Sample records for understanding social problems

  1. Social Signal Processing: Understanding Social Interactions through Nonverbal Behavior Analysis

    E-print Network

    Vinciarelli, Alessandro

    Social Signal Processing: Understanding Social Interactions through Nonverbal Behavior Analysis A), the domain aimed at automatic understanding of social in- teractions through analysis of nonverbal behavior, nonverbal behavior analysis is used as a key to automatic understanding of social interactions. This pa- per

  2. Social Signal Processing: Understanding Nonverbal Communication in Social Interactions

    E-print Network

    Vinciarelli, Alessandro

    Social Signal Processing: Understanding Nonverbal Communication in Social Interactions Alessandro Processing, human-human communication, nonverbal behavior, social interactions. ACM Classification Keywords A in human sciences have shown that nonverbal communication is the main channel through which we express

  3. Understanding Social Media with Machine Learning

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Xiaojin "Jerry"

    Understanding Social Media with Machine Learning Xiaojin Zhu jerryzhu@cs.wisc.edu Department Social Media CCF/ADL Beijing 2013 1 / 95 #12;Outline 1 Spatio-Temporal Signal Recovery from Social Media Regularization Stochastic Processes 3 Socioscope: A Probabilistic Model for Social Media 4 Case Study: Roadkill

  4. Understanding Heart Valve Problems and Causes

    MedlinePLUS

    Understanding Heart Valve Problems and Causes Updated:May 19,2015 Many heart valve problems are first identified by the ... Congenital Heart Defect See all of our brochures Heart Valve Problems and Disease • Home • About Heart Valves • ...

  5. Understanding Forces: What's the Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Bob

    2006-01-01

    Misconceptions about forces are very common and seem to arise from everyday experience and use of words. Ways to improve students' understanding of forces, as used in recent a IOP CD-Rom, are discussed here.

  6. Culture, Executive Function, and Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Charlie; Koyasu, Masuo; Oh, Seungmi; Ogawa, Ayako; Short, Benjamin; Huang, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Much of the evidence from the West has shown links between children's developing self-control (executive function), their social experiences, and their social understanding (Carpendale & Lewis, 2006, chapters 5 and 6), across a range of cultures including China. This chapter describes four studies conducted in three Oriental cultures, suggesting…

  7. Infants' Developing Understanding of Social Gaze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Jonathan S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Young infants are sensitive to self-directed social actions, but do they appreciate the intentional, target-directed nature of such behaviors? The authors addressed this question by investigating infants' understanding of social gaze in third-party interactions (N = 104). Ten-month-old infants discriminated between 2 people in mutual versus…

  8. Understanding the Problem of Pornography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Leigh Ann

    This report was written to clarify the terms often associated with pornography and to help readers understand the issue of pornography more clearly. The first chapter defines pornography, as it was defined by the United States Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, as "that material (which) is predominantly sexually explicit and intended…

  9. A guide to understanding social science research for natural scientists.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. PMID:24962114

  10. [Social problems of porphyria].

    PubMed

    Tarczy?ska-Nosal, S; Kostrzewska, E

    1998-03-01

    Late consequences of the attacks of acute porphyrias were studied. Among 312 patients who were investigated the motor disability (neuropathy) was found in 9 patients, psychoneurological changes in 1 case and drug abuse in 7 subjects. In the group of 200 patients in remission (chosen at random) 72 persons (36%) received a disability pension. The existence of problems in change of the profession when it was necessary for health-reasons was marked. It was find that Dolargan (Pethidine) is too often applied to the patients in remission. It was made the warning that drug dependence will arise very easy in patients with porphyria. PMID:9640067

  11. Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mara, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

  12. The Emotional Foundations of Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Heather K.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2008-01-01

    The infant and toddler years are a watershed of development in the emotional domain. These skills lay the foundation for positive social interactions, and ultimately, academic and life success. This article describes the development of three skills that are central in creating successful relationships: expressing emotion, understanding emotion,…

  13. Understanding Student Identity from a Socialization Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidman, John C.; DeAngelo, Linda; Bethea, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the contribution of current research using the Weidman model of undergraduate socialization to understanding student identity development in college. It illustrates ways in which the framework can be used flexibly and adapted for studying impacts of multiple aspects of the college experience on diverse groups of students.

  14. Children's Understanding of Social Rules and Social Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobes, Gavin; Pawson, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated 4- to 9-year-olds' understanding of social rules and authority by asking them about stories in which the status (adult or child) of rule inventors, transgressors, and changers varied. Findings indicated that children considered children's transgressions and alteration less permissible than adults', and adult-invented…

  15. Developmental pathways for social understanding: linking social cognition to social contexts.

    PubMed

    Brink, Kimberly A; Lane, Jonathan D; Wellman, Henry M

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary research, often with looking-time tasks, reveals that infants possess foundational understandings of their social worlds. However, few studies have examined how these early social cognitions relate to the child's social interactions and behavior in early development. Does an early understanding of the social world relate to how an infant interacts with his or her parents? Do early social interactions along with social-cognitive understandings in infancy predict later preschool social competencies? In the current paper, we propose a theory in which children's later social behaviors and their understanding of the social world depend on the integration of early social understanding and experiences in infancy. We review several of our studies, as well as other research, that directly examine the pathways between these competencies to support a hypothesized network of relations between social-cognitive development and social-interactive behaviors in the development from infancy to childhood. In total, these findings reveal differences in infant social competences that both track the developmental trajectory of infants' understanding of people over the first years of life and provide external validation for the large body of social-cognitive findings emerging from laboratory looking-time paradigms. PMID:26074859

  16. Developmental pathways for social understanding: linking social cognition to social contexts

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Kimberly A.; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary research, often with looking-time tasks, reveals that infants possess foundational understandings of their social worlds. However, few studies have examined how these early social cognitions relate to the child’s social interactions and behavior in early development. Does an early understanding of the social world relate to how an infant interacts with his or her parents? Do early social interactions along with social-cognitive understandings in infancy predict later preschool social competencies? In the current paper, we propose a theory in which children’s later social behaviors and their understanding of the social world depend on the integration of early social understanding and experiences in infancy. We review several of our studies, as well as other research, that directly examine the pathways between these competencies to support a hypothesized network of relations between social-cognitive development and social-interactive behaviors in the development from infancy to childhood. In total, these findings reveal differences in infant social competences that both track the developmental trajectory of infants’ understanding of people over the first years of life and provide external validation for the large body of social-cognitive findings emerging from laboratory looking-time paradigms. PMID:26074859

  17. Indoor and Outdoor Social Alarms: Understanding Users' Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The elderly population is increasing and there is a need to provide care and safety at a high level with limited resources. New social alarm solutions may contribute to safety and independence for many elderly. However, it is important to understand the needs within the user group. This work studied social alarms in a broad sense and from several user perspectives. In the first study, social alarm use and its aspects were investigated. To understand where there may be problems and weaknesses, users, caregivers, managers of municipalities, and personnel at alarm centers were interviewed. The interviews helped identify a number of problems. For municipalities, the processes of procuring new alarms and managing their organization were found to be complex. The effect of this was that the same social alarm systems had been ordered over and over again without taking into account new user needs or new technical solutions. For alarm users, one large problem was that the alarms had very limited reach and were designed for indoor use only. This has resulted in users hesitating to leave their homes, which in turn has negative effects due to lack of physical activity and fewer social contacts. One important result from the first study was the need for a social alarm solution that worked outdoors. In a second study, needs regarding outdoor social alarms were investigated. The results from this study showed that wearable outdoor alarms must be easy to use, provide communication, and be well designed. Finally, these alarms must work both indoors and outdoors, and the user should not have to worry about where he/she is or who is acting on an alarm. PMID:25099060

  18. Understanding mobility in a social petri dish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szell, Michael; Sinatra, Roberta; Petri, Giovanni; Thurner, Stefan; Latora, Vito

    2012-06-01

    Despite the recent availability of large data sets on human movements, a full understanding of the rules governing motion within social systems is still missing, due to incomplete information on the socio-economic factors and to often limited spatio-temporal resolutions. Here we study an entire society of individuals, the players of an online-game, with complete information on their movements in a network-shaped universe and on their social and economic interactions. Such a ``socio-economic laboratory'' allows to unveil the intricate interplay of spatial constraints, social and economic factors, and patterns of mobility. We find that the motion of individuals is not only constrained by physical distances, but also strongly shaped by the presence of socio-economic areas. These regions can be recovered perfectly by community detection methods solely based on the measured human dynamics. Moreover, we uncover that long-term memory in the time-order of visited locations is the essential ingredient for modeling the trajectories.

  19. Understanding mobility in a social petri dish

    PubMed Central

    Szell, Michael; Sinatra, Roberta; Petri, Giovanni; Thurner, Stefan; Latora, Vito

    2012-01-01

    Despite the recent availability of large data sets on human movements, a full understanding of the rules governing motion within social systems is still missing, due to incomplete information on the socio-economic factors and to often limited spatio-temporal resolutions. Here we study an entire society of individuals, the players of an online-game, with complete information on their movements in a network-shaped universe and on their social and economic interactions. Such a “socio-economic laboratory” allows to unveil the intricate interplay of spatial constraints, social and economic factors, and patterns of mobility. We find that the motion of individuals is not only constrained by physical distances, but also strongly shaped by the presence of socio-economic areas. These regions can be recovered perfectly by community detection methods solely based on the measured human dynamics. Moreover, we uncover that long-term memory in the time-order of visited locations is the essential ingredient for modeling the trajectories. PMID:22708055

  20. Links Between Social Understanding and Social Behavior in Verbally Able Children with Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Travis; Marian Sigman; Ellen Ruskin

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between various measures of social understanding and social interaction competence in verbally able children with autism. Measures of social understanding included measures of verbalizable knowledge (false belief understanding, affective perspective taking), as well as measures of more intuitive forms of social responsiveness (empathy, concern to distress, and initiating joint attention). Two measures of social interaction

  1. Social Science in Africa: Problems and Prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LEONARD BLOOM

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the delicate relationship of social science in Africa to the political, social and administrative context. It is argued, in contradition to the defeatist views of, for example, Mehryar (1984), that social scientists do both their profession and their societies a disservice if they surrender the study of social problems to politicians and

  2. Regulatory Problems in Privatizing Social Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howell E. Jackson

    This working paper, which will appear as a chapter of Framing the Social Security Debate (forthcoming Fall 1998) (Brookings Institution Press), discusses two regulatory problems associated with the privatization of social security: first, the risk that political interference with social security investments in equity securities will disrupt private capital markets and reduce returns on social security assets, and, second, risks

  3. Understanding smell--the olfactory stimulus problem.

    PubMed

    Auffarth, Benjamin

    2013-09-01

    The main problem with sensory processing is the difficulty in relating sensory input to physiological responses and perception. This is especially problematic at higher levels of processing, where complex cues elicit highly specific responses. In olfaction, this relationship is particularly obfuscated by the difficulty of characterizing stimulus statistics and perception. The core questions in olfaction are hence the so-called stimulus problem, which refers to the understanding of the stimulus, and the structure-activity and structure-odor relationships, which refer to the molecular basis of smell. It is widely accepted that the recognition of odorants by receptors is governed by the detection of physico-chemical properties and that the physical space is highly complex. Not surprisingly, ideas differ about how odor stimuli should be classified and about the very nature of information that the brain extracts from odors. Even though there are many measures for smell, there is none that accurately describes all aspects of it. Here, we summarize recent developments in the understanding of olfaction. We argue that an approach to olfactory function where information processing is emphasized could contribute to a high degree to our understanding of smell as a perceptual phenomenon emerging from neural computations. Further, we argue that combined analysis of the stimulus, biology, physiology, and behavior and perception can provide new insights into olfactory function. We hope that the reader can use this review as a competent guide and overview of research activities in olfactory physiology, psychophysics, computation, and psychology. We propose avenues for research, particularly in the systematic characterization of receptive fields and of perception. PMID:23806440

  4. [Obesity, personal and social problem].

    PubMed

    Biscevi?, Azra; Biscevi?, Mirza; Smrke, Dragica; Redzi?, Amira; Ziga, Jusuf

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is risk-factor for the most common nowdays diseases, as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, some carcinomas, degenerative diseases of weight bearing joints (spine, hips, knees), and present a huge medical and social problem, as well. It causes not only somatic but mental problems as well, especially in females and younger persons. Some of them undergo risky weight reducing methods, surgical procedures, etc, to reduce their body weight and to release mentally stressing body deformities. Aim of the work is to quantify negative impaction of obesity on functionality of the knee, the key joint in everyday body activities (rising, standing, walking, and climbing). Study has analyzed 22 randomly chosen patients (5 male, 17 female) with strong degenerative alteration of the knee (osteoarthritis), who were treated on the Department for orthopedic and traumatology, Clinical center Sarajevo during 2005 and 2006. Average age was 63.6 +/- 10.6 (54-76) years, with Body Mass Index (level of obesity) 31.1 +/- 3.5 (27-38) points, and average duration of symptoms 9.1 +/- 7.4 (1-25) years. The knee functionality was assessed by Knee Society Knee Score (KSKS). Completely healthy knee has 200 points--50 points for pain free knee, 25 points for stabile knee, and forfull extension-flexion arch, both, 50 points for normal walking and stairs climbing, both. Average value of KSKS was 118.1 +/- 35.0 points. As it was expected, there were strong significant correlation between KSKS and age (r = -0.50, p = 0.015). The duration of disability correlated with KSKS (r = -0.5, p = 0.02), and level of pain (r = 0.60, p=0.00). The obesity has significantly increased level of pain in the knee (r = -0.44, p = 0.04), all patients were obese persons. Persons with reduced functional abilities avoid body activity, it causes increasing of obesity, and one makes other worse. Concerning on incidence of described problem and its impaction on society in general, it is necessary to make every effort in prevention and treatment of obesity, as important risk factor and consequence of reduced functional abilities and risk factor of most common nowadays diseases. PMID:18232277

  5. Mentalising and social problem solving in adults with Asperger's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Channon, Shelley; Crawford, Sarah; Orlowska, Danuta; Parikh, Nimmi; Thoma, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction It is well established that autistic spectrum disorder is linked to difficulties with mentalising, but the ways in which this affects everyday behaviour is less well understood. This study explored the nature and extent of difficulties in everyday social functioning in adults with Asperger's syndrome (AS), since increased understanding can enhance the development of more effective intervention strategies. Methods Individuals with AS (n = 21) were compared with healthy control participants (n = 21) on three tests of social cognition: the Mentalistic Interpretation task, which assesses interpretation of sarcasm and actions; the Social Problem Fluency task, which assesses ability to generate problem solutions; and the Social Problem Resolution task, which assesses judgement in selecting problem solutions. Results Comprehension of both sarcastic remarks and actions was impaired in those with AS on the mentalistic interpretation task. Participants with AS showed difficulties in identifying the awkward elements of everyday social scenarios, and they were also impaired in generating problem solutions but not in judging alternative solutions on the social problem fluency and resolution tasks. Conclusions These tasks potentially provide a means of profiling strengths and weaknesses in social processing, which in turn has implications for informing clinical evaluation and training. PMID:23875885

  6. Understanding diversity: the importance of social acceptance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jacqueline M; Hamilton, David L

    2015-04-01

    Two studies investigated how people define and perceive diversity in the historically majority-group dominated contexts of business and academia. We hypothesized that individuals construe diversity as both the numeric representation of racial minorities and the social acceptance of racial minorities within a group. In Study 1, undergraduates' (especially minorities') perceptions of campus diversity were predicted by perceived social acceptance on a college campus, above and beyond perceived minority representation. Study 2 showed that increases in a company's representation and social acceptance independently led to increases in perceived diversity of the company among Whites. Among non-Whites, representation and social acceptance only increased perceived diversity of the company when both qualities were high. Together these findings demonstrate the importance of both representation and social acceptance to the achievement of diversity in groups and that perceiver race influences the relative importance of these two components of diversity. PMID:25713169

  7. Frameworks for Understanding the Politics of Social Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, John D.

    2011-01-01

    This article has three primary goals centring on a re-examination of the research frameworks we use for understanding the politics of social movements. First, I detail the ideological and methodological deficiencies of the old social movement/new social movement framework. Second, I highlight the positive contributions of research that favoured or…

  8. Towards Understanding Cyberbullying Behavior in a Semi-Anonymous Social Network

    E-print Network

    Han, Richard Y.

    Towards Understanding Cyberbullying Behavior in a Semi-Anonymous Social Network Homa Hosseinmardi.ghasemianlangroodi@colorado.edu Abstract--Cyberbullying has emerged as an important and growing social problem, wherein people use online that has led to many cases of cyberbullying, some leading to suicidal behavior. We examine the occurrence

  9. Problems and challenges in social marketing.

    PubMed

    Bloom, P N; Novelli, W D

    1981-01-01

    This article reviews the problems that arise when general marketing principles are applied to social programs. Social marketing is conceptualized as the design, implementation, and control of programs seeking to increase the acceptability of a social ideal or practice in a target group. These problems can occur in 8 basic decision-making areas: market analysis, market segmentation, product strategy development, pricing strategy development, channel strategy development, communications strategy development, organizational design and planning, and evaluation. Social marketers find that they have less good secondary data about their consumers, more problems obtaining valid and reliable measures of relevant variables, more difficulty sorting out the relative influence of determinants of consumer behavior, and more problems getting consumer research funded than marketers in the commercial sector. They tend to have less flexibility in shaping their products and more difficulty formulating product concepts. Problems associated with establishing, utilizing, and controlling distribution channels comprise another major difference between social and more conventional forms of marketing. Social marketers also find that their communications options are somewhat limited as a result of problems associated with use of paid advertisements, pressures not to use certain types of appeals in their messages, and the need to communicate large amounts of information in their messages. Moreover, social marketers must function in organizations where marketing activities are poorly understood, underappreciated, and inappropriately located. Finally, they face problems trying to define effectiveness measures or estimating the contribution their program has made toward the achievement of certain objectives. If all these problems are anticipated and handled creatively, social marketing efforts can succeed. PMID:12280283

  10. Links Between Social Understanding and Social Behavior in Verbally Able Children with Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Travis; Marian Sigman; Ellen Ruskin

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between various measures of social understanding and so- cial interaction competence in verbally able children with autism. Measures of social under- standing included measures of verbalizable knowledge (false belief understanding, affective perspective taking), as well as measures of more intuitive forms of social responsiveness (em- pathy, concern to distress, and initiating joint attention). Two measures

  11. Children's Understanding of Social-Cognitive and Social-Communicative Aspects of Discourse Irony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippova, Eva; Astington, Janet Wilde

    2010-01-01

    To bridge the social-reasoning focus of developmental research on irony understanding and the pragmatic focus of research with adult populations, this cross-sectional study examines 5-, 7-, and 9-year-olds' (n = 72) developing understanding of both social-cognitive and social-communicative aspects of discourse irony, when compared with adults (n =…

  12. Individual differences in toddlers' social understanding and prosocial behavior: disposition or socialization?

    PubMed

    Gross, Rebekkah L; Drummond, Jesse; Satlof-Bedrick, Emma; Waugh, Whitney E; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A

    2015-01-01

    We examined how individual differences in social understanding contribute to variability in early-appearing prosocial behavior. Moreover, potential sources of variability in social understanding were explored and examined as additional possible predictors of prosocial behavior. Using a multi-method approach with both observed and parent-report measures, 325 children aged 18-30 months were administered measures of social understanding (e.g., use of emotion words; self-understanding), prosocial behavior (in separate tasks measuring instrumental helping, empathic helping, and sharing, as well as parent-reported prosociality at home), temperament (fearfulness, shyness, and social fear), and parental socialization of prosocial behavior in the family. Individual differences in social understanding predicted variability in empathic helping and parent-reported prosociality, but not instrumental helping or sharing. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior was positively associated with toddlers' social understanding, prosocial behavior at home, and instrumental helping in the lab, and negatively associated with sharing (possibly reflecting parents' increased efforts to encourage children who were less likely to share). Further, socialization moderated the association between social understanding and prosocial behavior, such that social understanding was less predictive of prosocial behavior among children whose parents took a more active role in socializing their prosociality. None of the dimensions of temperament was associated with either social understanding or prosocial behavior. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior is thus an important source of variability in children's early prosociality, acting in concert with early differences in social understanding, with different patterns of influence for different subtypes of prosocial behavior. PMID:26029139

  13. Individual differences in toddlers’ social understanding and prosocial behavior: disposition or socialization?

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Rebekkah L.; Drummond, Jesse; Satlof-Bedrick, Emma; Waugh, Whitney E.; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how individual differences in social understanding contribute to variability in early-appearing prosocial behavior. Moreover, potential sources of variability in social understanding were explored and examined as additional possible predictors of prosocial behavior. Using a multi-method approach with both observed and parent-report measures, 325 children aged 18–30 months were administered measures of social understanding (e.g., use of emotion words; self-understanding), prosocial behavior (in separate tasks measuring instrumental helping, empathic helping, and sharing, as well as parent-reported prosociality at home), temperament (fearfulness, shyness, and social fear), and parental socialization of prosocial behavior in the family. Individual differences in social understanding predicted variability in empathic helping and parent-reported prosociality, but not instrumental helping or sharing. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior was positively associated with toddlers’ social understanding, prosocial behavior at home, and instrumental helping in the lab, and negatively associated with sharing (possibly reflecting parents’ increased efforts to encourage children who were less likely to share). Further, socialization moderated the association between social understanding and prosocial behavior, such that social understanding was less predictive of prosocial behavior among children whose parents took a more active role in socializing their prosociality. None of the dimensions of temperament was associated with either social understanding or prosocial behavior. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior is thus an important source of variability in children’s early prosociality, acting in concert with early differences in social understanding, with different patterns of influence for different subtypes of prosocial behavior. PMID:26029139

  14. Networks in Social Policy Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco

    2012-08-01

    1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.

  15. Developing Understanding and Social Skills through Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Lourdes M.

    2004-01-01

    This study has two parallel research agenda: (1) the development of social skills and pedagogical content knowledge in teacher candidates as they work collaboratively in pairs, and (2) the development of conceptual understanding and social skills in elementary school students who are taught by teacher candidates with cooperative learning…

  16. UNDERSTANDING CYBER-DEMOCRACY WITH THE CRITICAL SOCIAL THEORY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ook Lee

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the Critical Social Theory (CST) in understanding cyberspace behavior. CST can be used as a qualitative methodology in IS research. Most prior IS research utilized a very narrowly drawn insight from CST without historical and social context considered. This study tries to apply a general concept of CST for the purpose of providing a

  17. Understanding Anticipatory Socialization for New Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Kara M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anticipatory socialization experiences of new student affairs professionals. The focus was to gain a deeper understanding of how new professionals experience their anticipatory socialization, specifically the job search and pre-entry communication with their new organizations. The theory that emerged…

  18. Less Drinking, Yet More Problems: Understanding African American Drinking and Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but which also provides within group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  19. Dolphin Social Cognition and Joint Attention: Our Current Understanding

    E-print Network

    Hawaii at Hilo, University of

    Dolphin Social Cognition and Joint Attention: Our Current Understanding Adam A. Pack1, 2 and Louis M. Herman1, 2 1 The Dolphin Institute, 420 Ward Avenue, Suite 212, Honolulu, HI 96814, USA 2 or locations. Studies of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have revealed that they understand (1) human

  20. Reading and Understanding Written Math Problems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brenda Krick-Morales

    2006-01-01

    This article by Brenda Krick-Morales identifies the difficulties that English Language Learners (ELLs) have with math word problems. The author identifies teaching strategies to help improve comprehension in the lower grades and in the upper grades. This article is related to "Math Instruction for English Language Learners" by Kristina Robertson, which is cataloged separately in this database.

  1. Understanding the public's health problems: applications of symbolic interaction to public health.

    PubMed

    Maycock, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Public health has typically investigated health issues using methods from the positivistic paradigm. Yet these approaches, although they are able to quantify the problem, may not be able to explain the social reasons of why the problem exists or the impact on those affected. This article will provide a brief overview of a sociological theory that provides methods and a theoretical framework that has proven useful in understanding public health problems and developing interventions. PMID:25475083

  2. Broad social motives, alcohol use, and related problems: Mechanisms of risk from high school through college

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Corbin; Derek K. Iwamoto; Kim Fromme

    2011-01-01

    Broad social motives (not specific to alcohol use) have been established as an important predictor of alcohol use and problems among college students, but we have little understanding of the mechanisms through which such motives operate. Thus, the current study examined broad social motives prior to college entry as a predictor of college drinking\\/problems and sought to identify potential mechanisms

  3. Understanding and Combating Link Farming in the Twitter Social Network

    E-print Network

    Ganguly, Niloy

    Understanding and Combating Link Farming in the Twitter Social Network Saptarshi Ghosh IIT Kharagpur - India Krishna P. Gummadi MPI-SWS - Germany ABSTRACT Recently, Twitter has emerged as a popular to them. Like the Web, Twitter has become a target for link farming, where users, especially spammers, try

  4. Understanding and Combating Link Farming in the Twitter Social Network

    E-print Network

    Gummadi, Krishna P.

    Understanding and Combating Link Farming in the Twitter Social Network Saptarshi Ghosh IIT Kharagpur, India Krishna P. Gummadi MPI-SWS, Germany ABSTRACT Recently, Twitter has emerged as a popular to them. Like the Web, Twitter has become a target for link farming, where users, especially spammers, try

  5. Understanding the Dynamics of Motivation in Socially Shared Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvela, Sanna; Jarvenoja, Hanna; Veermans, Marjaana

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the dynamics of motivation in socially shared learning from both individual and group perspectives. Higher education students' motivation was analysed in the context of collaborative learning tasks, applying quantitative and qualitative methods. The research questions were: (1) what kind of…

  6. Understanding the Social Context of School Health Promotion Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargo, Margaret; Salsberg, Jon; Delormier, Treena; Desrosiers, Serge; Macaulay, Ann C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Although implementation fidelity is an important component in the evaluation of school health promotion programs, it assumes that teaching is the most relevant teacher role. To understand the social context of program implementation, a qualitative study was undertaken with the aim of identifying the schoolteacher's role in implementing…

  7. Understanding Islamist political violence through computational social simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mackerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patelli, Paolo G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eberhardt, Ariane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stradling, Seth G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the process that enables political violence is of great value in reducing the future demand for and support of violent opposition groups. Methods are needed that allow alternative scenarios and counterfactuals to be scientifically researched. Computational social simulation shows promise in developing 'computer experiments' that would be unfeasible or unethical in the real world. Additionally, the process of modeling and simulation reveals and challenges assumptions that may not be noted in theories, exposes areas where data is not available, and provides a rigorous, repeatable, and transparent framework for analyzing the complex dynamics of political violence. This paper demonstrates the computational modeling process using two simulation techniques: system dynamics and agent-based modeling. The benefits and drawbacks of both techniques are discussed. In developing these social simulations, we discovered that the social science concepts and theories needed to accurately simulate the associated psychological and social phenomena were lacking.

  8. Wherein Lies Children's Intergroup Bias? Egocentrism, Social Understanding, and Social Projection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    Does children's bias toward their own groups reflect egocentrism or social understanding? After being categorized as belonging to 1 of 2 fictitious groups, 157 six- to ten-year-olds evaluated group members and expressed preferences among neutral items. Children who expected the in-group to share their item preferences (egocentric social

  9. Links between Empathy, Social Behavior, and Social Understanding in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Leanne C.; Girardi, Alberta; Coplan, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine both social behaviors (i.e., aggression, shyness-withdrawal, and prosocial tendencies) and social understanding (i.e., attitudes and responses to such behaviors in hypothetical peers) of empathic and low empathic children. Participants were 136 children in kindergarten and grade one. Parents…

  10. Understanding students' poor performance on mathematical problem solving in physics

    E-print Network

    Understanding students' poor performance on mathematical problem solving in physics Jonathan introductory, algebra-based physics students perform poorly on mathematical problem solving tasks in physics. There are at least two possible, distinct reasons for this poor performance: (1) Students lack the mathematical

  11. High school students' understanding and problem solving in population genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patti D. Soderberg

    2005-01-01

    This study is an investigation of student understanding of population genetics and how students developed, used and revised conceptual models to solve problems. The students in this study participated in three rounds of problem solving. The first round involved the use of a population genetics model to predict the number of carriers in a population. The second round required them

  12. An Approach to Simulate Understanding Student Problem-Solving Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Z. W.; Willoughby, T. L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a method of understanding student problem-solving behavior during computer-assisted instruction using trigonometry as the example domain. Instead of attempting to model the student's process for solving problems, techniques which infer the equivalence between two adjacent steps in the student's process are used to determine…

  13. Countervailing Social Network Influences on Problem Behaviors among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Eric; Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta

    2008-01-01

    The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and…

  14. Embeddedness and empathy: how the social network shapes adolescents' social understanding.

    PubMed

    Wölfer, Ralf; Cortina, Kai S; Baumert, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    Based on theories of social-cognitive development, the present study investigated the yet unknown social structure that underlies the concept of empathy in adolescence. A total of 3.159 seventh graders (13.67 years, 56% girls) from 166 school classes participated by providing information on empathy, related psychosocial factors, and friendship patterns. Social network analyses were used to measure a comprehensive representation of adolescents' social environment by covering individual, group, class, and school characteristics. Multilevel models revealed that individual characteristics as well as contextual factors predict adolescents' level of empathy. Findings indicate that empathy is mirrored in the social structure of adolescents supporting the hypothesis that social demands, which continuously grow with the amount of embeddedness, shape their social understanding. PMID:22681757

  15. Understanding antecedents of continuance intention in social-networking services.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoungsoo

    2011-04-01

    Given the extreme advances and large investments in social-networking services (SNS), it has become important to analyze users' decision-making processes in order to understand their continued use of SNS. This study attempted to develop an integrated model that incorporates subjective norm into the expectation-confirmation model. The research model was empirically tested within the context of Cyworld. The analysis revealed that the proposed theoretical model provided an in-depth understanding of user continuance behavior toward SNS. Theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed. PMID:21192764

  16. A social cognitive perspective on 'understanding' and 'explaining'.

    PubMed

    Vogeley, Kai

    2013-01-01

    One essential methodological dichotomy introduced by Karl Jaspers into the field of psychopathology is the difference between 'understanding' ('Verstehen') and 'explaining' ('Erklären'). Jaspers emphasizes a critical epistemological divide between both methods: whereas 'explaining' relates to the attempt to consider mental disorders as consequences of impersonal natural laws, 'understanding' refers to the empathic appreciation of conflicts, hopes, and desires of an individual person. This distinction is related to the difference between 'persons' and 'things' according to Fritz Heider, founder of the so-called 'attribution theory' in social psychology that deals with our ability to ascribe mental states to others. Whereas the behavior of persons is based on psychological rules that are inherently characterized by ambiguity and uncertainty and are thus only partly predictable, the behavior of things is based on natural laws and is therefore fully predictable. This suggests a close resemblance of both accounts where 'understanding' is related to the domain of persons and 'explaining' is related to the domain of things or physical objects. Recently, understanding others has also become a central topic of modern cognitive neuroscience, constituting 'social neuroscience' targeted at explaining our human capacity of ascribing mental states to others. This shows that this distinction introduced by Jaspers still is an important and fundamental differentiation for various research fields dealing with communication and interaction between persons. PMID:23859833

  17. Countervailing social network influences on problem behaviors among homeless youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Rice; Judith A. Stein; Norweeta Milburn

    2008-01-01

    The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and were more likely to have HIV risk and anti-social

  18. Rethinking conformity and imitation: divergence, convergence, and social understanding

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Bert H.

    2014-01-01

    Social and developmental psychologists have stressed the pervasiveness and strength of humans’ tendencies to conform and to imitate, and social anthropologists have argued that these tendencies are crucial to the formation of cultures. Research from four domains is reviewed and elaborated to show that divergence is also pervasive and potent, and it is interwoven with convergence in a complex set of dynamics that is often unnoticed or minimized. First, classic research in social conformity is reinterpreted in terms of truth, trust, and social solidarity, revealing that dissent is its most salient feature. Second, recent studies of children’s use of testimony to guide action reveal a surprisingly sophisticated balance of trust and prudence, and a concern for truth and charity. Third, new experiments indicate that people diverge from others even under conditions where conformity seems assured. Fourth, current studies of imitation provide strong evidence that children are both selective and faithful in who, what, and why they follow others. All of the evidence reviewed points toward children and adults as being engaged, embodied partners with others, motivated to learn and understand the world, others, and themselves in ways that go beyond goals and rules, prediction and control. Even young children act as if they are in a dialogical relationship with others and the world, rather than acting as if they are solo explorers or blind followers. Overall, the evidence supports the hypothesis that social understanding cannot be reduced to convergence or divergence, but includes ongoing activities that seek greater comprehensiveness and complexity in the ability to act and interact effectively, appropriately, and with integrity. PMID:25071687

  19. Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

    2007-01-01

    Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…

  20. Analysis of Online Social Networks to Understand Information Sharing Behaviors Through Social Cognitive Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL] [ORNL; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of leaders on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of followers , people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.

  1. MDPOP: faithful distributed implementation of efficient social choice problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Petcu; Boi Faltings; David C. Parkes

    2006-01-01

    In the efficient social choice problem, the goal is to assign values, subject to side constraints, to a set of variables to maximize the total utility across a population of agents, where each agent has private information about its utility function. In this paper we model the social choice problem as a distributed constraint optimization problem (DCOP), in which each

  2. Understanding Spreading Patterns on Social Networks Based on Network Topology

    E-print Network

    Saxena, Akrati; Gupta, Yayati

    2015-01-01

    Ever since the proposal of first epidemic model, scientists have been attempting to estimate the growth of a disease/contagion while in its premature stage. Despite being the focus of researchers for a long time, understanding epidemiology remains as error prone as a weather forecast, mainly because of the unavailability of large amount of data. An epidemic spread is analogous to the diffusion of memes in social networking sites. Diffusion of memes can be easily studied provided large datasets and computational powers to extract information from online networks. So, studying a meme spreading pattern can help us in understanding epidemiology. In this paper, we analyse the impact of the topology of a social network, specifically its meso scale properties- community structure and core-periphery structure, on a meme traversing over it. We propose a meme propagation model for synthetic scale free graphs which resemble real world graphs and observe the process of a meme going viral on such a network. We also valida...

  3. Journalists' Constructions of Passive Smoking as a Social Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth E. Malone; Elizabeth Boyd; Lisa A. Bero

    News media play critical rôles in public understandings of health issues. Media presentation of scientific evidence seems to involve the 'facts', which are then discussed and interpreted by various 'experts'. From an ethnomethodological or social constructionist perspective, however, news 'facts' themselves are socially constituted. Examining how health science is reported thus offers important insight into the social construction of health

  4. Social Emotional Optimization Algorithm for Nonlinear Constrained Optimization Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuechun; Cui, Zhihua; Zeng, Jianchao

    Nonlinear programming problem is one important branch in operational research, and has been successfully applied to various real-life problems. In this paper, a new approach called Social emotional optimization algorithm (SEOA) is used to solve this problem which is a new swarm intelligent technique by simulating the human behavior guided by emotion. Simulation results show that the social emotional optimization algorithm proposed in this paper is effective and efficiency for the nonlinear constrained programming problems.

  5. Problems with the Construct and Measurement of Social Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, Mark R.

    There has been little agreement regarding appropriate definitions of social anxiety. Many existing definitions are conceptually problematic and these problems have had serious methodological implications. Social anxiety may be defined as anxiety resulting from the prospect or presence of interpersonal evaluation in real or imagined social

  6. Social Problem Solving and Health Behaviors of Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of social problem solving to health behaviors as reported by 126 undergraduate students. Findings revealed significant relationships between elements of social problem solving and wellness and accident prevention behaviors, and traffic and substance risk taking. However, correlations revealed differences between men and…

  7. Designing Problem-Driven Instruction with Online Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyeong-Ju Seo, Kay, Ed.; Pellegrino, Debra A., Ed.; Engelhard, Chalee, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Designing Problem-Driven Instruction with Online Social Media has the capacity to transform an educator's teaching style by presenting innovative ways to empower problem-based instruction with online social media. Knowing that not all instructors are comfortable in this area, this book provides clear, systematic design approaches for instructors…

  8. Problems of Innovation in Rural Social Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Dennis L.; Daley, J. Michael

    1985-01-01

    The efficacy of a new model of rural social service delivery--the Satellite Diagnostic Social Services Center--implemented in Arizona is evaluated. Results show how the dynamics operating at the community level and the processes involved in funding can affect a project's implementation. (Author)

  9. Social Understanding of High-Ability Children in Middle and Late Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boor-Klip, Henrike J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its importance in social development, social understanding has hardly been studied in high-ability children. This study explores differences in social understanding between children in high-ability and regular classrooms, specifically theory of mind (ToM) and perception accuracy, as well as associations between individual characteristics…

  10. Television and Social Problems: A Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, John

    1978-01-01

    Discusses two documentary television movies, "Johnny Go Home" and "Goodbye Longfellow Road," in terms of their resultant social change. Includes consideration of audience, time shown, and previous attitudes to provide evidence for his argument. (JEG)

  11. The Social and Emotional Problems of Children with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valletutti, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Research is reviewed on the emotional and social needs of learning disabled students, including difficulties in understanding nonverbal communication, rejection by peers and others, impulsivity, pervasively negative moods, and difficulties in role-taking. Teacher education should increase emphasis on direct instruction of social skills and…

  12. Managing social values & hi-tech corporate practices in south asia through better understanding of corporate social responsibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Sajid; Ali Ahsan

    2005-01-01

    Preface: Recent history has shown that Chinese-based corporations seem to be ahead of their Indo-Pak counterparts on implementing corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability practices. The question does not lie in understanding if they are really doing a better job of avoiding unethical conduct on a large scale but the question is that do we understand Corporate Social Responsibility requirements

  13. Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

  14. Understanding Crowd-Powered Search Groups: A Social Network Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingpeng; Wang, Fei-Yue; Zeng, Daniel; Wang, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Background Crowd-powered search is a new form of search and problem solving scheme that involves collaboration among a potentially large number of voluntary Web users. Human flesh search (HFS), a particular form of crowd-powered search originated in China, has seen tremendous growth since its inception in 2001. HFS presents a valuable test-bed for scientists to validate existing and new theories in social computing, sociology, behavioral sciences, and so forth. Methodology In this research, we construct an aggregated HFS group, consisting of the participants and their relationships in a comprehensive set of identified HFS episodes. We study the topological properties and the evolution of the aggregated network and different sub-groups in the network. We also identify the key HFS participants according to a variety of measures. Conclusions We found that, as compared with other online social networks, HFS participant network shares the power-law degree distribution and small-world property, but with a looser and more distributed organizational structure, leading to the diversity, decentralization, and independence of HFS participants. In addition, the HFS group has been becoming increasingly decentralized. The comparisons of different HFS sub-groups reveal that HFS participants collaborated more often when they conducted the searches in local platforms or the searches requiring a certain level of professional knowledge background. On the contrary, HFS participants did not collaborate much when they performed the search task in national platforms or the searches with general topics that did not require specific information and learning. We also observed that the key HFS information contributors, carriers, and transmitters came from different groups of HFS participants. PMID:22761888

  15. Understanding Social Media Use as Alienation: A Review and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reveley, James

    2013-01-01

    The opportunities social media provide for agential expressions of subjectivity and experiential learning, relative to social media's role in reproducing digital-era capitalism, are the subject of keen debate. There is now a burgeoning academic literature which suggests that social media users are, to a greater or lesser degree, alienated by…

  16. The Social Studies Curriculum: Purposes, Problems, and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, E. Wayne, Ed.

