronted 151, 5th and 6th elementary grade pupils with a quantitative problem in a mathematics or religion class, to examine the influence of the context on pupils' understanding and solution of such problems inside and outside the mathematics class. Pupils were first asked to solve a problem about fair sharing either during a mathematics or…
Dewolf, Tinne; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven
This study examined the relations between aggressive problem-solving strategies and aggressive behavior, and the intervening role of social acceptance in that relation in early and late adolescence. The subjects were 1655 11- and 17-year-old adolescents (863 girls and 792 boys). They completed a questionnaire measuring aggressive problem-solving strategies, while assessments of aggressive behavior and social acceptance were obtained by peer
The relations between cultural influences,perfectionism, socialproblem solving, and subsequentsuicidal risk (viz., hopelessness and suicide potential)were examined among 148 college students. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to determinewhether socialproblem solving predicted suicidal risk(1 month later) beyond what was accounted for by ethnicstatus (Asian American or Caucasian American) and perfectionism. Results of these analysesindicated that ethnic status (Step 1) was
Relationships among suicidal ideation, involvement in bully-victim problems at school, and perceived social support were investigated with samples of adolescent students (N = 1103 and N = 845) attending secondary school in South Australia. Results obtained from self-reports and peer nomination procedures to identify bullies and victims indicated that involvement in bully-victim problems at school, especially for students with relatively little social support, was significantly related to degree of suicidal ideation. PMID:10407965
|Measurement of social stressors among Hispanic women is a growing and important area of study, particularly in terms of understanding explanatory mechanisms for health disparities. This study involved adaptation of the Hispanic Stress Inventory and the Latin American Stress Inventory to create a measure of social stressors specifically for both…
Kindergarten and 1st-grade boys were administered social cognitive interviews in 2 consecutive years to investigate the response-generation step of N. R. Crick and K. A. Dodge's (1994) social information processing model. Boys generated responses to 4 types of hypothetical social dilemmas. Responses to these situations were primarily prosocial, with a large minority of avoidant and antisocial solutions. In general, older
Our understanding of social insect behavior has significantly influenced A.I. and multi-robot systems' research (e.g. ant algorithms and swarm robotics). In this work, however, we focus on the opposite question, namely: \\
Tucker Balch; Frank Dellaert; Adam Feldman; Andrew Guillory; Charles Isbell; Zia Khan; Andrew Stein; Hank Wilde
Social networks have changed the way information is delivered to the customers, shifting from traditional one-to-many to one-to-one communication. Opinion mining and sentiment analysis offer the possibility to understand the user-generated comments and explain how a certain product or a brand is perceived. Classification of different types of content is the first step towards understanding the conversation on the social
The importance of science within hazard mitigation cannot be underestimated. Robust mitigation polices rely strongly on a sound understanding of the science underlying potential natural disasters and the transference of that knowledge from the scientific community to the general public via governments and policy makers. We aim to investigate how and why the public's knowledge, perceptions, response, adjustments and values towards science have changed throughout two decades of research conducted in areas along and adjacent to the Sumatran and Cascadia subduction zones. We will focus on two countries subject to the same potential hazard, but which encompass starkly contrasting political, economic, social and environmental settings. The transfer of scientific knowledge into the public/ social arena is a complex process, the success of which is reflected in a community's ability to withstand large scale devastating events. Although no one could have foreseen the magnitude of the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, the social devastation generated underscored the stark absence of mitigation measures in the nations most heavily affected. It furthermore emphasized the need for the design and implementation of disaster preparedness measures. Survey of existing literature has already established timelines for major events and public policy changes in the case study areas. Clear evidence exists of the link between scientific knowledge and its subsequent translation into public policy, particularly in the Cascadia context. The initiation of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program following the Cape Mendocino earthquake in 1992 embodies this link. Despite a series of environmental disasters with recorded widespread fatalities dating back to the mid 1900s and a heightened impetus for scientific research into tsunami/ earthquake hazard following the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, the translation of science into the public realm is not widely obvious in the Sumatran context. This research aims to further investigate how the enhanced understanding of earthquake and tsunami hazards is being used to direct hazard mitigation strategies and enables direct comparison with the scientific and public policy developments in Cascadia.
Shannon, R.; McCloskey, J.; Guyer, C.; McDowell, S.; Steacy, S.
