Science.gov

Sample records for understanding social problems

  1. Community Information Expositions; Issue-Oriented Displays and Popular Understanding of Social Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonier, Thomas V.; Scribner, Richard A.

    During its 1972 annual meeting in Washington, D.C., the American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a community information exposition, titled Capital City Readout, on the role of science and technology in local social problems. The exposition sought to explore various ways to exchange information about problems and policy issues…

  2. Intercultural Understanding: The Problem and a Process. Social Studies for the Elementary School. Proficiency Module #7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keach, Everett T., Jr.

    This module is one in a series of teaching modules developed for a contemporary social studies curriculum. The purpose of this module is to develop an understanding of the sources of content to be used in an intercultural awareness curriculum and to reinforce teaching strategies learned in the other modules by applying them to the development of…

  3. Current Social Problem Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Donald J.

    This review of social problem novels for young adults opens with a brief background of the genre, then lists the dominant themes of social problem fiction and nonfiction novels that have been published in the last two years, such as alcoholism, alienation, death, growing up and self-awarness, drugs, and divorce. Other themes mentioned are…

  4. Understanding Columbia's Reentry Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Soon after the Space Shuttle Columbia accident occurred last year, a group of CFD analysts from NASA centers and private industry was organized to help determine the cause of the accident. This group was under the direction of the Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch of the Aeroscience and Flight Mechanics Division at the Johnson Space Center. For external flow simulations, noncommercia2 CFD codes that specialize in hypersonic or high Mach number flows were used. These tools were used to determine heating rates, pressures, and temperatures for a large number of vehicle damage scenarios. Lockheed Martin Space Operations was called upon to provide CFD support in the area of internal flows within the shuttle wing cavity, and for these simulations, FLUENT 6.1 was chosen. Two large-scale, simplified models were m to understand the flow patterns once a breach of the internal wing cavity was initiated. The results were primarily used to visualize flow patterns within the wing cavity. The first CFD model included the entire lee wing without the wheel well cavity. The purpose of the first model, which did not include the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) cavity along the wing leading edge, was to visualize the flow field within the wing cavity immediately after the leading edge spar breach, This model assumed that the flow coming into the wing cavity was normal to the spar. It included all of the primary vents that allow for flow between the main cavities of the wing. A six-inch diameter hole was modeled in the spar at the approximate location where the spar breach was judged to have occurred, which was between RCC panels 8 and 9. The results of the modeling showed that at this location, the high temperature, high velocity gas stream entering the wing cavity impinged on the outboard wheel well cavity. Instrumentation in the Shuttle wheel well cavity registered abnormal temperatures during reentry, so the FLUENT results helped support the conclusion of the accident investigation team that the spar breach was in the RCC panel 8-9 area, and that the initial spar breach was likely entering the wing cavity normal to the spar. This model also showed that the flow entering the wing cavity tended to swirl within the cavity just outboard of the wheel well, and did not initially penetrate further into the rear cavities of the wing. The second CFD model was a 2-D simulation of the left wing cavity and the RCC cavity. It was used to visualize the flow through the RCC breach, through the wing spar breach, and into the wing cavity directly outboard of the wheel well. The purpose of this model was to verify whether or not it was possible for the flow to come into the wing cavity normal to the leading edge spar. The results from this 2-D model showed that the internal structure behind the RCC panels probably deflected the flow entering the RCC cavity so that it impinged normal to the spar. As in the 3-D model, this deflected flow stream was Found to impinge on the wheel well outer wall. This model again supported the conclusions regarding the location of the spar breach and how the flow behaved inside the wing cavity.

  5. Understanding Columbia's Reentry Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    Soon after the Space Shuttle Columbia accident occurred last year, a group of CFD analysts from NASA centers and private industry was organized to help determine the cause of the accident. This group was under the direction of the Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch of the Aeroscience and Flight Mechanics Division at the Johnson Space Center. For external flow simulations, noncommercial CFD codes that specialize in hypersonic or high Mach number flows were used. These tools were used to determine heating rates, pressures, and temperatures for a large number of vehicle damage scenarios. Lockheed Martin Space Operations was called upon to provide CFD support in the area of internal flows within the shuttle wing cavity, and or these simulations, FLUENT 6.1 was chosen. Two large-scale, simplified models were run to understand the flow patterns once a breach of the internal wing cavity was initiated. The results were primarily used to visualize flow patterns within the wing cavity. The first CFD model included the entire left wing without the wheel. well cavity. The purpose of the first model, which did not include the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) cavity along the wing leading edge, was to visualize the flow field within the wing cavity immediately after the leading edge spar breach, This model assumed that the flow coming into the wing cavity was nom1 to the spar. It included all o f the primary vents that allow for flow between the main cavities of the wing. A six-inch diameter hole was modeled in the spar at the approximate location where the spar breach was judged to have occurred, which was between RCC panels 8 and 9. The results of the modeling showed that at this location, the high temperature, high velocity gas stream entering the wing cavity impinged on the outboard wheel well cavity. Instrumentation in the Shuttle wheel well cavity registered abnormal temperatures during reentry, so the FLUENT results helped support the conclusion of the accident investigation team that the spar breach was in the RCC panel 8-9 area, and that the initial spar breach was likely entering the wing cavity normal to the spar. This model also showed that the flow entering the wing cavity tended to swirl within the cavity just outboard of the wheel well, and did not initially penetrate further into the rear cavities of the wing. The second CFD model was a 2-D simulation of the left wing cavity and the RCC cavity. It was used to visualize the flow through the RCC breach, through the wing spar breach, and into the wing cavity directly outboard of the wheel well. The purpose of this model was to verify whether or not it was possible for the flow to come into the wing cavity normal to the leading edge spar. The results from this 2-D model showed that the internal structure behind the RCC panels probably deflected the flow entering the RCC cavity so that it impinged normal to the spar. As in the 3-D model, this deflected flow stream was found to impinge on the wheel well outer wall. This model again supported the conclusions regarding the location of the spar breach and how the flow behaved inside the wing cavity.

  6. Understanding Social Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The importance of social entrepreneurship in social, cultural and economic terms is increasingly acknowledged. Drawing on data from the second Social Entrepreneurship Monitor report published by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) UK project, this article focuses on the social entrepreneurs who may grow the social enterprises of the future.…

  7. Understanding Social and Legal Justice Issues for Aboriginal Women within the Context of an Indigenous Australian Studies Classroom: A Problem-Based Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth; Thatcher, Kristy; Seldon, Camille

    2004-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogical approach in which students encounter a problem and systematically set about finding ways to understand the problem through dialogue and research. PBL is an active process where students take responsibility for their learning by asking their own questions about the problem and in this paper we explore…

  8. Understanding and Treating Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Russell C.; Kimball, Amy; Stroup, Erin L.

    2004-01-01

    Social phobia, a relatively obscure disorder, is receiving increased attention due to evidence suggesting that it is more prevalent and debilitative than once thought. The purpose of this article is to help counselors better understand the nature of and treatments for this disorder. Effective behavioral and pharmacological approaches are reviewed,…

  9. How Social Problems Are Born.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan

    1994-01-01

    Examines how social conditions can become social problems and argues that there are objective ways of determining the scale of a particular problem. The paper supports its argument through examinations of prohibition, the decline in tobacco consumption, and the war on drugs. (GLR)

  10. Understanding Heart Valve Problems and Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Understanding Heart Valve Problems and Causes Updated:May 24,2016 Many ... was last reviewed May 2016. Printable Resources on Valve Disease Patient Guide: Understanding Your Heart Valve Problem | ...

  11. Social Issues as Social Problems: Adolescents' Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Bruce

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 446 late adolescents concerning their assessment of specific social issues as problems existing in contemporary American society. Subjects overwhelmingly pointed to drug use, pollution, hunger, nuclear war, and poverty as serious to very serious problems, while ageism, and racial and sexual discrimination were regarded as substantially

  12. Understanding the Problem of Pornography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Leigh Ann

    This report was written to clarify the terms often associated with pornography and to help readers understand the issue of pornography more clearly. The first chapter defines pornography, as it was defined by the United States Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, as "that material (which) is predominantly sexually explicit and intended…

  13. Postindustrial Capitalism and the Problems with Bourdieu's Social and Cultural Capital in Understanding the Black/White Achievement Gap in the United States and United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocombe, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    This hermeneutical essay demonstrates why and how Pierre Bourdieu's social reproduction theory is neither an adequate explanation for understanding praxis nor the Black/White academic achievement gap in contemporary postindustrial economies like that of the United States and the United Kingdom. The underlining hypothesis of the work is that the…

  14. [Social problems of porphyria].

    PubMed

    Tarczyńska-Nosal, S; Kostrzewska, E

    1998-03-01

    Late consequences of the attacks of acute porphyrias were studied. Among 312 patients who were investigated the motor disability (neuropathy) was found in 9 patients, psychoneurological changes in 1 case and drug abuse in 7 subjects. In the group of 200 patients in remission (chosen at random) 72 persons (36%) received a disability pension. The existence of problems in change of the profession when it was necessary for health-reasons was marked. It was find that Dolargan (Pethidine) is too often applied to the patients in remission. It was made the warning that drug dependence will arise very easy in patients with porphyria. PMID:9640067

  15. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    PubMed

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511

  16. Lesion mapping of social problem solving

    PubMed Central

    Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J.; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511

  17. Culture, executive function, and social understanding.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Charlie; Koyasu, Masuo; Oh, Seungmi; Ogawa, Ayako; Short, Benjamin; Huang, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Much of the evidence from the West has shown links between children's developing self-control (executive function), their social experiences, and their social understanding (Carpendale & Lewis, 2006, chapters 5 and 6), across a range of cultures including China. This chapter describes four studies conducted in three Oriental cultures, suggesting that the relationships among social interaction, executive function, and social understanding are different in these cultures, implying that social and executive skills are underpinned by key cultural processes. PMID:19306275

  18. Understanding Education for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hytten, Kathy; Bettez, Silvia C.

    2011-01-01

    It has become increasingly common for education scholars to claim a social justice orientation in their work. At the same time, education programs seem to be adding statements about the importance of social justice to their mission, and a growing number of teacher education programs are fundamentally oriented around a vision of social justice.…

  19. Using robots to understand social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mitri, Sara; Wischmann, Steffen; Floreano, Dario; Keller, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    A major challenge in studying social behaviour stems from the need to disentangle the behaviour of each individual from the resulting collective. One way to overcome this problem is to construct a model of the behaviour of an individual, and observe whether combining many such individuals leads to the predicted outcome. This can be achieved by using robots. In this review we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of such an approach for studies of social behaviour. We find that robots-whether studied in groups of simulated or physical robots, or used to infiltrate and manipulate groups of living organisms-have important advantages over conventional individual-based models and have contributed greatly to the study of social behaviour. In particular, robots have increased our understanding of self-organization and the evolution of cooperative behaviour and communication. However, the resulting findings have not had the desired impact on the biological community. We suggest reasons for why this may be the case, and how the benefits of using robots can be maximized in future research on social behaviour. PMID:22816672

  20. Alcohol use and policy formation: an evolving social problem.

    PubMed

    Levine, Amir

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the evolutionary course that the social problem of alcohol use has taken in the United States since the Colonial Era. This article utilizes a range of theoretical models to analyze the evolving nature of alcohol use from an unrecognized to a perceived social problem. The models used include critical constructionism (Heiner, 2002), top-down policy model (Dye, 2001) and Mauss'(1975) understanding of social problems and movements. These theoretical constructs exhibit the relative nature of alcohol use as a social problem in regards to a specific time, place, and social context as well as the powerful and influential role that social elites have in defining alcohol asa social problem. Studies regarding the development of alcohol policy formation are discussed to illuminate the different powers, constituents, and factors that play a role in alcohol policy formation.Finally, implications for future study are discussed [corrected]. PMID:22963160

  1. Infants' Developing Understanding of Social Gaze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Jonathan S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Young infants are sensitive to self-directed social actions, but do they appreciate the intentional, target-directed nature of such behaviors? The authors addressed this question by investigating infants' understanding of social gaze in third-party interactions (N = 104). Ten-month-old infants discriminated between 2 people in mutual versus…

  2. Understanding Social Support Burden Among Family Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Karla; Demiris, George; Parker Oliver, Debra; Shaunfield, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the abundance of research on social support, both as a variable in larger studies and as a central focus of examination, there is little consensus about the relationship between social support and health outcomes. Current social support measures typically account only for frequency and size of network and a paucity of research exists that has explained social support burden, defined as the burden associated with accessing and receiving support from others. We analyzed audio-recorded discussions by hospice family caregivers about their caregiving problems and potential solutions to examine social relationships within networks and identify the processes that influence social support seeking and receiving. Using qualitative thematic analysis, we found that caregivers providing hospice care experience social support burden resulting from perceived relational barriers between friends and family, the inclination to remain in control, recognition of the loss of the patient as a source of social support and guidance in decision-making, family dynamics and decreased availability of emotional support. Social support researchers should consider how the quality of communication and relationships within social networks impacts the provision and subsequent outcomes of social support in varying contexts. Findings from this study suggest that hospice social support resources should be tailored to the caregiver’s support needs and include assessment on the type of support to be offered. PMID:24345081

  3. Understanding social support burden among family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Washington, Karla; Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Shaunfield, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the abundance of research on social support, both as a variable in larger studies and as a central focus of examination, there is little consensus about the relationship between social support and health outcomes. Current social support measures typically account only for frequency and size of network, and a paucity of research exists that has explained social support burden, defined as the burden associated with accessing and receiving support from others. We analyzed audio-recorded discussions by hospice family caregivers about their caregiving problems and potential solutions to examine social relationships within networks and identify the processes that influence social support seeking and receiving. Using qualitative thematic analysis, we found that caregivers providing hospice care experience social support burden resulting from perceived relational barriers between friends and family, the inclination to remain in control, recognition of the loss of the patient as a source of social support and guidance in decision making, family dynamics, and decreased availability of emotional support. Social support researchers should consider how the quality of communication and relationships within social networks impacts the provision and subsequent outcomes of social support in varying contexts. Findings from this study suggest that hospice social support resources should be tailored to the caregiver's support needs and include assessment on the type of support to be offered. PMID:24345081

  4. Infants’ Developing Understanding of Social Gaze

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Jonathan S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Young infants are sensitive to self-directed social actions, but do they appreciate the intentional, target-directed nature of such behaviors? We addressed this question by investigating infants’ understanding of social gaze in third-party interactions (N = 104). Ten-month-old infants discriminated between two people in mutual versus averted gaze, and expected a person to look at her social partner during conversation. In contrast, 9-month-old infants showed neither ability, even when provided with information that highlighted the gazer's social goals. These results indicate considerable improvement in infants’ abilities to analyze the social gaze of others towards the end of their first year, which may relate to their appreciation of gaze as both a social and goal-directed action. PMID:22224547

  5. [Obesity as disease and as social problem].