    This book presents a substantive overview of the issues in curriculum development and implementation faced by social studies educators. The book offers contemporary perspectives on some of the most enduring problems facing the social studies. The collection of essays provides readers with a systematic investigation of a broad range of issues of…

  17. Working Memory Deficits and Social Problems in Children with ADHD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Kofler; Mark D. Rapport; Jennifer Bolden; Dustin E. Sarver; Joseph S. Raiker; R. Matt Alderson

    2011-01-01

    Social problems are a prevalent feature of ADHD and reflect a major source of functional impairment for these children. The\\u000a current study examined the impact of working memory deficits on parent- and teacher-reported social problems in a sample of\\u000a children with ADHD and typically developing boys (N?=?39). Bootstrapped, bias-corrected mediation analyses revealed that the impact of working memory deficits on

  18. Understanding how social networking influences perceived satisfaction with conference experiences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Carena J.; van Riper, Charles, III; Kyle, Gerard T.; Lee, Martha E.

    2013-01-01

    Social networking is a key benefit derived from participation in conferences that bind the ties of a professional community. Building social networks can lead to satisfactory experiences while furthering participants' long- and short-term career goals. Although investigations of social networking can lend insight into how to effectively engage individuals and groups within a professional cohort, this area has been largely overlooked in past research. The present study investigates the relationship between social networking and satisfaction with the 10th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau using structural equation modelling. Results partially support the hypothesis that three dimensions of social networking – interpersonal connections, social cohesion, and secondary associations – positively contribute to the performance of various conference attributes identified in two focus group sessions. The theoretical and applied contributions of this paper shed light on the social systems formed within professional communities and resource allocation among service providers.

  19. Running head: STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING OF MATHEMATICAL INTEGRATION 1 Students' Understanding of Mathematical Integration in Physics Problems

    E-print Network

    Zollman, Dean

    Running head: STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING OF MATHEMATICAL INTEGRATION 1 Students' Understanding and N. Sanjay Rebello Kansas State University #12;STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING OF MATHEMATICAL INTEGRATION 2 Abstract We report on a study to explore students' understanding of integration as an accumulation process

  20. Understanding student use of differentials in physics integration problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dehui; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2013-12-01

    This study focuses on students’ use of the mathematical concept of differentials in physics problem solving. For instance, in electrostatics, students need to set up an integral to find the electric field due to a charged bar, an activity that involves the application of mathematical differentials (e.g., dr, dq). In this paper we aim to explore students’ reasoning about the differential concept in physics problems. We conducted group teaching or learning interviews with 13 engineering students enrolled in a second-semester calculus-based physics course. We amalgamated two frameworks—the resources framework and the conceptual metaphor framework—to analyze students’ reasoning about differential concept. Categorizing the mathematical resources involved in students’ mathematical thinking in physics provides us deeper insights into how students use mathematics in physics. Identifying the conceptual metaphors in students’ discourse illustrates the role of concrete experiential notions in students’ construction of mathematical reasoning. These two frameworks serve different purposes, and we illustrate how they can be pieced together to provide a better understanding of students’ mathematical thinking in physics.

  1. Illuminating the dark matter of social neuroscience: Considering the problem of social interaction from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Przyrembel, Marisa; Smallwood, Jonathan; Pauen, Michael; Singer, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Successful human social interaction depends on our capacity to understand other people's mental states and to anticipate how they will react to our actions. Despite its importance to the human condition, the exact mechanisms underlying our ability to understand another's actions, feelings, and thoughts are still a matter of conjecture. Here, we consider this problem from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives. In a critical review, we demonstrate that attempts to draw parallels across these complementary disciplines is premature: The second-person perspective does not map directly to Interaction or Simulation theories, online social cognition, or shared neural network accounts underlying action observation or empathy. Nor does the third-person perspective map onto Theory-Theory (TT), offline social cognition, or the neural networks that support Theory of Mind (ToM). Moreover, we argue that important qualities of social interaction emerge through the reciprocal interplay of two independent agents whose unpredictable behavior requires that models of their partner's internal state be continually updated. This analysis draws attention to the need for paradigms in social neuroscience that allow two individuals to interact in a spontaneous and natural manner and to adapt their behavior and cognitions in a response contingent fashion due to the inherent unpredictability in another person's behavior. Even if such paradigms were implemented, it is possible that the specific neural correlates supporting such reciprocal interaction would not reflect computation unique to social interaction but rather the use of basic cognitive and emotional processes combined in a unique manner. Finally, we argue that given the crucial role of social interaction in human evolution, ontogeny, and every-day social life, a more theoretically and methodologically nuanced approach to the study of real social interaction will nevertheless help the field of social cognition to evolve. PMID:22737120

  2. Understanding Learning in Social Movements: A Theory of Collective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgore, Deborah W.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a theory of collective learning based on Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development and on New Social Movements theory. Argues that it is more appropriate than individual learning theories as it describes the relationship between individual and group development and it addresses social justice. (SK)

  3. Understanding the Delinquency and Social Relationships of Loners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the delinquency and social relations of adolescents who lack close friendships. This study compares the delinquency of "loners" and "nonloners," explores group differences within the larger social context of peers, family, and school, and assesses the efficacy of loner status as a distinct dimension of peer relationships. The…

  4. Understanding Green Purchase Behavior: College Students and Socialization Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ruoh-Nan; Xu, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    Taking the perspective of consumer socialization theory, this study examined the influences of different socialization agents on consumers' purchases of green products. A total of 224 surveys were distributed to students enrolled in a business-related course at a major university in the northeastern United States. The objectives were twofold. The…

  5. Understanding Social Work in the History of Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soydan, Haluk

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to present a theoretical frame of reference for the study and assessment of social work from the perspective of a history of ideas. Method: The study employed an analysis of primary and secondary historical sources. Results: Social work as a practice and research field is embedded in the genesis of modern…

  6. Korean immigrant discipline and children's social competence and behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjung; Guo, Yuqing; Koh, Chinkang; Cain, Kevin C

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between Korean immigrant discipline (e.g., positive, appropriate, and harsh discipline) and children's social competence and behavior problems. Self-report data were collected from 58 mothers and 20 fathers of children aged from 3 to 8 years. Only paternal harsh discipline was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Among specific discipline strategies, maternal physical affection, correcting misbehaviors, and reasoning were positively correlated with children's social competence. Paternal physical punishment (e.g., spanking, hitting, and raising arms) was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Immigrant fathers need to learn alternative ways of managing children's misbehaviors. PMID:21035016

  7. Recognizing Physical Disability as a Social Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Charles

    Physical disability is an enormous psychosocio-economic-medical problem that affects over 24 million Americans. Public policy endorses a multi-disciplinary approach in analyzing this issue. Legislation has broadened the meaning of physical disability to include persons with mental and emotional disorders. Some of the costs associated with physical…

  8. Understanding social influence using network analysis and machine learning

    E-print Network

    Adjodah, Dhaval D. K. (Adjodlah, Dhaval Dhamnidhi Kumar)

    2013-01-01

    If we are to enact better policy, fight crime and decrease poverty, we will need better computational models of how society works. In order to make computational social science a useful reality, we will need generative ...

  9. Understanding Social Complexity Within the Wildland-Urban Interface: A New Species of Human Habitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paveglio, Travis B.; Jakes, Pamela J.; Carroll, Matthew S.; Williams, Daniel R.

    2009-06-01

    The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management.

  10. Assembling thefacebook: Using heterogeneity to understand online social network assembly

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, Abigail Z; Ugander, Johan; Clauset, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Online social networks represent a popular and highly diverse class of social media systems. Despite this variety, each of these systems undergoes a general process of online social network assembly, which represents the complicated and heterogeneous changes that transform newly born systems into mature platforms. However, little is known about this process. For example, how much of a network's assembly is driven by simple growth? How does a network's structure change as it matures? How does network structure vary with adoption rates and user heterogeneity, and do these properties play different roles at different points in the assembly? We investigate these and other questions using a unique dataset of online connections among the roughly one million users at the first 100 colleges admitted to Facebook, captured just 20 months after its launch. We first show that different vintages and adoption rates across this population of networks reveal temporal dynamics of the assembly process, and that assembly is onl...

  11. Understanding the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol use in college students: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schry, Amie R; White, Susan W

    2013-11-01

    Many college students use alcohol, and most of these students experience problems related to their use. Emerging research indicates that socially anxious students face heightened risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems, although the extant research on alcohol use and social anxiety in this population has yielded inconsistent findings. This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol variables in college students. A literature search was used to identify studies on college students that included measures of social anxiety and at least one of the alcohol variables of interest. All analyses were conducted using random effects models. We found that social anxiety was negatively correlated with alcohol use variables (e.g., typical quantity and typical frequency), but significantly positively correlated with alcohol-related problems, coping, conformity, and social motives for alcohol use, and positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies. Several moderators of effect sizes were found to be significant, including methodological factors such as sample ascertainment approach. Given that social anxiety was negatively related to alcohol use but positively related to alcohol-related problems, research is needed to address why individuals high in social anxiety experience more problems as a result of their alcohol use. Avoidance of social situations among socially anxious students should also be taken into account when measuring alcohol use. The primary limitation of this study is the small number of studies available for inclusion in some of the analyses. PMID:23906724

  12. Understanding Social Capital Development and Academic Attainment of Mobile Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddie, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    The United States has a long history of searching for utopian possibilities of public school, amidst a steady stream of population mobility. Horace Mann proclaimed that schools would be able to assimilate the millions of immigrants arriving during the late 1700s. He promised that schools could end poverty, crime and social injustice. Today, public…

  13. Understanding empathy: Integrating counseling, developmental, and social psychology perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald A. Gladstein

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the literature of social and developmental psychology on empathy theory and research. These 2 subdisciplines differ in their definitions and measures from each other, as well as from the counseling\\/psychotherapy area. At the same time, all 3 disciplines identify 2 major types of empathy: (a) affective empathy, or feeling the same way as another person, and (b) cognitive or

  14. Verification of a 4-Component Model of Understanding Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Susan E.; And Others

    In order to examine their willingness to disclose, subjects were given a questionnaire to test the relative contributions to such willingness of stimulus person (teacher, friend, parent, stranger), situation (home, college, public place, social situation), individual differences, and response mode (e.g., sexual behavior, voting preference). The…

  15. Social Judgment Analysis: Methodology for Improving Interpersonal Communication and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbaugh, John; Harmon, Joel

    Research has found the Social Judgment Analysis (SJA) approach, with its focus on judgment policy and cognitive feedback, to be a significant factor in developing group member agreement and improving member performance. A controlled experiment was designed to assess the relative quality of the judgment making process provided by SJA.…

  16. Understanding socially-oriented roles and goals through motivational modelling

    E-print Network

    Miller, Tim

    and Information Systems, University of Melbourne 2 Faculty of ICT, Swinburne University {tmiller, pedells, fv the roles and goals within a social domain for the purpose of informing technology design. We use the case modelling, has been applied successfully to socio-technical systems as analysis tools in the business domain

  17. Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers' Understandings about the Nature of the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinç, Emin

    2014-01-01

    Social studies is one of the main courses of the elementary and middle school curriculum in Turkey. Social studies took educators attention because it prepares students as exemplary citizens. The term of social studies has been started to use at the end of 1960's in Turkey. Thus, there have been several definitions and classification of the social

  18. Social Environmental Influences on the Development and Resolution of Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Zucker, Robert A.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Ammon, Lyndsay; Ames, Genevieve M.; Longabaugh, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the 2005 Annual Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, Santa Barbara, California, June 25–30. The overall goal of the symposium was to consider the broad impact of the social environment on the development of and successful or unsuccessful resolution of drinking problems. The presentations addressed multiple social environmental influences including: the influence of children on parents (Dr. Zucker), the influence of peers and parents on adolescents (Dr. Molina), the influence of family members on adult drinking (Dr. McCrady), the influence of adult peers/friends (Dr. Kaskutas), and the influence of the occupational environment (Dr. Ames). Dr. Longabaugh, the symposium discussant, addressed models for understanding the relationships between social influences and drinking problems. PMID:16573588

  19. Collective Socialization and Child Conduct Problems. Data Trends #105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" presents findings from research examining the influence of collective socialization, concentration of disadvantage, and prevalence of crime on conduct problems among African…

  20. Social Behavior Problems in Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    E-print Network

    Social Behavior Problems in Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy VERONICA J. HINTON, PH with DMD. Parental ratings of boys with DMD (n = 181) on the Child Behavior Checklist behavior scales were of boys with DMD (n = 86), and children with cerebral palsy (CP) (n = 42). Increased ratings of general

  1. Evaluation Design for Social Conflict and Negotiative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    Social Conflict and Negotiative Problem Solving is an instructional system currently under development by the Improving Teaching Competencies Program (ITCP) of Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL). In accordance with the Resource Allocation Management Plan (RAMP, 1975) of ITCP, this report presents a plan of evaluation activities for…

  2. Social Skills Interventions and Children with Behavior Problems: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaragoza, Nina; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This review of 27 studies examining social skills interventions (such as modeling, role playing, goal setting, and verbal self-instruction) and their effects on students with behavior problems found a number of interventions to be successful. The interventions yielded changes in self, teacher, and parent perceptions, though peer perceptions were…

  3. Problem Solving in Social Studies: A Model Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma City Public School System, OK.

    These model lessons from the primary grades are on the techniques of advertising drawn from a unit on, "Creating and Producing Tools and Techniques". They include behaviorial objectives, teaching and motivational strategies, evaluation techniques. The model lessons follow the problem solving inquiry approach in social studies using multimedia…

  4. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Merry, Carroll E., Ed.

    This document contains abstracts and the complete texts of 19 papers that were presented at a conference held to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. The following papers are included: "Microwave Society and Crock-Pot Government" (Bill Graves); "Citizen Participation, Social Capital and…

  5. Towards a deep understanding of malware propagation in online social networks

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eidenbenz, Stephan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Guanling [U OF MASSACHUSETTS LOWELL; Li, Nan [U OF MASSACHUSETTS LOWELL

    2009-01-01

    Online social networks, which have been expanding at a blistering speed in the recent years, have emerged as a popular communication infrastructure for Internet users. Meanwhile, malware that specifically targets these online social networks are also on the rise. In this work, we aim to investigate the characteristics of malware propagation in online social networks. Our study is based on a dataset collected from a real-world location-based online social network. We analyze the social structure and user activity patterns of this network. We further use extensive trace-driven simulation to study the impact of initial infection, user click probability, social structure, and activity patterns on malware propagation in online social networks. The results from this work has greatly deepened our understanding of the nature of online social network malware and also shed light on how to defend against them effectively.

  6. HOW PRE-SERVICE MATHEMATICS TEACHERS UNDERSTAND PERCENTAGE PROBLEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malka Sheffet; Ronit Bassan-Cincinatus

    2004-01-01

    th grade teacher posed a percentage problem to students, who offered four different answers, correct and incorrect. Stemming from the lesson and the ensuing discussions, this study investigates percentage problem solving, concepts and misconceptions held by pre-service secondary school mathematics teachers. Percent is one-hundredth. Percentages describe part of a quantity and are not numbers such as fractions. Fractions have many

  7. Understanding the interdependencies of quality problems and productivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodor Nebl; Anne-Katrin Schroeder

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This viewpoint seeks to provide evidence that up until now, neither a systematic analysis of quality problems in terms of resource, process and product quality has been undertaken, nor has the respective impact on productivity been sufficiently described and understood. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A structured literature review is used to define productivity and quality problems and shows their interdependencies

  8. Developing Shift Problems to Foster Geometrical Proof and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palha, Sonia; Dekker, Rijkje; Gravemeijer, Koeno; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Meaningful learning of formal mathematics in regular classrooms remains a problem in mathematics education. Research shows that instructional approaches in which students work collaboratively on tasks that are tailored to problem solving and reflection can improve students' learning in experimental classrooms. However, these sequences involve…

  9. Conceptual Understanding in Social Education. ACER Research Monograph No. 45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doig, Brian; And Others

    This report describes the results of a 1992 survey of students' economic, geographical, cultural, historical, and political understandings in the state of Victoria (Australia). The conception of some 2,900 students in Years 5 and 9 in government, Catholic and independent schools are investigated and described. The survey is one of a series of…

  10. Friendship estimation model for social robots to understand human relationships Takayuki Kanda, Hiroshi Ishiguro

    E-print Network

    Kanda, Takayuki

    Friendship estimation model for social robots to understand human relationships Takayuki Kanda, Hiroshi Ishiguro ATR Intelligent Robotics Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai, Seikacho, Sorakugun Kyoto, 619-0288, JAPAN E-mail kanda@atr.jp Abstract This paper reports our friendship estimation model for social robots

  11. Infants' Social and Motor Experience and the Emerging Understanding of Intentional Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandone, Amanda C.

    2015-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants possess some of the key social--cognitive abilities required for success in a social world: Infants interpret others' actions in terms of their intentions and can use this understanding prospectively to generate predictions about others' behavior. Exactly how these foundational abilities develop is currently…

  12. Getting Vygotskian about Theory of Mind: Mediation, Dialogue, and the Development of Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernyhough, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The ideas of Vygotsky [Vygotsky, L. S. (1987). "Thinking and speech." In "The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky," (Vol. 1). New York: Plenum. (Original work published 1934.)] have been increasingly influential in accounting for social-environmental influences on the development of social understanding (SU). In the first part of this article, I…

  13. The socialization of emotional understanding: a comparison of neglectful and nonneglectful mothers and their children.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Anna; Shipman, Kimberly; Brown, Amy

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of maternal socialization (i.e., maternal support, discussion of emotion, negative affect) on children's emotional understanding in 24 neglectful mother-child dyads and a matched control group. Mothers and children were administered an interaction task. Mothers were also assessed for negative emotional experience, and children were assessed for emotional understanding and expectations of maternal support. Findings indicated that neglectful mothers, compared with nonneglectful mothers, provided less support in response to their children's emotional displays, engaged in less emotional discussion, and reported more negative emotion. As well, neglected children demonstrated lower levels of emotional understanding than nonmaltreated children. Further, maternal support mediated the relation between neglect and children's emotional understanding. Findings are discussed from the functionalist approach to emotional development, emphasizing the importance of social context and socialization on children's emotional understanding. PMID:15983112

  14. Overcoming "Doom and Gloom": Empowering Students in Courses on Social Problems, Injustice, and Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brett

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, I use principles of civic education and social psychology to identify four main classroom contributors to students' pessimistic appraisals of their ability to improve social problems: authoritarian teaching methods, a culture of "doom and gloom," little attention to solutions to social problems, and no linkage of social problems to…

  15. Easy Guidelines for Employee Use of Social Media For all uses of social media and online interaction, you should always consult and understand the following

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    Easy Guidelines for Employee Use of Social Media For all uses of social media and online interaction, you should always consult and understand the following: Social Media Policy (DOI) Social Media Computers Personal Use Disclaimer: If you're using social media for personal reasons (e.g., Twitter, You

  16. Can Problem Solving Affect the Understanding of Rational Numbers in the Middle School Setting?

    E-print Network

    Meredith, Krystal B.

    2010-07-14

    In this study, problem solving provided deeper meaning and understanding through the implementation of a structured problem solving strategy with the teaching of rational numbers. This action-research study was designed as a quasi-experimental model...

  17. Understanding the Link between Social Organization and Crime in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Chilenski, Sarah M.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Rural communities make up much of America's heartland, yet we know little about their social organization, and how elements of their social organization relate to crime rates. The current study sought to remedy this gap by examining the associations between two measures of social organization – collective efficacy and social trust – with a number of structural community characteristics, local crime rates, and perceptions of safety in a sample of 27 rural and small town communities in two states. Measures of collective efficacy, social trust, and perceived safety, were gathered from key community members in 2006; other measures were drawn from the 2000 Census and FBI Uniform Crime Reporting system. A series of competing hypotheses were tested to examine the relative importance of social trust and collective efficacy in predicting local crime rates. Results do not support the full generalization of the social disorganization model. Correlational analyses showed that neither collective efficacy nor social trust had a direct association with community crime, nor did they mediate the associations between community structural characteristics and crime. However, perceived safety mediated the association between community crime and both measures of social organization. Analyses suggest that social trust may be more important than collective efficacy when understanding the effect of crime on a community's culture in rural areas. Understanding these associations in rural settings can aid decision makers in shaping policies to reduce crime and juvenile delinquency. PMID:26120326

  18. Social Understanding in Autism: Eye Gaze as a Measure of Core Insights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted Ruffman; Wendy Garnham; Paul Rideout

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-eight children with autism and 33 MLD children were given two tasks tapping social understanding and a control task tapping probability understanding. For each task there was a measure of eye gaze (where children looked when anticipating the return of a story character or an object) and a verbal measure (a direct question). We found that eye gaze was better

  19. The Sound of Social Cognition: Toddlers' Understanding of How Sound Influences Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Rebecca A.; Brooks, Rechele; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding others' perceptions is a fundamental aspect of social cognition. Children's construal of visual perception is well investigated, but there is little work on children's understanding of others' auditory perception. The current study assesses toddlers' recognition that producing different sounds can affect others…

  20. Mother's social class and perinatal problems in a low-problem area.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, E; Malin, M; Rahkonen, O

    1990-12-01

    This study reports the variation in perinatal problems related to social class in one area in Finland. Data on length of gestation, birthweight, one-minute Apgar score, and need for special care in relation to social class were obtained from a large clinical trial (n = 2912) on iron prophylaxis during pregnancy. Social class was determined from the woman's own occupation and education. Occupation was obtained from the women themselves and classified as upper white collar, lower white collar I, lower white collar II, and workers; entrepreneurs, students and women with no information were excluded. Education was obtained by record linkage to the national education register, and all women were classified by the years normally required to attain a certain level: greater than or equal to 13, 12, 10-11, and less than or equal to 9 years of education. Adjusted for age and parity, a week U-shaped curve was found for gestation length and birthweight, best results being found for the women in the second highest social class. The lower the social class, the more infants with poor Apgar scores. As potential intervening variables we studied marital status, pre-pregnancy weight, smoking, and haematocrit in the 28th week of pregnancy. Their inclusion in multivariate analyses influenced only slightly the differences in perinatal problems between the groups. Our results suggest that in Finland there are still differences in perinatal problems between social classes, but that the relationship is not always linear. PMID:2084032

  1. Action Research: Helping Student Teachers Understand and Solve Classroom Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Karen K.

    The progress of a group of student teachers who used action research techniques in their student teaching experience was studied. Action research is designed to yield practical results that are immediately applicable to a specific situation or problem. Action research strategies were used by student teachers to identify and find effective ways of…

  2. Understanding Student Use of Differentials in Physics Integration Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Dehui; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on students' use of the mathematical concept of differentials in physics problem solving. For instance, in electrostatics, students need to set up an integral to find the electric field due to a charged bar, an activity that involves the application of mathematical differentials (e.g., "dr," "dq"). In…

  3. Advancing Understanding Using Nonaka's Model of Knowledge Creation and Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tee, Meng Yew; Lee, Shuh Shing

    2013-01-01

    Nonaka's model of knowledge creation can provide guidance for designing learning environments and activities. However, Bereiter is critical of the model because it does not address whether understanding is deepened in the process of socialization, externalization, combination and internalization. To address this issue of understanding, this…

  4. The primate amygdala and the neurobiology of social behavior: implications for understanding social anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Amaral

    2002-01-01

    The amygdala has long been implicated in the mediation of emotional and social behaviors. Because there are very few human subjects with selective bilateral damage of the amygdala, much of the evidence for these functional associations has come from studies employing animal subjects. Macaque monkeys live in complex, highly organized social groups that are characterized by stable and hierarchical relationships

  5. Understanding Knowledge Sharing between IT Professionals--An Integration of Social Cognitive and Social Exchange Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was…

  6. Understanding knowledge sharing between IT professionals – an integration of social cognitive and social exchange theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Tien Tsai; Nai-Chang Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was used with 252 IT professionals from IT companies and departments in Taiwan. Structural equation

  7. Social Understanding and Social Lives: From Toddlerhood through to the Transition to School. Essays in Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, researchers have documented a remarkable growth in children's social understanding between toddlerhood and the early school years. However, it is still unclear why some children's awareness of others' thoughts and feelings lags so far behind that of their peers. Based on research that spans an extended developmental…

  8. Associations among False-belief Understanding, Executive Function, and Social Competence: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Razza, Rachel A.

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of studies demonstrate associations among false-belief understanding (FBU), executive function (EF), and social competence. This study extends previous studies by exploring longitudinal associations among FBU and its correlates within a low-income sample of preschoolers attending Head Start. Sixty-eight children (time 1 mean age = 5 years 2 months) were assessed over their preschool and kindergarten years. Results indicated bidirectional relations between FBU and social competence; FBU in preschool was positively associated with social competence in kindergarten and social competence in preschool was positively associated with FBU in kindergarten. Preschool EF was positively associated with social competence both in preschool and kindergarten and with FBU in preschool. Mediation analyses suggest that the bidirectional longitudinal link between FBU and social competence was independent of EF. These findings extend the FBU literature by examining its development and correlates in early childhood. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:20161159

  9. Broad Social Motives, Alcohol Use, and Related Problems: Mechanisms of Risk From High School through College

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, William R.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Broad social motives (not specific to alcohol use) have been established as an important predictor of alcohol use and problems among college students, but we have little understanding of the mechanisms through which such motives operate. Thus, the current study examined broad social motives prior to college entry as a predictor of college drinking/problems and sought to identify potential mechanisms through which they are associated with increased risk. Participants comprised a sample of 2,245 incoming college students (59.9% women) transitioning from high school through the college years. The first web-based survey was completed during the summer prior to matriculation with participants reporting on their behavior during the spring of high school senior year. Additional surveys were administered each academic semester through the fall of the fourth year. High school social motives were examined as a predictor of changes in alcohol use/problems from high school through senior year, with changes in descriptive norms, personal drinking values, and alcohol expectancies from high school to sophomore year examined as possible mediators of these relations. Descriptive norms, personal drinking values, and alcohol expectancies were robust mediators of broad social motives for both alcohol use and problems. Although there were a few differences by race/ethnicity in the alcohol use model, the mechanisms through which broad social motives operated were largely invariant across groups. These findings shed light on important mechanisms that can be targeted in prevention programs, particularly those that target groups who are likely to be high in broad social motives (e.g., fraternity/sorority members). PMID:21126828

  10. SOCIAL PROBLEMS & SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY ANALYSIS (Mental Health and Chemical Dependency Concentration)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana DiNitto

    identification, selection, implementation, and evaluation. The course will include advanced content on process, problems, and programs specific to the concentration areas in the MSSW program. By the end of the semester, students should be able to apply their knowledge of the social policy process to selected policy issues related to their area of concentration. Course Objectives Upon completion of this

  11. Timing of first sexual intercourse: The role of social control, social learning, and problem behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa J. Crockett; C. Raymond Bingham; Joanne S. Chopak; Judith R. Vicary

    1996-01-01

    Prior research has pointed to several distinct processes that may affect the timing of first intercourse among adolescents. In the present study, the role of six hypothesized processes was assessed in a sample of 289 rural adolescent boys and girls. Results support the importance of family socialization and problem-behavior for both sexes, the role of biological factors for boys, and

  12. Gambling as a Social Problem: On the Social Conditions of Gambling in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barmaki, Reza

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Canadian legalized gambling has undergone a massive growth, resulting in numerous social problems such as crime, political corruption, and, most importantly, pathological gambling. When it comes to theorizing gambling in Canada, pathological gambling has been the centre of the attention for two related reasons: (1) the increasing…

  13. The STAR Project: Enhancing Adolescents' Social Understanding through Video-based, Multimedia Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsworthy, Richard C.; Barab, Sasha A.; Goldsworthy, Elizabeth L.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes a computer game that supports the development of learners' social problem-solving skills. In a controlled three-group design, the group using the prototype game performed significantly better than an attention-placebo control and comparably to a therapist-directed group on measures of problem solving and engagement. However,…

  14. Debunking Common Sense and the Taken for Granted: A Pedagogical Strategy for Teaching Social Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMoyne, Terri; Davis, Jean Marie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that one approach to teaching Introduction to Social Problems is to structure the course content around taken-for-granted beliefs that many students have about the social world. In doing so, the authors discuss the social construction of social problems, how sociology differs from common sense, and the importance…

  15. The Social fMRI: Measuring, Understanding, and Designing Social Mechanisms in the Real World

    E-print Network

    Aharony, Nadav

    A key challenge of data-driven social science is the gathering of high quality multi-dimensional datasets. A second challenge relates to design and execution of structured experimental interventions in-situ, in a way ...

  16. Food and eating as social practice--understanding eating patterns as social phenomena and implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Delormier, Treena; Frohlich, Katherine L; Potvin, Louise

    2009-03-01

    Globally, public health agencies recognise obesity trends among populations as a priority. Explanations for population obesity patterns are linked to obesogenic environments and societal trends which encourage patterns of overeating and little physical activity. However, obesity prevention and nutrition intervention focus predominantly on changing individual level eating behaviours. Disappointingly, behaviour-based nutrition education approaches to changing population eating patterns have met with limited success. Sociological perspectives propose that underlying social relations can help explain collective food and eating patterns, and suggest an analysis of the sociocultural context for understanding population eating patterns. We propose a theoretical framework for the examination of eating patterns as social phenomena. Giddens' structuration theory, in particular his concept of social practices understood as an interplay of 'agency' and 'social structure' (rules and resources), is used to study food choice patterns. We discuss the application of these concepts for understanding routine food choice practices of families, elaborating how rules and resources configure the enabling or constraining conditions under which actors make food choices. The framework assists in characterising how social structural properties are integral to food choice practices, and could direct attention to these when considering nutrition interventions aimed at changing population eating patterns. PMID:19220802

  17. Semantically-based priors and nuanced knowledge core for Big Data, Social AI, and language understanding.

    PubMed

    Olsher, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Noise-resistant and nuanced, COGBASE makes 10 million pieces of commonsense data and a host of novel reasoning algorithms available via a family of semantically-driven prior probability distributions. Machine learning, Big Data, natural language understanding/processing, and social AI can draw on COGBASE to determine lexical semantics, infer goals and interests, simulate emotion and affect, calculate document gists and topic models, and link commonsense knowledge to domain models and social, spatial, cultural, and psychological data. COGBASE is especially ideal for social Big Data, which tends to involve highly implicit contexts, cognitive artifacts, difficult-to-parse texts, and deep domain knowledge dependencies. PMID:25022322

  18. The Neural Bases of Social Intention Understanding: The Role of Interaction Goals

    PubMed Central

    Canessa, Nicola; Alemanno, Federica; Riva, Federica; Zani, Alberto; Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mannara, Nicola; Perani, Daniela; Cappa, Stefano F.

    2012-01-01

    Decoding others' intentions is a crucial aspect of social cognition. Neuroimaging studies suggest that inferring immediate goals engages the neural system for action understanding (i.e. mirror system), while the decoding of long-term intentions requires the system subserving the attribution of mental states (i.e. mentalizing). A controversial issue, stimulated by recent inconsistent results, concerns whether the two systems are concurrently vs. exclusively involved in intention understanding. This issue is particularly relevant in the case of social interactions, whose processing has been mostly, but not uncontroversially, associated with the mentalizing system. We tested the alternative hypothesis that the relative contribution of the two systems in intention understanding may also depend on the shared goal of interacting agents. To this purpose, 27 participants observed social interactions differing in their cooperative vs. affective shared goal during functional-Magnetic-Resonance-Imaging. The processing of both types of interactions activated the right temporo-parietal junction involved in mentalizing on action goals. Additionally, whole-brain and regions-of-interest analyses showed that the action understanding system (inferior prefrontal-parietal cortex) was more strongly activated by cooperative interactions, while the mentalizing-proper system (medial prefrontal cortex) was more strongly engaged by affective interactions. These differences were modulated by individual differences in empathizing. Both systems can thus be involved in understanding social intentions, with a relative weighting depending on the specific shared goal of the interaction. PMID:22848759

  19. Understanding health through social practices: performance and materiality in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Maller, Cecily Jane

    2015-01-01

    The importance of recognising structure and agency in health research to move beyond methodological individualism is well documented. To progress incorporating social theory into health, researchers have used Giddens' and Bourdieu's conceptualisations of social practice to understand relationships between agency, structure and health. However, social practice theories have more to offer than has currently been capitalised upon. This article delves into contemporary theories of social practice as used in consumption and sustainability research to provide an alternative, and more contextualised means, of understanding and explaining human action in relation to health and wellbeing. Two key observations are made. Firstly, the latest formulations of social practice theory distinguish moments of practice performance from practices as persistent entities across time and space, allowing empirical application to explain practice histories and future trajectories. Secondly, they emphasise the materiality of everyday life, foregrounding things, technologies and other non-humans that cannot be ignored in a technologically dependent social world. In concluding, I argue the value of using contemporary social practice theories in health research is that they reframe the way in which health outcomes can be understood and could inform more effective interventions that move beyond attitudes, behaviour and choices. PMID:25601064

  20. The default mode network and social understanding of others: what do brain connectivity studies tell us.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanqing; Mai, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) has been found to be involved in various domains of cognitive and social processing. The present article will review brain connectivity results related to the DMN in the fields of social understanding of others: emotion perception, empathy, theory of mind, and morality. Most of the reviewed studies focused on healthy subjects with no neurological and psychiatric disease, but some studies on patients with autism and psychopathy will also be discussed. Common results show that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) plays a key role in the social understanding of others, and the subregions of the MPFC contribute differently to this function according to their roles in different subsystems of the DMN. At the bottom, the ventral MPFC in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem and its connections with emotion regions are mainly associated with emotion engagement during social interactions. Above, the anterior MPFC (aMPFC) in the cortical midline structures (CMS) and its connections with posterior and anterior cingulate cortex contribute mostly to making self-other distinctions. At the top, the dorsal MPFC (dMPFC) in the dMPFC subsystem and its connection with the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) are primarily related to the understanding of other's mental states. As behaviors become more complex, the related regions in frontal cortex are located higher. This reflects the transfer of information processing from automatic to cognitive processes with the increase of the complexity of social interaction. Besides the MPFC and TPJ, the connectivities of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) also show some changes during tasks from the four social fields. These results indicate that the DMN is indispensable in the social understanding of others. PMID:24605094

  1. The default mode network and social understanding of others: what do brain connectivity studies tell us

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wanqing; Mai, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) has been found to be involved in various domains of cognitive and social processing. The present article will review brain connectivity results related to the DMN in the fields of social understanding of others: emotion perception, empathy, theory of mind, and morality. Most of the reviewed studies focused on healthy subjects with no neurological and psychiatric disease, but some studies on patients with autism and psychopathy will also be discussed. Common results show that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) plays a key role in the social understanding of others, and the subregions of the MPFC contribute differently to this function according to their roles in different subsystems of the DMN. At the bottom, the ventral MPFC in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem and its connections with emotion regions are mainly associated with emotion engagement during social interactions. Above, the anterior MPFC (aMPFC) in the cortical midline structures (CMS) and its connections with posterior and anterior cingulate cortex contribute mostly to making self-other distinctions. At the top, the dorsal MPFC (dMPFC) in the dMPFC subsystem and its connection with the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) are primarily related to the understanding of other's mental states. As behaviors become more complex, the related regions in frontal cortex are located higher. This reflects the transfer of information processing from automatic to cognitive processes with the increase of the complexity of social interaction. Besides the MPFC and TPJ, the connectivities of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) also show some changes during tasks from the four social fields. These results indicate that the DMN is indispensable in the social understanding of others. PMID:24605094

  2. Autopoiesis vs. social autopoiesis: critical evaluation and implications for understanding firms as autopoietic social systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Radosavljevic

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to revisit the fundamental postulations of autopoietic self-production wrapped within the autopoietic six-point key and to investigate whether or not firms as specific social systems can be treated as autopoietic unities. In order to do so firms have to be defined as simple and composite unities whereupon their boundaries have to be clearly

  3. Contextualizing nativity status, social ties, and ethnic enclaves: Implications for understanding immigrant and Latino health paradoxes

    PubMed Central

    Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; Williams, David R.; House, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Researchers have posited that one potential explanation for the better-than-expected health outcomes observed among some Latino immigrants, vis-à-vis their U.S.-born counterparts, may be the strength of their social ties and social support among immigrants. Methods We examined the association between nativity status and social ties using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study’s Latino subsample, which includes Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Latinos. First, we used Ordinary Least Squares [OLS] regression methods to model the effect of nativity status on five outcomes: informal social integration; social network diversity; network size; instrumental support; and informational support. Using multilevel mixed effects regression models, we estimated the association between Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition on our outcomes, and whether these relationships varied by nativity status. Lastly, we examined the relationship between social ties and immigrants’ length of time in the United States. Results After controlling for individual-level characteristics, immigrant Latinos had significantly lower levels of social ties than their U.S.-born counterparts for all our outcomes, except for informational support. Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition was positively associated with being socially integrated and having larger and more diverse social networks. The associations between two of our outcomes (informal social integration and network size) and living in a neighborhood with greater concentrations of Latinos and immigrants were stronger for U.S.-born Latinos than for immigrant Latinos. U.S.-born Latinos maintained a significant socialties advantage compared to immigrants—regardless of length of time in the United States—for informal social integration, network diversity, and network size. Conclusion At the individual level, our findings challenge the assumption that Latino immigrants would have larger networks and/or higher levels of support and social integration than their U.S.-born counterparts. Our study underscores the importance of understanding the contexts that promote the development of social ties. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding Latino and immigrant social ties and health outcomes. PMID:23947776

  4. Understanding resilience in armed conflict: social resources and mental health of children in Burundi.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian J; Tol, Wietse A; Jordans, Mark J D; Bass, Judith; de Jong, Joop T V M

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the role of cognitive social capital among war-affected youth in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the longitudinal association between cognitive social capital and mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms), functioning, and received social support of children in Burundi. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews with 176 children over three measurement occasions over the span of 4-months. Cognitive social capital measured the degree to which children believed their community was trustworthy and cohesive. Mental health measures included the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) (Birleson, 1981), the Child Posttraumatic Symptom Scale (Foa et al., 2001), and a locally constructed scale of functional impairment. Children reported received social support by listing whether they received different types of social support from self-selected key individuals. Cross-lagged path analytic modeling evaluated relationships between cognitive social capital, symptoms and received support separately over baseline (T1), 6-week follow-up (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3). Each concept was treated and analyzed as a continuous score using manifest indicators. Significant associations between study variables were unidirectional. Cognitive social capital was associated with decreased depression between T1 and T2 (B = -.22, p < .001) and T2 and T3 (? = -.25, p < .001), and with functional impairment between T1 and T2 (? = -.15, p = .005) and T2 and T3 (? = -.14, p = .005); no association was found for PTSD symptoms at either time point. Cognitive social capital was associated with increased social support between T1 and T2 (? = .16, p = .002) and T2 and T3 (? = .16, p = .002). In this longitudinal study, cognitive social capital was related to a declining trajectory of children's mental health problems and increases in social support. Interventions that improve community relations in war-affected communities may alter the trajectories of resource loss and gain with conflict-affected children. PMID:24922609

  5. Parsing protection and risk for problem behavior versus pro-social behavior among US and Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S

    2014-07-01

    This study investigates the different roles played by protective factors and risk factors-and by particular protective and risk factors-when the concern is with accounting for adolescent problem behavior than when the concern is with accounting for adolescent pro-social behavior. The protective and risk factor literature on adolescent problem behavior reveals considerable conceptual and operational ambiguity; an aim of the present study was to advance understanding in this domain of inquiry by providing a systematic conceptualization of protection and risk and of their measurement. Within the systematic framework of Problem Behavior Theory, four protective and four risk factors are assessed in a cross-national study of both problem behavior and pro-social behavior involving large adolescent samples in China (N = 1,368) and the US (N = 1,087), in grades 9, 10, and 11; females 56 %, US; 50 %, China. The findings reveal quite different roles for protection and risk, and for particular protective and risk factors, when the outcome criterion is problem behavior than when it is pro-social behavior. The protective factor, Controls Protection, which engages rule and regulations and sanctions in the adolescent's ecology, emerges as most important in influencing problem behavior, but it plays a relatively minor role in relationship to pro-social behavior. By contrast, Models Protection, the presence of pro-social models in the adolescent's ecology, and Support Protection, the presence of interest and care in that same ecology, have no significant relationship to problem behavior variation, but they are both the major predictors of variation in pro-social behavior. The findings are robust across the samples from the two very diverse societies. These results suggest that greater attention be given to protection in problem behavior research and that a more nuanced perspective is needed about the roles that particular protective and risk factors play in reducing problem behavior and in promoting pro-social behavior. PMID:24797283

  6. Do Provocateurs’ Emotion Displays Influence Children’s Social Goals and Problem Solving?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Lemerise; Bridget K. Fredstrom; Brenna M. Kelley; April L. Bowersox; Rachel N. Waford

    2006-01-01

    The social goals and social problem-solving of children who varied in social adjustment were examined in the context of hypothetical ambiguous provocation situations in which provocateurs’ emotion displays were systematically manipulated. Children rated the importance of six different social goals and explained how they would solve the problems. Social adjustment was measured with rating and nomination sociometric procedures. Rejected-aggressive, rejected-nonaggressive,

  7. Theory of Mind "Beliefs", Developmental Characteristics and Social Understanding in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Francoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of development of ToM belief abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM belief abilities were examined. EDEI-R [Perron-Borelli M. (1996). "Echelles Differentielles…

  8. Collision of Epistemological Frameworks: Religion and Social Science's Unshared Understanding of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    Religious scholars and social science experts frequently differ and sometimes clash when writing and discussing issues of ethics. Sometimes unshared understandings on fundamental world-view issues is the etiology for these differences. Differences in defining truth, whether philosophically or empirically, often is at the root etiology in these…

  9. Early Social Cognition: Understanding Others in the First Months of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochat, Philippe, Ed.

