The importance of social entrepreneurship in social, cultural and economic terms is increasingly acknowledged. Drawing on data from the second Social Entrepreneurship Monitor report published by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) UK project, this article focuses on the social entrepreneurs who may grow the social enterprises of the future.…
Fox, Dennis R.
Reform-minded social scientists often assume that increased social scientific knowledge leads inevitably to advances in understanding and amelioration of difficult social problems. Asserts that, although important social problems do raise empirical questions, at their core these problems are nonempirical. Solutions must be based on political…
Kenney, Donald J.
This review of social problem novels for young adults opens with a brief background of the genre, then lists the dominant themes of social problem fiction and nonfiction novels that have been published in the last two years, such as alcoholism, alienation, death, growing up and self-awarness, drugs, and divorce. Other themes mentioned are…
Soon after the Space Shuttle Columbia accident occurred last year, a group of CFD analysts from NASA centers and private industry was organized to help determine the cause of the accident. This group was under the direction of the Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch of the Aeroscience and Flight Mechanics Division at the Johnson Space Center. For external flow simulations, noncommercia2 CFD codes that specialize in hypersonic or high Mach number flows were used. These tools were used to determine heating rates, pressures, and temperatures for a large number of vehicle damage scenarios. Lockheed Martin Space Operations was called upon to provide CFD support in the area of internal flows within the shuttle wing cavity, and for these simulations, FLUENT 6.1 was chosen. Two large-scale, simplified models were m to understand the flow patterns once a breach of the internal wing cavity was initiated. The results were primarily used to visualize flow patterns within the wing cavity. The first CFD model included the entire lee wing without the wheel well cavity. The purpose of the first model, which did not include the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) cavity along the wing leading edge, was to visualize the flow field within the wing cavity immediately after the leading edge spar breach, This model assumed that the flow coming into the wing cavity was normal to the spar. It included all of the primary vents that allow for flow between the main cavities of the wing. A six-inch diameter hole was modeled in the spar at the approximate location where the spar breach was judged to have occurred, which was between RCC panels 8 and 9. The results of the modeling showed that at this location, the high temperature, high velocity gas stream entering the wing cavity impinged on the outboard wheel well cavity. Instrumentation in the Shuttle wheel well cavity registered abnormal temperatures during reentry, so the FLUENT results helped support the conclusion of the accident investigation team that the spar breach was in the RCC panel 8-9 area, and that the initial spar breach was likely entering the wing cavity normal to the spar. This model also showed that the flow entering the wing cavity tended to swirl within the cavity just outboard of the wheel well, and did not initially penetrate further into the rear cavities of the wing. The second CFD model was a 2-D simulation of the left wing cavity and the RCC cavity. It was used to visualize the flow through the RCC breach, through the wing spar breach, and into the wing cavity directly outboard of the wheel well. The purpose of this model was to verify whether or not it was possible for the flow to come into the wing cavity normal to the leading edge spar. The results from this 2-D model showed that the internal structure behind the RCC panels probably deflected the flow entering the RCC cavity so that it impinged normal to the spar. As in the 3-D model, this deflected flow stream was Found to impinge on the wheel well outer wall. This model again supported the conclusions regarding the location of the spar breach and how the flow behaved inside the wing cavity.
Paul, Thomas H.
Soon after the Space Shuttle Columbia accident occurred last year, a group of CFD analysts from NASA centers and private industry was organized to help determine the cause of the accident. This group was under the direction of the Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch of the Aeroscience and Flight Mechanics Division at the Johnson Space Center. For external flow simulations, noncommercial CFD codes that specialize in hypersonic or high Mach number flows were used. These tools were used to determine heating rates, pressures, and temperatures for a large number of vehicle damage scenarios. Lockheed Martin Space Operations was called upon to provide CFD support in the area of internal flows within the shuttle wing cavity, and or these simulations, FLUENT 6.1 was chosen. Two large-scale, simplified models were run to understand the flow patterns once a breach of the internal wing cavity was initiated. The results were primarily used to visualize flow patterns within the wing cavity. The first CFD model included the entire left wing without the wheel. well cavity. The purpose of the first model, which did not include the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) cavity along the wing leading edge, was to visualize the flow field within the wing cavity immediately after the leading edge spar breach, This model assumed that the flow coming into the wing cavity was nom1 to the spar. It included all o f the primary vents that allow for flow between the main cavities of the wing. A six-inch diameter hole was modeled in the spar at the approximate location where the spar breach was judged to have occurred, which was between RCC panels 8 and 9. The results of the modeling showed that at this location, the high temperature, high velocity gas stream entering the wing cavity impinged on the outboard wheel well cavity. Instrumentation in the Shuttle wheel well cavity registered abnormal temperatures during reentry, so the FLUENT results helped support the conclusion of the accident investigation team that the spar breach was in the RCC panel 8-9 area, and that the initial spar breach was likely entering the wing cavity normal to the spar. This model also showed that the flow entering the wing cavity tended to swirl within the cavity just outboard of the wheel well, and did not initially penetrate further into the rear cavities of the wing. The second CFD model was a 2-D simulation of the left wing cavity and the RCC cavity. It was used to visualize the flow through the RCC breach, through the wing spar breach, and into the wing cavity directly outboard of the wheel well. The purpose of this model was to verify whether or not it was possible for the flow to come into the wing cavity normal to the leading edge spar. The results from this 2-D model showed that the internal structure behind the RCC panels probably deflected the flow entering the RCC cavity so that it impinged normal to the spar. As in the 3-D model, this deflected flow stream was found to impinge on the wheel well outer wall. This model again supported the conclusions regarding the location of the spar breach and how the flow behaved inside the wing cavity.
Curtis, Russell C.; Kimball, Amy; Stroup, Erin L.
Social phobia, a relatively obscure disorder, is receiving increased attention due to evidence suggesting that it is more prevalent and debilitative than once thought. The purpose of this article is to help counselors better understand the nature of and treatments for this disorder. Effective behavioral and pharmacological approaches are reviewed,…
Hytten, Kathy; Bettez, Silvia C.
It has become increasingly common for education scholars to claim a social justice orientation in their work. At the same time, education programs seem to be adding statements about the importance of social justice to their mission, and a growing number of teacher education programs are fundamentally oriented around a vision of social justice.…
In recent years social networking and social interactions have challenged old conceptions in the television landscape. Web applications that offer video content, networked television sets and set-top boxes, and online TV widgets are – or, will be – radically transforming how people watch and interact around television content. Since the wealth of existing solutions and approaches might be daunting to
Understanding Heart Valve Problems and Causes Updated:May 19,2015 Many heart valve problems are first identified by the ... Congenital Heart Defect See all of our brochures Heart Valve Problems and Disease • Home • About Heart Valves • ...
Understanding Social Networks Properties for Trustworthy Computing Abedelaziz Mohaisen, Huy Tran, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA Abstract--The ever-increasing popularity of social networks opens new directions for leveraging social networks to build primitives for security and communication, in many contexts
Misconceptions about forces are very common and seem to arise from everyday experience and use of words. Ways to improve students' understanding of forces, as used in recent a IOP CD-Rom, are discussed here.
To investigate children's ability to describe and make inferences about feelings, thoughts, and intentions that occur in interpersonal relationships, 60 middle class girls were divided into three age groups: 6, 9, and 12 years. Each group viewed two sections of a movie portraying episodes of social interaction. After each section, the children…
Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J.; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H.
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511
Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511
Metzger, Leigh Ann
This report was written to clarify the terms often associated with pornography and to help readers understand the issue of pornography more clearly. The first chapter defines pornography, as it was defined by the United States Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, as "that material (which) is predominantly sexually explicit and intended…
Lewis, Charlie; Koyasu, Masuo; Oh, Seungmi; Ogawa, Ayako; Short, Benjamin; Huang, Zhao
Much of the evidence from the West has shown links between children's developing self-control (executive function), their social experiences, and their social understanding (Carpendale & Lewis, 2006, chapters 5 and 6), across a range of cultures including China. This chapter describes four studies conducted in three Oriental cultures, suggesting…
L. Qiu; Ka Yee Angela LEUNG; N. Tang
Microblogging has recently become a new form of communication that is rapidly changing everyone’s life. Through services such as Twitter, millions of people can broadcast short messages to their followers via instant messaging, SMS, or web interfaces. However, few studies have been conducted to understand the impact of these emerging phenomenons. In this study, we seek to understand the social
Beier, Jonathan S; Spelke, Elizabeth S
Young infants are sensitive to self-directed social actions, but do they appreciate the intentional, target-directed nature of such behaviors? The authors addressed this question by investigating infants' understanding of social gaze in third-party interactions (N = 104). Ten-month-old infants discriminated between 2 people in mutual versus averted gaze, and expected a person to look at her social partner during conversation. In contrast, 9-month-old infants showed neither ability, even when provided with information that highlighted the gazer's social goals. These results indicate considerable improvement in infants' abilities to analyze the social gaze of others toward the end of their 1st year, which may relate to their appreciation of gaze as both a social and goal-directed action. PMID:22224547
Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah
Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. PMID:24962114
Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…
Li, D; Chokka, P; Tibbo, P
Our objective was to examine the neurobiology of social phobia from the perspectives of basic sciences, genetics, immunology, neuroendocrinology, neurotransmission and neuroimaging and to provide an integrated understanding of social phobia in the framework of a hypothetical neural circuit. Family and twin studies provide evidence that social phobia is heritable with significant genetic influence, and molecular genetics offers possibilities in understanding the nature of the trait that is transmitted. The biologic distinctiveness of social phobia from anxiety disorders and physiological validation of differences between generalized and discrete social phobia subtypes have been implicated in genetic, naturalistic and chemical challenge studies. Evidence of specific dysfunction of dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic and GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acid) neurotransmitter systems has been presented in animal models, challenge studies and treatment investigations. Preliminary neuroimaging research supports previous studies suggesting striatal dopaminergic dysfunction in social phobia and suggests the importance of functional circuits. A neural circuit involving the striatum, thalamus, amygdala and cortical structures may provide a framework for integrating much of the current knowledge on the neurobiology of social phobia. PMID:11394189
Greeno, James G.
In the research described in this document, the goal was to develop definite theoretical characterizations of understanding in a specific domain of problems. Some performance that provides persuasive evidence of understanding was chosen, and hypotheses about cognitive structures and processes that cause the performance to occur were developed.…
Almeroth, Kevin C.
are changing the way users communicate and interact with the In- ternet. A deep understanding of user to date. All friendship links in Renren are public, allowing us to exhaustively crawl a connected graph component of 42 million users and 1.66 billion social links in 2009. Renren also keeps de- tailed visitor
Understanding evaluation of faces on social dimensions Alexander Todorov, Chris P. Said, Andrew D these dimensions are based on sim- ilarity to expressions signaling approach or avoidance behavior and features inferences from facial appearance has been to focus on specific trait dimensions (Box 2). For example, among
Weidman, John C.; DeAngelo, Linda; Bethea, Kathryn A.
This chapter describes the contribution of current research using the Weidman model of undergraduate socialization to understanding student identity development in college. It illustrates ways in which the framework can be used flexibly and adapted for studying impacts of multiple aspects of the college experience on diverse groups of students.
BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS
THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN SOCIAL STUDIES. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE. AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH…
Nobes, Gavin; Pawson, Chris
This study investigated 4- to 9-year-olds' understanding of social rules and authority by asking them about stories in which the status (adult or child) of rule inventors, transgressors, and changers varied. Findings indicated that children considered children's transgressions and alteration less permissible than adults', and adult-invented…
Meade, Douglas B.
Hypergeometric Functions Step I -- Understanding the Problem The hypergeometric equation hypergeometric functions): F (ff; fi; fl; x) = 1 + 1 X n=1 (ff) n (fi) n n!(fl) n x n where (t) n = \\Gamma(t + n) \\Gamma(t) . A number properties of hypergeometric functions were established in the text [2, x8
Dunphy-Lelii, Sarah; LaBounty, Jennifer; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.
Traditional looking-time paradigms are often used to assess infants’ attention to socio-cognitive phenomena, but the link between these laboratory scenarios and real-world interactions is unclear. The current study investigated hypothesized relations between traditional social-cognitive looking-time paradigms and their real-world counterparts in caregiver-infant social interaction. Seventy-five 10- to 12-month-old infants participated in a structured play session with their caregiver, as well as a traditional looking-time paradigm targeting intentional action. Infants’ ability to quickly parse intentional displays correlated with several key qualities of their everyday interactions. In particular, caregiver and infant interaction quality, maternal supportiveness, caregiver and infant joint engagement skill, and social attentiveness in infants correlated with faster habituation to looking-time displays. These results support a linkage between social-cognitive looking-time laboratory paradigms and more naturalistic partner interaction, at this key age. The data both provide external validation for the large body of social-cognitive findings emerging from laboratory looking-time paradigms, and contribute to a growing literature tracking the developmental trajectory of infants’ understanding of people over the first two years. PMID:24778577
Brink, Kimberly A.; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.
Contemporary research, often with looking-time tasks, reveals that infants possess foundational understandings of their social worlds. However, few studies have examined how these early social cognitions relate to the child’s social interactions and behavior in early development. Does an early understanding of the social world relate to how an infant interacts with his or her parents? Do early social interactions along with social-cognitive understandings in infancy predict later preschool social competencies? In the current paper, we propose a theory in which children’s later social behaviors and their understanding of the social world depend on the integration of early social understanding and experiences in infancy. We review several of our studies, as well as other research, that directly examine the pathways between these competencies to support a hypothesized network of relations between social-cognitive development and social-interactive behaviors in the development from infancy to childhood. In total, these findings reveal differences in infant social competences that both track the developmental trajectory of infants’ understanding of people over the first years of life and provide external validation for the large body of social-cognitive findings emerging from laboratory looking-time paradigms. PMID:26074859
Brink, Kimberly A; Lane, Jonathan D; Wellman, Henry M
Contemporary research, often with looking-time tasks, reveals that infants possess foundational understandings of their social worlds. However, few studies have examined how these early social cognitions relate to the child's social interactions and behavior in early development. Does an early understanding of the social world relate to how an infant interacts with his or her parents? Do early social interactions along with social-cognitive understandings in infancy predict later preschool social competencies? In the current paper, we propose a theory in which children's later social behaviors and their understanding of the social world depend on the integration of early social understanding and experiences in infancy. We review several of our studies, as well as other research, that directly examine the pathways between these competencies to support a hypothesized network of relations between social-cognitive development and social-interactive behaviors in the development from infancy to childhood. In total, these findings reveal differences in infant social competences that both track the developmental trajectory of infants' understanding of people over the first years of life and provide external validation for the large body of social-cognitive findings emerging from laboratory looking-time paradigms. PMID:26074859
The elderly population is increasing and there is a need to provide care and safety at a high level with limited resources. New social alarm solutions may contribute to safety and independence for many elderly. However, it is important to understand the needs within the user group. This work studied social alarms in a broad sense and from several user perspectives. In the first study, social alarm use and its aspects were investigated. To understand where there may be problems and weaknesses, users, caregivers, managers of municipalities, and personnel at alarm centers were interviewed. The interviews helped identify a number of problems. For municipalities, the processes of procuring new alarms and managing their organization were found to be complex. The effect of this was that the same social alarm systems had been ordered over and over again without taking into account new user needs or new technical solutions. For alarm users, one large problem was that the alarms had very limited reach and were designed for indoor use only. This has resulted in users hesitating to leave their homes, which in turn has negative effects due to lack of physical activity and fewer social contacts. One important result from the first study was the need for a social alarm solution that worked outdoors. In a second study, needs regarding outdoor social alarms were investigated. The results from this study showed that wearable outdoor alarms must be easy to use, provide communication, and be well designed. Finally, these alarms must work both indoors and outdoors, and the user should not have to worry about where he/she is or who is acting on an alarm. PMID:25099060
Gracia Arnaiz, Mabel
This text is part of a broader line of study that aims to analyze how and why certain eating habits and bodily practices have become social problems, as is the case with fatness. We will show that the ideas that support the definition of obesity as a chronic and avoidable disease are leading experts and health authorities, and other social workers, to know and to think about its evolution in terms of "global" illness (epidemic) and to consider cultural factors as their main cause (obesogenic environment). Paradoxically, the international and national preventive measures taken are focused on changing individual behavior and, in particular, eating habits. The concepts about the regulation of excess weight and food provide interesting information about a particular understanding of lifestyles and culture and they take into account the current promotion of health patterns. PMID:21384635
Steinbrink, John E.; Cook, Jeremy W.
Social Security is a contemporary topic that exemplifies a social issue-centered approach to social studies, one that allows students to get beyond the school walls to analyze a contemporary topic that ultimately affects virtually everyone. In this article, the authors provide a brief history of Social Security, describe how it is funded and…
Vivian Hsueh-hua Chen; Henry Been-lirn Duh
Research has argued that social interaction is a primary driving force for gamers to continue to play Massive Multiple Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs). However, one recent study argues that gamers don't really socialize with other players but play alone. Part of the confusion over whether players socialize much and\\/or enjoy socializing while playing MMORPGs may be due to the
Amin, Maina; Olu-Lafe, Olufemi; Claessen, Loes E; Sobczak-Edmans, Monika; Ward, Jamie; Williams, Adrian L; Sagiv, Noam
Much of synaesthesia research focused on colour, but not all cross-domain correspondences reported by synaesthetes are strictly sensory. For example, some synaesthetes personify letters and numbers, in additional to visualizing them in colour. First reported in the 1890s, the phenomenon has been largely ignored by scientists for more than a century with the exception of a few single-case reports. In the present study, we collected detailed self-reports on grapheme personification using a questionnaire, providing us with a comprehensive description of the phenomenology of grapheme personification. Next, we documented the behavioural consequences of personifying graphemes using a congruity paradigm involving a gender judgement task; we also examined whether personification is associated with heightened empathy as measured using Empathy Quotient and found substantial individual differences within our sample. Lastly, we present the first neuroimaging case study of personification, indicating that the precuneus activation previously seen in other synaesthesia studies may be implicated in the process. We propose that frameworks for understanding synaesthesia could be extended into other domains of cognition and that grapheme personification shares more in common with normal cognition than may be readily apparent. This benign form of hyper-mentalizing may provide a unique point of view on one of the most central problems in human cognition - understanding others' state of mind. PMID:21923789
Levine, A. L.
Attempts to apply space age management to social problems were plagued with difficulties. Recent experience in the State of Delaware and in New York City, however, indicate new possibilities. Project management as practiced in NASA was applied with promising results in programs dealing with housing and social services. Such applications are feasible, according to recent research, because project management utilizes social and behavioral approaches, as well as advanced management tools, such as PERT, to achieve results.
Bloom, P N; Novelli, W D
This article reviews the problems that arise when general marketing principles are applied to social programs. Social marketing is conceptualized as the design, implementation, and control of programs seeking to increase the acceptability of a social ideal or practice in a target group. These problems can occur in 8 basic decision-making areas: market analysis, market segmentation, product strategy development, pricing strategy development, channel strategy development, communications strategy development, organizational design and planning, and evaluation. Social marketers find that they have less good secondary data about their consumers, more problems obtaining valid and reliable measures of relevant variables, more difficulty sorting out the relative influence of determinants of consumer behavior, and more problems getting consumer research funded than marketers in the commercial sector. They tend to have less flexibility in shaping their products and more difficulty formulating product concepts. Problems associated with establishing, utilizing, and controlling distribution channels comprise another major difference between social and more conventional forms of marketing. Social marketers also find that their communications options are somewhat limited as a result of problems associated with use of paid advertisements, pressures not to use certain types of appeals in their messages, and the need to communicate large amounts of information in their messages. Moreover, social marketers must function in organizations where marketing activities are poorly understood, underappreciated, and inappropriately located. Finally, they face problems trying to define effectiveness measures or estimating the contribution their program has made toward the achievement of certain objectives. If all these problems are anticipated and handled creatively, social marketing efforts can succeed. PMID:12280283
A social navigation system collects data from its users--its community--about what they are doing, their opinions, and their decisions, aggregates this data, and provides the aggregated data--community data--back to individuals so that they can use it to guide behavior and decisions. Social navigation systems empower users with the ability to…
Chen, Jacqueline M; Hamilton, David L
Two studies investigated how people define and perceive diversity in the historically majority-group dominated contexts of business and academia. We hypothesized that individuals construe diversity as both the numeric representation of racial minorities and the social acceptance of racial minorities within a group. In Study 1, undergraduates' (especially minorities') perceptions of campus diversity were predicted by perceived social acceptance on a college campus, above and beyond perceived minority representation. Study 2 showed that increases in a company's representation and social acceptance independently led to increases in perceived diversity of the company among Whites. Among non-Whites, representation and social acceptance only increased perceived diversity of the company when both qualities were high. Together these findings demonstrate the importance of both representation and social acceptance to the achievement of diversity in groups and that perceiver race influences the relative importance of these two components of diversity. PMID:25713169
Bauminger, Nirit; Edelsztein, Hany Schorr; Morash, Janice
The present study aimed to comprehensively examine social cognition processes in children with and without learning disabilities (LD), focusing on social information processing (SIP) and complex emotional understanding capabilities such as understanding complex, mixed, and hidden emotions. Participants were 50 children with LD (age range 9.4-12.7;…
Holst, John D.
This article has three primary goals centring on a re-examination of the research frameworks we use for understanding the politics of social movements. First, I detail the ideological and methodological deficiencies of the old social movement/new social movement framework. Second, I highlight the positive contributions of research that favoured or…
Mustaeva, F. A.
Problems of the family affect every individual. Problems have an impact on a variety of different social groups and strata, work collectives and neighborhood communities, young people, adults, children, the aged, and so on. The family's sense of well-being and the processes that affect its functioning can also hardly fail to be of concern to…
Walker, Olga L.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Penela, Elizabeth C.; Fox, Nathan A.
The current study examined the associations between the early childhood temperament of behavioral inhibition and children's displays of social problem-solving (SPS) behavior during social exclusion. During toddlerhood (ages 2-3), maternal report and behavioral observations of behavioral inhibition were collected. At age 7, children's SPS behaviors were observed during a laboratory social exclusion task based on the commonly used Cyberball game. Results showed that behavioral inhibition was positively associated with displayed social withdrawal and negatively associated with assertive behavior during the observed social exclusion task at 7 years of age. These results add to our understanding of inhibited children's SPS behaviors during social exclusion and provide evidence for the associations between toddler temperament and children's social behavior during middle childhood. PMID:25360063
Understanding of free-format multi-step arithmetic word problems with extraneous information is discussed. A model including a full set of general skills necessary for understanding such problems was developed and computer implemented. The validity of the simulation was confirmed by testing on a variety of word problems with extraneous information. The results of this study show the way for moving from an intuitive understanding of word problems to a conscious and controlled process.
Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco
1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.
University, the Lawrence Public Library and the library of the University of Kansas for suggestions and material. I wish to thank the following professors at the University of Kansas, for personal help, Professor C.G. Dunlap, Professor B.M....Hopkins, and Professor S.L.Whitcomb especially, for this work has been prepared under his direction. oJUfa^J - , M M T TABLE OF CONTENTS. Page INTRODUCTION 3. CHAPTER I. The Home and the Family ..8. CHAPTER II. Problems of" the Church 33. CHAPTER III...
Lahoz-Beltra, Rafeal; Aickelin, Uwe
We propose a variation of the standard genetic algorithm that incorporates social interaction between the individuals in the population. Our goal is to understand the evolutionary role of social systems and its possible application as a non-genetic new step in evolutionary algorithms. In biological populations, ie animals, even human beings and microorganisms, social interactions often affect the fitness of individuals. It is conceivable that the perturbation of the fitness via social interactions is an evolutionary strategy to avoid trapping into local optimum, thus avoiding a fast convergence of the population. We model the social interactions according to Game Theory. The population is, therefore, composed by cooperator and defector individuals whose interactions produce payoffs according to well known game models (prisoner's dilemma, chicken game, and others). Our results on Knapsack problems show, for some game models, a significant performance improvement as compared to a standard genetic algorithm.
Dunphy-Lelii, Sarah; LaBounty, Jennifer; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.
Traditional looking-time paradigms are often used to assess infants' attention to sociocognitive phenomena, but the link between these laboratory scenarios and real-world interactions is unclear. The current study investigated hypothesized relations between traditional social-cognitive looking-time paradigms and their real-world counterparts…
Doran, Derek; Dagnino, Aldo
Modern society habitually uses online social media services to publicly share observations, thoughts, opinions, and beliefs at any time and from any location. These geotagged social media posts may provide aggregate insights into people's perceptions on a bad range of topics across a given geographical area beyond what is currently possible through services such as Yelp and Foursquare. This paper develops probabilistic language models to investigate whether collective, topic-based perceptions within a geographical area can be extracted from the content of geotagged Twitter posts. The capability of the methodology is illustrated using tweets from three areas of different sizes. An application of the approach to support power grid restoration following a storm is presented.
Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Smith, Gregory T.
Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but which also provides within group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449
Gross, Rebekkah L.; Drummond, Jesse; Satlof-Bedrick, Emma; Waugh, Whitney E.; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A.
We examined how individual differences in social understanding contribute to variability in early-appearing prosocial behavior. Moreover, potential sources of variability in social understanding were explored and examined as additional possible predictors of prosocial behavior. Using a multi-method approach with both observed and parent-report measures, 325 children aged 18–30 months were administered measures of social understanding (e.g., use of emotion words; self-understanding), prosocial behavior (in separate tasks measuring instrumental helping, empathic helping, and sharing, as well as parent-reported prosociality at home), temperament (fearfulness, shyness, and social fear), and parental socialization of prosocial behavior in the family. Individual differences in social understanding predicted variability in empathic helping and parent-reported prosociality, but not instrumental helping or sharing. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior was positively associated with toddlers’ social understanding, prosocial behavior at home, and instrumental helping in the lab, and negatively associated with sharing (possibly reflecting parents’ increased efforts to encourage children who were less likely to share). Further, socialization moderated the association between social understanding and prosocial behavior, such that social understanding was less predictive of prosocial behavior among children whose parents took a more active role in socializing their prosociality. None of the dimensions of temperament was associated with either social understanding or prosocial behavior. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior is thus an important source of variability in children’s early prosociality, acting in concert with early differences in social understanding, with different patterns of influence for different subtypes of prosocial behavior. PMID:26029139
Notterman, Daniel A; Mitchell, Colter
Recently, a new research agenda emphasizing interactions between social factors and health has emerged. The term social determinant of health often refers to any nonmedical factor directly influencing health. Health across the life span is strongly and adversely affected by social disadvantage. Research in epigenetics indicates that alterations in DNA methylation may provide a causal link between social adversity and health disparity. Likewise, accelerated loss of telomeres is correlated with chronic stress. Research is still required to develop an understanding of the role of epigenetics and perturbed telomere function in linking social adversity with health outcome. PMID:26318949
Mitter, Silvia; Strohmaier, Markus
Online social networks (OSN) like Twitter or Facebook are popular and powerful since they allow reaching millions of users online. They are also a popular target for socialbot attacks. Without a deep understanding of the impact of such attacks, the potential of online social networks as an instrument for facilitating discourse or democratic processes is in jeopardy. In this extended abstract we present insights from a live lab experiment in which social bots aimed at manipulating the social graph of an online social network, in our case Twitter. We explored the link creation behavior between targeted human users and our results suggest that socialbots may indeed have the ability to shape and influence the social graph in online social networks. However, our results also show that external factors may play an important role in the creation of social links in OSNs.
Bradford H. Pillow
Two studies investigated children's understanding that preexisting biases may influence the interpretation of behavior. Children heard stories and were asked to take the perspective of an observer who (a) either liked or disliked an actor and (b) either knew or did not know the reason for the actor's ambiguous action. In Experiment 1, kindergarteners and 2nd graders were asked whether
Lombardi, Kara M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the anticipatory socialization experiences of new student affairs professionals. The focus was to gain a deeper understanding of how new professionals experience their anticipatory socialization, specifically the job search and pre-entry communication with their new organizations. The theory that emerged…
Transpersonal Understanding through Social Roles, and Emergence of Cooperation Mamoru Kaneko and J of experiences, and he may use it to construct a richer social view. In addition, role-switching may have some about the game situation. We restrict our exploration to a 2-role (strategic) game, which has been
Baca-Ramirez, Reynaldo; Bryan, Dexter Edward
Although presented by the press as a new phenomenon, the presence of undocumented Mexican workers in the United States is deeply rooted in history. While current policies tend to view illegal immigration as a social problem, the phenomenon persists because it benefits, politically and economically, both Mexico and the U.S. (Author/GC)
Stephen J. Cowley
Like computers before them, social robots can be used as a fundamental research tool. Indeed, they can help us to turn our attention from putative inner modules to thinking about the flow and emergence of human intellectual powers. In so doing, much can be gained from seeking solutions to MacDorman's person problem: how can human bodies - and perhaps robot
Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Holly, Sean
?)] = 0 ? [?1 (?1? ?1? e?? (e? ˇ ? 0 ?) ? ?? ?? ??) ?1] = 0 11 Here, ? includes instruments ? (?) ? and ?(?ˇ2) corresponding to moment con- ditions (5) and (6) respectively; under homoscedasticity, additional moment conditions corresponding to (7) may... and Smith (1986) and Lewbel (2004), we set up the problem as in (9) earlier. Then we obtain the moment conditions: ? [? (e? ˇ ? 0 ?)] = 0 ? [?0 (?1?ˇ?1? e?? (e? ˇ ? 0 ?) ? ?? ?? ??)] = 0 ? [?0 (?1?ˇ?1? e?? (e? ˇ ? 0 ?) ? ?? ?? ??) e?] = 0 ? [?0 (?1?ˇ?1? e...
Cepuch, Grazyna; Pieprzyca, Paulina
Nocturnal enuresis co-exists with various emotional disturbances. Adolescents with bed-wetting problems often demonstrate a lowered self-esteem and self-acceptance. Most adolescents who struggle with this unpleasant condition come from incomplete, dysfunctional families. The illness does not allow the teenager to function comfortably in society and it may lead to increased emotional problems in the psyche of an adolescent person. Sickness does not allow free social functioning teenager and it can be problems in emotive sphere reason of deepening growing person. PMID:21853876
Fitzsimons, Nancy M; Hagemeister, Annelies K; Braun, Elizabeth J
Interpersonal violence against people with disabilities is a significant social problem. Little attention has focused on the rural context and the relevance for understanding violence. Given the dearth of literature exploring interpersonal violence, disability, and rurality, a review of rural-focused literature on domestic violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse was conducted to identify themes that could provide insight into this problem for people with disabilities. Themes include geographic isolation, traditional cultural values and norms, lack of anonymity, lack of resources, and poor response of systems. Implications for understanding interpersonal violence against rural people with disabilities and for social work practice are discussed. PMID:21827301
Filippova, Eva; Astington, Janet Wilde
This study describes the development of social reasoning in school-age children. An irony task is used to assess 5-, 7-, and 9-year-olds' (N = 72) and adults' (N = 24) recursive understanding of others' minds. Guttman scale analysis demonstrates that in order to understand a speaker's communicative intention, a child needs to recognize the…
Hawaii at Hilo, University of
Dolphin Social Cognition and Joint Attention: Our Current Understanding Adam A. Pack1, 2 and Louis M. Herman1, 2 1 The Dolphin Institute, 420 Ward Avenue, Suite 212, Honolulu, HI 96814, USA 2 or locations. Studies of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have revealed that they understand (1) human
Ruffman, Ted; Taumoepeau, Mele; Perkins, Chris
Many authors have argued that infants understand goals, intentions, and beliefs. We posit that infants' success on such tasks might instead reveal an understanding of behaviour, that infants' proficient statistical learning abilities might enable such insights, and that maternal talk scaffolds children's learning about the social world as well. We…
Wolf, Debra M; Olszewski, Kimberly
Social media is a buzzword frequently referred to in marketing materials, general media, and personal conversations. Although many refer to the term social media, some individuals do not understand its meaning or how it affects their daily lives at work and home. Since the expansion of the Internet to web 2.0, multiple platforms of communication occur virtually through various social media. Understanding and learning how to use these platforms are essential to stay connected with friends, family, and colleagues; advance connections to professional organizations; and extend educational opportunities. This article presents basic information for occupational health nurses to improve their understanding of social media and how to communicate virtually using different platforms safely and securely. PMID:26240119
Fang, Lin; Mishna, Faye; Zhang, Vivian F; Van Wert, Melissa; Bogo, Marion
Accompanying the multiple benefits and innovations of social media are the complex ethical and pedagogical issues that challenge social work educators. Without a clear understanding of the blurred boundaries between public and private, the potentially limitless and unintended audiences, as well as the permanency of the information shared online, social work students who use social media can find themselves in difficult situations in their personal and professional lives. In this article, we present three scenarios that illustrate issues and complexities involving social media use by social work students, followed by a discussion and recommendations for social work educators. PMID:25321930
Talib, R; Agus, M R
One of the main characteristics of urbanization in Asia is the very rapid increase in population movement from rural to urban centers. This phenomenon has led to changing population structure, its composition and lifestyles in the cities and its fringes. As a consequent of population pressure on urban system and infrastructure, compounded by the nature of the composition of the in-migrant population, the urban concentrates are faced with several social and socio-economic problems. Although there has been a lot of interests among researchers to study the causes and effects or urbanization, there is a vacuum in the area of health implications. Planners and administrators usually give priority to the physical aspects of the urban and urbanities. Social problems and health implications thereof receives very little attention either at the level of administration or research. This paper therefore is a brave attempt to focus and draw some attention to this neglected area by looking at selected social problems and the health consequences. PMID:1342763
Compressing Social Networks The Minimum Logarithmic Arrangement Problem Chad Waters School Orderings Heuristic Conclusion Motivation Determine the extent to which social networks can be compressed adjacency queries. Social networks are not random graphs. Exhibit distinctive local properties
... Former Problem Drinkers Find It Tricky to Navigate Social Settings: Study Some make excuses for avoiding alcohol, ... problem drinkers can find it tricky to navigate social situations where alcohol is involved, and makes clear ...