    PubMed

    Gracia Arnaiz, Mabel

    2010-01-01

    This text is part of a broader line of study that aims to analyze how and why certain eating habits and bodily practices have become social problems, as is the case with fatness. We will show that the ideas that support the definition of obesity as a chronic and avoidable disease are leading experts and health authorities, and other social workers, to know and to think about its evolution in terms of "global" illness (epidemic) and to consider cultural factors as their main cause (obesogenic environment). Paradoxically, the international and national preventive measures taken are focused on changing individual behavior and, in particular, eating habits. The concepts about the regulation of excess weight and food provide interesting information about a particular understanding of lifestyles and culture and they take into account the current promotion of health patterns. PMID:21384635

  6. Social Problem Solving in Suicidal Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadowski, Christine; Kelley, Mary Lou

    1993-01-01

    Evaluated whether adolescent suicide attempters (n=30) would have deficits in interpersonal problem solving and relation between social problem solving, suicide intent, and medical lethality. Compared with 30 psychiatric and 30 normal controls, adolescents who attempted suicide exhibited poorer social problem-solving abilities. Suicide attempters…

  7. A guide to understanding social science research for natural scientists.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. PMID:24962114

  8. Toward an integrative understanding of social phobia.

    PubMed Central

    Li, D; Chokka, P; Tibbo, P

    2001-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the neurobiology of social phobia from the perspectives of basic sciences, genetics, immunology, neuroendocrinology, neurotransmission and neuroimaging and to provide an integrated understanding of social phobia in the framework of a hypothetical neural circuit. Family and twin studies provide evidence that social phobia is heritable with significant genetic influence, and molecular genetics offers possibilities in understanding the nature of the trait that is transmitted. The biologic distinctiveness of social phobia from anxiety disorders and physiological validation of differences between generalized and discrete social phobia subtypes have been implicated in genetic, naturalistic and chemical challenge studies. Evidence of specific dysfunction of dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic and GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acid) neurotransmitter systems has been presented in animal models, challenge studies and treatment investigations. Preliminary neuroimaging research supports previous studies suggesting striatal dopaminergic dysfunction in social phobia and suggests the importance of functional circuits. A neural circuit involving the striatum, thalamus, amygdala and cortical structures may provide a framework for integrating much of the current knowledge on the neurobiology of social phobia. PMID:11394189

  9. Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mara, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how

  10. Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mara, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

  11. Understanding smell--the olfactory stimulus problem.

    PubMed

    Auffarth, Benjamin

    2013-09-01

    The main problem with sensory processing is the difficulty in relating sensory input to physiological responses and perception. This is especially problematic at higher levels of processing, where complex cues elicit highly specific responses. In olfaction, this relationship is particularly obfuscated by the difficulty of characterizing stimulus statistics and perception. The core questions in olfaction are hence the so-called stimulus problem, which refers to the understanding of the stimulus, and the structure-activity and structure-odor relationships, which refer to the molecular basis of smell. It is widely accepted that the recognition of odorants by receptors is governed by the detection of physico-chemical properties and that the physical space is highly complex. Not surprisingly, ideas differ about how odor stimuli should be classified and about the very nature of information that the brain extracts from odors. Even though there are many measures for smell, there is none that accurately describes all aspects of it. Here, we summarize recent developments in the understanding of olfaction. We argue that an approach to olfactory function where information processing is emphasized could contribute to a high degree to our understanding of smell as a perceptual phenomenon emerging from neural computations. Further, we argue that combined analysis of the stimulus, biology, physiology, and behavior and perception can provide new insights into olfactory function. We hope that the reader can use this review as a competent guide and overview of research activities in olfactory physiology, psychophysics, computation, and psychology. We propose avenues for research, particularly in the systematic characterization of receptive fields and of perception. PMID:23806440

  12. Understanding the Problem. Problem Solving and Communication Activity Series. The Math Forum: Problems of the Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Math Forum @ Drexel, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Different techniques for understanding a problem can lead to ideas for never-used-before solutions. Good problem-solvers use a problem-solving strategy and may come back to it frequently while they are working on the problem to refine their strategy, see if they can find better solutions, or find other questions. Writing is an integral part of

  13. Understanding Student Identity from a Socialization Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidman, John C.; DeAngelo, Linda; Bethea, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the contribution of current research using the Weidman model of undergraduate socialization to understanding student identity development in college. It illustrates ways in which the framework can be used flexibly and adapted for studying impacts of multiple aspects of the college experience on diverse groups of students.

  14. The Emotional Foundations of Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Heather K.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2008-01-01

    The infant and toddler years are a watershed of development in the emotional domain. These skills lay the foundation for positive social interactions, and ultimately, academic and life success. This article describes the development of three skills that are central in creating successful relationships: expressing emotion, understanding emotion,

  15. The Emotional Foundations of Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Heather K.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2008-01-01

    The infant and toddler years are a watershed of development in the emotional domain. These skills lay the foundation for positive social interactions, and ultimately, academic and life success. This article describes the development of three skills that are central in creating successful relationships: expressing emotion, understanding emotion,…

  16. Problems and challenges in social marketing.

    PubMed

    Bloom, P N; Novelli, W D

    1981-01-01

    This article reviews the problems that arise when general marketing principles are applied to social programs. Social marketing is conceptualized as the design, implementation, and control of programs seeking to increase the acceptability of a social ideal or practice in a target group. These problems can occur in 8 basic decision-making areas: market analysis, market segmentation, product strategy development, pricing strategy development, channel strategy development, communications strategy development, organizational design and planning, and evaluation. Social marketers find that they have less good secondary data about their consumers, more problems obtaining valid and reliable measures of relevant variables, more difficulty sorting out the relative influence of determinants of consumer behavior, and more problems getting consumer research funded than marketers in the commercial sector. They tend to have less flexibility in shaping their products and more difficulty formulating product concepts. Problems associated with establishing, utilizing, and controlling distribution channels comprise another major difference between social and more conventional forms of marketing. Social marketers also find that their communications options are somewhat limited as a result of problems associated with use of paid advertisements, pressures not to use certain types of appeals in their messages, and the need to communicate large amounts of information in their messages. Moreover, social marketers must function in organizations where marketing activities are poorly understood, underappreciated, and inappropriately located. Finally, they face problems trying to define effectiveness measures or estimating the contribution their program has made toward the achievement of certain objectives. If all these problems are anticipated and handled creatively, social marketing efforts can succeed. PMID:12280283

  17. Space age management for social problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    Attempts to apply space age management to social problems were plagued with difficulties. Recent experience in the State of Delaware and in New York City, however, indicate new possibilities. Project management as practiced in NASA was applied with promising results in programs dealing with housing and social services. Such applications are feasible, according to recent research, because project management utilizes social and behavioral approaches, as well as advanced management tools, such as PERT, to achieve results.

  18. Developmental pathways for social understanding: linking social cognition to social contexts

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Kimberly A.; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary research, often with looking-time tasks, reveals that infants possess foundational understandings of their social worlds. However, few studies have examined how these early social cognitions relate to the child’s social interactions and behavior in early development. Does an early understanding of the social world relate to how an infant interacts with his or her parents? Do early social interactions along with social-cognitive understandings in infancy predict later preschool social competencies? In the current paper, we propose a theory in which children’s later social behaviors and their understanding of the social world depend on the integration of early social understanding and experiences in infancy. We review several of our studies, as well as other research, that directly examine the pathways between these competencies to support a hypothesized network of relations between social-cognitive development and social-interactive behaviors in the development from infancy to childhood. In total, these findings reveal differences in infant social competences that both track the developmental trajectory of infants’ understanding of people over the first years of life and provide external validation for the large body of social-cognitive findings emerging from laboratory looking-time paradigms. PMID:26074859

  19. Indoor and outdoor social alarms: understanding users' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sjölinder, Marie; Avatare Nöu, Anneli

    2014-01-01

    The elderly population is increasing and there is a need to provide care and safety at a high level with limited resources. New social alarm solutions may contribute to safety and independence for many elderly. However, it is important to understand the needs within the user group. This work studied social alarms in a broad sense and from several user perspectives. In the first study, social alarm use and its aspects were investigated. To understand where there may be problems and weaknesses, users, caregivers, managers of municipalities, and personnel at alarm centers were interviewed. The interviews helped identify a number of problems. For municipalities, the processes of procuring new alarms and managing their organization were found to be complex. The effect of this was that the same social alarm systems had been ordered over and over again without taking into account new user needs or new technical solutions. For alarm users, one large problem was that the alarms had very limited reach and were designed for indoor use only. This has resulted in users hesitating to leave their homes, which in turn has negative effects due to lack of physical activity and fewer social contacts. One important result from the first study was the need for a social alarm solution that worked outdoors. In a second study, needs regarding outdoor social alarms were investigated. The results from this study showed that wearable outdoor alarms must be easy to use, provide communication, and be well designed. Finally, these alarms must work both indoors and outdoors, and the user should not have to worry about where he/she is or who is acting on an alarm. PMID:25099060

  20. Networks in Social Policy Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco

    2012-08-01

    1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.

  1. The Social Problems of Today's Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustaeva, F. A.

    2010-01-01

    Problems of the family affect every individual. Problems have an impact on a variety of different social groups and strata, work collectives and neighborhood communities, young people, adults, children, the aged, and so on. The family's sense of well-being and the processes that affect its functioning can also hardly fail to be of concern to…

  2. Understanding Lung Problems: Make Each Breath Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lung Problems—Make Each Breath Healthy Heath and Aging Understanding Lung Problems—Make Each Breath Healthy Chronic ... cancer is to quit or never start smoking. Aging With Asthma Zafar just celebrated his 71 st ...

  3. Understanding mobility in a social petri dish

    PubMed Central

    Szell, Michael; Sinatra, Roberta; Petri, Giovanni; Thurner, Stefan; Latora, Vito

    2012-01-01

    Despite the recent availability of large data sets on human movements, a full understanding of the rules governing motion within social systems is still missing, due to incomplete information on the socio-economic factors and to often limited spatio-temporal resolutions. Here we study an entire society of individuals, the players of an online-game, with complete information on their movements in a network-shaped universe and on their social and economic interactions. Such a “socio-economic laboratory” allows to unveil the intricate interplay of spatial constraints, social and economic factors, and patterns of mobility. We find that the motion of individuals is not only constrained by physical distances, but also strongly shaped by the presence of socio-economic areas. These regions can be recovered perfectly by community detection methods solely based on the measured human dynamics. Moreover, we uncover that long-term memory in the time-order of visited locations is the essential ingredient for modeling the trajectories. PMID:22708055

  4. Understanding mobility in a social petri dish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szell, Michael; Sinatra, Roberta; Petri, Giovanni; Thurner, Stefan; Latora, Vito

    2012-06-01

    Despite the recent availability of large data sets on human movements, a full understanding of the rules governing motion within social systems is still missing, due to incomplete information on the socio-economic factors and to often limited spatio-temporal resolutions. Here we study an entire society of individuals, the players of an online-game, with complete information on their movements in a network-shaped universe and on their social and economic interactions. Such a ``socio-economic laboratory'' allows to unveil the intricate interplay of spatial constraints, social and economic factors, and patterns of mobility. We find that the motion of individuals is not only constrained by physical distances, but also strongly shaped by the presence of socio-economic areas. These regions can be recovered perfectly by community detection methods solely based on the measured human dynamics. Moreover, we uncover that long-term memory in the time-order of visited locations is the essential ingredient for modeling the trajectories.