    In recent years, much stimulating research has emerged in relation to children's theories of mind, construed as the understanding of others' intentions, beliefs, and desires. Within that context, there is renewed interest in the developmental origins of social cognition. An expression of that new interest, this book assembles current…

  10. Associations between Social Understanding, Sibling Relationship Quality, and Siblings' Conflict Strategies and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recchia, Holly E.; Howe, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Sibling relationship quality and social understanding (second-order false belief, conflict interpretation, and narrative conflict perspective references) were examined as unique and interactive correlates of sibling conflict behavior in 62 dyads (older M age = 8.39 years and younger M age = 6.06 years). High-quality relationships were associated…

  11. Students' Understandings of Religious Identities and Relations: Issues of Social Cohesion and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this article is on issues of social cohesion and citizenship as they relate to students' understandings of religion and religious identity. The article draws on data gathered from a study conducted at a highly diverse English comprehensive school and is set amid broader anxieties about religion, community disharmony and national…

  12. Greek Teachers' Understandings and Constructions of What Constitutes Social and Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triliva, Sofia; Poulou, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a research initiative which explored Greek teachers' perceptions and understandings on what constitutes social and emotional competencies and how these competencies can best be enhanced within the classroom. In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 elementary school teachers in two different geographical…

  13. Peer Group Cultures and Social Identity: An Integrated Approach to Understanding Masculinities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherriff, Nigel

    2007-01-01

    Sociological research investigating boys' masculinity performances has commonly recognised the importance of peer group cultures in identity construction. Whilst such work has undoubtedly offered important and useful frameworks for interpreting and understanding boys' behaviour in schools, the article argues that social psychological theories of…

  14. Peer Social Status and Children's Understanding of the Expression and Control of Positive and Negative Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated effects of age, gender, and peer social status on children's understanding of emotional regulation. Found that children would less openly express negative than positive emotions. Predictions of peer reactions to emotional expressions depended on type of emotion and expression. Girls anticipated more negative peer reactions than did…

  15. A Phenomenological Study: Understanding the Management of Social Categorization Diversity Issues Associated with College Athletic Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickelman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study explored the social categorization diversity management experiences of NCAA Division I, II and III athletic coaches. The research study used a combination of questionnaire, observation and coaching interviews to obtain an understanding of the skills, tools and techniques that these coaches used to…

  16. Social Attitudes Toward Science of Freshmen at Hinds Junior College Relative to Their Understanding of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Troy Lee

    Reported is a study to: (1) measure the initial social attitudes of college freshmen toward science in comparison to their understanding of science, and (2) evaluate changes in the freshmen attitudes which may occur during the students' first academic year in a science course. The 413 students in this study were enrolled in one of the following…

  17. Structural Exclusion through School Mathematics: Using Bourdieu to Understand Mathematics as a Social Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn; Gates, Peter; Roper, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore a sociological approach to mathematics education and offer a theoretical lens through which we can come to understand mathematics education as part of a wider set of social practices. Many studies of children's experiences in school show that a child's academic success is a product of many factors, some of which…

  18. BRIEF REPORTS Development of the Cognitive Appraisal and Understanding of Social Events (CAUSE) Videos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edith Chen; Karen A. Matthews

    This study describes the development and validation of 4 videos designed to assess adolescent cognitive appraisals and understanding of social events (the CAUSE Videos). Story lines varied in outcome (2 negative and 2 ambiguous). Convergent and divergent validity were tested in samples of college freshmen and sophomores. As hypothesized, threatening interpretations during ambiguous situations were positively associated with trait hostility

  19. An Approach for a Social Robot to Understand Human Relationships: Friendship Estimation through Interaction with Robots

    E-print Network

    Kanda, Takayuki

    activities on developing inter- action-oriented robots. Aibo was the first interactive robot to proveAn Approach for a Social Robot to Understand Human Relationships: Friendship Estimation through Interaction with Robots Takayuki Kanda1 and Hiroshi Ishiguro1,2 1 ATR, Intelligent Robotics and Communication

  20. Social Competence and Social Support as Mediators between Comorbid Depressive and Conduct Problems and Functional Outcomes in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockhill, Carol M.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Katon, Wayne J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the roles of social competence and social support as potential mediators of the association between psychopathology and functional outcomes in a middle school sample (n = 521). Participants were stratified into four psychopathology risk groups (depression only, conduct problems only, comorbid depression and conduct problems,…

  1. Association of sexual problems with social, psychological, and physical problems in men and women: a cross sectional population survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Dunn; P. R. Croft; G. I. Hackett

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of sexual problems with social, physical, and psychological problems. DESIGN: An anonymous postal questionnaire survey. SETTING: Four general practices in England. PARTICIPANTS: 789 men and 979 women responding to a questionnaire sent to a stratified random sample of the adult general population (n = 4000). MAIN RESULTS: Strong physical, social, and psychological associations were

  2. Students' Understanding and Application of the Area under the Curve Concept in Physics Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how students understand and apply the area under the curve concept and the integral-area relation in solving introductory physics problems. We interviewed 20 students in the first semester and 15 students from the same cohort in the second semester of a calculus-based physics course sequence on several problems involving…

  3. Promoting College Students' Problem Understanding Using Schema-Emphasizing Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Jie; Lavigne, Nancy C.

    2014-01-01

    Statistics learners often bypass the critical step of understanding a problem before executing solutions. Worked-out examples that identify problem information (e.g., data type, number of groups, purpose of analysis) key to determining a solution (e.g., "t" test, chi-square, correlation) can address this concern. The authors examined the…

  4. Social Competence as a Mediating Factor in Reduction of Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langeveld, Johannes H.; Gundersen, Knut K.; Svartdal, Frode

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to explore how social competence reduces behavioral problems. Based on previous findings, we assume that increased social competence can be regarded as a mediating factor in reducing behavior problems. All participants (children and adolescents, n = 112) received an intervention intended to increase social

  5. Does Social Exclusion Motivate Interpersonal Reconnection? Resolving the Porcupine Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon K. Maner; C. Nathan DeWall; Roy F. Baumeister; Mark Schaller

    2007-01-01

    Evidence from 6 experiments supports the social reconnection hypothesis, which posits that the experience of social exclusion increases the motivation to forge social bonds with new sources of potential affiliation. Threat of social exclusion led participants to express greater interest in making new friends, to increase their desire to work with others, to form more positive impressions of novel social

  6. The applicability of social control theory in understanding adolescent alcohol use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirk Alan Johnson

    1984-01-01

    Utilizing panel data on 345 high school students, this study investigates the efficacy of social control theory in accounting for adolescent orientations toward alcohol use. The findings suggest that the differing informal control mechanisms under consideration place varying constraining influences upon adolescent alcohol use, and upon problems which arise in the lives of adolescents as a consequence of their drinking,

  7. Understanding and Acting on the Growing Childhood and Adolescent Weight Crisis: A Role for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Shawn; Hazlett, Rebekah; Hightower, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate. Numerous individual, family, community, and social factors contribute to overweight and obesity in children and are explored. If left unaddressed, the epidemic of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity may lead to amplified problems for individual…

  8. Complex problems require complex solutions: the utility of social quality theory for addressing the Social Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for multi-sectoral action, which requires research and policy on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping health outcomes. Most conceptual tools available to researchers tend to focus on singular and specific social determinants of health (SDH) (e.g. social capital, empowerment, social inclusion). However, a new and innovative conceptual framework, known as social quality theory, facilitates a more complex and complete understanding of the SDH, with its focus on four domains: social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security, all within the same conceptual framework. This paper provides both an overview of social quality theory in addition to findings from a national survey of social quality in Australia, as a means of demonstrating the operationalisation of the theory. Methods Data were collected using a national random postal survey of 1044 respondents in September, 2009. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results Statistical analysis revealed that people on lower incomes (less than $45000) experience worse social quality across all of the four domains: lower socio-economic security, lower levels of membership of organisations (lower social cohesion), higher levels of discrimination and less political action (lower social inclusion) and lower social empowerment. The findings were mixed in terms of age, with people over 65 years experiencing lower socio-economic security, but having higher levels of social cohesion, experiencing lower levels of discrimination (higher social inclusion) and engaging in more political action (higher social empowerment). In terms of gender, women had higher social cohesion than men, although also experienced more discrimination (lower social inclusion). Conclusions Applying social quality theory allows researchers and policy makers to measure and respond to the multiple sources of oppression and advantage experienced by certain population groups, and to monitor the effectiveness of interventions over time. PMID:21819576

  9. Incorporating Dryland Ecohydrology into a Social-Ecological Framework: The Problem of Woody Plant Encroachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Grasslands and savannas across the globe have been transformed into woodlands, through a process often described as woody plant encroachment (WPE). This transformation has important implications for water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles—a topic that has been explored extensively, as reflected in the ecohydrological literature. The changes related to WPE have important societal implications as well. It is clear that human actions are strongly linked with both the causes and the consequences of WPE. At the same time, WPE has proved intractable in the face of attempts to slow or abate the phenomenon. Increasingly, it is being recognized that such complex environmental problems must be treated as social-ecological systems, that is, coupled human and natural systems. In this presentation, I will discuss recent progress in understanding WPE as a social-ecohydrological system and explore potentially promising approaches that merge insights from multiple disciplines—including hydrology, ecology, remote sensing, economics, and social sciences—as a basis for agent-based models that can improve our understanding of this complex phenomenon.

  10. Ignorance as an under-identified social problem.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Sheldon

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the persistence and intensification of ignorance in the ostensible knowledge society. Given the ubiquity of ignorance, it focuses on research and observations dealing with functional knowledge deficits that challenge the ideal of the well-informed citizen. These developments are traced back to the contradictory dynamics of the knowledge society, specifically information explosions in the knowledge economy and the resultant knowledge-ignorance paradox. The theoretical unfolding of this paradox in terms of entry and speech barriers suggests that pockets of observed public knowledge - rather than ignorance - are exceptional and require specific explanation. While ignorance among individuals, as well as experts and organizations, is a serious social problem with potentially deadly consequences, ignorance remains relatively unrecognized since it has major liabilities as a marketable issue. The conclusion points to the importance of future research on the cultural and institutional production of ignorance. PMID:18498597

  11. The Faculty of Social Science at Western understands how important your dreams are and knows they are as

    E-print Network

    Denham, Graham

    The Faculty of Social Science at Western understands how important your dreams are and knows you can combine disciplines. The Faculty of Social Science takes an interdisciplinary approach Social Science with Biology from the Faculty of Science at Western? Interested in politics and world

  12. "But-He'll Fall!": Children with Autism, Interspecies Intersubjectivity, and the Problem of 'Being Social'.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Olga

    2015-06-01

    'Being autistic' or 'having Autism Spectrum Disorder' implies a limited range of 'being social,' but the in situ organization of interaction, what Maynard and Marlaire (Qual Soc 15(2):177-202, 1992) call the 'interactional substrate,' within which this delimitation enfolds is usually hidden from sight. Analysis of processes constituting different 'interactional substrates' provides a view of how one comes to be known by and to self and others as a certain kind of being who is available (or not) for acting and feeling in certain ways. People diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 2013) are often described as 'being' impaired in intersubjective understanding of others. But the story of ASD as an impairment of sociality and intersubjectivity becomes more complicated when animals enter into the picture. I consider two interactional substrates: a psychological interview in a mental health clinic, and an animal-assisted activity in a child's neighborhood. I aim to elucidate the practical problems of 'being social' encountered by two children with ASD, both nine-year-old girls, within these two very differently organized interactional substrates. I consider ways in which 'being with' therapy animals provides a way of 'being social' through "sensory modalities of knowing" (Haraway, When species meet, 2008:371). PMID:25926308

  13. Some Challenging Problems in Mining Social Media Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab April 22, 2014 1

    E-print Network

    Liu, Huan

    Some Challenging Problems in Mining Social Media Arizona State University Problems in Mining Social Media Huan Liu Joint work with Ali Abbasi Shamanth in Mining Social Media Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning

  14. Understanding Learning Culturally: Overcoming the Dualism Between Social and Individual Views of Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phil Hodkinson; Gert Biesta; David James

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies limitations within the current literature on understanding learning. Overcoming these limitations entails\\u000a replacing dualist views of learning as either individual or social, by using a theory of learning cultures and a cultural\\u000a theory of learning, which articulate with each other. To do this, we argue that it is possible and indeed necessary to combine\\u000a major elements of

  15. Ethnographic Approaches to Understanding Social Sustainability in Small-scale Water Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutich, A.

    2011-12-01

    Social sustainability is an important, but often neglected, aspect of determining the success of small-scale water systems. This paper reviews ethnographic approaches for understanding how indigenous knowledge enhances social sustainability of small-scale water systems, particularly in small-scale water systems threatened by water scarcity. After reviewing the literature on common-pool and traditional resource management strategies, the paper will focus on the case of a community-managed small-scale water system in Cochabamba, Bolivia. This study uses ethnographic evidence to demonstrate how indigenous institutions can be used to manage a small-scale urban water system sustainably. Several factors were crucial to the institution's success. First, indigenous residents had previous experience with common management of rural irrigation systems which they were able to adapt for use in an urban environment. Second, institutional rules were designed to prioritize the conservation of the water source. Third, indigenous Andean social values of uniformity, regularity, and transparency ensured that community members perceived the system as legitimate and complied with community rules. Fourth, self-governance enabled community members to quickly adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as seasonal scarcity and groundwater overdraft. The paper concludes with a discussion of the promise and limitations of ethnographic approaches and indigenous knowledge for understanding social sustainability in small-scale water systems.

  16. The Social Problem-Solving Questionnaire: Evaluation of Psychometric Properties among Turkish Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Children, like adults, face numerous problems and conflicts in their everyday lives, including issues with peers, siblings, older children, parents, teachers, and other adults. The methods children use to solve such problems are more important than actually facing the problems. The lack of effective social problem-solving skills…

  17. Silos and Social Identity: The Social Identity Approach as a Framework for Understanding and Overcoming Divisions in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Kreindler, Sara A; Dowd, Damien A; Dana Star, Noah; Gottschalk, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Context One of health care's foremost challenges is the achievement of integration and collaboration among the groups providing care. Yet this fundamentally group-related issue is typically discussed in terms of interpersonal relations or operational issues, not group processes. Methods We conducted a systematic search for literature offering a group-based analysis and examined it through the lens of the social identity approach (SIA). Founded in the insight that group memberships form an important part of the self-concept, the SIA encompasses five dimensions: social identity, social structure, identity content, strength of identification, and context. Findings Our search yielded 348 reports, 114 of which cited social identity. However, SIA-citing reports varied in both compatibility with the SIA's metatheoretical paradigm and applied relevance to health care; conversely, some non-SIA-citers offered SIA-congruent analyses. We analyzed the various combinations and interpretations of the five SIA dimensions, identifying ten major conceptual currents. Examining these in the light of the SIA yielded a cohesive, multifaceted picture of (inter)group relations in health care. Conclusions The SIA offers a coherent framework for integrating a diverse, far-flung literature on health care groups. Further research should take advantage of the full depth and complexity of the approach, remain sensitive to the unique features of the health care context, and devote particular attention to identity mobilization and context change as key drivers of system transformation. Our article concludes with a set of “guiding questions” to help health care leaders recognize the group dimension of organizational problems, identify mechanisms for change, and move forward by working with and through social identities, not against them. PMID:22709391

  18. Parallel Computation of Large-Scale Nonlinear Network Problems in the Social and Economic Sciences

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    In this paper we focus on the parallel computation of large - scale equilibrium and optimization problems arising in the social and economic sciences. In particular, we consider problems which can be visualized and ...

  19. Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Granovetter

    1985-01-01

    How behavior and institutions are affected by social relations is one of the classic questions of social theory. This paper concerns the extent to which economic action is embedded in structures of social relations, in modern industrial society. Although the usual neoclas- sical accounts provide an \\

  20. Towards an understanding of how students use representations in physics problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Brian Kohl

    2007-01-01

    Skill with different representations and multiple representations is highly valued in physics, and prior work has shown that novice physics students can struggle with the representations typically used in solving physics problems. There exists work in PER examining student use of representations and multiple representations, but there have been no comprehensive attempts to understand what factors influence how introductory students

  1. Partner Violence and Survivors' Chronic Health Problems: Informing Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Ferron, Joelle; Crosby, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Although most social work professionals may expect that women who experience partner violence will sustain acute physical injuries, social workers may be less knowledgeable about the chronic health problems with which violence survivors often struggle. To inform social work practice, we reviewed and synthesized the recently published research on…

  2. Understanding and Predicting Social Media Use Among Community Health Center Patients: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of social media by health care organizations is growing and provides Web-based tools to connect patients, caregivers, and providers. Objective The aim was to determine the use and factors predicting the use of social media for health care–related purposes among medically underserved primary care patients. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to 444 patients of a federally qualified community health center. Results Community health center patients preferred that their providers use email, cell phones for texting, and Facebook and cell phone apps for sharing health information. Significantly more Hispanic than white patients believed their providers should use Facebook (P=.001), YouTube (P=.01), and Twitter (P=.04) for sharing health information. Use and intentions to use social media for health-related purposes were significantly higher for those patients with higher subjective norm scores. Conclusions Understanding use and factors predicting use can increase adoption and utilization of social media for health care–related purposes among underserved patients in community health centers. PMID:25427823

  3. Contextual approach to technology assessment: Implications for one-factor fix solutions to complex social problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    The contextual approach is discussed which undertakes to demonstrate that technology assessment assists in the identification of the full range of implications of taking a particular action and facilitates the consideration of alternative means by which the total affected social problem context might be changed by available project options. It is found that the social impacts of an application on participants, institutions, processes, and social interests, and the accompanying interactions may not only induce modifications in the problem contest delineated for examination with respect to the design, operations, regulation, and use of the posited application, but also affect related social problem contexts.

  4. Managing Stress and Maintaining Well-Being: Social Support, Problem-Focused Coping, and Avoidant Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social

  5. Patronage at What Cost?: Revisiting an Old Problem in the Social Audra J. Wolfe

    E-print Network

    Solovey, Mark

    Patronage at What Cost?: Revisiting an Old Problem in the Social Sciences Audra J. Wolfe Reviews by University of Toronto Library (2 Feb 2014 13:52 GMT) http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/rah/summary/v041/41.4.wolfe.html #12;PATRONAGE AT WHAT COST? REVISITING AN OLD PROBLEM IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES Audra J. Wolfe Mark

  6. Social Problem Solving in Disruptive Preschool Children: Reactions to Hypothetical Situations of Conflict and Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined social problem solving and emotion expression in children with low, moderate, and severe behavior problems. Eighty-nine four- and five-year-olds were confronted with dilemmas of interpersonal conflict and distress. Girls expressed more themes of social construction, cohesion, and accommodation but also more anger than boys, whereas boys…

  7. The Relationship between Social Skills Deficits and Psychosocial Problems: A Test of a Vulnerability Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segrin, Chris

    1996-01-01

    Examines whether social skills deficits are a vulnerability factor in the development of psychosocial problems (such as depression and substance use). Uses 227 students who twice completed measures of psychosocial problems and a measure of stress. Finds results consistent with the hypothesis that some social skills deficits function as a…

  8. Friendship Moderates Prospective Associations between Social Isolation and Adjustment Problems in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated prospective links between social isolation and adjustment problems among 166 (77 girls, 89 boys) Finnish children ages 7 to 9. Peer nominations for social engagement and self-reports of internalizing and externalizing problems were collected in the spring of the 1st and 2nd grade. Friendship moderated…

  9. A general social intelligent algorithmic framework for packing problem with multi-processors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junling Wang; Yi Yang; Chenyang Zhao; Li Liu; Caihong Li; Lian Li; Jiazao Lin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we establish a general social intelligent algorithmic framework for packing problem under the help of the conception of social computing. In this framework, packing problem can be solved intelligently, with the same asymptotic bounds by applying the existing packing algorithms. More precisely, our framework is designed to intelligently adopt the most proper one among all the given

  10. Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social Contextual Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Jie Xu; G. Alan Wang; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau

    2007-01-01

    Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime

  11. Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Xu; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau

    Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime

  12. Brief report: difficulty in understanding social acting (but not false beliefs) mediates the link between autistic traits and ingroup relationships.

    PubMed

    Yang, Daniel Y-J; Baillargeon, Renée

    2013-09-01

    Why do individuals with more autistic traits experience social difficulties? Here we examined the hypothesis that these difficulties stem in part from a challenge in understanding social acting, the prosocial pretense that adults routinely produce to maintain positive relationships with their ingroup. In Study 1, we developed a self-administered test of social-acting understanding: participants read stories in which a character engaged in social acting and rated the appropriateness of the character's response. Adults who scored 26 or higher on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) questionnaire gave significantly lower ratings than comparison participants (AQ < 26). Study 2 found that difficulty in understanding social acting, but not false beliefs, mediated the link between autistic traits and perceived ingroup relationships. PMID:23334807

  13. Brief Report: Difficulty in Understanding Social Acting (But Not False Beliefs) Mediates the Link Between Autistic Traits and Ingroup Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Baillargeon, Reneée

    2014-01-01

    Why do individuals with more autistic traits experience social difficulties? Here we examined the hypothesis that these difficulties stem in part from a challenge in understanding social acting, the prosocial pretense that adults routinely produce to maintain positive relationships with their ingroup. In Study 1, we developed a self-administered test of social-acting understanding: participants read stories in which a character engaged in social acting and rated the appropriateness of the character’s response. Adults who scored 26 or higher on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) questionnaire gave significantly lower ratings than comparison participants (AQ <26). Study 2 found that difficulty in understanding social acting, but not false beliefs, mediated the link between autistic traits and perceived ingroup relationships. PMID:23334807

  14. Relations between Behavior Problems in Classroom Social and Learning Situations and Peer Social Competence in Head Start and Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Dominguez, Ximena; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Rouse, Heather L.; Fantuzzo, John W.

    2010-01-01

    The relations between early emotional and behavioral problems in classroom situations and peer social competence were examined for a representative sample of urban Head Start children. Behavior problems were assessed within the context of routine peer, teacher, and structured learning classroom situations early in the preschool year. Two path…

  15. Social Psychology, Social Science, and Economics: Twentieth Century Progress and Problems, Twenty-First Century Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, James S.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…

  16. The complex problem of monetizing virtual electronic social networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric K. Clemons

    2009-01-01

    As traditional advertising is losing its impact, both advertisers and the media owners who are dependent upon them are desperately seeking alternative ways to reach consumers and alternative ways to earn revenues by doing so. Although there are many ways to earn money from social network traffic, attempting to do so by treating social networks as just another entertainment medium

  17. The Relationship between Second-Order False Belief and Display Rules Reasoning: The Integration of Cognitive and Affective Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naito, Mika; Seki, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relation between cognitive and affective social understanding, Japanese 4- to 8-year-olds received tasks of first- and second-order false beliefs and prosocial and self-presentational display rules. From 6 to 8 years, children comprehended display rules, as well as second-order false belief, using social pressures justifications…

  18. Brief Report: Difficulty in Understanding Social Acting (But Not False Beliefs) Mediates the Link between Autistic Traits and Ingroup Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Daniel Y.-J.; Baillargeon, Renée

    2013-01-01

    Why do individuals with more autistic traits experience social difficulties? Here we examined the hypothesis that these difficulties stem in part from a challenge in understanding social acting, the prosocial pretense that adults routinely produce to maintain positive relationships with their ingroup. In Study 1, we developed a self-administered…

  19. Understanding Student Learning in Context: Relationships between University Students' Social Identity, Approaches to Learning, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Ellis, Robert A.; Goodyear, Peter; Hendres, Daniela Muntele

    2011-01-01

    This research focuses on understanding how socio-psychological dimensions such as student social identity and student perceptions of their learning community affect learning at university. To do this, it integrates ideas from phenomenographic research into student learning with ideas from research on social identity. In two studies (N = 110, and N…

  20. Understanding the Assessment of Psychotropic Drug Harms in Clinical Trials to Improve Social Workers' Role in Medication Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Shannon; Cohen, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to facilitate social work practitioners' understanding of how psychotropic drug harms are assessed in clinical trials and to make specific suggestions for social workers' increased involvement in detecting drug harms in their clients. The authors undertook a comprehensive review of interdisciplinary…

  1. Mental Health, School Problems, and Social Networks: Modeling Urban Adolescent Substance Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Mason

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with\\u000a a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection\\u000a in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and relations with parents,\\u000a on substance use. Results

  2. A Hierarchical Social Metaheuristic for the Max-Cut Problem

    E-print Network

    Duarte, Abraham

    for the Max-Cut problem applied to a weighted undirected graph. This problem consists in finding a partition An important graph bipartition problem is the Max-Cut problem defined for a weighted undirected graph S = (V, E or edges and W is the ordered set of weights associated with each edge of the graph. This Max

  3. Deepening Our Understanding of Social MediaArizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab October 6, 2014 LinkedIn 1

    E-print Network

    Liu, Huan

    Deepening Our Understanding of Social MediaArizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab October 6, 2014 LinkedIn 1 Deepening Our Understanding of Social Media via Data Mining Huan Liu with DMML Members #12;Deepening Our Understanding of Social MediaArizona State University Data

  4. Social Uptake of Scientific Understanding of Seismic Hazard in Sumatra and Cascadia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, R.; McCloskey, J.; Guyer, C.; McDowell, S.; Steacy, S.

    2007-12-01

    The importance of science within hazard mitigation cannot be underestimated. Robust mitigation polices rely strongly on a sound understanding of the science underlying potential natural disasters and the transference of that knowledge from the scientific community to the general public via governments and policy makers. We aim to investigate how and why the public's knowledge, perceptions, response, adjustments and values towards science have changed throughout two decades of research conducted in areas along and adjacent to the Sumatran and Cascadia subduction zones. We will focus on two countries subject to the same potential hazard, but which encompass starkly contrasting political, economic, social and environmental settings. The transfer of scientific knowledge into the public/ social arena is a complex process, the success of which is reflected in a community's ability to withstand large scale devastating events. Although no one could have foreseen the magnitude of the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, the social devastation generated underscored the stark absence of mitigation measures in the nations most heavily affected. It furthermore emphasized the need for the design and implementation of disaster preparedness measures. Survey of existing literature has already established timelines for major events and public policy changes in the case study areas. Clear evidence exists of the link between scientific knowledge and its subsequent translation into public policy, particularly in the Cascadia context. The initiation of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program following the Cape Mendocino earthquake in 1992 embodies this link. Despite a series of environmental disasters with recorded widespread fatalities dating back to the mid 1900s and a heightened impetus for scientific research into tsunami/ earthquake hazard following the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, the translation of science into the public realm is not widely obvious in the Sumatran context. This research aims to further investigate how the enhanced understanding of earthquake and tsunami hazards is being used to direct hazard mitigation strategies and enables direct comparison with the scientific and public policy developments in Cascadia.

  5. Problem drinking's associations with social structure and mental health care: race/ethnicity differences.

    PubMed

    Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C; Howell, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    This research used a nationally representative sample of 12,756 respondents self-identified as White, Black, Hispanic, or Asian to examine problem drinking in relationship to social structure and mental healthcare factors. Associations between problem drinking and particular factors varied by racial/ethnic group. Results also indicated that Whites' problem-drinking rates were higher than those of Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Americans sometimes use alcohol to manage stress stemming from social disadvantage and inadequate material resources. Across racial/ethnic groups, drinking level was associated with the type and degree of such disadvantage. Additionally, the presence of a mental health problem was associated with problem drinking. PMID:25052882

  6. A SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS APPROACH TO UNDERSTAND CHANGES IN A CANCER DISPARITIES COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIP NETWORK.

    PubMed

    Luque, John S; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Bynum, Shalanda A; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Wells, Kristen J; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Gwede, Clement K; Meade, Cathy D

    2011-11-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of the Community Network Program sites funded (2005-10) by the National Cancer Institute's Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities. TBCCN was tasked to form a sustainable, community-based partnership network focused on the goal of reducing cancer health disparities among racial-ethnic minority and medically underserved populations. This article reports evaluation outcome results from a social network analysis and discusses the varying TBCCN partner roles-in education, training, and research-over a span of three years (2007-09). The network analysis included 20 local community partner organizations covering a tricounty area in Southwest Florida. In addition, multiple externally funded, community-based participatory research pilot projects with community-academic partners have either been completed or are currently in progress, covering research topics including culturally targeted colorectal and prostate cancer screening education, patient navigation focused on preventing cervical cancer in rural Latinas, and community perceptions of biobanking. The social network analysis identified a trend toward increased network decentralization based on betweenness centrality and overall increase in number of linkages, suggesting network sustainability. Degree centrality, trust, and multiplexity exhibited stability over the three-year time period. These results suggest increased interaction and interdependence among partner organizations and less dependence on the cancer center. Social network analysis enabled us to quantitatively evaluate partnership network functioning of TBCCN in terms of network structure and information and resources flows, which are integral to understanding effective coalition practice based on Community Coalition Action Theory ( Butterfoss and Kegler 2009). Sharing the results of the social network analysis with the partnership network is an important component of our coalition building efforts. A comprehensive baseline needs assessment for the next five-year funding phase (2010-15) of TBCCN Community Networks Program Centers (CNP Center) is under way to further evaluate the growth and sustainability of the partnership network, with an emphasis on community-based intervention research that takes into account culture and literacy. [social network, health care disparities, cancer screening]. PMID:24363957

  7. Can Universities Develop Advanced Technology and Solve Social Problems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Ones, Isarelis; Núñez Jover, Jorge

    This paper presents case studies on how Cuban universities have increasingly become directly involved with the economic and social development of the country. The paper shows how Cuban universities, from the early 1980s and early 1990s, started reorientation and organization of their scientific research, becoming more directly and intensely involved in the economic and social development of the country. In this way, special reference is made to the case of a research group at the University of Havana: the Laboratory of Synthetic Antigens. This group developed the first synthetic vaccine for human use approved in the world. In the article, public policies involved in this success as well as different obstacles are discussed. These obstacles demonstrate the difficulties and challenges that universities face when carrying out research and innovation activities related to economic and social development.

  8. Access to generic drugs in the 1950s: the politics of a social problem.

    PubMed Central

    Facchinetti, N J; Dickson, W M

    1982-01-01

    From the published literature of the 1950s, the social history of anti-substitution law is analyzed in terms of sociological theory on the construction of social problems. The analysis reveals how the substitution of generic drugs for prescribed brands came to be recognized as a social problem in need of remedial legislation. The most influential party in the process was the brand-drug industry which centered the debate on matters of public health and professionalism instead of industrial profitability. The industry was able to form a coalition of interests and establish the saliency and legitimacy of the problem, even though there was no objective evidence to establish brand substitution as a hazard to health. The case fits well into the theory of social problem construction. Other issues in health care, particularly drug issues can be studied from this same perspective. PMID:7065335

  9. An Analytical Study of Humanities and Social Sciences Students' Problems in Reading English

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waewta Suknantapong; Narumon Karnchanathat

    The purposes of this study were to identify Humanities and Social Sciences Students' problems in reading English and their causes, and to set guidelines for content improvement and better teaching-learning management of the course \\

  10. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Moderating Effects of Socially Demanding Kin Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang

    2012-01-01

    Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…

  11. How does money memorize social interactions? Understanding time-homogeneity in monetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Dieter; Schmitt, Matthias; Schacker, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Understanding how money shapes and memorizes our social interactions is central to modern life. There are many schools of thought on as to how monetary systems contribute to crises or boom/bust cycles and how monetary policy can try to avert them. We find that statistical physics gives a refreshing perspective. We analyze how credit mechanisms introduce non-locality and time-heterogeneity to the monetary memory. Motivated by an analogy to particle physics, locality and time-homogeneity can be imposed to monetary systems. As a result, a full reserve banking system is complemented with a bi-currency system of non-bank assets (``money'') and bank assets (``antimoney''). Payment can either be made by passing on money or by receiving antimoney. As a result, a free floating exchange rate between non-bank assets and bank assets is established. Interestingly, this monetary memory allows for credit creation by the simultaneous transfer of money and antimoney at a negotiated exchange rate. We analyze this novel mechanism of liquidity transfer in a model of random social interactions, yielding analytical results for all relevant distributions and the price of liquidity under the conditions of a fully transparent credit market.