This research focuses on understanding how socio-psychological dimensions such as student social identity and student perceptions\\u000a of their learning community affect learning at university. To do this, it integrates ideas from phenomenographic research\\u000a into student learning with ideas from research on social identity. In two studies (N?=?110, and N?=?97) the relationships between student social identity, perceptions of the learning community,
Ana-Maria Bliuc; Robert A. Ellis; Peter Goodyear; Daniela Muntele Hendres
Social media has deeply penetrated workplace, which has affected multiple aspects of employees' lives. This paper aims to investigate the influence of social media on employees' work performance and the underlying mechanism for how they create value at work. Based on media synchronicity and social capital theories, we propose that social media can promote work performance by stimulating trust among
Xiongfei Cao; Douglas R. Vogel; Xitong Guo; Hefu Liu; Jibao Gu
Although striking and pervasive failure of socialunderstanding is commonly viewed as a major defining characteristic of people with autism, few follow-up reports were published that have focused on improvement of social intelligence. In this prospective study in which 17 high-functioning adolescents with autism were involved, cognitive shifting as measured by card sorting tests, unlike overall intelligence, was shown to
Hans J. C. Berger; Karel P. M. van Spaendonck; Martin W. I. M. Horstink; Elly L. Buytenhuijs; Patty W. J. M. Lammers; Alexander R. Cools
This paper explores how a group of Korean born, Korean?American high school students came to understand race and racism in the US through social interactions and conversations, with particular attention paid to the locality of time, space and people engaged. Therefore, we explore not only how race and racism are socially constructed in the lives of the participants, but also
|This paper explores how a group of Korean born, Korean-American high school students came to understand race and racism in the US through social interactions and conversations, with particular attention paid to the locality of time, space and people engaged. Therefore, we explore not only how race and racism are socially constructed in the lives…
This research focuses on understanding how socio-psychological dimensions such as student social identity and student perceptions of their learning community affect learning at university. To do this, it integrates ideas from phenomenographic research into student learning with ideas from research on social identity. In two studies (N = 110, and N…
Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Ellis, Robert A.; Goodyear, Peter; Hendres, Daniela Muntele
This article explores the multiple and shifting ways in which disability intersects with other sources of social disadvantage. Disablism forms part of an intricate web of social conditions that subjugate certain forms of ‘student-subjects' and create compounding forms of oppression and exclusion that need to be addressed through relevant education policy and practice. Intersectional understandings of disability expose the multiple
This paper presents findings from a descriptive research on social gaming. A video-enhanced diary method was used to understand the user experience in social gaming. From this experiment, we found that natural human behavior and gamer's decision making process can be elicited and speculated during human computer interaction. These are new information that we should consider as they can help
This paper examines the reflection problem that arises when a researcher observing the distribution of behavior in a population tries to infer whether the average behavior in some group influences the behavior of the individuals that comprise the group. It is found that inference is not possible unless the researcher has prior information specifying the composition of reference groups. If
We investigate the performance of a variant of Axelrod's model for dissemination of culture--the Adaptive Culture Heuristic (ACH)--on solving an NP-Complete optimization problem, namely, the classification of binary input patterns of size F by a Boolean Binary Perceptron. In this heuristic, N agents, characterized by binary strings of length F which represent possible solutions to the optimization problem, are fixed at the sites of a square lattice and interact with their nearest neighbors only. The interactions are such that the agents' strings (or cultures) become more similar to the low-cost strings of their neighbors resulting in the dissemination of these strings across the lattice. Eventually the dynamics freezes into a homogeneous absorbing configuration in which all agents exhibit identical solutions to the optimization problem. We find through extensive simulations that the probability of finding the optimal solution is a function of the reduced variable F/N(¼) so that the number of agents must increase with the fourth power of the problem size, N?F?, to guarantee a fixed probability of success. In this case, we find that the relaxation time to reach an absorbing configuration scales with F? which can be interpreted as the overall computational cost of the ACH to find an optimal set of weights for a Boolean binary perceptron, given a fixed probability of success. PMID:21230556
|Examines how the minority drug problem is framed in terms of anomie and underclass models suggesting that drug subcultures in urban black areas are formed as an adaptation to aggregate community conditions. The article considers how researchers use ecological and ethnographic data to back up claims that drug subcultures are a response to inner…
This article describes problems in sensory integration shown by some institutionalized and post-institutionalized children. The types of problems in sensory integration are discussed as well as contributing factors. Case studies are offered as examples. Implications of these findings for social work are presented.
This paper examines the effect of problem solving activity during computer- supported collaborative problem solving in digital social networks and introduces the 'Struggle Analysis Framework (SAF)', for analyzing interactions in these networks; interactions will be called 'struggle'. A study of collaborative modeling has been contacted in the frame of an authentic educational activity among students in a secondary school and
ObjectiveTo examine (1) the extent to which negative perceptions of support from family, school, and peers differ with regard to their impact on emotional and behavioral problems and (2) the extent to which negative perceptions of multiple social support systems are related to the presence of multiple emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence.