  5. Mathematics Knowledge for Understanding and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Ralph T.

    1987-01-01

    Two important aspects of transfer in mathematics learning are the application of mathematical knowledge (MK) to problem solving and the acquisition of more advanced concepts. General assumptions and themes of current cognitive research on mathematics learning in schoolchildren are discussed, focusing on issues facilitating the transfer of MK. (TJH)

  6. Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

    Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

  7. Less drinking, yet more problems: understanding African American drinking and related problems.

    PubMed

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Pedersen, Sarah L; McCarthy, Denis M; Smith, Gregory T

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but also provides within-group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within-group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  8. Less Drinking, Yet More Problems: Understanding African American Drinking and Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but which also provides within group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  9. Binding action and emotion in social understanding.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Francesca; Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Costantini, Marcello; Salone, Anatolia; Arciero, Giampiero; Mazzola, Viridiana; Ferro, Filippo Maria; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    In social life actions are tightly linked with emotions. The integration of affective- and action-related information has to be considered as a fundamental component of appropriate social understanding. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at investigating whether an emotion (Happiness, Anger or Neutral) dynamically expressed by an observed agent modulates brain activity underlying the perception of his grasping action. As control stimuli, participants observed the same agent either only expressing an emotion or only performing a grasping action. Our results showed that the observation of an action embedded in an emotional context (agent's facial expression), compared with the observation of the same action embedded in a neutral context, elicits higher neural response at the level of motor frontal cortices, temporal and occipital cortices, bilaterally. Particularly, the dynamic facial expression of anger modulates the re-enactment of a motor representation of the observed action. This is supported by the evidence that observing actions embedded in the context of anger, but not happiness, compared with a neutral context, elicits stronger activity in the bilateral pre-central gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, besides the pre-supplementary motor area, a region playing a central role in motor control. Angry faces not only seem to modulate the simulation of actions, but may also trigger motor reaction. These findings suggest that emotions exert a modulatory role on action observation in different cortical areas involved in action processing. PMID:23349792

  10. Problem Behaviors of Homeless Youth: A Social Capital Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bantchevska, Denitza; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Glebova, Tatiana; Slesnick, Natasha

    2008-01-01

    Homeless youth are one of the most marginalized groups in our society. Many researchers identify much higher levels of various problem behaviors among these youth compared to their non-homeless peers. The current study examined the utility of social capital in predicting problem behaviors among homeless youth. Overall, the theoretically derived social capital variable significantly predicted substance use frequency, sexual risk behavior, depression, delinquent behavior as well as number of days homeless. Thus, social capital was useful in understanding and predicting the current life situation among these youth and may be worthy of further study. Findings suggest that meaningful change should utilize interventions that go beyond the individual and are geared towards modifying the social context of individuals’ lives. PMID:18787647

  11. Understanding grapheme personification: a social synaesthesia?

    PubMed

    Amin, Maina; Olu-Lafe, Olufemi; Claessen, Loes E; Sobczak-Edmans, Monika; Ward, Jamie; Williams, Adrian L; Sagiv, Noam

    2011-09-01

    Much of synaesthesia research focused on colour, but not all cross-domain correspondences reported by synaesthetes are strictly sensory. For example, some synaesthetes personify letters and numbers, in additional to visualizing them in colour. First reported in the 1890s, the phenomenon has been largely ignored by scientists for more than a century with the exception of a few single-case reports. In the present study, we collected detailed self-reports on grapheme personification using a questionnaire, providing us with a comprehensive description of the phenomenology of grapheme personification. Next, we documented the behavioural consequences of personifying graphemes using a congruity paradigm involving a gender judgement task; we also examined whether personification is associated with heightened empathy as measured using Empathy Quotient and found substantial individual differences within our sample. Lastly, we present the first neuroimaging case study of personification, indicating that the precuneus activation previously seen in other synaesthesia studies may be implicated in the process. We propose that frameworks for understanding synaesthesia could be extended into other domains of cognition and that grapheme personification shares more in common with normal cognition than may be readily apparent. This benign form of hyper-mentalizing may provide a unique point of view on one of the most central problems in human cognition - understanding others' state of mind. PMID:21923789

  12. Associations Between Behavioral Inhibition and Children's Social Problem Solving Behavior During Social Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Olga L.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Penela, Elizabeth C.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the associations between the early childhood temperament of behavioral inhibition and children's displays of social problem-solving (SPS) behavior during social exclusion. During toddlerhood (ages 2-3), maternal report and behavioral observations of behavioral inhibition were collected. At age 7, children's SPS behaviors were observed during a laboratory social exclusion task based on the commonly used Cyberball game. Results showed that behavioral inhibition was positively associated with displayed social withdrawal and negatively associated with assertive behavior during the observed social exclusion task at 7 years of age. These results add to our understanding of inhibited children's SPS behaviors during social exclusion and provide evidence for the associations between toddler temperament and children's social behavior during middle childhood. PMID:25360063

  13. Children's Understanding of Social Class Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naimark, Hedwin

    Investigated were school children's recognition of social class distinctions, cues they used, and the relationship of their ideas about social class to other beliefs and attitudes about the social world. An ethnically mixed group of 201 male and female subjects participated in the study. Five age groups were represented: second, fifth, and sixth…

  14. Understanding the Social Navigation User Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goecks, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    A social navigation system collects data from its users--its community--about what they are doing, their opinions, and their decisions, aggregates this data, and provides the aggregated data--community data--back to individuals so that they can use it to guide behavior and decisions. Social navigation systems empower users with the ability to…

  15. Understanding the Social Navigation User Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goecks, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    A social navigation system collects data from its users--its community--about what they are doing, their opinions, and their decisions, aggregates this data, and provides the aggregated data--community data--back to individuals so that they can use it to guide behavior and decisions. Social navigation systems empower users with the ability to

  16. Relation of Student Social Position to Consumer Attitudes and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litro, Robert Frank

    1970-01-01

    A study of Connecticut high school students from different social positions found differences in consumer attitudes and understandings of money management, credit, insurance, and savings and investments. (CH)

  17. Understanding the public's health problems: applications of symbolic interaction to public health.

    PubMed

    Maycock, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Public health has typically investigated health issues using methods from the positivistic paradigm. Yet these approaches, although they are able to quantify the problem, may not be able to explain the social reasons of why the problem exists or the impact on those affected. This article will provide a brief overview of a sociological theory that provides methods and a theoretical framework that has proven useful in understanding public health problems and developing interventions. PMID:25475083

  18. Interpersonal violence against people with disabilities: understanding the problem from a rural context.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, Nancy M; Hagemeister, Annelies K; Braun, Elizabeth J

    2011-01-01

    Interpersonal violence against people with disabilities is a significant social problem. Little attention has focused on the rural context and the relevance for understanding violence. Given the dearth of literature exploring interpersonal violence, disability, and rurality, a review of rural-focused literature on domestic violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse was conducted to identify themes that could provide insight into this problem for people with disabilities. Themes include geographic isolation, traditional cultural values and norms, lack of anonymity, lack of resources, and poor response of systems. Implications for understanding interpersonal violence against rural people with disabilities and for social work practice are discussed. PMID:21827301

  19. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  20. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Mauricio; Armelini, Guillermo; Salvaj, Erica

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  1. A Critique of the Microcounselling Approach to Problem Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Viviane; Halliday, Jan

    This paper concerns microcounseling approaches which involve teaching the component behaviors of effective counseling or interviewing within a problem-solving framework. It notes that Egan, Ivey and Carkhuff, as proponents of this view, stress that later action stages of the problem-solving cycle should be based on an adequate understanding of the…

  2. Students' Understandings of the Concept of Social Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Elizabeth; And Others

    Students' understandings of the concept of social class before and after taking the Social Science Foundation course (D101) at Great Britain's Open University were investigated in 1980. Among the students' conceptions before the course was that people are middle class or working class according to their job. Other conceptions were that social

  3. Frameworks for Understanding the Politics of Social Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, John D.

    2011-01-01

    This article has three primary goals centring on a re-examination of the research frameworks we use for understanding the politics of social movements. First, I detail the ideological and methodological deficiencies of the old social movement/new social movement framework. Second, I highlight the positive contributions of research that favoured or…

  4. Social Information Processing and Emotional Understanding in Children with LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger, Nirit; Edelsztein, Hany Schorr; Morash, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed to comprehensively examine social cognition processes in children with and without learning disabilities (LD), focusing on social information processing (SIP) and complex emotional understanding capabilities such as understanding complex, mixed, and hidden emotions. Participants were 50 children with LD (age range 9.4-12.7;…

  5. The Function of Problems and Problem-Solving in the History of the Social Studies Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, S. Samuel; Barth, James L.

    Different concepts of the terms problem, problem solving, and social problem have created philosophical confusion in the social studies movement. The three approaches in social studies history--social science, citizenship transmission, and reflective inquiry--exemplify the incompatibility of the terms. A brief examination of the history of social…

  6. Emotional Understanding, Cooperation, and Social Behavior in High-Functioning Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Andrew; Smith, Tristram

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to typically developing children, children with autism rarely exhibit cooperative social behavior. To examine whether this problem reflects global developmental delays or autism-specific deficits, the present study compared cooperation, emotional understanding, personality characteristics, and social behavior of 10 children with autism…

  7. The Social Context of Infant Intention Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunphy-Lelii, Sarah; LaBounty, Jennifer; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional looking-time paradigms are often used to assess infants' attention to sociocognitive phenomena, but the link between these laboratory scenarios and real-world interactions is unclear. The current study investigated hypothesized relations between traditional social-cognitive looking-time paradigms and their real-world counterparts…

  8. Time, Space and Gender: Understanding "Problem" Behaviour in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The following article reports on a small-scale, exploratory study of aggressive and "problem" behaviour in pre-school children. This project was conceived in the wider context of anxieties about childhood and New Labour's policy focus on "anti-social" behaviour in children. Based on interviews with nursery staff and parents in addition to…

  9. Social Problem Solving, Conduct Problems, and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Walsh, Trudi M.; Andrade, Brendan F.; King, Sara; Carrey, Normand J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the association between social problem solving, conduct problems (CP), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits in elementary age children. Participants were 53 children (40 boys and 13 girls) aged 7-12 years. Social problem solving was evaluated using the Social Problem Solving Test-Revised, which requires children to produce…

  10. Social and Motivational Bases for Mathematical Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatano, Giyoo

    1988-01-01

    Describes a model of cognitive and motivational processes in mathematics learning and relates the model to Brazilian street mathematics and abacus operation. Proposes instructional strategies for motivating conceptual understanding in school mathematics learning. (RJC)

  11. Countervailing Social Network Influences on Problem Behaviors among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Eric; Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta

    2008-01-01

    The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and…

  12. Children's Understanding of Social-Cognitive and Social-Communicative Aspects of Discourse Irony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippova, Eva; Astington, Janet Wilde

    2010-01-01

    To bridge the social-reasoning focus of developmental research on irony understanding and the pragmatic focus of research with adult populations, this cross-sectional study examines 5-, 7-, and 9-year-olds' (n = 72) developing understanding of both social-cognitive and social-communicative aspects of discourse irony, when compared with adults (n =

  13. Children's Understanding of Social-Cognitive and Social-Communicative Aspects of Discourse Irony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippova, Eva; Astington, Janet Wilde

    2010-01-01

    To bridge the social-reasoning focus of developmental research on irony understanding and the pragmatic focus of research with adult populations, this cross-sectional study examines 5-, 7-, and 9-year-olds' (n = 72) developing understanding of both social-cognitive and social-communicative aspects of discourse irony, when compared with adults (n =…

  14. Social and cultural barriers often create problems.

    PubMed

    Acosta, J R

    1999-01-01

    A representative from the Philippines at the 15th Asian Parliamentarians' Meeting presented the issues concerning social and cultural barriers that often hamper the formulation of reproductive health policies. The recent Asian economic crisis has made the attainment of International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) goals more difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. Declining exchange rates and fiscal restraint are threatening full implementation of comprehensive reproductive health programs. The controversial aspects of noncompliance with ICPD goals are those that pertain to social and cultural barriers that often derail plans for formulating national reproductive health and reproductive rights statements and policies. An example of this kind of derailing is the Catholic Church's opposition to plans to legislate a national population and development policy in the Philippines, particularly when they concern the issues of adolescent sexuality and reproductive rights. In addition, the political commitment to adolescents' rights to reproductive health in some Asian countries seems to be weak. This is largely attributable to the perception of adolescent sexuality as taboo. Lastly, misconceptions about actual adolescent sexual behavior, needs, knowledge, views and problems abound among parents, political leaders, policy-makers, religious leaders, teachers and adolescents themselves. PMID:12349203

  15. Understanding and avoiding potential problems in implementing automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, W. B.; Morris, N. M.

    1985-11-01

    Technology-driven efforts to implement automation often encounter problems due to lack of acceptance or begrudging acceptance by the personnel involved. It is argued in this paper that the level of automation perceived by an individual heavily influences whether or not the automation is accepted by that individual. The factors that appear to affect perceived level of automation are discussed. Issues considered include the impact of automation on the system and the individual, correlates of acceptance, problems and risks of automation, and factors influencing alienation. Based on an understanding of these issues, a set of eight guidelines is proposed as a possible means of avoiding problems in implementing automation.

  16. Understanding and avoiding potential problems in implementing automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.; Morris, N. M.

    1985-01-01

    Technology-driven efforts to implement automation often encounter problems due to lack of acceptance or begrudging acceptance by the personnel involved. It is argued in this paper that the level of automation perceived by an individual heavily influences whether or not the automation is accepted by that individual. The factors that appear to affect perceived level of automation are discussed. Issues considered include the impact of automation on the system and the individual, correlates of acceptance, problems and risks of automation, and factors influencing alienation. Based on an understanding of these issues, a set of eight guidelines is proposed as a possible means of avoiding problems in implementing automation.