  12. Cultural neuroscience of the self: understanding the social grounding of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jiyoung

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field of research that investigates interrelations among culture, mind and the brain. Drawing on both the growing body of scientific evidence on cultural variation in psychological processes and the recent development of social and cognitive neuroscience, this emerging field of research aspires to understand how culture as an amalgam of values, meanings, conventions, and artifacts that constitute daily social realities might interact with the mind and its underlying brain pathways of each individual member of the culture. In this article, following a brief review of studies that demonstrate the surprising degree to which brain processes are malleably shaped by cultural tools and practices, the authors discuss cultural variation in brain processes involved in self-representations, cognition, emotion and motivation. They then propose (i) that primary values of culture such as independence and interdependence are reflected in the compositions of cultural tasks (i.e. daily routines designed to accomplish the cultural values) and further (ii) that active and sustained engagement in these tasks yields culturally patterned neural activities of the brain, thereby laying the ground for the embodied construction of the self and identity. Implications for research on culture and the brain are discussed. PMID:20592042

  13. Cultural neuroscience of the self: understanding the social grounding of the brain.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Shinobu; Park, Jiyoung

    2010-06-01

    Cultural neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field of research that investigates interrelations among culture, mind and the brain. Drawing on both the growing body of scientific evidence on cultural variation in psychological processes and the recent development of social and cognitive neuroscience, this emerging field of research aspires to understand how culture as an amalgam of values, meanings, conventions, and artifacts that constitute daily social realities might interact with the mind and its underlying brain pathways of each individual member of the culture. In this article, following a brief review of studies that demonstrate the surprising degree to which brain processes are malleably shaped by cultural tools and practices, the authors discuss cultural variation in brain processes involved in self-representations, cognition, emotion and motivation. They then propose (i) that primary values of culture such as independence and interdependence are reflected in the compositions of cultural tasks (i.e. daily routines designed to accomplish the cultural values) and further (ii) that active and sustained engagement in these tasks yields culturally patterned neural activities of the brain, thereby laying the ground for the embodied construction of the self and identity. Implications for research on culture and the brain are discussed. PMID:20592042

  14. Social Support among Offenders with Substance Abuse Problems: Overlooked and Underused?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemieux, Catherine M.

    2002-01-01

    The author examined correlates of social support among 101 offenders in corrections-based treatment programs. Respondents perceived high levels of support despite numerous interpersonal problems. Social support was significantly associated with visits, letters, arrests, and days in treatment. The author describes strategies for implementing…

  15. Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in…

  16. Academic and Social Integration and Study Progress in Problem Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severiens, Sabine E.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study explores the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) on social and academic integration and study progress. Three hundred and five first-year students from three different psychology curricula completed a questionnaire on social and academic integration. Effects of a full-fledged PBL environment were compared to (1) effects of a…

  17. Teaching Intellectually Challenging Social Studies in the Middle School: Problems and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Hilary G.

    2011-01-01

    Are middle schoolers capable of discussing the war in Iraq in meaningful ways? Can seventh graders develop informed ideas about presidential candidates' positions on health care? Should young adolescents discuss controversial public issues, interpret primary sources, and analyze social problems? Thoughtful social studies educators disagree. While…

  18. The Role of Social Comments in Problem-Solving Groups in an Online Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, Deana L.

    2004-01-01

    This grounded theory article focuses on the role of social communications during an online group problem-solving class. The proposed theory states that students working collaboratively and asynchronously with people they do not know use social comments to overcome emotional and geographical distance feelings. The subthemes of self-revelation,…

  19. Experiences of Social Work Educators Working with Students with Psychiatric Disabilities or Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Social work educators have an ethical responsibility to graduate students who are academically, behaviorally, and professionally prepared to enter the social work profession. Although a student's suitability to the profession is not necessarily hindered because of the effects of a psychiatric disability or an emotional problem, sometimes it is.…

  20. Identifying Social-Emotional Problems in Young Children: A Special Educator's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czaja, Carol F.

    2001-01-01

    Aserts that it is unclear how the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional ratings link to other critical child and family risk factors. Identifies questions regarding how well individual dimensions of social behavior are measured and concerns about the partial overlap between competent and problem behavior. Expresses concerns about the…

  1. Social Problem Solving in High-Risk Mother-Child Dyads: An Intergenerational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Julie P.; Stack, Dale M.; Serbin, Lisa A.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Ledingham, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of maternal childhood histories of aggression and social withdrawal to the prediction of mother-child social problem solving in the next generation. Fifty-seven women (M = 37.32 years), previously rated (on a version of the pupil evaluation inventory) by their peers during childhood on measures of aggression…

  2. The Relationship between Training Availability and Social Workers' Ability to Treat Problem Drinkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Marchette A.

    2007-01-01

    An explanatory cross sectional investigation was employed to assess how well master's level social work (MSW) programs in the State of New York prepare students for practice with problem drinkers. Five hundred and fifty questionnaires were mailed to members of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW). A non-probability sample, consisting…

  3. From Bayes to Tarantola: New insights to understand uncertainty in inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Martínez, J. L.; Fernández-Muñiz, Z.; Pallero, J. L. G.; Pedruelo-González, L. M.

    2013-11-01

    Anyone working on inverse problems is aware of their ill-posed character. In the case of inverse problems, this concept (ill-posed) proposed by J. Hadamard in 1902, admits revision since it is somehow related to their ill-conditioning and the use of local optimization methods to find their solution. A more general and interesting approach regarding risk analysis and epistemological decision making would consist in analyzing the existence of families of equivalent model parameters that are compatible with the prior information and predict the observed data within the same error bounds. Otherwise said, the ill-posed character of discrete inverse problems (ill-conditioning) originates that their solution is uncertain. Traditionally nonlinear inverse problems in discrete form have been solved via local optimization methods with regularization, but linear analysis techniques failed to account for the uncertainty in the solution that it is adopted. As a result of this fact uncertainty analysis in nonlinear inverse problems has been approached in a probabilistic framework (Bayesian approach), but these methods are hindered by the curse of dimensionality and by the high computational cost needed to solve the corresponding forward problems. Global optimization techniques are very attractive, but most of the times are heuristic and have the same limitations than Monte Carlo methods. New research is needed to provide uncertainty estimates, especially in the case of high dimensional nonlinear inverse problems with very costly forward problems. After the discredit of deterministic methods and some initial years of Bayesian fever, now the pendulum seems to return back, because practitioners are aware that the uncertainty analysis in high dimensional nonlinear inverse problems cannot (and should not be) solved via random sampling methodologies. The main reason is that the uncertainty “space” of nonlinear inverse problems has a mathematical structure that is embedded in the forward physics and also in the observed data. Thus, problems with structure should be approached via linear algebra and optimization techniques. This paper provides new insights to understand uncertainty from a deterministic point of view, which is a necessary step to design more efficient methods to sample the uncertainty region(s) of equivalent solutions.

  4. The occurrence of cooperation poses a problem for the biological and social sciences. However, many aspects of the biological and social science literatures on this subject

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    2 Abstract The occurrence of cooperation poses a problem for the biological and social sciences. However, many aspects of the biological and social science literatures on this subject have developed for the biological and social sciences is to explain social behaviours such as cooperation (Darwin 1871; Hamilton

  5. Understanding ill-structured engineering ethics problems through a collaborative learning and argument visualization approach.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Michael; Borenstein, Jason

    2014-03-01

    As a committee of the National Academy of Engineering recognized, ethics education should foster the ability of students to analyze complex decision situations and ill-structured problems. Building on the NAE's insights, we report about an innovative teaching approach that has two main features: first, it places the emphasis on deliberation and on self-directed, problem-based learning in small groups of students; and second, it focuses on understanding ill-structured problems. The first innovation is motivated by an abundance of scholarly research that supports the value of deliberative learning practices. The second results from a critique of the traditional case-study approach in engineering ethics. A key problem with standard cases is that they are usually described in such a fashion that renders the ethical problem as being too obvious and simplistic. The practitioner, by contrast, may face problems that are ill-structured. In the collaborative learning environment described here, groups of students use interactive and web-based argument visualization software called "AGORA-net: Participate - Deliberate!". The function of the software is to structure communication and problem solving in small groups. Students are confronted with the task of identifying possible stakeholder positions and reconstructing their legitimacy by constructing justifications for these positions in the form of graphically represented argument maps. The argument maps are then presented in class so that these stakeholder positions and their respective justifications become visible and can be brought into a reasoned dialogue. Argument mapping provides an opportunity for students to collaborate in teams and to develop critical thinking and argumentation skills. PMID:23420467

  6. Social Problem Solving and Strategy Use in Young Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa A. Green; Antonius H. N. Cillessen; Ruth Rechis; Meagan M. Patterson; Julie Milligan Hughes

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated what prosocial-assertive, passive, and coercive strategies 6-year-olds (N = 257) would propose in response to stories about 2 socially challenging situations: displacing another child in a game and obtaining a toy from another child. The scenarios also varied the gender composition of the characters. Participants' verbalizations while acting out their responses using toy

  7. PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS FROM THE SOCIAL SCIENTIST'S VIEWPOINT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLARK, KENNETH

    REVIEWED FROM A SOCIAL SCIENTIST'S VIEWPOINT IS THE EFFECT OF THE SUPREME COURT'S 1954 BROWN DECISION ON PATTERNS OF DEFACTO SEGREGATION IN NORTHERN COMMUNITIES. THE DECISION HAD PROFOUND EFFECTS ON DE FACTO SEGREGATION, PARTICULARLY IN RELATION TO THE DEMOCRATIC IDEALS OF EQUALITY AND TO THE DAMAGED SELF-IMAGE CREATED BY SEGREGATED SCHOOLS. IT…

  8. Teaching Social Studies to High School Students with Learning Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2007-01-01

    Because of recent legislation, many students with mild disabilities enroll in high school social studies courses in general education rather than special education settings. Therefore, teachers may have students with learning disabilities, behavioral disorders, communication disorders, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in their history,…

  9. Organisational Problem Based Learning and Social Communities for SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Emma; Hamburg, Ileana

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights reasons for SMEs low uptake of training and argues that current offerings are not suitable for their needs. It highlights the need to leverage the benefits of work based learning through the use of technology. Social media and web 2.0 has significantly changed the way people learn and access knowledge. The body of knowledge…

  10. Addressing Reading Problems in Social Studies Content Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younge, Mable F.

    This paper responds to several social studies teachers' complaints that students are not reading on grade level, and therefore, not able to engage in classroom activities. The paper describes the development of sample lesson plans for middle school students and identifies effective assessment alternatives for teachers to use. Solutions presented…

  11. Understanding the social and economic contexts surrounding women engaged in street-level prostitution.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lyn Stankiewicz

    2010-12-01

    Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for economic compensation. Due to the sexual promiscuity surrounding prostitution, women involved in prostitution constitute a high-risk group for contracting and transmitting STDs, including HIV. Prostitution is not only a public health concern, but also an economic one. Cities throughout the United States spent an average of $7.5 to $16 million per year enforcing prostitution laws and addressing negative outcomes associated with prostitution. Thus, women involved in prostitution are a cause for concern from both public health and economic perspectives. However, little is known about why women remain in this type of behavior given the risks prostitution presents, and even less is known about how to intervene and interrupt the complex cycle of prostitution. Thus, the purpose of this study was to understand what factors contribute to a woman's decision to remain in prostitution. A series of interviews were conducted with 12 women engaged in street-level prostitution. Results of the study revealed that drug use not only spurs entry into prostitution, but also contributes to the tenure of prostitution. Further, social support and economic stability are plausible reasons for women remaining in prostitution. These findings lead us to recommendations for policy and program development. Women involved in prostitution are a highly marginalized population, rarely recognized as individuals with life histories. Understanding why women remain in prostitution is important, because until these determinants are known, intervention programs designed to interrupt the cycle, and ultimately prevent prostitution, cannot be formulated. PMID:21142598

  12. Experimental design: Problems in understanding the dynamical behavior-environment system

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Michael

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, I attempt to describe the implications of dynamical approaches to science for research in the experimental study of behavior. I discuss the differences between classical and dynamical science, and focus on how dynamical science might see replication differently from classical science. Focusing on replication specifically, I present some problems that the classical approach has in dealing with dynamics and multiple causation. I ask about the status and meaning of “error” variance, and whether it may be a potent source of information. I show how a dynamical approach can handle the sort of control by past events that is hard for classical science to understand. These concerns require, I believe, an approach to variability that is quite different from the one most researchers currently employ. I suggest that some of these problems can be overcome by a notion of “behavioral state,” which is a distillation of an organism's history. PMID:22478309

  13. The Effect of the Values Education Programme on 5.5-6 Year Old Children's Social Development: Social Skills, Psycho-Social Development and Social Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education…

  14. Cognitive conflict links behavioral inhibition and social problem solving during social exclusion in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lahat, Ayelet; Walker, Olga L.; Lamm, Connie; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by heightened negative affect and social reticence to unfamiliar peers. In a longitudinal study, 291 infants were assessed for BI at 24 and 36 months of age. At age 7, N2 amplitude was measured during a Flanker task. Also at age 7, children experienced social exclusion in the lab during an interaction with an unfamiliar peer and an experimenter. Our findings indicate that children characterized as high in BI, relative to those low in BI, had larger (i.e., more negative) N2 amplitudes. Additionally, among children with a large N2, BI was positively related to withdrawal and negatively related to assertiveness during social exclusion. These findings suggest that variations in conflict detection among behaviorally inhibited children plays a role in their social behavior during stressful social situations. PMID:25705132

  15. MMORPG escapism predicts decreased well-being: examination of gaming time, game realism beliefs, and online social support for offline problems.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Lukasz D; Dr??kowski, Dariusz

    2014-05-01

    Massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) escapists are individuals who indulge in the MMORPG environment to avoid real world problems. Though a relationship between escapism and deteriorated well-being has been established, little is known about particular pathways that mediate this relationship. In the current study, we examined this topic by testing an integrative model of MMORPG escapism, which includes game realism beliefs, gaming time, offline social support, and online social support for offline problems. MMORPG players (N=1,056) completed measures of escapist motivation, game realism beliefs, social support, well-being, and reported gaming time. The tested structural equation model had a good fit to the data. We found that individuals with escapist motivation endorsed stronger game realism beliefs and spent more time playing MMORPGs, which, in turn, increased online support but decreased offline social support. Well-being was favorably affected by both online and offline social support, although offline social support had a stronger effect. The higher availability of online social support for offline problems did not compensate for the lower availability of offline support among MMORPG escapists. Understanding the psychological factors related to depletion of social resources in MMORPG players can help optimize MMORPGs as leisure activities. PMID:24605951

  16. Towards Better Human Robot Interaction: Understand Human Computer Interaction in Social Gaming Using a Video-Enhanced Diary Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Swee Lan; Tan, Mitchell; Looi, Qin En

    This paper presents findings from a descriptive research on social gaming. A video-enhanced diary method was used to understand the user experience in social gaming. From this experiment, we found that natural human behavior and gamer’s decision making process can be elicited and speculated during human computer interaction. These are new information that we should consider as they can help us build better human computer interfaces and human robotic interfaces in future.

  17. An experimental exploration of social problem solving and its associated processes in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Sternheim, Lot; Startup, Helen; Pretorius, Natalie; Johnson-Sabine, Eric; Schmidt, Ulrike; Channon, Shelley

    2012-12-30

    People with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) have well-documented socio-emotional and neurocognitive impairments. As yet, little is known about their ability to solve problems in social situations, although a link with cognitive avoidance has been suggested. This study explored social problem-solving (SPS), using an experimental task. Secondly, the role of cognitive avoidance in SPS was investigated. Individuals with AN (n=31) and healthy controls (HC; n=39) completed the Social Problem Resolution Task which consists of problem scenarios involving awkward everyday social situations. Participants were asked to generate both the optimal solution and their personal solution. Solutions were rated in terms of how socially sensitive and practically effective they were. AN patients produced relatively poorer personal solutions compared to optimal solutions than HC participants and had higher scores on a measure of cognitive avoidance than the HC group. In AN patients, cognitive avoidance was partially associated with poor SPS. These findings suggest that whilst people with AN have no difficulty in generating socially sensitive and effective solutions to problems, but may have difficulty applying this knowledge to themselves. PMID:22809854

  18. Boys' Maladaptive Social Information Processing, Family Emotional Climate, and Pathways to Early Conduct Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, David; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2003-01-01

    Examined relations between early family risk and later maladaptive social information processing and conduct problems among 178 economically disadvantaged boys. Found that early childhood assessments of disadvantage and maternal depression predicted boys' maladaptive response generation and conduct problems at age 10, accounting for 6 and 14…

  19. Peer influences on internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents: a longitudinal social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents who like each other may become more similar to each other with regard to internalizing and externalizing problems, though it is not yet clear which social mechanisms explain these similarities. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed four mechanisms that may explain similarity in adolescent peer networks with regard to externalizing and internalizing problems: selection, socialization, avoidance and withdrawal. At three moments during one school-year, we asked 542 adolescents (8th grade, M-age = 13.3 years, 51 % female) to report who they liked in their classroom, and their own internalizing and externalizing problems. Adolescents tend to prefer peers who have similar externalizing problem scores, but no significant selection effect was found for internalizing problems. Adolescents who share the same group of friends socialize each other and then become more similar with respect to externalizing problems, but not with respect to internalizing problems. We found no significant effects for avoidance or withdrawal. Adolescents may choose to belong to a peer group that is similar to them in terms of externalizing problem behaviors, and through peer group socialization (e.g., enticing, modelling, mimicking, and peer pressure) become more similar to that group over time. PMID:25119729

  20. Perceived Social Support from Family, School, and Peers: Relationship with Emotional and Behavioral Problems among Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NADIA GARNEFSKI

    1996-01-01

    ObjectiveTo examine (1) the extent to which negative perceptions of support from family, school, and peers differ with regard to their impact on emotional and behavioral problems and (2) the extent to which negative perceptions of multiple social support systems are related to the presence of multiple emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence.

  1. Aggressive Problem-Solving Strategies, Aggressive Behavior, and Social Acceptance in Early and Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relations between aggressive problem-solving strategies and aggressive behavior and the intervening role of social acceptance in that relation in early and late adolescents. Subjects were 1,655 11- and 17-year-olds in Finland. Results show that aggressive problem-solving strategies were significantly, but not very highly, associated…

  2. An Approach for Addressing the Multiple Testing Problem in Social Policy Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.

    2009-01-01

    In social policy evaluations, the multiple testing problem occurs due to the many hypothesis tests that are typically conducted across multiple outcomes and subgroups, which can lead to spurious impact findings. This article discusses a framework for addressing this problem that balances Types I and II errors. The framework involves specifying…

  3. Socialization Mediators of the Relation between Socioeconomic Status and Child Conduct Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    1994-01-01

    Examined processes in socialization that might account for an observed relationship between early socioeconomic status (SES) and later child behavior problems. Subjects were 585 children, followed from preschool to grade 3. Found that SES in preschool significantly predicted teacher-rated externalizing problems and peer-rated aggressive behavior.…

  4. Identification of Endogenous Social Effects: The Reflection Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles F. Manski

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the reflection problem that arises when a researcher observing the distribution of behavior in a population tries to infer whether the average behavior in some group influences the behavior of the individuals that comprise the group. It is found that inference is not possible unless the researcher has prior information specifying the composition of reference groups. If

  5. Bisexuality and the problem of its social acceptance.

    PubMed Central

    Austin, C R

    1978-01-01

    Professor Austin explores four main areas in this paper. First of all he outlines the physical development of sex differentiation in the embryo. He develops this by describing the clinical manifestations of abnormality which can appear at that stage. Professor Austin points out that there are relatively few people with abnormalities and that those who do show homosexual tendencies are not noticeably different from the norm in terms of their sexual equipment and hormone levels. It is much more likely that their psychological and social development has a greater influence in differentiating them sexually. The last section of the paper is a synopsis of society's reactions to homosexuality or bisexuality which term in Professor Austin's opinion is more accurate and descriptive of the condition. PMID:691017

  6. Perinatal Risk Factors and Later Social, Thought, and Attention Problems after Perinatal Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Harbert, Mary J.; Jett, Micaela; Appelbaum, Mark; Nass, Ruth; Trauner, Doris A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Survivors of perinatal stroke may be at risk for behavioral problems. Perinatal risk factors that might increase the likelihood of later behavior problems have not been identified. The goal of this study was to explore whether perinatal factors might contribute to behavior problems after perinatal stroke. Methods. 79 children with unilateral perinatal stroke were studied. Perinatal factors included gender, gestational age, neonatal seizures, instrumented delivery, fetal distress, acute birth problems, birth weight, and time of diagnosis. Subjects with evidence of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were excluded. Parents completed the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (Achenbach 1985). The CBCL yields T-scores in several symptom scales. We focused on Social, Thought, and Attention Problems scates. Results. Gestational age and the presence of uteroplacental insufficiency were associated with significant differences on the Thought Problems scale; Attention Problems scores approached significance for these variables. Fetal distress, neonatal seizures, or neonatal diagnosis was associated with 25–30% incidence of clinically significant T-scores on Social, Thought, and Attention Problems scales. Conclusions. Several perinatal factors were associated with a high incidence of social, thought, and behavior problems in children with perinatal stroke. These findings may be useful in anticipatory guidance to parents and physicians caring for these children. PMID:22685688

  7. Understanding the Different Types of Social Support Offered by Audience to A-List Diary-Like and Informative Bloggers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Ling; Xu, Yi-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Blogs offer audiences a forum through which they can exchange ideas and provide feedback about the everyday lives and experiences of the bloggers. Such interactions and communication between audiences and bloggers could be regarded as a kind of social support. The present study aims to identify and compare the types of social support offered by audiences to continuous popular diary-like and informative bloggers, and to explore the possible benefits that bloggers may obtain from such social support. Content analysis was used to analyze the 485 and 390 comments provided by the audiences to the A-list diary-like and informative blog posts, respectively. Results reveal that validation, compliment, and encouragement are the most common types of social support given by audiences to A-list bloggers. Chi-square test results show that the audiences offer more encouragement-type of social support to diary-like bloggers and more complimentary and informational social support to informative bloggers. Such types of social support may enhance A-list bloggers' self-esteem, boost their confidence, promote their self-understanding, and help them obtain the benefits of social validation, which in turn encourage bloggers to commit continuous self-disclosure. PMID:23363225

  8. Making big communities small: using network science to understand the ecological and behavioral requirements for community social capital.

    PubMed

    Neal, Zachary

    2015-06-01

    The concept of social capital is becoming increasingly common in community psychology and elsewhere. However, the multiple conceptual and operational definitions of social capital challenge its utility as a theoretical tool. The goals of this paper are to clarify two forms of social capital (bridging and bonding), explicitly link them to the structural characteristics of small world networks, and explore the behavioral and ecological prerequisites of its formation. First, I use the tools of network science and specifically the concept of small-world networks to clarify what patterns of social relationships are likely to facilitate social capital formation. Second, I use an agent-based model to explore how different ecological characteristics (diversity and segregation) and behavioral tendencies (homophily and proximity) impact communities' potential for developing social capital. The results suggest diverse communities have the greatest potential to develop community social capital, and that segregation moderates the effects that the behavioral tendencies of homophily and proximity have on community social capital. The discussion highlights how these findings provide community-based researchers with both a deeper understanding of the contextual constraints with which they must contend, and a useful tool for targeting their efforts in communities with the greatest need or greatest potential. PMID:25851733

  9. Understanding the different types of social support offered by audience to A-list diary-like and informative bloggers.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hsiu-Chia; Wang, Li-Ling; Xu, Yi-Ting

    2013-03-01

    Blogs offer audiences a forum through which they can exchange ideas and provide feedback about the everyday lives and experiences of the bloggers. Such interactions and communication between audiences and bloggers could be regarded as a kind of social support. The present study aims to identify and compare the types of social support offered by audiences to continuous popular diary-like and informative bloggers, and to explore the possible benefits that bloggers may obtain from such social support. Content analysis was used to analyze the 485 and 390 comments provided by the audiences to the A-list diary-like and informative blog posts, respectively. Results reveal that validation, compliment, and encouragement are the most common types of social support given by audiences to A-list bloggers. Chi-square test results show that the audiences offer more encouragement-type of social support to diary-like bloggers and more complimentary and informational social support to informative bloggers. Such types of social support may enhance A-list bloggers' self-esteem, boost their confidence, promote their self-understanding, and help them obtain the benefits of social validation, which in turn encourage bloggers to commit continuous self-disclosure. PMID:23363225

  10. Understanding the link between changes in social support and changes in outcomes with the sociometric badge

    E-print Network

    Waber, Benjamin Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to show that social support created through face-to-face interaction is a driving factor in a number of important outcomes. Through a series of studies we show that social support, operationalized ...

  11. Testing problem-solving capacities: differences between individual testing and social group setting.

    PubMed

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia; Schneider, Jutta M

    2014-09-01

    Testing animals individually in problem-solving tasks limits distractions of the subjects during the test, so that they can fully concentrate on the problem. However, such individual performance may not indicate the problem-solving capacity that is commonly employed in the wild when individuals are faced with a novel problem in their social groups, where the presence of a conspecific influences an individual's behaviour. To assess the validity of data gathered from parrots when tested individually, we compared the performance on patterned-string tasks among parrots tested singly and parrots tested in social context. We tested two captive groups of orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) with several patterned-string tasks. Despite the differences in the testing environment (singly vs. social context), parrots from both groups performed similarly. However, we found that the willingness to participate in the tasks was significantly higher for the individuals tested in social context. The study provides further evidence for the crucial influence of social context on individual's response to a challenging situation such as a problem-solving test. PMID:24668582

  12. Using a Self-as-Model Video Combined with Social Stories to Help a Child with Asperger Syndrome Understand Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernad-Ripoll, Susana

    2007-01-01

    Using an AB design with generalization, this study sought to determine the effectiveness of presenting videotaped emotions and Social Stories[TM] to teach a 9-year-old child with Asperger syndrome to recognize and understand emotions in himself and to generalize them to other situations in his home. Data collected in the child's home showed an…

  13. Using Wenger's Social Theory of Learning to Examine University Teachers' Understanding of How Instructional Technology Affects Their Experience in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Laura L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to take an exploratory look at how university teachers come to understand their experience in educational practice and their professional role as teachers who integrate instructional technology into their coursework using the framework provided by Wenger's Social Theory of Learning. University faculty who teach in a…

  14. Developing Social Capital: A Role for Music Education and Community Music in Fostering Civic Engagement and Intercultural Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    This article posits that musicking can uniquely foster the development of social capital, which leads to civic engagement and intercultural understanding. I review pertinent literature and build a case that music educators and community musicians have a unique role to play in its development. I also reveal a weakness in the theoretical framework…

  15. Understanding co-evolution of social and content networks on Twitter

    E-print Network

    Hammerton, James

    that on Twitter so- cial networks have a strong influence on content networks over time, and that social network of its social network. In recent work we have analyzed how the tagging behav- ior of users influences insights into influence patterns in content networks, social networks and between them. Our observations

  16. Understanding the Hidden Curriculum: An Essential Social Skill for Children and Youth with Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, Brenda Smith; Simpson, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the "hidden curriculum" in schools, its impact on social functioning, and strategies for helping children and youth with Asperger Syndrome learn the hidden curriculum. Strategies include using social stories, acting lessons, self-esteem building activities, cartooning, social autopsies, and the SOCCSS (Situation, Options,…

  17. Understanding Women's Underrepresentation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: The Role of Social Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morganson, Valerie J.; Jones, Meghan P.; Major, Debra A.

    2010-01-01

    Enrollment of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors is disproportionately small and declining. This study examines social coping to explain the gender gap. Women undergraduates reported using significantly more social coping than did men. Multiple regression analyses revealed that social coping was a stronger…

  18. From 'human being' to 'social subject': "unfreezing" ergonomics and the implications for understanding and intervening health-disease process.

    PubMed

    Morales, Karen Lange; García-Acosta, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomics has been successful in increasing productivity and comfort in the work arena. It has also contributed to reducing occupational accidents. Despite this, ergonomics is frequently limited to understanding the health-disease process related to human-technology interactions, as this process is more complex than what can be understood from an ergonomic evaluation. Recognising this limit, this work ontologically and epistemologically contrasts the notions of 'human being' and 'social subject', and concludes that the study object of ergonomics, or human-technology interaction, greatly depends on social aspects that nowadays are not tackled explicitly: route (history), project, structure, agency, motivations and power. It also analyses how participatory ergonomics tacitly includes many of these aspects, including some implications that the change of notion, from 'human being' to 'social subject', brings to the understanding of the health-disease process and the reduction of associated risks during human activities. PMID:22317190

  19. [Effectiveness of the "Verhaltenstraining in der Grundschule" for promoting social competence and reducing behavior problems].

    PubMed

    von Marées, Nandoli; Petermann, Franz

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the school-based prevention program "Verhaltenstraining in der Grundschule" for improving social competencies and reducing behavior problems in third and fourth grade pupils. 23 classes (n = 372) from 12 schools in Bremen and Lower Saxony participated in this quasi-experimental study as intervention or comparison classes. Data were collected prior to training and directly after training was completed, using teacher and child questionnaires. From pre- to posttest, social-emotional problems decreased significantly in intervention classes; further, social behavior improved significantly among part of the intervention group. Gender-specific effects were found for social behavior: Boys improved more during training than girls did. Practical implications and study limitations are discussed. PMID:20408276

  20. A Social Skills Training Approach to the Interpersonal Problems of Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Jeffrey W.

    1982-01-01

    An ecological approach considering the interaction between specific in-child factors and the two most important learning environments (home and school) is suggested for better understanding the learning problems of the disabled child. (MP)

  1. Emotion Knowledge, Social Competence, and Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Fine, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    The present meta-analytic review examined the magnitude of the relation between discrete emotion knowledge and three of its most commonly studied correlates in childhood and adolescence: social competence, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. Emotion knowledge demonstrated small to medium-sized relations with each correlate. Moderators of effect size were also examined and included multiple sample and methodological characteristics. Using random effects models, significant moderators of effect size for relations between emotion knowledge and externalizing problems included sample recruitment, sample age, and the source of externalizing problems ratings. Moderators of effect size were not found for emotion knowledge and social competence, and the effect sizes across samples for emotion knowledge and internalizing problems were homogeneous. Results highlight the relatively consistent yet modest relations between emotion knowledge and its correlates. Implications for applied research and new directions for research on emotion knowledge using innovative methods are discussed. PMID:21072259

  2. Force, Velocity, and Work: The Effects of Different Contexts on Students' Understanding of Vector Concepts Using Isomorphic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare students' understanding of vector concepts in problems with no physical context, and with three mechanics contexts: force, velocity, and work. Based on our "Test of Understanding of Vectors," a multiple-choice test presented elsewhere, we designed two isomorphic shorter versions of 12 items each: a test…

  3. On the computability of binary social choice rules in an infinite society and the halting problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhito Tanaka

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the computability problem of the Arrow impossibility theorem [K.J. Arrow, Social Choice and Individual Values, second ed., Yale University Press, 1963] of social choice theory in a society with an infinite number of individuals (infinite society) according to the computable calculus (or computable analysis) by Aberth [O. Aberth, Computable Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 1980, O. Aberth, Computable Calculus, Academic

  4. Social Skills and Behavior Problems in Children with Disabilities with and without Siblings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill J. Fussell; Michelle M. Macias; Conway F. Saylor

    2005-01-01

    This study examined social skills and behavior of children with disabilities (CWD) and the impact of siblings on these behaviors. Eighty-five CWD diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder only (ADHD-o), Learning Disability or Learning Problems (LD\\/LP), ADHD and LD combined (ADHD\\/LD) or Spina Bifida (SB) and their siblings were evaluated using standardized social skills and behavior rating scales. The ADHD-o group

  5. Ambivalence About Interpersonal Problems and Traits Predicts Cross-Situational Variability of Social Behavior.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Thane M; Newman, Michelle G; Peterson, Jessica; Scarsella, Gina

    2015-08-01

    Multiple theoretical perspectives suggest that maladjusted personality is characterized by not only distress, but also opposing or "ambivalent" self-perceptions and behavioral lability across social interactions. However, the degree to which ambivalence about oneself predicts cross-situational variability in social behavior has not been examined empirically. Using the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) as a nomological framework, the present study investigated the extent to which endorsing opposing or "ambivalent" tendencies on IPC measures predicted variability in social behavior across a range of hypothetical interpersonal scenarios (Part 1; N?=?288) and naturalistic social interactions (Part 2; N?=?192). Ambivalent responding for interpersonal problems and traits was associated with measures of distress, maladaptive interpersonal tendencies, and greater variability of social behavior across both hypothetical and daily social interactions, though more consistently for interpersonal problems. More conservative tests suggested that ambivalence predicted some indexes of behavioral variability even when accounting for mean levels and squared means of social behaviors, vector length, gender, and depressive symptoms. Results suggest that processes theorized as typifying personality disorder may apply more broadly to personality maladjustment occurring outside of clinical samples. PMID:25046450

  6. Enhancing Grade 10 Thai Students' Stoichiometry Understanding and Ability to Solve Numerical Problems via a Conceptual Change Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahsah, Chanyah; Coll, Richard K.; Sung-ong, Sunan; Yutakom, Naruemon; Sanguanruang, Sudjit

    2008-01-01

    The international literature suggests students frequently resort to the use of formulae when solving stoichiometry problems without understanding the concepts. In prior work we identified Thai student alternative conceptions and ability to solve numerical problem for stoichiometry. The results indicate that many Thai students also hold alternative…

  7. The Native American adolescent: social network structure and perceptions of alcohol induced social problems.

    PubMed

    Rees, Carter; Freng, Adrienne; Winfree, L Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Race/ethnicity and the structure of an adolescent's social network are both important factors in the etiology of delinquent behavior. Yet, much of the minority-group delinquency literature overlooks the Native American youth population that traditionally exhibits high rates of alcohol use and abuse. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we compare the structural characteristics of school-based friendship networks of American Indian youth and other racial/ethnic groups. Our core sample for the descriptive analysis consists of 70,841 youth (Caucasian = 42,096; Black = 13,554; Asian = 4,758; Hispanic = 4,464; American Indian = 3,426; Other = 2,543; Female = 50%). We find that Native American youth generally occupy similar social positions within school hierarchies compared to other minority groups. However, American Indian youth have fewer ties at the school level than Caucasian youth, including reports of fewer reciprocated friendships, a smaller number of in-school friends, and membership in less cohesive personal networks. We also focus on the detrimental social and physical consequences of alcohol use during adolescence and offer an extended consequences model (n = 5,841) that includes the interactive effects of race/ethnicity, age, and drinking influences on relationships with friends (Caucasian = 59%; Black = 19%; Asian = 7%; Hispanic = 7%; American Indian = 5%; Other = 3%; Female = 54%). American Indian youth are no more likely than other youth to report personal drinking as being detrimental to social relationships with parents, peers, and romantic partners. We address ties between our findings and criminal justice policies and practices, as well as the implications for similar network analyses involving other racial/ethnic groups. PMID:24061859

  8. A developmental social psychology of identity: understanding the person-in-context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GERALD R. ADAMS; SHEILA K. MARSHALL

    1996-01-01

    This essay focuses on the socialization of identity formation. It provides a theory about the developmental social psychology of identity. A set of propositions are derived from the authors'reading, research, cultural observations and clinical experience regarding adolescent identity formation. The essay covers the socialization process, nature of the self, processes of growth and development, person-in-context, and a statement on the

  9. Social Network Influences on Service Use among Urban, African American Youth with Mental Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Barksdale, Crystal L.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between the size and quality of African American adolescents' social networks and their mental health service use, and to examine whether these social networks characteristics moderate the association between need for services due to emotional or behavioral difficulties and use of services. Method Participants were a community sample of African American adolescents (N=465; 46.2% female; mean age 14.78) initially recruited in 1st grade for participation in an evaluation of two preventive intervention trials. Social network influences and adolescents' mental health service use in schools and the community were accessed. Results A significant positive association between adolescents' perception that their social network was helpful and their use of school mental health services was identified. The significant associations between need for services for anxiety, depression, or behavior problems, and school and outpatient service use were moderated by size of the social network. Specifically, among youth in need of services for anxiety or depression, school-based service use was higher for those with larger social networks. Conclusions Implications for enhancing access to formal mental health services include further examination of key social network influences that potentially serve as facilitators or barriers to formal help-seeking. The findings also suggest that it might be important to integrate social network members into interventions to address the mental health needs of adolescents. PMID:20864006

  10. Understanding students visions about environmental global problems. Experience and lessons learned of teaching in Lithuania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Siarova, Hanna; Misi?n?, Ieva; Cerda, Artemi; Úbeda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, environment is accepted to be an important element of our welfare. Our activities and societal status are strongly related with the quality of the environment where we live. On the other hand historical and cultural backgrounds shape importantly our views about the environment and how we act towards it in our daily life. In a context of globalization and increase of competition at international level, knowledge appears to be one of the key components for the advance of the word. Most of the knowledge produced comes from high level education institutions and research centres, which have responsibility to create and encourage critical thinking. Individuals aware of the problems can be more active and can push things forward. We think that environmental knowledge and awareness are fundamental for the future of the society. In order to develop better methodologies are developed if we have a better perception of students understanding of environmental problems. The objective of this work is to study the Lithuanian university level student's perception about some environmental challenges of our society. We selected several questions for the students rate according the relevance of the question, as "Air Pollution", "Waste Management", "Resources overexplotation", "Biodiversity reduction", "Human Overpopulation" "Poverty", "Global Warming/Climate change", Natural disasters", "Terrorism", "Economical crisis", "War and armed conflicts" and the "Spread of infectious diseases". We ask to the respondents to rate the importance using a likert scale (1=Not Important, 2= not so important, 3=important, 4=very important, 5=the most important). Among all the questions, the most rated where the Water pollution, the Spread of infectious diseases and Air Pollution and the less important where Biodiversity Reduction, Human overpopulation and climate change. These results helped us to identify where some efforts should be taken to raise student's awareness about global environmental problems. The awareness is different according to the gender. Normally females are more concerned than males about environmental questions. Students between the age of 18-24 are more concerned problems related to the Spread of infectious diseases and war and armed conflicts, while the respondents between the age of 25-39, rated higher Air pollution, Water pollution and Poverty. These preliminary results allowed us to identify potential topics that could be more explored at university level and increase the environmental awareness.