Canobi, Katherine H.; Reeve, Robert A.; Pattison, Philippa E.
Examined the relationship between 6- to 8-year olds' conceptual understanding of additive composition, commutativity, and associativity principles and addition problem-solving procedures. Results revealed that conceptual understanding was related to using order-indifferent, decomposition, and retrieval strategies and speed and accuracy in solving…
Huinker, DeAnn M.
Presents an instructional strategy for teaching how to solve word problems and understand the operations involved. Describes the acquisition method of the part-whole relationships of problem situations. Provides some samples of the instructional strategy used and classroom test results. Lists nine references. (YP)
Jarvela, Sanna; Jarvenoja, Hanna; Veermans, Marjaana
The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the dynamics of motivation in socially shared learning from both individual and group perspectives. Higher education students' motivation was analysed in the context of collaborative learning tasks, applying quantitative and qualitative methods. The research questions were: (1) what kind of…
Gladstein, Gerald A.
Analyzed social, developmental, and counseling psychology literature to gain insight into the confusion regarding definition and measurement of empathy. Discussed four proposals for understanding empathy with no clear-cut conclusion regarding the role of empathy in producing positive outcomes. (LLL)
Cargo, Margaret; Salsberg, Jon; Delormier, Treena; Desrosiers, Serge; Macaulay, Ann C.
Purpose: Although implementation fidelity is an important component in the evaluation of school health promotion programs, it assumes that teaching is the most relevant teacher role. To understand the social context of program implementation, a qualitative study was undertaken with the aim of identifying the schoolteacher's role in implementing…
Sevdalis, Vassilis; Keller, Peter E.
In this review article, we summarize the main findings from empirical studies that used dance-related forms of rhythmical full body movement as a research tool for investigating action understanding and social cognition. This work has proven to be informative about behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate links between perceptual and motor…
van der Hoek, André
of California, Irvine Irvine, CA 92697-3440 USA +1 949-824-8904 firstname.lastname@example.org CMU Technical Report CMUChallenges in Measuring, Understanding, and Achieving Social-Technical Congruence Anita Sarma harbors sufficient coordination capabilities to meet the coor- dination demands of the technical products
Baldwin, Dare A.; Moses, Louis J.
Discusses evidence that social understanding informs word learning in infants. Asks: (1) Is genuine social understanding necessary for word learning?; (2) Are social clues criterial for infants' learning?; (3) Can word learning proceed without aid of social understanding?; and (4) Is social clue processing too difficult for everyday word learning?…
Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mackerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patelli, Paolo G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eberhardt, Ariane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stradling, Seth G [Los Alamos National Laboratory
Understanding the process that enables political violence is of great value in reducing the future demand for and support of violent opposition groups. Methods are needed that allow alternative scenarios and counterfactuals to be scientifically researched. Computational social simulation shows promise in developing 'computer experiments' that would be unfeasible or unethical in the real world. Additionally, the process of modeling and simulation reveals and challenges assumptions that may not be noted in theories, exposes areas where data is not available, and provides a rigorous, repeatable, and transparent framework for analyzing the complex dynamics of political violence. This paper demonstrates the computational modeling process using two simulation techniques: system dynamics and agent-based modeling. The benefits and drawbacks of both techniques are discussed. In developing these social simulations, we discovered that the social science concepts and theories needed to accurately simulate the associated psychological and social phenomena were lacking.
Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Walsh, Trudi M.; Andrade, Brendan F.; King, Sara; Carrey, Normand J.
This study examined the association between social problem solving, conduct problems (CP), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits in elementary age children. Participants were 53 children (40 boys and 13 girls) aged 7-12 years. Social problem solving was evaluated using the Social Problem Solving Test-Revised, which requires children to produce…
The following article reports on a small-scale, exploratory study of aggressive and "problem" behaviour in pre-school children. This project was conceived in the wider context of anxieties about childhood and New Labour's policy focus on "anti-social" behaviour in children. Based on interviews with nursery staff and parents in addition to…
SOCIAL LEARNING AS A TOOL TO UNDERSTAND COMPLEX ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTIONS by Kira Furman B of Thesis: Social Learning as a Tool to Understand Complex Adaptive Management Institutions Project Number Defended/Approved: ___________________________________________ #12;iii ABSTRACT Social learning has been
Hubbard, Jeffrey C.; And Others
Explores possible relationships between the mass media of communication and social problems by three-way comparisons between the incidence of social problems suggested in media portrayals, conceptions of the incidence of these problems held by the public, and the relative frequency of such problems reflected in statistics accumulated by official…
Grunspan, Daniel Z.; Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.
Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA)…
Wölfer, Ralf; Cortina, Kai S; Baumert, Jürgen
Based on theories of social-cognitive development, the present study investigated the yet unknown social structure that underlies the concept of empathy in adolescence. A total of 3.159 seventh graders (13.67 years, 56% girls) from 166 school classes participated by providing information on empathy, related psychosocial factors, and friendship patterns. Social network analyses were used to measure a comprehensive representation of adolescents' social environment by covering individual, group, class, and school characteristics. Multilevel models revealed that individual characteristics as well as contextual factors predict adolescents' level of empathy. Findings indicate that empathy is mirrored in the social structure of adolescents supporting the hypothesis that social demands, which continuously grow with the amount of embeddedness, shape their social understanding. PMID:22681757
Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna
Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…
The purpose of this study is to analyze of university students' perceived social support and social problem solving. The participants were 827 (474 female and 353 male) university students. Data were collected Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (Yildirim, 2004) and Social Problem Solving (Maydeu-Olivares and D'Zurilla, 1996)…
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between social problem solving and social selfefficacy and the predictive role of social problem solving skills with social self-efficacy. The sample consists of 706 prospective teachers (362 female and 344 male) who are majoring in different fields at Mugla Sitki Kocman…
Amy Hurst; Jennifer Mankoff; Scott E. Hudson
Understanding how pointing performance varies in real world computer use and over time can provide valuable insight about how systems should accommodate changes in pointing behavior. Unfortunately, pointing data from individuals with pointing problems is rarely studied during real world use. Instead, it is most frequently evaluated in a laboratory where it is easier to collect and evaluate data. We
Attempts have been made recently to determine the identity of the so-called "Aryans" as components of the Indian population by using DNA analysis. This is largely to ascertain whether they were indigenous to India or were foreign arrivals. Similar attempts have been made to trace the origins of caste groups on the basis of varna identities and record their distribution. The results so far have been contradictory and, therefore, not of much help to social historians. There are problems in the defining of categories and the techniques of analysis. Aryan is a linguistic and cultural category and not a biological one. Caste groups have no well-defined and invariable boundaries despite marriage codes. Various other categories have been assimilated into particular castes as part of the evolution of social history on the subcontinent. A few examples of these are discussed. The problems with using DNA analysis are also touched on. PMID:24968702
Hodges, Bert H
Social and developmental psychologists have stressed the pervasiveness and strength of humans' tendencies to conform and to imitate, and social anthropologists have argued that these tendencies are crucial to the formation of cultures. Research from four domains is reviewed and elaborated to show that divergence is also pervasive and potent, and it is interwoven with convergence in a complex set of dynamics that is often unnoticed or minimized. First, classic research in social conformity is reinterpreted in terms of truth, trust, and social solidarity, revealing that dissent is its most salient feature. Second, recent studies of children's use of testimony to guide action reveal a surprisingly sophisticated balance of trust and prudence, and a concern for truth and charity. Third, new experiments indicate that people diverge from others even under conditions where conformity seems assured. Fourth, current studies of imitation provide strong evidence that children are both selective and faithful in who, what, and why they follow others. All of the evidence reviewed points toward children and adults as being engaged, embodied partners with others, motivated to learn and understand the world, others, and themselves in ways that go beyond goals and rules, prediction and control. Even young children act as if they are in a dialogical relationship with others and the world, rather than acting as if they are solo explorers or blind followers. Overall, the evidence supports the hypothesis that social understanding cannot be reduced to convergence or divergence, but includes ongoing activities that seek greater comprehensiveness and complexity in the ability to act and interact effectively, appropriately, and with integrity. PMID:25071687
Buckner, Julia D.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Schmidt, Norman B.
Background People with elevated social anxiety seem vulnerable to marijuana-related impairment. Yet little work has examined core facets of social anxiety that may be especially related to marijuana-related problems. Method The present study examined the relationships between current (past three months) marijuana-related problems and two aspects of social anxiety (fear in social situations and social avoidance) among current (N=102) marijuana users. Results Although both social fear and social avoidance were significantly correlated with marijuana-related problems, only social avoidance was uniquely related to marijuana problems (after controlling for social fear, sex, negative affect, alcohol problems, and marijuana use frequency). Sex moderated the relationship between social avoidance and marijuana-related problems such that men with greater social avoidance exhibited the greatest severity of marijuana-related problems. Conclusions Avoidance of social situations appears robustly related to marijuana-related problems. This finding has important implications for theoretical models that can inform treatment of co-occurring social anxiety and marijuana problems. PMID:20832947
Martin, Alex; Weisberg, Jill
Motivated by neuropsychological investigations of category-specific impairments, many functional brain imaging studies have found distinct patterns of neural activity associated with different object categories. However, the extent to which these category-related activation patterns reflect differences in conceptual representation remains controversial. To investigate this issue, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to record changes in neural activity while subjects interpreted animated vignettes composed of simple geometric shapes in motion. Vignettes interpreted as conveying social interactions elicited a distinct and distributed pattern of neural activity, relative to vignettes interpreted as mechanical actions. This neural system included regions in posterior temporal cortex associated with identifying human faces and other biological objects. In contrast, vignettes interpreted as conveying mechanical actions resulted in activity in posterior temporal lobe sites associated with identifying manipulable objects such as tools. Moreover, social, but not mechanical, interpretations elicited activity in regions implicated in the perception and modulation of emotion (right amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex). Perceiving and understanding social and mechanical concepts depends, in part, on activity in distinct neural networks. Within the social domain, the network includes regions involved in processing and storing information about the form and motion of biological objects, and in perceiving, expressing, and regulating affective responses. PMID:16648880
Popova, Yanna B.
This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones. PMID:25202286
Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia
Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of leaders on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of followers , people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.
Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K
The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions. PMID:25110314
Background To understand how infectious agents disseminate throughout a population it is essential to capture the social model in a realistic manner. This paper presents a novel approach to modeling the propagation of the influenza virus throughout a realistic interconnection network based on actual individual interactions which we extract from online social networks. The advantage is that these networks can be extracted from existing sources which faithfully record interactions between people in their natural environment. We additionally allow modeling the characteristics of each individual as well as customizing his daily interaction patterns by making them time-dependent. Our purpose is to understand how the infection spreads depending on the structure of the contact network and the individuals who introduce the infection in the population. This would help public health authorities to respond more efficiently to epidemics. Results We implement a scalable, fully distributed simulator and validate the epidemic model by comparing the simulation results against the data in the 2004-2005 New York State Department of Health Report (NYSDOH), with similar temporal distribution results for the number of infected individuals. We analyze the impact of different types of connection models on the virus propagation. Lastly, we analyze and compare the effects of adopting several different vaccination policies, some of them based on individual characteristics -such as age- while others targeting the super-connectors in the social model. Conclusions This paper presents an approach to modeling the propagation of the influenza virus via a realistic social model based on actual individual interactions extracted from online social networks. We implemented a scalable, fully distributed simulator and we analyzed both the dissemination of the infection and the effect of different vaccination policies on the progress of the epidemics. The epidemic values predicted by our simulator match real data from NYSDOH. Our results show that our simulator can be a useful tool in understanding the differences in the evolution of an epidemic within populations with different characteristics and can provide guidance with regard to which, and how many, individuals should be vaccinated to slow down the virus propagation and reduce the number of infections. PMID:22784620
Xu, Yuechun; Cui, Zhihua; Zeng, Jianchao
Nonlinear programming problem is one important branch in operational research, and has been successfully applied to various real-life problems. In this paper, a new approach called Social emotional optimization algorithm (SEOA) is used to solve this problem which is a new swarm intelligent technique by simulating the human behavior guided by emotion. Simulation results show that the social emotional optimization algorithm proposed in this paper is effective and efficiency for the nonlinear constrained programming problems.
Medved, Maria I; Brockmeier, Jens; Morach, Judy; Chartier-Courchene, Lori
Many Aboriginal communities call heart problems, and in particular cardiovascular disease, "White man's sickness." At the same time, Aboriginal women present with some of the highest rates of this disease. Against this backdrop, we explored how women with cardiac problems understand their heart health and used narrative-discursive methods to analyze interviews conducted with women from two First Nations in North America. The women told stories that were riddled with contradictions, unfolding a complicated personal and cultural reality of living with cardiovascular disease. In many stories, heart disease was described as resulting from a "community imbalance" in the wake of colonialism whereby the women had to take over the traditional roles of men. Their ideas of heart disease risk and healing flowed from this understanding. They derived a sense of strength, however, from their ability to undertake both gender roles. Based on our findings, we provide some recommendations for cardiac care. PMID:24172021
Possible and Necessary Winner Problem in Social Polls Serge Gaspers UNSW and NICTA Sydney polls. We introduce a simple model of such social polling. We suppose agents vote sequentially provides useful insights into a number of areas including social polling, sequential voting
Possible and Necessary Winner Problem in Social Polls (Extended Abstract) Serge Gaspers UNSW are increasingly being used to conduct polls. We introduce a simple model of such social polling. We suppose agents its simplicity, this model provides useful insights into a number of areas including social polling
Examines the association between social support from various sources and psychosocial problems, and how these associations vary over the life span. Finds that perceived social support and contact with social network members appears to have beneficial effects for all participants, as evidenced through reduced symptoms of depression and loneliness.…
Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.
More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…
Kyeong-Ju Seo, Kay, Ed.; Pellegrino, Debra A., Ed.; Engelhard, Chalee, Ed.
Designing Problem-Driven Instruction with Online Social Media has the capacity to transform an educator's teaching style by presenting innovative ways to empower problem-based instruction with online social media. Knowing that not all instructors are comfortable in this area, this book provides clear, systematic design approaches for instructors…
Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin
The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…
Elias, Maurice J.; Tobias, Steven E.
Based on the premise that systematic instruction in social decision-making and problem-solving skills is a developmental right of all children, this book provides an in-service training program for teaching a set of social decision-making and problem-solving steps that are essential for success in school, in the family, with friends, in the world…
Kofler, Michael J.; Rapport, Mark D.; Bolden, Jennifer; Sarver, Dustin E.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Alderson, R. Matt
Social problems are a prevalent feature of ADHD and reflect a major source of functional impairment for these children. The current study examined the impact of working memory deficits on parent- and teacher-reported social problems in a sample of children with ADHD and typically developing boys (N = 39). Bootstrapped, bias-corrected mediation…
Averdijk, Margit; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis
We investigated whether social relationships protect children against the effects of victimization on internalizing problems. We used data from the Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Victimization at age 8 years was associated with internalizing problems at age 9 years. Victims who had siblings, warm parents, and a…
Choi, You-Jung; Luo, Yuyan
In the present research, we investigated how 13-month-olds use their emergent theory-of-mind understanding (i.e., understanding about other people's mental states, such as their intentions, perceptions, and beliefs) and social-evaluation skills to make sense of social interactions. The infants watched three puppets (A, B, and C) interact. The results showed that after seeing Agents A and B interact in a positive manner, infants expected them to continue doing so, even after they saw B hit another agent, C, while A was absent. When A was present to witness B's harmful action, however, infants expected A to change his or her behavior and ignore B. Therefore, infants seemed to consider A's perspectives when predicting A's actions. Furthermore, if B accidentally hit C when A was present, infants seemed to accept that A could interact or not interact with B, which suggests that they had taken into account B's intention in their interpretations of the agents' interactions. PMID:25630442
Sullivan, Susan; Ruffman, Ted
Until recently, theory of mind abilities have received little attention beyond the childhood years. However, pioneering work carried out by Happé, Winner, and Brownell (1998) has opened the doors on a new and exciting area of research that examines theory of mind abilities in later years. Happé et al. reported that theory of mind performance was superior in the elderly. Yet, in direct contrast to these findings, Maylor, Moulson, Muncer, and Taylor (2002) report a decline in theory of mind abilities with advancing years. We used Happé et al.'s task and, like Maylor et al., found a decline in theory of mind abilities in the elderly. Yet this deficit was related to a decline in fluid abilities. We then examined whether deficits in social understanding in the elderly could also be independent of fluid abilities. We used two new tasks; identifying emotions from still photos and identifying emotions and cognitions from video clips. Again we found a decline in social understanding in the elderly, and in this case, the decline was independent of changes in fluid abilities. PMID:15005864
Saxena, Akrati; Gupta, Yayati
Ever since the proposal of first epidemic model, scientists have been attempting to estimate the growth of a disease/contagion while in its premature stage. Despite being the focus of researchers for a long time, understanding epidemiology remains as error prone as a weather forecast, mainly because of the unavailability of large amount of data. An epidemic spread is analogous to the diffusion of memes in social networking sites. Diffusion of memes can be easily studied provided large datasets and computational powers to extract information from online networks. So, studying a meme spreading pattern can help us in understanding epidemiology. In this paper, we analyse the impact of the topology of a social network, specifically its meso scale properties- community structure and core-periphery structure, on a meme traversing over it. We propose a meme propagation model for synthetic scale free graphs which resemble real world graphs and observe the process of a meme going viral on such a network. We also valida...
Galindo, Claudia; Fuller, Bruce
We know that social competence contributes to young children's adaptation to, and cognitive learning within, classroom settings. Yet initial evidence is mixed on the social competencies that Latino children bring to kindergarten and the extent to which these skills advance cognitive growth. Building from ecocultural and developmental-risk theory, this paper shows children's social competence to be adaptive to the normative expectations and cognitive requirements of culturally bounded settings in both the home and classroom. Latino socialization in the home may yield social competencies that teachers value rather than reflect "risk factors" that constrain children's school readiness. We draw on the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, kindergarten cohort (N = 19,590) to detail 5 social competencies at entry to school--self-control, interpersonal skills, approaches to learning, internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors--and to examine variability among Latino subgroups. We then test the extent to which baseline variation in social competence accounts for children's cognitive growth during the kindergarten year. We find that Latino children from poor, but not middle-class, families display weaker social competencies vis-ŕ-vis White children (all relationships p < or = .05). Social competence levels contribute to Latino children's cognitive growth, which is shaped most strongly by positive approaches to learning. The disparities in competencies observed for Latino children from poor families, relative to White children, are significant yet much smaller than gaps in baseline levels of mathematical understanding. We discuss how the consonance or mismatch between competencies acquired at home and those valued by teachers must consider cultural differences, social-class position, and variation among diverse Latino subgroups. PMID:20438172
Soderberg, Patti D.
This study is an investigation of student understanding of population genetics and how students developed, used and revised conceptual models to solve problems. The students in this study participated in three rounds of problem solving. The first round involved the use of a population genetics model to predict the number of carriers in a population. The second round required them to revise their model of simple dominance population genetics to make inferences about populations containing three phenotype variations. The third round of problem solving required the students to revise their model of population genetics to explain anomalous data where the proportions of males and females with a trait varied significantly. As the students solved problems, they were involved in basic scientific processes as they observed population phenomena, constructed explanatory models to explain the data they observed, and attempted to persuade their peers as to the adequacy of their models. In this study, the students produced new knowledge about the genetics of a trait in a population through the revision and use of explanatory population genetics models using reasoning that was similar to what scientists do. The students learned, used and revised a model of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to generate and test hypotheses about the genetics of phenotypes given only population data. Students were also interviewed prior to and following instruction. This study suggests that a commonly held intuitive belief about the predominance of a dominant variation in populations is resistant to change, despite instruction and interferes with a student's ability to understand Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and microevolution.
Simoes, Jose; Magedanz, Thomas
Over the last years, with the rapid advance in technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible for people to take advantage of the devices and services in the surrounding environment to remain "connected" and continuously enjoy the activity they are engaged in, be it sports, entertainment, or work. Such a ubiquitous computing environment will allow everyone permanent access to the Internet anytime, anywhere and anyhow . Nevertheless, despite the evolution of services, social aspects remain in the roots of every human behavior and activities. Great examples of such phenomena are online social networks, which engage users in a way never seen before in the online world. At the same time, being aware and communicating context is a key part of human interaction and is a particularly powerful concept when applied to a community of users where services can be made more personalized and useful. Altogether, harvesting context to reason and learn about user behavior will further enhance the future multimedia vision where services can be composed and customized according to user context. Moreover, it will help us to understand users in a better way.
Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer
This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…
Spilt, Jantine L; van Lier, Pol A C; Leflot, Geertje; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde
This study aimed to understand how relationships with peers and teachers contribute to the development of internalizing problems via children’s social self-concept. The sample included 570 children aged 7 years 5 months (SD = 4.6 months). Peer nominations of peer rejection, child-reported social self-concept, and teacher-reported internalizing problems were assessed longitudinally in the fall and spring of Grades 2 and 3. Teacher reports of support to the child were assessed in Grade 2. Results showed that peer rejection impeded children’s social self-concept, which in turn affected the development of internalizing problems. Partial support was found for individual (but not classroom-level) teacher support to buffer the adverse effects of peer problems on children’s self-concept, thereby mitigating its indirect effects on internalizing problems. PMID:24936612
Examined were relationships between children's popularity and: (1) the types of solutions children generated to common social dilemmas; (2) what they reported they would do in similar situations; (3) their statements regarding conflict participants' intent; and (4) what they expected to happen next in conflict situations. Subjects were 95…
Social security can stifle the teaching hospital's development through increasing expenses and budgetary considerations. These problems are discussed in relation to the hospital organization and university structure in Paris, France. (Author/PG)
Boor-Klip, Henrike J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; van Hell, Janet G.
Despite its importance in social development, social understanding has hardly been studied in high-ability children. This study explores differences in social understanding between children in high-ability and regular classrooms, specifically theory of mind (ToM) and perception accuracy, as well as associations between individual characteristics…
Fraser, Mark W.; Nash, James K.; Galinsky, Maeda J.; Darwin, Kathleen M.
This book is the first volume of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) Practice Resources Series. It offers a cognitive problem-solving approach to the urgent need for children to acquire competence in meeting the demands of childhood within social, school, and family parameters. Designed for children from kindergarten through middle…
Jensen, Eric L.; And Others
Relying on the social constructionist approach as advanced by Armand L. Mauss (1975), this paper analyzes the construction of a recent U.S. social problem, drug abuse. It is argued that the objective conditions of drug use alone cannot explain why drugs became an issue immediately prior to the 1986 Congressional elections. Explanations for the…
The social and legal policies that control or prevent the use of mind-altering drugs are the main cause of the social problems arising from their use. The existing policies are ineffective; the wrong drugs receive the most attention and laws are directed at the wrong phase of the cycle of promotion, distribution and use. The following reforms are…
Explores the issue of whether evil exists in the world and the best ways to confront it. Claims that the ubiquitousness of evil places a responsibility on social studies educators to address it in the classroom. Offers six suggestions for teaching students about the existence and implications of evil. (CMK)
Buckner, Julia D; Heimberg, Richard G; Matthews, Russell A; Silgado, Jose
Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. In fact, individuals with social anxiety may be more likely to experience marijuana-related impairment than individuals with other types of anxiety. It is therefore important to determine whether constructs particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals play a role in the expression of marijuana-related problems in this vulnerable population. Given that both social avoidance and using marijuana to cope with negative affect broadly have been found to play a role in marijuana-related problems, the current study utilized a new measure designed to simultaneously assess social avoidance and using marijuana to cope in situations previously identified as anxiety-provoking among those with elevated social anxiety. The Marijuana Use to Cope with Social Anxiety Scale (MCSAS) assessed behaviors regarding 24 social situations: marijuana use to cope in social situations (MCSAS-Cope) and avoidance of social situations if marijuana was unavailable. In Study 1, we found preliminary support for the convergent and discriminant validity and internal consistency of the MCSAS scales. In Study 2, we examined if MCSAS scores were related to marijuana problems among those with (n = 44) and without (n = 44) clinically elevated social anxiety. Individuals with clinically meaningful social anxiety were more likely to use marijuana to cope in social situations and to avoid social situations if marijuana was unavailable. Of importance, MCSAS-Cope uniquely mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and marijuana-related problems. Results highlight the importance of contextual factors in assessing marijuana-related behaviors among high-risk populations. PMID:22004129
are not as high as human infants' and their social skills are very low. However, we can improve the social skillsFriendship estimation model for social robots to understand human relationships Takayuki Kanda-0288, JAPAN E-mail email@example.com Abstract This paper reports our friendship estimation model for social robots
Zhang, Qingpeng; Wang, Fei-Yue; Zeng, Daniel; Wang, Tao
Background Crowd-powered search is a new form of search and problem solving scheme that involves collaboration among a potentially large number of voluntary Web users. Human flesh search (HFS), a particular form of crowd-powered search originated in China, has seen tremendous growth since its inception in 2001. HFS presents a valuable test-bed for scientists to validate existing and new theories in social computing, sociology, behavioral sciences, and so forth. Methodology In this research, we construct an aggregated HFS group, consisting of the participants and their relationships in a comprehensive set of identified HFS episodes. We study the topological properties and the evolution of the aggregated network and different sub-groups in the network. We also identify the key HFS participants according to a variety of measures. Conclusions We found that, as compared with other online social networks, HFS participant network shares the power-law degree distribution and small-world property, but with a looser and more distributed organizational structure, leading to the diversity, decentralization, and independence of HFS participants. In addition, the HFS group has been becoming increasingly decentralized. The comparisons of different HFS sub-groups reveal that HFS participants collaborated more often when they conducted the searches in local platforms or the searches requiring a certain level of professional knowledge background. On the contrary, HFS participants did not collaborate much when they performed the search task in national platforms or the searches with general topics that did not require specific information and learning. We also observed that the key HFS information contributors, carriers, and transmitters came from different groups of HFS participants. PMID:22761888
Perlmutter, Marion; And Others
Three studies examined effects of peer interaction on the problem solving of 150 children of 4-11 years. Age, task complexity, and task familiarity were found to qualify effects of peer interaction on motivation and learning. (RJC)
Hu, Dehui; Rebello, N. Sanjay
This study focuses on students’ use of the mathematical concept of differentials in physics problem solving. For instance, in electrostatics, students need to set up an integral to find the electric field due to a charged bar, an activity that involves the application of mathematical differentials (e.g., dr, dq). In this paper we aim to explore students’ reasoning about the differential concept in physics problems. We conducted group teaching or learning interviews with 13 engineering students enrolled in a second-semester calculus-based physics course. We amalgamated two frameworks—the resources framework and the conceptual metaphor framework—to analyze students’ reasoning about differential concept. Categorizing the mathematical resources involved in students’ mathematical thinking in physics provides us deeper insights into how students use mathematics in physics. Identifying the conceptual metaphors in students’ discourse illustrates the role of concrete experiential notions in students’ construction of mathematical reasoning. These two frameworks serve different purposes, and we illustrate how they can be pieced together to provide a better understanding of students’ mathematical thinking in physics.
Westenberg, Herman G M
The common occurrence and high level of morbidity and burden associated with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are gaining widespread recognition. Interest in understanding and treating the disorder has also grown in response to large-scale investigations that have demonstrated high levels of efficacy with both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments. Such trials indicate that many patients with generalized SAD (roughly 40% to 60%) respond (eg, Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement rating 1 or 2) after an adequate treatment trial, despite having suffered with disabling symptoms for most of their adult lives. First-line therapy options include the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the dual-acting serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine. Second-line options consist of anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin, valproic acid) and benzodiazepines (clonazepam). Reversible and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (moclobemide and phenelzine, respectively), while effective, are not widely used. Nonpharmacologic approaches, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), are also effective for SAD. Newer treatment strategies such as levetiracetam, atypical antipsychotics, or D-cycloserine in combination with CBT appear promising but require further investigation. Finding a well-tolerated, safe, and effective treatment for each individual patient is crucial as most will require ongoing treatment in order to maintain benefits, prevent SAD relapse, and to experience optimal outcomes in the long term. PMID:19238127
Klein, N A; Sondag, K A; Drolet, J C
We conducted focus group interviews with students who were current peer health educators at a mid-sized university to determine what factors motivate individuals to volunteer for a peer health education program. Specifically, we asked the participants questions designed to explore their life experiences, their expectations of the peer education program, and their motivations. Constructs from social learning theory were used to categorize and contribute to our understanding of the responses. Many participants specified experiences with family members or friends, such as alcoholism or other illnesses, that had influenced their decisions. Participants' expectation of the program varied greatly and did not indicate a strong link to the decision to volunteer. The peer health educators' motivations for volunteering were altruistic, such as wanting to help others; egotistic, such as wanting job training; or related to self-efficacy beliefs, such as satisfying a personal need for health education. This study indicated that life experiences, a belief in the effectiveness of peer health education programs, and positive reinforcement to join influence the decision to volunteer. Implications for coordinating peer education programs are discussed. PMID:7814769
Przyrembel, Marisa; Smallwood, Jonathan; Pauen, Michael; Singer, Tania
Successful human social interaction depends on our capacity to understand other people's mental states and to anticipate how they will react to our actions. Despite its importance to the human condition, the exact mechanisms underlying our ability to understand another's actions, feelings, and thoughts are still a matter of conjecture. Here, we consider this problem from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives. In a critical review, we demonstrate that attempts to draw parallels across these complementary disciplines is premature: The second-person perspective does not map directly to Interaction or Simulation theories, online social cognition, or shared neural network accounts underlying action observation or empathy. Nor does the third-person perspective map onto Theory-Theory (TT), offline social cognition, or the neural networks that support Theory of Mind (ToM). Moreover, we argue that important qualities of social interaction emerge through the reciprocal interplay of two independent agents whose unpredictable behavior requires that models of their partner's internal state be continually updated. This analysis draws attention to the need for paradigms in social neuroscience that allow two individuals to interact in a spontaneous and natural manner and to adapt their behavior and cognitions in a response contingent fashion due to the inherent unpredictability in another person's behavior. Even if such paradigms were implemented, it is possible that the specific neural correlates supporting such reciprocal interaction would not reflect computation unique to social interaction but rather the use of basic cognitive and emotional processes combined in a unique manner. Finally, we argue that given the crucial role of social interaction in human evolution, ontogeny, and every-day social life, a more theoretically and methodologically nuanced approach to the study of real social interaction will nevertheless help the field of social cognition to evolve. PMID:22737120
The opportunities social media provide for agential expressions of subjectivity and experiential learning, relative to social media's role in reproducing digital-era capitalism, are the subject of keen debate. There is now a burgeoning academic literature which suggests that social media users are, to a greater or lesser degree, alienated by…
Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.
In the present essay, we focus on G. Stanley Hall's contributions to the study of the role of social change for adolescent development. After introducing Hall's main ideas, we discuss recent demands adolescents face because of social change and how Hall's work could inform research on adolescent development in times of social change.
Kim, Eunjung; Guo, Yuqing; Koh, Chinkang; Cain, Kevin C
The goal of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between Korean immigrant discipline (e.g., positive, appropriate, and harsh discipline) and children's social competence and behavior problems. Self-report data were collected from 58 mothers and 20 fathers of children aged from 3 to 8 years. Only paternal harsh discipline was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Among specific discipline strategies, maternal physical affection, correcting misbehaviors, and reasoning were positively correlated with children's social competence. Paternal physical punishment (e.g., spanking, hitting, and raising arms) was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Immigrant fathers need to learn alternative ways of managing children's misbehaviors. PMID:21035016
Physical disability is an enormous psychosocio-economic-medical problem that affects over 24 million Americans. Public policy endorses a multi-disciplinary approach in analyzing this issue. Legislation has broadened the meaning of physical disability to include persons with mental and emotional disorders. Some of the costs associated with physical…
van Riper, Carena J.; van Riper, Charles, III; Kyle, Gerard T.; Lee, Martha E.