  17. Individual differences in toddlers’ social understanding and prosocial behavior: disposition or socialization?

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Rebekkah L.; Drummond, Jesse; Satlof-Bedrick, Emma; Waugh, Whitney E.; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how individual differences in social understanding contribute to variability in early-appearing prosocial behavior. Moreover, potential sources of variability in social understanding were explored and examined as additional possible predictors of prosocial behavior. Using a multi-method approach with both observed and parent-report measures, 325 children aged 18–30 months were administered measures of social understanding (e.g., use of emotion words; self-understanding), prosocial behavior (in separate tasks measuring instrumental helping, empathic helping, and sharing, as well as parent-reported prosociality at home), temperament (fearfulness, shyness, and social fear), and parental socialization of prosocial behavior in the family. Individual differences in social understanding predicted variability in empathic helping and parent-reported prosociality, but not instrumental helping or sharing. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior was positively associated with toddlers’ social understanding, prosocial behavior at home, and instrumental helping in the lab, and negatively associated with sharing (possibly reflecting parents’ increased efforts to encourage children who were less likely to share). Further, socialization moderated the association between social understanding and prosocial behavior, such that social understanding was less predictive of prosocial behavior among children whose parents took a more active role in socializing their prosociality. None of the dimensions of temperament was associated with either social understanding or prosocial behavior. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior is thus an important source of variability in children’s early prosociality, acting in concert with early differences in social understanding, with different patterns of influence for different subtypes of prosocial behavior. PMID:26029139

  18. Individual differences in toddlers' social understanding and prosocial behavior: disposition or socialization?

    PubMed

    Gross, Rebekkah L; Drummond, Jesse; Satlof-Bedrick, Emma; Waugh, Whitney E; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A

    2015-01-01

    We examined how individual differences in social understanding contribute to variability in early-appearing prosocial behavior. Moreover, potential sources of variability in social understanding were explored and examined as additional possible predictors of prosocial behavior. Using a multi-method approach with both observed and parent-report measures, 325 children aged 18-30 months were administered measures of social understanding (e.g., use of emotion words; self-understanding), prosocial behavior (in separate tasks measuring instrumental helping, empathic helping, and sharing, as well as parent-reported prosociality at home), temperament (fearfulness, shyness, and social fear), and parental socialization of prosocial behavior in the family. Individual differences in social understanding predicted variability in empathic helping and parent-reported prosociality, but not instrumental helping or sharing. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior was positively associated with toddlers' social understanding, prosocial behavior at home, and instrumental helping in the lab, and negatively associated with sharing (possibly reflecting parents' increased efforts to encourage children who were less likely to share). Further, socialization moderated the association between social understanding and prosocial behavior, such that social understanding was less predictive of prosocial behavior among children whose parents took a more active role in socializing their prosociality. None of the dimensions of temperament was associated with either social understanding or prosocial behavior. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior is thus an important source of variability in children's early prosociality, acting in concert with early differences in social understanding, with different patterns of influence for different subtypes of prosocial behavior. PMID:26029139

  19. Understanding Students' Interactions: Why Varied Social Tasks Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Kates, Allison D.; Welton, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Many social interactions between school-age children contain both competitive and cooperative elements. In order to gain a better understanding of how students at risk for emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) negotiate social exchanges in cooperative and competitive-related tasks in comparison with non-EBD students: (a) prosocial; (b)…

  20. Understanding Anticipatory Socialization for New Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Kara M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anticipatory socialization experiences of new student affairs professionals. The focus was to gain a deeper understanding of how new professionals experience their anticipatory socialization, specifically the job search and pre-entry communication with their new organizations. The theory that emerged…

  1. Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

    2007-01-01

    Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…

  2. Developmental patterns in the understanding of social and physical transitivity.

    PubMed

    Markovits, H; Dumas, C

    1999-06-01

    Transitive inferences using both a linear dimension (A is longer than B) and a nonlinear dimension (A and B are friends) were examined. In Study 1, 6- to 9-year-old children received two problems of each kind. Performance showed similar developmental progressions but nonsignificant correlations between the two tasks. Study 2 extended these results by modifying the linear transitivity problem and adding variation in both context and type of social relation. Children 7, 9, and 11 years of age were given problems requiring judgments about friendship and about nonfriends (children who were quarreling with each other) in two different social contexts. No correlations were found between social judgments and judgments concerning length. Both type of relation and context influenced judgments about social relations. These results suggest that children possess two distinct strategies for making transitive judgments that correspond to the logical structure of the underlying relations. PMID:10328860

  3. Boot Camp for Occupational Health Nurses: Understanding Social Media.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Debra M; Olszewski, Kimberly

    2015-08-01

    Social media is a buzzword frequently referred to in marketing materials, general media, and personal conversations. Although many refer to the term social media, some individuals do not understand its meaning or how it affects their daily lives at work and home. Since the expansion of the Internet to web 2.0, multiple platforms of communication occur virtually through various social media. Understanding and learning how to use these platforms are essential to stay connected with friends, family, and colleagues; advance connections to professional organizations; and extend educational opportunities. This article presents basic information for occupational health nurses to improve their understanding of social media and how to communicate virtually using different platforms safely and securely. PMID:26240119

  4. Understanding Individual Problem-Solving Style: A Key to Learning and Applying Creative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.

    2008-01-01

    More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…

  5. Statistical learning as a basis for social understanding in children.

    PubMed

    Ruffman, Ted; Taumoepeau, Mele; Perkins, Chris

    2012-03-01

    Many authors have argued that infants understand goals, intentions, and beliefs. We posit that infants' success on such tasks might instead reveal an understanding of behaviour, that infants' proficient statistical learning abilities might enable such insights, and that maternal talk scaffolds children's learning about the social world as well. We also consider which skills and insights are likely to be innate, and why it is difficult to say exactly when children understand mental states as opposed to behaviours. PMID:22429035

  6. Analysis of Social Problem Solving and Social Self-Efficacy in Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erozkan, Atilgan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between social problem solving and social selfefficacy and the predictive role of social problem solving skills with social self-efficacy. The sample consists of 706 prospective teachers (362 female and 344 male) who are majoring in different fields at Mugla Sitki Kocman…

  7. The Investigation of Social Problem Solving Abilities of University Students in Terms of Perceived Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tras, Zeliha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze of university students' perceived social support and social problem solving. The participants were 827 (474 female and 353 male) university students. Data were collected Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (Yildirim, 2004) and Social Problem Solving (Maydeu-Olivares and D'Zurilla, 1996)…

  8. The Investigation of Social Problem Solving Abilities of University Students in Terms of Perceived Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tras, Zeliha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze of university students' perceived social support and social problem solving. The participants were 827 (474 female and 353 male) university students. Data were collected Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (Yildirim, 2004) and Social Problem Solving (Maydeu-Olivares and D'Zurilla, 1996)

  9. Social media and social work education: understanding and dealing with the new digital world.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lin; Mishna, Faye; Zhang, Vivian F; Van Wert, Melissa; Bogo, Marion

    2014-10-01

    Accompanying the multiple benefits and innovations of social media are the complex ethical and pedagogical issues that challenge social work educators. Without a clear understanding of the blurred boundaries between public and private, the potentially limitless and unintended audiences, as well as the permanency of the information shared online, social work students who use social media can find themselves in difficult situations in their personal and professional lives. In this article, we present three scenarios that illustrate issues and complexities involving social media use by social work students, followed by a discussion and recommendations for social work educators. PMID:25321930

  10. Social Studies Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding Sociology Concepts within Social Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatekin, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating social studies student teachers' levels of understanding sociology concepts within social studies curriculum. Study group of the research consists of 266 teacher candidates attending the Department of Social Studies, Faculty of Education, Kastamonu University during 2012 to 2013 education year. A semi-structured

  11. Social Studies Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding Sociology Concepts within Social Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatekin, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating social studies student teachers' levels of understanding sociology concepts within social studies curriculum. Study group of the research consists of 266 teacher candidates attending the Department of Social Studies, Faculty of Education, Kastamonu University during 2012 to 2013 education year. A semi-structured…

  12. Social Emotional Optimization Algorithm for Nonlinear Constrained Optimization Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuechun; Cui, Zhihua; Zeng, Jianchao

    Nonlinear programming problem is one important branch in operational research, and has been successfully applied to various real-life problems. In this paper, a new approach called Social emotional optimization algorithm (SEOA) is used to solve this problem which is a new swarm intelligent technique by simulating the human behavior guided by emotion. Simulation results show that the social emotional optimization algorithm proposed in this paper is effective and efficiency for the nonlinear constrained programming problems.

  13. Captured by motion: dance, action understanding, and social cognition.

    PubMed

    Sevdalis, Vassilis; Keller, Peter E

    2011-11-01

    In this review article, we summarize the main findings from empirical studies that used dance-related forms of rhythmical full body movement as a research tool for investigating action understanding and social cognition. This work has proven to be informative about behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate links between perceptual and motor processes invoked during the observation and execution of spatially-temporally coordinated action and interpersonal interaction. The review focuses specifically on processes related to (a) motor experience and expertise, (b) learning and memory, (c) action, intention, and emotion understanding, and (d) audio-visual synchrony and timing. Consideration is given to the relationship between research on dance and more general embodied cognition accounts of action understanding and social cognition. Finally, open questions and issues concerning experimental design are discussed with a view to stimulating future research on social-cognitive aspects of dance. PMID:21880410

  14. Do Social Relationships Protect Victimized Children against Internalizing Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averdijk, Margit; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether social relationships protect children against the effects of victimization on internalizing problems. We used data from the Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Victimization at age 8 years was associated with internalizing problems at age 9 years. Victims who had siblings, warm parents, and a

  15. Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

  16. Using Mind Maps To Teach Social Problems Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Anne R.; Snyder, Paula J.

    This paper identifies five difficulties in teaching the analysis of social problems, and proffers "mind maps," a concept that refers to the ways in which students create a visual representation of their thinking patterns, as a possible solution. In constructing mind maps, especially for a Social Problems course, the following four steps are…

  17. Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age

  18. Social Problem Solving and Health Behaviors of Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of social problem solving to health behaviors as reported by 126 undergraduate students. Findings revealed significant relationships between elements of social problem solving and wellness and accident prevention behaviors, and traffic and substance risk taking. However, correlations revealed differences between men and…

  19. Social Context of Drinking and Alcohol Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for…

  20. Do Social Relationships Protect Victimized Children against Internalizing Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averdijk, Margit; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether social relationships protect children against the effects of victimization on internalizing problems. We used data from the Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Victimization at age 8 years was associated with internalizing problems at age 9 years. Victims who had siblings, warm parents, and a…

  1. Designing Problem-Driven Instruction with Online Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyeong-Ju Seo, Kay, Ed.; Pellegrino, Debra A., Ed.; Engelhard, Chalee, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Designing Problem-Driven Instruction with Online Social Media has the capacity to transform an educator's teaching style by presenting innovative ways to empower problem-based instruction with online social media. Knowing that not all instructors are comfortable in this area, this book provides clear, systematic design approaches for instructors

  2. Working Memory Deficits and Social Problems in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofler, Michael J.; Rapport, Mark D.; Bolden, Jennifer; Sarver, Dustin E.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Alderson, R. Matt

    2011-01-01

    Social problems are a prevalent feature of ADHD and reflect a major source of functional impairment for these children. The current study examined the impact of working memory deficits on parent- and teacher-reported social problems in a sample of children with ADHD and typically developing boys (N = 39). Bootstrapped, bias-corrected mediation…

  3. Designing Problem-Driven Instruction with Online Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyeong-Ju Seo, Kay, Ed.; Pellegrino, Debra A., Ed.; Engelhard, Chalee, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Designing Problem-Driven Instruction with Online Social Media has the capacity to transform an educator's teaching style by presenting innovative ways to empower problem-based instruction with online social media. Knowing that not all instructors are comfortable in this area, this book provides clear, systematic design approaches for instructors…

  4. Social Context of Drinking and Alcohol Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for

  5. Captured by Motion: Dance, Action Understanding, and Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevdalis, Vassilis; Keller, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    In this review article, we summarize the main findings from empirical studies that used dance-related forms of rhythmical full body movement as a research tool for investigating action understanding and social cognition. This work has proven to be informative about behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate links between perceptual and motor

  6. Understanding the Social Context of School Health Promotion Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargo, Margaret; Salsberg, Jon; Delormier, Treena; Desrosiers, Serge; Macaulay, Ann C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Although implementation fidelity is an important component in the evaluation of school health promotion programs, it assumes that teaching is the most relevant teacher role. To understand the social context of program implementation, a qualitative study was undertaken with the aim of identifying the schoolteacher's role in implementing…

  7. Captured by Motion: Dance, Action Understanding, and Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevdalis, Vassilis; Keller, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    In this review article, we summarize the main findings from empirical studies that used dance-related forms of rhythmical full body movement as a research tool for investigating action understanding and social cognition. This work has proven to be informative about behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate links between perceptual and motor…

  8. Understanding the Dynamics of Motivation in Socially Shared Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvela, Sanna; Jarvenoja, Hanna; Veermans, Marjaana

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the dynamics of motivation in socially shared learning from both individual and group perspectives. Higher education students' motivation was analysed in the context of collaborative learning tasks, applying quantitative and qualitative methods. The research questions were: (1) what kind of…

  9. Social problem solving strategies and posttraumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Reich, Catherine M; Blackwell, Nthali; Simmons, Catherine A; Beck, J Gayle

    2015-05-01

    Social factors are often associated with the development or maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the aftermath of interpersonal traumas. However, social problem solving strategies have received little attention. The current study explored the role of social problem solving styles (i.e., rational approaches, impulsive/careless strategies, or avoidance strategies) as intermediary variables between abuse exposure and PTSD severity among intimate partner violence survivors. Avoidance problem solving served as an intermediating variable for the relationship between three types of abuse and PTSD severity. Rational and impulsive/careless strategies were not associated with abuse exposure. These findings extend the current understanding of social problem solving among interpersonal trauma survivors and are consistent with more general avoidance coping research. Future research might examine whether avoidance problem solving tends to evolve in the aftermath of trauma or whether it represents a longstanding risk factor for PTSD development. PMID:25840140

  10. Understanding Islamist political violence through computational social simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Jennifer H; Mackerrow, Edward P; Patelli, Paolo G; Eberhardt, Ariane; Stradling, Seth G

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the process that enables political violence is of great value in reducing the future demand for and support of violent opposition groups. Methods are needed that allow alternative scenarios and counterfactuals to be scientifically researched. Computational social simulation shows promise in developing 'computer experiments' that would be unfeasible or unethical in the real world. Additionally, the process of modeling and simulation reveals and challenges assumptions that may not be noted in theories, exposes areas where data is not available, and provides a rigorous, repeatable, and transparent framework for analyzing the complex dynamics of political violence. This paper demonstrates the computational modeling process using two simulation techniques: system dynamics and agent-based modeling. The benefits and drawbacks of both techniques are discussed. In developing these social simulations, we discovered that the social science concepts and theories needed to accurately simulate the associated psychological and social phenomena were lacking.