  11. How Do Young Adolescents Cope with Social Problems? An Examination of Social Goals, Coping with Friends, and Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated individual differences in sixth-grade students (N = 181; 47% girls, ethnically diverse) use of friends as a coping resource when dealing with a social stressor with another peer at school. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized three factor structure of coping with friends: mastery, avoidance, and…

  12. Toward a social capital based framework for understanding the water-health nexus.

    PubMed

    Bisung, Elijah; Elliott, Susan J

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in social capital theory in both research and policy arenas. Social capital has been associated with many aspects of improvements in health, environment and development. This paper assesses the theoretical support for a social capital based analysis of environment and health issues with a focus on the water-health nexus in low and middle income countries. We review conceptualisation of social capital by Pierre Bourdieu in relation to his concepts of "fields" and "habitus" as well as other conceptualisations of social capital by James Coleman and Robert Putnam. We integrate these authors' ideas with ecosocial analysis of social and geographical patterns of access to safe water, adequate sanitation and hygiene and the resulting health impacts. Further, we develop a conceptual framework for linking social capital and health through the water-health nexus. The framework focuses on the role of social capital in improving water-related knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as facilitating collective action towards improving access to water and sanitation. The proposed framework will facilitate critical engagement with the pathways through which social processes and interactions influence health within the context of access to water, sanitation and hygiene in low and middle income countries. PMID:24657901

  13. Understanding Students' Adaptation to Graduate School: An Integration of Social Support Theory and Social Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsay, Crystal Han-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The contemporary business world demands adaptive individuals (Friedman & Wyman, 2005). Adaptation is essential for any life transition. It often involves developing coping mechanisms, strategies, and seeking of social support. Adaptation occurs in many settings from moving to a new culture, taking a new job, starting or finishing an…

  14. A Column Generation Approach to Solve Multi-Team Influence Maximization Problem for Social Lottery Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jois, Manjunath Holaykoppa Nanjunda

    The conventional Influence Maximization problem is the problem of finding such a team (a small subset) of seed nodes in a social network that would maximize the spread of influence over the whole network. This paper considers a lottery system aimed at maximizing the awareness spread to promote energy conservation behavior as a stochastic Influence Maximization problem with the constraints ensuring lottery fairness. The resulting Multi-Team Influence Maximization problem involves assigning the probabilities to multiple teams of seeds (interpreted as lottery winners) to maximize the expected awareness spread. Such a variation of the Influence Maximization problem is modeled as a Linear Program; however, enumerating all the possible teams is a hard task considering that the feasible team count grows exponentially with the network size. In order to address this challenge, we develop a column generation based approach to solve the problem with a limited number of candidate teams, where new candidates are generated and added to the problem iteratively. We adopt a piecewise linear function to model the impact of including a new team so as to pick only such teams which can improve the existing solution. We demonstrate that with this approach we can solve such influence maximization problems to optimality, and perform computational study with real-world social network data sets to showcase the efficiency of the approach in finding lottery designs for optimal awareness spread. Lastly, we explore other possible scenarios where this model can be utilized to optimally solve the otherwise hard to solve influence maximization problems.

  15. Psychometric Evaluation of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised among Overweight or Obese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing; Matthews, Judith T.; Sereika, Susan M.; Chasens, Eileen R.; Ewing, Linda J.; Burke, Lora E.

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving is a key component of weight loss programs. The Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R) has not been evaluated in weight loss studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometrics of the SPSI-R. Cronbach's a (0.95 for total score; 0.67-0.92 for subscales) confirmed internal consistency reliability. The…

  16. Socialization mediators of the relation between socioeconomic status and child conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Dodge, K A; Pettit, G S; Bates, J E

    1994-04-01

    The goal was to examine processes in socialization that might account for an observed relation between early socioeconomic status and later child behavior problems. A representative sample of 585 children (n = 51 from the lowest socioeconomic class) was followed from preschool to grade 3. Socioeconomic status assessed in preschool significantly predicted teacher-rated externalizing problems and peer-rated aggressive behavior in kindergarten and grades 1, 2, and 3. Socioeconomic status was significantly negatively correlated with 8 factors in the child's socialization and social context, including harsh discipline, lack of maternal warmth, exposure to aggressive adult models, maternal aggressive values, family life stressors, mother's lack of social support, peer group instability, and lack of cognitive stimulation. These factors, in turn, significantly predicted teacher-rated externalizing problems and peer-nominated aggression and accounted for over half of the total effect of socioeconomic status on these outcomes. These findings suggest that part of the effect of socioeconomic status on children's aggressive development may be mediated by status-related socializing experiences. PMID:8013245

  17. Does a social action experience around energy conservation promote changes in attitude and understanding of climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, E.; Walsh, E.; Metzger, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    Responding effectively to the potential impacts of a changing climate requires individual behavior changes and a scientifically informed populace prepared to address climate-related issues on a community and policy level. This level of behavior change is a non-trivial educational and societal problem; however, behavior change is constrained or supported through a constellation of variables including scientific content knowledge, sociocultural beliefs and values, self-identifications, available infrastructure, economic barriers and opportunities. The goal of this project is to gain a better understanding of student and family participation in energy conservation behaviors, and to analyze how a designed social change experience can support interest and motivation around taking action on climate change. In this work, we implemented a Green Ninja Energy Design Challenge in middle school and university classrooms during Fall 2014. The Green Ninja is a superhero designed to inspire youth to take action on climate change. The Green Ninja Project provides tools such as humorous films and associated media products that help students take steps towards a more sustainable world. The project we are studying here focuses on engineering design principles and scientific content related to energy and provides an opportunity for students and families to measure and reduce household energy use while learning energy and climate science concepts. Students use an online energy-tracking tool that leverages PG&E Smart Meter technology to record their daily household energy over a period of time. Students are then challenged to use the data and what they've learned in class to holistically re-imagine and re-design their living space to reduce energy use, and continue to track their energy usage after implementing their new designs in their living spaces. We will report on attitudes toward, perceptions of and reported behavioral changes of both control and intervention student groups through surveys, focus groups and a number of home visits.

  18. Understanding of Social Capital in Gender-based Participatory JFM Programme: An Evidence from West Bengal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nimai Das

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the level of social capital in a gender sensitive planning on joint forest management programme in West Bengal. The study suggests that the pre-existing traditional characteristics of community solidarity, mutual trust and coordinated action are the inner dynamic for the development of social capital in JFM villages compared with non-JFM villages. Within

  19. Understanding Social Nature of an Online Community of Practice for Learning to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, I-Chun

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed to explore the social nature of membership in an online community of practice (NETwork, Nurturing Elementary Teachers' work) whose purpose is to support pre-service and in-service teachers with a collaborative virtual space for learning how to teach. Path analysis was employed to explore the relationships among social

  20. The inherence heuristic: a key theoretical addition to understanding social stereotyping and prejudice.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Rebecca S; Clark, Caitlin

    2014-10-01

    Prior work has detailed the constructivist processes that lead individuals to categorize others along particular dimensions (e.g., gender) and generate the content (e.g., stereotypes) and affect (e.g., prejudices) associated with social groups. The inherence heuristic is a novel mechanism that appears to shape the content and rigidity of children's social stereotypes and prejudices. PMID:25388029

  1. The Social Competence of Latino Kindergartners and Growth in Mathematical Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindo, Claudia; Fuller, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    We know that social competence contributes to young children's adaptation to, and cognitive learning within, classroom settings. Yet initial evidence is mixed on the social competencies that Latino children bring to kindergarten and the extent to which these skills advance cognitive growth. Building from ecocultural and developmental-risk theory,…

  2. "The View from Inside": Understanding Service User Involvement in Health and Social Care Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Service users are increasingly involved in health and social care education, whilst the government is committed to increasing access to employment for people with mental health needs. The benefits of involving service users in social work education have been identified, including increasing skills, confidence, and building capacity; yet there is…

  3. Life without Work: Understanding Social Class Changes and Unemployment through Theoretical Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Saba Rasheed; Fall, Kevin; Hoffman, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Unemployment is a stark reality in today's economic climate, and many Americans report a fear of loss or decrease in social status as a result of unexpected unemployment. Despite vocational psychology's emphasis on work as a domain of life, very little exploration on how social class shifts impact workers has been conducted. One way to rectify the…

  4. Understanding and Changing Older Adults' Perceptions and Learning of Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bo; Watkins, Ivan; Golbeck, Jen; Huang, Man

    2012-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults' perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious, and to…

  5. Social Support and Thriving Health: A New Approach to Understanding the Health of Indigenous Canadians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chantelle A. M. Richmond; Nancy A. Ross; Grace M. Egeland

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the importance of social support in promoting thriv- ing health among indigenous Canadians, a disadvantaged population. Methods. We categorized the self-reported health status of 31 625 adult indig- enous Canadians as thriving (excellent, very good) or nonthriving (good, fair, poor). We measured social support with indices of positive interaction, emotional support, tangible support, and affection and intimacy.

  6. PROSPECTIVE ASSOCIATIONS OF DEPRESSIVE RUMINATION AND SOCIAL PROBLEM SOLVING WITH DEPRESSION: A 6-MONTH LONGITUDINAL STUDY(.).

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Akira; Hattori, Yosuke; Nishimura, Haruki; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2015-06-01

    -The main purpose of this study was to examine whether depressive rumination and social problem solving are prospectively associated with depressive symptoms. Nonclinical university students (N = 161, 64 men, 97 women; M age = 19.7 yr., SD = 3.6, range = 18-61) recruited from three universities in Japan completed the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II), the Ruminative Responses Scale, Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised Short Version (SPSI-R:S), and the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Procedure at baseline, and the BDI-II again at 6 mo. later. A stepwise multiple regression analysis with the BDI-II and all subscales of the rumination and social problem solving measures as independent variables indicated that only the BDI-II scores and the Impulsivity/carelessness style subscale of the SPSI-R:S at Time 1 were significantly associated with BDI-II scores at Time 2 (? = 0.73, 0.12, respectively; independent variables accounted for 58.8% of the variance). These findings suggest that in Japan an impulsive and careless problem-solving style was prospectively associated with depressive symptomatology 6 mo. later, as contrasted with previous findings of a cycle of rumination and avoidance problem-solving style. PMID:25978191

  7. The Impact of Social Space Design on Students’ Behavioral Problems in Middle Schools 

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Raechel

    2011-08-08

    This study examined the impact of social space design on student behavioral problems in middle schools. A mixed-method approach was used in the form of focus groups and surveys with teachers and students from four central Texas middle schools (7th...

  8. Sickle Cell Screening: Medical, Legal, Ethical, Psychological and Social Problems; A Sickle Cell Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James E.

    In recent years, sickle cell screening programs have been initiated by community groups, health centers, hospitals, medical schools, health departments, school systems, city and State governments, various branches of the Federal Government, fraternal and social clubs, and other organizations. Problems have resulted from mass sickle cell screening,…

  9. Developmental Changes in Problem Solving as a Function of Level of Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oerter, Rolf; And Others

    In this study, which examines the relationship between level of information processing and level of general socialization, a total of 90 children aged 11 and 14 years and a group of 17 adults were presented with an organizational problem: how to order simultaneously presented tasks. Subjects were individually shown a map with locations and…

  10. Academic, Personal and Social Problems of Afghan and Iranian Students in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payind, Mohammad Alam

    1979-01-01

    Questionnaires or interviews were completed by 120 Afghan and 125 Iranian students enrolled in American universities, concerning their academic, personal, and social problems. Data were analyzed according to nationality, sex, age, marital status, major, duration of stay in U.S., financial sponsorship, and undergraduate v graduate student status.…

  11. Social Skills and Behavior Problems in Children with Disabilities with and without Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fussell, Jill J.; Macias, Michelle M.; Saylor, Conway F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined social skills and behavior of children with disabilities (CWD) and the impact of siblings on these behaviors. Eighty-five CWD diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder only (ADHD-o), Learning Disability or Learning Problems (LD/LP), ADHD and LD combined (ADHD/LD) or Spina Bifida (SB) and their siblings were…

  12. Parental Emotion Socialization in Adolescence: Differences in Sex, Age and Problem Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Brand, Ann E.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Usher, Barbara; Hastings, Paul D.; Kendziora, Kimberly; Garside, Rula B.

    2007-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on how mothers and fathers socialize emotion in their adolescent sons and daughters. This study was based on 220 adolescents (range 11- to 16-years-old) who exhibit a range of emotional and behavioral problems and their parents. Parental responses to their children's displays of sadness, anger and fear were assessed.…

  13. Using Social Science Research in Family Law Analysis and Formation: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Sarah H.; Kelly, Robert F.

    Social science research can make a valuable contribution to family law analysis and formation. It can help define problems, identify possible solutions, and challenge underlying normative assumptions. Recent studies related to family law reform have analyzed the use of wage-withholding and other changes to increase child support amounts and…

  14. Socially Mediated Metacognition: Creating Collaborative Zones of Proximal Development in Small Group Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goos, Merrilyn; Galbraith, Peter; Renshaw, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a 3-year study of patterns of student-student social interaction that mediated metacognitive activity in senior secondary school mathematics classrooms. Unsuccessful problem solving was characterized by students' poor metacognitive decisions exacerbated by lack of critical engagement with each other's thinking while successful outcomes…

  15. Is It Social Problem Solving or Decision Making? Implications for Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frauenknecht, Marianne; Black, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes a case that decision making (DM) is not social problem solving (SPS) and DM is subordinate and subsumed within SPS. Both terms are defined and distinguished. Confusion between SPS and DM is widespread and has occurred for at least four decades. DM, not SPS, has been established as one of the seven National Health Education…

  16. A Path Analysis of Social Problem-Solving as a Predictor of White Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Amanda G.; Caskie, Grace I. L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined (a) whether a developmental model or a model in which all subscales' measurement errors are correlated best explains the relationships among White racial identity (WRI) statuses, and (b) social problem-solving (SPS) skills as a predictor of WRI. Path analysis was conducted with a sample of 255 White undergraduate students from…

  17. Family Business or Social Problem? The Cost of Unreported Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrell, Scott E.; Hoekstra, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Social interest in problems such as domestic violence is typically motivated by concerns regarding equity, rather than efficiency. However, we document that taking steps to reduce domestic violence by reporting it yields substantial benefits to external parties. Specifically, we find that although children exposed to as-yet-unreported domestic…

  18. Designing a Problem-Oriented Multi-Disciplinary Academic Curriculum: Integrating Biomedical, Psychological, and Social Sciences

    E-print Network

    Treur, Jan

    1 Designing a Problem-Oriented Multi-Disciplinary Academic Curriculum: Integrating Biomedical curriculum be designed which is attractive for students with exact skills but with intrinsic interests more girls) choose for studies in biomedical, psychological or social sciences and do not develop their exact

  19. Self-Reported Life Events, Social Support and Psychological Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hastings, Richard P.; Crowe, Rachel; Pemberton, Jemma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported relationships between life events and psychological problems in people with intellectual disabilities. In contrast to the general literature, data have consistently been collected via proxy informants and putative moderator variables such as social support have not been examined. Materials and Methods:…

  20. Temperament and Social Problem Solving Competence in Preschool: Influences on Academic Skills in Early Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Olga L.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the current study were to examine whether children's social problem solving (SPS) skills are a mechanism through which temperament influences later academic achievement and whether sex moderates these associations. The participants included 1117 children enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of…

  1. Connectedness, social support and internalising emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents displaced by the Chechen conflict

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents. PMID:22443099

  2. Social Adversity, Stress, and Alcohol Problems: Are Racial/Ethnic Minorities and the Poor More Vulnerable?

    PubMed Central

    Mulia, Nina; Zemore, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Experiences of racial/ethnic bias and unfair treatment are risk factors for alcohol problems, and population differences in exposure to these social adversities (i.e., differential exposure) may contribute to alcohol-related disparities. Differential vulnerability is another plausible mechanism underlying health disparities, yet few studies have examined whether populations differ in their vulnerability to the effects of social adversity on psychological stress and the effects of psychological stress on alcohol problems. Method: Data from the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey (N = 4,080 adult drinkers) were analyzed using structural equation modeling to assess an overall model of pathways linking social adversity, depressive symptoms, heavy drinking, and alcohol dependence. Multiple group analyses were conducted to assess differences in the model’s relationships among Blacks versus Whites, Hispanics versus Whites, and the poor (income below the federal poverty line) versus non-poor (income above the poverty line). Results: The overall model explained 48% of the variance in alcohol dependence and revealed significant pathways between social adversity and alcohol dependence involving depressive symptoms and heavy drinking. The effects of social adversity and depressive symptoms were no different among Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. However, the poor (vs. non-poor) showed stronger associations between unfair treatment and depressive symptoms and between depressive symptoms and heavy drinking. Conclusions: Contrary to some prior studies, these findings suggest that racial disparities in alcohol problems may be more a function of racial/ethnic minorities’ greater exposure, rather than vulnerability, to chronic stressors such as social adversity. However, observed differences between the poor and non-poor imply that differential vulnerability contributes to socioeconomic disparities in alcohol problems. Efforts to reduce both differential exposure and vulnerability might help to mitigate these disparities. PMID:22630795

  3. An Interpersonal Problem Solving Approach to Teaching Social Skills to Socially Rejected Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Lancelotta, Gary

    The effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral interpersonal problem solving (IPS) training program was evaluated with 35 poorly accepted second, third, and fourth graders. Group 1 received instruction in IPS and included only Ss low in peer acceptance; group 2 consisted of Ss low in peer acceptance who participated in IPS with same sex and grade Ss…

  4. Embodied motivation: using a goal systems framework to understand the preference for social and physical warmth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Risen, Jane L

    2014-12-01

    Embodiment research has primarily focused on metaphor-assimilative effects (e.g., perceiving someone to be socially warmer when holding a warm object). Research shows these effects can occur by activating metaphor-associated knowledge constructs. This account is not sufficient, however, for explaining complementary effects--for example, the tendency to prefer social warmth when experiencing physical coldness (Experiment 1). We suggest that socially warm events are considered a means for achieving the goal of reducing physical coldness. Guided by this basic hypothesis and the principles of a goal systems framework, we examine whether the basic relationship between goals and means explains complementary embodiment effects. We find that socially warm activities are preferred over control activities when people are primed with the goal of reducing physical coldness, but not when primed with the concept of coldness (Experiment 2). We also find that activating an alternative goal decreases the attractiveness of socially warm activities when people are feeling cold (Experiment 3). Finally, we examine the effect of social coldness on preferences for physical warmth, showing that the attractiveness of physically warm items among socially excluded people is decreased by activating an alternative goal (Experiment 4). These results suggest that complementary embodiment effects follow the principles of goal activation. PMID:25437131

  5. Understanding child maltreatment in Hanoi: intimate partner violence, low self-control, and social and child care support.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Nguyen, Hai Trung; Kim, Jaeyop

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to understand the role of low self-control, stress, depression, experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse, and social support and child care support in the etiology of child abuse and neglect in Hanoi, Vietnam. The study estimated the prevalence of child maltreatment in a randomly selected, representative cluster sample of 269 Hanoi families. Among these families, 21% reported severe abuse of their children in the past year, 12% reported neglect. Low self-control was found to be strongly associated with child abuse. Life stressors were found to be strongly associated with neglect, but only indirectly with child abuse. Counter-intuitively, a positive interaction between social support and low self-control was found, suggesting that social support of parents low in self-control is associated with more maltreatment. Implications for research, intervention, and criminological theory are discussed. PMID:24368676

  6. The Benefits of Restoration in Urbanizing Watersheds: Developing Value Indicators and Understanding Social Barriers and Opportunities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological restoration can reestablish ecosystem services (ES) that provide important social benefits, but managers with limited funds and resources are forced to prioritize potential restoration sites. Prioritizing restoration sites based on ecological functioning and expected ...

  7. Broadening Our Understanding and Assessment of Personal and Social Responsibility: A Challenge to Researchers and Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosset, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Higher education literature has focused narrowly on social responsibility to the exclusion of personal responsibility. This chapter challenges higher education researchers and practitioners to include behaviors related to personal responsibility in their research and educational agendas.

  8. Social Media and Rating Sites as Tools to Understanding Quality of Care: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Van de Belt, Tom H; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Kool, Rudolf B

    2014-01-01

    Background Insight into the quality of health care is important for any stakeholder including patients, professionals, and governments. In light of a patient-centered approach, it is essential to assess the quality of health care from a patient’s perspective, which is commonly done with surveys or focus groups. Unfortunately, these “traditional” methods have significant limitations that include social desirability bias, a time lag between experience and measurement, and difficulty reaching large groups of people. Information on social media could be of value to overcoming these limitations, since these new media are easy to use and are used by the majority of the population. Furthermore, an increasing number of people share health care experiences online or rate the quality of their health care provider on physician rating sites. The question is whether this information is relevant to determining or predicting the quality of health care. Objective The goal of our research was to systematically analyze the relation between information shared on social media and quality of care. Methods We performed a scoping review with the following goals: (1) to map the literature on the association between social media and quality of care, (2) to identify different mechanisms of this relationship, and (3) to determine a more detailed agenda for this relatively new research area. A recognized scoping review methodology was used. We developed a search strategy based on four themes: social media, patient experience, quality, and health care. Four online scientific databases were searched, articles were screened, and data extracted. Results related to the research question were described and categorized according to type of social media. Furthermore, national and international stakeholders were consulted throughout the study, to discuss and interpret results. Results Twenty-nine articles were included, of which 21 were concerned with health care rating sites. Several studies indicate a relationship between information on social media and quality of health care. However, some drawbacks exist, especially regarding the use of rating sites. For example, since rating is anonymous, rating values are not risk adjusted and therefore vulnerable to fraud. Also, ratings are often based on only a few reviews and are predominantly positive. Furthermore, people providing feedback on health care via social media are presumably not always representative for the patient population. Conclusions Social media and particularly rating sites are an interesting new source of information about quality of care from the patient’s perspective. This new source should be used to complement traditional methods, since measuring quality of care via social media has other, but not less serious, limitations. Future research should explore whether social media are suitable in practice for patients, health insurers, and governments to help them judge the quality performance of professionals and organizations. PMID:24566844

  9. Social Skills Training for Youth With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders and Learning Disabilities: Problems, Conclusions, and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Teaching social skills to students with emotional and behavioral disorders and learning disabilities has become an accepted practice. Social skills training (SST), however, has often resulted in only modest and sometimes no changes in students' social competence. One of the main reasons is that acknowledged problems have been largely ignored. The…

  10. Validation of the SSRS-T, Preschool Level as a Measure of Positive Social Behavior and Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Erika Carpenter; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Nangle, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence for the validity of the Social Skills Rating System for Teachers, Preschool Level (SSRS-T) as a measure of positive social skills and conduct problems was examined in a sample of Head Start preschoolers. One feature of the study was the comparative analysis of the original published factor structure of the Social Skills Scale (i.e.,…

  11. Social Network Approach to Understand the Ethnic Economy: A Theoretical Discourse 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arent Greve; Janet W. Salaff

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we suggest how social network analysis, in contrast to looking at physical space, can be used to trace the social\\u000a and economic location of ethnic enclaves. Taking skilled workers immigrating to Canada from China as an example, we analyze\\u000a critically how split labor market theories describe materialist and structural factors that determine immigrants’ limited\\u000a options. Cultural theories

  12. Integrating Social Science, Environmental Science, and Engineering to Understand Vulnerability and Resilience to Environmental Hazards in the Bengal Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Goodbred, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    In populated delta environments, it is impossible to separate human and natural systems. Human activities change the landscape by altering the dynamics of water and sediment and in return, humans themselves are affected by the natural and anthropogenic changes to the landscape. Such interactions can also have significant impacts on the ecology and natural resources of a delta system, affecting local and regional food supply, livelihoods, and economies, particularly in developing nations. Successful adaptation to environmental change in a strongly coupled human-natural system, such as the Bengal delta, requires understanding how the physical environment and the changing social, political, and economic conditions of people's lives interact. Research on human-delta interactions has largely focused on macro-scale effects from major dams, water diversions, and catchment-scale land use; but at the smaller scale of households and communities, decisions, actions, and outcomes may occur abruptly and have significant local impacts (positive or negative). Southwest Bangladesh experiences profound environmental problems at the local human-landscape interface, including groundwater salinity, soil fertility, conflicting land-use practices, management of engineering structures, and declining land-surface elevations. The impacts of climate-induced sea-level rise, especially with respect to population migration, receive great attention and concern, but neither sea level rise nor migration occurs against a background of static physical or human environments. For example, changing land use (e.g., building embankments, which affect drainage, sediment transport, and the evolution of tidal channels; and the transformation of rice fields to shrimp aquaculture, which affects soil chemistry, labor markets, river ecology, and possibly the integrity of embankments) can significantly change the impact that sea level rise will have on flood hazards and the resulting effect on people living on the delta. Assessing the impacts of climate change and other environmental stresses on delta populations and designing effective responses will require understanding interactions between the physical and human environments at multiple scales. As part of a multidisciplinary research project drawing on sedimentology, hydrology, remote-sensing, engineering, political science, sociology, psychology, and anthropology we are studying the interactions of human and natural systems in coastal Bangladesh to understand conditions that contribute to vulnerability and resilience at both the household and the community level. Building on Elinor Ostrom's socioecological systems approach, we have developed a theoretical framework for studying vulnerability and resilience when coupled human-natural systems are subject to significant changes and exogenous forcings. We will report on this framework using examples of successful and unsuccessful interventions to manage or mitigate exposure to environmental hazards, and we will also report on progress toward using our framework to identify and understand factors that contribute to the success or failure of such projects.

  13. Epigenetics in Social Insects: A New Direction for Understanding the Evolution of Castes

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Susan A.; Toth, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications to DNA, such as DNA methylation, can expand a genome's regulatory flexibility, and thus may contribute to the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Recent work has demonstrated the importance of DNA methylation in alternative queen and worker “castes” in social insects, particularly honeybees. Social insects are an excellent system for addressing questions about epigenetics and evolution because: (1) they have dramatic caste polyphenisms that appear to be tied to differential methylation, (2) DNA methylation is widespread in various groups of social insects, and (3) there are intriguing connections between the social environment and DNA methylation in many species, from insects to mammals. In this article, we review research on honeybees, and, when available, other social insects, on DNA methylation and queen and worker caste differences. We outline a conceptual framework for the effects of methylation on caste determination in honeybees that may help guide studies of epigenetic regulation in other polyphenic taxa. Finally, we suggest future paths of study for social insect epigenetic research, including the importance of comparative studies of DNA methylation on a broader range of species, and highlight some key unanswered mechanistic questions about how DNA methylation affects gene regulation. PMID:22567395

  14. Understanding Problematic Drug Use: A Medical Matter or a Social Issue?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Buchanan

    2006-01-01

    This paper questions the notion that problem drug use is essentially a physiological medical problem that requires coercive treatment, from which success are measured by way of drug testing to determine the abstinence from the drug. The article argues that the causes and solutions to problem drug use are much more to do with socio-economic factors than physiological or psychological

  15. Sleep in Infancy Predicts Gender Specific Social-Emotional Problems in Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Saenz, Janet; Yaugher, Ashley; Alexander, Gerianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite strong evidence linking sleep to developmental outcomes, the longitudinal relationship between sleep and emotional well-being remains largely unknown. To address this gap in our knowledge, the current study examined sleep in infancy, measured via actigraphy, as a predictor of social-emotional problems in toddlers. A total of 47 children (29 males) were included in this longitudinal study. At time one, actigraphy measures of sleep were obtained from 3- to 4-month-old infants. At time two, parents rated their 18- to 24-month-old toddler’s social-emotional well-being using the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment. Results indicated that boys tended to have higher levels of externalizing behaviors than did girls. Additionally, boys with longer sleep durations also showed lower sleep efficiency. In girls, sleep duration in infancy was a significant predictor of autism spectrum disorder behaviors and approached significance as a predictor of externalizing problems in toddlerhood. Our findings are the first to show a relationship between sleep measured in infancy and autism spectrum disorder symptomatology measured in early childhood. They suggest that the etiology of social-emotional problems may differ between genders and raise the possibility that sleep/wake cycles may be differentially related to autism spectrum disorder symptoms in girls and boys. PMID:26029685

  16. The Use of Social Marketing to Influence the Development of Problem Gambling in the UK: Implications for Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Jane E.; Tapp, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the authors present and debate the theoretical case for the use of social marketing to help reduce problem gambling in the public health context of the UK. Is triangulated between the key theories and principles of social marketing, the key literature and its theoretical application to the debate about reducing problem gambling in…

  17. Problem-Solving Appraisal and the Effects of Social Support among College Students and Persons with Physical Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    College students (Study 1, n=104) and persons with severe physical disabilities (Study 2, n=102) completed measures of depression, psychosocial impairment (Study 2 only), problem-solving appraisal, and social support. Problem-solving appraisal and social support were significantly associated with depression among students; with both depression and…

  18. Does Self-Reported Bullying and Victimization Relate to Social, Emotional Problems in Adolescents with and without Criminal History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zach-Vanhorn, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted to explore predictors and moderators of bullying involvement, social and emotional problems, vocabulary knowledge, and crimes. There was one main research question: (1) Is there a the relationship between adolescents with social and emotional problems as measured by the SDQ (Goodman, 1997) and adolescents'…

  19. Some Cognitive Characteristics of Night-Sky Watchers: Correlations between Social Problem-Solving, Need for Cognition, and Noctcaelador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between night-sky watching and self-reported cognitive variables: need for cognition and social problem-solving. University students (N = 140) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, the Need for Cognition Scale, and the Social Problem Solving Inventory. The results indicated that an interest in the night-sky was…

  20. A problem-oriented approach to understanding adaptation: lessons learnt from Alpine Shire, Victoria Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, Carolina

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is gaining attention as a significant strategic issue for localities that rely on their business sectors for economic viability. For businesses in the tourism sector, considerable research effort has sought to characterise the vulnerability to the likely impacts of future climate change through scenarios or ‘end-point' approaches (Kelly & Adger, 2000). Whilst useful, there are few demonstrable case studies that complement such work with a ‘start-point' approach that seeks to explore contextual vulnerability (O'Brien et al., 2007). This broader approach is inclusive of climate change as a process operating within a biophysical system and allows recognition of the complex interactions that occur in the coupled human-environmental system. A problem-oriented and interdisciplinary approach was employed at Alpine Shire, in northeast Victoria Australia, to explore the concept of contextual vulnerability and adaptability to stressors that include, but are not limited to climatic change. Using a policy sciences approach, the objective was to identify factors that influence existing vulnerabilities and that might consequently act as barriers to effective adaptation for the Shire's business community involved in the tourism sector. Analyses of results suggest that many threats, including the effects climate change, compete for the resources, strategy and direction of local tourism management bodies. Further analysis of conditioning factors revealed that many complex and interacting factors define the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of the Shire's tourism sector to the challenges of global change, which collectively have more immediate implications for policy and planning than long-term future climate change scenarios. An approximation of the common interest, i.e. enhancing capacity in business acumen amongst tourism operators, would facilitate adaptability and sustainability through the enhancement of social capital in this business community. Kelly, P. M., & Adger, W. N. (2000). Theory and practice in assessing vulnerability to climatic change and facilitating adaptation. Climatic Change, 47, 325-352. O'Brien, K., Eriksen, S., Nygaard, L. P., & Schjolden, A. (2007). Why different interpretations of vulnerability matter in climate change discourses. Climate Policy, 7, 73-88.

  1. The anatomy of urban social networks and its implications in the searchability problem

    E-print Network

    Herrera-Yagüe, C; Couronné, T; Smoreda, Z; Benito, R M; Zufiria, P J; González, M C

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of large geolocated communication datasets has recently increased our understanding of how social networks relate to their physical space. However, many recurrently reported properties, such as the spatial clustering of network communities, have not yet been systematically tested at different scales. In this work we analyze the social network structure of over 25 million phone users from three countries at three different scales: country, provinces and cities. We consistently find that this last urban scenario presents significant differences to common knowledge about social networks. First, the emergence of a giant component in the network seems to be controlled by whether or not the network spans over the entire urban border, almost independently of the population or geographic extension of the city. Second, urban communities are much less geographically clustered than expected. These two findings shed new light on the widely-studied searchability in self-organized networks. By exhaustive sim...

  2. Everyday social and conversation applications of theory-of-mind understanding by children with autism-spectrum disorders or typical development.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Candida C; Garnett, Michelle; Kelly, Adrian; Attwood, Tony

    2009-02-01

    Children with autism-spectrum disorders (ASD) often fail laboratory false-belief tests of theory of mind (ToM). Yet how this impacts on their everyday social behavior is less clear, partly owing to uncertainty over which specific everyday conversational and social skills require ToM understanding. A new caregiver-report scale of these everyday applications of ToM was developed and validated in two studies. Study 1 obtained parent ratings of 339 children (85 with autism; 230 with Asperger's; 24 typically-developing) on the new scale and results revealed (a) that the scale had good psychometric properties and (b) that children with ASD had significantly more everyday mindreading difficulties than typical developers. In Study 2, we directly tested links between laboratory ToM and everyday mindreading using teacher ratings on the new scale. The sample of 25 children included 15 with autism and 10 typical developers aged 5-12 years. Children in both groups who passed laboratory ToM tests had fewer everyday mindreading difficulties than those of the same diagnosis who failed. Yet, intriguingly, autistic ToM-passers still had more problems with everyday mindreading than younger typically-developing ToM-failers. The possible roles of family conversation and peer interaction, along with ToM, in everyday social functioning were considered. PMID:18810310

  3. Marijuana Craving During a Public Speaking Challenge: Understanding Marijuana Use Vulnerability among Women and those with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Silgado, José; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with risk for developing marijuana dependence, yet it remains unclear whether urge to use marijuana increases in anticipation of social anxiety-provoking situation, during the situation, or afterwards (to avoid post-event processing). The present study examined the timing of marijuana craving in response to a social anxiety task among 60 (50% female; 33% with SAD) marijuana users randomly assigned to either a speech or reading task. Participants completed ratings of marijuana craving at baseline (prior to being informed of task assignment), before, during, and after task. Among women and participants with SAD, the speech task was associated with greater craving than the reading task. This effect was particularly pronounced during the social anxiety induction task. This effect was not observed for men or participants without SAD. Identification of timing of urge to use marijuana has important implications for treatment and relapse prevention of marijuana problems among women and people with SAD (a group at particular risk for marijuana-related problems). PMID:20797696

  4. Disentangling race and social context in understanding disparities in chronic conditions among men.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Roland J; Bell, Caryn N; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Harvey, Jelani; Smolen, Jenny R; Bowie, Janice V; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2015-02-01

    Disparities in men's health research may inaccurately attribute differences in chronic conditions to race rather than the different health risk exposures in which men live. This study sought to determine whether living in the same social environment attenuates race disparities in chronic conditions among men. This study compared survey data collected in 2003 from black and white men with similar incomes living in a racially integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated to determine whether race disparities in chronic conditions were attenuated among men living in the same social environment. In the national sample, black men exhibited greater odds of having hypertension (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34, 1.86) and diabetes (OR?=?1.62, 95% CI 1.27-2.08) than white men. In the sample of men living in the same social context, black and white respondents had similar odds of having hypertension (OR?=?1.05, 95% CI 0.70, 1.59) and diabetes (OR?=?1.12, 95% CI 0.57-2.22). There are no race disparities in chronic conditions among low-income, urban men living in the same social environment. Policies and interventions aiming to reduce disparities in chronic conditions should focus on modifying social aspects of the environment. PMID:25168686

  5. Understanding the influence of social media in medicine: lesson learned from Facebook.

    PubMed

    Savas, Jessica A; Huang, Karen E; Tuchayi, Sara Moradi; Feldman, Steven R

    2014-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a very common chronic skin disease. With increasing number of patients searching social media outlets such as Facebook for medical information, social media can be used by physicians as a powerful educational tool. We analyzed the unmoderated Q&A series on Facebook begun by members of National Eczema Association Scientific Advisory Committee. Four respondents accounted for more than 50% of all responses and the most common were negative posts about topical steroids (61%). Possible strategies to accomplish the safe dissemination of information in a public forum may include a moderator role for physicians. PMID:25244178

  6. Intelligent Learning Environment for Understanding Basic Operations of Arithmetic by Problem Posing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Akira; Hirashima, Tsukasa; Takeuchi, Akira

    Several researchers have indicated that to pose arithmetical word problems is an important way to learn arithmetic. However, learning by problem posing is not popular in the lecture of classroom because it is hard for a teacher to do it. For example, even to judge whether each problem is correct or not, a teacher has to examine each problem. In this paper, we describe an Intelligent Learning Environment which realizes the learning by problem posing. In the learning by problem posing, a learner poses problems through the interface provided by the ILE. The ILE has a function to diagnose the problems posed by the learner. By using the results of the diagnosis, the ILE helps the learner to correct wrong problems, or leads her/him in the next step of problem posing. We evaluated the ILE in an elementary school. The subjects were 4th grade students. We also report the results of the evaluation. In the ILE, the interface was implemented in Java, and the diagnosis module was implemented in Prolog. So it can be used on World Wide Web. The current environment deals with simple arithmetical word problems solved by an addition or a subtraction.

  7. Perceptions of school violence as a problem and reports of violent events: a national survey of school social workers.

    PubMed

    Astor, R A; Behre, W J; Fravil, K A; Wallace, J M

    1997-01-01

    Awareness of violence as a problem is important in developing school-based interventions to reduce violence. How would social workers who reported a potentially lethal event in their schools within the past year rate the seriousness of the problem in their schools? What variables would be associated with the perception of a serious violence problem in a school? These questions were explored in a national survey of school social workers. The results suggest that school social workers did not perceive violence as a serious problem on the basis of a single event even when the event was life threatening. From a zero-tolerance perspective, school violence as a problem was underestimated in all community settings but more often in suburban and rural settings than in inner-city or urban settings. The social workers' perception of a serious problem was contingent on the presence of multiple types of violence and the community setting of the school. PMID:9009888

  8. Understanding Associations of Control Beliefs, Social Relations, and Well-Being in Older Adults with Osteoarthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Vanessa M.; Sherman, Aurora M.