There are limited studies examining risk factors associated with child mental health problems in developing countries. To explore the association between social and educational factors and child mental health problems among primary school age children in Karachi, children aged 5–11 years were randomly selected from 27 mainstream schools in Karachi. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and a socio-demographic checklist were
There are limited studies examining risk factors associated with child mental health problems in developing countries. To explore the association between social and educational factors and child mental health problems among primary school age children in Karachi, children aged 5–11 years were randomly selected from 27 mainstream schools in Karachi. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and a socio-demographic checklist were
Based on the notions of social and socio?mathematical norms we investigate how these are established during the interactions of pre?service teachers who solve mathematical problems. Norms identified in relevant studies are found in our case too; moreover, we have found norms related to particular aspects of the problems posed. Our results show that most of these norms, once established, enhance
|Examined relations between early family risk and later maladaptive social information processing and conduct problems among 178 economically disadvantaged boys. Found that early childhood assessments of disadvantage and maternal depression predicted boys' maladaptive response generation and conduct problems at age 10, accounting for 6 and 14…
There is an increasing focus on deficiencies in problem solving as a vulnerability factor for suicidal behavior in general and hence a target for treatment in suicide attempters. In view of the uncertainty of evidence for this in adolescents we conducted a systematic review of the international research literature examining the possible relationship between deficiencies in socialproblem-solving skills and
The present meta-analytic review examined the magnitude of the relation between discrete emotion knowledge and three of its most commonly studied correlates in childhood and adolescence: social competence, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. Emotion knowledge demonstrated small to medium-sized relations with each correlate.…
Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and socialproblems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between depressive problems and three types of functioning in adolescents while testing gender differences. Depressive problems and functioning of 2,230 children were measured with structured questionnaires. The measurements took place biennially over 3 waves, from late childhood into adolescence (age range = 10-18 years). To examine the longitudinal relation between depression and functioning, path analyses with cross-lagged effects were conducted with structural equation modeling. Multigroup analyses were used to test for gender differences, which were only observed for academic performance. Other findings indicated substantial stability in depressive problems and functioning over time and within-wave correlations between depression and the 3 types of functioning. Poor social well-being was predicted by depressive problems but not the other way around. The relation between depressive and socialproblems was bidirectional, that is, they predicted each other. Finally, depressive problems and academic performance were bidirectionally related as well but only in girls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23566082
Verboom, Charlotte E; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Verhulst, Frank C; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Ormel, Johan
This article reflects on theory in social work. With a starting point in the contemporary discussion of evidence-based social work, we raise questions about the role of theory. To understand empirical data, we need theory. The arena of social work is an open field for many academic disciplines, and theories used for understandingsocial work are mostly imported from general
Professor Austin explores four main areas in this paper. First of all he outlines the physical development of sex differentiation in the embryo. He develops this by describing the clinical manifestations of abnormality which can appear at that stage. Professor Austin points out that there are relatively few people with abnormalities and that those who do show homosexual tendencies are not noticeably different from the norm in terms of their sexual equipment and hormone levels. It is much more likely that their psychological and social development has a greater influence in differentiating them sexually. The last section of the paper is a synopsis of society's reactions to homosexuality or bisexuality which term in Professor Austin's opinion is more accurate and descriptive of the condition.
|This study aimed to explore family day care (FDC) educators' knowledge of child social and emotional wellbeing and mental health problems, the strategies used to promote children's wellbeing, and barriers and opportunities for promoting children's social and emotional wellbeing. Thirteen FDC educators participated in individual semi-structured…
Thirty NF1-patients (mean age 11.7 years, SD = 3.3) and 30 healthy controls (mean age 12.5 years, SD = 3.1) were assessed\\u000a on social skills, autistic traits, hyperactivity-inattention, emotional problems, conduct problems, and peer problems. Cognitive\\u000a control, information processing speed, and social information processing were measured using 5 computer tasks. GLM analyses\\u000a of variance showed significant group differences, to the disadvantage of NF1-patients, on all measures
Cognitive-behavioral treatment programs for adult sex offenders often include training geared to improve a perpetrator's socialproblem-solving skills. However, little empirical evidence exists to date that documents the relationship between problem-solving and deviant sexual interest or behavior among child molesters. As such, this study investigated the association between problem-solving and two aspects of sexual offending—self-reported sexual deviancy and clinician-rated sexual
Christine Maguth Nezu; Arthur M. Nezu; Jonathan A. Dudek; Michelle A. Peacock; Jeffrey G. Stoll
This study examined the impact of socialproblem-solving training on the behavior of five aggressive boys. Acquisition of problem-solving skills and changes in classroom behavior were evaluated using multiple-baseline designs within and across subjects. A generalization-programming procedure to promote the use of problem-solving skills in the natural environment was introduced across children in multiple-baseline fashion. Direct observation and behavior ratings
This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students’ commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors’ process of assimilation, and to reflect on their ethnic and racial identity as a means toward increased self-awareness and future culturally responsive practice. Content analysis revealed 11 themes, including students’ enlightenment of their privilege, experiences of cultural loss, and acknowledgment of biases as integral parts of culturally responsive practice. Implications for social work education and research are addressed.
BENDER, KIMBERLY; NEGI, NALINI; FOWLER, DAWNOVISE N.