  11. Embodied artificial agents for understanding human social cognition.

    PubMed

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Chaminade, Thierry; Cheng, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose that experimental protocols involving artificial agents, in particular the embodied humanoid robots, provide insightful information regarding social cognitive mechanisms in the human brain. Using artificial agents allows for manipulation and control of various parameters of behaviour, appearance and expressiveness in one of the interaction partners (the artificial agent), and for examining effect of these parameters on the other interaction partner (the human). At the same time, using artificial agents means introducing the presence of artificial, yet human-like, systems into the human social sphere. This allows for testing in a controlled, but ecologically valid, manner human fundamental mechanisms of social cognition both at the behavioural and at the neural level. This paper will review existing literature that reports studies in which artificial embodied agents have been used to study social cognition and will address the question of whether various mechanisms of social cognition (ranging from lower- to higher-order cognitive processes) are evoked by artificial agents to the same extent as by natural agents, humans in particular. Increasing the understanding of how behavioural and neural mechanisms of social cognition respond to artificial anthropomorphic agents provides empirical answers to the conundrum 'What is a social agent?' PMID:27069052

  12. Embodied artificial agents for understanding human social cognition

    PubMed Central

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Chaminade, Thierry; Cheng, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose that experimental protocols involving artificial agents, in particular the embodied humanoid robots, provide insightful information regarding social cognitive mechanisms in the human brain. Using artificial agents allows for manipulation and control of various parameters of behaviour, appearance and expressiveness in one of the interaction partners (the artificial agent), and for examining effect of these parameters on the other interaction partner (the human). At the same time, using artificial agents means introducing the presence of artificial, yet human-like, systems into the human social sphere. This allows for testing in a controlled, but ecologically valid, manner human fundamental mechanisms of social cognition both at the behavioural and at the neural level. This paper will review existing literature that reports studies in which artificial embodied agents have been used to study social cognition and will address the question of whether various mechanisms of social cognition (ranging from lower- to higher-order cognitive processes) are evoked by artificial agents to the same extent as by natural agents, humans in particular. Increasing the understanding of how behavioural and neural mechanisms of social cognition respond to artificial anthropomorphic agents provides empirical answers to the conundrum ‘What is a social agent?’ PMID:27069052

  13. EARLY SOCIAL TRANSITION AND THE DROPOUT PROBLEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEUTSCH, MARTIN

    AN ATTEMPT IS MADE TO RELATE THE PROBLEM OF THE HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUT TO HIS EARLY SCHOOL EXPERIENCES. ALTHOUGH NO DATA ARE AVAILABLE AT PRESENT TO SUPPORT THE IDEA THAT THE PRESCHOOL PROGRAM COULD REDUCE THE INCIDENCE OF LATER DROPOUT, IT IS SUGGESTED THAT THE PROBLEM OF THE HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUT SHOULD BE FOCUSED ON THE TRANSITION BETWEEN PRESCHOOL…

  14. Problem Solving in Social Studies: Two Examples from the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Allen D.

    1977-01-01

    Describes two methods to incorporate problem-solving into social studies classes. Project REACH, a five-step method, teaches students the process of problem solving while using a variety of materials and classroom situations. Project USMES incorporates problem solving into a set of specially developed curriculum materials. (Author/AV)

  15. Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

  16. Social Problem-Solving among Adolescents Treated for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19775677

  17. Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"

  18. Understanding Classrooms through Social Network Analysis: A Primer for Social Network Analysis in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunspan, Daniel Z.; Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA)

  19. Understanding Classrooms through Social Network Analysis: A Primer for Social Network Analysis in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunspan, Daniel Z.; Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA)…

  20. Links between Empathy, Social Behavior, and Social Understanding in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Leanne C.; Girardi, Alberta; Coplan, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine both social behaviors (i.e., aggression, shyness-withdrawal, and prosocial tendencies) and social understanding (i.e., attitudes and responses to such behaviors in hypothetical peers) of empathic and low empathic children. Participants were 136 children in kindergarten and grade one. Parents…

  1. Understanding student use of differentials in physics integration problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dehui; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2013-12-01

    This study focuses on students’ use of the mathematical concept of differentials in physics problem solving. For instance, in electrostatics, students need to set up an integral to find the electric field due to a charged bar, an activity that involves the application of mathematical differentials (e.g., dr, dq). In this paper we aim to explore students’ reasoning about the differential concept in physics problems. We conducted group teaching or learning interviews with 13 engineering students enrolled in a second-semester calculus-based physics course. We amalgamated two frameworks—the resources framework and the conceptual metaphor framework—to analyze students’ reasoning about differential concept. Categorizing the mathematical resources involved in students’ mathematical thinking in physics provides us deeper insights into how students use mathematics in physics. Identifying the conceptual metaphors in students’ discourse illustrates the role of concrete experiential notions in students’ construction of mathematical reasoning. These two frameworks serve different purposes, and we illustrate how they can be pieced together to provide a better understanding of students’ mathematical thinking in physics.

  2. Forced migrations as a social problem.

    PubMed

    Vitkovskaia, G S; Kocharian, A V

    1993-01-01

    The size and characteristics of recent refugee migration in the former Soviet Union is assessed; the study concerns those fleeing from ecological disasters as well as from interethnic conflict. The problems of providing refugee assistance are discussed. This is a translation of a Russian article in "Migratsiia naseleniia", Moscow, Russia, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1992, pp. 61-82. PMID:12318332

  3. Recognizing Physical Disability as a Social Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Charles

    Physical disability is an enormous psychosocio-economic-medical problem that affects over 24 million Americans. Public policy endorses a multi-disciplinary approach in analyzing this issue. Legislation has broadened the meaning of physical disability to include persons with mental and emotional disorders. Some of the costs associated with physical…

  4. Drug Abuse and Politics: The Construction of a Social Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Eric L.; And Others

    Relying on the social constructionist approach as advanced by Armand L. Mauss (1975), this paper analyzes the construction of a recent U.S. social problem, drug abuse. It is argued that the objective conditions of drug use alone cannot explain why drugs became an issue immediately prior to the 1986 Congressional elections. Explanations for the…

  5. Cultural Differences in Social Interaction during Group Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrenya, William K., Jr.; Barba, Lourdes

    Cross-cultural psychology has begun to analyze cultural differences on collectivism and the implications of these differences for social processes such as group productivity. This study examined natural social interaction during a problem-solving task that required discussion and the establishment of a consensus. The relationship of collectivist…

  6. Social Problems of Drug Use and Drug Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Joel

    The social and legal policies that control or prevent the use of mind-altering drugs are the main cause of the social problems arising from their use. The existing policies are ineffective; the wrong drugs receive the most attention and laws are directed at the wrong phase of the cycle of promotion, distribution and use. The following reforms are…

  7. The Social Studies Curriculum: Purposes, Problems, and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, E. Wayne, Ed.

    This book presents a substantive overview of the issues in curriculum development and implementation faced by social studies educators. The book offers contemporary perspectives on some of the most enduring problems facing the social studies. The collection of essays provides readers with a systematic investigation of a broad range of issues of…

  8. Problems with the Construct and Measurement of Social Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, Mark R.

    There has been little agreement regarding appropriate definitions of social anxiety. Many existing definitions are conceptually problematic and these problems have had serious methodological implications. Social anxiety may be defined as anxiety resulting from the prospect or presence of interpersonal evaluation in real or imagined social…

  9. A social cognitive perspective on 'understanding' and 'explaining'.

    PubMed

    Vogeley, Kai

    2013-01-01

    One essential methodological dichotomy introduced by Karl Jaspers into the field of psychopathology is the difference between 'understanding' ('Verstehen') and 'explaining' ('Erklären'). Jaspers emphasizes a critical epistemological divide between both methods: whereas 'explaining' relates to the attempt to consider mental disorders as consequences of impersonal natural laws, 'understanding' refers to the empathic appreciation of conflicts, hopes, and desires of an individual person. This distinction is related to the difference between 'persons' and 'things' according to Fritz Heider, founder of the so-called 'attribution theory' in social psychology that deals with our ability to ascribe mental states to others. Whereas the behavior of persons is based on psychological rules that are inherently characterized by ambiguity and uncertainty and are thus only partly predictable, the behavior of things is based on natural laws and is therefore fully predictable. This suggests a close resemblance of both accounts where 'understanding' is related to the domain of persons and 'explaining' is related to the domain of things or physical objects. Recently, understanding others has also become a central topic of modern cognitive neuroscience, constituting 'social neuroscience' targeted at explaining our human capacity of ascribing mental states to others. This shows that this distinction introduced by Jaspers still is an important and fundamental differentiation for various research fields dealing with communication and interaction between persons. PMID:23859833

  10. Rethinking conformity and imitation: divergence, convergence, and social understanding

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Bert H.

    2014-01-01

    Social and developmental psychologists have stressed the pervasiveness and strength of humans’ tendencies to conform and to imitate, and social anthropologists have argued that these tendencies are crucial to the formation of cultures. Research from four domains is reviewed and elaborated to show that divergence is also pervasive and potent, and it is interwoven with convergence in a complex set of dynamics that is often unnoticed or minimized. First, classic research in social conformity is reinterpreted in terms of truth, trust, and social solidarity, revealing that dissent is its most salient feature. Second, recent studies of children’s use of testimony to guide action reveal a surprisingly sophisticated balance of trust and prudence, and a concern for truth and charity. Third, new experiments indicate that people diverge from others even under conditions where conformity seems assured. Fourth, current studies of imitation provide strong evidence that children are both selective and faithful in who, what, and why they follow others. All of the evidence reviewed points toward children and adults as being engaged, embodied partners with others, motivated to learn and understand the world, others, and themselves in ways that go beyond goals and rules, prediction and control. Even young children act as if they are in a dialogical relationship with others and the world, rather than acting as if they are solo explorers or blind followers. Overall, the evidence supports the hypothesis that social understanding cannot be reduced to convergence or divergence, but includes ongoing activities that seek greater comprehensiveness and complexity in the ability to act and interact effectively, appropriately, and with integrity. PMID:25071687

  11. Social Networking Sites: An Adjunctive Treatment Modality for Psychological Problems

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Indu S.; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chandra, Prabha S.; Thennarasu, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social networking is seen as a way to enhance social support and feeling of well-being. The present work explores the potentials of social networking sites as an adjunctive treatment modality for initiating treatment contact as well as for managing psychological problems. Materials and Methods: Interview schedule, Facebook intensity questionnaire were administered on 28 subjects with a combination of 18 males and 10 females. They were taken from the in-patient and out-patient psychiatry setting of the hospital. Results: Facebook was the most popular sites and used to seek emotional support on the basis of the frequent updates of emotional content that users put in their profile; reconciliations, escape from the problems or to manage the loneliness; getting information about illness and its treatment and interaction with experts and also manifested as problematic use. Conclusions: It has implications for developing social networking based adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems. PMID:25035548

  12. Understanding Wicked Problems: A Key to Advancing Environmental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreuter, Marshall W.; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.

    2004-01-01

    Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have

  13. Understanding Wicked Problems: A Key to Advancing Environmental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreuter, Marshall W.; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.

    2004-01-01

    Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have…

  14. Korean immigrant discipline and children's social competence and behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjung; Guo, Yuqing; Koh, Chinkang; Cain, Kevin C

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between Korean immigrant discipline (e.g., positive, appropriate, and harsh discipline) and children's social competence and behavior problems. Self-report data were collected from 58 mothers and 20 fathers of children aged from 3 to 8 years. Only paternal harsh discipline was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Among specific discipline strategies, maternal physical affection, correcting misbehaviors, and reasoning were positively correlated with children's social competence. Paternal physical punishment (e.g., spanking, hitting, and raising arms) was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Immigrant fathers need to learn alternative ways of managing children's misbehaviors. PMID:21035016

  15. Narrativity and enaction: the social nature of literary narrative understanding

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Yanna B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones. PMID:25202286

  16. Narrativity and enaction: the social nature of literary narrative understanding.

    PubMed

    Popova, Yanna B

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones. PMID:25202286

  17. Exposure to Violence, Social Information Processing, and Problem Behavior in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which early risk factors for social maladjustment contribute to disruptive behaviors in social settings is vital to developmental research and practice. A major risk factor for social maladjustment is early exposure to violence which was examined in this short-term longitudinal study in relation to social information processing patterns and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 256 preschool children. Data on exposure to violence were obtained via parent report, data on social information processing were obtained via child interview, and data on child problem behavior were obtained via teacher report. Findings supported the hypothesis that, compared to children not exposed to violence, children reported to witness and/or experience violence are more likely to attribute hostile intent to peers, generate aggressive responses, and evaluate socially unaccepted responses (aggressive and inept) as socially suitable. The former were also found to exhibit higher levels of externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Finally, social information processing mediated the link between exposure to violence and problem behavior thus supporting this study’s general approach which argues that the link between exposure to violence and children’s problem behaviors are better understood within the context of their perceptions about social relationships. PMID:23011955

  18. Leveraging social networks for understanding the evolution of epidemics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To understand how infectious agents disseminate throughout a population it is essential to capture the social model in a realistic manner. This paper presents a novel approach to modeling the propagation of the influenza virus throughout a realistic interconnection network based on actual individual interactions which we extract from online social networks. The advantage is that these networks can be extracted from existing sources which faithfully record interactions between people in their natural environment. We additionally allow modeling the characteristics of each individual as well as customizing his daily interaction patterns by making them time-dependent. Our purpose is to understand how the infection spreads depending on the structure of the contact network and the individuals who introduce the infection in the population. This would help public health authorities to respond more efficiently to epidemics. Results We implement a scalable, fully distributed simulator and validate the epidemic model by comparing the simulation results against the data in the 2004-2005 New York State Department of Health Report (NYSDOH), with similar temporal distribution results for the number of infected individuals. We analyze the impact of different types of connection models on the virus propagation. Lastly, we analyze and compare the effects of adopting several different vaccination policies, some of them based on individual characteristics -such as age- while others targeting the super-connectors in the social model. Conclusions This paper presents an approach to modeling the propagation of the influenza virus via a realistic social model based on actual individual interactions extracted from online social networks. We implemented a scalable, fully distributed simulator and we analyzed both the dissemination of the infection and the effect of different vaccination policies on the progress of the epidemics. The epidemic values predicted by our simulator match real data from NYSDOH. Our results show that our simulator can be a useful tool in understanding the differences in the evolution of an epidemic within populations with different characteristics and can provide guidance with regard to which, and how many, individuals should be vaccinated to slow down the virus propagation and reduce the number of infections. PMID:22784620