    2006-01-01

    Control beliefs and social relationships have been individually assessed in relation to adaptation to chronic illness, although only rarely together. Further, some control scales show psychometric limitations in older adult samples. To address these concerns, a scale assessing external control was created by factor analyzing the items from…

  9. Cultural Diversity and Social Skills Instruction: Understanding Ethnic and Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Milburn, JoAnne Fellows

    This book affirms that the behaviors of young people from culturally diverse populations need to be viewed from a cultural perspective, and that instruction should affirm students and empower them to achieve maximally as well as to benefit others. A theme that underlies the entire book is the advocacy of direct instruction in social skills,…

  10. Understanding the Role of the ‘Self’ in the Social Priming of Mimicry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yin; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2013-01-01

    People have a tendency to unconsciously mimic other's actions. This mimicry has been regarded as a prosocial response which increases social affiliation. Previous research on social priming of mimicry demonstrated an assimilative relationship between mimicry and prosociality of the primed construct: prosocial primes elicit stronger mimicry whereas antisocial primes decrease mimicry. The present research extends these findings by showing that assimilative and contrasting prime-to-behavior effect can both happen on mimicry. Specifically, experiment 1 showed a robust contrast priming effect where priming antisocial behaviors induces stronger mimicry than priming prosocial behaviors. In experiment 2, we manipulated the self-relatedness of the pro/antisocial primes and further revealed that prosocial primes increase mimicry only when the social primes are self-related whereas antisocial primes increase mimicry only when the social primes are self-unrelated. In experiment 3, we used a novel cartoon movie paradigm to prime pro/antisocial behaviors and manipulated the perspective-taking when participants were watching these movies. Again, we found that prosocial primes increase mimicry only when participants took a first-person point of view whereas antisocial primes increase mimicry only when participants took a third-person point of view, which replicated the findings in experiment 2. We suggest that these three studies can be best explained by the active-self theory, which claims that the direction of prime-to-behavior effects depends on how primes are processed in relation to the ‘self’. PMID:23565208

  11. Trouble at School: Understanding School Discipline Systems as Nets of Social Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Decoteau J.

    2014-01-01

    Getting in trouble at school is often a student's first point of entry into the school-to-prison pipeline. What trouble entails is shaped by underlying and complex notions of justice that operate in a given school setting. These notions of justice shape the range of responses social actors use to address students who break school rules. These…

  12. Understanding Solitude: Young Children's Attitudes and Responses toward Hypothetical Socially Withdrawn Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; Girardi, Alberta; Findlay, Leanne C.; Frohlick, Sherri L.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore young children's attitudes and responses to different forms of social withdrawal by eliciting responses to hypothetical vignettes. Participants included 137 children (49 boys, 88 girls) in kindergarten and grade 1 classes (M[subscript age] = 75.94 months, SD = 9.03) in Ottawa, Canada. Parents rated…

  13. Understanding Implementation and Effectiveness of "Strong Start K-2" on Social-Emotional Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Sara A.; Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2012-01-01

    "Strong Start K-2" is a social-emotional learning curriculum, designed for use with children in kindergarten through grade 2. The objectives of this study were twofold. First, authors aimed to evaluate the feasibility and quality of "Strong Start" implementation. Additionally authors examined the effect of "Strong Start" on first grade students'…

  14. Understanding the Social Exclusion and Stalled Welfare of Citizens with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redley, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Despite the UK's recent history of promoting the social inclusion and equality of men and women with learning disabilities they remain a significantly disadvantaged group. Compared with their non-disabled peers they are more likely to be unemployed, less likely to own their own homes and are at a significantly greater risk of physical and mental…

  15. Understanding the social exclusion and stalled welfare of citizens with learning disabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus Redley

    2009-01-01

    Despite the UK’s recent history of promoting the social inclusion and equality of men and women with learning disabilities they remain a significantly disadvantaged group. Compared with their non?disabled peers they are more likely to be unemployed, less likely to own their own homes and are at a significantly greater risk of physical and mental ill health. The first part

  16. Using the Lens of Social Capital to Understand Diversity in the Earth System Sciences Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Caitlin N.; Libarkin, Julie C.; McCallum, Carmen M.; Atchison, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we argue that social capital theory, the idea that membership in a group creates opportunities to acquire valuable information and resources from other group members, is a useful framework in which to consider ways to increase diversity in the Earth System Sciences (ESS) and in the science, technology, engineering, and…

  17. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  18. Understanding Academic Performance of International Students: The Role of Ethnicity, Academic and Social Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienties, Bart; Beausaert, Simon; Grohnert, Therese; Niemantsverdriet, Susan; Kommers, Piet

    2012-01-01

    More than 3 million students study outside their home country, primarily at a Western university. A common belief among educators is that international students are insufficiently adjusted to higher education in their host country, both academically and socially. Furthermore, several groups of international students experience considerable amounts…

  19. Understanding Language Socialization and Learning in Mexican-Descent Families: Conclusions and New Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Robert P.; Perez-Granados, Deanne R.

    2002-01-01

    Compares findings from the six studies in this special journal issue, focusing on the role of Mexican-descent family conversations in young children's social, emotional, and conceptual development and on patterns of maternal teaching behaviors across socioeconomic backgrounds. Discusses the need for further research that represents the diversity…

  20. STORYPATH: A Cross Cultural Study of Children's Construction of Social Studies Understandings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bronwyn; McGuire, Margit

    This paper presents the background, procedure, and outcomes of a study of two Year 1 classrooms, one in Seattle, Washington, and the other in Sydney, Australia, that engaged in the constructivist learning experiences of a social studies unit titled "Families in Their Neighborhoods" (McGuire, 1997). The unit employed the "Storypath" planning and…

  1. Understanding social engagement in autism: being different in perceiving and sharing affordances

    PubMed Central

    Hellendoorn, Annika

    2014-01-01

    In the current paper I will argue that the notion of affordances offers an alternative to theory of mind (ToM) approaches in studying social engagement in general and in explaining social engagement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) specifically. Affordances are the possibilities for action offered by the environment. In contrast to ToM approaches, the concept of affordances implies the complementarity of person and environment and rejects the dualism of mind and behavior. In line with the Gibsonian idea that a child must eventually perceive the affordances of the environment for others as well for herself in order to become socialized, I will hypothesize that individuals with ASD often do not perceive the same affordances in the environment as other people do and have difficulties perceiving others’ affordances. This can lead to a disruption of interpersonal behaviors. I will further argue that the methods for studying social engagement should be adapted if we want to take interaction into account. PMID:25136327

  2. Understanding the Role of Technology in a Secondary School Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Jacob D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that technology is extremely important when used in the classroom because it enhances student learning. It is imperative that teachers learn the best practices for use of technology in the classroom. Using interviews, questionnaires, and observations with social studies teachers in a rural school district in Central New…

  3. What Does Citizenship Mean? Social Studies Teachers' Understandings of Citizenship in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    One of the challenges of teaching citizenship is that it can be understood in a variety of quite different ways. Singapore has a centralized education system, where political leaders wield direct influence over citizenship education. Social studies is a major vehicle for citizenship education, with a focus on nation-building. The official…

  4. The Awkward Moments Test: A Naturalistic Measure of Social Understanding in Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavey, Lisa; Phillips, Wendy; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Rutter, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Fourteen adults with high-functioning autism, 2 with Asperger syndrome, and 10 controls matched for intellectual ability and reading competence were shown excerpts of films showing characters in social situations. Adults with autism and Asperger syndrome were most impaired in their ability to answer questions about the films requiring mind-reading…

  5. Understanding Parent-Child Social Informant Discrepancy in Youth with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Calhoun, Casey D.; Mikami, Amori Yee; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2012-01-01

    We investigated discrepancies between parent- and self-reported social functioning among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Three distinct samples showed discrepancies indicating that parents viewed their children as performing one standard deviation below a standardization mean, while youth viewed themselves as comparably-skilled…

  6. Understanding Social Positioning in the Context of Learning and Participation Experienced by Adult Transitional Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, E. Beverly

    2010-01-01

    There are two dimensions of positioning: self-identity (reflexive) and, events and interaction between people (discursive). Positioning may become socially restrictive when disruptive discursive episodes have a negative impact on individual self-identity. An interpretive biographical study of 11 participants in a transitional residency (temporary…

  7. Understanding the Learning of Values Using a Domains-of-Socialization Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinik, Julia; Johnston, Megan; Grusec, Joan E.; Farrell, Renee

    2013-01-01

    The narratives that emerging adults wrote about a time when they learned an important moral, value or lesson were explored in order to determine the characteristics of events that lead to internalized values as well as to compare the way different kinds of moral values are socialized. Lessons resulting from misbehavior were reported most…

  8. Agents or Stewards: Using Theory to Understand the Government-Nonprofit Social Service Contracting Relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Van Slyke

    2006-01-01

    Using agency and stewardship theories, this study examines how public administrators manage contracting relationships with nonprofit organizations. Interviews were conducted with public and nonprofit managers involved in social services contract relationships at the state and county level in New York State. The use of trust, reputation, and monitoring as well as other factors influence the manner in which contract relationships

  9. Bachelor of Social Work Students and Mental Health Stigma: Understanding Student Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellmann, Karen T.; Madden, Elissa E.; Aguiniga, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor-level social work students (n = 198) at a midsized Midwestern public university were surveyed to evaluate their attitudes toward those with mental health concerns. Additionally, students were surveyed regarding their willingness to seek treatment for their own mental health needs. Results of the analyses suggest that the majority of…

  10. Understanding the role of the 'self' in the social priming of mimicry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2013-01-01

    People have a tendency to unconsciously mimic other's actions. This mimicry has been regarded as a prosocial response which increases social affiliation. Previous research on social priming of mimicry demonstrated an assimilative relationship between mimicry and prosociality of the primed construct: prosocial primes elicit stronger mimicry whereas antisocial primes decrease mimicry. The present research extends these findings by showing that assimilative and contrasting prime-to-behavior effect can both happen on mimicry. Specifically, experiment 1 showed a robust contrast priming effect where priming antisocial behaviors induces stronger mimicry than priming prosocial behaviors. In experiment 2, we manipulated the self-relatedness of the pro/antisocial primes and further revealed that prosocial primes increase mimicry only when the social primes are self-related whereas antisocial primes increase mimicry only when the social primes are self-unrelated. In experiment 3, we used a novel cartoon movie paradigm to prime pro/antisocial behaviors and manipulated the perspective-taking when participants were watching these movies. Again, we found that prosocial primes increase mimicry only when participants took a first-person point of view whereas antisocial primes increase mimicry only when participants took a third-person point of view, which replicated the findings in experiment 2. We suggest that these three studies can be best explained by the active-self theory, which claims that the direction of prime-to-behavior effects depends on how primes are processed in relation to the 'self'. PMID:23565208

  11. Social learning of predators in the dark: understanding the role of visual, chemical and mechanical information

    PubMed Central

    Manassa, R. P.; McCormick, M. I.; Chivers, D. P.; Ferrari, M. C. O.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of prey to observe and learn to recognize potential predators from the behaviour of nearby individuals can dramatically increase survival and, not surprisingly, is widespread across animal taxa. A range of sensory modalities are available for this learning, with visual and chemical cues being well-established modes of transmission in aquatic systems. The use of other sensory cues in mediating social learning in fishes, including mechano-sensory cues, remains unexplored. Here, we examine the role of different sensory cues in social learning of predator recognition, using juvenile damselfish (Amphiprion percula). Specifically, we show that a predator-naive observer can socially learn to recognize a novel predator when paired with a predator-experienced conspecific in total darkness. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that when threatened, individuals release chemical cues (known as disturbance cues) into the water. These cues induce an anti-predator response in nearby individuals; however, they do not facilitate learnt recognition of the predator. As such, another sensory modality, probably mechano-sensory in origin, is responsible for information transfer in the dark. This study highlights the diversity of sensory cues used by coral reef fishes in a social learning context. PMID:23804616

  12. Preschoolers' Emotion Regulation Strategy Understanding: Relations with Emotion Socialization and Child Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Pamela M.; Dennis, Tracy A.; Smith-Simon, Kristen E.; Cohen, Laura H.

    2009-01-01

    Preschool-age children's ability to verbally generate strategies for regulating anger and sadness, and to recognize purported effective strategies for these emotions, were examined in relation to child factors (child age, temperament, and language ability) and maternal emotion socialization (supportiveness and structuring in response to child…

  13. Online Community and User-Generated Content: Understanding the Role of Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jeong Ha

    2010-01-01

    Models of user generated content (UGC) creation such as Facebook, MySpace, and YouTube are facing robust growth accelerated by the adoption of Web 2.0 technologies and standards. These business models offer a fascinating avenue for exploring the role of social influence online. This dissertation is motivated by the success of YouTube, which is…

  14. Towards a differentiated understanding of active travel behaviour: using social theory to explore everyday commuting.

    PubMed

    Guell, C; Panter, J; Jones, N R; Ogilvie, D

    2012-07-01

    Fostering physical activity is an established public health priority for the primary prevention of a variety of chronic diseases. One promising population approach is to seek to embed physical activity in everyday lives by promoting walking and cycling to and from work ('active commuting') as an alternative to driving. Predominantly quantitative epidemiological studies have investigated travel behaviours, their determinants and how they may be changed towards more active choices. This study aimed to depart from narrow behavioural approaches to travel and investigate the social context of commuting with qualitative social research methods. Within a social practice theory framework, we explored how people describe their commuting experiences and make commuting decisions, and how travel behaviour is embedded in and shaped by commuters' complex social worlds. Forty-nine semi-structured interviews and eighteen photo-elicitation interviews with accompanying field notes were conducted with a subset of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort, based in the UK. The findings are discussed in terms of three particularly pertinent facets of the commuting experience. Firstly, choice and decisions are shaped by the constantly changing and fluid nature of commuters' social worlds. Secondly, participants express ambiguities in relation to their reasoning, ambitions and identities as commuters. Finally, commuting needs to be understood as an embodied and emotional practice. With this in mind, we suggest that everyday decision-making in commuting requires the tactical negotiation of these complexities. This study can help to explain the limitations of more quantitative and static models and frameworks in predicting travel behaviour and identify future research directions. PMID:22486840

  15. Solving the cold-start problem in recommender systems with social tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zi-Ke; Liu, Chuang; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Tao

    2010-10-01

    Based on the user-tag-object tripartite graphs, we propose a recommendation algorithm that makes use of social tags. Besides its low cost of computational time, the experimental results on two real-world data sets, Del.icio.us and MovieLens, show that it can enhance the algorithmic accuracy and diversity. Especially, it provides more personalized recommendation when the assigned tags belong to more diverse topics. The proposed algorithm is particularly effective for small-degree objects, which reminds us of the well-known cold-start problem in recommender systems. Further empirical study shows that the proposed algorithm can significantly solve this problem in social tagging systems with heterogeneous object degree.

  16. Solving the Cold-Start Problem in Recommender Systems with Social Tags

    E-print Network

    Liu, Zi-Ke Zhang Chuang; Zhou, Tao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, based on the user-tag-object tripartite graphs, we propose a recommendation algorithm, which considers social tags as an important role for information retrieval. Besides its low cost of computational time, the experiment results of two real-world data sets, \\emph{Del.icio.us} and \\emph{MovieLens}, show it can enhance the algorithmic accuracy and diversity. Especially, it can obtain more personalized recommendation results when users have diverse topics of tags. In addition, the numerical results on the dependence of algorithmic accuracy indicates that the proposed algorithm is particularly effective for small degree objects, which reminds us of the well-known \\emph{cold-start} problem in recommender systems. Further empirical study shows that the proposed algorithm can significantly solve this problem in social tagging systems with heterogeneous object degree distributions.

  17. Cultural variation in the social organization of problem solving among African American and European American siblings.

    PubMed

    Budak, Daniel; Chavajay, Pablo

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the social organization of a problem-solving task among 15 African American and 15 European American sibling pairs. The 30 sibling pairs between the ages of 6 and 12 were video recorded constructing a marble track together during a home visit. African American siblings were observed to collaborate more often than European American siblings who were more likely to divide up the labor and direct each other in constructing the marble track. In addition, older European American siblings made more proposals of step plans than older African American siblings. The findings provide insights into the cultural basis of the social organization of problem solving across African American and European American siblings. PMID:22686140

  18. Students' understanding of dot product as a projection in no-context, work and electric flux problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, Genaro; Barniol, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In this article we investigate students' understanding of dot product as a projection. In the first part, we compare students' performance in three isomorphic multiple-choice problems: no-context, work and electric flux. We administered one of the three problems to 422 students who were in the process of completing required introductory physics courses. In the second part, we analyze the students' ability to connect the physical concepts with the dot product's formal representation. We carried out interviews with 14 students, in which they were asked to solve the same three isomorphic problems. Following the tests, we found a difference that was statistically significant: both physical context problems helped students select the projection interpretation option. However, the percentages of students that selected this option remained very low in the three problems. Moreover, during the interviews we noticed that students had serious difficulties in developing a coherent conceptual framework between the physical concepts and the dot product's formal representation.

  19. Mothers’ and Fathers’ Responsive Problem Solving with Early Adolescents: Do Gender, Shyness, and Social Acceptance Make a Difference?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott R. Miller; Gene H. Brody; Velma M. Murry

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the extent to which youths’ (n = 231) shyness and social acceptance in preadolescence were associated with parents’ responsive problem solving 1 year later\\u000a after controlling for initial levels of parents’ problem solving. Teachers (n = 176) completed assessments of youths’ shyness and social acceptance, and parents (n = 231 married pairs) completed assessments of their responsive problem solving with the child. For shy daughters,

  20. Social determinants of self-reported emotional and behavioral problems in Greek adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aikaterini Kapi; Alexandra Veltsista; George Kavadias; Vasso Lekea; Chryssa Bakoula

    2007-01-01

    Objective  This study aimed to assess the social factors associated with self-reported emotional and behavioral problems among Greek\\u000a adolescents.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  At age 18, a population-based sample of 3373 Greek adolescents completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR) questionnaire.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The results from the multivariate analysis indicated that both lack of intimate friendships and not having parental monitoring\\u000a were independently associated with problem behavior among both

  1. Social and Behavioral Problems of Children with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise H. Badaruddin; Glena L. Andrews; Sven Bölte; Kathryn J. Schilmoeller; Gary Schilmoeller; Lynn K. Paul; Warren S. Brown

    2007-01-01

    Archival data from a survey of parent observations was used to determine the prevalence of social and behavioral problems\\u000a in children with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). Parent observations were surveyed using the Child Behavior Checklist\\u000a (CBCL) for 61 children with ACC who were selected from the archive based on criteria of motor development suggesting a relatively\\u000a high general

  2. Correlates of social problem solving during the first year after traumatic brain injury in children.

    PubMed

    Hanten, Gerri; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Menefee, Deleene S; Li, Xiaoqi; Lane, Summer; Vasquez, Carmen; Chu, Zili; Ramos, Marco A; Yallampalli, Ragini; Swank, Paul; Chapman, Sandra B; Gamino, Jacque; Hunter, Jill V; Levin, Harvey S

    2008-05-01

    Effects of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on social problem-solving were examined in a longitudinal study of 103 children with moderate-to-severe TBI (n = 52) or orthopedic injury (OI; n = 51) using the Interpersonal Negotiation Strategies task (INS). Children solved age-appropriate hypothetical social conflicts, with responses for four problem-solving steps scored by developmental level. The OI group performed better than the TBI group, but rate of change in performance over time did not differ between groups, suggesting improvement in children with TBI was not due to recovery from injury. Strong relations between INS performance and memory and language skills emerged, but emotional processing was only weakly related to INS performance. Frontal focal lesions influenced INS performance in younger (but not older) children with TBI. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), revealed strong relationships between the INS and increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measures indexing connectivity in the dorsolateral and cingulate regions in both TBI and OI groups, and in the temporal and parietal regions in the TBI group. These findings inform studies of social problem-solving skills during the first year post TBI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:18444714

  3. Reproducing gender in counseling and psychotherapy: Understanding the problem and changing the practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia Albino Gilbert

    1999-01-01

    In this article I argue that the concept of gender is misunderstood by the majority of psychologists. Increasingly the term “gender” is mindlessly replacing the term “sex,” obfuscating decades of theory and research that elucidated gender as a complex social-psychological variable rather than a bifurcated individual-difference variable tied to biological sex. As a consequence, gender is largely ignored as an

  4. Understanding academic performance of international students: the role of ethnicity, academic and social integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart Rienties; Simon Beausaert; Therese Grohnert; Susan Niemantsverdriet; Piet Kommers

    More than 3 million students study outside their home country, primarily at a Western university. A common belief among educators\\u000a is that international students are insufficiently adjusted to higher education in their host country, both academically and\\u000a socially. Furthermore, several groups of international students experience considerable amounts of stress while adapting to\\u000a the culture of the host-institute. Several researchers argue

  5. Using perturbation theory to understand the two body problem in general relativity

    E-print Network

    Adhyam Sundararajan, Pranesh

    2009-01-01

    Binary systems composed of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes) radiate gravitational waves (GWs). The prospect of detecting these GWs using ground and space based experiments has made it imperative to understand ...

  6. Enactive cinema paves way for understanding complex real-time social interaction in neuroimaging experiments

    PubMed Central

    Tikka, Pia; Väljamäe, Aleksander; de Borst, Aline W.; Pugliese, Roberto; Ravaja, Niklas; Kaipainen, Mauri; Takala, Tapio

    2012-01-01

    We outline general theoretical and practical implications of what we promote as enactive cinema for the neuroscientific study of online socio-emotional interaction. In a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) setting, participants are immersed in cinematic experiences that simulate social situations. While viewing, their physiological reactions—including brain responses—are tracked, representing implicit and unconscious experiences of the on-going social situations. These reactions, in turn, are analyzed in real-time and fed back to modify the cinematic sequences they are viewing while being scanned. Due to the engaging cinematic content, the proposed setting focuses on living-by in terms of shared psycho-physiological epiphenomena of experience rather than active coping in terms of goal-oriented motor actions. It constitutes a means to parametrically modify stimuli that depict social situations and their broader environmental contexts. As an alternative to studying the variation of brain responses as a function of a priori fixed stimuli, this method can be applied to survey the range of stimuli that evoke similar responses across participants at particular brain regions of interest. PMID:23125829

  7. Understanding the Impact of Assessment on Students in Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2004-01-01

    This article explores assessment in the context of problem-based learning (PBL) at three different levels. Firstly, it examines the position of assessment in the current system of higher education and, secondly, it examines students' experiences of assessment in problem-based programmes. The article draws on research into PBL that explored staff…

  8. Better understanding prevents tubular buckling problems. Part 2 (conclusion). Graphic solutions are presented for field situations

    SciTech Connect

    Goins, W.C.

    1980-02-01

    O'Brien-Goins Engineering Inc.'s concluding installment on tubular buckling problems delves deeper into the forces at work in buckling and presents realistic instances of related field problems. Sample solutions for typical cases of drill-collar buckling, casing buckling, and backoff operations illustrate the calculations and graphical representations used to define the specific buckling conditions.

  9. Understanding the Impact of (Fiscal and Monetary) Policy: Using the Send-A-Problem Technique

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    KM McGoldrick

    Students in an introductory macroeconomics course practice applying their knowledge of monetary and fiscal policy to specific economic scenarios. During multiple rounds of problem solving facilitated by this send-a-problem, students identify how policy changes can be used in reaction to specific economic conditions or events. They also evaluate such policy changes in terms of resultant impacts on equilibrium conditions.

  10. Transdisciplinary research strategies for understanding socially patterned disease: the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS) project as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rosalind J.; Suglia, Shakira Franco; Levy, Jonathan; Fortun, Kim; Shields, Alexandra; Subramanian, SV; Wright, Robert

    2009-01-01

    As we have seen a global increase in asthma in the past three decades it has also become clear that it is a socially patterned disease, based on demographic and socioeconomic indicators clustered by areas of residence. This trend is not readily explained by traditional genetic paradigms or physical environmental exposures when considered alone. This has led to consideration of the interplay among physical and psychosocial environmental hazards and the molecular and genetic determinants of risk (i.e., biomedical framing) within the broader socioenvironmental context including socioeconomic position as an upstream “cause of the causes” (i.e., ecological framing). Transdisciplinary research strategies or programs that embrace this complexity through a shared conceptual framework that integrates diverse discipline-specific theories, models, measures, and analytical methods into ongoing asthma research may contribute most significantly toward furthering our understanding of socially patterned disease. This paper provides an overview of a multilevel, multimethod longitudinal study, the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment and Social Stress (ACCESS), as a case study to exemplify both the opportunities and challenges of transdisciplinary research on urban asthma expression in the United States. PMID:18833350

  11. An ecological public health approach to understanding the relationships between sustainable urban environments, public health and social equity.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The environmental determinants of public health and social equity present many challenges to a sustainable urbanism-climate change, water shortages and oil dependency to name a few. There are many pathways from urban environments to human health. Numerous links have been described but some underlying mechanisms behind these relationships are less understood. Combining theory and methods is a way of understanding and explaining how the underlying structures of urban environments relate to public health and social equity. This paper proposes a model for an ecological public health, which can be used to explore these relationships. Four principles of an ecological public health-conviviality, equity, sustainability and global responsibility-are used to derive theoretical concepts that can inform ecological public health thinking, which, among other things, provides a way of exploring the underlying mechanisms that link urban environments to public health and social equity. Theories of more-than-human agency inform ways of living together (conviviality) in urban areas. Political ecology links the equity concerns about environmental and social justice. Resilience thinking offers a better way of coming to grips with sustainability. Integrating ecological ethics into public health considers the global consequences of local urban living and thus attends to global responsibility. This way of looking at the relationships between urban environments, public health and social equity answers the call to craft an ecological public health for the twenty-first century by re-imagining public health in a way that acknowledges humans as part of the ecosystem, not separate from it, though not central to it. PMID:23661624

  12. DRD4 Genotype and the Developmental Link of Peer Social Preference with Conduct Problems and Prosocial Behavior Across Ages 9-12 Years.

    PubMed

    Buil, J Marieke; Koot, Hans M; Olthof, Tjeert; Nelson, Kelly A; van Lier, Pol A C

    2015-07-01

    The peer environment is among the most important factors for children's behavioral development. However, not all children are equally influenced by their peers, which is potentially due to their genetic make-up. The dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is a potential candidate gene that may influence children's susceptibility to the peer environment. In the present study, we explored whether variations in the DRD4 gene moderated the association between children's social standing in the peer group (i.e., social preference among classmates) with subsequent conduct problems and prosocial behavior among 405 (51 % females) elementary school children followed annually throughout early adolescence (ages 9-12 years). The behavioral development of children with and without the DRD4 7-repeat allele was compared. The results indicated that children who had higher positive social preference scores (i.e., who were more liked relative to disliked by their peers) showed less conduct problem development in subsequent years relative to children who had lower positive social preference scores. In contrast, children who had more negative preference scores (i.e., who were more disliked relative to liked among peers) showed more conduct problem development in subsequent years, relative to children who had less negative preference scores. However, these effects only occurred when children had a 7-repeat allele. For children who did not have a 7-repeat allele, the level of social preference was not associated with subsequent conduct problems. No evidence for gene-environment interaction effects for prosocial behavior was found. The implications for our understanding of conduct problem development and its prevention are discussed. PMID:25956290

  13. Exploring the association between cognitive functioning and anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders: the role of social understanding and aggression.

    PubMed

    Niditch, Laura A; Varela, R Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L; Hill, Trenesha

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ, and parents completed measures of remaining variables. ASD diagnosis was associated with level of anxiety, and level of IQ explained this relation. IQ was significantly and positively associated with anxiety. Tests of a developmental model to explain the relation between IQ and anxiety showed that social understanding and aggression mediated the relation for toddlers. For preschool- and early elementary school-aged children, respectively, three-way interactions between IQ, social understanding, and aggression predicted anxiety, and graphs of the interactions suggest that the association between IQ and anxiety is increasingly driven by either aggression or social understanding over the course of childhood. PMID:22417187

  14. Emotion, Understanding, and Social Skills among Boys at Risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kats-Gold, Inna; Priel, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest in the role of emotional competence in middle school children's adjustment and functioning, yet many populations remain underresearched. Few studies have explored the emotional competence, especially emotion understanding, of children with, or at risk of, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and even fewer…

  15. The Material Features of Multiple Representations and Their Cognitive and Social Affordances for Science Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, R.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews several research studies conducted by one research group that used mixed research methods to explore the ways expert and novice scientists use material features of multiple representations to support their shared understanding and laboratory practices. Draws implications for the design and use of technology based systems that provide…

  16. Treating Conduct Problems and Strengthening Social and Emotional Competence in Young Children: The Dina Dinosaur Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Reid, M. Jamila

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the Dina Dinosaur Social, Emotional and Problem Solving Child Training Program for young children with conduct problems. The program emphasizes training children in skills such as emotional literacy, empathy or perspective taking, friendship and communication skills, anger management, interpersonal problem solving, and…

  17. Exposure to violence, social cognitive processing, and sleep problems in urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Wendy; Lepore, Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to violence is associated with elevated levels of sleep problems in adolescence, which contributes to poor mental and physical health and impaired academic performance. However, reasons underlying the associations between exposure to violence and sleep difficulty have not been examined. This study tested a social cognitive processing path model linking experiences of witnessing and directly experiencing community violence and sleep problems. Participants were 362 early adolescents (M age = 12.45 years, SD = 0.59; range 11-14 years; 48.9% male; 51% Latino/a; 34% black) from urban communities enrolled in a middle-school-based intervention study on the east coast of the United States that was designed to reduce the negative effects of exposure to violence. All youth in the current study reported witnessing or directly experiencing community violence. Adolescents completed four school-based assessments over an 18-month period, reporting on their exposure to community violence, sleep problems, intrusive thoughts about and social constraints in talking about violence, and life events. A path model that included both victimization and witnessing violence revealed that wave 1 witnessing violence, but not victimization, was associated with elevated social constraints in talking about violence at wave 2, which was associated with elevated intrusive thoughts at wave 3, which was associated with poor sleep quality at wave 4. Prior levels of all constructs were controlled in the analysis, in addition to life events, single parent household status, children's age and sex, intervention condition, and school. Youth exposed to violence may benefit from help in processing their experiences, thus reducing social constraints in talking about their experiences and associated intrusive thoughts. This is turn may improve sleep outcomes. PMID:25218396

  18. A Comparative Study of Selected Social Problems: A Snapshot View of Which Social Problems Are Perceived To Be Most Significant in the N.W. Section of Harris County, TX. A Class Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    High, Clennis F.; And Others

    A project was undertaken by a sociology class at Houston Community College, in Texas, to identify which social problems were perceived to be most important by residents of Northwest Harris County. Questionnaires were distributed to a random sample of county residents, requesting demographic information and asking respondents to rate six social

  19. Solving problems in social-ecological systems: definition, practice and barriers of transdisciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments. PMID:23475660

  20. Commentary: Biological Freudianism and the quest for understanding of the social origins of health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivienne Moore

    Dubos and colleagues' stated purpose1 was twofold, to demonstrate that the early environment could have a lasting influence on biological characteristics and to illustrate the ability of laboratory models to address 'socio-medical' problems occurring in human populations. These twin purposes were drawn together at the end of the paper in the call for 'an experimental science that might be called

  1. Translating multilevel theory into multilevel research: Challenges and opportunities for understanding the social determinants of psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Erin C.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Yudron, Monica; Jones, Stephanie M.; Subramanian, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    The observation that features of the social environment, including family, school, and neighborhood characteristics, are associated with individual-level outcomes has spurred the development of dozens of multilevel or ecological theoretical frameworks in epidemiology, public health, psychology, and sociology, among other disciplines. Despite the widespread use of such theories in etiological, intervention, and policy studies, challenges remain in bridging multilevel theory and empirical research. This paper set out to synthesize these challenges and provide specific examples of methodological and analytical strategies researchers are using to gain a more nuanced understanding of the social determinants of psychiatric disorders, with a focus on children’s mental health. To accomplish this goal, we begin by describing multilevel theories, defining their core elements, and discussing what these theories suggest is needed in empirical work. In the second part, we outline the main challenges researchers face in translating multilevel theory into research. These challenges are presented for each stage of the research process. In the third section, we describe two methods being used as alternatives to traditional multilevel modeling techniques to better bridge multilevel theory and multilevel research. These are: (1) multilevel factor analysis and multilevel structural equation modeling; and (2) dynamic systems approaches. Through its review of multilevel theory, assessment of existing strategies, and examination of emerging methodologies, this paper offers a framework to evaluate and guide empirical studies on the social determinants of child psychiatric disorders as well as health across the lifecourse. PMID:24469555

  2. Problem Posing: What Can It Tell Us about Students' Mathematical Understanding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirie, Susan E. B.

    In 2001, at Snowbird, Utah, members of the [mu]-group from the University of British Columbia, under the guidance of Dr. Susan Pirie, engaged in an innovative, continuous session of linked papers which consider the notion and nature of mathematical understanding and reviewed a number of different theories and approaches to this phenomenon. We…

  3. No Clicks, No Problem: Using Cursor Movements to Understand and Improve Search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Huang; Ryen W. White; Susan Dumais

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how people interact with search engines is important in improving search quality. Web search engines typically analyze queries and clicked results, but these ac- tions provide limited signals regarding search interaction. Laboratory studies often use richer methods such as gaze tracking, but this is impractical at Web scale. In this paper, we examine mouse cursor behavior on search engine

  4. How Trauma and Attachment Can Impact Neurodevelopment: Informing Our Understanding and Treatment of Sexual Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creeden, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several years there has been a notable increase in neurological and neurodevelopmental research, with a keen interest in applying this research to our understanding of everyday human learning and behaviour. One aspect of this research has examined how the experience of trauma in childhood can affect neurodevelopment with implications…

  5. Seven- to Nine-Year-Olds' Understandings of Speech Marks: Some Issues and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Nigel; Sing, Sue

    2011-01-01

    At first sight the speech mark would seem to be one of the easiest to use of all punctuation marks. After all, all one has to do is take the piece of speech or written language and surround it with the appropriately shaped marks. But, are speech marks as easy to understand and use as suggested above, especially for young children beginning their…

  6. Can Multimedia Make Kids Care About Social Studies? The GlobalEd Problem-Based Learning Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andri Ioannou; Scott W. Brown; Robert D. Hannafin; Mark A. Boyer

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether using multimedia-based instructional material in a problem-based social studies simulation enhances student learning about world issues, increases interest in social studies, and generates positive attitudes toward the instruction. The GlobalEd Project, a Web-based international negotiation simulation embedded in the middle school social studies curriculum, was used in this investigation. The study employed a quasi-experimental design with

  7. Suicidal disclosures among friends: using social network data to understand suicide contagion.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Anna S; Abrutyn, Seth

    2015-03-01

    A robust literature suggests that suicide is socially contagious; however, we know little about how and why suicide spreads. Using network data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we examine the effects of alter's (1) disclosed and (2) undisclosed suicide attempts, (3) suicide ideation, and (4) emotional distress on ego's mental health one year later to gain insights into the emotional and cultural mechanisms that underlie suicide contagion. We find that when egos know about alter's suicide attempt, they report significantly higher levels of emotional distress and are more likely to report suicidality, net of extensive controls; however, alter's undisclosed suicide attempts and ideation have no significant effect on ego's mental health. Finally, we find evidence that emotional distress is contagious in adolescence, though it does not seem to promote suicidality. We discuss the implications of our findings for suicide contagion specifically and sociology more generally. PMID:25722129

  8. Depression in Homebound Older Adults: Problem-Solving Therapy and Personal and Social Resourcefulness

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Namkee G.; Marti, C. Nathan; Bruce, Martha L.; Hegel, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of problem-solving therapy is to teach patients systematic coping skills. For many homebound older adults, coping skills must also include both personal and social (help-seeking) resourcefulness. This study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived resourcefulness and depressive symptoms at postintervention and potential mediating effect of the resourcefulness among 121 low-income homebound older adults who participated in a pilot randomized controlled trial testing feasibility and preliminary efficacy of telehealth-PST. Resourcefulness Scale for Older Adults was used to measure personal and social resourcefulness. Only personal resourcefulness scores were significantly associated with depression outcomes at postintervention, and neither resourcefulness scores were significantly associated with group assignment. Analysis found no mediation effect of resourcefulness. The findings call for further research on potential mediators for the potentially effective depression treatment that could be sustained in the real world for low-income homebound older adults who have limited access to psychotherapy as a treatment modality. PMID:23768675

  9. Effectiveness of Leisure Time Activities Program on Social Skills and Behavioral Problems in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eratay, Emine

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of leisure time activities program in individuals with intellectual disabilities in terms of developing social skills and reducing behavioral problems. Social skills assessment scale, behavioral assessment form for children and young adults, and teacher's report forms were used in…

  10. Social Competency Training Goes to School: Pupil Involvement in the Classroom through Problem-Solving with People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallarman, Prudence R.; And Others

    The need for a "systems" approach to school-based social competency training has been highlighted by a national commission and the U.S. Department of Education. The Pupil Involvement/Problem-Solving with People (PI/PSP) curriculum has adapted numerous, well-researched social compentency training models targeted for elementary classroom use.…

  11. Social Skills and Problem Behaviours in School Aged Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macintosh, Kathleen; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    The social skills and problem behaviours of children with high-functioning autism and Asperger's Disorder were compared using parent and teacher reports on the Social Skills Rating System. The participants were 20 children with high-functioning autism, 19 children with Asperger's Disorder, and 17 typically developing children, matched on…

  12. Can Multimedia Make Kids Care about Social Studies? The GlobalEd Problem-Based Learning Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Andri; Brown, Scott W.; Hannafin, Robert D.; Boyer, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether using multimedia-based instructional material in a problem-based social studies simulation enhances student learning about world issues, increases interest in social studies, and generates positive attitudes toward the instruction. The GlobalEd Project, a Web-based international negotiation simulation embedded in…

  13. [Notes for understanding the problem of "public" health in the health sector].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Cristian Fabiano; da Silva, Rosane Azevedo Neves

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a theoretical review of how the public health concept has been perceived in health practices, based on the problematic field introduced in Italian and Brazilian health reforms, in order to understand the construction of public health and the meanings that this term acquires in the health arena. The main goal is to understand how public health appears in the context of health movements in Italy and Brazil, as well as its movement of variation. In this sense, an attempt is made to identify elements that contribute to the composition of a genealogy of public health. From the investigation of public health practices, the tensions produced by this concept are analyzed, giving visibility to those practices that demonstrate the public health experience as a force in the world of health. PMID:25760131

  14. Eight Problems for the Mirror Neuron Theory of Action Understanding in Monkeys and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hickok, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons in macaque frontal cortex has sparked a resurgence of interest in motor/embodied theories of cognition. This critical review examines the evidence in support of one of these theories, namely that the mirror neurons provide the basis of action understanding. It is argued that there is no evidence from monkey data that directly tests this theory, and evidence from humans makes a strong case against the position. PMID:19199415

  15. A Cross-Curricular, Problem-Based Project to Promote Understanding of Poverty in Urban Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Daniel S.; Tuchman, Ellen; Hawkins, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of problem-based learning to teach students about the scope and consequences of urban poverty through an innovative cross-curricular project. We illustrate the process, goals, and tasks of the Community Assessment Project, which incorporates community-level assessment, collection and analysis of public data, and…

  16. Advancing the "Colorado Graduates" Agenda: Understanding the Dropout Problem and Mobilizing to Meet the Graduation Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Balfanz, Robert; Byrnes, Vaughan

    2009-01-01

    The ambitious goal set by Colorado's governor to address the state's dropout problem is a model for the nation. Helping thousands of young people to receive their high school diplomas instead of leaving school without them is a crucial step in improving the quality of life for all Colorado residents. Accomplishing this goal will require focused…

  17. Understanding Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Youth Mental Health Services: Do Disparities Vary by Problem Type?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudino, Omar G.; Lau, Anna S.; Yeh, May; McCabe, Kristen M.; Hough, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined racial/ethnic disparities in mental health service use based on problem type (internalizing/externalizing). A diverse sample of youth in contact with public sectors of care and their families provided reports of youth's symptoms and functional impairment during an initial interview. Specialty and school-based mental health…

  18. Reciprocal Teaching as a Comprehension Strategy for Understanding Mathematical Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Garderen, Delinda

    2004-01-01

    Ms. Johnson was concerned about the inconsistent performance of several of her students in solving mathematical word problems. A number of her students were one to two grade levels below their grade placement in reading, spoke English as a second language, and had identified reading disabilities. On mathematics assignments that required minimal…

  19. Understanding the Role of Linguistic Processes in the Solution of Arithmetic Word Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Mark D.