Social networking is a key benefit derived from participation in conferences that bind the ties of a professional community. Building social networks can lead to satisfactory experiences while furthering participants' long- and short-term career goals. Although investigations of social networking can lend insight into how to effectively engage individuals and groups within a professional cohort, this area has been largely overlooked in past research. The present study investigates the relationship between social networking and satisfaction with the 10th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau using structural equation modelling. Results partially support the hypothesis that three dimensions of social networking – interpersonal connections, social cohesion, and secondary associations – positively contribute to the performance of various conference attributes identified in two focus group sessions. The theoretical and applied contributions of this paper shed light on the social systems formed within professional communities and resource allocation among service providers.
Spilt, Jantine L.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Leflot, Geertje; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde
This study aimed to understand how relationships with peers and teachers contribute to the development of internalizing problems via children's social self-concept. The sample included 570 children aged 7 years 5 months (SD = 4.6 months). Peer nominations of peer rejection, child-reported social self-concept, and teacher-reported…
Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Jasinska, Agnes J.
Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both), which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions. PMID:22701416
De Jesus, Maria
Understanding the social context and realities of Cape Verdean women in the U.S. as well as other immigrant and ethnic/racial groups is important to promote their overall health and well-being more effectively. The aim of this study was to gain a contextual understanding from the perspectives of health promoters who work with marginalized women. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine Cape Verdean women health promoters about their perspectives and experiences of health promotion practice with immigrant women in their community. Using a Glaserian grounded theory approach to analysis, six salient themes describing women's social context emerged: community and domestic violence, loss and isolation, economic injustice, immigration-related issues and abuse, unequal gender-based power relations, and cultural taboos. These findings challenge health researchers and practitioners to understand health problems and health promotion not only at an individual level, but at multiple levels of influence including interpersonal, family, neighborhood, and structural levels. PMID:19202249
Recent advances in digital technologies invite consideration of social influence and social support as processes that are accomplished by global, flexible, adaptive, and ad hoc networks that can be created, maintained, dissolved, and reconstituted with remarkable alacrity. This presentation describes and empirically tests a multi-theoretical multilevel (MTML) model of the socio-technical motivations for creating, maintaining, dissolving, and reconstituting knowledge and social networks.
Kreuter, Marshall W.; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.
Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have…
Chang, Steve W C; Platt, Michael L
Converging evidence from humans and non-human animals indicates that the neurohypophysial hormone oxytocin (OT) evolved to serve a specialized function in social behavior in mammals. Although OT-based therapies are currently being evaluated as remedies for social deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders, precisely how OT regulates complex social processes remains largely unknown. Here we describe how a non-human primate model can be used to understand the mechanisms by which OT regulates social cognition and thereby inform its clinical application in humans. We focus primarily on recent advances in our understanding of OT-mediated social cognition in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), supplemented by discussion of recent work in humans, other primates, and rodents. Together, these studies endorse the hypothesis that OT promotes social exploration both by amplifying social motivation and by attenuating social vigilance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav. PMID:24231551
Lennon, Sean M.
Online social networks such as Facebook have changed the context and definitions of socialization. Focusing on teacher use, this article considers the size and impact of these forums and the importance many young professionals feel toward them. Themed as a common sense approach, the author uses anecdotal points and discussions with…
This article reports on key aspects of a theory generative study into social presence in text-based online learning environments. The focus of the article is the nature of social presence as experienced by online learners in those environments. Employing a collective case study design, the study accessed online learners' experience-based heuristic…
Objectives: The purpose of this article is to present a theoretical frame of reference for the study and assessment of social work from the perspective of a history of ideas. Method: The study employed an analysis of primary and secondary historical sources. Results: Social work as a practice and research field is embedded in the genesis of modern…
Hatch, J. Amos
Describes ways of observing and interpreting children's peer social behavior based on the impression management perspective, which focuses on the social construction of a child's individual self-concept. Suggests that teachers and caregivers can use impression management strategies to observe and promote prosocial development in young children.…
Yan, Ruoh-Nan; Xu, Huimin
Taking the perspective of consumer socialization theory, this study examined the influences of different socialization agents on consumers' purchases of green products. A total of 224 surveys were distributed to students enrolled in a business-related course at a major university in the northeastern United States. The objectives were twofold. The…
Arterberry, Martha E.; Cain, Kathleen M.; Chopko, Stephanie A.
Children's problem solving while working by themselves or with a partner was investigated to explore whether young children are susceptible to social facilitation and social loafing. Five-year-olds were asked to complete easy or hard puzzles, either alone or with a partner. Half of the children were given instructions indicating that their…
Farrokhi, Farahman; Farajian, Fathemeh
Objective This study examines development of social competence, and behavior problems in kindergarten children during a specific period of childhood. Method A sample of 499 kindergarten children (244 girls and 255 boys) with the age range of 2 years up to 5 years and 6 months was selected using the random stratified sampling method. To collect data, California Preschool Social Competence Scale and Social Skills Rating System were completed by kindergarten teachers. Results The trend analysis shows that both the linear and quadratic trends for verbal facility were statistically significant. Similarly, both the linear and cubic trends were significant for considerateness, and the linear trend tendency was significant for subscales of extraversion, response to unfamiliar and task orientation. Pearson's correlation coefficient yielded a low-to-moderate and negative correlation patterns between social component and problem behaviors. Conclusion The study findings indicate a significant linear trend between the progression in social competence and increasing age, consequently leading to a decrease in social problems for children whose age was from 2 years up to 5 years and 6 months. PMID:23139694
Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Weaver, Addie; Schommer, Kathryn
Social support protects women from various negative consequences, yet we have little understanding of how rural women acquire and utilize social support. Using interviews of 24 women in a North Dakota community, this research sought to understand how rural women were supported as new mothers. One, familial women and partners were vital supports to…
This article looks at current university reforms in Japan through two slightly different social science prisms: how social science methodologies and theories can help us understand those reforms better and how social science teaching in universities will be affected by the current reform processes. (Contains 3 tables and 7 notes.)
MacKay, Tommy; Knott, Fiona; Dunlop, Aline-Wendy
Background: Difficulties with social interaction and understanding lie at the heart of the communication disorder that characterises the autism spectrum. This study sought to improve social communication for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by means of a groupwork intervention focusing on social and emotional perspective-taking,…
Forstadt, Leslie A.; Doore, Brian
This article describes two methods for use in program development and refinement. Problem mapping and forcefield analysis are explained with a real-world example about parenting education. Both methods are visual and consider multiple causes and effects of a problem. The methods are effective for clearly thinking through a problem, identifying…
Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.
Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA) provides the necessary tool kit for investigating questions involving relational data. We introduce basic concepts in SNA, along with methods for data collection, data processing, and data analysis, using a previously collected example study on an undergraduate biology classroom as a tutorial. We conduct descriptive analyses of the structure of the network of costudying relationships. We explore generative processes that create observed study networks between students and also test for an association between network position and success on exams. We also cover practical issues, such as the unique aspects of human subjects review for network studies. Our aims are to convince readers that using SNA in classroom environments allows rich and informative analyses to take place and to provide some initial tools for doing so, in the process inspiring future educational studies incorporating relational data. PMID:26086650
Grunspan, Daniel Z; Wiggins, Benjamin L; Goodreau, Steven M
Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA) provides the necessary tool kit for investigating questions involving relational data. We introduce basic concepts in SNA, along with methods for data collection, data processing, and data analysis, using a previously collected example study on an undergraduate biology classroom as a tutorial. We conduct descriptive analyses of the structure of the network of costudying relationships. We explore generative processes that create observed study networks between students and also test for an association between network position and success on exams. We also cover practical issues, such as the unique aspects of human subjects review for network studies. Our aims are to convince readers that using SNA in classroom environments allows rich and informative analyses to take place and to provide some initial tools for doing so, in the process inspiring future educational studies incorporating relational data. PMID:26086650
Marken, Richard S; Carey, Timothy A
A review of the literature on psychotherapy suggests that improvements in effectiveness, efficiency and accessibility have been hampered by a lack of understanding of how psychotherapy works. Central to gaining such understanding is an accurate description of the change process that occurs when someone solves a psychological problem. We describe the Perceptual Control Theory (PCT) model of human functioning, which can be used to understand the nature of psychological problems and how they are solved. PCT suggests that problems can be broadly grouped into two categories: those that can be solved using existing skills and those that require the generation of new skills. In general, psychological problems belong in the second category. PCT describes a fundamental form of learning in which existing structures and systems are reorganized to create new skills, perspective and insights. Psychotherapy based on PCT is aimed at directing reorganization to the source of the problem. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25219953
Farmer, Thomas W.; Estell, David B.; Hall, Cristin M.; Pearl, Ruth; Van Acker, Richard; Rodkin, Philip C.
This study examines interpersonal competence configurations in relation to students' concurrent behavior problems and social risks for later adjustment difficulties. Participants are 648 (345 girls, 303 boys) fourth-grade students (65% White, 6.9% African American, 19.5% Hispanic, 4.6% Asian, and 4.0% Other) from the suburbs of a major Midwestern…
Applying social psychological theory to the problems of group work. Robert E. Kraut Carnegie Mellon. Please do not cite or redistribute without permission. #12;Groups chapter 2/8/02 Page 2 1. Motivation work activity is done by groups interdependent individuals collaborating (or competing) on ill
Oliver, Bonamy R.; Barker, Edward D.; Mandy, William P. L.; Skuse, David H.; Maughan, Barbara
Objective: To estimate associations between trajectories of conduct problems and social-cognitive competences through childhood into early adolescence. Method: A prospective population-based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) recruited in the prenatal period (13,988 children alive at 12 months) formed the basis…
Cram, Andrew; Hedberg, John G.; Gosper, Maree; Dick, Geoff
Contemporary theories of problem-solving highlight that expertise is domain specific, contingent on the social context and available resources, and involves knowledge, skills, attitudes, emotions and values. Developing educational activities that incorporate all of these elements is a challenge. Through case studies, this paper outlines how…
Rosenblatt, Paul C.; Russell, Martha G.
Social psychological thinking and the data of an exploratory study are used to illuminate potential problems in family vacation travel. Vacation travel is seen as providing both the opportunity for revitalization and creative change and the opportunity for serious interpersonal difficulties. (Author)
Social Behavior Problems in Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy VERONICA J. HINTON, PH with DMD. Parental ratings of boys with DMD (n = 181) on the Child Behavior Checklist behavior scales were of boys with DMD (n = 86), and children with cerebral palsy (CP) (n = 42). Increased ratings of general
Mathew, Saritha S.; And Others
This study investigates characteristics of juvenile delinquency and youth violence by examining attachment and social problem skills. Attachment theory integrates features of psychoanalytic theory, ethology, and cognitive psychology. Research on adolescent attachment suggests that parents continue to function as a secure base for their teenage…
Cylke, F. Kurt, Jr.
Environmental issues that can be explored in social science courses include problems with potential to cause serious or irreversible change to an ecosystem or biosphere. Areas for discussion include: environmental attitudes, values, and behaviors; the environmental movement; risk perceptions; and the political economy of the environment and…
Kinton, Jack F., Ed.
This document presents a selective bibliography, a guide to periodical literature, and an annotated filmography of manuscripts, articles and films that point to higher education as perpetuating certain social problems. Among the topics dealt with in the materials included in the document are: the survival of black colleges, campus political…
Takahashi, Fumito; Koseki, Shunsuke; Shimada, Hironori
The purposes of this study were to clarify how social problem-solving processes develop and to identify developmentally-sensitive intervention components for children's aggression. Elementary and junior-high school Japanese students (N = 1100) from urban public schools participated in the present investigation. Their alternative thinking skills,…
Jerry L. Salvaggio
Attention is turning increasingly to the social problems associated with information societies. Most studies conclude that minimizing the side effects (invasion of privacy, information inequity, information control and misuse of information) of information technology is the task of policy makers. By developing models of the US and Japanese information societies, the author argues that no two information societies will be
The United States is rapidly becoming a fatherless society. Fatherlessness is the leading cause of declining child well-being, providing the impetus behind social problems such as crime, domestic violence, and adolescent pregnancy. Challenging the basic assumptions of opinion leaders in academia and in the media, this book debunks the prevailing…
Holbrook, S M
In this article, the author examines the social and psychological issues raised by infertility and addresses problems resulting from the increasing commercialization of children through adoption practices as well as through the proliferation of new reproductive technologies. The author begins with a discussion of infertility and considers some aspects of adoption, the traditional solution to infertility. Some historical, technical, ethical, psychological, and social aspects of artificial insemination, along with newer developments of surrogacy, such as in vitro fertilization and frozen embryos, also are discussed. Recommendations are suggested for meeting the service needs of people who have problems associated with infertility. Finally, the author stresses the importance of research along with the necessity for social workers to take a leadership role in helping society both to understand the ethical issues related to and to develop enlightened public policy on infertility, adoption, and the new reproductive technologies. PMID:2203152
Gouze, K R
This study examined the relationship between two cognitive processing variables--attention and social problem solving--and aggression in preschool-age boys. The 43 participants were administered two selective attention tasks that assess children's tendency to focus on aggressive versus cooperative social situations, the Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving Test developed by Shure and Spivack, and the information and block design subtests of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Aggressive behavior was measured by teacher ratings and observational data. Results indicated that, in contrast to their nonaggressive peers, aggressive preschool boys tend to focus their attention on aggressive social interactions in their environment. They also provide aggressive solutions to hypothetical interpersonal conflict situations more often than their less aggressive peers. Intelligence does not appear to play a mediating role in these relationships. Implications of these results for understanding and remediating aggressive behavior in young boys are discussed. PMID:3611518
Jacobs, Abigail Z; Ugander, Johan; Clauset, Aaron
Online social networks represent a popular and highly diverse class of social media systems. Despite this variety, each of these systems undergoes a general process of online social network assembly, which represents the complicated and heterogeneous changes that transform newly born systems into mature platforms. However, little is known about this process. For example, how much of a network's assembly is driven by simple growth? How does a network's structure change as it matures? How does network structure vary with adoption rates and user heterogeneity, and do these properties play different roles at different points in the assembly? We investigate these and other questions using a unique dataset of online connections among the roughly one million users at the first 100 colleges admitted to Facebook, captured just 20 months after its launch. We first show that different vintages and adoption rates across this population of networks reveal temporal dynamics of the assembly process, and that assembly is onl...
Schry, Amie R; White, Susan W
Many college students use alcohol, and most of these students experience problems related to their use. Emerging research indicates that socially anxious students face heightened risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems, although the extant research on alcohol use and social anxiety in this population has yielded inconsistent findings. This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol variables in college students. A literature search was used to identify studies on college students that included measures of social anxiety and at least one of the alcohol variables of interest. All analyses were conducted using random effects models. We found that social anxiety was negatively correlated with alcohol use variables (e.g., typical quantity and typical frequency), but significantly positively correlated with alcohol-related problems, coping, conformity, and social motives for alcohol use, and positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies. Several moderators of effect sizes were found to be significant, including methodological factors such as sample ascertainment approach. Given that social anxiety was negatively related to alcohol use but positively related to alcohol-related problems, research is needed to address why individuals high in social anxiety experience more problems as a result of their alcohol use. Avoidance of social situations among socially anxious students should also be taken into account when measuring alcohol use. The primary limitation of this study is the small number of studies available for inclusion in some of the analyses. PMID:23906724
Dana, Nancy Fitchman; Silva, Diane Yendol; Gimbert, Belinda; Nolan, Jim, Jr.; Zembal-Saul, Carla; Tzur, Ron; Mule, Lucy; Sanders, Lynne
Demonstrates how analyzing the evolution of long-term Professional Development School (PDS) problems can serve as indicators of PDS growth, identifying three persistent problems (building trust and relationships between university and school personnel, reconceptualizing existing coursework to fit in the PDS context, and making inquiry a central…
Palha, Sonia; Dekker, Rijkje; Gravemeijer, Koeno; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette
Meaningful learning of formal mathematics in regular classrooms remains a problem in mathematics education. Research shows that instructional approaches in which students work collaboratively on tasks that are tailored to problem solving and reflection can improve students' learning in experimental classrooms. However, these sequences involve…
Within the English curriculum, a course to provide familiarity with Western culture may prevent the problem of foreign students' misunderstanding Western literature. This problem was observed at Iran Girls' College during an American literature short story class conducted for advanced seniors, none of whom had been in America but whose English…
Results of past studies on the quality problems of LPC speech are reviewed. The causes of the quality problems are found to lie within the basic model assumptions as well as inaccuracies in LPC analysis and errors introduced in pitch and voicing detection and parameter quantization. Experiments discussed here show that LPC synthesis is generally very close to natural speech
Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Merry, Carroll E., Ed.
This document contains abstracts and the complete texts of 19 papers that were presented at a conference held to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. The following papers are included: "Microwave Society and Crock-Pot Government" (Bill Graves); "Citizen Participation, Social Capital and…
Malti, Tina; Gasser, Luciano; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline
The study investigated interpretive understanding, moral judgments, and emotion attributions in relation to social behaviour in a sample of 59 5-year-old, 123 7-year-old, and 130 9-year-old children. Interpretive understanding was assessed by two tasks measuring children's understanding of ambiguous situations. Moral judgments and emotion…
Gummadi, Krishna P.
platform for discovering real-time information on the Web, such as news stories and people's reaction, the Twitter social network has emerged as a pop- ular platform for discovering real-time information ACM 978-1-4503-1229-5/12/04. Web, such as current events, news stories, and people's opin- ion about
Gaddie, Julie A.
The United States has a long history of searching for utopian possibilities of public school, amidst a steady stream of population mobility. Horace Mann proclaimed that schools would be able to assimilate the millions of immigrants arriving during the late 1700s. He promised that schools could end poverty, crime and social injustice. Today, public…
and Security Informatics (ISI) is a relatively new research area and co-authorship is the predominant trend in the field of ISI. In order to provide a comprehensive view of the ISI research community, we investigate the ISI scientific network through social network analysis. The contribution of this paper is that we
Backett-Milburn, Kathryn; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah
Children's differing social circumstances and experiences are part of the pathways implicated in health and illness in adulthood. However, children's own perspectives tend to be absent from adult-defined data about health and illness. Little...
Radicchi, Filippo; Vilone, Daniele; Yoon, Sooeyon; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard
Reduction of frustration was the driving force in an approach to social balance as it was recently considered by Antal [T. Antal, P. L. Krapivsky, and S. Redner, Phys. Rev. E 72, 036121 (2005)]. We generalize their triad dynamics to k-cycle dynamics for arbitrary integer k. We derive the phase structure, determine the stationary solutions, and calculate the time it takes to reach a frozen state. The main difference in the phase structure as a function of k is related to k being even or odd. As a second generalization we dilute the all-to-all coupling as considered by Antal to a random network with connection probability w<1. Interestingly, this model can be mapped to a satisfiability problem of computer science. The phase of social balance in our original interpretation then becomes the phase of satisfaction of all logical clauses in the satisfiability problem. In common to the cases we study, the ideal solution without any frustration always exists, but the question actually is as to whether this solution can be found by means of a local stochastic algorithm within a finite time. The answer depends on the choice of parameters. After establishing the mapping between the two classes of models, we generalize the social-balance problem to a diluted network topology for which the satisfiability problem is usually studied. On the other hand, in connection with the satisfiability problem we generalize the random local algorithm to a p-random local algorithm, including a parameter p that corresponds to the propensity parameter in the social balance problem. The qualitative effect of the inclusion of this parameter is a bias towards the optimal solution and a reduction of the needed simulation time. PMID:17358393
Social studies is one of the main courses of the elementary and middle school curriculum in Turkey. Social studies took educators attention because it prepares students as exemplary citizens. The term of social studies has been started to use at the end of 1960's in Turkey. Thus, there have been several definitions and classification of the social…
Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eidenbenz, Stephan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Guanling [U OF MASSACHUSETTS LOWELL; Li, Nan [U OF MASSACHUSETTS LOWELL
Online social networks, which have been expanding at a blistering speed in the recent years, have emerged as a popular communication infrastructure for Internet users. Meanwhile, malware that specifically targets these online social networks are also on the rise. In this work, we aim to investigate the characteristics of malware propagation in online social networks. Our study is based on a dataset collected from a real-world location-based online social network. We analyze the social structure and user activity patterns of this network. We further use extensive trace-driven simulation to study the impact of initial infection, user click probability, social structure, and activity patterns on malware propagation in online social networks. The results from this work has greatly deepened our understanding of the nature of online social network malware and also shed light on how to defend against them effectively.
Meredith, Krystal B.
In this study, problem solving provided deeper meaning and understanding through the implementation of a structured problem solving strategy with the teaching of rational numbers. This action-research study was designed as a quasi-experimental model...
Doig, Brian; And Others
This report describes the results of a 1992 survey of students' economic, geographical, cultural, historical, and political understandings in the state of Victoria (Australia). The conception of some 2,900 students in Years 5 and 9 in government, Catholic and independent schools are investigated and described. The survey is one of a series of…
Ruiz, David Moreno; Povedano Díaz, Amapola; Martínez Ferrer, Belén; Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo
The present study aims to analyze the relationships between community involvement, perception of family and school climate, and emotional and social problems in adolescents (satisfaction with life, non-conformist social reputation, and school violence). The sample was composed of 1884 (52% boys and 48% girls) adolescents aged from 11 to 17 years old (M = 13.7, SD = 1.4) from the Valencia Community and Andalusia. A structural equation model was calculated to analyze the data. The results indicated that adolescent community involvement was associated with positive perceptions of family and school climate, and school violence. Associations between the variables of the study included in the structural model were also analyzed as a function of gender. The relationship between school climate and social reputation was significant only for boys. Likewise, the association between community involvement and violent behavior was found to be significant only for boys. Finally, the results and their possible implications are discussed. PMID:23156910
Pan, Wei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
This dissertation's main contribution is a new methodology, Reality Hedging, which is to use big-data driven approaches and tools from Computational Social Science for understanding, monitoring and designing economic and ...
Ensor, Rosie; Hughes, Claire
Despite much research into individual differences in social understanding among preschoolers, little is known about corresponding individual differences within younger children. Likewise, although studies of preschoolers highlight the importance of mental-state references, other aspects of talk have received less attention. The current study involved 120 families with 2-year-olds; video-based transcripts of observations of family interaction were coded for quantity, connectedness, and content of mothers' and children's talk. At 2, 3, and 4 years of age, children completed social understanding and verbal ability tests. Mothers' connected turns and mental-state reference within connected turns showed independent associations with children's social understanding (as did children's mental-state references, both overall and within connected turns). Connected conversations provide a fertile context for children's developing social understanding. PMID:18269518
Hu, Dehui; Rebello, N. Sanjay
This study focuses on students' use of the mathematical concept of differentials in physics problem solving. For instance, in electrostatics, students need to set up an integral to find the electric field due to a charged bar, an activity that involves the application of mathematical differentials (e.g., "dr," "dq"). In…
A theory of organization and control for a meaning-based language understanding system is mapped out. In this theory, words, rather than rules, are the units of knowledge, and assume the form of procedural entities which execute as generator-like coroutines. Parsing a sentence in context demands a control environment in wich experts can ask questions of each other, forward hints and suggestions to each other, and suspend. The theory is a cognitive theory of both language representation and parser control.
Population education is the focus of this quinmester curriculum guide for secondary students. By examining and comparing past population theories of Malthus and Marx with present theories students will better understand the present situation, cultural attitudes toward the problems, and the ecological consequences of overpopulation. Objectives are…
The ideas of Vygotsky [Vygotsky, L. S. (1987). "Thinking and speech." In "The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky," (Vol. 1). New York: Plenum. (Original work published 1934.)] have been increasingly influential in accounting for social-environmental influences on the development of social understanding (SU). In the first part of this article, I…
An Approach for a Social Robot to Understand Human Relationships: Friendship Estimation through Interaction with Robots Takayuki Kanda1 and Hiroshi Ishiguro1,2 1 ATR, Intelligent Robotics and Communication@ams.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp Abstract. This paper reports our research efforts on social robots that recognize interpersonal relation
Brandone, Amanda C.
During the first year of life, infants possess some of the key social--cognitive abilities required for success in a social world: Infants interpret others' actions in terms of their intentions and can use this understanding prospectively to generate predictions about others' behavior. Exactly how these foundational abilities develop is currently…
Increasing numbers of counsellors practise using social constructionist (e.g. narrative, collaborative language systems and solution-focused) approaches. Social constructionist theory holds that matters such as "understanding" are constructed and upheld in human interaction though counselling approaches derived from this theory offer little…
Using Social Sensing to Understand the Links Between Sleep, Mood, and Sociability Sai T Moturu of these observations and ultimately result in behavioral interventions that can improve public health through better studies suggesting that social ties (self-reported friends) can have a significant effect on the spread
Han, Richard Y.
initially, it has potentially devastating psychological effects like depression, low self-esteem, suicide words, and did not exploit social network relationships in their investigation of cyberbullying was not on negative word usage. Our work seeks to understand whether social network relationship informati
Spunt, Robert P; Lieberman, Matthew D
Much social-cognitive processing is believed to occur automatically; however, the relative automaticity of the brain systems underlying social cognition remains largely undetermined. We used functional MRI to test for automaticity in the functioning of two brain systems that research has indicated are important for understanding other people's behavior: the mirror neuron system and the mentalizing system. Participants remembered either easy phone numbers (low cognitive load) or difficult phone numbers (high cognitive load) while observing actions after adopting one of four comprehension goals. For all four goals, mirror neuron system activation showed relatively little evidence of modulation by load; in contrast, the association of mentalizing system activation with the goal of inferring the actor's mental state was extinguished by increased cognitive load. These results support a dual-process model of the brain systems underlying action understanding and social cognition; the mirror neuron system supports automatic behavior identification, and the mentalizing system supports controlled social causal attribution. PMID:23221019
Edwards, Anna; Shipman, Kimberly; Brown, Amy
This study investigated the influence of maternal socialization (i.e., maternal support, discussion of emotion, negative affect) on children's emotional understanding in 24 neglectful mother-child dyads and a matched control group. Mothers and children were administered an interaction task. Mothers were also assessed for negative emotional experience, and children were assessed for emotional understanding and expectations of maternal support. Findings indicated that neglectful mothers, compared with nonneglectful mothers, provided less support in response to their children's emotional displays, engaged in less emotional discussion, and reported more negative emotion. As well, neglected children demonstrated lower levels of emotional understanding than nonmaltreated children. Further, maternal support mediated the relation between neglect and children's emotional understanding. Findings are discussed from the functionalist approach to emotional development, emphasizing the importance of social context and socialization on children's emotional understanding. PMID:15983112
Easy Guidelines for Employee Use of Social Media For all uses of social media and online interaction, you should always consult and understand the following: Social Media Policy (DOI) Social of Government Computers Personal Use Disclaimer: If you're using social media for personal reasons (e
Kuperminc, Gabriel P; Allen, Joseph P
A model of problematic adolescent behavior that expands current theories of social skill deficits in delinquent behavior to consider both social skills and orientation toward the use of adaptive skills was examined in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 113 male and female adolescents. Adolescents were selected on the basis of moderate to serious risk for difficulties in social adaptation in order to focus on the population of youth most likely to be targeted by prevention efforts. Structural equation modeling was used to examine cross-sectional data using multiple informants (adolescents, peers, and parents) and multiple methods (performance test and self-report). Adolescent social orientation, as reflected in perceived problem solving effectiveness, identification with adult prosocial values, and self-efficacy expectations, exhibited a direct association to delinquent behavior and an indirect association to drug involvement mediated by demonstrated success in using problem solving skills. Results suggest that the utility of social skill theories of adolescent problem behaviors for informing preventive and remedial interventions can be enhanced by expanding them to consider adolescents' orientation toward using the skills they may already possess. PMID:16929380
Ludden, Alison Bryant
The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…
Corbin, William R.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Fromme, Kim
Broad social motives (not specific to alcohol use) have been established as an important predictor of alcohol use and problems among college students, but we have little understanding of the mechanisms through which such motives operate. Thus, the current study examined broad social motives prior to college entry as a predictor of college drinking/problems and sought to identify potential mechanisms through which they are associated with increased risk. Participants comprised a sample of 2,245 incoming college students (59.9% women) transitioning from high school through the college years. The first web-based survey was completed during the summer prior to matriculation with participants reporting on their behavior during the spring of high school senior year. Additional surveys were administered each academic semester through the fall of the fourth year. High school social motives were examined as a predictor of changes in alcohol use/problems from high school through senior year, with changes in descriptive norms, personal drinking values, and alcohol expectancies from high school to sophomore year examined as possible mediators of these relations. Descriptive norms, personal drinking values, and alcohol expectancies were robust mediators of broad social motives for both alcohol use and problems. Although there were a few differences by race/ethnicity in the alcohol use model, the mechanisms through which broad social motives operated were largely invariant across groups. These findings shed light on important mechanisms that can be targeted in prevention programs, particularly those that target groups who are likely to be high in broad social motives (e.g., fraternity/sorority members). PMID:21126828
Since the 1980s, Canadian legalized gambling has undergone a massive growth, resulting in numerous social problems such as crime, political corruption, and, most importantly, pathological gambling. When it comes to theorizing gambling in Canada, pathological gambling has been the centre of the attention for two related reasons: (1) the increasing…
Chilenski, Sarah M.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Greenberg, Mark T.
Rural communities make up much of America's heartland, yet we know little about their social organization, and how elements of their social organization relate to crime rates. The current study sought to remedy this gap by examining the associations between two measures of social organization – collective efficacy and social trust – with a number of structural community characteristics, local crime rates, and perceptions of safety in a sample of 27 rural and small town communities in two states. Measures of collective efficacy, social trust, and perceived safety, were gathered from key community members in 2006; other measures were drawn from the 2000 Census and FBI Uniform Crime Reporting system. A series of competing hypotheses were tested to examine the relative importance of social trust and collective efficacy in predicting local crime rates. Results do not support the full generalization of the social disorganization model. Correlational analyses showed that neither collective efficacy nor social trust had a direct association with community crime, nor did they mediate the associations between community structural characteristics and crime. However, perceived safety mediated the association between community crime and both measures of social organization. Analyses suggest that social trust may be more important than collective efficacy when understanding the effect of crime on a community's culture in rural areas. Understanding these associations in rural settings can aid decision makers in shaping policies to reduce crime and juvenile delinquency. PMID:26120326
U.S. Geological Survey
Integration among sciences is critical in order to address some of our most pressing problems. Because of the inherent complexity of natural systems, and the increasing complexity of human demands on them, narrowly-focused approaches are no longer sufficient. USGS Workshop on Enhancing Integrated Science, November 1998. The Mid-Continent Geographic Science Center is actively participating in several integrated science studies that include research partners from the other disciplines of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), other Federal and State agencies, universities, and private non-government organizations. The following three examples illustrate the diversity of these studies.
Gaigher, E.; Rogan, J. M.; Braun, M. W. H.
A study on the effect of a structured problem-solving strategy on problem-solving skills and conceptual understanding of physics was undertaken with 189 students in 16 disadvantaged South African schools. This paper focuses on the development of conceptual understanding. New instruments, namely a solutions map and a conceptual index, are…
Esteban, Moises; Sidera, Francesc; Serrano, Jessica; Amado, Anna; Rostan, Carles
Introduction: This study tested the effects of a training program intending to foster social understanding or the capacity which enables them to understand themselves and others in terms of intentions, beliefs, desires, and emotions in children at preschool age. A number of studies have shown that in the context of shared narratives, children are…
Williamson, Rebecca A.; Brooks, Rechele; Meltzoff, Andrew N.
Understanding others' perceptions is a fundamental aspect of social cognition. Children's construal of visual perception is well investigated, but there is little work on children's understanding of others' auditory perception. The current study assesses toddlers' recognition that producing different sounds can affect others…
Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…
LeMoyne, Terri; Davis, Jean Marie
In this article, the authors argue that one approach to teaching Introduction to Social Problems is to structure the course content around taken-for-granted beliefs that many students have about the social world. In doing so, the authors discuss the social construction of social problems, how sociology differs from common sense, and the importance…
Kiesler, Sara; Sproull, Lee
Managerial problem-sensing includes the macroprocesses of noticing, interpreting, and incorporating stimuli. Each process is composed of micro-social-cognition processes. Analysis using three social cognition theories (social perception, information processing, and social motivation) illustrates how managerial problem-sensing errors can occur and…
Murray, T H
An examination of the notion of divided loyalties dilemmas in medicine, situated within their social contexts, yields insight into the contemporary social and moral position of medicine in the United States. In a review of the literature, the author identifies four concepts important to gaining an understanding of the position that divided loyalties play in medicine and the physician-patient relationship. After describing some of the situations in which these dilemmas affect physicians' responses to patients' health care needs, interests, and choices, the author argues that divided loyalties dilemmas are not rare, and will probably increase with the changes in U.S. medicine. Candor and awareness of the importance of the public belief in physician loyalty are seen as necessary in preventing these changes from becoming destructive of the physician-patient relationship. PMID:3798163
When liquid metals are brought into contact with other polycrystalline metals, deep liquid-filled grooves often form at the intersections of grain boundaries and the solid-liquid interface. In some systems, e.g., Al-Ga, Cu-Bi and Ni-Bi, the liquid film quickly penetrates deep into the solid along the grain boundaries and leads to brittle, intergranular fracture under the influence of modest stresses. This is a form of liquid metal embrittlement (LME). This phenomenon is ubiquitous in material processing and is particularly important in nuclear reactor scenarios in which liquid metals are used as coolants and as spallation targets. The penetration of a liquid phase along the grain boundary is a complex phenomenon, involving several different types of simultaneous processes. The tendency for and rate of LME are also sensitive to externally controllable factors such as temperature and applied stress. Because of the interplay between the underlying phenomena that occur in LME, it has been difficult to perform experiments that can be interpreted to understand which processes control LME and which are simply parasitic. We study LME by performing molecular dynamics simulations of an Al bicrystal in contact with liquid Ga and investigate how Ga penetrates along the grain boundaries during the early stages of the wetting process. We use the simulation results to propose a new mechanism for LME and compare it with general trends gleaned from a series of LME experimental studies.
Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang
The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was…
David G. Amaral
The amygdala has long been implicated in the mediation of emotional and social behaviors. Because there are very few human subjects with selective bilateral damage of the amygdala, much of the evidence for these functional associations has come from studies employing animal subjects. Macaque monkeys live in complex, highly organized social groups that are characterized by stable and hierarchical relationships
Wolfer, Ralf; Cortina, Kai S.; Baumert, Jurgen
Based on theories of social-cognitive development, the present study investigated the yet unknown social structure that underlies the concept of empathy in adolescence. A total of 3.159 seventh graders (13.67 years, 56% girls) from 166 school classes participated by providing information on empathy, related psychosocial factors, and friendship…
Though viruses infect the cells of all groups of animals, plants, and microorganisms, their structures follow a limited number of general themes; spherical or cylindrical shells built of hundreds of repeated protein subunits enclosing a nucleic acid - DNA or RNA - genome. Since the 1960s it has been known that the protein shells of spherical viruses in fact conform to icosahedral symmetry or to subtle deviations from icosahedral symmetry. The construction of the shell lattices and the transformations they go through in the different stages of the viral life cycle are not fully understood. The shells contain the nucleic in a highly condensed state, of unknown coiling/organization. Features of the well studied bacterial viruses will be reviewed, with examples from adenoviruses, herpesviruses, poliovirus, and HIV. The emergence of new viral disease has led to increased interest in the development of agents which interfere with virus reproduction at the level of the assembly or function of the organized particle. Recently computational approaches to the problem of virus assembly have made important contributions to clarifying shell assembly processes. 1 ref.
Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Batan, T.; Yildirim, D.
Most wind turbines are equipped with line-connected induction generators. Induction generators are very attractive as wind turbine generators due to their low cost, ruggedness and the need for little or no maintenance. At constant frequency, the induction generator operates in a small range of speeds and, therefore, it operated with a small range of slips with respect to synchronous speed. Compared to a synchronous generator, an induction generator provides lower stiffness, thus alleviating the mechanical stress. In a weak power system network, an unbalanced load at the distribution lines can cause unbalanced voltage conditions. If an induction generator is connected to an unbalanced voltage, the resulting stator current will be unbalanced. The unbalanced current creates unequal heating (hot spots) on the stator winding. The heat may increase the winding temperature, which degrades the insulation of the winding, i.e., the life expectancy of the winding. Unbalanced currents also create torque pulsation on the shaft resulting in audible noise and extra mechanical stress. This paper explores the unbalanced voltage problem in induction generators. The levels of unbalance and the loads are varied. Experimental and predicted results are presented in this paper.
Bradbury, E.M. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA) California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))
Despite intensive investigation of mammalian chromosomes, we are still largely ignorant of the basic rules that govern their organization, structure, and functions. This situation results from the current limitations in available technologies to elucidate the structures of such complex biological systems. Whereas the powerful techniques of molecular biology have successfully addressed at high resolution functional problems at the level of nucleic acid sequences, many lower resolution questions concerning the architecture of the cell nucleus, long range order in chromosomes, and higher order chromatin structures remain largely unanswered. Techniques are now emerging that should help to remedy this situation. The use of confocal microscopy with molecular probes will tell us at the level of the light microscope a great deal about the organization of the nucleus and how it changes in different cell types; advanced light sources have the potential to image hydrated biological systems down to 10 nm, and scanning electron tunneling and atomic force microscopies have demonstrated their ability to image molecules though their ability to usefully image biomolecules such as DNA remains to be demonstrated. 32 refs., 6 figs.
Over the past thirty years, researchers have documented a remarkable growth in children's social understanding between toddlerhood and the early school years. However, it is still unclear why some children's awareness of others' thoughts and feelings lags so far behind that of their peers. Based on research that spans an extended developmental…
Sobek II, Durward K.
Understanding the Importance of Intermediate Representations in Engineering Problem-Solving Durward that representations play in engineering problem solving. Modern cognitive psychology has shown that not only do important implications for how educators can help students develop effective problem-solving skills. 1
Izumi, Alisa Sau-Lin
While there has been much discussion of cognitive processes underlying effective scientific teaching, less is known about the response nature of assessments targeting processes of scientific reasoning specific to biology content. This study used multiple-choice (m-c) and short-answer essay student responses to evaluate progress in high-order reasoning skills. In a pilot investigation of student responses on a non-content-based test of scientific thinking, it was found that some students showed a pre-post gain on the m-c test version while showing no gain on a short-answer essay version of the same questions. This result led to a subsequent research project focused on differences between alternate versions of tests of scientific reasoning. Using m-c and written responses from biology tests targeted toward the skills of (1) reasoning with a model and (2) designing controlled experiments, test score frequencies, factor analysis, and regression models were analyzed to explore test format differences. Understanding the format differences in tests is important for the development of practical ways to identify student gains in scientific reasoning. The overall results suggested test format differences. Factor analysis revealed three interpretable factors---m-c format, genetics content, and model-based reasoning. Frequency distributions on the m-c and open explanation portions of the hybrid items revealed that many students answered the m-c portion of an item correctly but gave inadequate explanations. In other instances students answered the m-c portion incorrectly yet demonstrated sufficient explanation or answered the m-c correctly and also provided poor explanations. When trying to fit test score predictors for non-associated student measures---VSAT, MSAT, high school grade point average, or final course grade---the test scores accounted for close to zero percent of the variance. Overall, these results point to the importance of using multiple methods of testing and of further research and development in the area of assessment of scientific reasoning.
Finch, W A
Declining budget conditions in many social service settings suggest that education must provide future graduates with very different managerial skills. When human service organizations are perceived as evolving political structures, populated with a variety of individuals who represent diverse values and claims, resource scarcity often results in growing conflict and a preoccupation with individual and subunit survival. This changing organizational context will require increasing political skill on the part of managers as well as an ability to harmonize new approaches with prior service values in achieving consensus around solutions to service delivery problems. PMID:10309805
Saeed, Saqib; Rohde, Markus; Wulf, Volker
Recent literature has highlighted that most civil society organizations lack IT appropriation in their work practices. There is strong need to focus on this application area to empower these organizations by IT capabilities. As there is not much literature about the specific needs assessment of voulantary organizations, there is a need to carry out ethnographic studies to better understand IT requirements of this sector. In this paper we have investigated the organizing process of the World Social Forum 2006 event in Karachi, Pakistan. World Social Forum is an important gathering of social movements and voulantary organizations across the globe, and organizing such an event requires extensive communication and effective planning skills. The objective of this paper is to highlight the need and importance of this research issue. Our intention is to introduce appropriate technology in the organizing process to facilitate social activists.
Aust, Patricia H.
Describes and distinguishes between symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder without (ADD) and with hyperactivity (ADHD). Notes that confusion exists in distinguishing between problems related to ADD and ADHD and problems related to other causes. A fictitious case study demonstrates problems of families with children with ADD and ADHD. A multimodal…
Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric
Little is known about the factors associated with use of employment services among homeless youth. Social network characteristics have been known to be influential in motivating people's decision to seek services. Traditional theoretical frameworks applied to studies of service use emphasize individual factors over social contexts and interactions. Using key social network, social capital, and social influence theories, this paper developed an integrated theoretical framework that capture the social network processes that act as barriers or facilitators of use of employment services by homeless youth, and understand empirically, the salience of each of these constructs in influencing the use of employment services among homeless youth. We used the "Event based-approach" strategy to recruit a sample of 136 homeless youth at one drop-in agency serving homeless youth in Los Angeles, California in 2008. The participants were queried regarding their individual and network characteristics. Data were entered into NetDraw 2.090 and the spring embedder routine was used to generate the network visualizations. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of the network characteristics on use of employment services. The study findings suggest that social capital is more significant in understanding why homeless youth use employment services, relative to network structure and network influence. In particular, bonding and bridging social capital were found to have differential effects on use of employment services among this population. The results from this study provide specific directions for interventions aimed to increase use of employment services among homeless youth. PMID:24780279
Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric
Little is known about the factors associated with use of employment services among homeless youth. Social network characteristics have been known to be influential in motivating people's decision to seek services. Traditional theoretical frameworks applied to studies of service use emphasize individual factors over social contexts and interactions. Using key social network, social capital, and social influence theories, this paper developed an integrated theoretical framework that could capture the social network processes that act as barriers or facilitators of use of employment services by homeless youth, and understand empirically, the salience of each of these constructs in influencing the use of employment services among homeless youth. We used the “Event based-approach” strategy to recruit a sample of 136 homeless youth at one drop-in agency serving homeless youth in Los Angeles, California in 2008. The participants were queried regarding their individual and network characteristics. Data were entered into NetDraw 2.090 and the spring embedder routine was used to generate the network visualizations. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of the network characteristics on use of employment services. The study findings suggest that social capital is more significant in understanding why homeless youth use employment services, relative to network structure and network influence. In particular, bonding and bridging social capital were found to have differential effects on use of employment services among this population. The results from this study provide specific directions for interventions aimed to increase use of employment services among homeless youth. PMID:24780279
A key challenge of data-driven social science is the gathering of high quality multi-dimensional datasets. A second challenge relates to design and execution of structured experimental interventions in-situ, in a way ...
Kuah-Pearce, Khun Eng
This paper will explore the social engagement of Buddhists through their active voluntary works - works that result in the development of a religious philanthropic culture. Through three case examples, this paper will examine how the sangha and individual Buddhists understand social suffering and compassion and attempt to integrate their understanding of Buddhist virtues and values in their daily life where the performance of voluntary works is seen as Buddhist spiritualism. In this process, the individuals seek to understand the key principles of Buddhism that are of direct relevance to their daily existence and their quest to be a compassionate self. Foremost are two notions of yebao (karma) and gan-en (gratitude) and how through compassionate practices and gratitude for those who accepted compassionate acts, they would be rewarded with good karma. Here, pursuing compassionate acts and the alleviation of social suffering is the pursuit of this-worldly spiritualism. PMID:24559267
Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S
This study investigates the different roles played by protective factors and risk factors-and by particular protective and risk factors-when the concern is with accounting for adolescent problem behavior than when the concern is with accounting for adolescent pro-social behavior. The protective and risk factor literature on adolescent problem behavior reveals considerable conceptual and operational ambiguity; an aim of the present study was to advance understanding in this domain of inquiry by providing a systematic conceptualization of protection and risk and of their measurement. Within the systematic framework of Problem Behavior Theory, four protective and four risk factors are assessed in a cross-national study of both problem behavior and pro-social behavior involving large adolescent samples in China (N = 1,368) and the US (N = 1,087), in grades 9, 10, and 11; females 56 %, US; 50 %, China. The findings reveal quite different roles for protection and risk, and for particular protective and risk factors, when the outcome criterion is problem behavior than when it is pro-social behavior. The protective factor, Controls Protection, which engages rule and regulations and sanctions in the adolescent's ecology, emerges as most important in influencing problem behavior, but it plays a relatively minor role in relationship to pro-social behavior. By contrast, Models Protection, the presence of pro-social models in the adolescent's ecology, and Support Protection, the presence of interest and care in that same ecology, have no significant relationship to problem behavior variation, but they are both the major predictors of variation in pro-social behavior. The findings are robust across the samples from the two very diverse societies. These results suggest that greater attention be given to protection in problem behavior research and that a more nuanced perspective is needed about the roles that particular protective and risk factors play in reducing problem behavior and in promoting pro-social behavior. PMID:24797283
Paraschiv, Irina; Olley, J. Gregory
This paper describes the "Problem Solving for Life" training program which trains adolescents and adults with mental retardation in skills for solving social problems. The program requires group participants to solve social problems by practicing two prerequisite skills (relaxation and positive self-statements) and four problem solving steps: (1)…
Delormier, Treena; Frohlich, Katherine L; Potvin, Louise
Globally, public health agencies recognise obesity trends among populations as a priority. Explanations for population obesity patterns are linked to obesogenic environments and societal trends which encourage patterns of overeating and little physical activity. However, obesity prevention and nutrition intervention focus predominantly on changing individual level eating behaviours. Disappointingly, behaviour-based nutrition education approaches to changing population eating patterns have met with limited success. Sociological perspectives propose that underlying social relations can help explain collective food and eating patterns, and suggest an analysis of the sociocultural context for understanding population eating patterns. We propose a theoretical framework for the examination of eating patterns as social phenomena. Giddens' structuration theory, in particular his concept of social practices understood as an interplay of 'agency' and 'social structure' (rules and resources), is used to study food choice patterns. We discuss the application of these concepts for understanding routine food choice practices of families, elaborating how rules and resources configure the enabling or constraining conditions under which actors make food choices. The framework assists in characterising how social structural properties are integral to food choice practices, and could direct attention to these when considering nutrition interventions aimed at changing population eating patterns. PMID:19220802
Schumacher, Robin F.; Fuchs, Lynn S.
The purpose of this study was to assess whether understanding relational terminology (i.e., more, less, and fewer) mediates the effects of intervention on compare word problems. Second-grade classrooms (n = 31) were randomly assigned to 3 conditions: researcher-designed word-problem intervention, researcher-designed calculation intervention, or business-as-usual (teacher-designed) control. Students in word-problem intervention classrooms received instruction on the compare problem type, which included a focus on understanding relational terminology within compare word problems. Analyses, which accounted for variance associated with classroom clustering, indicated that (a) compared to the calculation intervention and business-as-usual conditions, word-problem intervention significantly increased performance on all three subtypes of compare problems and on understanding relational terminology; and (b) the intervention effect was fully mediated by students’ understanding of relational terminology for 1 subtype of compare problems and partially mediated by students’ understanding of relational terminology for the other 2 subtypes. PMID:22221461
McFalls, Joseph A.; And Others
Maintains that the "python analogy," often used to help students understand the negative societal impact of unusually small or large age cohorts, is better replaced by the social tunnel analogy, which is diagramed and illustrated with reference to the educational problems experienced in the United States as a result of the World War II baby boom.…
Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Golub, Arthur; Stone, Erin C.; Orban, Lisa
Two components of multimodal anger control training were compared in a randomized study. The first component, social problem-solving training, utilized the techniques of cognitive restructuring, attribution retraining, and solution generation that targeted social-cognitive deficits implicated in anger and aggression. The second component, social…
Salehyar, Mohammad H.; Keenan, Louanne; Patterson, Steven; Amin, Maryam
Objectives The purpose of the study was: (a) to better understand the concept of social capital and its potential role in oral health of children in a First Nations community and (b) to identify the strengths and resources in terms of social capital and a health promotion model that the community has at its disposal to address its oral health issues. Methods In this qualitative case study, participants were purposively selected in a First Nations community: Seven individual interviews and two focus groups involving 18 parents/care givers were selected. Putnam's concept of social capital guided all the interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed using the NVivo software. Results The community was close-knit and seemed to have strong moral fibre, which encouraged members to help each other. A strong bonding social capital was also found among the members, especially inside the clans (families). A need for improvement in bridging social capital that would help the community to reach external resources was observed. While members of the community were actively involved in religious rituals and cultural ceremonies, more efforts seemed to be required to recruit volunteers for other events or programs. Active engagement of community members in any program requires that members be given a voice as well as some ownership of the process. Mobilizing or building community's social capital can play a role when planning future interventions. Conclusions A better understanding of social capital may enhance the community's investment and efforts by reinforcing healthy oral behaviours and improving access to external resources. With more dynamic collaboration, it may be possible to create more sustainable community-based oral health promotion programs. PMID:25623814
Long, Jennifer; Harré, Niki; Atkinson, Quentin D
Understanding how communities change requires examining how individuals' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by those around them. This paper investigates behavior change across a large social network following a recycling intervention in a New Zealand high school community. We used a mixed methods design, combining focus group data with social network analysis from two waves of a questionnaire that measured friendship networks; recycling and littering behaviors; perceived behavioral norms; and teacher, friend, and parent encouragement for these behaviors. Recycling behavior increased significantly over the course of our study. Supporting the importance of social networks in this context, both littering and recycling behavior showed clear social clustering. Further, the degree of change in an individuals' littering and recycling behavior across time was predicted by friends' prior behavior. Focus group data provided insight into students' perceptions of social interactions and how these contributed to littering and recycling behavior. PMID:24327210
Ornelas, India J; Amell, Jim; Tran, Anh N; Royster, Michael; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Eng, Eugenia
In this study we used a participatory qualitative research approach--photovoice--to collect information about African American men's perceptions of the factors that influenced their own health and the health of their communities. Photovoice was conducted as part of the "Men as Navigators (MAN) for Health" project, an evaluation of a male lay health advisor (LHA) intervention in central North Carolina. Twelve African American men living in both urban and rural communities took photographs and discussed the photos in six photo discussion sessions. Analysis involved identifying recurring themes from the photos and transcriptions of photo discussions. The results suggest that race and racism, male gender socialization, and social networks and social capital all have important influences on African American men's health. The implications for further research and public health practice are discussed. PMID:19201993
Maller, Cecily Jane
The importance of recognising structure and agency in health research to move beyond methodological individualism is well documented. To progress incorporating social theory into health, researchers have used Giddens' and Bourdieu's conceptualisations of social practice to understand relationships between agency, structure and health. However, social practice theories have more to offer than has currently been capitalised upon. This article delves into contemporary theories of social practice as used in consumption and sustainability research to provide an alternative, and more contextualised means, of understanding and explaining human action in relation to health and wellbeing. Two key observations are made. Firstly, the latest formulations of social practice theory distinguish moments of practice performance from practices as persistent entities across time and space, allowing empirical application to explain practice histories and future trajectories. Secondly, they emphasise the materiality of everyday life, foregrounding things, technologies and other non-humans that cannot be ignored in a technologically dependent social world. In concluding, I argue the value of using contemporary social practice theories in health research is that they reframe the way in which health outcomes can be understood and could inform more effective interventions that move beyond attitudes, behaviour and choices. PMID:25601064
K. M. Dunn; P. R. Croft; G. I. Hackett
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of sexual problems with social, physical, and psychological problems. DESIGN: An anonymous postal questionnaire survey. SETTING: Four general practices in England. PARTICIPANTS: 789 men and 979 women responding to a questionnaire sent to a stratified random sample of the adult general population (n = 4000). MAIN RESULTS: Strong physical, social, and psychological associations were
Rockhill, Carol M.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Katon, Wayne J.
This study examined the roles of social competence and social support as potential mediators of the association between psychopathology and functional outcomes in a middle school sample (n = 521). Participants were stratified into four psychopathology risk groups (depression only, conduct problems only, comorbid depression and conduct problems,…
Establishing the decision context for a management problem is the critical first step for effective decision analysis. Understanding the decision context allow stakeholders and decision-makers to integrate the societal, environmental, and economic considerations that must be con...
Li, Wanqing; Mai, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chao
The Default Mode Network (DMN) has been found to be involved in various domains of cognitive and social processing. The present article will review brain connectivity results related to the DMN in the fields of social understanding of others: emotion perception, empathy, theory of mind, and morality. Most of the reviewed studies focused on healthy subjects with no neurological and psychiatric disease, but some studies on patients with autism and psychopathy will also be discussed. Common results show that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) plays a key role in the social understanding of others, and the subregions of the MPFC contribute differently to this function according to their roles in different subsystems of the DMN. At the bottom, the ventral MPFC in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem and its connections with emotion regions are mainly associated with emotion engagement during social interactions. Above, the anterior MPFC (aMPFC) in the cortical midline structures (CMS) and its connections with posterior and anterior cingulate cortex contribute mostly to making self-other distinctions. At the top, the dorsal MPFC (dMPFC) in the dMPFC subsystem and its connection with the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) are primarily related to the understanding of other's mental states. As behaviors become more complex, the related regions in frontal cortex are located higher. This reflects the transfer of information processing from automatic to cognitive processes with the increase of the complexity of social interaction. Besides the MPFC and TPJ, the connectivities of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) also show some changes during tasks from the four social fields. These results indicate that the DMN is indispensable in the social understanding of others. PMID:24605094
Experts in cognitive domains differ from non-experts in how they represent problems and knowledge, and in their epistemic understandings of tasks in their domain of expertise. This study investigates whether task-specific epistemic understanding also underlies the representation of knowledge on an everyday reasoning task on which the competent…
Langeveld, Johannes H.; Gundersen, Knut K.; Svartdal, Frode
The main purpose of the present study was to explore how social competence reduces behavioral problems. Based on previous findings, we assume that increased social competence can be regarded as a mediating factor in reducing behavior problems. All participants (children and adolescents, n = 112) received an intervention intended to increase social…
Segrin, Chris; Flora, Jeanne
Presumes that poor social skills are thought to make people vulnerable to psychosocial problems pursuant to the experience of stressful life events. Indicates that lower social skills scores of a group of college freshmen were predictive of a worsening of psychosocial problems. Finds that social skills interacted with stressful life events to…
Hall, Brian J; Tol, Wietse A; Jordans, Mark J D; Bass, Judith; de Jong, Joop T V M
Little is known about the role of cognitive social capital among war-affected youth in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the longitudinal association between cognitive social capital and mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms), functioning, and received social support of children in Burundi. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews with 176 children over three measurement occasions over the span of 4-months. Cognitive social capital measured the degree to which children believed their community was trustworthy and cohesive. Mental health measures included the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) (Birleson, 1981), the Child Posttraumatic Symptom Scale (Foa et al., 2001), and a locally constructed scale of functional impairment. Children reported received social support by listing whether they received different types of social support from self-selected key individuals. Cross-lagged path analytic modeling evaluated relationships between cognitive social capital, symptoms and received support separately over baseline (T1), 6-week follow-up (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3). Each concept was treated and analyzed as a continuous score using manifest indicators. Significant associations between study variables were unidirectional. Cognitive social capital was associated with decreased depression between T1 and T2 (B = -.22, p < .001) and T2 and T3 (? = -.25, p < .001), and with functional impairment between T1 and T2 (? = -.15, p = .005) and T2 and T3 (? = -.14, p = .005); no association was found for PTSD symptoms at either time point. Cognitive social capital was associated with increased social support between T1 and T2 (? = .16, p = .002) and T2 and T3 (? = .16, p = .002). In this longitudinal study, cognitive social capital was related to a declining trajectory of children's mental health problems and increases in social support. Interventions that improve community relations in war-affected communities may alter the trajectories of resource loss and gain with conflict-affected children. PMID:24922609
Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; Williams, David R.; House, James S.
Objectives Researchers have posited that one potential explanation for the better-than-expected health outcomes observed among some Latino immigrants, vis-ŕ-vis their U.S.-born counterparts, may be the strength of their social ties and social support among immigrants. Methods We examined the association between nativity status and social ties using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study’s Latino subsample, which includes Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Latinos. First, we used Ordinary Least Squares [OLS] regression methods to model the effect of nativity status on five outcomes: informal social integration; social network diversity; network size; instrumental support; and informational support. Using multilevel mixed effects regression models, we estimated the association between Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition on our outcomes, and whether these relationships varied by nativity status. Lastly, we examined the relationship between social ties and immigrants’ length of time in the United States. Results After controlling for individual-level characteristics, immigrant Latinos had significantly lower levels of social ties than their U.S.-born counterparts for all our outcomes, except for informational support. Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition was positively associated with being socially integrated and having larger and more diverse social networks. The associations between two of our outcomes (informal social integration and network size) and living in a neighborhood with greater concentrations of Latinos and immigrants were stronger for U.S.-born Latinos than for immigrant Latinos. U.S.-born Latinos maintained a significant socialties advantage compared to immigrants—regardless of length of time in the United States—for informal social integration, network diversity, and network size. Conclusion At the individual level, our findings challenge the assumption that Latino immigrants would have larger networks and/or higher levels of support and social integration than their U.S.-born counterparts. Our study underscores the importance of understanding the contexts that promote the development of social ties. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding Latino and immigrant social ties and health outcomes. PMID:23947776
Luo, Wei; Yin, Peifeng; Di, Qian; Hardisty, Frank; MacEachren, Alan M.
The world has become a complex set of geo-social systems interconnected by networks, including transportation networks, telecommunications, and the internet. Understanding the interactions between spatial and social relationships within such geo-social systems is a challenge. This research aims to address this challenge through the framework of geovisual analytics. We present the GeoSocialApp which implements traditional network analysis methods in the context of explicitly spatial and social representations. We then apply it to an exploration of international trade networks in terms of the complex interactions between spatial and social relationships. This exploration using the GeoSocialApp helps us develop a two-part hypothesis: international trade network clusters with structural equivalence are strongly ‘balkanized’ (fragmented) according to the geography of trading partners, and the geographical distance weighted by population within each network cluster has a positive relationship with the development level of countries. In addition to demonstrating the potential of visual analytics to provide insight concerning complex geo-social relationships at a global scale, the research also addresses the challenge of validating insights derived through interactive geovisual analytics. We develop two indicators to quantify the observed patterns, and then use a Monte-Carlo approach to support the hypothesis developed above. PMID:24558409
Luo, Wei; Yin, Peifeng; Di, Qian; Hardisty, Frank; MacEachren, Alan M
The world has become a complex set of geo-social systems interconnected by networks, including transportation networks, telecommunications, and the internet. Understanding the interactions between spatial and social relationships within such geo-social systems is a challenge. This research aims to address this challenge through the framework of geovisual analytics. We present the GeoSocialApp which implements traditional network analysis methods in the context of explicitly spatial and social representations. We then apply it to an exploration of international trade networks in terms of the complex interactions between spatial and social relationships. This exploration using the GeoSocialApp helps us develop a two-part hypothesis: international trade network clusters with structural equivalence are strongly 'balkanized' (fragmented) according to the geography of trading partners, and the geographical distance weighted by population within each network cluster has a positive relationship with the development level of countries. In addition to demonstrating the potential of visual analytics to provide insight concerning complex geo-social relationships at a global scale, the research also addresses the challenge of validating insights derived through interactive geovisual analytics. We develop two indicators to quantify the observed patterns, and then use a Monte-Carlo approach to support the hypothesis developed above. PMID:24558409
Yan, Jie; Lavigne, Nancy C.
Statistics learners often bypass the critical step of understanding a problem before executing solutions. Worked-out examples that identify problem information (e.g., data type, number of groups, purpose of analysis) key to determining a solution (e.g., "t" test, chi-square, correlation) can address this concern. The authors examined the…
Yates, Jennifer L.
The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…
Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay
This study investigates how students understand and apply the area under the curve concept and the integral-area relation in solving introductory physics problems. We interviewed 20 students in the first semester and 15 students from the same cohort in the second semester of a calculus-based physics course sequence on several problems involving…
Shih, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Pei-Ren; Hsu, Yung-Chi; Chen, Sherry Y.
Disorientation problems influence student learning. To address this issue, this study uses an integrative approach to investigate the causes and consequences of disorientation problems so that a complete understanding can be obtained. Unlike previous empirical studies, which use statistical techniques, this study attempts to expose unexpected…
Liberman, Nira; Klar, Yechiel
Two studies explored the relation of task understanding to performance in the Wason selection tasks, in which subjects successfully solve tasks involving either social exchange situations or cheating detection content and perspective. Findings indicate that previous results (Gigerenzer and Hug, 1992) could be attributed to three general properties…
Baker, D. A.; Street, B. V.; Tomlin, A.
This is a discussion of research in the 'Schooled and Community numeracies focus within the Leverhulme funded Low Educational Achievement in Numeracy Research Programme. The intentions of the research in this focus are to seek explanations for underachievement in numeracy that derive from understandings of mathematics as social. We wanted to…
The focus in this article is on issues of social cohesion and citizenship as they relate to students' understandings of religion and religious identity. The article draws on data gathered from a study conducted at a highly diverse English comprehensive school and is set amid broader anxieties about religion, community disharmony and national…
Firmin, Michael W.
Religious scholars and social science experts frequently differ and sometimes clash when writing and discussing issues of ethics. Sometimes unshared understandings on fundamental world-view issues is the etiology for these differences. Differences in defining truth, whether philosophically or empirically, often is at the root etiology in these…
Tan-Niam, Carolyn S. L.
This study examined the relationship between preschool children's understanding of others' minds, as indicated in their performance on a false beliefs task, and the quality of their social interaction in shared pretend play. Participating were 48 pairs of preschool children enrolled in 4 preschools in both Singapore and the United Kingdom.…
1 Understanding the Social, Technological, and Public Policy Implications of Open Source Software of California, Irvine. August 2002 Interest in open source software has emerged in many different communities to open source software. My research group is studying (a) the role of software informalisms (vs
un- cover a partial image of the inner workings of the city. This work presents a new methodologyThe Livehoods Project: Utilizing Social Media to Understand the Dynamics of a City Justin Cranshaw dynamics of a city on a large scale has tra- ditionally been a challenging endeavor, often requiring long
Luke, Nikki; Banerjee, Robin
Previous research suggests that parental abuse and neglect can have adverse effects on children's peer relationships and self-perceptions. Emerging theoretical and empirical work suggests that children's social understanding and empathy could play a key role as mediators of these effects, but we have little knowledge about the viability of such a…
This qualitative phenomenological research study explored the social categorization diversity management experiences of NCAA Division I, II and III athletic coaches. The research study used a combination of questionnaire, observation and coaching interviews to obtain an understanding of the skills, tools and techniques that these coaches used to…
Popliger, Mina; Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela
Children tell prosocial lies for self- and other-oriented reasons. However, it is unclear how motivational and socialization factors affect their lying. Furthermore, it is unclear whether children's moral understanding and evaluations of prosocial lie scenarios (including perceptions of vignette characters' feelings) predict their actual prosocial…
, asellen, rherb, firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT Online video games can be seen as medium for the formation, is a major genre in the world of video games across various gaming platforms, with numerous hit titlesSociable Killers: Understanding Social Relationships in an Online First-Person Shooter Game Yan Xu1
Triliva, Sofia; Poulou, Maria
This article presents the findings of a research initiative which explored Greek teachers' perceptions and understandings on what constitutes social and emotional competencies and how these competencies can best be enhanced within the classroom. In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 elementary school teachers in two different geographical…
Rowley, Cammy J.
This ethnography drew on Vygotsky's (1986, 1978) sociocultural theory of development to understand social emotional learnings of young children. The unique K-8 span of circle group--coupled with intentional activities--provided the rich context for language and interactions between students. Examining a school with a mature philosophy and…
This article addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane, everyday interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian theorizing, it claims that caregivers' appraisals of…
The present paper addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane every day interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian theorizing, it claims that caregiver's appraisals of infant's emotion expression are dialogically intertwined with broader speech genres or
Heaton, Pamela; Allen, Rory; Williams, Kerry; Cummins, Omar; Happe, Francesca
Children with autism experience difficulties in understanding social affective cues, and it has been suggested that such deficits will generalize to music. In order to investigate this proposal, typically developing individuals and children with autism and Down syndrome were compared on tasks measuring perception of affective and movement states…
Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer
Nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in catchments is a 'wicked' problem that threatens water quality, water security, ecosystem health and biodiversity, and thus the provision of ecosystem services that support human livelihoods and wellbeing from local to global scales. However, it is a difficult problem to manage because water catchments are linked human and natural systems that are complex, dynamic, multi-actor, and multi-scalar in nature. This in turn raises questions about understanding and influencing change across multiple levels of planning, decision-making and action. A key challenge in practice is enabling implementation of local management action, which can be influenced by a range of factors across multiple levels. This paper reviews and synthesises important 'enabling' capacities that can influence implementation of local management action, and develops a conceptual framework for understanding and analysing these in practice. Important enabling capacities identified include: history and contingency; institutional arrangements; collaboration; engagement; vision and strategy; knowledge building and brokerage; resourcing; entrepreneurship and leadership; and reflection and adaptation. Furthermore, local action is embedded within multi-scalar contexts and therefore, is highly contextual. The findings highlight the need for: (1) a systemic and integrative perspective for understanding and influencing change for managing the wicked problem of NPS water pollution; and (2) 'enabling' social and institutional arenas that support emergent and adaptive management structures, processes and innovations for addressing NPS water pollution in practice. These findings also have wider relevance to other 'wicked' natural resource management issues facing similar implementation challenges. PMID:23792915
Wilcox, B. P.