This study investigates the relationship be- tween social connections and collective civic action. Measuring social capital in eight Phoenix, Arizona, neighborhoods allowed the authors to determine that in- dividuals with strong social bonding (i.e., association and trust among neighbors) are more likely to take civic action. How- ever, while social capital lessens the rela- tionship between an individual's social status
Larissa Larsen; Sharon L. Harlan; Bob Bolin; Edward J. Hackett; Diane Hope; Andrew Kirby; Amy Nelson; Tom R. Rex; Shaphard Wolf
There has been growing concern in Brazil for environmental issues in the last two decades. The conservation policies for Amazonia, which still represents the largest portion of forests of the country, are still based on isolated decisions made in the late 1970's. Among these policies there is, for instance, the plan for the establishment of a net of National Parks, proposed by Wetterberg et al. (1), based on the 'Pleistocene refugia' model. These refugia are areas of high species endemism, representing forest islands formed during the dry periods of the Pleistocene age, constituting the center of evolution and dispersal of Amazonian species (2). A number of parks and biological reserves have since been established and the decreese of laws protecting some elements of the fauna have been implemented. In 1979, studies for a more comprehensive plan for the conservation and development of Brazilian Amazonia were carried out in several institutions committed to research in Amazonia. As a result, several documents were handed to the government, but nothing has yet been implemented. Indeed, no environmental policy for Amazonia will succeed without an effective and comprehensive social plan, and the latter has yet to be formulated. PMID:21227780
ABSTRACT Purpose: To understand the professional socialization of physical therapy (PT) students. Method: Forty-two students enrolled in our newly developed master's degree programme wrote three-page reflective journals on a critical learning incident after each of three selected clinical experiences. The journals were coded and analyzed, and major themes were identified and described. A separate cohort of 44 students participated in focus groups after the same three clinical experiences to check the trustworthiness of the results. Results: Following the first placement, the main themes coded were emotions, self-confidence, professionalism in the real world, communication, and learning by doing. After the intermediate placement, major themes were idealism versus realism, depth of communication with clients, and breadth of communication with family members and colleagues. Aspects of clinical learning were variable, and self-confidence remained an issue. After the final placement, most students were deeply engaged with their clients and self-confidence had developed to the point of self-efficacy. Tensions increased between the concept of ideal practice and the pragmatics of actual practice, and the concept of self as protégé (rather than as object of the supervisor's evaluation) emerged. The themes were subsequently assembled in a booklet with representative quotations. Conclusion: These results contribute to foundational knowledge required by PT educators, including clinical instructors, by explicitly describing the professional socialization of PT students.
Cultural neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field of research that investigates interrelations among culture, mind and the brain. Drawing on both the growing body of scientific evidence on cultural variation in psychological processes and the recent development of social and cognitive neuroscience, this emerging field of research aspires to understand how culture as an amalgam of values, meanings, conventions, and artifacts that constitute daily social realities might interact with the mind and its underlying brain pathways of each individual member of the culture. In this article, following a brief review of studies that demonstrate the surprising degree to which brain processes are malleably shaped by cultural tools and practices, the authors discuss cultural variation in brain processes involved in self-representations, cognition, emotion and motivation. They then propose (i) that primary values of culture such as independence and interdependence are reflected in the compositions of cultural tasks (i.e. daily routines designed to accomplish the cultural values) and further (ii) that active and sustained engagement in these tasks yields culturally patterned neural activities of the brain, thereby laying the ground for the embodied construction of the self and identity. Implications for research on culture and the brain are discussed.
Understanding how money shapes and memorizes our social interactions is central to modern life. There are many schools of thought on as to how monetary systems contribute to crises or boom/bust cycles and how monetary policy can try to avert them. We find that statistical physics gives a refreshing perspective [1-3]. We analyze how credit mechanisms introduce non-locality and time-heterogeneity to the monetary memory. Motivated by an analogy to particle physics, locality and time-homogeneity can be imposed to monetary systems. As a result, a full reserve banking system  is complemented with a bi-currency system of non-bank assets (``money'') and bank assets (``antimoney''). Payment can either be made by passing on money or by receiving antimoney. As a result, a free floating exchange rate between non-bank assets and bank assets is established. Interestingly, this monetary memory allows for credit creation by the simultaneous transfer of money and antimoney at a negotiated exchange rate. We analyze this novel mechanism of liquidity transfer in a model of random social interactions, yielding analytical results for all relevant distributions and the price of liquidity under the conditions of a fully transparent credit market.[4pt]  European Physical Journal B 17, 723729 (2000).[0pt]  Reviews of Modern Physics 81, 1703 (2009).[0pt]  Physica A 321, 605--618 (2003).[0pt]  Ryan-Collins, Greenham, Werner, Jackson, Where Does Money Come From? positivemoney.org.uk.
Braun, Dieter; Schmitt, Matthias; Schacker, Andreas
Summary: Science education can help people to understand the nature and utility of science, and contribute to developing informed and active citizen. Hence, the purpose of this study was to see if problem-based learning (PBL) in experimental vacation' courses, with emphasis on the historical and epistemological foundations, could increase students' understanding regarding nature of scientific knowledge. After initial strangeness, our
Vanderlei Folmer; Félix A. Soares; João B. T. Rocha
The article examines how recent research and writing regarding the neurological impact of trauma and early attachment experiences might inform our understanding of sexual behavior problems, particularly in dealing with children and adolescents. The author suggests that neurologically based processing difficulties contribute to many of the behavioral and learning problems exhibited by these clients and argues for a treatment approach
This paper presents a simple and effective technique for teaching Newton's Laws of Motion for rigid-body problems, and extends existing Free Body Diagram methods to include a Kinematics Diagram. Students find that this approach makes dynamics problemsunderstandable. Several worked examples are included.