    Ongoing work toward developing a learning environment that will perform real-time diagnoses of students' difficulties in solving mathematical word problems is described. The learning environment designed consists of a microworld and expert modules. The microworld (or toolbox) is a collection of mouse-driven interfaces that facilitate a transition…

  20. The Problem of Projects: Understanding the Theoretical Underpinnings of Project-Led PBL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanney, Roy; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2013-01-01

    For many years there has been a sharp division between project-based learning, and problem-based learning, with the former adopting a more technical rationalist approach while the latter adopts a more Socratic or dialogic approach. This article argues that current notions of project-based learning are too narrow and that combining the two…

  1. Reducing Bullying: Application of Social Cognitive Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swearer, Susan M.; Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Myers, Zachary R.

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive theory (SCT) is an important heuristic for understanding the complexity of bullying behaviors and the social nature of involvement in bullying. Bullying has been heralded as a social relationship problem, and the interplay between the individual and his or her social environment supports this conceptualization. SCT has been used…

  2. Education and the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfield, Robert

    The document contains three essays, written in the 1940s, about the role of the social studies in general education. The first considers the significance of social science research. An understanding of what is involved when a social problem is studied scientifically is a major element in modern general education. Also, every student should know…

  3. Applying an ESSENCE Framework to Understanding Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD: Retrospective Parent Reports of Childhood Problems

    PubMed Central

    Plenty, Stephanie; Heurlin, Dag; Arlinde, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasingly being made in adulthood. However, assessments can fail to address the diverse range of problems that patients have experienced. The current study applied an early symptomatic syndromes eliciting neurodevelopmental clinical examinations (ESSENCE) framework to explore retrospectively reported childhood developmental and behavioral problems. It examined if adult ASD and ADHD patients would show problems outside those reflected in the respective diagnostic criteria, and also if these patient groups would show more extensive childhood problems than other psychiatric patients. Parents of adults with ADHD (n = 130), ASD (n = 57), coexisting ADHD and ASD (n = 38), and other psychiatric disorders (n = 56) reported on a range of childhood problems. Descriptions of the ADHD, ASD, and ADHD+ASD groups reflected greater impairment than descriptions for patients with other psychiatric disorders in most problem areas. Although differences were observed between ADHD and ASD patients in the core diagnostic areas, these syndromes also shared a number of childhood difficulties. The ESSENCE approach can assist in understanding the symptom history of adult ADHD and ASD patients and can be helpful to distinguish their childhood experiences from other psychiatric patients' experiences. PMID:23633937

  4. Stigma happens: Social problems in the siting of nuclear waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Slovic, P.; Flynn, J.; Gregory, R. (Decision Research, Eugene, OR (United States))

    1994-10-01

    The paper by Metz challenges the view that stigma associated with a nuclear waste repository might lead to significant economic losses to the host region. We have been invited to comment on the general issues raised by this paper. We find that much of the evidence presented in the paper consists of factual and conceptual errors and misrepresentations of the research literature. Based on our review of evidence documenting the social and economic impacts of perceived risk, we conclude that stigma is an important phenomenon that is symptomatic of fundamental problems with the way in which nuclear waste facilities are sited. 21 refs.

  5. The anatomy of urban social networks and its implications in the searchability problem

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Yagüe, C.; Schneider, C. M.; Couronné, T.; Smoreda, Z.; Benito, R. M.; Zufiria, P. J.; González, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of large geolocated communication datasets has recently increased our understanding of how social networks relate to their physical space. However, many recurrently reported properties, such as the spatial clustering of network communities, have not yet been systematically tested at different scales. In this work we analyze the social network structure of over 25?million phone users from three countries at three different scales: country, provinces and cities. We consistently find that this last urban scenario presents significant differences to common knowledge about social networks. First, the emergence of a giant component in the network seems to be controlled by whether or not the network spans over the entire urban border, almost independently of the population or geographic extension of the city. Second, urban communities are much less geographically clustered than expected. These two findings shed new light on the widely-studied searchability in self-organized networks. By exhaustive simulation of decentralized search strategies we conclude that urban networks are searchable not through geographical proximity as their country-wide counterparts, but through an homophily-driven community structure. PMID:26035529

  6. The anatomy of urban social networks and its implications in the searchability problem.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Yagüe, C; Schneider, C M; Couronné, T; Smoreda, Z; Benito, R M; Zufiria, P J; González, M C

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of large geolocated communication datasets has recently increased our understanding of how social networks relate to their physical space. However, many recurrently reported properties, such as the spatial clustering of network communities, have not yet been systematically tested at different scales. In this work we analyze the social network structure of over 25?million phone users from three countries at three different scales: country, provinces and cities. We consistently find that this last urban scenario presents significant differences to common knowledge about social networks. First, the emergence of a giant component in the network seems to be controlled by whether or not the network spans over the entire urban border, almost independently of the population or geographic extension of the city. Second, urban communities are much less geographically clustered than expected. These two findings shed new light on the widely-studied searchability in self-organized networks. By exhaustive simulation of decentralized search strategies we conclude that urban networks are searchable not through geographical proximity as their country-wide counterparts, but through an homophily-driven community structure. PMID:26035529

  7. Social meets molecular: Combining phylogenetic and latent class analyses to understand HIV-1 transmission in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Avila, Dorita; Keiser, Olivia; Egger, Matthias; Kouyos, Roger; Böni, Jürg; Yerly, Sabine; Klimkait, Thomas; Vernazza, Pietro L; Aubert, Vincent; Rauch, Andri; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Günthard, Huldrych F; Stadler, Tanja; Spycher, Ben D

    2014-06-15

    Switzerland has a complex human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic involving several populations. We examined transmission of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) in a national cohort study. Latent class analysis was used to identify socioeconomic and behavioral groups among 6,027 patients enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study between 2000 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence data, available for 4,013 patients, was used to identify transmission clusters. Concordance between sociobehavioral groups and transmission clusters was assessed in correlation and multiple correspondence analyses. A total of 2,696 patients were infected with subtype B, 203 with subtype C, 196 with subtype A, and 733 with recombinant subtypes (mainly CRF02_AG and CRF01_AE). Latent class analysis identified 8 patient groups. Most transmission clusters of subtype B were shared between groups of gay men (groups 1-3) or between the heterosexual groups "heterosexual people of lower socioeconomic position" (group 4) and "injection drug users" (group 8). Clusters linking homosexual and heterosexual groups were associated with "older heterosexual and gay people on welfare" (group 5). "Migrant women in heterosexual partnerships" (group 6) and "heterosexual migrants on welfare" (group 7) shared non-B clusters with groups 4 and 5. Combining approaches from social and molecular epidemiology can provide insights into HIV-1 transmission and inform the design of prevention strategies. PMID:24821749

  8. Breadth and depth involvement: Understanding Internet gambling involvement and its relationship to gambling problems.

    PubMed

    LaPlante, Debi A; Nelson, Sarah E; Gray, Heather M

    2014-06-01

    The "involvement effect" refers to the finding that controlling for gambling involvement often reduces or eliminates frequently observed game-specific associations with problem gambling. In other words, broader patterns of gambling behavior, particularly the number of types of games played over a defined period, contribute more to problem gambling than playing specific games (e.g., lottery, casino, Internet gambling). This study extends this burgeoning area of inquiry in three primary ways. First, it tests independently and simultaneously the predictive power of two gambling patterns: breadth involvement (i.e., the number of games an individual plays) and depth involvement (i.e., the number of days an individual plays). Second, it includes the first involvement analyses of actual betting activity records that are associated with clinical screening information. Third, it evaluates and compares the linearity of breadth and depth effects. We conducted analyses of the actual gambling activity of 1,440 subscribers to the bwin.party gambling service who completed an online gambling disorder screen. In all, 11 of the 16 games we examined had a significant univariate association with a positive screen for gambling disorder. However, after controlling for breadth involvement, only Live Action Internet sports betting retained a significant relationship with potential gambling-related problems. Depth involvement, though significantly related to potential problems, did not impact game-based gambling disorder associations as much as breadth involvement. Finally, breadth effects appeared steeply linear, with a slight quadratic component manifesting beyond four games played, but depth effects appeared to have a strong linear component and a slight cubic component. PMID:23915365

  9. Emotion Discourse, Social Cognition, and Social Skills in Children with and without Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenning, Rachel M.; Baker, Bruce L.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parent-child emotion discourse, children's independent social information processing, and social skills outcomes in 146 families of 8-year-olds with and without developmental delays. Children's emergent social-cognitive understanding (internal state understanding, perspective taking, and causal reasoning and problem solving)…

  10. An Exploratory Study of Schema-Based Word-Problem-Solving Instruction for Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities: An Emphasis on Conceptual and Procedural Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha; DiPipi, Caroline M.; Perron-Jones, Nora

    2002-01-01

    Four middle school students with learning disabilities and low mathematics performance received schema strategy training in problem schemata (conceptual understanding) and problem solution (procedural understanding). Results indicated that the schema-based strategy was effective in substantially increasing the number of correctly solved word…

  11. Biologising parenting: neuroscience discourse, English social and public health policy and understandings of the child

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Pam; Lee, Ellie; Macvarish, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, claims about children's developing brains have become central to the formation of child health and welfare policies in England. While these policies assert that they are based on neuro-scientific discoveries, their relationship to neuroscience itself has been debated. However, what is clear is that they portray a particular understanding of children and childhood, one that is marked by a lack of acknowledgment of child personhood. Using an analysis of key government-commissioned reports and additional advocacy documents, this article illustrates the ways that the mind of the child is reduced to the brain, and this brain comes to represent the child. It is argued that a highly reductionist and limiting construction of the child is produced, alongside the idea that parenting is the main factor in child development. It is concluded that this focus on children's brains, with its accompanying deterministic perspective on parenting, overlooks children's embodied lives and this has implications for the design of children's health and welfare services. PMID:25683275

  12. Theory of mind and the social brain: implications for understanding the genetic basis of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Martin, A K; Robinson, G; Dzafic, I; Reutens, D; Mowry, B

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies in schizophrenia have recently made significant progress in our understanding of the complex genetic architecture of this disorder. Many genetic loci have been identified and now require functional investigation. One approach involves studying their correlation with neuroimaging and neurocognitive endophenotypes. Theory of Mind (ToM) deficits are well established in schizophrenia and they appear to fulfill criteria for being considered an endophenotype. We aim to review the behavioral and neuroimaging-based studies of ToM in schizophrenia, assess its suitability as an endophenotype, discuss current findings, and propose future research directions. Suitable research articles were sourced from a comprehensive literature search and from references identified through other studies. ToM deficits are repeatable, stable, and heritable: First-episode patients, those in remission and unaffected relatives all show deficits. Activation and structural differences in brain regions believed important for ToM are also consistently reported in schizophrenia patients at all stages of illness, although no research to date has examined unaffected relatives. Studies using ToM as an endophenotype are providing interesting genetic associations with both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and specific copy number variations (CNVs) such as the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. We conclude that ToM is an important cognitive endophenotype for consideration in future studies addressing the complex genetic architecture of schizophrenia, and may help identify more homogeneous clinical sub-types for further study. PMID:23927712

  13. Cultural constructions of "obesity": understanding body size, social class and gender in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Batnitzky, Adina K

    2011-01-01

    This article presents data from an in-depth qualitative study of overweight and diabetic women in Morocco, a North African country experiencing a rapid increase in obesity according to national statistics. This case study explores the heterogeneous relationship among health, culture and religion in Morocco by highlighting the relationship between the intricacies of women's everyday lives and their body sizes. My findings suggest that although the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adult women has been documented to have increased in Morocco along with other macroeconomic changes (i.e., increases in urbanization, etc.), "obesity" has yet to be universally medicalized in the Moroccan context. As such women do not generally utilize a medicalized concept of obesity in reference to their larger body sizes. Rather, cultural constructions of "obesity" are understood through cultural understandings of a larger body size, religious beliefs about health and illness, and the nature of women's religious participation. This stands in contrast to dominant accounts about the region that promote an overall veneration of a larger body size for women. PMID:21185216

  14. Improving understanding, promoting social inclusion, and fostering empowerment related to epilepsy: Epilepsy Foundation public awareness campaigns--2001 through 2013.

    PubMed

    Price, P; Kobau, R; Buelow, J; Austin, J; Lowenberg, K

    2015-03-01

    It is a significant public health concern that epilepsy, the fourth most common neurological disorder in the United States, is generally poorly understood by both the public and those living with the condition. Lack of understanding may magnify the challenges faced by those with epilepsy, including limiting treatment opportunities, effective management of symptoms, and full participation in daily life activities. Insufficient awareness of epilepsy and appropriate seizure first aid among the public and professionals can result in insufficient treatment, inappropriate seizure response, physical restraint, social exclusion, or other negative consequences. To address the need for increased public education and awareness about epilepsy, the national Epilepsy Foundation, supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has conducted yearly multifaceted public education and awareness campaigns designed to reach the broad population and targeted segments of the population including youth, young adults, racial/ethnic groups (i.e., African-, Hispanic-, and Asian-Americans), and people with epilepsy and their caregivers. Campaign channels have included traditional media, social media, and community opinion leaders and celebrity spokespersons. The key activities of these campaigns, conducted from 2001 to 2013, are summarized in this report. PMID:25726152

  15. Relationships: empirical contribution. Understanding personality pathology in adolescents: the five factor model of personality and social information processing.

    PubMed

    Hessels, Christel; van den Hanenberg, Danique; de Castro, Bram Orobio; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-02-01

    This study seeks to integrate two research traditions that lie at the base of the understanding of personality pathology in adolescents. The first research tradition refers to normal personality according to the Five Factor Model (FFM). The second tradition specifies the key feature of personality disorder as the capacity to mentalize, which can be reflected in Social Information Processing (SIP). In a clinical sample of 96 adolescents, the authors investigated response generation, coping strategy, and memories of past frustrating experiences as part of SIP, as mediator in the relationship between personality and personality pathology, and a possible moderating role of personality on the relationship between SIP and personality pathology. The hypothesized mediation, by which the effects of personality dimensions on personality pathology was expected to be mediated by SIP variables, was found only for the effect of Neuroticism, most specifically on BPD, which appeared to be mediated by memories the patients had about past frustrating conflict situations with peers. Some moderating effects of personality on the relationship between SIP variables and personality pathology were found, suggesting that high Agreeableness and sometimes low Neuroticism can buffer this relationship. These results suggest that personality dimensions and social cognitions both independently and together play a role in adolescents' personality pathology. PMID:24344893

  16. Player Preferences and Social Harm: An Analysis of the Relationships between Player Characteristics, Gambling Modes, and Problem Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Martin; Stevens, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    To explore the structure of gambling participation and its association with problem gambling, we draw upon Caillois's distinction between games based on competition (i.e. "agon") and those based on chance (i.e. "alea"). The idea that "alea" and "agon" are socially patterned and associated with differing levels of problem gambling, as measured by…

  17. The Relation between Observational Measures of Social Problem Solving and Familial Antisocial Behavior: Genetic and Environmental Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spotts, Erica L.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Hetherington, E. Mavis; Reiss, David

    2001-01-01

    Examined the association between social problem-solving deficits and adolescent antisocial behavior within the family context, and estimated genetic and environmental effects as part of the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development project. Found genetic influence for antisocial behavior but not for problem solving. (Author/KB)

  18. Being Admired or Being Liked: Classroom Social Status and Depressive Problems in Early Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Veenstra, Rene; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ormel, Johan

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates associations between depressive problems and classroom social status in a large population cohort of Dutch early adolescents (N = 1046, age 13.52 plus or minus 0.51, 52.4% girls). Depressive problems were assessed by parent and self-reports and classroom status by peer nominations. We assessed peer status with respect to…

  19. Mediating Effect of Psychopathy on the Risk of Social Problems Among Children with ADHD Versus Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Raiker, Joseph S; Greening, L; Stoppelbein, L; Becker, Stephen P; Fite, Paula J; Luebbe, Aaron M

    2015-08-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) has been proposed as a unique syndrome; however research examining how it is different from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is just starting to emerge. The present study extends this research by examining how specific personality features (i.e., psychopathy) may mediate the relation between ADHD and social problems, but not between SCT and social problems. Caregivers of 198 children (6-12 years old) that presented for an inpatient psychiatric evaluation completed standardized measures of childhood behavior problems. Bootstrapped mediational analyses were performed to evaluate the mediating role of psychopathy on the relation between social problems and symptoms of ADHD versus SCT. Two sub-domains of psychopathy-impulsivity and narcissism-emerged as partial mediators for the relation between social problems and ADHD symptoms; whereas SCT symptoms were not found to be related to psychopathy after controlling for ADHD symptoms. These findings provide support for conceptualizing ADHD and SCT as discrete syndromes as well as for the mediating role of psychopathy domains on the risk of social problems among a clinical sample of youth with symptoms of ADHD. PMID:25212965

  20. Theoretical understanding of the problem with a singular drift term in the complex Langevin method

    E-print Network

    Nishimura, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The complex Langevin method aims at performing path integral with a complex action numerically based on complexification of the original real dynamical variables. One of the poorly understood issues concerns occasional failure in the presence of logarithmic singularities in the action, which appear, for instance, from the fermion determinant in finite density QCD. We point out that the failure should be attributed to the breakdown of the relation between the complex weight that satisfies the Fokker-Planck equation and the probability distribution associated with the stochastic process. In fact, this problem can occur in general when the stochastic process involves a singular drift term. We show, however, in a simple example that there exists a parameter region in which the method works although the standard reweighting method is hardly applicable.

  1. Theoretical understanding of the problem with a singular drift term in the complex Langevin method

    E-print Network

    Jun Nishimura; Shinji Shimasaki

    2015-04-30

    The complex Langevin method aims at performing path integral with a complex action numerically based on complexification of the original real dynamical variables. One of the poorly understood issues concerns occasional failure in the presence of logarithmic singularities in the action, which appear, for instance, from the fermion determinant in finite density QCD. We point out that the failure should be attributed to the breakdown of the relation between the complex weight that satisfies the Fokker-Planck equation and the probability distribution associated with the stochastic process. In fact, this problem can occur in general when the stochastic process involves a singular drift term. We show, however, in a simple example that there exists a parameter region in which the method works although the standard reweighting method is hardly applicable.

  2. The Assessment of Alexithymia in Medical Settings: Implications for Understanding and Treating Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Lumley, Mark A.; Neely, Lynn C.; Burger, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    The construct of alexithymia encompasses the characteristics of difficulty identifying feelings, difficulty describing feelings, externally oriented thinking, and a limited imaginal capacity. These characteristics are thought to reflect deficits in the cognitive processing and regulation of emotions and to contribute to the onset or maintenance of several medical and psychiatric disorders. This article reviews recent methods for assessing alexithymia and examines how assessing alexithymia can inform clinical practice. Alexithymia is associated with heightened physiological arousal, the tendency to notice and report physical symptoms, and unhealthy compulsive behaviors. Alexithymic patients may respond poorly to psychological treatments, although perhaps not to cognitive-behavioral techniques, and it is unclear whether alexithymia can be improved through treatment. Interpretive problems regarding alexithymia include its overlap with other traits, whether it is secondary to illness or trauma, the possibility of subtypes, and low correlations among multiple measures. Nonetheless, we encourage the assessment of alexithymia in applied settings. PMID:18001224

  3. UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISM OF CYTOCHROME P450 3A4: RECENT ADVANCES AND REMAINING PROBLEMS

    PubMed Central

    Sevrioukova, Irina F.; Poulos, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) represent a diverse group of heme-thiolate proteins found in almost all organisms. CYPs share a common protein fold but differ in substrate selectivity and catalyze a wide variety of monooxygenation reactions via activation of molecular oxygen. Among 57 human P450s, the 3A4 isoform (CYP3A4) is the most abundant and the most important because it metabolizes the majority of the administered drugs. A remarkable feature of CYP3A4 is its extreme promiscuity in substrate specificity and cooperative substrate binding, which often leads to undesirable drug-drug interactions and toxic side effects. Owing to its importance in drug development and therapy, CYP3A4 has been the most extensively studied mammalian P450. In this review we provide an overview on recent progress and remaining problems in the CYP3A4 research. PMID:23018626

  4. 'I hope we won't have to understand racism one day': researching or reproducing 'race' in social psychological research?

    PubMed

    Howarth, Caroline

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines the reification and problemization of 'race' in Psychological research in both influential studies in the field and in my empirical work. The main argument is that we need to examine how representations of 'race' are assumed, produced and contested in research practice. This argument is made by (a) showing how research in the area adopts everyday representations of 'race' as essentialized and (b) with an illustration of the construction of 'race' within my study. This study explores how children in a predominantly white setting accept and contest representations that race. twenty two children from a range of cultural backgrounds volunteered to discuss their views and experiences of 'race' and racism in a naturalistic research activity. The analysis reveals that racialized difference is something that is constructed as both 'real' - in that it can be seen, touched and even caught from 'the other' and simultaneously something that is constructed, imposed and damaging. This highlights the possibilities for racialized others to take up positions as agents and not (only) as objects of the racializing and racist gaze, and so presents the case for thinking, debating and researching beyond reifying representations of 'race'. This has important lessons for social psychology: namely, we cannot continue to take racial categorization as a naturalistic or self-evident aspect of the social worlds that our discipline plays an important role in constructing and defending. PMID:18817595

  5. [Empowerment in prevention and health promotion--a critical conceptual evaluation of basic understanding, dimensions and assessment problems].

    PubMed

    Kliche, T; Kröger, G

    2008-12-01

    Empowerment is an important concept in health care, but despite its prevalence it seems to be more of a buzz word. Thus, a conceptual review on empowerment in prevention and health promotion was carried out. 62 German and international theoretical contributions, reviews and studies were incorporated, covering the fields of prevention, care and therapy, rehabilitation, health-care research, nursing and work-related stress. The analysis revealed eight main dimensions of empowerment: (1) shared decision-making, (2) self-efficacy, (3) social support and social capital, (4) skills and competences, (5) health care utilisation, (6) goal setting and attainment, (7) reflexive thought and (8) innovation. Their empirical assessment can be carried out on a micro-, meso-, or macro-level. Three distinct basic conceptual notions emerged from the analysis, each applying its own specific research questions and measurement instruments: clinical, organizational-professional and political understanding of "empowerment". Therefore, these three specific conceptual notions should each be developed and tested separately, in particular in reviews, and empirical studies should embrace all eight subdimensions. PMID:19085666

  6. Low Anger-Aggression and Anxiety-Withdrawal Characteristic to Preschoolers in Japanese Society Where "Hikikomori" Is Becoming a Major Social Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masataka, Nobuo

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated social competence and problem behaviors of 200 Japanese preschoolers. Found anxiety-withdrawal, anger- aggression, and social competence factors as well as age and gender differences in emotional and behavioral problems and social competence. Found consistency with previous findings from U.S. and Canadian samples. (DLH)

  7. Social influence on temptation: perceived descriptive norms, temptation and restraint, and problem drinking among college students

    PubMed Central

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    Temptation and restraint have long been associated with problematic drinking. Among college students, social norms are one of the strongest predictors of problematic drinking. To date, no studies have examined the association between temptation and restraint and perceived descriptive norms on drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. The purpose of this study was to examine whether perceived descriptive norms moderated the relationship between temptation and restraint and drinking outcomes among college students. Participants were 1,095 college students from a large, public, culturally-diverse, southern university who completed an online survey about drinking behaviors and related attitudes. Drinks per week and alcohol-related problems were examined as a function of perceived descriptive norms, Cognitive Emotional Preoccupation (CEP) (temptation), and Cognitive Behavioral Control (CBC) (restraint). Additionally, drinking outcomes were examined as a function of the two-way interactions between CEP and perceived descriptive norms and CBC and perceived descriptive norms. Results indicated that CEP and perceived descriptive norms were associated with drinking outcomes. CBC was not associated with drinking outcomes. Additionally, perceived descriptive norms moderated the association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems. There was a positive association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems, especially for those higher on perceived descriptive norms. College students who are very tempted to drink may drink more heavily and experience alcohol-related problems more frequently if they have greater perceptions that the typical student at their university/college drinks a lot. PMID:24064190

  8. False belief understanding goes to school: On the social-emotional consequences of coming early or late to a first theory of mind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris E. Lalonde; Michael J. Chandler

    1995-01-01

    This research report describes a search for possible relations between children's developing theories of mind and aspects of their social-emotional maturity conducted by comparing the performance of 3-year-olds on measures of false belief understanding with teacher ratings of certain of their social-emotional skills and behaviours. The intuitions guiding this exploratory effort were, not only that a working grasp of the

  9. In search of the 'problem family': public health and social work in England and Wales 1940-70.

    PubMed

    Welshman, J

    1996-12-01

    Recent attempts to explain the decline of public health in England and Wales after 1948 have suggested that services had developed steadily but haphazardly in the interwar period, and that the lack of an underlying philosophy left Medical Officers of Health and their empires vulnerable to a range of forces that included the decline of infectious disease, the rise of hospital medicine, the growth of general practice, and the increasing professionalism of social work. Yet the argument that public health practitioners lagged behind contemporary thinking on social work in the 1950s deserves closer examination, and this article uses the rise and decline of the concept of the 'problem family' to examine the changing relationship between the two professional groups. It traces the emergence of the concept of the 'social problem group' in the 1930s, and considers why and how Medical Officers of Health and the Eugenics Society took up the idea of the 'problem family' after the Second world War. It charts how the Ministry of Health encouraged local authorities to use home helps and health visitors to tackle the 'problem family', and contrasts this medical approach with the casework methods developed by voluntary organizations and subsequently adopted by the social work profession. The article concludes that in revealing how Medical Officers of Health were out of touch with contemporary research and practice in social work, the issue of the 'problem family' helps to explain the decline of public health under the early National Health Service. PMID:11618731

  10. Understanding Interaction

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    the interactions · Unconstrained speech recognition · Non-verbal communication · Attention · Social cues · Understanding dialogues · Individual and group behaviour · Multimodal signals, multiparty communication #12;AMIUnderstanding Multiparty Interaction Challenges from Instrumented Meeting Rooms Steve Renals

  11. School social climate and teachers’ perceptions of classroom behavior problems: a 10 year longitudinal and multilevel study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Line LeBlanc; Raymond Swisher; Frank Vitaro; Richard E. Tremblay

    2007-01-01

    Using longitudinal and cross-sectional data, the present research sought to identify school social climate predictors of teachers’\\u000a perceptions of classroom behavior problems. The social climate and classroom behavior in 107 public and private French speaking\\u000a Canadian high schools was evaluated by 1399 teachers. The present analysis is unique in its ability to control for school\\u000a differences in the enrollment of

  12. The little-hierarchy problem is a little problem: understanding the difference between the big- and little-hierarchy problems with Bayesian probability

    E-print Network

    Fowlie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Experiments are once again under way at the LHC. This time around, however, the mood in the high-energy physics community is pessimistic. There is a growing suspicion that naturalness arguments that predict new physics near the weak scale are faulty and that prospects for a new discovery are limited. We argue that such doubts originate from a misunderstanding of the foundations of naturalness arguments. In spite of the first run at the LHC, which aggravated little-hierarchy problem, there is no cause for doubting naturalness or natural theories. Naturalness is grounded in Bayesian probability logic - it is not a scientific theory and it makes no sense to claim that it could be falsified or that it is under pressure from experimental data. We should remain optimistic about discovery prospects; natural theories, such as supersymmetry, generally predict new physics close to the weak scale. Furthermore, from a Bayesian perspective, we briefly discuss 't Hooft's technical naturalness and a contentious claim that t...

  13. Social Problem Solving and Depressive Symptoms over Time: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy, Brief Supportive Psychotherapy, and Pharmacotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Daniel N.; Leon, Andrew C.; Li, Chunshan; D'Zurilla, Thomas J.; Black, Sarah R.; Vivian, Dina; Dowling, Frank; Arnow, Bruce A.; Manber, Rachel; Markowitz, John C.; Kocsis, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Depression is associated with poor social problem solving, and psychotherapies that focus on problem-solving skills are efficacious in treating depression. We examined the associations between treatment, social problem solving, and depression in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of psychotherapy augmentation for…

  14. Role of Social Performance in Predicting Learning Problems: Prediction of Risk Using Logistic Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Prette, Zilda Aparecida Pereira; Prette, Almir Del; De Oliveira, Lael Almeida; Gresham, Frank M.; Vance, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Social skills are specific behaviors that individuals exhibit in order to successfully complete social tasks whereas social competence represents judgments by significant others that these social tasks have been successfully accomplished. The present investigation identified the best sociobehavioral predictors obtained from different raters…

  15. The Problem of Privilege: Male Social Work Students' Preservice Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesler, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Male social work students are a numerical minority in Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) programs, a reality that warrants exploration as the academy strives for greater diversity within preservice social work programs. The present qualitative phenomenological study examined how male social work students in one BSW university program perceived their…

  16. The Process of Scientific Inquiry as It Relates to the Creation/Evolution Controversy: I. A Serious Social Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon S.; Toth, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    We describe how the increased level of religiosity in the United States is correlated with the resistance to the teaching of evolution and argue that this is a social, rather than scientific, issue. Our goal is to foster teachers' understanding of the philosophy of biology and encourage them to proactively deal with creationism at all levels,…

  17. Poststroke Depression: Social Workers' Role in Addressing an Underrecognized Psychological Problem for Couples Who Have Experienced Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Michael J.; Powers, Laurie E.; Lyons, Karen S.

    2011-01-01

    Depression is the most common psychological challenge faced by many individuals and families following stroke. Fortunately, poststroke depression is treatable, and even preventable, if social work and other rehabilitation practitioners understand the most common risk factors and become familiar with measures for assessing for depression among…

  18. Social problems in disaster victim identification following the 2006 Pangandaran tsunami.

    PubMed

    Fitrasanti, Berlian I; Syukriani, Yoni F

    2009-04-01

    Disasters, both natural and man-made, are inevitable. Interpol and the ICRC have produced Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) Guidelines to assist examiners in the identification of disaster victims. Nevertheless, problems remain in DVI practice, as was evident following the 2006 tsunami in Pangandaran, a popular tourist destination in West Java, Indonesia. The problems included the desire of families to bury their relatives quickly, the decomposed condition of the dead bodies, the inadequate security which hampered the identification process, the shortage of space to conduct identification, and the lack of understanding by local police and the community. Despite these challenges, simplified identification did take place. Due to these challenges, however, academics and the government have begun workshops for both professionals and non-professionals in an attempt to introduce DVI to society. These workshops have been attended by government officers, members of the public, religious figures, military personnel, fire department employees, SAR, journalists, NGOs, and regional police officers. It is anticipated that these individuals will convey the importance of DVI practice to others within their professions and communities. We propose that future identification processes be streamlined, so that they are both quicker and more efficient. This would minimise the problems experienced in DVI, particularly when there are a large number of victims. PMID:19251458

  19. Temperament and Social Problem Solving Competence in Preschool: Influences on Academic Skills in Early Elementary School

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Olga L.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the current study were to examine whether children’s social problem solving (SPS) skills are a mechanism through which temperament influences later academic achievement and whether sex moderates these associations. Participants included 1,117 children enrolled in the NICHD Early Child Care Study. During preschool, mothers and childcare providers rated children’s temperamental shyness and inhibitory control, and SPS was assessed using a hypothetical-reflective measure during a laboratory visit. During kindergarten and first grade, teacher-report of math and language skills was collected. Results indicated that high ratings of inhibitory control in preschool, but not shyness, predicted better kindergarten and first grade academic skills. Furthermore, children’s SPS competence mediated the relations between both shyness and inhibitory control on later academic skills. The child’s sex did not moderate these associations. Results suggest that preventative efforts targeting early SPS skills may buffer against later academic adjustment problems among temperamentally extreme children. PMID:23355765

  20. Exploring the Association between Cognitive Functioning and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social Understanding and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L.; Hill, Trenesha

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ,…

  1. Understanding the Effects of Training Programs for Vulnerable Adults on Social Inclusion as Part of Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greef, Maurice; Segers, Mien; Verte, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    According to the increasing rates of unemployment and poverty a significant share of the European population can be considered at-risk-of-social exclusion. In order to combat social exclusion adult education seemed to be a possible tool, which can increase social inclusion among adult learners. This study explores factors relating to training…

  2. Toward understanding social cues and signals in human–robot interaction: effects of robot gaze and proxemic behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Stephen M.; Wiltshire, Travis J.; Lobato, Emilio J. C.; Jentsch, Florian G.; Huang, Wesley H.; Axelrod, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    As robots are increasingly deployed in settings requiring social interaction, research is needed to examine the social signals perceived by humans when robots display certain social cues. In this paper, we report a study designed to examine how humans interpret social cues exhibited by robots. We first provide a brief overview of perspectives from social cognition in humans and how these processes are applicable to human–robot interaction (HRI). We then discuss the need to examine the relationship between social cues and signals as a function of the degree to which a robot is perceived as a socially present agent. We describe an experiment in which social cues were manipulated on an iRobot AvaTM mobile robotics platform in a hallway navigation scenario. Cues associated with the robot’s proxemic behavior were found to significantly affect participant perceptions of the robot’s social presence and emotional state while cues associated with the robot’s gaze behavior were not found to be significant. Further, regardless of the proxemic behavior, participants attributed more social presence and emotional states to the robot over repeated interactions than when they first interacted with it. Generally, these results indicate the importance for HRI research to consider how social cues expressed by a robot can differentially affect perceptions of the robot’s mental states and intentions. The discussion focuses on implications for the design of robotic systems and future directions for research on the relationship between social cues and signals. PMID:24348434

  3. Force, velocity, and work: The effects of different contexts on students' understanding of vector concepts using isomorphic problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-12-01

    In this article we compare students' understanding of vector concepts in problems with no physical context, and with three mechanics contexts: force, velocity, and work. Based on our "Test of Understanding of Vectors," a multiple-choice test presented elsewhere, we designed two isomorphic shorter versions of 12 items each: a test with no physical context, and a test with mechanics contexts. For this study, we administered the items twice to students who were finishing an introductory mechanics course at a large private university in Mexico. The first time, we administered the two 12-item tests to 608 students. In the second, we only tested the items for which we had found differences in students' performances that were difficult to explain, and in this case, we asked them to show their reasoning in written form. In the first administration, we detected no significant difference between the medians obtained in the tests; however, we did identify significant differences in some of the items. For each item we analyze the type of difference found between the tests in the selection of the correct answer, the most common error on each of the tests, and the differences in the selection of incorrect answers. We also investigate the causes of the different context effects. Based on these analyses, we establish specific recommendations for the instruction of vector concepts in an introductory mechanics course. In the Supplemental Material we include both tests for other researchers studying vector learning, and for physics teachers who teach this material.

  4. Implementation of a school-based social and emotional learning intervention: understanding diffusion processes within complex systems.