Grasslands and savannas across the globe have been transformed into woodlands, through a process often described as woody plant encroachment (WPE). This transformation has important implications for water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles—a topic that has been explored extensively, as reflected in the ecohydrological literature. The changes related to WPE have important societal implications as well. It is clear that human actions are strongly linked with both the causes and the consequences of WPE. At the same time, WPE has proved intractable in the face of attempts to slow or abate the phenomenon. Increasingly, it is being recognized that such complex environmental problems must be treated as social-ecological systems, that is, coupled human and natural systems. In this presentation, I will discuss recent progress in understanding WPE as a social-ecohydrological system and explore potentially promising approaches that merge insights from multiple disciplines—including hydrology, ecology, remote sensing, economics, and social sciences—as a basis for agent-based models that can improve our understanding of this complex phenomenon.
Batel, Susana; Devine-Wright, Patrick
In the past few years, social research has been examining what contributes to the attitude-behaviour gap in people's responses to large-scale renewable energy technologies. The NIMBY explanation for the gap has long dominated that area of research, but has also been criticised. Alternative proposals to NIMBY were advanced, but it is still evident that some of those maintain presuppositions of NIMBY and that this area of research needs more integration, namely at a theoretical level. In this paper we argue that to overcome those aspects it is relevant, first, to situate the promotion of renewable energy production as a social change process in today's societies, and, second, to therefore consider the socio-psychological aspects involved in people's responses to social change. We discuss specifically how the Theory of Social Representations may help us with that and contribute to a better understanding of people's responses to renewable energy technologies. PMID:24448027
Kippax, Susan; Parker, Richard G.; Aggleton, Peter
When HIV prevention targets risk and vulnerability, it focuses on individual agency and social structures, ignoring the centrality of community in effective HIV prevention. The neoliberal concept of risk assumes individuals are rational agents who act on information provided to them regarding HIV transmission. This individualistic framework does not recognize the communities in which people act and connect. The concept of vulnerability on the other hand acknowledges the social world, but mainly as social barriers that make it difficult for individuals to act. Neither approach to HIV prevention offers understanding of community practices or collective agency, both central to success in HIV prevention to date. Drawing on examples of the social transformation achieved by community action in Australia and Brazil, this article focuses on this middle ground and its role in effective HIV prevention. PMID:23763397
Verboom, Charlotte E.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Ormel, Johan
Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between depressive problems and three types of functioning in…
Mason, Michael J.
This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and…
This commentary explores the relationships between homelessness, drug use and hepatitis C infection, within the broader context of social exclusion. Although it is difficult to estimate the number of homeless people who are misusing drugs or the number of drug users who are homeless, UK and international literature indicate a significant overlap between the two groups. Homeless drug users (HDUs) tend to experience many life problems and their situation has been described as a double jeopardy [Neale, J. (2001). Homelessness amongst drug users: A double jeopardy explored. The International Journal of Drug Policy, 12, 353-369]. Compounding this, emerging data now show that HDUs are at increased risk of being infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The concept of social exclusion is critically reviewed as a means of understanding the experiences and needs of HDUs infected with HCV and, in light of this, policy and practice are discussed. It is argued that efforts to tackle broader social problems are indirectly assisting this vulnerable group, but more joined-up strategies and targeted measures are still required. These include tackling negative community and professional attitudes and discriminatory practices; more integrated service provision and professional training; and drawing HDUs with HCV into policy and practice debates as advisors, educators and collaborators. To conclude, suggestions for future research that would help to clarify some of the complexity surrounding the behaviours, experiences and service needs of HDUs with HCV are made. PMID:17962008
Cavallo, Marco; Adenzato, Mauro; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Karwig, Gillian; Enrici, Ivan; Abrahams, Sharon
The present study aims at clarifying the nature of the Theory of Mind (ToM) deficits associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). ToM is the ability to attribute mental states such as intentions and beliefs to others in order to understand and predict their behaviour and to behave accordingly. Several neuroimaging studies reported the prefrontal cortices as the brain region underlying a key ToM ability, i.e. the comprehension of social intentions. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortices in patients with ALS has been indicated by a range of neuroimaging studies. The frontal syndrome that appears to characterize up to 50% of ALS has been noted to be similar to the profile that characterizes patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative condition characterised by ToM deficits. In the present paper, we hypothesize that the performance of patients with ALS is significantly worse than healthy controls' performance on tasks requiring the comprehension of social contexts, whereas patients' performance is comparable to healthy controls' performance on tasks not requiring the comprehension of social contexts. To this end, we tested 15 patients with ALS with an experimental protocol that distinguishes between private (non-social) intentions and social intentions. The pattern of results followed the experimental hypothesis: the performance of patients with ALS and healthy controls significantly differed on the comprehension of social context only, with an impairment in patients with ALS. Single case analysis confirmed the findings at an individual level. The present study is the first which has examined and compared the understanding of social and non-social contexts in patients with ALS and shown a specific and selective deficit in the former only. The current findings further support the notion of a continuum of cognitive dysfunction ranging from ALS to FTD, with parallel cognitive profiles in both disorders. PMID:21998727
Lawrence, Shawn; Hazlett, Rebekah; Hightower, Peggy
The childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate. Numerous individual, family, community, and social factors contribute to overweight and obesity in children and are explored. If left unaddressed, the epidemic of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity may lead to amplified problems for individual…
Dereli Iman, Esra
Problem Statement: Children, like adults, face numerous problems and conflicts in their everyday lives, including issues with peers, siblings, older children, parents, teachers, and other adults. The methods children use to solve such problems are more important than actually facing the problems. The lack of effective social problem-solving skills…
Cumming, Graeme S; Allen, Craig R; Ban, Natalie C; Biggs, Duan; Biggs, Harry C; Cumming, David H M; De Vos, Alta; Epstein, Graham; Etienne, Michel; Maciejewski, Kristine; Mathevet, Raphaël; Moore, Christine; Nenadovic, Mateja; Schoon, Michael
Protected areas (PAs) remain central to the conservation of biodiversity. Classical PAs were conceived as areas that would be set aside to maintain a natural state with minimal human influence. However, global environmental change and growing cross-scale anthropogenic influences mean that PAs can no longer be thought of as ecological islands that function independently of the broader social-ecological system in which they are located. For PAs to be resilient (and to contribute to broader social-ecological resilience), they must be able to adapt to changing social and ecological conditions over time in a way that supports the long-term persistence of populations, communities, and ecosystems of conservation concern. We extend Ostrom's social-ecological systems framework to consider the long-term persistence of PAs, as a form of land use embedded in social-ecological systems, with important cross-scale feedbacks. Most notably, we highlight the cross-scale influences and feedbacks on PAs that exist from the local to the global scale, contextualizing PAs within multi-scale social-ecological functional landscapes. Such functional landscapes are integral to understand and manage individual PAs for long-term sustainability. We illustrate our conceptual contribution with three case studies that highlight cross-scale feedbacks and social-ecological interactions in the functioning of PAs and in relation to regional resilience. Our analysis suggests that while ecological, economic, and social processes are often directly relevant to PAs at finer scales, at broader scales, the dominant processes that shape and alter PA resilience are primarily social and economic. PMID:26263656
Brownell, Celia A.; Ramani, Geetha B.; Zerwas, Stephanie
One- and two-year old peer dyads were presented with a simple cooperative task. Age differences were found in amount of coordinated activity, monitoring the peer’s activity and location in relation to the goal, and attempting to achieve the goal when the peer was (or was not) available as a partner. One-year-olds’ coordinated actions appeared more coincidental than cooperative whereas older children appeared to be more actively cooperating toward a shared goal. Differences in coordinated activity with peers were associated with differences in attention-sharing with an adult and with language about self and other. The ability to cooperate with peers, becoming a true social partner, develops over the second and third years of life in concert with growing social understanding. PMID:16942491
This study was an exploration of students' use of scaffolded problems as part of their homework in an introductory calculus-based physics class. The study included consideration of the possible relationship of students' meaningful and rote learning approaches. The sample was comprised of 48 students who had completed all study instruments. Of this number, 23 did homework assignments that included scaffolded problems that had been divided into multiple steps that simplify, highlight, and organize the knowledge associated with the problem solving process. The other 25 students did non-scaffolded homework assignments. The Mechanics Baseline Test, given at the beginning of the study, measured students' prior knowledge of physics concepts. The Learning Approach Questionnaire, also given at the beginning of the study, measured students' meaningful and rote approaches to learning. Student responses to 6 qualitative physics problems and their selection of concepts associated with 4 quantitative physics problems was a gauge of their understanding of physics concepts. These 10 problems were distributed between 2 classroom examinations given during the study. At the end of the study 4 students who had done scaffolded homework problems and 4 students who had done non-scaffolded homework problems participated in think aloud protocols. They verbalized their thoughts as they attempted to solve 2 physics problems. Characterizations of individual problem solving approaches emerged from the think aloud protocols. An analysis of statistical data showed that students who did scaffolded problems attained significantly greater understanding of physics concepts than students who did non-scaffolded assignments. There were no significant differences by learning approaches, and no significant interactions. This indicates that scaffolded homework problems may benefit students regardless of learning orientation. Think aloud protocols revealed patterns of difference between students who had done scaffolded homework problems and students who had done non-scaffolded homework problems. These included a greater tendency among scaffolded students to include declarative knowledge and to perform problem checks. It also included a greater tendency among non-scaffolded students to rely on the textbook as a reference during problem representation. Overall, students who had done scaffolded problems appeared to solve problems in a manner closer to that seen in expert problem solvers. Additionally, they showed evidence of problem solving habits, for instance checking, that might have a long term benefit.
Han, Paul K. J.; Lehman, Thomas C.; Massett, Holly; Lee, Simon J. C.; Klein, William M. P.; Freedman, Andrew N.
Objective To explore laypersons’ understanding of individualized cancer risk estimates, and to identify conceptual problems that may limit this understanding. Background Risk prediction models are increasingly used to provide people with information about their individual risk of cancer and other diseases. However, laypersons may have difficulty understanding individualized risk information, because of conceptual as well as computational problems. Design A qualitative study was conducted using focus groups. Semi-structured interviews explored participants’ understandings of the concept of risk, and their interpretations of a hypothetical individualized colorectal cancer risk estimate. Setting and participants Eight focus groups were conducted with 48 adults aged 50–74 years residing in two major US metropolitan areas. Participants had high school or greater education, some familiarity with information technology, and no personal or family history of cancer. Results Several important conceptual problems were identified. Most participants thought of risk not as a neutral statistical concept, but as signifying danger and emotional threat, and viewed cancer risk in terms of concrete risk factors rather than mathematical probabilities. Participants had difficulty acknowledging uncertainty implicit to the concept of risk, and judging the numerical significance of individualized risk estimates. The most challenging conceptual problems related to conflict between subjective and objective understandings of risk, and difficulties translating aggregate-level objective risk estimates to the individual level. Conclusions Several conceptual problems limit laypersons’ understanding of individualized cancer risk information. These problems have implications for future research on health numeracy, and for the application of risk prediction models in clinical and public health settings. PMID:19250148
Neaigus, A; Friedman, S R; Curtis, R; Des Jarlais, D C; Furst, R T; Jose, B; Mota, P; Stepherson, B; Sufian, M; Ward, T
Focusing on the social environment as well as the individual should both enhance our understanding of HIV transmission and assist in the development of more effective prevention programs. Networks are an important aspect of drug injectors' social environment. We distinguish between (1) risk networks (the people among whom HIV risk behaviors occur) as vectors of disease transmission, and (2) social networks (the people among whom there are social interactions with a mutual orientation to one another) as generators and disseminators of social influence. These concepts are applied to analyses of data from interviews with drug injectors in two studies. In the first study drug injectors' risk networks converge with their social networks: 70% inject or share syringes with a spouse or sex partner, a running partner, or with friends or others whom they know. Qualitative data from interviews with injectors in the second study also show that the social relationships between drug injectors and members of their risk network are often based on long-standing and multiplex relationships, such as those based on kinship, friendship, marital and sexual ties, and economic activity. In the first study the vast majority of injectors, over 90%, have social ties with non-injectors. Injectors with more frequent social contacts with non-injectors engage in lower levels of injecting risk behavior. Risk settings may function as risk networks: injectors in this study who inject at shooting galleries are more likely than those who do not to rent used syringes, borrow used syringes and inject with strangers. Since the adoption of a network approach is relatively new, a number of issues require further attention. These include: how to utilize social networks among drug injectors to reduce risk through peer pressure; how to promote risk reduction by encouraging ties between injectors and non-injectors; and how to integrate biographical and historical change into understanding network processes. Appropriate methodologies to study drug injectors' networks should be developed, including techniques to reach hidden populations, computer software for managing and analyzing network data bases, and statistical methods for drawing inferences from data gathered through dependent sampling designs. PMID:8146717
This study investigated seventh grade learners' decision making about genetic engineering concepts and applications. A social network analyses supported by technology tracked changes in student understanding with a focus on social and conceptual influences. Results indicated that several social and conceptual mechanisms potentially affected how…
Ridenour, J.; Feldman, G.; Teodorescu, R.; Medsker, L.; Benmouna, N.
Developing competency in problem solving and enhancing conceptual understanding are primary objectives in introductory physics, and many techniques and tools are available to help instructors achieve them. Pedagogically, we use an easy-to-implement intervention, the ACCESS protocol, to develop and assess problem-solving skills in our SCALE-UP classroom environment for algebra-based physics. Based on our research and teaching experience, an important question has emerged: while primarily targeting improvements in problem-solving and cognitive development, is it necessary that conceptual understanding be compromised? To address this question, we gathered and analyzed information about student abilities, backgrounds, and instructional preferences. We report on our progress and give insights into matching the instructional tools to student profiles in order to achieve optimal learning in group-based active learning. The ultimate goal of our work is to integrate individual student learning needs into a pedagogy that moves students closer to expert-like status in problem solving.
In this paper we focus on the parallel computation of large - scale equilibrium and optimization problems arising in the social and economic sciences. In particular, we consider problems which can be visualized and ...
Anirban Mukherjee; Utpal Garain
This article addresses the problem of understanding mathematics described in natural language. Research in this area dates\\u000a back to early 1960s. Several systems have so far been proposed to involve machines to solve mathematical problems of various\\u000a domains like algebra, geometry, physics, mechanics, etc. This correspondence provides a state of the art technical review\\u000a of these systems and approaches proposed
Landers, Daniel M., Ed.
This book is an outgrowth of a conference on "Sport and Social Deviance," attended by people interested in the newly emerging interdisciplinary area concerned with the social scientific analysis of sport, play, and games. This anthology, which has contributions from many different authors, is intended to provide social scientists, physical…
Morgenshtern, Marina; Freymond, Nancy; Agyapong, Samuel; Greeson, Clare
This study examines the attitudes of graduate social work students toward research in the contexts of academic study, professional social work practice, and students' personal lives. The authors collected quantitative and qualitative data from MSW students (n = 102) at a major Canadian school of social work. Findings suggest that MSW students…
Peter K. Jonason; Gregory D. Webster; A. Elizabeth Lindsey
Social animals, like humans, need to interact with others, but this is not always possible. When genuine social interaction is lacking, individuals may seek out or use sources of interaction that co-opt agency detection mechanisms vis-ŕ-vis the human voice and images of people, called social snacking. Study 1 (N = 240) found that ratings of how alone participants felt were
Gupta, Yayati; Saini, Jaspal Singh; Sridhar, Nidhi
A significant amount of research has attempted to understand the advertisement of products using social networking websites. Scientists have tried targeting the most influential people in a society to impact the largest possible fraction. But, the reasons for the change in people's preferences from one product to another have not been understood completely. Inculcating this idea, the paper proposes a model to simulate the behaviour of people's choices when new products are introduced in the system. Here, we try to analyse the transition of users from one Social Networking Site(SNS) to another. Although many researchers have studied social networking websites, none of them have focussed on how these transitions occur. Our model considers two major factors as pivotal in determining the success of a new SNS. The first being time, we study whether this time that an SNS like Facebook received to monopolise its reach had a distinguishable effect on the transition. The second factor that is considered to determine t...
Terras, Melody M; Thompson, Lucy C; Minnis, Helen
Individuals with dyslexia may have lower self-esteem and exhibit more emotional and behavioural difficulties than those without reading problems. However, the nature of any relationship between self-esteem and psychopathology remains unknown. This exploratory study assessed levels of self-esteem using the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Manual for the Self-Perception Profile for Children. University of Denver, CO: Denver; 1985) and psycho-social adjustment using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry, 1997; 38: 581-586) and examined child and parent understanding, attitudes and the perceived impact of reading difficulties on daily life. Sixty-eight children assessed as dyslexic on the basis of discrepancy scores (mean age 11.2 years; 44 male), and their parents, participated. No global self-esteem deficit was found, but the mean score for both child and parent-rated scholastic competence was significantly lower than that of the general population. Rates of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties were significantly higher than in the general population and were correlated with self-esteem. For children who had high global self-worth, both children and their parents had more positive attitudes towards their reading difficulties and were less likely to perceive a negative impact on relationships. The association between academic self-esteem and emotional symptoms is consistent with the proposed link between dyslexia and internalizing difficulties. Good self-esteem and a good understanding of dyslexia may help children avoid some of these difficulties. Further research with larger more representative samples is necessary as understanding the factors that promote successful psycho-social adjustment is essential to the development of effective prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:19384920
Hall, Brian J.; Tol, Wietse A.; Jordans, Mark J.D.; Bass, Judith; de Jong, Joop T.V.M.
Little is known about the role of cognitive social capital among war-affected youth in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the longitudinal association between cognitive social capital and mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms), functioning, and received social support of children in Burundi. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews with 176 children over three measurement occasions over the span of 4-months. Cognitive social capital measured the degree to which children believed their community was trustworthy and cohesive. Mental health measures included the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) (Birleson, 1981), the Child Posttraumatic Symptom Scale (Foa, Johnson, & Feeny, 2001), and a locally constructed scale of functional impairment. Children reported received social support by listing whether they received different types of social support from self-selected key individuals. Cross-lagged path analytic modeling evaluated relationships between cognitive social capital, symptoms and received support separately over baseline (T1), 6-week follow-up (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3). Each concept was treated and analyzed as a continuous score using manifest indicators. Significant associations between study variables were unidirectional. Cognitive social capital was associated with decreased depression between T1 and T2 (B=?0.22, p<.001) and T2 and T3 (?=?0.25, p<.001), and with functional impairment between T1 and T2 (?=?0.15, p=.005) and T2 and T3 (?=?0.14, p=.005); no association was found for PTSD symptoms at either time point. Cognitive social capital was associated with increased social support between T1 and T2 (?=0.16, p=.002) and T2 and T3 (?=0.16, p=.002). In this longitudinal study, cognitive social capital was related to a declining trajectory of children’s mental health problems and increases in social support. Interventions that improve community relations in war-affected communities may alter the trajectories of resource loss and gain with conflict-affected children. PMID:24922609
Social sustainability is an important, but often neglected, aspect of determining the success of small-scale water systems. This paper reviews ethnographic approaches for understanding how indigenous knowledge enhances social sustainability of small-scale water systems, particularly in small-scale water systems threatened by water scarcity. After reviewing the literature on common-pool and traditional resource management strategies, the paper will focus on the case of a community-managed small-scale water system in Cochabamba, Bolivia. This study uses ethnographic evidence to demonstrate how indigenous institutions can be used to manage a small-scale urban water system sustainably. Several factors were crucial to the institution's success. First, indigenous residents had previous experience with common management of rural irrigation systems which they were able to adapt for use in an urban environment. Second, institutional rules were designed to prioritize the conservation of the water source. Third, indigenous Andean social values of uniformity, regularity, and transparency ensured that community members perceived the system as legitimate and complied with community rules. Fourth, self-governance enabled community members to quickly adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as seasonal scarcity and groundwater overdraft. The paper concludes with a discussion of the promise and limitations of ethnographic approaches and indigenous knowledge for understanding social sustainability in small-scale water systems.
Kreindler, Sara A; Dowd, Damien A; Dana Star, Noah; Gottschalk, Tania
Context One of health care's foremost challenges is the achievement of integration and collaboration among the groups providing care. Yet this fundamentally group-related issue is typically discussed in terms of interpersonal relations or operational issues, not group processes. Methods We conducted a systematic search for literature offering a group-based analysis and examined it through the lens of the social identity approach (SIA). Founded in the insight that group memberships form an important part of the self-concept, the SIA encompasses five dimensions: social identity, social structure, identity content, strength of identification, and context. Findings Our search yielded 348 reports, 114 of which cited social identity. However, SIA-citing reports varied in both compatibility with the SIA's metatheoretical paradigm and applied relevance to health care; conversely, some non-SIA-citers offered SIA-congruent analyses. We analyzed the various combinations and interpretations of the five SIA dimensions, identifying ten major conceptual currents. Examining these in the light of the SIA yielded a cohesive, multifaceted picture of (inter)group relations in health care. Conclusions The SIA offers a coherent framework for integrating a diverse, far-flung literature on health care groups. Further research should take advantage of the full depth and complexity of the approach, remain sensitive to the unique features of the health care context, and devote particular attention to identity mobilization and context change as key drivers of system transformation. Our article concludes with a set of “guiding questions” to help health care leaders recognize the group dimension of organizational problems, identify mechanisms for change, and move forward by working with and through social identities, not against them. PMID:22709391
Parikh, Tapan S.
Apps for Social Justice: Motivating Computer Science Learning with Design and Real-World Problem describe a twelve-week Apps for Social Justice course that we taught at an after-school program. Students read social justice literature, identified local community needs, and went through a design process
Macy, Rebecca J.; Ferron, Joelle; Crosby, Carmen
Although most social work professionals may expect that women who experience partner violence will sustain acute physical injuries, social workers may be less knowledgeable about the chronic health problems with which violence survivors often struggle. To inform social work practice, we reviewed and synthesized the recently published research on…
Mark OReilly; Deirdre McNally; Jeff Sigafoos; Giulio E. Lancioni; Vanessa Green; Chaturi Edrisinha; Wendy Machalicek; Audrey Sorrells; Russell Lang; Robert Didden
The authors examined the use of a social problem-solving intervention to treat selective mutism with 2 sisters in an elementary school setting. Both girls were taught to answer teacher questions in front of their classroom peers during regular classroom instruction. Each girl received individualized instruction from a therapist and was taught to discriminate salient social cues, select an appropriate social
Mayo, L. H.
The contextual approach is discussed which undertakes to demonstrate that technology assessment assists in the identification of the full range of implications of taking a particular action and facilitates the consideration of alternative means by which the total affected social problem context might be changed by available project options. It is found that the social impacts of an application on participants, institutions, processes, and social interests, and the accompanying interactions may not only induce modifications in the problem contest delineated for examination with respect to the design, operations, regulation, and use of the posited application, but also affect related social problem contexts.
Sanda, M-A; Johansson, J; Johansson, B; Abrahamsson, L
The purpose of this article is to develop knowledge and learning on the best way to automate organisational activities in deep mines that could lead to the creation of harmony between the human, technical and the social system, towards increased productivity. The findings showed that though the introduction of high-level technological tools in the work environment disrupted the social relations developed over time amongst the employees in most situations, the technological tools themselves became substitute social collaborative partners to the employees. It is concluded that, in developing a digitised mining production system, knowledge of the social collaboration between the humans (miners) and the technology they use for their work must be developed. By implication, knowledge of the human's subject-oriented and object-oriented activities should be considered as an important integral resource for developing a better technological, organisational and human interactive subsystem when designing the intelligent automation and digitisation systems for deep mines. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study focused on understanding the social collaboration between humans and the technologies they use to work in underground mines. The learning provides an added knowledge in designing technologies and work organisations that could better enhance the human-technology interactive and collaborative system in the automation and digitisation of underground mines. PMID:21973002
Dahsah, Chanyah; Coll, Richard K.
Stoichiometry and related concepts are an important part of student learning in chemistry. In this interpretive-based inquiry, we investigated Thai Grade 10 and 11 students' conceptual understanding and ability to solve numerical problems for stoichiometry-related concepts. Ninety-seven participants completed a purpose-designed survey instrument…
Chatterjea, Kalyani; Chang, Chew-Hung; Lim, Ee-Peng; Zhang, Jun; Theng, Yin-Leng; Go, Dion Hoe-Lian
Fieldwork remains the mainstay in the study of geography and in the analysis of the environmental processes. However, an in-depth understanding of the environmental and geographical processes requires extensive as well as intensive fieldwork that involves time and substantial effort, both of which may pose a problem within a given curriculum time.…
Describes the mental coding processes involved in the flow of information when the user is interacting with an enabling information-retrieval (IR) system, or a system designed to stimulate the user's grasping towards a higher understanding of the information need/problem/task that brought the user to the system. (Author/AEF)
The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relationships among personality, selfesteem and social problem-solving, as well as the mediating role of self-esteem in the link between personality and social problem-solving among Turkish youth. The study utilized a cross-sectional design comprising several self-reports. Data…
Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien
This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social…
The author provides a preliminary assessment of the extent to which a sample of 264 school social workers are aware of the Internet-related problems children are experiencing and proposes ways in which Internet-related problems could affect youths' social and academic competence and performance in a school setting. The findings have implications…
Downey, Matthew T.
The three problems approaches outlined for an introductory, interdisciplinary course provide opportunities to apply the methodological tools and perspectives of the social studies. Organization of each course, advantages and disadvantages, unique objectives, approaches, and methodology for a social problem approach, case study approach, and a…
Fite, Paula J.; Rathert, Jamie L.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani
The current study examined whether social problems accounted for the relation between reactive aggression and withdrawn/depressed symptoms in a sample of 147 children (54.4% male) ranging from 5 to 13 years of age (M = 8.22 years) who attended a community based after-school program. Findings suggested that indeed social problems mediated the link…
The purpose of this study was to examine communication skills, interpersonal problem solving skills, and social self-efficacy perception of adolescents and the predictive role of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. This study is a quantitative and relational study aimed at examining the…
Mumford, Michael D; Antes, Alison L; Caughron, Jared J; Connelly, Shane; Beeler, Cheryl
In the present study, 258 doctoral students working in the health, biological, and social sciences were asked to solve a series of field-relevant problems calling for creative thought. Proposed solutions to these problems were scored with respect to critical creative thinking skills such as problem definition, conceptual combination, and idea generation. Results indicated that health, biological, and social scientists differed with respect to their skill in executing various operations, or processes, involved in creative thought. Interestingly, no differences were observed as a function of the students' level of experience. The implications of these findings for understanding cross-field, and cross-experience level, differences in creative thought are discussed. PMID:20936085
Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Dominguez, Ximena; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Rouse, Heather L.; Fantuzzo, John W.
The relations between early emotional and behavioral problems in classroom situations and peer social competence were examined for a representative sample of urban Head Start children. Behavior problems were assessed within the context of routine peer, teacher, and structured learning classroom situations early in the preschool year. Two path…
House, James S.
Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…
Chittasirinuwat, Onchira; Kruatong, Tussatrin; Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat
This study addresses students' intuitive understanding of energy and momentum and their problem solving ability. The subjects of this research were students who had experiences with conservation of energy and momentum. Nine undergraduate students completed event-based Interviews with three related events which composed of Event I: Simple collisions, Event II: Newton's cradle and Event III: Gauss gun. Their intuitive understanding was explored through three well-defined items involving Event I and II. The interviews revealed that most students explained the two events by utilizing their intuitive understanding rather than scientific conceptions. Then problem-solving thinking was identified through ill-defined problems involving Event III. From the Gauss gun setting, students were asked to explain how Gauss gun works, how to build the highest power Gauss gun and interpret the graph of mass and distance of steel ball after collisions. Research findings showed that students who have fairly good command of basic knowledge, tended to use of problem solving strategies as expected. For example, a student who understood the perfectly transferring energy and momentum of the equal mass of balls, was able to identify the possible factors for design more effective Gauss gun reasonably. However, most of the students were unable to use suitable vocabulary in providing reasons and explanations for certain problem-solving procedures. Thus, lacking basic knowledge can impede problem-solving thinking. It is hope that these findings will serve as a reference for educators in improving the learning and teaching of energy and momentum in general and problem solving instruction in particular.
Moy, Gregory E; Briggs, Alissa; Shriberg, David; Furrey, Katie Jackson; Smith, Portia; Tompkins, Nicole
This study employed a cohort-sequential design with four cohorts over 3 years to investigate school psychology graduate trainees' (n=37) understanding of social justice. Using consensual qualitative research methods, participants' perspectives on social justice writ large, social justice as it applies to school psychology, and effective aspects of social justice training in their graduate training program were collected through semi-structured focus group interviews. Field-based training though service-learning in diverse communities provided trainees with exposure to experiences that were viewed as instrumental in their understanding of social justice in general and as it applies to school psychology. Trainees described aspects of the training program that were viewed as conducive to educating school psychologists as agents of social justice. Based on findings from the study, a descriptive model of school psychology training for social justice is proposed. PMID:24930823
National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India – a ‘rising power’ with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health related commodities provide some excellent examples of illuminating social science. Future research agendas on health systems issues need to include innovative empirical work that captures the dynamics of transnational processes and that links macro-level change to fine-grained observations of social life. PMID:22963264
Bisht, Ramila; Pitchforth, Emma; Murray, Susan F
National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India - a 'rising power' with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health related commodities provide some excellent examples of illuminating social science. Future research agendas on health systems issues need to include innovative empirical work that captures the dynamics of transnational processes and that links macro-level change to fine-grained observations of social life. PMID:22963264
, Vol. 33 BOOK REVIEW Connecting Social Problems and Popular Culture: Why Media is Not the Answer, Second Edition, by Karen Sternheimer. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2013, 320 pages, $37.00 Paper. ISBN: 9780813347233. PAMELA ROOKS University... of Kansas In Connecting Social Problems with Popular Culture, University of Southern California sociologist Karen Sternheimer argues that our often media-inspired tendency to demonize pop culture draws attention and problem-solving efforts away from...
Clapp, Joshua D.; Beck, J. Gayle
Network orientation is conceptualized as an individual’s attitudes and expectations regarding the usefulness of support networks in coping with stress. The present research examined the potential for network orientation to explicate the well documented association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and attenuated social support. Data collected from survivors of serious motor vehicle trauma (N = 458) were used to test the hypothesis that severity of PTSD would hold a significant indirect relationship with social support through negative network orientation. Childhood victimization and elapsed time from the accident were examined as potential moderators of this indirect relationship. Consistent with hypotheses, path analyses demonstrated a significant indirect relationship between PTSD and social support through negative network orientation. Specifically, this indirect effect was the result of a direct association between PTSD severity and negative network orientation and an inverse association between negative network orientation and social support. This pattern of relationships was invariant across mode of PTSD assessment (interview vs. self-report). No moderation effects were noted. These data suggest that network orientation may be an important factor in understanding interface of interpersonal processes and posttrauma pathology. PMID:19162260
Rockhill, Carol M.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; Katon, Wayne J.
This study examined the roles of social competence and social support as potential mediators of the association between psychopathology and functional outcomes in a middle school sample (n=521). Participants were stratified into four psychopathology risk groups (depression only, conduct problems only, comorbid depression and conduct problems, low symptoms) based on screening during early 6th grade. Functional outcomes were 6th grade point average (GPA) and parent rating of global adaptive functioning in their 7th grade student. Low levels of social competence were found to mediate the association between psychiatric symptoms and both lower grades and global functioning, for adolescents with depressive symptoms alone and with comorbid symptoms, but not for those with conduct problems alone. Lack of social support mediated the association between symptoms and lower grades for adolescents with depression alone and comorbid symptoms, but not those with conduct problems alone. These findings suggest that intervention to improve social competence and social support may enhance functional outcomes, especially for youth with depressive symptoms or comorbid depressive and conduct symptoms. PMID:18694594
The hospital environment is characterized by time pressure, uncertain information, conflicting goals, high stakes, stress, and dynamic conditions. These demands mean there is a need for nurses with social problem-solving skills. This study set out to (1) investigate the social problem-solving ability of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students in Macao and (2) identify the association between communication skill, clinical interaction, interpersonal dysfunction, and social problem-solving ability. All nursing students were recruited in one public institute through the census method. The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The study used the Chinese version of the Social Problem Solving Inventory short form (C-SPSI-R), Communication Ability Scale (CAS), Clinical Interactive Scale (CIS), and Interpersonal Dysfunction Checklist (IDC). Macao nursing students were more likely to use the two constructive or adaptive dimensions rather than the three dysfunctional dimensions of the C-SPSI-R to solve their problems. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that communication ability (ß=.305, p<.0001), clinical interaction (ß=.129, p=.047), and interpersonal dysfunction (ß=-.402, p<.0001) were associated with social problem-solving after controlling for covariates. Macao has had no problem-solving training in its educational curriculum; an effective problem-solving training should be implemented as part of the curriculum. With so many changes in healthcare today, nurses must be good social problem-solvers in order to deliver holistic care. PMID:23141038
Goodkind, Jessica R.; Gonzales, Melissa; Malcoe, Lorraine H.; Espinosa, Judith
Measurement of social stressors among Hispanic women is a growing and important area of study, particularly in terms of understanding explanatory mechanisms for health disparities. This study involved adaptation of the Hispanic Stress Inventory and the Latin American Stress Inventory to create a measure of social stressors specifically for both…
Science has often been viewed, by the majority of our educators and the general public, as being objective and emotionless. Based on this view, our educators teach science in the same manner, objectively and in an abstract form. This manner of teaching has hindered our learners' ability for active learning and distanced them from the subject matter. In this action research, I have examined holistic science pedagogy in conjunction with a constructivism theory. In holistic science pedagogy, scientific knowledge is combined with subjective personal experiences and social issues. There is an interaction between student and scientific data when the student's context, relationships, and lived experiences that play a role in the scientific recognition of the world were incorporated into the learning process. In this pedagogical model, the factual content was viewed from the context of social and ethical implications. By empowering learners with this ability, science knowledge will no longer be exclusive to a select group. This process empowers the general population with the ability to understand scientific knowledge and therefore the ability to make informed decisions based on this knowledge. The goal was to make curriculum developers more conscious of factors that can positively influence the learning process and increase student engagement and understanding within the science classroom. The holistic approach to science pedagogy has enlightened and empowered our adult learners more effectively. Learners became more actively engaged in their own process of learning. Teachers must be willing to listen and implement student suggestions on improving the teaching/learning process. Teachers should be willing to make the effort in connecting with their students by structuring courses so the topics would be relevant to the students in relation to real world and social/ethical and political issues. Holistic science pedagogy strives for social change through the empowerment of adult learners with scientific knowledge. This research has demonstrated that learners can better understand the decision-making process and more easily relate their experiences, and therefore their knowledge, to social/political and ethical issues.