Objective: This study focuses on the health, family, and social functioning of spouses of late-life remitted and continuing problem drinkers, and on predictors of spouses' alcohol-related functioning and depressive symptoms. Method: Three groups of spouses were compared at baseline and a 10-year follow-up: (a) spouses (n = 73) of older adults who had no drinking problems at baseline or follow-up, (b) spouses (n = 25) of older adults who had drinking problems at baseline but not follow-up, and (c) spouses (n = 69) of older adults who had drinking problems at both baseline and follow-up. At each contact point, spouses completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol-related, health, family, and social functioning. Results: At baseline, compared with spouses of problem-free individuals, spouses of older adults whose drinking problems later remitted reported more alcohol consumption, poorer health, more depressive symptoms, and less involvement in domestic tasks and social and religious activities. At the 10-year follow-up, spouses of remitted problem drinkers were comparable to spouses of problem-free individuals, but spouses of continuing problem drinkers consumed more alcohol, incurred more alcohol-related consequences, and had friends who approved more of drinking. Overall, spouses whose friends approved more of drinking and whose partners consumed more alcohol and had drinking problems were likely to consume more alcohol and to have drinking problems themselves. Conclusions: Spouses of older adults whose late-life drinking problems remit can attain normal functioning; however, spouses of older adults with continuing late-life drinking problems experience some ongoing deficits.
Moos, Rudolf H.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Bernice S.
The present meta-analytic review examined the magnitude of the relation between discrete emotion knowledge and three of its most commonly studied correlates in childhood and adolescence: social competence, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. Emotion knowledge demonstrated small to medium-sized relations with each correlate. Moderators of effect size were also examined and included multiple sample and methodological characteristics. Using random effects models, significant moderators of effect size for relations between emotion knowledge and externalizing problems included sample recruitment, sample age, and the source of externalizing problems ratings. Moderators of effect size were not found for emotion knowledge and social competence, and the effect sizes across samples for emotion knowledge and internalizing problems were homogeneous. Results highlight the relatively consistent yet modest relations between emotion knowledge and its correlates. Implications for applied research and new directions for research on emotion knowledge using innovative methods are discussed.
HIV medication adherence remains a challenge and limits the degree to which treatment benefit can be maximized. The purpose of this paper is to test an explanatory model of HIV medication adherence using a socialproblem-solving (SPS) framework. Associations of SPS with adherence are hypothesized to be direct and/or indirect via psychological health. HIV+ adults were interviewed using validated measures of SPS, psychological health, and antiretroviral (ART) medication adherence. Structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques were employed to test hypothesized relationships and to evaluate overall fit of the model to the data. SEM supported an indirect association (but not direct) of SPS on adherence via psychological health among the 545 HIV+ adults included in the analyses. Overall, the findings resulted in a model of adherence that offered very good fit to the data and correctly classified 97% of the cases as adherent versus non-adherent. Results support the use of SPS as a conceptual framework for understanding adherence to ART. Findings offer rationale and direction for SPS interventions to enhance adherence by improving psychological health. Such approaches, if effective, have the potential to positively impact psychological well being and adherence, thereby maximizing clinical benefit from treatment, which is linked to lower mortality from AIDS.
Johnson, Mallory O.; Elliott, Timothy R.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Morin, Stephen F.; Chesney, Margaret A.
This study examined social skills and behavior of children with disabilities (CWD) and the impact of siblings on these behaviors. Eighty-five CWD diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder only (ADHD-o), Learning Disability or Learning Problems (LD\\/LP), ADHD and LD combined (ADHD\\/LD) or Spina Bifida (SB) and their siblings were evaluated using standardized social skills and behavior rating scales. The ADHD-o group
Jill J. Fussell; Michelle M. Macias; Conway F. Saylor
Drawing on the Second Discourse and the Social Contract and Notes from Underground and “The Dream of a Ridiculous Man,” this essay examines the striking similarities and fundamental differences between Dostoevskij’s\\u000a and Rousseau’s treatment of the problem of individual vs. society and their notions of ideal social relations. The essay investigates\\u000a Rousseau’s attempt to absorb morality into politics and “to
Explores high school students' collaborative efforts in solving qualitative physics problems and investigates how and whether confronting students with varying views improves problem solving skills. (Contains 22 references.)
This book contains selected research papers presented at seminars held in Finland throughout the year 2000 by members of the Finnish Association for Research in Mathematics and Science Education (FARMSE) and students at the Finnish Graduate School of Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry Education. Papers include: "The Finnish Graduate School of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry Education" (Maija Ahte and Virpi Vatanen); "A Hidden Regulating Factor in Mathematics Classrooms: Mathematics-Related Beliefs" (Erkki Pehkonen); "Primary School Teachers' Mathematics Beliefs, Teaching Practices and Use of Textbooks" (Paivi Perkkila); "Mathematics for Primary School Teachers" (Silja Pesonen); "The Metalevel of Cognition-Emotion Interaction" (Markku S. Hannula); "Problem Solving in Chemistry and Science Education" (Georgios Tsaparlis); "Physics Education Research: Inseparable Contents and Methods--The Part Played by Critical Details" (Laurence Viennot); "The Force Concept Inventory in Diagnosing the Conceptual Understanding of Newtonian Mechanics in Finnish Upper Secondary Schools" (Johanna Jauhiainen, Ismo T. Koponen, and Jari Lavonen); "An Evaluation of Interactive Teaching Methods in Mechanics: Using the Force Concept Inventory To Monitor Student Learning" (Antti Savinainen).Most papers contain references.
Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder that is characterized by social and communicative impairments. Social robots recognize and respond to human social cues with appropriate behaviors. Social robots, and the technology used in their construction, can be unique tools in the study of autism. Based on three years of integration and immersion with a clinical research group which performs more
Over the past 30 years, increasing numbers of social workers have entered the field of alcohol and other drug addiction treatment. Many of them have assumed supervisory roles. Social workers who supervise addiction counselors are supervising across an often unrecognized cultural divide between the professions of social work and addictions counseling. This article compares the social work and addiction counseling
Ongoing fragmentation between social groups on the appropriate targets and relevant actors for nature conservation signals the need for further advancements in theorizing about the human–nature interaction. Through a focus on the complexity of social thought and confrontations between social groups, the theory of social representations may provide a useful addition to conventional approaches. However, environmental issues have so far
Arjen Buijs; Tasos Hovardas; Helene Figari; Paula Castro; Patrick Devine-Wright; Anke Fischer; Carla Mouro; Sebastian Selge
The development of preventive interventions targeting adolescent problem behaviors requires a thorough understanding of risk and protective factors for such behaviors. However, few studies examine whether different cultural and ethnic groups share these factors. This study is an attempt to fill a gap in research by examining similarities and differences in risk factors across racial and ethnic groups. The social development model has shown promise in organizing predictors of problem behaviors. This article investigates whether a version of that model can be generalized to youth in different racial and ethnic groups (N = 2,055, age range from 11 to 15), including African American (n = 478), Asian Pacific Islander (API) American (n = 491), multiracial (n = 442), and European American (n = 644) youth. The results demonstrate that common risk factors can be applied to adolescents, regardless of their race and ethnicity. The findings also demonstrate that there are racial and ethnic differences in the magnitudes of relationships among factors that affect problem behaviors. Further study is warranted to develop a better understanding of these differential magnitudes.
Choi, Yoonsun; Harachi, Tracy W.; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Catalano, Richard F.
The differences in the types of representations constructed during successful and unsuccessful problem-solving episodes were investigated within the context of graduate students working on problems that involve concepts from 2D-NMR. Success at problem solving was established by having the participants solve five problems relating to material just…
People make errors in their creative problem-solving efforts. The intent of this article was to assess whether error-management training would improve performance on creative problem-solving tasks. Undergraduates were asked to solve an educational leadership problem known to call for creative thought where problem solutions were scored for quality, originality, and elegance. Prior to beginning work on their problem solutions, participants
Issac C. Robledo; Kimberly S. Hester; David R. Peterson; Jamie D. Barrett; Eric A. Day; Dean P. Hougen; Michael D. Mumford
This paper presents findings from a descriptive research on social gaming. A video-enhanced diary method was used to understand\\u000a the user experience in social gaming. From this experiment, we found that natural human behavior and gamer’s decision making\\u000a process can be elicited and speculated during human computer interaction. These are new information that we should consider\\u000a as they can help
The author presents, on the basis of the available literature, an issue of work-related diseases which are identified as diseases of multi-factor etiology. This group of diseases can be induced or progressed by unfavourable working conditions. Among them, the effect of certain chemicals, dust pollution, unphysiological job performance and psycho-social factors plays an essential role. Because of multi-factor etiology of some work-related diseases such as back pains, arterial hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, chronic bronchitis and psycho-somatic illnesses, the diagnosis, collection of information on the incidence and undertaking of preventive measures involve a muldisciplinary system of health care, mainly based on occupational health services. PMID:8834598
The risk of transmission of primate viruses to humans is great because of their genetic proximity. It is now clear that the HIV group of retroviruses came from primates and that the origin of HIV1 is the chimpanzee subspecies of Central Africa, Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Many African primates are natural hosts of retroviruses and details of the natural history of both hosts and viruses are essential to understand the evolution of the latter. Data on the demography, ecology and behaviour of three species of primates (gorillas, chimpanzees and mandrills), studied in the Lopé Reserve in Central Gabon since 1983, are analysed to identify the factors that allow, or favour, disease transmission within each species, between different species and between primates and humans. The comparison of the relative degree of risk suggests that of the three species, chimpanzees are the most susceptible to exposure to infection both from conspecifics and from other species. With respect to humans, the comparative analysis suggests greater exposure to viruses of mandrills and gorillas than to those of chimpanzees. For primates, major risk factors are: large social groups; bites inflicted in fights; social grooming; and predation on mammals. However, given that contacts between social groups of the same species are rare, the spread of a virus through a population will be slow and uncertain. Hunting wild animals is the behaviour most likely to provide transmission routes for primate viruses into human populations because of the high probability of blood-blood contact. Not only the hunters themselves, but also women who prepare bush meat for cooking and people involved in trade of carcasses are at high risk of transmission of pathogens. Hunting of bush meat is increasing in Central Africa due to the economic recession and the spread of logging into the forests of the interior of the region. To counter the significant risk of transmission of known, as well as new, diseases from primates to humans, urgent measures are needed to attack the root causes of commercial hunting which is not only risk to public health but also a serious threat to biodiversity in the region. PMID:11030048
|Because social class and classism remain elusive constructs in psychology, this 2-part article first lays the foundation for the Social Class Worldview Model and then the Modern Classism Theory. A case example is used for illustration. The authors also provide counseling applications and recommendations for future research.|
Liu, William Ming; Soleck, Geoffrey; Hopps, Joshua; Dunston, Kwesi; Pickett, Theodore, Jr.