    PubMed

    Evans, Rhiannon; Murphy, Simon; Scourfield, Jonathan

    2015-07-01

    Sporadic and inconsistent implementation remains a significant challenge for social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions. This may be partly explained by the dearth of flexible, causative models that capture the multifarious determinants of implementation practices within complex systems. This paper draws upon Rogers (2003) Diffusion of Innovations Theory to explain the adoption, implementation and discontinuance of a SEL intervention. A pragmatic, formative process evaluation was conducted in alignment with phase 1 of the UK Medical Research Council's framework for Developing and Evaluating Complex Interventions. Employing case-study methodology, qualitative data were generated with four socio-economically and academically contrasting secondary schools in Wales implementing the Student Assistance Programme. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 programme stakeholders. Data suggested that variation in implementation activity could be largely attributed to four key intervention reinvention points, which contributed to the transformation of the programme as it interacted with contextual features and individual needs. These reinvention points comprise the following: intervention training, which captures the process through which adopters acquire knowledge about a programme and delivery expertise; intervention assessment, which reflects adopters' evaluation of an intervention in relation to contextual needs; intervention clarification, which comprises the cascading of knowledge through an organisation in order to secure support in delivery; and intervention responsibility, which refers to the process of assigning accountability for sustainable delivery. Taken together, these points identify opportunities to predict and intervene with potential implementation problems. Further research would benefit from exploring additional reinvention activity. PMID:25726153

  5. Trajectories of Maternal Verbal Aggression across the Middle School Years: Associations with Negative View of Self and Social Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Kera L.; Brassard, Marla R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The primary research objective was to explore the relationship between trajectories of maternal verbal aggression (VA) experienced by low-income, community middle school students across a three-year period and outcomes that have been found to be related to VA in previous work, including a negative view of self and social problems.…

  6. Integrating Social Science and Design Inquiry Through Interdisciplinary Design Charrettes: An Approach to Participatory Community Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon E. Sutton; Susan P. Kemp

    2006-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaborations that aim to facilitate meaningful community outcomes require both the right mix of disciplinary knowledge and effective community participation, which together can deepen collective knowledge and the capacity to take action. This article explores three interdisciplinary design charrettes, intensive participatory workshops that addressed specific community problems and provided a context for integrating design and social science inquiry with

  7. Differential Susceptibility Effects: The Interaction of Negative Emotionality and Sibling Relationship Quality on Childhood Internalizing Problems and Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Judith K.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Olino, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas socialization influences in early childhood have been linked to children's emerging internalizing problems and prosocial behavior, relatively few studies have examined how NE might moderate such associations in both advantageous and maladaptive ways. Furthermore, more research is needed to evaluate the impact of sibling relationships as an…

  8. Evaluation of Problem-Based Learning as a Method for Teaching Social Work Administration: A Content Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce D. Hartsell; Aubrey J. Parker

    2008-01-01

    A social work administration class that used a problem-based learning approach was evaluated using text analysis of students' reflection papers. In the class project, students worked with a group of individuals who don't have homes to develop a formal organization. The text analysis yielded seven themes related to student learning: ethics, administration concepts, myself, application versus theory, structure, difficult details,

  9. Pollution: Problems and Solutions. Grade Nine, Unit One, 9.1 Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Sandra; Campbell, Bruce

    The ninth grade unit of the FICSS series (Focus on Inner City Social Studies -- see SO 008 271) studies the economic and political realities of the inner city. This document, the first unit of the 9th grade section, deals with the ecological crises involving pollution and its causes. Specific problems include air pollution, pesticides, herbicides,…

  10. Social Information Processing of Positive and Negative Hypothetical Events in Children with ADHD and Conduct Problems and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Brendan F.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Doucet, Amelie; King, Sara; MacKinnon, Maura; McGrath, Patrick J.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Corkum, Penny

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined social information processing (SIP) of events with varied outcomes in children with ADHD and conduct problems (CPs; defined as oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] or conduct disorder [CD]) and controls. Method: Participants were 64 children (46 boys, 18 girls) aged 6 to 12, including 39 with ADHD and 25 controls.…

  11. Symptoms of Mental Health Problems: Children's and Adolescents' Understandings and Implications for Gender Differences in Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their…

  12. Building mutual aid among young people with emotional and behavioral problems: the experiences of Hong Kong social workers.

    PubMed

    Ngai, Steven Sek-yum; Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ngai, Ngan-pun

    2009-01-01

    Among young people with emotional and behavioral problems (EBP), mutual aid is likely to be valuable in their rehabilitation and deserving of social work support. The benefits of mutual aid stem from the possibility that it prolongs the effective contribution of social work service. Given its potential benefits, it is imperative to clarify the ways in which social work service maximizes these benefits. Such clarification is necessary both to verify untested theories about social work inputs to mutual aid and because the research literature on mutual aid among young people is particularly lacking. Based on data from three focus groups involving social workers in Hong Kong, this study seeks to demonstrate the relevance of theoretically based group work strategies in the mutual aid and rehabilitation of EBP youth. These strategies include identifying commonalities and setting prioritiese, balancing support with demand, optimizing input between social workers and members, and connecting members with relevant others in the community. The research and service implications of the findings of this study for promoting efficient social work input that contributes to the long-term development of young people are discussed. PMID:19764278

  13. Social cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pinkham, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    The topic of social cognition has attracted considerable interest in schizophrenia over the last several years. This construct generally refers to the detection, processing, and utilization of social information and, within the field of schizophrenia, includes several skills such as recognizing emotion, understanding the thoughts and intentions of others, and interpreting social cues. Individuals with schizophrenia show significant impairments in social cognition, and these impairments are strongly related to functional outcome. Treating social cognition yields significant improvements in real-world outcomes, including social functioning and social skill. Importantly, social cognitive abilities are linked to specific neural circuits that have been shown to be abnormal in individuals with schizophrenia. Investigations of these neural networks in patients have also demonstrated that brain activation is significantly correlated with social functioning, which suggests that abnormal activation in social cognitive networks may serve as a mechanism for social dysfunction in schizophrenia. Among the many challenges in this area is the issue of measurement. There is disagreement about which tasks best measure social cognition and many existing measures show poor psychometric properties. A recent project, called the Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study, aims to address these problems by providing the field with a well-validated battery of social cognitive tasks that can be used in treatment outcome trials. Research is honing in on the potential mechanisms of social cognitive impairment in patients, and with improved measurement, there is promise for optimizing behavioral and pharmacologic interventions and remediation strategies. PMID:24919166

  14. Understanding the problems developing a healthy living programme in patients with serious mental illness: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with serious mental illness are at an increased risk of physical ill health. Mortality rates are around twice those of the general population with higher levels of cardiovascular disease, metabolic disease, diabetes, and respiratory illness. Although genetics may have a role in the physical health problems of these patients, lifestyle and environmental factors such as smoking, obesity, poor diet, and low levels of physical activity play a prominent part. Methods A qualitative grounded theory approach was used to understand the problems experienced by these individuals when asked to attend a healthy living programme. Three main areas were explored: the influence of potential barriers, health problems, and general attitudes towards healthy living. Results Thirteen patients were interviewed during the study. Many did not recall receiving an initial invitation letter to the programme. Several believed that there was no necessity to attend as they had already had recent routine health checks by their general practitioner. The patients’ current level of mental and physical health was important with symptoms such as depression, anxiety or arthritis affecting interest in the programme. Patients described that they found smoking enjoyable or calming in its effect. Dietary intake was determined by taste or gaining pleasure in eating certain types of food. Several lessons were learnt during this research that may aid future research and practice. Participation seemed to be better if the approach was first made by the patient’s own community keyworker. This contact may have provided a greater opportunity to explain the purpose and importance of the programme. Alternative appointments should be considered when certain patients are in better physical and mental health. Healthy living programmes need to be flexible and adaptive to individual patient needs. Assistance from their community worker may help engagement. Simple measures may improve participation and reduce potential barriers. Conclusion These findings highlighted some of the problems encountered by patients when attempting to participate in a healthy living programme. These results may be useful when implementing future healthy living interventions for patients with serious mental disorders. PMID:24524248

  15. Data Mining and Privacy of Social Network Sites' Users: Implications of the Data Mining Problem.

    PubMed

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Islam, Md Zahidul

    2015-08-01

    This paper explores the potential of data mining as a technique that could be used by malicious data miners to threaten the privacy of social network sites (SNS) users. It applies a data mining algorithm to a real dataset to provide empirically-based evidence of the ease with which characteristics about the SNS users can be discovered and used in a way that could invade their privacy. One major contribution of this article is the use of the decision forest data mining algorithm (SysFor) to the context of SNS, which does not only build a decision tree but rather a forest allowing the exploration of more logic rules from a dataset. One logic rule that SysFor built in this study, for example, revealed that anyone having a profile picture showing just the face or a picture showing a family is less likely to be lonely. Another contribution of this article is the discussion of the implications of the data mining problem for governments, businesses, developers and the SNS users themselves. PMID:24916538

  16. Individual Differences in the Spontaneous Recruitment of Brain Regions Supporting Mental State Understanding When Viewing Natural Social Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, William M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2011-01-01

    People are able to rapidly infer complex personality traits and mental states even from the most minimal person information. Research has shown that when observers view a natural scene containing people, they spend a disproportionate amount of their time looking at the social features (e.g., faces, bodies). Does this preference for social features merely reflect the biological salience of these features or are observers spontaneously attempting to make sense of complex social dynamics? Using functional neuroimaging, we investigated neural responses to social and nonsocial visual scenes in a large sample of participants (n = 48) who varied on an individual difference measure assessing empathy and mentalizing (i.e., empathizing). Compared with other scene categories, viewing natural social scenes activated regions associated with social cognition (e.g., dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and temporal poles). Moreover, activity in these regions during social scene viewing was strongly correlated with individual differences in empathizing. These findings offer neural evidence that observers spontaneously engage in social cognition when viewing complex social material but that the degree to which people do so is mediated by individual differences in trait empathizing. PMID:21527789

  17. Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury on a Virtual Reality Social Problem Solving Task and Relations to Cortical Thickness in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Hanten, Gerri; Cook, Lori; Orsten, Kimberley; Chapman, Sandra B.; Li, Xiaoqi; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Schnelle, Kathleen P.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2011-01-01

    Social problem solving was assessed in 28 youth ages 12–19 years (15 with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), 13 uninjured) using a naturalistic, computerized virtual reality (VR) version of the Interpersonal Negotiations Strategy interview (Yeates, Schultz, & Selman, 1991). In each scenario, processing load condition was varied in terms of number of characters and amount of information. Adolescents viewed animated scenarios depicting social conflict in a virtual microworld environment from an avatar’s viewpoint, and were questioned on four problem solving steps: defining the problem, generating solutions, selecting solutions, and evaluating the likely outcome. Scoring was based on a developmental scale in which responses were judged as impulsive, unilateral, reciprocal, or collaborative, in order of increasing score. Adolescents with TBI were significantly impaired on the summary VR-Social Problem Solving (VR-SPS) score in Condition A (2 speakers, no irrelevant information), p = 0.005; in Condition B (2 speakers + irrelevant information), p = 0.035; and Condition C (4 speakers + irrelevant information), p = 0.008. Effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were large (A = 1.40, B = 0.96, C = 1.23). Significant group differences were strongest and most consistent for defining the problems and evaluating outcomes. The relation of task performance to cortical thickness of specific brain regions was also explored, with significant relations found with orbitofrontal regions, the frontal pole, the cuneus, and the temporal pole. Results are discussed in the context of specific cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying social problem solving deficits after childhood TBI. PMID:21147137

  18. College Student Capacity for Socially Responsible Leadership: Understanding Norms and Influences of Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugan, John P.; Komives, Susan R.; Segar, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined college students' capacities for socially responsible leadership using theoretical measures grounded in the social change model of leadership development (HERI, 1996). Findings represent responses from 50,378 participants enrolled at 52 colleges and universities across the United States. Students scored highest on the…

  19. A Multidimensional Approach to Understanding Under-Eating in Homebound Older Adults: The Importance of Social Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locher, Julie L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Robinson, Caroline O.; Roth, David L.; West, Delia Smith; Burgio, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between medical, functional, economic, oral health, social, religious, and psychological factors and under-eating in homebound older adults. The focus of the study was on identifying potentially modifiable factors amenable to social and behavioral interventions. Design and Methods: A…

  20. Learning in Social Action: A Contribution to Understanding Informal Education. Global Perspectives on Adult Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff

    This book argues the importance of the incidental learning that can occur when people become involved in voluntary organizations, social struggles, and political activity. Chapter 1 introduces the case studies of informal learning in social struggle used to develop the argument and outlines the theoretical framework within which the case studies…

  1. How social myths about childhood, motherhood and medicine affect the detection of subtle developmental problems in young children.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jane

    Focus by child health professionals on the well-being of young Australian children and their families has intensified in the past decade, with particular attention drawn to the importance of the early detection and intervention of developmental problems. While many children with developmental difficulties are detected in the preschool years, those with more subtle forms of developmental problems are often only noticed by their mothers, passing unnoticed by professionals until the children begin school and fail socially or academically. This study aimed to ascertain ways in which child health professionals may utilise the experience of mothers to improve early recognition and diagnosis of subtle developmental and behavioural problems in children. French philosopher, Roland Barthes (1973) proposed that myths play an important social role in defining underlying social values that affect how people interpret what others say or do. This paper explores how the social myths of childhood, motherhood and medicine impact upon the early detection of children with subtle developmental problems. In particular, it examines how social myths affect when and how mothers become concerned about their children's development, from whom they seek advice, and the responses which mothers receive in regard to their concerns. Mythical notions of the 'blameless child', 'boys will be boys' and 'children who look OK are OK', and the constituted myth of motherhood, are all shown to affect when mothers become concerned about their children's development. What mothers do about their concerns and the responses they receive from child health professionals are also influenced by these myths. The myth of medicine is also examined to determine how it affects communication between mothers and doctors, the roles and responsibilities of doctors, and the value placed on a mother's concerns by doctors. PMID:17343530

  2. Understanding silence in problem-based learning: a case study at an English medium university in Asia.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has increasingly been employed as a teaching and learning approach in many disciplines in higher education. Since PBL might be regarded as a dramatic departure from what students have experienced before entry to undergraduate studies, it is necessary to examine how first year undergraduate students adapt to the high level of knowledge and communication demands that PBL entails. In particular, there is a need to examine Asian undergraduate students' silence in PBL tutorials. This article reports on a study that explored first year dental students' practices and perceptions of silence in PBL tutorials at an English medium university in Asia. Eight successive PBL tutorials sessions were videotaped. Significant episodes of silence in these tutorials were then identified, edited and extracted into one media file per tutorial. The participants were invited to attend stimulated recall interviews during which they viewed the edited excerpts. In the stimulated recall interviews, they were encouraged to freely recall about, and comment on, their own and their groups' interaction processes. Students' practices and perceptions of silence are likely to affect knowledge construction and group dynamics in PBL tutorials. Analysis revealed that students' silence can be regarded as a positive and constructive means of participation and learning contributing to the success of an ongoing PBL process. Interactional control (e.g. turn taking, exchange ideas and topic control) and non-verbal behavior in PBL tutorials can be highlighted to assist facilitators' understanding of silence. PMID:23895282

  3. Understanding the social context of fatal road traffic collisions among young people: a qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroners’ records

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Deaths and injuries on the road remain a major cause of premature death among young people across the world. Routinely collected data usually focuses on the mechanism of road traffic collisions and basic demographic data of those involved. This study aimed to supplement these routine sources with a thematic analysis of narrative text contained in coroners’ records, to explore the wider social context in which collisions occur. Methods Thematic analysis of narrative text from Coroners’ records, retrieved from thirty-four fatalities among young people (16–24 year olds) occurring as a result of thirty road traffic collisions in a rural county in the south of England over the period 2005–2010. Results Six key themes emerged: social driving, driving experience, interest in motor vehicles, driving behaviour, perception of driving ability, and emotional distress. Social driving (defined as a group of related behaviours including: driving as a social event in itself (i.e. without a pre-specified destination); driving to or from a social event; driving with accompanying passengers; driving late at night; driving where alcohol or drugs were a feature of the journey) was identified as a common feature across cases. Conclusions Analysis of the wider social context in which road traffic collisions occur in young people can provide important information for understanding why collisions happen and developing targeted interventions to prevent them. It can complement routinely collected data, which often focuses on events immediately preceding a collision. Qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroner’s records may provide a way of providing this type of information. These findings provide additional support for the case for Graduated Driver Licensing programmes to reduce collisions involving young people, and also suggest that road safety interventions need to take a more community development approach, recognising the importance of social context and focusing on social networks of young people. PMID:24460955

  4. Social Media as Windows on the Social Life of the Mind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cosma Rohilla Shalizi

    2007-01-01

    This is a programmatic paper, marking out two directions in which the study of social media can contribute to broader problems of social science: understanding cultural evolu- tion and understanding collective cognition. Under the first heading, I discuss some difficulties with the usual, adapta- tionist explanations of cultural phenomena, alternative expla- nations involving network diffusion effects, and some ways these

  5. Considering daily mobility for a more comprehensive understanding of contextual effects on social inequalities in health: a conceptual proposal.

    PubMed

    Shareck, Martine; Frohlich, Katherine L; Kestens, Yan

    2014-09-01

    Despite growing interest in integrating people?s daily mobility into contextual studies of social inequalities in health, the links between daily mobility and health inequalities remain inadequately conceptualised. This conceptual proposal anchors the relationship between daily mobility and contextual influences on social inequalities in health into the concept of mobility potential, which encompasses the opportunities and places individuals can choose (or are constrained) to access. Mobility potential is realized as actual mobility through agency. Being shaped by socially-patterned personal and geographic characteristics, mobility potential is unequally distributed across social groups. Social inequalities in realized mobility may thus result. We discuss pathways by which these may contribute to contextual influences on social inequalities in health. One pathway is reflected in disadvantaged groups encountering more fast-food outlets during their daily activities, which may relate to their higher risk of unhealthy eating. This proposal lays the bases for empirical research explicitly testing hypotheses regarding the contribution of daily mobility to social inequalities in health. PMID:25103785

  6. The link between ethnicity, social disadvantage and mental health problems in a school-based multiethnic sample of children in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Adriaanse, Marcia; Veling, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo; van Domburgh, Lieke

    2014-11-01

    To investigate to what extent differences in prevalence and types of mental health problems between ethnic minority and majority youth can be explained by social disadvantage. Mental health problems were assessed in a sample of 1,278 schoolchildren (55% Dutch, 32% Moroccan and 13% Turkish; mean age: 12.9 ± 1.8) using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report and teacher report. Measures of family socioeconomic status, neighbourhood deprivation, perceived discrimination, family structure, repeating a school year, housing stability and neighbourhood urbanization were used as indicators of social disadvantage, based on which a cumulative index was created. Ethnic minority youth had more externalizing and fewer internalizing problems than majority youth. Perceived discrimination and living in an unstable social environment were associated with mental health problems, independent of ethnicity. A dose-response relationship was found between social disadvantage and mental health problems. The adjusted odds ratio for mental health problems was 4.16 (95% CI 2.49-6.94) for more than four compared with zero indicators of social disadvantage. Social disadvantage was more common in ethnic minority than in majority youth, explaining part of the differences in prevalence of mental health problems. Ethnic minority youth in the Netherlands have a different profile of mental health problems than majority youth. In all ethnic groups, the risk of mental health problems increases with the degree of social disadvantage. The higher prevalence of externalizing problems among ethnic minority youth is explained partly by their disadvantaged social position. The findings suggest that social factors associated with ethnicity are likely to explain mental health problems in ethnic groups. PMID:24927803

  7. The Social Psychology of Perception Experiments: Hills, Backpacks, Glucose, and the Problem of Generalizability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durgin, Frank H.; Klein, Brennan; Spiegel, Ariana; Strawser, Cassandra J.; Williams, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    Experiments take place in a physical environment but also a social environment. Generalizability from experimental manipulations to more typical contexts may be limited by violations of ecological validity with respect to either the physical or the social environment. A replication and extension of a recent study (a blood glucose manipulation) was…

  8. Social Network Influences on Service Use Among Urban, African American Youth with Mental Health Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Lindsey; Crystal L. Barksdale; Sharon F. Lambert; Nicholas S. Ialongo

    2010-01-01

    PurposeTo examine the associations between the size and quality of African-American adolescents' social networks and their mental health service use, and to examine whether these social network characteristics moderate the association between need for services because of emotional or behavioral difficulties and use of services.

  9. The Problems of Elementary Social Studies: Are Curricular and Assessment Sprawl to Blame?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olwell, Russell; Raphael, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to improve social studies at the elementary level have not fared well in recent years. Federal demands for greater emphasis on mathematics and reading instruction have had a direct impact on social studies instruction--eroding elementary teachers' time and energy for the subject. In spite of this changing context, many states still test…

  10. Raising Expectations or Constructing Victims? Problems with Promoting Social Inclusion through Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Whilst in government, New Labour defined social exclusion as a state of "disadvantage" resulting from individual psychology: namely, low aspirations, a lack of self-confidence or moral deviancy. Engagement in lifelong learning was considered a means of promoting social inclusion and of overcoming such disadvantage. This policy review explores how…

  11. The Social Skills Problems of Victims of Bullying: Self, Peer and Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claire L.; Boulton, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A small number of prior studies have found that victims of school bullying tend to exhibit poor social skills. Few of these have examined this issue from multiple perspectives, and there has been a focus on a restricted range of social skills. Aims: To determine the extent to which self, peers, and teachers regard victims as having…

  12. Meeting the Critical Need for Trauma Education in Social Work: A Problem-Based Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Virginia C.; Abramovitz, Robert; Layne, Christopher M.; Robinson, Howard; Way, Ineke

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing imperative to prepare MSW social work students for trauma-informed evidence-based practice. Given strong recommendations and promising developments within social work education and practice in this regard, a clinical elective for the advanced-year MSW student that combines the guiding principles of trauma theory and…

  13. Phenomenological Characteristics, Social Problems, and the Economic Impact Associated with Chronic Skin Picking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors collected data on the demographic characteristics, phenomenology, and social and economic impact of skin picking. A total of 92 participants completed an anonymous, Internet-based survey through a link to the Trichotillomania Learning Center's home page. Results indicated that skin pickers experienced social,…

  14. A longitudinal examination of the bidirectional association between sleep problems and social ties at university: the mediating role of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Royette; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-02-01

    Despite the growing body of research linking sleep problems and social ties, research investigating the direction of effects between these two constructs is lacking. Furthermore, there remains a dearth of research examining the mechanisms that may explain the association between sleep problems and social ties within a longitudinal design. The present 3-year longitudinal study addressed two research questions: (1) Is there a bidirectional association between sleep problems and social ties at university? and (2) Does emotion regulation mediate the association between sleep problems and social ties at university? Participants (N = 942, 71.5% female; M = 19.01 years at Time 1, SD = 0.90) were university students who completed annual assessments of sleep problems, social ties, and emotion regulation, for three consecutive years. Results of path analysis indicated that the bidirectional association between sleep problems and social ties was statistically significant (controlling for demographics, sleep-wake inconsistency, sleep duration, and alcohol). Analyses of indirect effects indicated that emotion regulation mediated this link, such that better sleep quality (i.e., less sleep problems) led to more effective emotion regulation, which, subsequently, led to more positive social ties. In addition, more positive social ties led to more effective emotion regulation, which, in turn, led to less sleep problems. The findings highlight the critical role that emotional regulation plays in the link between sleep problems and social ties, and emphasize the need for students as well as university administration to pay close attention to both the sleep and social environment of university students. PMID:24578222

  15. Forecasts, warnings and social response to flash floods: Is temporality a major problem? The case of the September 2005 flash flood in the Gard region (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutoff, C.; Anquetin, S.; Ruin, I.; Chassande, M.

    2009-09-01

    Flash floods are complex phenomena. The atmospheric and hydrological generating mechanisms of the phenomenon are not completely understood, leading to highly uncertain forecasts of and warnings for these events. On the other hand warning and crisis response to such violent and fast events is not a straightforward process. In both the social and physical aspect of the problem, space and time scales involved either in hydrometeorology, human behavior and social organizations sciences are of crucial importance. Forecasters, emergency managers, mayors, school superintendents, school transportation managers, first responders and road users, all have different time and space frameworks that they use to take emergency decision for themselves, their group or community. The integration of space and time scales of both the phenomenon and human activities is therefore a necessity to better deal with questions as forecasting lead-time and warning efficiency. The aim of this oral presentation is to focus on the spatio-temporal aspects of flash floods to improve our understanding of the event dynamic compared to the different scales of the social response. The authors propose a framework of analysis to compare the temporality of: i) the forecasts (from Méteo-France and from EFAS (Thielen et al., 2008)), ii) the meteorological and hydrological parameters, iii) the social response at different scales. The September 2005 event is particularly interesting for such analysis. The rainfall episode lasted nearly a week with two distinct phases separated by low intensity precipitations. Therefore the Méteo-France vigilance bulletin where somehow disconnected from the local flood’s impacts. Our analysis focuses on the timings of different types of local response, including the delicate issue of school transportation, in regard to the forecasts and the actual dynamic of the event.

  16. On the computability of quasi-transitive binary social choice rules in an infinite society and the halting problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhito Tanaka

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the computability problem of the existence of a vetoer and an oligarchy for quasi-transitive binary\\u000a social choice rules (Mas-Colell and Sonnenschein in Rev Econ Stud 39:185–192, 1972) in a society with an infinite number of\\u000a individuals (infinite society) according to the computable calculus (or computable analysis) by Aberth (Computable analysis,\\u000a McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980; Computable calculus, Academic

  17. Social Problem Solving and Depressive Symptoms Over Time: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy, Brief Supportive Psychotherapy, and Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Daniel N.; Leon, Andrew C.; Li, Chunshan; D’Zurilla, Thomas J.; Black, Sarah R.; Vivian, Dina; Dowling, Frank; Arnow, Bruce A.; Manber, Rachel; Markowitz, John C.; Kocsis, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Depression is associated with poor social problem-solving, and psychotherapies that focus on problem-solving skills are efficacious in treating depression. We examined the associations between treatment, social problem solving, and depression in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of psychotherapy augmentation for chronically depressed patients who failed to fully respond to an initial trial of pharmacotherapy (Kocsis et al., 2009). Method Participants with chronic depression (n = 491) received Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), which emphasizes interpersonal problem-solving, plus medication; Brief Supportive Psychotherapy (BSP) plus medication; or medication alone for 12 weeks. Results CBASP plus pharmacotherapy was associated with significantly greater improvement in social problem solving than BSP plus pharmacotherapy, and a trend for greater improvement in problem solving than pharmacotherapy alone. In addition, change in social problem solving predicted subsequent change in depressive symptoms over time. However, the magnitude of the associations between changes in social problem solving and subsequent depressive symptoms did not differ across treatment conditions. Conclusions It does not appear that improved social problem solving is a mechanism that uniquely distinguishes CBASP from other treatment approaches. PMID:21500885

  18. Understanding the social factors that contribute to diabetes: a means to informing health care and social policies for the chronically ill.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jacqueline; Nielsen, Marcia; Fox, Michael H

    2013-01-01

    Social determinants of health are the conditions in which individuals are born, grow, live, work, and age. Increasingly, they are being recognized for their relationship to the soaring incidence of Type 2 diabetes in the US, as well as the opportunities they present for us to counter it. Many current Type 2 diabetes interventions focus on biologic and behavioral factors, such as symptoms, diet, and physical activity. However, it is equally important to address the influence of physical and social environments, which may include low income, employment insecurity, low educational attainment, and poor living conditions, on health outcomes. Section 4302 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 offers an opportunity to improve data collection and policy development to more effectively identify populations at high risk for developing Type 2 diabetes and to proactively refer them to appropriate social support services that may ultimately support reduction of health disparities. Expanding the scope of this legislation to include data that incorporate social determinants would improve the ability of clinicians and health systems to engage and to treat patients with chronic conditions, such as Type 2 diabetes, while expanding policymakers' ability to conform to the legislation's intent of shaping efforts to reduce chronic conditions nationwide. PMID:23704847

  19. Different social network and social support characteristics, nervous problems and insomnia: Theoretical and methodological aspects on some results from the population study 'men born in 1914', Malmö, Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Hanson; P.-O. Östergren

    1987-01-01

    A representative sample of 68-year-old men in the Swedish city of Malmö, were interviewed in detail regarding their social network, social support and social influence as a part of an extensive examination of their health status. Emphasis in this paper is put on the definition and operationalization of different social network, social support and social influence characteristics included in a

  20. The "Mathnet" Format on "SQUARE ONE": Children's Informal Problem Solving, Understanding of Mathematical Concepts, and Ideas and Attitudes about Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schauble, Leona; Peel, Tina

    Problem solving is a main topic in mathematics education, and considerable headway has been made in identifying the processes involved in solving well-formed problems like algebra word problems, mathematical algorithms, and logical puzzles like the Tower of Hanoi. The "Mathnet" format of the SQUARE ONE TV program, however, requires viewers to…

  1. [Aspects of social and health problems in the aged in the Kosice-Nové Mesto District].

    PubMed

    Bacová, J; Jirousková, M; Molnár, A

    1989-10-01

    The author presents the results of repeated examinations of a group of 725 old people on the records of the geriatric welfare centre of the district Kosice-Nové mesto. Attention is paid to medico-social needs of old people, their demands, to the extent and quality of care and housing conditions. Some suggestions are presented for the health and social services. PMID:2598293

  2. Social Self-Efficacy and Behavior Problems in Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jungmeen Kim; Dante Cicchetti

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the relations among child maltreatment, children's social self-efficacy, and behavioral adjustment. Data were collected on 305 maltreated and 195 non- maltreated children from low-income families (ages 5 to 12 years) who were assessed on perceived social self-efficacy and evaluated by camp counselors on internalizing and externalizing symptomatology. Younger (<8 years) maltreated children exhibited inflated levels of perceived self-efficacy in

  3. From Everyday Life Experiences to Physics Understanding Occurring in Small Group Work with Context Rich Problems during Introductory Physics Work at University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enghag, Margareta; Gustafsson, Peter; Jonsson, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    How do students bridge everyday life views into physics understanding? We report from in-depth analysis of one group of four students, video-recorded over 135 min solving a context rich problem (CRP). Through transcripts of the group's conversations and from flow-charts made of the group talk we have categorised how students' experiences develop…

  4. Distinguishing between Positive and Negative Social Bonding in Problem Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Young, Michael; Hussain, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Background: To reduce problem drinking, interventions must be directed toward those factors associated with problem drinking. Purpose: This study examined how perceptions of the role of alcohol related to problem drinking among a convenience sample of 301 college students. Methods: Fifteen items concerned with drinking behavior or perceptions…

  5. The Effect of Directive Tutor Guidance on Students' Conceptual Understanding of Statistics in Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bude, Luc; van de Wiel, Margaretha W. J.; Imbos, Tjaart; Berger, Martijn P. F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Education is aimed at students reaching conceptual understanding of the subject matter, because this leads to better performance and application of knowledge. Conceptual understanding depends on coherent and error-free knowledge structures. The construction of such knowledge structures can only be accomplished through active learning…

  6. Understanding the Experiences of Women, Graduate Student Stress, and Lack of Marital/Social Support: A Mixed Method Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Tolliver, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how women attending graduate degree programs in public universities in Virginia were affected by such issues as stress and lack of marital/social support. Utilizing a mixed method approach for data collection, 23 participants completed demographic data, an essay response, and the PSS-10 Stress Scale; 8 were…

  7. Becoming More Open to Social Identity-Based Difference: Understanding the Meaning College Students Make of This Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergerson, Amy Aldous; Huftalin, Deneece

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study explores college students' perceived shift to becoming more open to social identity-based difference. Using phenomenological methods, the study highlights the voices of three college students to illuminate findings that describe personal and institutional factors that support such a shift, the impact of the shift on…

  8. College Access Programs and the Formation of Social Capital: Understanding the Impact of Upward Bound on the College Decision Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, David N.

    2012-01-01

    College access programs like Upward Bound have been found to build social capital among a target population, stimulate academic preparedness, and increase a student's knowledge of the college decision process. However, little research is available that establishes the points during the college decision process at which college access programs have…

  9. Understanding and measuring the effect of social capital on knowledge transfer within clusters of small-medium enterprises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay Whittaker; John Van Beveren

    In today's globalised economy, Small-to-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are facing ever increasing competitive pressures. They need to gain new market information and knowledge to remain competitive. A common strategy is to develop clusters of networks with other SMEs. Clustering enables the development of informal social networks through which knowledge can flow and be used. This paper aims to investigate the mechanisms

  10. Understanding Affective Commitment, Collectivist Culture, and Social Influence in Relation to Knowledge Sharing in Technology Mediated Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yujong Hwang; DAN J. KIM

    2007-01-01

    Technology mediated learning (TML) is gaining interest from both academic researchers and communication professionals as training with Internet technology and Web-based distance learning become increasingly popular. This paper investigates social norms, individual-level cultural orientation (collectivism), and affective commitment (internalization and identification) and studies their influences on the system users' (or learners') attitude toward sharing knowledge by email in the TML

  11. Using indigenous proverbs to understand social knowledge and attitudes to leprosy among the Yoruba of southwest Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bassey Ebenso; Gbenga Adeyemi; Adegboyega O. Adegoke; Nick Emmel

    2012-01-01

    Following a systematic analysis of 23 proverbs obtained from ethnographic research and from literature searches, this article presents the cultural knowledge and attitudes about leprosy in Yorubaland, southwest Nigeria. Our analysis indicates that contrary to fragmentary evidence portraying Yoruba attitudes to leprosy as entirely negative, there is a mixed pattern of social responses to leprosy which range from drastic exclusion

  12. Older people's perceptions of personal safety in deprived communities: understanding the social causes of fear of crime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Waters; Richard Neale

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the neighbourhood-level personal safety concerns experienced by older people living in socioeconomically deprived communities in South Wales. While there is a wealth of criminological literature focusing on whether older people experience high levels of fear of crime, much of it conflicting in its conclusions, such studies tell us little about the social and physical cues for feelings

  13. Understanding the Effect of Structural Violence on the Educational Identities of Hispanic Adolescents: A Call for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Reid, Pauline

    2008-01-01

    School social workers are in a position to positively influence the educational experiences of those students placed most at risk by current school practices, and data indicate that Hispanics are particularly vulnerable in this regard. An examination of trends and educational outcomes are provided as evidence of the educational challenges…

  14. Family Conflict: The Application of Selected Theories of Social Conflict to an Understanding of Conflict Within Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafetz, Janet Saltzman

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that our understanding of family conflict can be enriched by applying aspects of general sociological theories of intergroup conflict to the analysis of family dynamics. Specifically focuses on frequency, intensity, violence, and outcome of family conflict. (Author/GC)

  15. Being Admired or Being Liked: Classroom Social Status and Depressive Problems in Early Adolescent Girls and Boys

    PubMed Central

    Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Veenstra, René; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ormel, Johan

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates associations between depressive problems and classroom social status in a large population cohort of Dutch early adolescents (N = 1046, age 13.52 ± 0.51, 52.4% girls). Depressive problems were assessed by parent and self-reports and classroom status by peer nominations. We assessed peer status with respect to both achievement-related (being a good learner, being good at sports, being good-looking) and affection-related (being liked, being disliked, being best friend) areas. In boys, depressive problems were most strongly associated with not being good at sports, while in girls the association was strongest for not being liked. The risk of a low status in one area could largely be compensated by a high status in another area. PMID:17265191

  16. Social Networks and the Diffusion of Adolescent Problem Behavior: Reliable Estimates of Selection and Influence from Sixth Through Ninth Grades.

    PubMed

    Osgood, D Wayne; Feinberg, Mark E; Ragan, Daniel T

    2015-08-01

    Seeking to reduce problematic peer influence is a prominent theme of programs to prevent adolescent problem behavior. To support the refinement of this aspect of prevention programming, we examined peer influence and selection processes for three problem behaviors (delinquency, alcohol use, and smoking). We assessed not only the overall strengths of these peer processes, but also their consistency versus variability across settings. We used dynamic stochastic actor-based models to analyze five waves of friendship network data across sixth through ninth grades for a large sample of U.S. adolescents. Our sample included two successive grade cohorts of youth in 26 school districts participating in the PROSPER study, yielding 51 longitudinal social networks based on respondents' friendship nominations. For all three self-reported antisocial behaviors, we found evidence of both peer influence and selection processes tied to antisocial behavior. There was little reliable variance in these processes across the networks, suggesting that the statistical imprecision of the peer influence and selection estimates in previous studies likely accounts for inconsistencies in results. Adolescent friendship networks play a strong role in shaping problem behavior, but problem behaviors also inform friendship choices. In addition to preferring friends with similar levels of problem behavior, adolescents tend to choose friends who engage in problem behaviors, thus creating broader diffusion. PMID:25943034

  17. The origin and evolution of social insect queen pheromones: Novel hypotheses and outstanding problems.

    PubMed

    Oi, Cintia A; van Zweden, Jelle S; Oliveira, Ricardo C; Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Nascimento, Fabio S; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-07-01

    Queen pheromones, which signal the presence of a fertile queen and induce daughter workers to remain sterile, are considered to play a key role in regulating the reproductive division of labor of insect societies. Although queen pheromones were long thought to be highly taxon-specific, recent studies have shown that structurally related long-chain hydrocarbons act as conserved queen signals across several independently evolved lineages of social insects. These results imply that social insect queen pheromones are very ancient and likely derived from an ancestral signalling system that was already present in their common solitary ancestors. Based on these new insights, we here review the literature and speculate on what signal precursors social insect queen pheromones may have evolved from. Furthermore, we provide compelling evidence that these pheromones should best be seen as honest signals of fertility as opposed to suppressive agents that chemically sterilize the workers against their own best interests. PMID:25916998

  18. Aspekte und Probleme der linguistischen Analyse schichtenspezifischen Sprachgebrauchs. Studien und Berichte 31 (Aspects and Problems of the Linguistic Analysis of Language Usage Within Specific Social Levels. Studies and Reports No. 31).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klann, Gisela

    This is a study of linguistic variability among social levels in West Germany and of the problems associated with doing such an analysis. The data, ordered according to sex and social levels, were collected from young children retelling narratives heard on tapes. The report represents a comprehensive study of the children's syntactic performance…

  19. WWC Review of the Report "Benefits of Practicing 4 = 2 + 2: Nontraditional Problem Formats Facilitate Children's Understanding of Mathematical Equivalence." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2011 study, "Benefits of Practicing 4 = 2 + 2: Nontraditional Problem Formats Facilitate Children's Understanding of Mathematical Equivalence," examined the effects of addition practice using nontraditional problem formats on students' understanding of mathematical equivalence. In nontraditional problem formats, operations…

  20. African Migrant Patients’ Trust in Chinese Physicians: A Social Ecological Approach to Understanding Patient-Physician Trust

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Megan M.; Simonson, Louis; Zou, Xia; Ling, Li; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient trust in physicians is a critical determinant of health seeking behaviors, medication adherence, and health outcomes. A crisis of interpersonal trust exists in China, extending throughout multiple social spheres, including the healthcare system. At the same time, with increased migration from Africa to China in the last two decades, Chinese physicians must establish mutual trust with an increasingly diverse patient population. We undertook a qualitative study to identify factors affecting African migrants’ trust in Chinese physicians and to identify potential mechanisms for promoting trust. Methods / Principal Findings We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 40 African migrants in Guangzhou, China. A modified version of the social ecological model was used as a theoretical framework. At the patient-physician level, interpersonal treatment, technical competence, perceived commitment and motive, and language concordance were associated with enhanced trust. At the health system level, two primary factors influenced African migrants’ trust in their physicians: the fee-for-service payment system and lack of continuity with any one physician. Patients’ social networks and the broader socio-cultural context of interactions between African migrants and Chinese locals also influenced patients’ trust of their physicians. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the importance of factors beyond the immediate patient-physician interaction and suggest opportunities to promote trust through health system interventions. PMID:25965064