Given to the remarkable profitability of digital items in social virtual worlds (SVWs), such as SecondLife, Cyworld, and Habbo Hotel, it has become crucial to understand SVW users' postadoption behaviors toward digital items. This study develops a theoretical framework to examine key antecedents of users' intentions to repurchase and recommend digital items. Data collected from 256 users of digital items were empirically tested against the research model. The analysis results indicate that both user satisfaction and a perceived value play an important role in establishing users' postadoption intentions about digital items. Moreover, the results clearly show what roles perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, and perceived fee play in SVW environments. PMID:22924676
Wharf Higgins, Joan; Begoray, Deborah; MacDonald, Marjorie
With the rising concern over chronic health conditions and their prevention and management, health literacy is emerging as an important public health issue. As with the development of other forms of literacy, the ability for students to be able to access, understand, evaluate and communicate health information is a skill best developed during their years of public schooling. Health education curricula offer one approach to develop health literacy, yet little is known about its influence on neither students nor their experiences within an educational context. In this article, we describe our experience applying a social ecological model to investigating the implementation of a health education curriculum in four high schools in British Columbia, Canada. We used the model to guide a conceptual understanding of health literacy, develop research questions, select data collection strategies, and interpret the findings. Reflections and recommendations for using the model are offered. PMID:19838790
Senior, Carl; Howard, Chris
The role that student friendship groups play in learning was investigated here. Employing a critical realist design, two focus groups on undergraduates were conducted to explore their experience of studying. Data from the “case-by-case” analysis suggested student-to-student friendships produced social contexts which facilitated conceptual understanding through discussion, explanation, and application to “real life” contemporary issues. However, the students did not conceive this as a learning experience or suggest the function of their friendships involved learning. These data therefore challenge the perspective that student groups in higher education are formed and regulated for the primary function of learning. Given these findings, further research is needed to assess the role student friendships play in developing disciplinary conceptual understanding. PMID:25309488
Iiskala, Tuike; Vauras, Marja; Lehtinen, Erno; Salonen, Pekka
This study investigated how metacognition appears as a socially shared phenomenon within collaborative mathematical word-problem solving processes of dyads of high-achieving pupils. Four dyads solved problems of different difficulty levels. The pupils were 10 years old. The problem-solving activities were videotaped and transcribed in terms of…
and Machine Learning Lab October 6, 2014 LinkedIn 4 Some Challenges in Understanding Social Media · A Big-Data with little data A Big-Data Paradox #12;Deepening Our Understanding of Social MediaArizona State University
Ana-Maria Bliuc; Robert A. Ellis; Peter Goodyear; Daniela Muntele Hendres
This research focuses on understanding how socio-psychological dimensions such as student social identity and student perceptions\\u000a of their learning community affect learning at university. To do this, it integrates ideas from phenomenographic research\\u000a into student learning with ideas from research on social identity. In two studies (N?=?110, and N?=?97) the relationships between student social identity, perceptions of the learning community,
Mirchi, A.; Watkins, D. W.; Madani, K.
Water resources modeling, a well-established tool in water resources planning and management practice, facilitates understanding of the physical and socio-economic processes impacting the wellbeing of humans and ecosystems. While watershed models continue to become more holistic, there is a need for appropriate frameworks and tools for integrated conceptualization of problems to provide reliable qualitative and quantitative bases for policy selection. In recent decades, water resources professionals have become increasingly cognizant of important feedback relationships within water resources systems. We contend that a systems thinking paradigm is required to facilitate characterization of the closed-loop nature of these feedbacks. Furthermore, a close look at different water resources issues reveals that, while many water resources problems are essentially very similar in nature, they continuously appear in different geographical locations. In the systems thinking literature, a number of generic system structures known as system archetypes have been identified to describe common patterns of problematic behavior within systems. In this research, we identify some main system archetypes governing water resources systems, demonstrating their benefits for holistic understanding of various classes of persistent water resources problems. Using the eutrophication problem of Lake Allegan, Michigan, as a case study, we illustrate how the diagnostic tools of system dynamics modeling can facilitate identification of problematic feedbacks within water resources systems and provide insights for sustainable development.
Asselin, Martha Jo
With the rising number of major crises on college campuses today (Security on Campus Inc., 2009), institutions of higher education can benefit from understanding of how social networks may be used in times of emergency. What is currently known about the usage of social networks is not integral to the current practices of crisis management that are…
Yang, Daniel Y.-J.; Baillargeon, Renée
Why do individuals with more autistic traits experience social difficulties? Here we examined the hypothesis that these difficulties stem in part from a challenge in understanding social acting, the prosocial pretense that adults routinely produce to maintain positive relationships with their ingroup. In Study 1, we developed a self-administered…
Hughes, Shannon; Cohen, David
The purpose of this integrative review is to facilitate social work practitioners' understanding of how psychotropic drug harms are assessed in clinical trials and to make specific suggestions for social workers' increased involvement in detecting drug harms in their clients. The authors undertook a comprehensive review of interdisciplinary…
that the students will learn it through self-study in the first few weeks. TEXT BOOKS: Social Networks for startSOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS Network models have played a vital role in understanding many large systems such as transportation, power grid etc. More recently, interaction through networks have revolutionized all aspects
Shimabukuro, Carolina; Putrino, Natalia; Helbling, Julia; Tognetti, Sandra; Bentosela, Mariana
Dogs are able to solve different problems by trial and error learning, but it seems that they cannot understand the means-end connection. Some studies suggest that dogs' performance is influenced by their breed and by the level of familiarity with the person they interact with. In our study, we assess individual differences in both social and non-social responses in a problem-solving task during the acquisition, extinction, and reacquisition phases. In order to investigate the effect of familiarity, in the first experiment, the human present during the task was either a familiar (the dog's owner) or unfamiliar person. In the second experiment, we compared breeds (Retrievers and Shepherds) that had previously shown differences in a communicative task. The results revealed that all groups learned the task and became more efficient in the acquisition trials. These non-social responses diminished during extinction, where an increase in social responses was observed. With regard to individual differences, dogs were more persistent in searching the reward during the second extinction trial when the owner was present (in contrast with a stranger), and also looked longer at the unfamiliar person at the beginning of the acquisition trial. On the other hand, Retrievers showed greater social motivation during reacquisition and Shepherds picked up more bones during the third acquisition trial, thus suggesting a more persistent search of the reward. These findings highlight the relevance of studying different learning schedules as well as individual differences in problem-solving ability so as to improve selection and training techniques. PMID:25682735
Swearer, Susan M; Hymel, Shelley
With growing recognition that bullying is a complex phenomenon, influenced by multiple factors, research findings to date have been understood within a social-ecological framework. Consistent with this model, we review research on the known correlates and contributing factors in bullying/victimization within the individual, family, peer group, school and community. Recognizing the fluid and dynamic nature of involvement in bullying, we then expand on this model and consider research on the consequences of bullying involvement, as either victim or bully or both, and propose a social-ecological, diathesis-stress model for understanding the bullying dynamic and its impact. Specifically, we frame involvement in bullying as a stressful life event for both children who bully and those who are victimized, serving as a catalyst for a diathesis-stress connection between bullying, victimization, and psychosocial difficulties. Against this backdrop, we suggest that effective bullying prevention and intervention efforts must take into account the complexities of the human experience, addressing both individual characteristics and history of involvement in bullying, risk and protective factors, and the contexts in which bullying occurs, in order to promote healthier social relationships. PMID:25961315
Tokunaga, Robert S
Social networking sites (SNSs) provide the ideal infrastructure for the maintenance of existing relationships and the development of new contacts. Although these Web-based technologies supplement offline relationships, several of their characteristics have the potential to provoke negative experiences. The interpersonal strain and other relational problems stemming from negative events have recently gained notoriety. This investigation examines personal accounts of users who have experienced these negative events, which are described as any encounter or behavior exercised by others that instigates interpersonal strain, on SNSs to understand better the nature of this phenomenon. Using a mixed-methods approach, open coding of open-ended responses revealed 10 negative event types that surface during participation on SNSs. Quantitative coding was then used to identify a cut-off point for the most frequently experienced negative events. The findings reveal that the three most commonly experienced negative event types include ignoring or denying friend requests, deleting public messages or identification tags, and identifying ranking disparities on Top Friends applications. The practical, theoretical, and negative social implications of participation on SNSs are discussed. PMID:21413880
Pérez Ones, Isarelis; Núńez Jover, Jorge
This paper presents case studies on how Cuban universities have increasingly become directly involved with the economic and social development of the country. The paper shows how Cuban universities, from the early 1980s and early 1990s, started reorientation and organization of their scientific research, becoming more directly and intensely involved in the economic and social development of the country. In this way, special reference is made to the case of a research group at the University of Havana: the Laboratory of Synthetic Antigens. This group developed the first synthetic vaccine for human use approved in the world. In the article, public policies involved in this success as well as different obstacles are discussed. These obstacles demonstrate the difficulties and challenges that universities face when carrying out research and innovation activities related to economic and social development.
Perl, Martin L.
Professional societies have been reluctant to enter actively into the public processes by which decisions are made on economic, social, and political issues. This reluctance comes from (1) fears about the status of the profession and the professional society, (2) fears about economic reprisal, (3) potential conflicts between the goals of a philosophy of trade unionism and the goals of a philosophy of professional social responsibility, and (4) domination of some professional societies by nonprofessional business, industrial, or administrative groups. This reluctance has been justified by the development of a myth that the professional can exercise individual social responsibility while maintaining the neutrality of his institutions and societies. This myth must be ignored because our public decision-making processes can only function properly if groups, such as professional societies, actively enter that decision-making process. PMID:4691329
Dr. Theresa L. Selfa; Dr. Richard Goe; Dr. Laszlo Kulcsar; Dr. Gerad Middendorf; Dr. Carmen Bain
The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producersâ?? attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A â??multi-methodâ?ť or â??mixed methodâ?ť research methodology was employed for each case study.
Shannon, R.; McCloskey, J.; Guyer, C.; McDowell, S.; Steacy, S.
The importance of science within hazard mitigation cannot be underestimated. Robust mitigation polices rely strongly on a sound understanding of the science underlying potential natural disasters and the transference of that knowledge from the scientific community to the general public via governments and policy makers. We aim to investigate how and why the public's knowledge, perceptions, response, adjustments and values towards science have changed throughout two decades of research conducted in areas along and adjacent to the Sumatran and Cascadia subduction zones. We will focus on two countries subject to the same potential hazard, but which encompass starkly contrasting political, economic, social and environmental settings. The transfer of scientific knowledge into the public/ social arena is a complex process, the success of which is reflected in a community's ability to withstand large scale devastating events. Although no one could have foreseen the magnitude of the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, the social devastation generated underscored the stark absence of mitigation measures in the nations most heavily affected. It furthermore emphasized the need for the design and implementation of disaster preparedness measures. Survey of existing literature has already established timelines for major events and public policy changes in the case study areas. Clear evidence exists of the link between scientific knowledge and its subsequent translation into public policy, particularly in the Cascadia context. The initiation of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program following the Cape Mendocino earthquake in 1992 embodies this link. Despite a series of environmental disasters with recorded widespread fatalities dating back to the mid 1900s and a heightened impetus for scientific research into tsunami/ earthquake hazard following the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, the translation of science into the public realm is not widely obvious in the Sumatran context. This research aims to further investigate how the enhanced understanding of earthquake and tsunami hazards is being used to direct hazard mitigation strategies and enables direct comparison with the scientific and public policy developments in Cascadia.
Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang
Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…
Facchinetti, N J; Dickson, W M
From the published literature of the 1950s, the social history of anti-substitution law is analyzed in terms of sociological theory on the construction of social problems. The analysis reveals how the substitution of generic drugs for prescribed brands came to be recognized as a social problem in need of remedial legislation. The most influential party in the process was the brand-drug industry which centered the debate on matters of public health and professionalism instead of industrial profitability. The industry was able to form a coalition of interests and establish the saliency and legitimacy of the problem, even though there was no objective evidence to establish brand substitution as a hazard to health. The case fits well into the theory of social problem construction. Other issues in health care, particularly drug issues can be studied from this same perspective. PMID:7065335
Dreer, Laura E.; Berry, Jack; Rivera, Patricia; Snow, Marsha; Elliott, Timothy R.; Miller, Doreen; Little, Todd D.
The Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Scale (SPSI-R) has been shown to be a reliable and valid self-report measure of social problem-solving abilities. In busy medical and rehabilitation settings, a brief and efficient screening version with psychometric properties similar to the SPSI-R would have numerous benefits including decreased patient and caregiver assessment burden and administration/scoring time. Thus, the aim of the current study was to identify items from the SPSI-R that would provide for a more efficient assessment of global social problem-solving abilities. This study consisted of three independent samples: 121 persons in low-vision rehabilitation (M age = 71 years old, SD = 15.53), 301 persons living with diabetes mellitus (M age = 58, and SD = 14.85), and 131 family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities (M age = 56 years old, SD = 12.15). All persons completed a version of the SPSI-R, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Using Rasch scaling of the SPSI-R short-form, we identified a subset of 10 items that reflected the five-component model of social problem solving. The 10 items were separately validated on the sample of persons living with diabetes mellitus and the sample of family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities. Results indicate that the efficient 10-item version, analyzed separately for all three samples, demonstrated good reliability and validity characteristics similar to the established SPSI-R short form. The 10-item version of the SPSI-R represents a brief, effective way in which clinicians and researchers in busy health care settings can quickly assess global problem-solving abilities and identify those persons at-risk for complicated adjustment. Implications for the assessment of social problem-solving abilities are discussed. PMID:19267395
McManama O'Brien, Kimberly H.; Berzin, Stephanie C.; Kelly, Michael S.; Frey, Andy J.; Alvarez, Michelle E.; Shaffer, Gary L.
School social workers frequently serve as the primary mental health providers to youths with mental health problems. Although school social workers play a primary role in care, many students also receive outside counseling services. Previous research has not examined whether practice approaches differ when considering mental health practice with…
Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto
Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in…
As a social justice leader who was a principal of a high performing school I have wondered if the outcomes that we achieved were significantly different for our students than the rest of the State because of my emphasis on social justice problems and what I considered indicators of success. I have also wondered if my actions were idiosyncratic or…
Jacobs, Janis E.; Vernon, Margaret K.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
This study investigated the relations between social self-perceptions, time use, and later involvement in prosocial or problem behaviors during early, middle, and later adolescence. The authors used an idiographic approach to identify four different patterns of social self-perceptions (confident, anxious, unconcerned, desperate) and then examined…
Conklin, Hilary G.
Are middle schoolers capable of discussing the war in Iraq in meaningful ways? Can seventh graders develop informed ideas about presidential candidates' positions on health care? Should young adolescents discuss controversial public issues, interpret primary sources, and analyze social problems? Thoughtful social studies educators disagree. While…
Franberg, Gun-Marie; Wrethander, Marie
This article examines a growing and distressing social phenomenon, namely, bullying, the historical development, social dimensions, and political impact of which are taken into account and subjected to reflection and critical consideration. It describes both the progress of and problems with the concept of bullying. It also reflects on the…
Brandt, Meredith; Christensen, Robb
The report describes a program to improve students social skills and level of responsibility. The targeted eighth and ninth grade students are located in two communities in northwestern Illinois. The problem of students exhibiting a lack of social skills and responsibility had been documented by student discipline referrals, anecdotal records,…
Martin, Julie P.; Stack, Dale M.; Serbin, Lisa A.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Ledingham, Jane
This study examined the contribution of maternal childhood histories of aggression and social withdrawal to the prediction of mother-child social problem solving in the next generation. Fifty-seven women (M = 37.32 years), previously rated (on a version of the pupil evaluation inventory) by their peers during childhood on measures of aggression…
Holloway, Susan D.; Reichhart-Erickson, Marina
A total of 55 children attending 15 day care centers and nursery schools participated in an investigation of the relationship of day care quality to 4-year-old children's activities during free play and to their knowledge of social problem solving. The study also considered the extent to which social class mediated relationships between variables.…
Social work educators have an ethical responsibility to graduate students who are academically, behaviorally, and professionally prepared to enter the social work profession. Although a student's suitability to the profession is not necessarily hindered because of the effects of a psychiatric disability or an emotional problem, sometimes it is.…
Problems encountered by first-year social science doctoral students in adjusting to their new status as novice researchers are examined, including intellectual solitariness, professional and social isolation, new work organization requirements, anxiety concerning time and productivity, intellectual life, and supervision. Factors contributing to…
Fergus, Esther O.; And Others
Data on demographics, physical capability and social-emotional behavioral variables for 134 residents between the ages of 50 and 96 were collected in four nursing homes to examine the dimensions related to problem behaviors. Social-emotional behaviors related on six scales of reliabilities ranging from .90 to .74. The scales included depression,…
Current interest in social media for educational purposes has led many to consider the importance of literacy development in online spaces (e.g., new media literacies, digital literacies, etc.). Relying heavily upon New Literacy Studies (NLS) as a base, these approaches treat literacy expansively to include socio-cultural factors beyond mere skill…
O'Brien, Emma; Hamburg, Ileana
This paper highlights reasons for SMEs low uptake of training and argues that current offerings are not suitable for their needs. It highlights the need to leverage the benefits of work based learning through the use of technology. Social media and web 2.0 has significantly changed the way people learn and access knowledge. The body of knowledge…
Green, Vanessa A.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Rechis, Ruth; Patterson, Meagan M.; Hughes, Julie Milligan
In the present study, the authors investigated what prosocial-assertive, passive, and coercive strategies 6-year-olds (N = 257) would propose in response to stories about 2 socially challenging situations: displacing another child in a game and obtaining a toy from another child. The scenarios also varied the gender composition of the characters.…
Benson-Amram, Sarah; Heinen, Virginia K; Gessner, Amelia; Weldele, Mary L; Holekamp, Kay E
Social learning can have profound evolutionary consequences because it drives the diffusion of novel behaviours among individuals and promotes the maintenance of traditions within populations. We inquired whether spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), generalist carnivores living in complex, primate-like societies, acquire information from conspecifics about a novel problem-solving task. Previously, we presented wild hyenas with a food-access puzzle and found that social learning opportunities did not affect problem-solving success among observers, but did reduce observers' neophobia. However, we had little control over which individuals observed conspecifics solve the problem, and few wild hyenas were successful. Therefore, we conducted an experiment in captivity where we controlled observer access to two demonstration styles. Again, social learning opportunities did not affect problem-solving success, but tended to reduce neophobia among captive observers. Social learning opportunities also influenced problem-solving style. Captive hyenas showed limited evidence for directed social learning; low-ranking individuals paid closer attention to demonstrators than high-ranking individuals, although this greater attention did not result in greater success. We conclude that wild and captive hyenas exploit social learning opportunities similarly, and that the limited social learning shown by hyenas on this task is likely based on localized stimulus enhancement. PMID:25245305
Terlecki, Meredith A; Ecker, Anthony H; Buckner, Julia D
Social anxiety more than quadruples the risk of developing an alcohol use disorder, yet it is inconsistently linked to heavy alcohol use. Elucidation of the relation between social anxiety and alcohol use is an important next step in treating and preventing risky drinking. College students routinely face potentially anxiety-provoking social situations (e.g., meeting new people) and socially anxious undergraduates are especially vulnerable to alcohol-related impairment. Drinking to cope with social anxiety is thought to reinforce alcohol use, yet research on coping-motivated drinking among socially anxious students has yielded inconsistent findings. Further, undergraduate drinking varies by drinking context, yet the role of context in drinking behaviors among socially anxious individuals remains unclear. The current study sought to examine the relationship of social anxiety and drinking quantity in specific drinking contexts among undergraduates (N = 611). We also evaluated whether relevant drinking contexts mediated the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol-related problems. Clinically elevated social anxiety was related to heavier consumption in negative emotion (e.g., feeling sad or angry) and personal/intimate (e.g., before sexual intercourse) contexts, but not social/convivial contexts (e.g., parties, bars). Quantity of alcohol consumed in negative emotion and personal/intimate contexts mediated the relationship between social anxiety and drinking problem severity. Drinking in personal/intimate contexts demonstrated a unique mediational role. Findings suggest that heavy drinking in particular contexts (especially personal/intimate and negative emotion) may play an important role in drinking problems among socially anxious individuals. PMID:24955673
Corney, R H; Clare, A W
The construction and testing of a short self-report questionnaire identifying social problems, difficulties and dissatisfactions is described. The questionnaire covers housing, occupation, finance, social and leisure activities, child/parent and martial relationships, relationships with relatives, friends, neighbours and workmates, and legal problems. The results of the administration of the questionnaire in a number of settings are provided and discussed, and a final version is included in the Appendix. PMID:4048322
Davis, Elise; Priest, Naomi; Davies, Belinda; Smyth, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Herrman, Helen; Sims, Margaret; Harrison, Linda; Cook, Kay; Marshall, Bernie; Williamson, Lara
This study aimed to explore family day care (FDC) educators' knowledge of child social and emotional wellbeing and mental health problems, the strategies used to promote children's wellbeing, and barriers and opportunities for promoting children's social and emotional wellbeing. Thirteen FDC educators participated in individual semi-structured…
Baba, Yoko; Hosoda, Megumi
Numerous studies have examined international students' adjustment problems, yet, these studies have not explored the mechanisms through which social support operates in the context of stressful events in predicting cross-cultural adjustment among international students. Using Barrera's (1988) models of social support, the present study…
2 Abstract The occurrence of cooperation poses a problem for the biological and social sciences. However, many aspects of the biological and social science literatures on this subject have developed for the biological and social sciences is to explain social behaviours such as cooperation (Darwin 1871; Hamilton
Hoffmann, Michael; Borenstein, Jason
As a committee of the National Academy of Engineering recognized, ethics education should foster the ability of students to analyze complex decision situations and ill-structured problems. Building on the NAE's insights, we report about an innovative teaching approach that has two main features: first, it places the emphasis on deliberation and on self-directed, problem-based learning in small groups of students; and second, it focuses on understanding ill-structured problems. The first innovation is motivated by an abundance of scholarly research that supports the value of deliberative learning practices. The second results from a critique of the traditional case-study approach in engineering ethics. A key problem with standard cases is that they are usually described in such a fashion that renders the ethical problem as being too obvious and simplistic. The practitioner, by contrast, may face problems that are ill-structured. In the collaborative learning environment described here, groups of students use interactive and web-based argument visualization software called "AGORA-net: Participate - Deliberate!". The function of the software is to structure communication and problem solving in small groups. Students are confronted with the task of identifying possible stakeholder positions and reconstructing their legitimacy by constructing justifications for these positions in the form of graphically represented argument maps. The argument maps are then presented in class so that these stakeholder positions and their respective justifications become visible and can be brought into a reasoned dialogue. Argument mapping provides an opportunity for students to collaborate in teams and to develop critical thinking and argumentation skills. PMID:23420467
BENDER, KIMBERLY; NEGI, NALINI; FOWLER, DAWNOVISE N.
This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students’ commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors’ process of assimilation, and to reflect on their ethnic and racial identity as a means toward increased self-awareness and future culturally responsive practice. Content analysis revealed 11 themes, including students’ enlightenment of their privilege, experiences of cultural loss, and acknowledgment of biases as integral parts of culturally responsive practice. Implications for social work education and research are addressed. PMID:23255873
Hubbard, Julie A.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
Using a detailed classification of 25 social strategies, this study investigated the relationship between children's sociometric status and their use of social strategies. Subjects were 220 boys, 5 to 7 years of age, who were classified into sociometric status types of popular, average, or rejected. Each subject generated as many responses as…
Luque, John S.; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Bynum, Shalanda A.; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Wells, Kristen J.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Gwede, Clement K.; Meade, Cathy D.
The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of the Community Network Program sites funded (2005–10) by the National Cancer Institute’s Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities. TBCCN was tasked to form a sustainable, community-based partnership network focused on the goal of reducing cancer health disparities among racial–ethnic minority and medically underserved populations. This article reports evaluation outcome results from a social network analysis and discusses the varying TBCCN partner roles—in education, training, and research—over a span of three years (2007–09). The network analysis included 20 local community partner organizations covering a tricounty area in Southwest Florida. In addition, multiple externally funded, community-based participatory research pilot projects with community–academic partners have either been completed or are currently in progress, covering research topics including culturally targeted colorectal and prostate cancer screening education, patient navigation focused on preventing cervical cancer in rural Latinas, and community perceptions of biobanking. The social network analysis identified a trend toward increased network decentralization based on betweenness centrality and overall increase in number of linkages, suggesting network sustainability. Degree centrality, trust, and multiplexity exhibited stability over the three-year time period. These results suggest increased interaction and interdependence among partner organizations and less dependence on the cancer center. Social network analysis enabled us to quantitatively evaluate partnership network functioning of TBCCN in terms of network structure and information and resources flows, which are integral to understanding effective coalition practice based on Community Coalition Action Theory ( Butterfoss and Kegler 2009). Sharing the results of the social network analysis with the partnership network is an important component of our coalition building efforts. A comprehensive baseline needs assessment for the next five-year funding phase (2010–15) of TBCCN Community Networks Program Centers (CNP Center) is under way to further evaluate the growth and sustainability of the partnership network, with an emphasis on community-based intervention research that takes into account culture and literacy. [social network, health care disparities, cancer screening] PMID:24363957
In this paper, I attempt to describe the implications of dynamical approaches to science for research in the experimental study of behavior. I discuss the differences between classical and dynamical science, and focus on how dynamical science might see replication differently from classical science. Focusing on replication specifically, I present some problems that the classical approach has in dealing with dynamics and multiple causation. I ask about the status and meaning of “error” variance, and whether it may be a potent source of information. I show how a dynamical approach can handle the sort of control by past events that is hard for classical science to understand. These concerns require, I believe, an approach to variability that is quite different from the one most researchers currently employ. I suggest that some of these problems can be overcome by a notion of “behavioral state,” which is a distillation of an organism's history. PMID:22478309
A post hoc survey of spontaneous remarks and actions bearing on social and sexual adjustment was done on 155 long-term physically disabled patients in a chronic-care hospital. Thirty-five percent were found to be involved in an active dyadic relationship; the great majority of these were between unmarried patients within the hospital. The remaining 65% were socially unattached. A large proportion of both socially attached and socially unattached patients acknowledged achieving some sort of sexual outlet. The importance of opportunity for sexual activity is discussed as it relates to traditional methods for dealing with the problems of personal confidence and physical competence of the physically disabled. PMID:138408
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education…
Cheung, Nicole W T
Knowledge of the influence of couple dynamics on gender differences in gambling behavior remains meager. Building on general strain theory from the sociology of deviance and stress crossover theory from social psychology, we argue that the strain encountered by one partner in a social setting may affect his or her spouse. For instance, the wife of a man under more social strain may experience more strain in turn and thus be at a higher risk of developing disordered gambling than the wife of a man under less social strain. Using community survey data of 1620 Chinese married couples, we performed multilevel dyad analyses to address social strain and couple dynamics, in addition to their roles as predictors of gambling behavior in both spouses. This was a community survey of Hong Kong and therefore was not representative of China. Based on the DSM-IV screen, the rates of probable problem gambling and pathological gambling among male partners (12.8% vs. 2.5%) were twice those among female partners (5.2% vs. 0.3%). We also found that the social strain experienced by a male partner significantly predicted both his and his wife's likelihood of developing gambling problems. Although a female partner's exposure to social strain was a significant correlate of her gambling problem, it had no significant association with her husband's gambling behavior. These results suggest that the cross-spouse transference of social strain may be a gendered process. PMID:25452063
Chang, Hsin-Li; Lai, Chi-Yen
This study introduces self-determination theory (SDT) to refine previous models of vehicle usage motivation. We add travel socialization theory regarding parental influence on vehicle usage to enhance previous structural models describing motorcycle usage behavior. Our newly developed model was empirically verified in a sample of 721 motorcycle users in Taiwan. In addition to instrumental, symbolic, and affective motivations, perceived parental attitudes (PPAs) towards motorcycle riding were found to have a significant effect on individuals' motorcycle use habits. Additionally, participants who perceived their parents to have more positive attitudes toward motorcycles were found to have more experience being chauffeured on motorcycles by their parents. Based on these results, we suggest means to confront the challenges brought on by the rapid growth of motorcycle usage, especially serious motorcycle traffic accidents. These results improve our understanding motorcycle usage in Taiwan and can be used by transportation professionals who are seeking solutions to the rapid growth of motorcycle usage. PMID:25846101
Clayton, Christine D.; Howell, Penny; Kapustka, Katherine M.; Thomas, Shelley; Vanderhaar, Judi E.
"Social justice" is a commonly used term in teacher education and in educational research, but little is known about the frequency with which schools of education explicitly articulate social justice as a component of teacher education. This study documented the incidence of the term "social justice" in 520 conceptual frameworks written by teacher…
Sternheim, Lot; Startup, Helen; Pretorius, Natalie; Johnson-Sabine, Eric; Schmidt, Ulrike; Channon, Shelley
People with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) have well-documented socio-emotional and neurocognitive impairments. As yet, little is known about their ability to solve problems in social situations, although a link with cognitive avoidance has been suggested. This study explored social problem-solving (SPS), using an experimental task. Secondly, the role of cognitive avoidance in SPS was investigated. Individuals with AN (n=31) and healthy controls (HC; n=39) completed the Social Problem Resolution Task which consists of problem scenarios involving awkward everyday social situations. Participants were asked to generate both the optimal solution and their personal solution. Solutions were rated in terms of how socially sensitive and practically effective they were. AN patients produced relatively poorer personal solutions compared to optimal solutions than HC participants and had higher scores on a measure of cognitive avoidance than the HC group. In AN patients, cognitive avoidance was partially associated with poor SPS. These findings suggest that whilst people with AN have no difficulty in generating socially sensitive and effective solutions to problems, but may have difficulty applying this knowledge to themselves. PMID:22809854
Kaczmarek, Lukasz D; Dr??kowski, Dariusz
Massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) escapists are individuals who indulge in the MMORPG environment to avoid real world problems. Though a relationship between escapism and deteriorated well-being has been established, little is known about particular pathways that mediate this relationship. In the current study, we examined this topic by testing an integrative model of MMORPG escapism, which includes game realism beliefs, gaming time, offline social support, and online social support for offline problems. MMORPG players (N=1,056) completed measures of escapist motivation, game realism beliefs, social support, well-being, and reported gaming time. The tested structural equation model had a good fit to the data. We found that individuals with escapist motivation endorsed stronger game realism beliefs and spent more time playing MMORPGs, which, in turn, increased online support but decreased offline social support. Well-being was favorably affected by both online and offline social support, although offline social support had a stronger effect. The higher availability of online social support for offline problems did not compensate for the lower availability of offline support among MMORPG escapists. Understanding the psychological factors related to depletion of social resources in MMORPG players can help optimize MMORPGs as leisure activities. PMID:24605951
Dewolf, Tinne; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven
We confronted 151, 5th and 6th elementary grade pupils with a quantitative problem in a mathematics or religion class, to examine the influence of the context on pupils' understanding and solution of such problems inside and outside the mathematics class. Pupils were first asked to solve a problem about fair sharing either during a mathematics or…
Hu, Qi; Pytlik Zillig, Lisa M.; Lynne, Gary D.; Tomkins, Alan J.; Waltman, William J.; Hayes, Michael J.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Artikov, Ikrom; Hoffman, Stacey J.; Wilhite, Donald A.