Perfectionism, problem solving, and mindfulness have all been variously implicated in the experience and treatment outcomes\\u000a for depression. Maladaptive perfectionism represents a cognitive set that is believed to exacerbate the symptoms of depression,\\u000a whereas socialproblem solving is believed to play a role in potentially buffering the effects of perfectionism on depressive\\u000a symptomatology. Little is currently known about the role
This study examines how social metacognition (including evaluations and questions) affected micro-creativity during group problem solving. Twenty groups of high school students were videotaped as they solved a mathematics problem. Analyses of the 2,951 conversation turns showed that the likelihood of a correct contribution (CC, a measure of micro-creativity) was higher after a group member expressed a wrong, new idea,
Statistics—estimates, official statistics, and statistical research—play a central role in constructing socialproblems. Claimsmakers' estimates typically exaggerate the extent of these problems; research statistics are considered more accurate. Yet the National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children (NISMART) produced an estimate for family abductions far higher than the figure offered by missing-children activists. Extrapolations for family abductions
The ability of young children to manage their emotions and behaviors and to make meaningful friendships is an important prerequisite for school readiness and academic success. Socially com- petent children are also more academically successful and poor social skills are a strong predictor of academic failure. This article describes The Incredible Years Dinosaur Social Skills and Problem- Solving Child Training
This study investigated individual differences in sixth-grade students (N = 181; 47% girls, ethnically diverse) use of friends as a coping resource when dealing with a social stressor with another peer at school. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized three factor structure of coping with friends: mastery, avoidance, and…
Problem gambling rates are increasing, but few of those requiring help receive it; stigma is often cited as a reason why treatment is not forthcoming. Such is the context for this study, possibly the first to examine Internet-based help for gambling problems. The study ex- plored problem gamblers' use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) as a facet of their recovery. Fifty
This study examined (a) whether a developmental model or a model in which all subscales' measurement errors are correlated best explains the relationships among White racial identity (WRI) statuses, and (b) socialproblem-solving (SPS) skills as a predictor of WRI. Path analysis was conducted with a sample of 255 White undergraduate students from…
|Background: Several studies have reported relationships between life events and psychological problems in people with intellectual disabilities. In contrast to the general literature, data have consistently been collected via proxy informants and putative moderator variables such as social support have not been examined. Materials and Methods:…
Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hastings, Richard P.; Crowe, Rachel; Pemberton, Jemma
This article describes a study in which the authors combined information from case studies of eight social studies teachers and their students to describe how teachers used computer databases to aid student problem solving, what students learned from the experience, and what enabled and inhibited effective use. Findings emphasized the importance of time constraints and pressure, prior student knowledge, use
Lee H. Ehman; Allen D. Glenn; Vivian Johnson; Charles S. White
|This study examined social skills and behavior of children with disabilities (CWD) and the impact of siblings on these behaviors. Eighty-five CWD diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder only (ADHD-o), Learning Disability or Learning Problems (LD/LP), ADHD and LD combined (ADHD/LD) or Spina Bifida (SB) and their siblings were…
Fussell, Jill J.; Macias, Michelle M.; Saylor, Conway F.
|In recent years, sickle cell screening programs have been initiated by community groups, health centers, hospitals, medical schools, health departments, school systems, city and State governments, various branches of the Federal Government, fraternal and social clubs, and other organizations. Problems have resulted from mass sickle cell…
|Parts I and II of a four-part report on a study of the relevance of existing knowledge about child development to social science curriculum development are combined in this document. Part I explores the problem of inadequate communication between the developmental psychologists and curriculum workers and suggests some directions for cooperative…
The purpose of this study is to identify trends in the historical development of inquiry and common elements in models of inquiry; evaluate the extent to which inquiry theory has been incorporated in representative inquiry oriented social studies curriculum project materials; and examine problems in curriculum development for inquiry skills. To…
The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…
Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.