  19. Social-Cognitive Competence, Peer Rejection and Neglect, and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoglund, Wendy L. G.; Lalonde, Christopher E.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2008-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study examines individual differences in two conceptually related but empirically distinct domains of social-cognitive competence (cognitive interpretive understanding and interpersonal perspective co-ordination) as moderators of the relation between peer rejection and neglect and behavioral and emotional problems in…

  20. Stress, Social Support and Problem Drinking among Women in Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Mulia, Nina; Schmidt, Laura; Bond, Jason; Jacobs, Laurie; Korcha, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    Aims Prior studies find that stress contributes to problem drinking while social support can buffer its effects. However, these studies are largely confined to middle class and general populations. We extend what is known by examining how the unique stressors and forms of social support experienced by women in poverty impact alcohol problems over a 4-year time period. Design and Participants This prospective study used GEE transition modeling and 4 annual waves of survey data from 392 American mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in a large Northern California county. Measurements We examined the effects of neighborhood disorder, stressful life events and economic hardship on psychological distress and problem drinking over time, and whether social support moderated these relationships for women in poverty. Findings Neighborhood disorder and stressful life events significantly increased the risk for problem drinking, largely through their effect on psychological distress. We found little evidence, however, that social support buffers poor women from the effects of these stressors. Conclusions Women in poverty are exposed to severe, chronic stressors within their communities and immediate social networks which increase vulnerability to psychological distress and problem drinking. The finding that social support does not buffer stress among these women may reflect their high level of exposure to stressors, as well as the hardships and scarce resources within their networks. If the private safety net of the social network fails to provide a strong buffer, more effective environmental interventions that reduce exposure to stressors may be needed to prevent alcohol problems in poor womens lives. PMID:18855817

  1. Understanding social insurance: fairness, affordability, and the 'modernization' of Social Security and Medicare.

    PubMed

    Marmor, Theodore R; Mashaw, Jerry L

    2006-01-01

    Americans have been urged for several decades to view Social Security and Medicare as political relics--both unaffordable and unfair in light of contemporary demographic and fiscal circumstances and the practices of modern financial markets and modern medicine. Proposals abound for "modernizing" both systems to emphasize choice, competition, and individual ownership. This paper contends that critics of Social Security and Medicare have misanalyzed the problems of both programs and are urging misdirected reforms. The critics, we argue, are often wrong factually and sometimes confused conceptually. More fundamentally, these critiques and proposals are either ignorant of or hostile to the fundamental logic of social insurance. PMID:16551642

  2. Analysis of Online Social Networks to Understand Information Sharing Behaviors Through Social Cognitive Theory

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples’ behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of “leaders” on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of “followers”, people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns. PMID:25973446

  3. Analysis of Online Social Networks to Understand Information Sharing Behaviors Through Social Cognitive Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of leaders on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of followers , people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.

  4. Knowledge and implicature: modeling language understanding as social cognition.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Noah D; Stuhlmüller, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Is language understanding a special case of social cognition? To help evaluate this view, we can formalize it as the rational speech-act theory: Listeners assume that speakers choose their utterances approximately optimally, and listeners interpret an utterance by using Bayesian inference to "invert" this model of the speaker. We apply this framework to model scalar implicature ("some" implies "not all," and "N" implies "not more than N"). This model predicts an interaction between the speaker's knowledge state and the listener's interpretation. We test these predictions in two experiments and find good fit between model predictions and human judgments. PMID:23335578

  5. Program Planning with Problem Mapping to Better Understand Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forstadt, Leslie A.; Doore, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article describes two methods for use in program development and refinement. Problem mapping and forcefield analysis are explained with a real-world example about parenting education. Both methods are visual and consider multiple causes and effects of a problem. The methods are effective for clearly thinking through a problem, identifying…

  6. Wherein Lies Children's Intergroup Bias? Egocentrism, Social Understanding, and Social Projection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    Does children's bias toward their own groups reflect egocentrism or social understanding? After being categorized as belonging to 1 of 2 fictitious groups, 157 six- to ten-year-olds evaluated group members and expressed preferences among neutral items. Children who expected the in-group to share their item preferences (egocentric social…

  7. Developing Shift Problems to Foster Geometrical Proof and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palha, Sonia; Dekker, Rijkje; Gravemeijer, Koeno; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Meaningful learning of formal mathematics in regular classrooms remains a problem in mathematics education. Research shows that instructional approaches in which students work collaboratively on tasks that are tailored to problem solving and reflection can improve students' learning in experimental classrooms. However, these sequences involve…

  8. The Culture Gap: Some Problems in Understanding English Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tezer, Phyllis

    Within the English curriculum, a course to provide familiarity with Western culture may prevent the problem of foreign students' misunderstanding Western literature. This problem was observed at Iran Girls' College during an American literature short story class conducted for advanced seniors, none of whom had been in America but whose English…

  9. Psychologic, Social, Emotional, and Practical Problems of Patients with Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Family physicians will have increasing numbers of patients with arthritis in their practices during the 1990s. Medical management is often complicated by subclinical psychologic, social, and emotional problems, and other problems of everyday living that affect the care of these people. The author reviews some typical patients with arthritis and offers practical suggestions about non-medical treatments that can assist them. PMID:21234067

  10. Social and behavioral problems among five gambling severity groups.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Jacquelene F; Yoon, Gihyun; Campos, Michael D; Fong, Timothy W

    2015-12-15

    Gambling has been associated with various social and behavioral problems, but previous analyses have been limited by sample bias regarding gambling symptom severity range and the role of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). This study utilized a nationally representative data set and examined various characteristics of behavioral problems and ASPD among five gambling severity groups. Participants were 42,038 individuals who took part in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and provided information on social and behavioral problems, ASPD, and gambling. Using DSM-IV criteria, we derived five gambling groups from the total sample: non-gambling, low-risk, at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling. Associations between all problematic behaviors and nearly every gambling severity level were significant prior to adjustment for sociodemographic variables and ASPD. Following the adjustment, all significant associations persisted, with the exception of sexual coercion. In the adjusted model, the financially oriented behaviors had the strongest associations with gambling. All gambling severity levels were associated with an increased risk for a number of problematic behaviors and social problems in comparison to non-gamblers.Further examination of gambling problems in financial and criminal justice settings is recommended. PMID:26391652

  11. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Merry, Carroll E., Ed.

    This document contains abstracts and the complete texts of 19 papers that were presented at a conference held to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. The following papers are included: "Microwave Society and Crock-Pot Government" (Bill Graves); "Citizen Participation, Social Capital and…

  12. The social competence of Latino kindergartners and growth in mathematical understanding.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Claudia; Fuller, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    We know that social competence contributes to young children's adaptation to, and cognitive learning within, classroom settings. Yet initial evidence is mixed on the social competencies that Latino children bring to kindergarten and the extent to which these skills advance cognitive growth. Building from ecocultural and developmental-risk theory, this paper shows children's social competence to be adaptive to the normative expectations and cognitive requirements of culturally bounded settings in both the home and classroom. Latino socialization in the home may yield social competencies that teachers value rather than reflect "risk factors" that constrain children's school readiness. We draw on the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, kindergarten cohort (N = 19,590) to detail 5 social competencies at entry to school--self-control, interpersonal skills, approaches to learning, internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors--and to examine variability among Latino subgroups. We then test the extent to which baseline variation in social competence accounts for children's cognitive growth during the kindergarten year. We find that Latino children from poor, but not middle-class, families display weaker social competencies vis-à-vis White children (all relationships p < or = .05). Social competence levels contribute to Latino children's cognitive growth, which is shaped most strongly by positive approaches to learning. The disparities in competencies observed for Latino children from poor families, relative to White children, are significant yet much smaller than gaps in baseline levels of mathematical understanding. We discuss how the consonance or mismatch between competencies acquired at home and those valued by teachers must consider cultural differences, social-class position, and variation among diverse Latino subgroups. PMID:20438172

  13. Illuminating the dark matter of social neuroscience: Considering the problem of social interaction from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Przyrembel, Marisa; Smallwood, Jonathan; Pauen, Michael; Singer, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Successful human social interaction depends on our capacity to understand other people's mental states and to anticipate how they will react to our actions. Despite its importance to the human condition, the exact mechanisms underlying our ability to understand another's actions, feelings, and thoughts are still a matter of conjecture. Here, we consider this problem from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives. In a critical review, we demonstrate that attempts to draw parallels across these complementary disciplines is premature: The second-person perspective does not map directly to Interaction or Simulation theories, online social cognition, or shared neural network accounts underlying action observation or empathy. Nor does the third-person perspective map onto Theory-Theory (TT), offline social cognition, or the neural networks that support Theory of Mind (ToM). Moreover, we argue that important qualities of social interaction emerge through the reciprocal interplay of two independent agents whose unpredictable behavior requires that models of their partner's internal state be continually updated. This analysis draws attention to the need for paradigms in social neuroscience that allow two individuals to interact in a spontaneous and natural manner and to adapt their behavior and cognitions in a response contingent fashion due to the inherent unpredictability in another person's behavior. Even if such paradigms were implemented, it is possible that the specific neural correlates supporting such reciprocal interaction would not reflect computation unique to social interaction but rather the use of basic cognitive and emotional processes combined in a unique manner. Finally, we argue that given the crucial role of social interaction in human evolution, ontogeny, and every-day social life, a more theoretically and methodologically nuanced approach to the study of real social interaction will nevertheless help the field of social cognition to evolve. PMID:22737120

  14. Does Neighborhood Social Capital Buffer the Effects of Maternal Depression on Adolescent Behavior Problems?

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

    2014-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives. PMID:24659390

  15. Fatherless America: Confronting Our Most Urgent Social Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenhorn, David

    The United States is rapidly becoming a fatherless society. Fatherlessness is the leading cause of declining child well-being, providing the impetus behind social problems such as crime, domestic violence, and adolescent pregnancy. Challenging the basic assumptions of opinion leaders in academia and in the media, this book debunks the prevailing…

  16. Interpersonal Competence Configurations, Behavior Problems, and Social Adjustment in Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Estell, David B.; Hall, Cristin M.; Pearl, Ruth; Van Acker, Richard; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines interpersonal competence configurations in relation to students' concurrent behavior problems and social risks for later adjustment difficulties. Participants are 648 (345 girls, 303 boys) fourth-grade students (65% White, 6.9% African American, 19.5% Hispanic, 4.6% Asian, and 4.0% Other) from the suburbs of a major Midwestern…

  17. Social Cognition and Conduct Problems: A Developmental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Barker, Edward D.; Mandy, William P. L.; Skuse, David H.; Maughan, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To estimate associations between trajectories of conduct problems and social-cognitive competences through childhood into early adolescence. Method: A prospective population-based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) recruited in the prenatal period (13,988 children alive at 12 months) formed the basis

  18. Collective Socialization and Child Conduct Problems. Data Trends #105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" presents findings from research examining the influence of collective socialization, concentration of disadvantage, and prevalence of crime on conduct problems among African…

  19. Environmental Problems and the Social Sciences: What Should We Teach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cylke, F. Kurt, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental issues that can be explored in social science courses include problems with potential to cause serious or irreversible change to an ecosystem or biosphere. Areas for discussion include: environmental attitudes, values, and behaviors; the environmental movement; risk perceptions; and the political economy of the environment and…

  20. Social Cognition and Conduct Problems: A Developmental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Barker, Edward D.; Mandy, William P. L.; Skuse, David H.; Maughan, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To estimate associations between trajectories of conduct problems and social-cognitive competences through childhood into early adolescence. Method: A prospective population-based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) recruited in the prenatal period (13,988 children alive at 12 months) formed the basis…

  1. Fatherless America: Confronting Our Most Urgent Social Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenhorn, David

    The United States is rapidly becoming a fatherless society. Fatherlessness is the leading cause of declining child well-being, providing the impetus behind social problems such as crime, domestic violence, and adolescent pregnancy. Challenging the basic assumptions of opinion leaders in academia and in the media, this book debunks the prevailing

  2. Developmental Trends in Children's Aggression and Social Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Fumito; Koseki, Shunsuke; Shimada, Hironori

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to clarify how social problem-solving processes develop and to identify developmentally-sensitive intervention components for children's aggression. Elementary and junior-high school Japanese students (N = 1100) from urban public schools participated in the present investigation. Their alternative thinking skills,

  3. The Social Context of Conduct Problems and Delinquency in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarin, Oscar; Christian, Marcelle

    This paper describes a study of African-American families (N=10) that have one son in placement in a youth facility. The paper investigates the social context of behavioral problems among these Detroit youth, exploring the challenges faced by low-income minority families. Participants in the study described critical events in their lives, and…

  4. Attachment and Social Problem Solving in Juvenile Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, Saritha S.; And Others

    This study investigates characteristics of juvenile delinquency and youth violence by examining attachment and social problem skills. Attachment theory integrates features of psychoanalytic theory, ethology, and cognitive psychology. Research on adolescent attachment suggests that parents continue to function as a secure base for their teenage…

  5. Situated, Embodied and Social Problem-Solving in Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cram, Andrew; Hedberg, John G.; Gosper, Maree; Dick, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary theories of problem-solving highlight that expertise is domain specific, contingent on the social context and available resources, and involves knowledge, skills, attitudes, emotions and values. Developing educational activities that incorporate all of these elements is a challenge. Through case studies, this paper outlines how…

  6. Developmental Trends in Children's Aggression and Social Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Fumito; Koseki, Shunsuke; Shimada, Hironori

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to clarify how social problem-solving processes develop and to identify developmentally-sensitive intervention components for children's aggression. Elementary and junior-high school Japanese students (N = 1100) from urban public schools participated in the present investigation. Their alternative thinking skills,…

  7. Social Problems Confronting Black Women at White Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Gloria P.

    The author of the paper examines the experience of black women at predominantly white universities who are confronted with problems emanating from sexism and racism in classroom and non-classroom situations and which acquire complexity because of their subtlety and socially reinforced attitudinal origins. The author points to the black females who…

  8. Collaborative Problem Solving in Five-Year-Old Children: Evidence of Social Facilitation and Social Loafing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterberry, Martha E.; Cain, Kathleen M.; Chopko, Stephanie A.