Although the accuracy of weather and climate forecasts is continuously improving and new information retrieved from climate data is adding to the understanding of climate variation, use of the forecasts and climate information by farmers in farming decisions has changed little. This lack of change may result from knowledge barriers and psychological, social, and economic factors that undermine farmer motivation to use forecasts and climate information. According to the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the motivation to use forecasts may arise from personal attitudes, social norms, and perceived control or ability to use forecasts in specific decisions. These attributes are examined using data from a survey designed around the TPB and conducted among farming communities in the region of eastern Nebraska and the western U.S. Corn Belt. There were three major findings: 1) the utility and value of the forecasts for farming decisions as perceived by farmers are, on average, around 3.0 on a 0 7 scale, indicating much room to improve attitudes toward the forecast value. 2) The use of forecasts by farmers to influence decisions is likely affected by several social groups that can provide “expert viewpoints” on forecast use. 3) A major obstacle, next to forecast accuracy, is the perceived identity and reliability of the forecast makers. Given the rapidly increasing number of forecasts in this growing service business, the ambiguous identity of forecast providers may have left farmers confused and may have prevented them from developing both trust in forecasts and skills to use them. These findings shed light on productive avenues for increasing the influence of forecasts, which may lead to greater farming productivity. In addition, this study establishes a set of reference points that can be used for comparisons with future studies to quantify changes in forecast use and influence.
This thesis examines community engagement as a form of conflict prevention in order to obtain the social license to operate (SLO) in Alberta's oil and gas industry. It does this by answering the question: what are the key elements of the Social License to Operate and how can these elements be applied to community engagement/consultation in a way that prevents conflicts in Alberta's oil and gas industry? The underlying assumption of this thesis is that building good relationships and working collaboratively functions as a form of conflict prevention and that this in turn leads to the SLO. This thesis outlines the key features of both successful community engagement and of the SLO, to provide a guideline for what is needed to obtain the SLO. Data was collected from semi-structured interviews and through a literature review. The data analysis concluded that there are direct parallels between the key elements of effective community engagement and the key elements of the SLO as identified in the interviews. These parallels are: knowing the community, addressing community needs, corporate social responsibility, relationship building, follow through and evidence for what has been done, executive buy-in, excellent communication, and open dialogue, all within a process which is principled (there is trust, understanding, transparency and respect), inclusive, dynamic, flexible, ongoing, and long-term. Moreover, the key elements of effective community engagement and of the SLO identified in the interviews also overlapped with those found in the literature review, with only one exception. The literature review explicitly named early involvement as a key element of both effective community engagement and the SLO, whereas the interview participants only explicitly indicated it as a key factor of community engagement and implied it to be a key element of the SLO.
Kolahdooz, Fariba; Nader, Forouz; Yi, Kyoung J.; Sharma, Sangita
Background Indigenous Canadians have a life expectancy 12 years lower than the national average and experience higher rates of preventable chronic diseases compared with non-Indigenous Canadians. Transgenerational trauma from past assimilation policies have affected the health of Indigenous populations. Objective The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively examine the social determinants of health (SDH), in order to identify priorities for health promotion policies and actions. Design We undertook a series of systematic reviews focusing on four major SDH (i.e. income, education, employment, and housing) among Indigenous peoples in Alberta, following the protocol Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis-Equity. Results We found that the four SDH disproportionately affect the health of Indigenous peoples. Our systematic review highlighted 1) limited information regarding relationships and interactions among income, personal and social circumstances, and health outcomes; 2) limited knowledge of factors contributing to current housing status and its impacts on health outcomes; and 3) the limited number of studies involving the barriers to, and opportunities for, education. Conclusions These findings may help to inform efforts to promote health equity and improve health outcomes of Indigenous Canadians. However, there is still a great need for in-depth subgroup studies to understand SDH (e.g. age, Indigenous ethnicity, dwelling area, etc.) and intersectoral collaborations (e.g. community and various government departments) to reduce health disparities faced by Indigenous Canadians. PMID:26187697
Cultural neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field of research that investigates interrelations among culture, mind and the brain. Drawing on both the growing body of scientific evidence on cultural variation in psychological processes and the recent development of social and cognitive neuroscience, this emerging field of research aspires to understand how culture as an amalgam of values, meanings, conventions, and artifacts that constitute daily social realities might interact with the mind and its underlying brain pathways of each individual member of the culture. In this article, following a brief review of studies that demonstrate the surprising degree to which brain processes are malleably shaped by cultural tools and practices, the authors discuss cultural variation in brain processes involved in self-representations, cognition, emotion and motivation. They then propose (i) that primary values of culture such as independence and interdependence are reflected in the compositions of cultural tasks (i.e. daily routines designed to accomplish the cultural values) and further (ii) that active and sustained engagement in these tasks yields culturally patterned neural activities of the brain, thereby laying the ground for the embodied construction of the self and identity. Implications for research on culture and the brain are discussed. PMID:20592042
Deborah Lucy, S.; Bisbee, Leslie; Conti-Becker, Angela
ABSTRACT Purpose: To understand the professional socialization of physical therapy (PT) students. Method: Forty-two students enrolled in our newly developed master's degree programme wrote three-page reflective journals on a critical learning incident after each of three selected clinical experiences. The journals were coded and analyzed, and major themes were identified and described. A separate cohort of 44 students participated in focus groups after the same three clinical experiences to check the trustworthiness of the results. Results: Following the first placement, the main themes coded were emotions, self-confidence, professionalism in the real world, communication, and learning by doing. After the intermediate placement, major themes were idealism versus realism, depth of communication with clients, and breadth of communication with family members and colleagues. Aspects of clinical learning were variable, and self-confidence remained an issue. After the final placement, most students were deeply engaged with their clients and self-confidence had developed to the point of self-efficacy. Tensions increased between the concept of ideal practice and the pragmatics of actual practice, and the concept of self as protégé (rather than as object of the supervisor's evaluation) emerged. The themes were subsequently assembled in a booklet with representative quotations. Conclusion: These results contribute to foundational knowledge required by PT educators, including clinical instructors, by explicitly describing the professional socialization of PT students. PMID:20145748
Braun, Dieter; Schmitt, Matthias; Schacker, Andreas
Understanding how money shapes and memorizes our social interactions is central to modern life. There are many schools of thought on as to how monetary systems contribute to crises or boom/bust cycles and how monetary policy can try to avert them. We find that statistical physics gives a refreshing perspective. We analyze how credit mechanisms introduce non-locality and time-heterogeneity to the monetary memory. Motivated by an analogy to particle physics, locality and time-homogeneity can be imposed to monetary systems. As a result, a full reserve banking system is complemented with a bi-currency system of non-bank assets (``money'') and bank assets (``antimoney''). Payment can either be made by passing on money or by receiving antimoney. As a result, a free floating exchange rate between non-bank assets and bank assets is established. Interestingly, this monetary memory allows for credit creation by the simultaneous transfer of money and antimoney at a negotiated exchange rate. We analyze this novel mechanism of liquidity transfer in a model of random social interactions, yielding analytical results for all relevant distributions and the price of liquidity under the conditions of a fully transparent credit market.
Tatsis, Konstantinos; Koleza, Eugenia
Based on the notions of social and socio-mathematical norms we investigate how these are established during the interactions of pre-service teachers who solve mathematical problems. Norms identified in relevant studies are found in our case too; moreover, we have found norms related to particular aspects of the problems posed. Our results show…
Heilbrun, Alfred B., Jr.
Assesses ability of Adjective Check List (ACL) to distinguish between clients of a college mental health facility who admitted to social alienation as a primary or secondary problem and clients who denied the importance of this problem- Scores on scales measuring affiliation and heterosexuality and an affiliation minus succorance" index differed…
Schochet, Peter Z.
In social policy evaluations, the multiple testing problem occurs due to the many hypothesis tests that are typically conducted across multiple outcomes and subgroups, which can lead to spurious impact findings. This article discusses a framework for addressing this problem that balances Types I and II errors. The framework involves specifying…
Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul
Adolescents who like each other may become more similar to each other with regard to internalizing and externalizing problems, though it is not yet clear which social mechanisms explain these similarities. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed four mechanisms that may explain similarity in adolescent peer networks with regard to externalizing and internalizing problems: selection, socialization, avoidance and withdrawal. At three moments during one school-year, we asked 542 adolescents (8th grade, M-age = 13.3 years, 51 % female) to report who they liked in their classroom, and their own internalizing and externalizing problems. Adolescents tend to prefer peers who have similar externalizing problem scores, but no significant selection effect was found for internalizing problems. Adolescents who share the same group of friends socialize each other and then become more similar with respect to externalizing problems, but not with respect to internalizing problems. We found no significant effects for avoidance or withdrawal. Adolescents may choose to belong to a peer group that is similar to them in terms of externalizing problem behaviors, and through peer group socialization (e.g., enticing, modelling, mimicking, and peer pressure) become more similar to that group over time. PMID:25119729
Sinenchenko, G I; Romashkin-Timanov, M V; Kurygin, A A
The authors have analyzed social aspects of surgical treatment of postoperative ventral hernias and described results of the surgical treatment of 149 patients. Specific measures used in preoperative preparation and in operative treatment of elderly and senile patients are considered. Long-term results of surgical treatment of 76 patients have been studied who had undergone plasty of the anterior abdominal wall with the application of a reticulate polypropelene explant. This method was shown to be pathogenetic and highly reliable for surgical treatment of postoperative ventral hernias. PMID:16568849
SMITH, ANNE M.
INDIANS COMPRISE 6 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION OF NEW MEXICO, ALTHOUGH THEIR NUMBERS ARE NOT GREAT, THEY REPRESENT A FORMIDABLE PROBLEM SINCE THEY RANK LOWEST IN YEARS OF EDUCATION AND HIGHEST IN THE PERCENTAGE OF UNEMPLOYMENT OF ALL GROUPS IN THE STATE. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN UNEMPLOYMENT AND EDUCATION ARE CLEAR AND UNMISTAKABLE AND UNLESS A…
Moore, John A.
Secondary students learn to deal objectively with domestic issues and problems in this quinmester elective course. Emphasis is upon providing students with an opportunity for indepth study in critical thinking on current controversial issues, using activity units as a principal teaching technique. The objectives are for students to identify and…
Martinasek, Mary P; DeBate, Rita D; Walvoord, Ashley G; Melton, Stephanie T; Himmelgreen, David; Allen, Tammy D; McDermott, Robert J
The family dinner is a valued tradition that affords opportunities for social interaction and attachment, as well as sharing events of the day, role modeling, connectedness, and problem solving. Guided by the social-marketing framework, this study explored factors associated with the frequency of the family dinner among working mothers with children ages 8-11 years. A qualitative design was used, employing focus groups and Atlas-ti software for thematic analysis. Lack of time, cost, and exhaustion/lack of energy emerged as barriers. Working mothers indicated that a youth-based organization operating as a community partner could increase the frequency of the family dinner by helping with homework completion during after-school care, thereby providing mothers with the time necessary to prepare dinner. This research identified both community partners and working mothers as valued resources for prevention strategies. Interventions developed to increase family dinner frequency should emphasize the perceived value while decreasing the costs/barriers. PMID:21888572
This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and relations with parents, on substance use. Results of path modeling with AMOS showed that the model provided a very good fit to the data and demonstrated partial mediation effects of social network quality on substance use. The standardized mediated effect of school problems on substance use, mediated by social network quality, was 0.13 (p < .01, 95% CI [.072, .189]). An effect size measure was applied to determine what proportion of the total effect was mediated by the intervening (social network quality) variable and produced a 0.34 effect size. The results highlight the potential preventive role of social network quality in addressing urban adolescent substance use. PMID:21063779
Mason, Michael J
This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and relations with parents, on substance use. Results of path modeling with AMOS showed that the model provided a very good fit to the data and demonstrated partial mediation effects of social network quality on substance use. The standardized mediated effect of school problems on substance use, mediated by social network quality, was 0.13 (p < .01, 95% CI [.072, .189]). An effect size measure was applied to determine what proportion of the total effect was mediated by the intervening (social network quality) variable and produced a 0.34 effect size. The results highlight the potential preventive role of social network quality in addressing urban adolescent substance use. PMID:21063779
Ventura, Joseph; Tom, Shelley R.; Jetton, Chris; Kern, Robert S.
Background Neurocognition in general, and memory functioning in particular, as well as symptoms have all been shown to be related to social problem solving (SPS) in schizophrenia. However, few studies have directly compared the relative contribution of neurocognition vs. psychiatric symptoms to the components of SPS. Method Sixty outpatients (aged 21 – 65) who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered a broad battery of memory tests and assessed for severity of positive and negative symptoms as part of a baseline assessment of a study of psychiatric rehabilitation. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the contribution of memory functioning vs. symptoms on receiving, processing, and sending skill areas of social problem solving ability. Results An index of verbal learning was the strongest predictor of processing skills whereas negative symptoms were the strongest predictor of sending skills. Positive symptoms were not related to any of the three skill areas of social problem solving. Conclusions Memory functioning and psychiatric symptoms differentially predict selected areas of social problem solving ability in persons with schizophrenia. Consistent with other reports, positive symptoms were not related to social problem solving. Consideration of both neurocognition and negative symptoms may be important to the development of rehabilitation interventions in this area of functioning. PMID:23235142
Christopher M. Belkofer; Jill V. McNutt
This article discusses ethics in the context of the participatory culture of social media as it relates to art therapy. The authors present the view that social media formats are important venues for expression that contribute to interpersonal connections and social learning via the active participation of their members. To make informed ethical choices regarding participation in social media, it
Nichols, Sara R.; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A.
The second year of life marks the beginning of empathic responsiveness to others’ distress, a hallmark of human interaction. We examined the role of social understanding (self-other understanding and emotion understanding) and empathic disposition in individual differences in 12- to 24-month olds’ responses to mothers’ and an unfamiliar infant peer’s distress (N = 71). Results reveal associations between empathic responsiveness to distressed mother and crying infant peer, suggesting that individual differences in prosocial motivation may exist right from the outset, when the ability to generate an empathic, prosocial response first emerges. We further found that above and beyond such dispositional characteristics (and age), children with more advanced social understanding were more empathically responsive to a peer’s distress. However, responses to mothers’ distress were explained by children’s empathic disposition only, and not by their social understanding. Thus, as early as the second year of life some children are dispositionally more inclined to empathy regardless of who is in distress, whether mother or peer. At the same time, emotion understanding and self-other understanding appear to be especially important for explaining individual differences in young children’s empathic responsiveness to a peer’s distress. PMID:22639760
Choi, Yoonsun; Harachi, Tracy W.; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Catalano, Richard F.
The development of preventive interventions targeting adolescent problem behaviors requires a thorough understanding of risk and protective factors for such behaviors. However, few studies examine whether different cultural and ethnic groups share these factors. This study is an attempt to fill a gap in research by examining similarities and differences in risk factors across racial and ethnic groups. The social development model has shown promise in organizing predictors of problem behaviors. This article investigates whether a version of that model can be generalized to youth in different racial and ethnic groups (N = 2,055, age range from 11 to 15), including African American (n = 478), Asian Pacific Islander (API) American (n = 491), multiracial (n = 442), and European American (n = 644) youth. The results demonstrate that common risk factors can be applied to adolescents, regardless of their race and ethnicity. The findings also demonstrate that there are racial and ethnic differences in the magnitudes of relationships among factors that affect problem behaviors. Further study is warranted to develop a better understanding of these differential magnitudes. PMID:21625351
Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Fine, Sarah E.
The present meta-analytic review examined the magnitude of the relation between discrete emotion knowledge and three of its most commonly studied correlates in childhood and adolescence: social competence, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. Emotion knowledge demonstrated small to medium-sized relations with each correlate. Moderators of effect size were also examined and included multiple sample and methodological characteristics. Using random effects models, significant moderators of effect size for relations between emotion knowledge and externalizing problems included sample recruitment, sample age, and the source of externalizing problems ratings. Moderators of effect size were not found for emotion knowledge and social competence, and the effect sizes across samples for emotion knowledge and internalizing problems were homogeneous. Results highlight the relatively consistent yet modest relations between emotion knowledge and its correlates. Implications for applied research and new directions for research on emotion knowledge using innovative methods are discussed. PMID:21072259
Drawing on the Second Discourse and the Social Contract and Notes from Underground and “The Dream of a Ridiculous Man,” this essay examines the striking similarities and fundamental differences between Dostoevskij’s\\u000a and Rousseau’s treatment of the problem of individual vs. society and their notions of ideal social relations. The essay investigates\\u000a Rousseau’s attempt to absorb morality into politics and “to
Tutin, C E
The risk of transmission of primate viruses to humans is great because of their genetic proximity. It is now clear that the HIV group of retroviruses came from primates and that the origin of HIV1 is the chimpanzee subspecies of Central Africa, Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Many African primates are natural hosts of retroviruses and details of the natural history of both hosts and viruses are essential to understand the evolution of the latter. Data on the demography, ecology and behaviour of three species of primates (gorillas, chimpanzees and mandrills), studied in the Lopé Reserve in Central Gabon since 1983, are analysed to identify the factors that allow, or favour, disease transmission within each species, between different species and between primates and humans. The comparison of the relative degree of risk suggests that of the three species, chimpanzees are the most susceptible to exposure to infection both from conspecifics and from other species. With respect to humans, the comparative analysis suggests greater exposure to viruses of mandrills and gorillas than to those of chimpanzees. For primates, major risk factors are: large social groups; bites inflicted in fights; social grooming; and predation on mammals. However, given that contacts between social groups of the same species are rare, the spread of a virus through a population will be slow and uncertain. Hunting wild animals is the behaviour most likely to provide transmission routes for primate viruses into human populations because of the high probability of blood-blood contact. Not only the hunters themselves, but also women who prepare bush meat for cooking and people involved in trade of carcasses are at high risk of transmission of pathogens. Hunting of bush meat is increasing in Central Africa due to the economic recession and the spread of logging into the forests of the interior of the region. To counter the significant risk of transmission of known, as well as new, diseases from primates to humans, urgent measures are needed to attack the root causes of commercial hunting which is not only risk to public health but also a serious threat to biodiversity in the region. PMID:11030048
Momentary Assessment to Understand the Daily Lives of Adolescents Theme: Innovative Methods and Statistics methodology that captures the mechanisms of the social ecology of adolescents generating rich data and imaging of adolescents' lives. We use EMA methodology to simultaneously assess situational contingencies (behaviors
Groves, D.I.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Robert, F.; Hart, C.J.R.
Metamorphic belts are complex regions where accretion or collision has added to, or thickened, continental crust. Gold-rich deposits can be formed at all stages of orogen evolution, so that evolving metamorphic belts contain diverse gold deposit types that may be juxtaposed or overprint each other. This partly explains the high level of controversy on the origin of some deposit types, particularly those formed or overprinted/remobilized during the major compressional orogeny that shaped the final geometry of the hosting metamorphic belts. These include gold-dominated orogenic and intrusion-related deposits, but also particularly controversial gold deposits with atypical metal associations. There are a number of outstanding problems for all types of gold deposits in metamorphc belts. These include the following: (1) definitive classifications, (2) unequivocal recognition of fluid and metal sources, (3) understanding of fluid migration and focusing at all scales, (4) resolution of the precise role of granitoid magmatism, (5) precise gold-depositional mechanisms, particularly those producing high gold grades, and (6) understanding of the release of CO2-rich fluids from subducting slabs and subcreted oceanic crust and granitoid magmas at different crustal levels. Research needs to be better coordinated and more integrated, such that detailed fluid-inclusion, trace-element, and isotopic studies of both gold deposits and potential source rocks, using cutting-edge technology, are embedded in a firm geological framework at terrane to deposit scales. Ultimately, four-dimensional models need to be developed, involving high-quality, three-dimensional geological data combined with integrated chemical and fluid-flow modeling, to understand the total history of the hydrothermal systems involved. Such research, particularly that which can predict superior targets visible in data sets available to exploration companies before discovery, has obvious spin-offs for global- to deposit-scale targeting of deposits with superior size and grade in the covered terranes that will be the exploration focus of the twenty-first century.
Erickson, Thane M; Newman, Michelle G; Peterson, Jessica; Scarsella, Gina
Multiple theoretical perspectives suggest that maladjusted personality is characterized by not only distress, but also opposing or "ambivalent" self-perceptions and behavioral lability across social interactions. However, the degree to which ambivalence about oneself predicts cross-situational variability in social behavior has not been examined empirically. Using the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) as a nomological framework, the present study investigated the extent to which endorsing opposing or "ambivalent" tendencies on IPC measures predicted variability in social behavior across a range of hypothetical interpersonal scenarios (Part 1; N?=?288) and naturalistic social interactions (Part 2; N?=?192). Ambivalent responding for interpersonal problems and traits was associated with measures of distress, maladaptive interpersonal tendencies, and greater variability of social behavior across both hypothetical and daily social interactions, though more consistently for interpersonal problems. More conservative tests suggested that ambivalence predicted some indexes of behavioral variability even when accounting for mean levels and squared means of social behaviors, vector length, gender, and depressive symptoms. Results suggest that processes theorized as typifying personality disorder may apply more broadly to personality maladjustment occurring outside of clinical samples. PMID:25046450
Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro
In this article we compare students' understanding of vector concepts in problems with no physical context, and with three mechanics contexts: force, velocity, and work. Based on our "Test of Understanding of Vectors," a multiple-choice test presented elsewhere, we designed two isomorphic shorter versions of 12 items each: a test…
Van Camp, C M; Lerman, D C; Kelley, M E; Contrucci, S A; Vorndran, C M
Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) consists of delivering a reinforcer on a time-based schedule, independent of responding. Studies evaluating the effectiveness of NCR as treatment for problem behavior have used fixed-time (FT) schedules of reinforcement. In this study, the efficacy of NCR with variable-time (VT) schedules was evaluated by comparing the effects of VT and FT reinforcement schedules with 2 individuals who engaged in problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. Both FT and VT schedules were effective in reducing problem behavior. These findings suggest that VT schedules can be used to treat problem behavior maintained by social consequences. PMID:11214030
Many older adults struggle to manage their health care problems. Low health literacy exacerbates such struggles and contributes to a variety of adverse health behaviors and outcomes. Addressing how health literacy impinges on the lives of older adults is a neglected area of social work practice and knowledge. This article explores seven areas: defining health literacy, the problem and prevalence of low health literacy among older adults, health inequalities and health literacy, a brief literature review, neglected issues in the literature, suggestions for macro and micro social work interventions to improve health literacy for older adult populations, and conclusion. PMID:25588097
Cutri, Adrián; Hammermüller, Erica; Zubieta, Ana; Müller Opet, Beatriz; Miguelez, Lilia
Child labor is a complex problem that violates the fundamental rights of children and affects their psychophysical development. Child labor affects 215 million children in the world and 115 million perform activities defined as the "worst forms of child labor". Most child labor is in agriculture (60%), where the majority are unpaid family workers, compared to 26% in services and 7% in industry. Argentina has adopted the abolitionist position, promoting prevention and eradication within an inclusive public policy aimed to all children can exercise their rights. The Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría endorses this approach and proposes a course of action: the health team training, and dissemination of the risks of child labor and occupational teenager safety standards. As pediatricians we must be involved in defending children rights, and be able to detect any situation of child labor, and protect the health of children and adolescents. The joint interaction with family, community and other sectors of society will strengthen the network needed to implement child labor eradication policies. PMID:22859332
The concept of social capital is becoming increasingly common in community psychology and elsewhere. However, the multiple conceptual and operational definitions of social capital challenge its utility as a theoretical tool. The goals of this paper are to clarify two forms of social capital (bridging and bonding), explicitly link them to the structural characteristics of small world networks, and explore the behavioral and ecological prerequisites of its formation. First, I use the tools of network science and specifically the concept of small-world networks to clarify what patterns of social relationships are likely to facilitate social capital formation. Second, I use an agent-based model to explore how different ecological characteristics (diversity and segregation) and behavioral tendencies (homophily and proximity) impact communities' potential for developing social capital. The results suggest diverse communities have the greatest potential to develop community social capital, and that segregation moderates the effects that the behavioral tendencies of homophily and proximity have on community social capital. The discussion highlights how these findings provide community-based researchers with both a deeper understanding of the contextual constraints with which they must contend, and a useful tool for targeting their efforts in communities with the greatest need or greatest potential. PMID:25851733
Waber, Benjamin Nathan
The goal of this thesis is to show that social support created through face-to-face interaction is a driving factor in a number of important outcomes. Through a series of studies we show that social support, operationalized ...
Daher, Wajeeh M.
Mathematical learning and teaching are increasingly seen as a multimodal experience involved in cultural and social semiotic registers and means, and as such social-cultural semiotic analysis is expected to shed light on learning and teaching processes occurring in the mathematics classroom. In this research, three social-cultural semiotic…
Dahsah, Chanyah; Coll, Richard K.; Sung-ong, Sunan; Yutakom, Naruemon; Sanguanruang, Sudjit
The international literature suggests students frequently resort to the use of formulae when solving stoichiometry problems without understanding the concepts. In prior work we identified Thai student alternative conceptions and ability to solve numerical problem for stoichiometry. The results indicate that many Thai students also hold alternative…
Rees, Carter; Freng, Adrienne; Winfree, L Thomas
Race/ethnicity and the structure of an adolescent's social network are both important factors in the etiology of delinquent behavior. Yet, much of the minority-group delinquency literature overlooks the Native American youth population that traditionally exhibits high rates of alcohol use and abuse. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we compare the structural characteristics of school-based friendship networks of American Indian youth and other racial/ethnic groups. Our core sample for the descriptive analysis consists of 70,841 youth (Caucasian = 42,096; Black = 13,554; Asian = 4,758; Hispanic = 4,464; American Indian = 3,426; Other = 2,543; Female = 50%). We find that Native American youth generally occupy similar social positions within school hierarchies compared to other minority groups. However, American Indian youth have fewer ties at the school level than Caucasian youth, including reports of fewer reciprocated friendships, a smaller number of in-school friends, and membership in less cohesive personal networks. We also focus on the detrimental social and physical consequences of alcohol use during adolescence and offer an extended consequences model (n = 5,841) that includes the interactive effects of race/ethnicity, age, and drinking influences on relationships with friends (Caucasian = 59%; Black = 19%; Asian = 7%; Hispanic = 7%; American Indian = 5%; Other = 3%; Female = 54%). American Indian youth are no more likely than other youth to report personal drinking as being detrimental to social relationships with parents, peers, and romantic partners. We address ties between our findings and criminal justice policies and practices, as well as the implications for similar network analyses involving other racial/ethnic groups. PMID:24061859
Claudia Galindo; Bruce Fuller
We know that social competence contributes to young children's adaptation to, and cognitive learning within, classroom settings. Yet initial evidence is mixed on the social competencies that Latino children bring to kindergarten and the extent to which these skills advance cognitive growth. Building from ecocultural and developmental-risk theory, this paper shows children's social competence to be adaptive to the normative
Morganson, Valerie J.; Jones, Meghan P.; Major, Debra A.
Enrollment of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors is disproportionately small and declining. This study examines social coping to explain the gender gap. Women undergraduates reported using significantly more social coping than did men. Multiple regression analyses revealed that social coping was a stronger…
This article focuses on the comparatively neglected role of the social sciences (including economics) and of assumptions about the social functioning of the scientific community in projections about climate change and about societies' responses to changing climates and related environmental phenomena. Using an approach informed by social constructionism and science and technology studies, it examines the part played by the
Fuentes, Rey; Chanthongthip, Lara; Rios, Francisco
This article describes efforts to introduce students in a first-year studies course to social justice principles with attention to the initial preparation of students for social activism. After describing the coursework and related activities, we share the findings--from observation and survey sources--associated with the initial social activism…
Myles, Brenda Smith; Simpson, Richard L.
This article discusses the "hidden curriculum" in schools, its impact on social functioning, and strategies for helping children and youth with Asperger Syndrome learn the hidden curriculum. Strategies include using social stories, acting lessons, self-esteem building activities, cartooning, social autopsies, and the SOCCSS (Situation, Options,…
Belkofer, Christopher M.; McNutt, Jill V.
This article discusses ethics in the context of the participatory culture of social media as it relates to art therapy. The authors present the view that social media formats are important venues for expression that contribute to interpersonal connections and social learning via the active participation of their members. To make informed ethical…
Adams, Laura L.
The purpose of this study was to take an exploratory look at how university teachers come to understand their experience in educational practice and their professional role as teachers who integrate instructional technology into their coursework using the framework provided by Wenger's Social Theory of Learning. University faculty who teach in a…
Jones, Patrick M.
This article posits that musicking can uniquely foster the development of social capital, which leads to civic engagement and intercultural understanding. I review pertinent literature and build a case that music educators and community musicians have a unique role to play in its development. I also reveal a weakness in the theoretical framework…
Using an AB design with generalization, this study sought to determine the effectiveness of presenting videotaped emotions and Social Stories[TM] to teach a 9-year-old child with Asperger syndrome to recognize and understand emotions in himself and to generalize them to other situations in his home. Data collected in the child's home showed an…
Pereira, Paulo; Siarova, Hanna; Misi?n?, Ieva; Cerda, Artemi; Úbeda, Xavier
Nowadays, environment is accepted to be an important element of our welfare. Our activities and societal status are strongly related with the quality of the environment where we live. On the other hand historical and cultural backgrounds shape importantly our views about the environment and how we act towards it in our daily life. In a context of globalization and increase of competition at international level, knowledge appears to be one of the key components for the advance of the word. Most of the knowledge produced comes from high level education institutions and research centres, which have responsibility to create and encourage critical thinking. Individuals aware of the problems can be more active and can push things forward. We think that environmental knowledge and awareness are fundamental for the future of the society. In order to develop better methodologies are developed if we have a better perception of students understanding of environmental problems. The objective of this work is to study the Lithuanian university level student's perception about some environmental challenges of our society. We selected several questions for the students rate according the relevance of the question, as "Air Pollution", "Waste Management", "Resources overexplotation", "Biodiversity reduction", "Human Overpopulation" "Poverty", "Global Warming/Climate change", Natural disasters", "Terrorism", "Economical crisis", "War and armed conflicts" and the "Spread of infectious diseases". We ask to the respondents to rate the importance using a likert scale (1=Not Important, 2= not so important, 3=important, 4=very important, 5=the most important). Among all the questions, the most rated where the Water pollution, the Spread of infectious diseases and Air Pollution and the less important where Biodiversity Reduction, Human overpopulation and climate change. These results helped us to identify where some efforts should be taken to raise student's awareness about global environmental problems. The awareness is different according to the gender. Normally females are more concerned than males about environmental questions. Students between the age of 18-24 are more concerned problems related to the Spread of infectious diseases and war and armed conflicts, while the respondents between the age of 25-39, rated higher Air pollution, Water pollution and Poverty. These preliminary results allowed us to identify potential topics that could be more explored at university level and increase the environmental awareness.
Hasegawa, Akira; Hattori, Yosuke; Nishimura, Haruki; Tanno, Yoshihiko
The main purpose of this study was to examine whether depressive rumination and social problem solving are prospectively associated with depressive symptoms. Nonclinical university students (N = 161, 64 men, 97 women; M age = 19.7 yr., SD = 3.6, range = 18-61) recruited from three universities in Japan completed the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II), the Ruminative Responses Scale, Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised Short Version (SPSI-R:S), and the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Procedure at baseline, and the BDI-II again at 6 mo. later. A stepwise multiple regression analysis with the BDI-II and all subscales of the rumination and social problem solving measures as independent variables indicated that only the BDI-II scores and the Impulsivity/carelessness style subscale of the SPSI-R:S at Time 1 were significantly associated with BDI-II scores at Time 2 (? = 0.73, 0.12, respectively; independent variables accounted for 58.8% of the variance). These findings suggest that in Japan an impulsive and careless problem-solving style was prospectively associated with depressive symptomatology 6 mo. later, as contrasted with previous findings of a cycle of rumination and avoidance problem-solving style. PMID:25978191
The many authors debating whether computers can understand often fail to clarify what understanding is, and no agreement exists on this important issue. In his Chinese room argument, Searle (1980) claims that computers running formal programs can never understand. I discuss Searle's claim based on a definition of understanding that is empirical,…
Afifi, Tracie O; Cox, Brian J; Martens, Patricia J; Sareen, Jitender; Enns, Murray W
Knowledge of demographic and social correlates of problem gambling among men and women in general population samples is limited. Such research is important for identifying individuals who may become problem gamblers. The current research used a gender-stratified analysis using logistic regression models in a nationally representative sample to identify correlates of problem gambling among men and women. Data were from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.2 (CCHS 1.2; data collected in 2002; response rate 77%). The 12-month prevalence of problem gambling among men and women who endorsed gambling in the past year was 4.9% and 2.7%, respectively. For women, increased odds of problem gambling was associated with middle age, middle to low levels of income, a high school diploma or less, being never-married, higher levels of life stress, and negative coping abilities. For men, being aged 70 or greater decreased the odds of problem gambling, while being separated, widowed, or divorced, lower levels of social support, and negative coping abilities increased the odds of problem gambling. These findings have important public health implications for identifying men and women who may be more likely to become problem gamblers in the general population. PMID:20546926
Buxton, Cory A.