The present study evaluated in small group program designed to enhance social interaction between children and their autistic siblings. Group sessions used problem solving, role-playing, rehearsal, homework projects, and contingency management procedures. Positive interactions, controlling interactions and nonverbal signing served as individual baselines in a multiple baseline design with replications across three children and follow-up assessment at three and six
M. Louise Clark; Lesley J. Cunningham; Charles E. Cunningham
Archival data from a survey of parent observations was used to determine the prevalence of social and behavioral problems in children with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). Parent observations were surveyed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for 61 children with ACC who were selected from the archive based on criteria of motor…
|Although divorce rates have been stable or dropping for two decades, Americans seem anxious about the state of marriage. This article examines reasons for this collective anxiety, documenting how the divorce "problem" has been framed by organizations promoting conservative family values. Also identifies social contexts associated with cyclical…
Describes socialproblem-solving programs for withdrawn and hyperactive children within a school context developed and implemented in a day care center, a Montessori nursery school, a Catholic elementary school, and a Catholic high school. Program implementation and some of the effects on the consultative relationship are also presented. (Author)
|The goal of this exploratory study was to examine correlates of sexual assault disclosure and social reactions in female victims with and without drinking problems. An ethnically diverse sample of sexual assault survivors was recruited from college, community, and mental health agencies. Ethnic minority women were less likely to disclose assault,…
Ullman, Sarah E.; Starzynski, Laura L.; Long, Susan M.; Mason, Gillian E.; Long, LaDonna M.
|This paper makes a case that decision making (DM) is not socialproblem solving (SPS) and DM is subordinate and subsumed within SPS. Both terms are defined and distinguished. Confusion between SPS and DM is widespread and has occurred for at least four decades. DM, not SPS, has been established as one of the seven National Health Education…
This study examined social skills and behavior of children with disabilities (CWD) and the impact of siblings on these behaviors. Eighty-five CWD diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder only (ADHD-o), Learning Disability or Learning Problems (LD/LP), ADHD and LD combined (ADHD/LD) or Spina Bifida (SB) and their siblings were…
Fussell, Jill J.; Macias, Michelle M.; Saylor, Conway F.
Chronological changes in the neurological manifestations of spina bifida are well recognized in the early developmental periods: fetal, neonatal, infantile, pre-school and school life. However, little has been written about the medical and medico-socialproblems of spina bifida patients in adulthood. Patients now in this age group had the condition diagnosed and managed in an era when modern neurosurgical concepts
Although divorce rates have been stable or dropping for two decades, Americans seem anxious about the state of marriage. This article examines reasons for this collective anxiety, documenting how the divorce "problem" has been framed by organizations promoting conservative family values. Also identifies social contexts associated with cyclical…
This paper reports on a three year study of patterns of student-student social interaction that mediated metacognitive activity in senior secondary school mathematics classrooms. Transcripts of small group problem solving were analysed to determine how a collaborative zone of proximal development could be created through interaction between peers of comparable expertise, and to investigate conditions under which such interaction led
|Examined whether the social organization of problem solving of Guatemalan Mayan indigenous mothers and children varied with the mothers' school experience. Found that mothers with little schooling were involved more in horizontal, multiparty engagements while solving a puzzle with three children, whereas mothers with extensive schooling were…
The Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) contains items referring to behavior problems seen in children with milder variants of PDD. Data of large samples of children diagnosed as having high-functioning autism, PDDNOS, ADHD, and other child-psychiatric disorders were gathered. Besides the CSBQ, parents completed the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The data provided the basis
Ellen Luteijn; Frans Luteijn; Sandy Jackson; Fred Volkmar; Ruud Minderaa
Children's exposure to violence has been identified as a mental health, social, and public health problem. However, this issue has not reached national priority status or received major funding for prevention and intervention programs. This article summarizes the conclusions and recommendations of a Think Tank that was conducted in Fall 2006 by the Institute on Violence, Abuse, and Trauma at
Robert Geffner; Dawn Alley Griffin; James Lewis III
|Archival data from a survey of parent observations was used to determine the prevalence of social and behavioral problems in children with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). Parent observations were surveyed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for 61 children with ACC who were selected from the archive based on criteria of motor…
The present study examined the relationships between dissociative experiences, sensation seeking scores, and gambling behavior. On the basis of the frequency of their gambling behavior and responses to the Gamblers Anonymous Twenty Questions, subjects were designated as either problem gamblers (N=30) or social gamblers (N=30).
|At Aalborg University (AAU) we are known to work with problem-based learning (PBL) in a particular way designated "The Aalborg PBL model." In PBL the focus is on participant control, knowledge sharing, collaboration among participants, which makes it interesting to consider the integration of social media in the learning that takes place. In this…
|Low employment and underemployment rates for students with disabilities have drawn national attention resulting in federal legislation. The research literature indicates a strong relationship between job success and interpersonal factors, especially for employees with disabilities. This study investigated social skills and problem behaviors of…
The goal of this exploratory study was to examine correlates of sexual assault disclosure and social reactions in female victims with and without drinking problems. An ethnically diverse sample of sexual assault survivors was recruited from college, community, and mental health agencies. Ethnic minority women were less likely to disclose assault, and women with a greater number of traumatic life
Sarah E. Ullman; Laura L. Starzynski; Susan M. Long; Gillian E. Mason; LaDonna M. Long
Despite widespread concern regarding the effects of teenage drug use, there has been little effort to establish specifically what long-term consequences arise from such use and whether these adverse outcomes may be mitigated by a supportive social network. We obtained data from 654 teenagers when they were in early and late adolescence and used it to evaluate resultant problems reported