    2007-01-01

    Children's problem solving while working by themselves or with a partner was investigated to explore whether young children are susceptible to social facilitation and social loafing. Five-year-olds were asked to complete easy or hard puzzles, either alone or with a partner. Half of the children were given instructions indicating that their…

  9. Preservice Teachers' Changing Understandings about Teaching Social Studies: The Role of Three Secondary Social Studies Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutsforth, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how nine preservice teachers' understandings about teaching social studies changed during one of three secondary social studies methods courses. Considering the significant role of methods courses in social studies teacher education, methods courses provide spaces to investigate preservice teachers' understandings about…

  10. Understanding unsuccessful attempts to quit smoking: a social phenomenology approach.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto de; Silva, Marcelo Henrique da; Cordeiro, Samara Macedo; Kortchmar, Estela; Zampier, Vanderleia Soeli de Barros; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this paper is to understand the experience of smokers in view of unsuccessful attempts to quit smoking. METHOD This study is based on social phenomenology. Between November and December of 2014, nine interviews were conducted with people that had attempted to quit smoking. The content of these interviews was analyzed and discussed based on the related literature. RESULTS Unsuccessful attempts to quit smoking are related to tobacco addiction; cigarettes are seen as a support to cope with everyday stressful situations. Attempts to quit the smoking habits were based on the need of health improvement and insistence of family and friends. Smokers reported the use of habit cessation strategies learned in support groups, but they also express expectation of specialized psychological support. CONCLUSION The study points out the need to expand the strategies of approaching smokers, and reinforcing psychological support in order to achieve success in the attempt to quit smoking. PMID:27007423

  11. Understanding and Predicting Human Behavior for Social Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoes, Jose; Magedanz, Thomas

    Over the last years, with the rapid advance in technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible for people to take advantage of the devices and services in the surrounding environment to remain "connected" and continuously enjoy the activity they are engaged in, be it sports, entertainment, or work. Such a ubiquitous computing environment will allow everyone permanent access to the Internet anytime, anywhere and anyhow [1]. Nevertheless, despite the evolution of services, social aspects remain in the roots of every human behavior and activities. Great examples of such phenomena are online social networks, which engage users in a way never seen before in the online world. At the same time, being aware and communicating context is a key part of human interaction and is a particularly powerful concept when applied to a community of users where services can be made more personalized and useful. Altogether, harvesting context to reason and learn about user behavior will further enhance the future multimedia vision where services can be composed and customized according to user context. Moreover, it will help us to understand users in a better way.

  12. Social balance as a satisfiability problem of computer science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Vilone, Daniele; Yoon, Sooeyon; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

    2007-02-01

    Reduction of frustration was the driving force in an approach to social balance as it was recently considered by Antal [T. Antal, P. L. Krapivsky, and S. Redner, Phys. Rev. E 72, 036121 (2005)]. We generalize their triad dynamics to k -cycle dynamics for arbitrary integer k . We derive the phase structure, determine the stationary solutions, and calculate the time it takes to reach a frozen state. The main difference in the phase structure as a function of k is related to k being even or odd. As a second generalization we dilute the all-to-all coupling as considered by Antal to a random network with connection probability w<1 . Interestingly, this model can be mapped to a satisfiability problem of computer science. The phase of social balance in our original interpretation then becomes the phase of satisfaction of all logical clauses in the satisfiability problem. In common to the cases we study, the ideal solution without any frustration always exists, but the question actually is as to whether this solution can be found by means of a local stochastic algorithm within a finite time. The answer depends on the choice of parameters. After establishing the mapping between the two classes of models, we generalize the social-balance problem to a diluted network topology for which the satisfiability problem is usually studied. On the other hand, in connection with the satisfiability problem we generalize the random local algorithm to a p -random local algorithm, including a parameter p that corresponds to the propensity parameter in the social balance problem. The qualitative effect of the inclusion of this parameter is a bias towards the optimal solution and a reduction of the needed simulation time.

  13. Mother's social class and perinatal problems in a low-problem area.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, E; Malin, M; Rahkonen, O

    1990-12-01

    This study reports the variation in perinatal problems related to social class in one area in Finland. Data on length of gestation, birthweight, one-minute Apgar score, and need for special care in relation to social class were obtained from a large clinical trial (n = 2912) on iron prophylaxis during pregnancy. Social class was determined from the woman's own occupation and education. Occupation was obtained from the women themselves and classified as upper white collar, lower white collar I, lower white collar II, and workers; entrepreneurs, students and women with no information were excluded. Education was obtained by record linkage to the national education register, and all women were classified by the years normally required to attain a certain level: greater than or equal to 13, 12, 10-11, and less than or equal to 9 years of education. Adjusted for age and parity, a week U-shaped curve was found for gestation length and birthweight, best results being found for the women in the second highest social class. The lower the social class, the more infants with poor Apgar scores. As potential intervening variables we studied marital status, pre-pregnancy weight, smoking, and haematocrit in the 28th week of pregnancy. Their inclusion in multivariate analyses influenced only slightly the differences in perinatal problems between the groups. Our results suggest that in Finland there are still differences in perinatal problems between social classes, but that the relationship is not always linear. PMID:2084032

  14. Understanding Student Use of Differentials in Physics Integration Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Dehui; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on students' use of the mathematical concept of differentials in physics problem solving. For instance, in electrostatics, students need to set up an integral to find the electric field due to a charged bar, an activity that involves the application of mathematical differentials (e.g., "dr," "dq"). In…

  15. Understanding Disadvantaged Youth: Their Problems and Potentials. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieson, Moira B., Comp.; Tatis, Rita M., Comp.

    Designed as a resource guide for teachers and teacher educators, this annotated bibliography contains 102 citations (e.g., journal articles, program descriptions, research reports) most of them dated between 1968 and 1970. There are five sections: 1) Characteristics and Problems of the Disadvantaged--22 items; 2) Attitudes Toward the…

  16. Applying DNA computation to intractable problems in social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rick C S; Yang, Stephen J H

    2010-09-01

    From ancient times to the present day, social networks have played an important role in the formation of various organizations for a range of social behaviors. As such, social networks inherently describe the complicated relationships between elements around the world. Based on mathematical graph theory, social network analysis (SNA) has been developed in and applied to various fields such as Web 2.0 for Web applications and product developments in industries, etc. However, some definitions of SNA, such as finding a clique, N-clique, N-clan, N-club and K-plex, are NP-complete problems, which are not easily solved via traditional computer architecture. These challenges have restricted the uses of SNA. This paper provides DNA-computing-based approaches with inherently high information density and massive parallelism. Using these approaches, we aim to solve the three primary problems of social networks: N-clique, N-clan, and N-club. Their accuracy and feasible time complexities discussed in the paper will demonstrate that DNA computing can be used to facilitate the development of SNA. PMID:20566337

  17. Distributed problem solving and natural language understanding models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, C.

    1980-01-01

    A theory of organization and control for a meaning-based language understanding system is mapped out. In this theory, words, rather than rules, are the units of knowledge, and assume the form of procedural entities which execute as generator-like coroutines. Parsing a sentence in context demands a control environment in wich experts can ask questions of each other, forward hints and suggestions to each other, and suspend. The theory is a cognitive theory of both language representation and parser control.

  18. Genetic aspects of birth defects: new understandings of old problems

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Katrina R; Wilkie, Andrew O M

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, combined advances in genetics, developmental biology and biochemistry have transformed the study of human birth defects. This review describes the importance of genome architecture, parent of origin effects (imprinting), molecular pathophysiology, developmental pathways, mosaicism and cancer predisposition syndromes in the understanding of birth defects. This knowledge can be applied to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic information, counselling and sometimes even treatment of these conditions. PMID:17585097

  19. Understanding Crowd-Powered Search Groups: A Social Network Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingpeng; Wang, Fei-Yue; Zeng, Daniel; Wang, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Background Crowd-powered search is a new form of search and problem solving scheme that involves collaboration among a potentially large number of voluntary Web users. Human flesh search (HFS), a particular form of crowd-powered search originated in China, has seen tremendous growth since its inception in 2001. HFS presents a valuable test-bed for scientists to validate existing and new theories in social computing, sociology, behavioral sciences, and so forth. Methodology In this research, we construct an aggregated HFS group, consisting of the participants and their relationships in a comprehensive set of identified HFS episodes. We study the topological properties and the evolution of the aggregated network and different sub-groups in the network. We also identify the key HFS participants according to a variety of measures. Conclusions We found that, as compared with other online social networks, HFS participant network shares the power-law degree distribution and small-world property, but with a looser and more distributed organizational structure, leading to the diversity, decentralization, and independence of HFS participants. In addition, the HFS group has been becoming increasingly decentralized. The comparisons of different HFS sub-groups reveal that HFS participants collaborated more often when they conducted the searches in local platforms or the searches requiring a certain level of professional knowledge background. On the contrary, HFS participants did not collaborate much when they performed the search task in national platforms or the searches with general topics that did not require specific information and learning. We also observed that the key HFS information contributors, carriers, and transmitters came from different groups of HFS participants. PMID:22761888

  20. Integrated Science: Providing a More Complete Understanding of Complex Problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    Integration among sciences is critical in order to address some of our most pressing problems. Because of the inherent complexity of natural systems, and the increasing complexity of human demands on them, narrowly-focused approaches are no longer sufficient. USGS Workshop on Enhancing Integrated Science, November 1998. The Mid-Continent Geographic Science Center is actively participating in several integrated science studies that include research partners from the other disciplines of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), other Federal and State agencies, universities, and private non-government organizations. The following three examples illustrate the diversity of these studies.

  1. Social Realism and the Problem of the Problem of Knowledge in the Sociology of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines from a Social Realist perspective a set of issues in the sociology of education regarding the problem of knowledge. It focuses upon the issue of relativism associated with the constructionist approach that since the time of the New Sociology of Education in the 1970s has constituted in different forms the dominant perspective

  2. Social Realism and the Problem of the Problem of Knowledge in the Sociology of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines from a Social Realist perspective a set of issues in the sociology of education regarding the problem of knowledge. It focuses upon the issue of relativism associated with the constructionist approach that since the time of the New Sociology of Education in the 1970s has constituted in different forms the dominant perspective…

  3. Scientism as a Social Response to the Problem of Suicide.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Scott J

    2015-12-01

    As one component of a broader social and normative response to the problem of suicide, scientism served to minimize sociopolitical and religious conflict around the issue. As such, it embodied, and continues to embody, a number of interests and values, as well as serving important social functions. It is thus comparable with other normative frameworks and can be appraised, from an ethical perspective, in light of these values, interests, and functions. This work examines the key values, interests, and functions of scientism in suicidology and argues that although scientism has had some social benefit, it primarily serves to maintain political and professional interests and has damaging implications for suicide research and prevention. PMID:26615545

  4. Emotional and social problems in adolescents from a gender perspective.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, David Moreno; Povedano Díaz, Amapola; Martínez Ferrer, Belén; Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo

    2012-11-01

    The present study aims to analyze the relationships between community involvement, perception of family and school climate, and emotional and social problems in adolescents (satisfaction with life, non-conformist social reputation, and school violence). The sample was composed of 1884 (52% boys and 48% girls) adolescents aged from 11 to 17 years old (M = 13.7, SD = 1.4) from the Valencia Community and Andalusia. A structural equation model was calculated to analyze the data. The results indicated that adolescent community involvement was associated with positive perceptions of family and school climate, and school violence. Associations between the variables of the study included in the structural model were also analyzed as a function of gender. The relationship between school climate and social reputation was significant only for boys. Likewise, the association between community involvement and violent behavior was found to be significant only for boys. Finally, the results and their possible implications are discussed. PMID:23156910

  5. Social environmental influences on the development and resolution of alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    McCrady, Barbara S; Zucker, Robert A; Molina, Brooke S G; Ammon, Lyndsay; Ames, Genevieve M; Longabaugh, Richard

    2006-04-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the 2005 Annual Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, Santa Barbara, California, June 25-30. The overall goal of the symposium was to consider the broad impact of the social environment on the development of and successful or unsuccessful resolution of drinking problems. The presentations addressed multiple social environmental influences including: the influence of children on parents (Dr. Zucker), the influence of peers and parents on adolescents (Dr. Molina), the influence of family members on adult drinking (Dr. McCrady), the influence of adult peers/friends (Dr. Kaskutas), and the influence of the occupational environment (Dr. Ames). Dr. Longabaugh, the symposium discussant, addressed models for understanding the relationships between social influences and drinking problems. PMID:16573588

  6. Adoption, infertility, and the new reproductive technologies: problems and prospects for social work and welfare policy.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, S M

    1990-07-01

    In this article, the author examines the social and psychological issues raised by infertility and addresses problems resulting from the increasing commercialization of children through adoption practices as well as through the proliferation of new reproductive technologies. The author begins with a discussion of infertility and considers some aspects of adoption, the traditional solution to infertility. Some historical, technical, ethical, psychological, and social aspects of artificial insemination, along with newer developments of surrogacy, such as in vitro fertilization and frozen embryos, also are discussed. Recommendations are suggested for meeting the service needs of people who have problems associated with infertility. Finally, the author stresses the importance of research along with the necessity for social workers to take a leadership role in helping society both to understand the ethical issues related to and to develop enlightened public policy on infertility, adoption, and the new reproductive technologies. PMID:2203152