The Social Problem Solving through Science (SPSS) project engaged middle school-aged youth in the study of local environmental challenges with implications for human health and well-being, both globally and locally. Students considered environmental risk factors in a series of structured activities to develop background knowledge on environmental…
Craig J. Forsyth; Marion D. Olivier
This paper describes, documents and interprets the contemporary movement to legitimate satanic cults as a social problem in America. The movement draws support from productions by mass media, police experts, counselors and support organizations. Literature is also presented that debunks the movement. In addition to an analysis, this paper offers theoretical interpretations of the movement, attempting to place it within
Rigby, Ken; Slee, Phillip
Results of self-reports and peer nomination procedures to identify bullies and victims indicated that involvement in bully-victim problems at school, especially for students with relatively little social support, was significantly related to degree of suicidal ideation. (Author/JDM)
Carrell, Scott E.; Hoekstra, Mark
Social interest in problems such as domestic violence is typically motivated by concerns regarding equity, rather than efficiency. However, we document that taking steps to reduce domestic violence by reporting it yields substantial benefits to external parties. Specifically, we find that although children exposed to as-yet-unreported domestic…
Wilson, Beverly J.; Fernandes-Richards, Siobhan; Aarskog, Cyrena; Osborn, Teresa; Capetillo, Darla
Parents and teachers reported that 6- to 8-year-old boys with developmental delays were less able to regulate their emotions than nondelayed boys matched on chronological age. Compared to nondelayed boys, boys with developmental delays had more social problems, which persisted and increased over a 3-year period. Children's ability to regulate…
Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hastings, Richard P.; Crowe, Rachel; Pemberton, Jemma
Background: Several studies have reported relationships between life events and psychological problems in people with intellectual disabilities. In contrast to the general literature, data have consistently been collected via proxy informants and putative moderator variables such as social support have not been examined. Materials and Methods:…
Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.
The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…
Badaruddin, Denise H.; Andrews, Glena L.; Bolte, Sven; Schilmoeller, Kathryn J.; Schilmoeller, Gary; Paul, Lynn K.; Brown, Warren S.
Archival data from a survey of parent observations was used to determine the prevalence of social and behavioral problems in children with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). Parent observations were surveyed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for 61 children with ACC who were selected from the archive based on criteria of motor…
A representative individual lives for two periods; works when young and depends on savings and a government operated social security system when old—the returns on both sources of income, when old, are random. Due to administrative problems the returns to savings are observed with some measurement error. Two alternative consumption tax systems are considered; the Registered Asset Treatment (RAT) and
Bowman, James E.
In recent years, sickle cell screening programs have been initiated by community groups, health centers, hospitals, medical schools, health departments, school systems, city and State governments, various branches of the Federal Government, fraternal and social clubs, and other organizations. Problems have resulted from mass sickle cell screening,…
Monahan, Michael P.
Low employment and underemployment rates for students with disabilities have drawn national attention resulting in federal legislation. The research literature indicates a strong relationship between job success and interpersonal factors, especially for employees with disabilities. This study investigated social skills and problem behaviors of…
Dreer, Laura E.; Ronan, George F.; Ronan, Donna W.; Dush, David M.; Elliott, Timothy R.
We examined social problem-solving skills and binge drinking among 286 undergraduate men (N = 90) and women (N = 196). The sample consisted of primarily first-year students (39%), sophomores (27%), juniors (21%), and seniors (13%), with an average age of 20. The makeup of the sample was predominantly Caucasian. Men were more likely than women to…
Alrfooh, Atif Eid
This study aims at exploring the problems of social growth experienced by students, and as recognized by teachers at "Bseera", Jordan. The study sample consisted of (88) male and female students from first-grade in the public schools in Bseera/governorate of Tafila/Jordan 2009/2010. The researcher has developed a questionnaire which…
Denault, Anne-Sophie; Déry, Michčle
The goal of this study was to test a mediation model in which social skills mediate the relationship between participation in organized activities and conduct problems among elementary school children. Two moderators of these associations were also examined, namely, gender and reception of special education services. A total of 563 children (45%…
O'Reilly, Mark; McNally, Deirdre; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Green, Vanessa; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Machalicek, Wendy; Sorrells, Audrey; Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert
The authors examined the use of a social problem-solving intervention to treat selective mutism with 2 sisters in an elementary school setting. Both girls were taught to answer teacher questions in front of their classroom peers during regular classroom instruction. Each girl received individualized instruction from a therapist and was taught to…
Ferro, Gregory E.
Students, whether they are academic or vocational-technical majors, need to interpret social studies problems by use of the scientific approach rather than by the use of fatalism, supernaturalism, and superstition. To ensure this outcome, secondary school curricula must provide enriching experiences through modern instructional techniques which…
This study examined the impact of social space design on student behavioral problems in middle schools. A mixed-method approach was used in the form of focus groups and surveys with teachers and students from four central Texas middle schools (7th...
Coltrane, Scott; Adams, Michele
Although divorce rates have been stable or dropping for two decades, Americans seem anxious about the state of marriage. This article examines reasons for this collective anxiety, documenting how the divorce "problem" has been framed by organizations promoting conservative family values. Also identifies social contexts associated with cyclical…
Murberg, Terje A.; Bru, Edvin
Relationships between negative life events, perceived social support and emotional problems were assessed in a national representative sample of 1,053 adolescents in eighth grade. Thirty-one percent of the adolescents reported that they had experienced at least one negative life event during the last year. Serious illness or injury among close…
Seiler, Gale A.
Schools and science classrooms within schools continue to contribute to social reproduction and to the disenfranchisement of inner city African American students though attempts have been made to remedy the situation through standards, high-stakes testing, and compensatory programs. Such reforms ignore the sociocultural, political, and economic contexts of the individual students in the schools they are impacting. They do not take into account the uniqueness and diversity of the learners in these settings and have not included the voices of the students. Another possibility was studied here; that of starting with the cultural capital of the learner rather than with external standards. In a non-required science course at a local high school two coteachers endeavored to enact a student-emergent curriculum as a way to foster student agency and to counteract the reproductive nature of schools. The class was examined as a field within multiple other fields. The dialectical relationship between structure and agency in the class was used to frame the analysis and the tension between them was examined at several levels through video and audio analysis. Structural and rational choice views of action were abandoned in favor of an understanding hinged upon strategies of action that actors construct from cultural toolkits in and through practice. In this setting the students and teachers co-constructed a class that can be described and characterized in certain ways yet contained many counter-examples and alternative characterizations. A continuum of successes and failures, agency and subjectivity can be found in the trends and counter-trends in the course. The contradictions were examined to portray the complexity of the interactions and the possibilities for agency within them.
McGinnis, Molly A; Houchins-Juárez, Nealetta; McDaniel, Jill L; Kennedy, Craig H
Three participants whose problem behavior was maintained by contingent attention were exposed to 45-min presessions in which attention was withheld, provided on a fixed-time (FT) 15-s schedule, or provided on an FT 120-s schedule. Following each presession, participants were then tested in a 15-min session similar to the social attention condition of an analogue functional analysis. The results showed establishing operation conditions increased problem behavior during tests and that abolishing operation conditions decreased problem behavior during tests. PMID:20808502
Bisung, Elijah; Elliott, Susan J
In recent years, there has been considerable interest in social capital theory in both research and policy arenas. Social capital has been associated with many aspects of improvements in health, environment and development. This paper assesses the theoretical support for a social capital based analysis of environment and health issues with a focus on the water-health nexus in low and middle income countries. We review conceptualisation of social capital by Pierre Bourdieu in relation to his concepts of "fields" and "habitus" as well as other conceptualisations of social capital by James Coleman and Robert Putnam. We integrate these authors' ideas with ecosocial analysis of social and geographical patterns of access to safe water, adequate sanitation and hygiene and the resulting health impacts. Further, we develop a conceptual framework for linking social capital and health through the water-health nexus. The framework focuses on the role of social capital in improving water-related knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as facilitating collective action towards improving access to water and sanitation. The proposed framework will facilitate critical engagement with the pathways through which social processes and interactions influence health within the context of access to water, sanitation and hygiene in low and middle income countries. PMID:24657901
Tsay, Crystal Han-Huei
The contemporary business world demands adaptive individuals (Friedman & Wyman, 2005). Adaptation is essential for any life transition. It often involves developing coping mechanisms, strategies, and seeking of social support. Adaptation occurs in many settings from moving to a new culture, taking a new job, starting or finishing an…
Kim, Eunjung; Guo, Yuqing; Koh, Chinkang; Cain, Kevin C.
The goal of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between Korean immigrant discipline (e.g., positive, appropriate, harsh discipline) and children’s social competence and behavior problems. Self-report data were collected from 58 mothers and 20 fathers of children aged from three and eight. Only paternal harsh discipline was positively correlated with children’s behavior problems. Among specific discipline strategies, maternal physical affection, correcting misbehaviors, and reasoning were positively correlated with children’s social competence. Paternal physical punishment (e.g., spanking, hitting, raising arms) was positively correlated with children’s behavior problems. Immigrant fathers need to learn alternative ways of managing children’s misbehaviors. PMID:21035016
Intuitively, insight emerges unexpectedly. However, some previous views proposed that insight emerges with a high probability after people recognize their failure in solving a problem. In order to empirically investigate this failure-insight relationship, this study manipulated when participants recognized failure by using social comparison. It presumed that participants who had not yet solved the problem but knew others had already solved it would recognize that their currently adopted strategy was a failure; the timing of this was manipulated in the experiment. As expected, participants who were given a cover story regarding others' fast performance for the T-puzzle completed the same puzzle more successfully, as compared to those who were given a story of others' slow performance. The results suggest that the occurrence of insight was influenced by when participants recognized their failure. Providing social reality information (i.e., others' good/poor performance) might be a method to facilitate or inhibit insightful problem solving. PMID:23534265
Comby, Emeline; Le Lay, Yves-François; Piégay, Hervé
The case study of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) pollutions of the Rhône River (France) offers the possibility of studying criteria for the construction of social problems that result from chemical pollution (2005-2010). We investigated the dynamics of competition that create and define pollution as a social problem and entail its decline. News outlets are crucial for determining how an environmental issue emerges locally or nationally; this study used newspapers to highlight the potential of new outlets as a data source to analyze discourse variability, science-policy-media connections and the hydrosphere. Media coverage was based on a content analysis and textual data analysis of 75 articles. Analytical frameworks such as the Downs Model and the Public Arena Model (Hilgartner and Bosk, 1988) that consider time and stakeholders were tested to determine how human alteration of the hydrosphere can become a social problem and to analyze different communication strategies held by stakeholders. In terms of management, we described the temporal dynamics of the social problem based on the case study and considered an explanation of the selections. We considered the organization of particular stakeholders who define the social problem from its beginning to end by focusing on their discourses, relationships, decision-making and political choices, and scientific studies. Despite some biases, newspapers are useful for retrospectively evaluating the emergence of a social problem in the public arena by describing it through discourse and then understanding the temporal patterns of information. Despite uncertainties and information flow, decisions are made and science is translated to the public. PMID:24646671
Domin, Daniel; Bodner, George
The differences in the types of representations constructed during successful and unsuccessful problem-solving episodes were investigated within the context of graduate students working on problems that involve concepts from 2D-NMR. Success at problem solving was established by having the participants solve five problems relating to material just…
Rich, Erika Carpenter; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Nangle, Douglas W.
Evidence for the validity of the Social Skills Rating System for Teachers, Preschool Level (SSRS-T) as a measure of positive social skills and conduct problems was examined in a sample of Head Start preschoolers. One feature of the study was the comparative analysis of the original published factor structure of the Social Skills Scale (i.e.,…
Cordero, E.; Walsh, E.; Metzger, E. P.
Responding effectively to the potential impacts of a changing climate requires individual behavior changes and a scientifically informed populace prepared to address climate-related issues on a community and policy level. This level of behavior change is a non-trivial educational and societal problem; however, behavior change is constrained or supported through a constellation of variables including scientific content knowledge, sociocultural beliefs and values, self-identifications, available infrastructure, economic barriers and opportunities. The goal of this project is to gain a better understanding of student and family participation in energy conservation behaviors, and to analyze how a designed social change experience can support interest and motivation around taking action on climate change. In this work, we implemented a Green Ninja Energy Design Challenge in middle school and university classrooms during Fall 2014. The Green Ninja is a superhero designed to inspire youth to take action on climate change. The Green Ninja Project provides tools such as humorous films and associated media products that help students take steps towards a more sustainable world. The project we are studying here focuses on engineering design principles and scientific content related to energy and provides an opportunity for students and families to measure and reduce household energy use while learning energy and climate science concepts. Students use an online energy-tracking tool that leverages PG&E Smart Meter technology to record their daily household energy over a period of time. Students are then challenged to use the data and what they've learned in class to holistically re-imagine and re-design their living space to reduce energy use, and continue to track their energy usage after implementing their new designs in their living spaces. We will report on attitudes toward, perceptions of and reported behavioral changes of both control and intervention student groups through surveys, focus groups and a number of home visits.
Korhonen, Marie; Luoma, Ilona; Salmelin, Raili K.; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Tamminen, Tuula
Group-based modeling techniques are increasingly used in developmental studies to explore the patterns and co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing problems. Social competence has been found to reciprocally influence internalizing and externalizing problems, but studies on its associations with different patterns of these problems are…
Service users are increasingly involved in health and social care education, whilst the government is committed to increasing access to employment for people with mental health needs. The benefits of involving service users in social work education have been identified, including increasing skills, confidence, and building capacity; yet there is…
Wisniewski, Pamela J.
"Interpersonal boundary regulation" is a way to optimize social interactions when sharing and connecting through Social Networking Sites (SNSs). The theoretical foundation of much of my research comes from Altman's work on privacy management in the physical world. Altman believed that "we should attempt to design responsive…
Galindo, Claudia; Fuller, Bruce
We know that social competence contributes to young children's adaptation to, and cognitive learning within, classroom settings. Yet initial evidence is mixed on the social competencies that Latino children bring to kindergarten and the extent to which these skills advance cognitive growth. Building from ecocultural and developmental-risk theory,…
The classroom environment is an important aspect of classroom management that concerns many teachers. Properly engaging students in the classroom can foster a positive environment. This study examines social and emotional needs of students and its implications in developing a positive classroom. How can meeting social and emotional needs of…
Xie, Bo; Watkins, Ivan; Golbeck, Jen; Huang, Man
An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults' perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious, and to…
Yan Xu; Xiang Cao; Abigail Sellen; Ralf Herbrich; Thore Graepel
Online video games can be seen as medium for the formation and maintenance of social relationships. In this paper, we explore what social relationships mean under the context of online First-Person Shooter (FPS) games, how these relationships influence game experience, and how players manage them. We combine qualitative interview and quantitative game log data, and find that despite the gap
Skeels, Meredith McLain
Friends, family, and community provide important support and help to patients who face an illness. Unfortunately, keeping a social network informed about a patient's health status and needs takes effort, making it difficult for people who are sick and exhausted from illness. Members of a patient's social network are often eager to help, but can be…
Bailey, Deborah C.
Social capital is the use of informal networking to secure access to resources and opportunities. Often identified as an asset for offsetting deficiencies in societies, research on the phenomena is limited. This paper describes a qualitative study using focus groups with young adult Emeriti women representing three social-economic groups who were…
Saunders, Ruth P.; Motl, Robert W.; Dowda, Marsha; Dishman, Rod K.; Pate, Russell R.
Objective : To evaluate social support and theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs in explaining physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods : One thousand seven hundred ninety-seven 8 th -grade girls completed a survey measuring social provisions, family support, TPB constructs, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and team sport…
Ali, Saba Rasheed; Fall, Kevin; Hoffman, Tina
Unemployment is a stark reality in today's economic climate, and many Americans report a fear of loss or decrease in social status as a result of unexpected unemployment. Despite vocational psychology's emphasis on work as a domain of life, very little exploration on how social class shifts impact workers has been conducted. One way to rectify the…
Janelle A. Kerlin
Since the 1980s both the United States and Europe have experienced a simultaneous expansion in social enterprise. However, little has been written comparing and contrasting American and European conceptions of social enterprise resulting in difficulty communicating on the topic and missed opportunities to learn and build on foreign experience. To address this need, this paper compares and contrasts American and
Bo Xie; Ivan Watkins; Jen Golbeck; Man Huang
An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults’ perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious, and to the eventual willingness to actually contribute content. Privacy was
Adie, Lenore Ellen; Klenowski, Valentina; Wyatt-Smith, Claire
Social moderation involves teachers gathering together to discuss their judgements of the quality of student work and to reach agreement regarding the standard awarded. This qualitative study conducted over a three-year period investigated the social practice of moderation and the influence on teachers' judgements of students' work. An initial…
This paper investigates the processes and challenges of creating a socially integrated, empowered immigrant identity by exploring the concepts acculturation model. The author examines the psychology of acculturation and the processes for creating a socially integrated bicultural self for immigrants who retain cultural traditions while adapting to…
Saenz, Janet; Yaugher, Ashley; Alexander, Gerianne M
Despite strong evidence linking sleep to developmental outcomes, the longitudinal relationship between sleep and emotional well-being remains largely unknown. To address this gap in our knowledge, the current study examined sleep in infancy, measured via actigraphy, as a predictor of social-emotional problems in toddlers. A total of 47 children (29 males) were included in this longitudinal study. At time one, actigraphy measures of sleep were obtained from 3- to 4-month-old infants. At time two, parents rated their 18- to 24-month-old toddler's social-emotional well-being using the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment. Results indicated that boys tended to have higher levels of externalizing behaviors than did girls. Additionally, boys with longer sleep durations also showed lower sleep efficiency. In girls, sleep duration in infancy was a significant predictor of autism spectrum disorder behaviors and approached significance as a predictor of externalizing problems in toddlerhood. Our findings are the first to show a relationship between sleep measured in infancy and autism spectrum disorder symptomatology measured in early childhood. They suggest that the etiology of social-emotional problems may differ between genders and raise the possibility that sleep/wake cycles may be differentially related to autism spectrum disorder symptoms in girls and boys. PMID:26029685
Saenz, Janet; Yaugher, Ashley; Alexander, Gerianne M.
Despite strong evidence linking sleep to developmental outcomes, the longitudinal relationship between sleep and emotional well-being remains largely unknown. To address this gap in our knowledge, the current study examined sleep in infancy, measured via actigraphy, as a predictor of social-emotional problems in toddlers. A total of 47 children (29 males) were included in this longitudinal study. At time one, actigraphy measures of sleep were obtained from 3- to 4-month-old infants. At time two, parents rated their 18- to 24-month-old toddler’s social-emotional well-being using the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment. Results indicated that boys tended to have higher levels of externalizing behaviors than did girls. Additionally, boys with longer sleep durations also showed lower sleep efficiency. In girls, sleep duration in infancy was a significant predictor of autism spectrum disorder behaviors and approached significance as a predictor of externalizing problems in toddlerhood. Our findings are the first to show a relationship between sleep measured in infancy and autism spectrum disorder symptomatology measured in early childhood. They suggest that the etiology of social-emotional problems may differ between genders and raise the possibility that sleep/wake cycles may be differentially related to autism spectrum disorder symptoms in girls and boys. PMID:26029685
Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Background: Cognitive processes and mechanisms underlying the strong link between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social problems remain unclear. Limited knowledge also exists regarding a subgroup of youth with ADHD who do not have social problems. This study investigated the extent to which executive function (EF) mediated the…
Zach-Vanhorn, Sara M.
This research was conducted to explore predictors and moderators of bullying involvement, social and emotional problems, vocabulary knowledge, and crimes. There was one main research question: (1) Is there a the relationship between adolescents with social and emotional problems as measured by the SDQ (Goodman, 1997) and adolescents'…
Maples, James N.; Taylor, William V.
In this instructional article, we describe a non-traditional course assignment in which we ask students in our social problems courses to write, illustrate, and present a children's book about a social problem as part of the process of learning. Over the course of the semester, students utilize guided handouts to create a children's book…
Miller, Scott R.; Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma M.
We assessed the extent to which youths' (n = 231) shyness and social acceptance in preadolescence were associated with parents' responsive problem solving 1 year later after controlling for initial levels of parents' problem solving. Teachers (n = 176) completed assessments of youths' shyness and social acceptance, and parents (n = 231 married…
Powell, Jane E.; Tapp, Alan J.
In this paper the authors present and debate the theoretical case for the use of social marketing to help reduce problem gambling in the public health context of the UK. Is triangulated between the key theories and principles of social marketing, the key literature and its theoretical application to the debate about reducing problem gambling in…
Kelly, William E.
This study explored the relationship between night-sky watching and self-reported cognitive variables: need for cognition and social problem-solving. University students (N = 140) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, the Need for Cognition Scale, and the Social Problem Solving Inventory. The results indicated that an interest in the night-sky was…
O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sigafoos, Jeff; O'Donoghue, Deirdre; Lacey, Claire; Edrisinha, Chaturi
We compared the effectiveness of a problem-solving and an external control intervention to teach social skills to five adults with mild intellectual disabilities. The social skills of ''responding to corrective feedback'' and ''managing conflict'' were targeted for intervention. Each participant received the problem-solving intervention with one…
Ronka, Anna; Pulkkinen, Lea
Examined longitudinally the relationship between earlier risk factors and later problems in young Finnish women's social functioning. Found that low work involvement mediated between risk factors and accumulation of problems in social functioning in young adulthood. Risk factors increased the likelihood of early motherhood, but early motherhood…
Haller, Simone P W; Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Scerif, Gaia; Lau, Jennifer Y F
Social anxiety disorder represents a debilitating condition that has large adverse effects on the quality of social connections, educational achievement and wellbeing. Age-of-onset data suggests that early adolescence is a developmentally sensitive juncture for the onset of social anxiety. In this review, we highlight the potential of using a developmental cognitive neuroscience approach to understand (i) why there are normative increases in social worries in adolescence and (ii) how adolescence-associated changes may 'bring out' neuro-cognitive risk factors for social anxiety in a subset of individuals during this developmental period. We also speculate on how changes that occur in learning and plasticity may allow for optimal acquisition of more adaptive neurocognitive strategies through external interventions. Hence, for the minority of individuals who require external interventions to target their social fears, this enhanced flexibility could result in more powerful and longer-lasting therapeutic effects. We will review two novel interventions that target information-processing biases and their neural substrates via cognitive training and visual feedback of neural activity measured through functional magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25818181
Discovering critical nodes in social networks has many important applications. For finding out the critical nodes and considering the widespread community structure in social networks, we obtain each node's marginal contribution by Owen value. And then we can give a method for the solution of the critical node problem. We validate the feasibility and effectiveness of our method on two synthetic datasets and six real datasets. At the same time, the result obtained by using our method to analyze the terrorist network is in line with the actual situation. PMID:25006592
Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Evans, Meredyth A.; Hare, Amanda L.
This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13–14 years and again at ages 20–22 years. At ages 20–22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship quality on their web pages were coded by observers. Results suggested that youths who had been better adjusted at ages 13–14 years were more likely to be using social networking web pages at ages 20–22 years, after statistically controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and parental income. Overall, youths' patterns of peer relationships, friendship quality, and behavioral adjustment at ages 13–14 years and at ages 20–22 years predicted similar qualities of interaction and problem behavior on their social networking websites at ages 20–22 years. Findings are consistent with developmental theory asserting that youths display cross-situational continuity in their social behaviors and suggest that the conceptualization of continuity may be extended into the online domain. PMID:20053005
Zhang, Yan; Risen, Jane L
Embodiment research has primarily focused on metaphor-assimilative effects (e.g., perceiving someone to be socially warmer when holding a warm object). Research shows these effects can occur by activating metaphor-associated knowledge constructs. This account is not sufficient, however, for explaining complementary effects--for example, the tendency to prefer social warmth when experiencing physical coldness (Experiment 1). We suggest that socially warm events are considered a means for achieving the goal of reducing physical coldness. Guided by this basic hypothesis and the principles of a goal systems framework, we examine whether the basic relationship between goals and means explains complementary embodiment effects. We find that socially warm activities are preferred over control activities when people are primed with the goal of reducing physical coldness, but not when primed with the concept of coldness (Experiment 2). We also find that activating an alternative goal decreases the attractiveness of socially warm activities when people are feeling cold (Experiment 3). Finally, we examine the effect of social coldness on preferences for physical warmth, showing that the attractiveness of physically warm items among socially excluded people is decreased by activating an alternative goal (Experiment 4). These results suggest that complementary embodiment effects follow the principles of goal activation. PMID:25437131
van Houwelingen, Anne H.; den Elzen, Wendy P. J.; le Cessie, Saskia; Blom, Jeanet W.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn
This study explores the combination of four common health problems in older people and whether problems on four domains result in an additional effect on indicators of poor health. For this purpose, a total of 2681 participants (32% male, mean age 82 years) of the Integrated Systematic Care for Older People (ISCOPE) study were screened on the presence of health problems on four domains (functional, somatic, mental, social) with the postal ISCOPE questionnaire. Extensive interview data on health indicators were obtained at baseline and at 12-months follow-up, including disability (Groningen Activities Restriction Scale, GARS), cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination, MMSE), depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale-15, GDS), loneliness (loneliness scale of De Jong Gierveld), and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D). General practitioner (GP) contact time (min/year) was estimated via GP electronic medical records. Of the study population, 9% had no health problems according to the screening, 8% had problems on one domain, 27% on two, 38% on three and 18% on four domains. At baseline, the number of health domains with problems was associated with poorer scores on the GARS, the MMSE, the GDS-15, the loneliness scale, the EQ-5D and with more GP contact time (p <0.001). Problems on all four domains had an additional negative effect on these health indicators (all pinteraction <0.001). At follow-up, an increased number of domains with problems was associated with an increased decline in health indicators (all p<0.001) and with an additional negative effect on GP contact time of the presence of problems on all four domains (pinteraction <0.001). We conclude that combinations of functional, somatic, mental and social problems are associated with poor health indicators in community-dwelling older people. Since problems on four domains have an additional effect on health, individuals with combined functional, somatic, mental and social problems could benefit from integrated care. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register: NTR1946. PMID:25898203
Climate change is gaining attention as a significant strategic issue for localities that rely on their business sectors for economic viability. For businesses in the tourism sector, considerable research effort has sought to characterise the vulnerability to the likely impacts of future climate change through scenarios or ‘end-point' approaches (Kelly & Adger, 2000). Whilst useful, there are few demonstrable case studies that complement such work with a ‘start-point' approach that seeks to explore contextual vulnerability (O'Brien et al., 2007). This broader approach is inclusive of climate change as a process operating within a biophysical system and allows recognition of the complex interactions that occur in the coupled human-environmental system. A problem-oriented and interdisciplinary approach was employed at Alpine Shire, in northeast Victoria Australia, to explore the concept of contextual vulnerability and adaptability to stressors that include, but are not limited to climatic change. Using a policy sciences approach, the objective was to identify factors that influence existing vulnerabilities and that might consequently act as barriers to effective adaptation for the Shire's business community involved in the tourism sector. Analyses of results suggest that many threats, including the effects climate change, compete for the resources, strategy and direction of local tourism management bodies. Further analysis of conditioning factors revealed that many complex and interacting factors define the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of the Shire's tourism sector to the challenges of global change, which collectively have more immediate implications for policy and planning than long-term future climate change scenarios. An approximation of the common interest, i.e. enhancing capacity in business acumen amongst tourism operators, would facilitate adaptability and sustainability through the enhancement of social capital in this business community. Kelly, P. M., & Adger, W. N. (2000). Theory and practice in assessing vulnerability to climatic change and facilitating adaptation. Climatic Change, 47, 325-352. O'Brien, K., Eriksen, S., Nygaard, L. P., & Schjolden, A. (2007). Why different interpretations of vulnerability matter in climate change discourses. Climate Policy, 7, 73-88.
Emery, Clifton R; Nguyen, Hai Trung; Kim, Jaeyop
This study aimed to understand the role of low self-control, stress, depression, experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse, and social support and child care support in the etiology of child abuse and neglect in Hanoi, Vietnam. The study estimated the prevalence of child maltreatment in a randomly selected, representative cluster sample of 269 Hanoi families. Among these families, 21% reported severe abuse of their children in the past year, 12% reported neglect. Low self-control was found to be strongly associated with child abuse. Life stressors were found to be strongly associated with neglect, but only indirectly with child abuse. Counter-intuitively, a positive interaction between social support and low self-control was found, suggesting that social support of parents low in self-control is associated with more maltreatment. Implications for research, intervention, and criminological theory are discussed. PMID:24368676
Xie, Bo; Watkins, Ivan; Golbeck, Jen; Huang, Man
An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults’ perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious and to the eventual willingness to actually contribute content. Privacy was the primary concern and key perceptual barrier to adoption. Effective educational strategies were developed to overcome privacy concerns, including: 1) introducing the concepts before introducing the functions; 2) responding to privacy concerns; and 3) making social media personally relevant. PMID:22639483
Leo Pardi (1915-1990) was the initiator of ethological research in Italy. During more than 50 years of active scientific career, he gave groundbreaking contributions to the understanding of social life in insects, especially in Polistes wasps, an important model organism in sociobiology. In the 1940s, Pardi showed that Polistes societies are organized in a linear social hierarchy that relies on reproductive dominance and on the physiological and developmental mechanisms that regulate it, i.e. on the status of ovarian development of single wasps. Pardi's work set the stage for further research on the regulatory mechanisms governing social life in primitively eusocial organisms both in wasps and in other insect species. This article reconstructs Pardi's investigative pathway between 1937 and 1952 in the context of European ethology and American animal sociology. This reconstruction focuses on the development of Pardi's physiological approach and presents a new perspective on the interacting development of these two fields at the origins of our current understanding of animal social behavior. PMID:25687548
Lower, Stephen K.
A brief overview of CHEMEX--a problem-solving, tutorial style computer-assisted instructional course--is provided and sample problems are offered. In CHEMEX, students receive problems in advance and attempt to solve them before moving through the computer program, which assists them in overcoming difficulties and serves as a review mechanism.…
Chitiyo, Morgan; Chitiyo, George; Chitiyo, Jonathan; Oyedele, Victoria; Makoni, Richard; Fonnah, Davidson; Chipangure, Luke
Problem behaviour continues to present a challenge for school-teachers worldwide. Since school-teachers around the globe have different conceptualisations of what constitutes problem behaviour, the purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of Zimbabwean school-teachers about their perceived causes of problem behaviour among students in…
Ecological restoration can reestablish ecosystem services (ES) that provide important social benefits, but managers with limited funds and resources are forced to prioritize potential restoration sites. Prioritizing restoration sites based on ecological functioning and expected ...
Harris, Frank, III; Harper, Shaun R.
Previous research has neglected to explore identities and development among male students at community colleges. This chapter provides some insight into who these men are, their precollege gender socialization experiences, and conflicts that impede the development of productive masculinities.
The link between science and society is examined by studying the application of evolution theories and genetics to human affairs. Described are the ways in which biological theories have been applied to social issues. (KR)
Higher education literature has focused narrowly on social responsibility to the exclusion of personal responsibility. This chapter challenges higher education researchers and practitioners to include behaviors related to personal responsibility in their research and educational agendas.
Manoochehri, Houman; Lolaty, Hamideh Azimi; Hassani, Parkhideh; Arbon, Paul; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin
Background: This study aimed to explore the role of social capital within the context of the nursing profession in Iran, based on the experience and perspectives of senior nursing managers. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using the Graneheim and Lundman content analysis method. Using purposive sampling, 26 senior nursing managers from the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, the College of Nursing and Midwifery, the Iranian Nursing Organization, nursing associations and hospitals were selected, who participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Results: Content analysis revealed three main themes (social capital deficit, applying multiple strategies, and cultivating social capital) as well as eight categories which included professional remoteness, deficiency in professional potency, deficiency in professional exchanges, accumulation of personal social capital, accumulation of professional social capital, socio-political strategies, psychological–cognitive strategies, and ethical/spiritual strategies. The results show the perceived level of social capital in nursing in Iran, the application of some key strategies, and the principal rewards accrued from active participation in improving the social capital in nursing environment and profession. Conclusions: Efforts should be made to strengthen the social capital and apply key strategies with the aim of achieving personal and professional benefits for nurses, their patients, and co-workers, and for the delivery of healthcare in general. In this respect, the role of senior managers is vital in stimulating collective action within the profession, planning for the development of a culture of participation in healthcare services, helping to develop all fields of the profession, and developing and strengthening intra- and inter-professional exchanges and networking. PMID:25400673