  7. Attention and social problem solving as correlates of aggression in preschool males.

    PubMed

    Gouze, K R

    1987-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between two cognitive processing variables--attention and social problem solving--and aggression in preschool-age boys. The 43 participants were administered two selective attention tasks that assess children's tendency to focus on aggressive versus cooperative social situations, the Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving Test developed by Shure and Spivack, and the information and block design subtests of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Aggressive behavior was measured by teacher ratings and observational data. Results indicated that, in contrast to their nonaggressive peers, aggressive preschool boys tend to focus their attention on aggressive social interactions in their environment. They also provide aggressive solutions to hypothetical interpersonal conflict situations more often than their less aggressive peers. Intelligence does not appear to play a mediating role in these relationships. Implications of these results for understanding and remediating aggressive behavior in young boys are discussed. PMID:3611518

  8. Social Environmental Influences on the Development and Resolution of Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Zucker, Robert A.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Ammon, Lyndsay; Ames, Genevieve M.; Longabaugh, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the 2005 Annual Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, Santa Barbara, California, June 25–30. The overall goal of the symposium was to consider the broad impact of the social environment on the development of and successful or unsuccessful resolution of drinking problems. The presentations addressed multiple social environmental influences including: the influence of children on parents (Dr. Zucker), the influence of peers and parents on adolescents (Dr. Molina), the influence of family members on adult drinking (Dr. McCrady), the influence of adult peers/friends (Dr. Kaskutas), and the influence of the occupational environment (Dr. Ames). Dr. Longabaugh, the symposium discussant, addressed models for understanding the relationships between social influences and drinking problems. PMID:16573588

  9. Using Metaphors To Understand and Solve Arithmetic Problems: Novices and Experts Working with Negative Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ming Ming

    2001-01-01

    Novices and experts used the same metaphors to understand and solve problems with negative numbers. Results suggest that the metaphors used by both the children and the adults are central to understanding arithmetic. (Author/MM)

  10. Understanding Online Health Groups for Depression: Social Network and Linguistic Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental health problems have become increasingly prevalent in the past decade. With the advance of Web 2.0 technologies, social media present a novel platform for Web users to form online health groups. Members of online health groups discuss health-related issues and mutually help one another by anonymously revealing their mental conditions, sharing personal experiences, exchanging health information, and providing suggestions and support. The conversations in online health groups contain valuable information to facilitate the understanding of their mutual help behaviors and their mental health problems. Objective We aimed to characterize the conversations in a major online health group for major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in a popular Chinese social media platform. In particular, we intended to explain how Web users discuss depression-related issues from the perspective of the social networks and linguistic patterns revealed by the members’ conversations. Methods Social network analysis and linguistic analysis were employed to characterize the social structure and linguistic patterns, respectively. Furthermore, we integrated both perspectives to exploit the hidden relations between them. Results We found an intensive use of self-focus words and negative affect words. In general, group members used a higher proportion of negative affect words than positive affect words. The social network of the MDD group for depression possessed small-world and scale-free properties, with a much higher reciprocity ratio and clustering coefficient value as compared to the networks of other social media platforms and classic network models. We observed a number of interesting relationships, either strong correlations or convergent trends, between the topological properties and linguistic properties of the MDD group members. Conclusions (1) The MDD group members have the characteristics of self-preoccupation and negative thought content, according to Beck’s cognitive theory of depression; (2) the social structure of the MDD group is much stickier than those of other social media groups, indicating the tendency of mutual communications and efficient spread of information in the MDD group; and (3) the linguistic patterns of MDD members are associated with their topological positions in the social network. PMID:26966078

  11. The Problem is People, Social Studies: 6425.07.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratchford, Frank

    Population education is the focus of this quinmester curriculum guide for secondary students. By examining and comparing past population theories of Malthus and Marx with present theories students will better understand the present situation, cultural attitudes toward the problems, and the ecological consequences of overpopulation. Objectives are…

  12. Overcoming "Doom and Gloom": Empowering Students in Courses on Social Problems, Injustice, and Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brett

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, I use principles of civic education and social psychology to identify four main classroom contributors to students' pessimistic appraisals of their ability to improve social problems: authoritarian teaching methods, a culture of "doom and gloom," little attention to solutions to social problems, and no linkage of social problems to…

  13. Social Understanding of High-Ability Children in Middle and Late Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boor-Klip, Henrike J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its importance in social development, social understanding has hardly been studied in high-ability children. This study explores differences in social understanding between children in high-ability and regular classrooms, specifically theory of mind (ToM) and perception accuracy, as well as associations between individual characteristics…

  14. Practitioners' Understandings of Spirituality: Implications for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Stacey L.; Floersch, Jerry E.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades the topic of spirituality and its relationship to the social work profession has taken its place as a significant and important part of the agenda for social work research, education, and practice. In this article we discuss the results of a qualitative study that addresses how a group of social work practitioners defined…

  15. Understanding Social Media Use as Alienation: A Review and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reveley, James

    2013-01-01

    The opportunities social media provide for agential expressions of subjectivity and experiential learning, relative to social media's role in reproducing digital-era capitalism, are the subject of keen debate. There is now a burgeoning academic literature which suggests that social media users are, to a greater or lesser degree, alienated by…

  16. Understanding Social Media Use as Alienation: A Review and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reveley, James

    2013-01-01

    The opportunities social media provide for agential expressions of subjectivity and experiential learning, relative to social media's role in reproducing digital-era capitalism, are the subject of keen debate. There is now a burgeoning academic literature which suggests that social media users are, to a greater or lesser degree, alienated by

  17. Renal magnesium handling: new insights in understanding old problems.

    PubMed

    Quamme, G A

    1997-11-01

    Recent research has provided new concepts in our understanding of renal magnesium handling. Although the majority of the filtered magnesium is reabsorbed within the loop of Henle, it is now recognized that the distal tubule also plays an important role in magnesium conservation. Magnesium absorption within the cTAL segment of the loop is passive and dependent on the transepithelial voltage. Magnesium transport in the DCT is active and transcellular in nature. Many of the hormonal (PTH, calcitonin, glucagon, AVP) and nonhormonal (magnesium-restriction, acid-base changes, potassium-depletion) influences that affect magnesium transport within the cTAL similarly alter magnesium absorption within the DCT. However, the cellular mechanisms are different. Actions within the loop affect either the transepithelial voltage or the paracellular permeability. Influences acting in the DCT involve changes in active transcellular transport either Mg2+ entry across the apical membrane or Mg2+ exit from the basolateral side. These transport processes are fruitful areas for future research. An additional regulatory control has recently been recognized that involves an extracellular Ca2+/Mg(2+)-sensing receptor. This receptor is present in the basolateral membrane of the TAL and DCT and modulates magnesium and calcium conservation with elevation in plasma divalent cation concentration. Further studies are warranted to determine the physiological role of the Ca2+/Mg(2+)-sensing receptor, but activating and inactivating mutations have been described that result in renal magnesium-wasting and hypermagnesemia, respectively. All of these receptor-mediated controls change calcium absorption in addition to magnesium transport. Selective magnesium control is through intrinsic control of Mg2+ entry into distal tubule cells. The cellular mechanisms that intrinsically regulate magnesium transport have yet to be described. Familial diseases associated with renal magnesium-wasting provide a unique opportunity to study these intrinsic controls. Loop diuretics such as furosemide increase magnesium excretion by virtue of its effects on the transepithelial voltage thereby inhibiting passive magnesium absorption. Distally acting diuretics, like amiloride and chlorothiazide, enhance Mg2+ entry into DCT cells. Amiloride may be used as a magnesium-conserving diuretic whereas chlorothiazide may lead to potassium-depletion that compromises renal magnesium absorption. Patients with Bartter's and Gitelman's syndromes, diseases of salt transport in the loop and distal tubule, respectively, are associated with disturbances in renal magnesium handling. These may provide useful lessons in understanding segmental control of magnesium reabsorption. Metabolic acidosis diminishes magnesium absorption in MDCT cells by protonation of the Mg2+ entry pathway. Metabolic alkalosis increases magnesium permeability across the cTAL paracellular pathway and stimulates Mg2+ entry into DCT cells. Again, these changes are likely due to protonation of charges along the paracellular pathway of the cTAL and the putative Mg2+ channel of the DCT. Cellular potassium-depletion diminishes the voltage-dependent magnesium absorption in the TAL and Mg2+ entry into MDCT cells. However, the relationship between potassium and magnesium balance is far from clear. For instance, magnesium-wasting is more commonly found in patients with Gitelman's disease than Bartter's but both have hypokalemia. Further studies are needed to sort out these discrepancies. Phosphate deficiency also decreases Mg2+ uptake in distal cells but it apparently does so by mechanisms other than those observed in potassium depletion. Accordingly, potassium depletion, phosphate deficiency, and metabolic acidosis may be additive. The means by which cellular potassium and phosphate alter magnesium handling are unclear. Research in the nineties has increased our understanding of renal magnesium transport and regulation, but there are many in PMID:9350641

  18. Problems in understanding the structure and assembly of viruses

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.

    1997-12-01

    Though viruses infect the cells of all groups of animals, plants, and microorganisms, their structures follow a limited number of general themes; spherical or cylindrical shells built of hundreds of repeated protein subunits enclosing a nucleic acid - DNA or RNA - genome. Since the 1960s it has been known that the protein shells of spherical viruses in fact conform to icosahedral symmetry or to subtle deviations from icosahedral symmetry. The construction of the shell lattices and the transformations they go through in the different stages of the viral life cycle are not fully understood. The shells contain the nucleic in a highly condensed state, of unknown coiling/organization. Features of the well studied bacterial viruses will be reviewed, with examples from adenoviruses, herpesviruses, poliovirus, and HIV. The emergence of new viral disease has led to increased interest in the development of agents which interfere with virus reproduction at the level of the assembly or function of the organized particle. Recently computational approaches to the problem of virus assembly have made important contributions to clarifying shell assembly processes. 1 ref.

  19. Understanding how social networking influences perceived satisfaction with conference experiences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Carena J.; van Riper, Charles, III; Kyle, Gerard T.; Lee, Martha E.

    2013-01-01

    Social networking is a key benefit derived from participation in conferences that bind the ties of a professional community. Building social networks can lead to satisfactory experiences while furthering participants' long- and short-term career goals. Although investigations of social networking can lend insight into how to effectively engage individuals and groups within a professional cohort, this area has been largely overlooked in past research. The present study investigates the relationship between social networking and satisfaction with the 10th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau using structural equation modelling. Results partially support the hypothesis that three dimensions of social networking – interpersonal connections, social cohesion, and secondary associations – positively contribute to the performance of various conference attributes identified in two focus group sessions. The theoretical and applied contributions of this paper shed light on the social systems formed within professional communities and resource allocation among service providers.

  20. Combining Computational and Social Effort for Collaborative Problem Solving

    PubMed Central

    Wagy, Mark D.; Bongard, Josh C.

    2015-01-01

    Rather than replacing human labor, there is growing evidence that networked computers create opportunities for collaborations of people and algorithms to solve problems beyond either of them. In this study, we demonstrate the conditions under which such synergy can arise. We show that, for a design task, three elements are sufficient: humans apply intuitions to the problem, algorithms automatically determine and report back on the quality of designs, and humans observe and innovate on others’ designs to focus creative and computational effort on good designs. This study suggests how such collaborations should be composed for other domains, as well as how social and computational dynamics mutually influence one another during collaborative problem solving. PMID:26544199

  1. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Jasinska, Agnes J.

    2012-01-01

    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both), which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions. PMID:22701416

  2. Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

  3. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Understanding the Problem; Understanding the Solution; What Indian Communities Can Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streissguth, Ann P.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes facts about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), including physical and mental symptoms; cause; prevalence overall and in Indian communities; and problems of infants, children, and adults with FAS. Emphasizes the importance of public awareness, professional education, and provision of community services to prevent FAS. Outlines specific…

  4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Understanding the Problem; Understanding the Solution; What Indian Communities Can Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streissguth, Ann P.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes facts about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), including physical and mental symptoms; cause; prevalence overall and in Indian communities; and problems of infants, children, and adults with FAS. Emphasizes the importance of public awareness, professional education, and provision of community services to prevent FAS. Outlines specific

  5. Understanding and Enabling Online Social Networks to Support Healthy Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contractor, Noshir

    Recent advances in digital technologies invite consideration of social influence and social support as processes that are accomplished by global, flexible, adaptive, and ad hoc networks that can be created, maintained, dissolved, and reconstituted with remarkable alacrity. This presentation describes and empirically tests a multi-theoretical multilevel (MTML) model of the socio-technical motivations for creating, maintaining, dissolving, and reconstituting knowledge and social networks.

  6. An Investigation of Secondary Teachers’ Understanding and Belief on Mathematical Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuli Eko Siswono, Tatag; Wachidul Kohar, Ahmad; Kurniasari, Ika; Puji Astuti, Yuliani

    2016-02-01

    Weaknesses on problem solving of Indonesian students as reported by recent international surveys give rise to questions on how Indonesian teachers bring out idea of problem solving in mathematics lesson. An explorative study was undertaken to investigate how secondary teachers who teach mathematics at junior high school level understand and show belief toward mathematical problem solving. Participants were teachers from four cities in East Java province comprising 45 state teachers and 25 private teachers. Data was obtained through questionnaires and written test. The results of this study point out that the teachers understand pedagogical problem solving knowledge well as indicated by high score of observed teachers‘ responses showing understanding on problem solving as instruction as well as implementation of problem solving in teaching practice. However, they less understand on problem solving content knowledge such as problem solving strategies and meaning of problem itself. Regarding teacher's difficulties, teachers admitted to most frequently fail in (1) determining a precise mathematical model or strategies when carrying out problem solving steps which is supported by data of test result that revealed transformation error as the most frequently observed errors in teachers’ work and (2) choosing suitable real situation when designing context-based problem solving task. Meanwhile, analysis of teacher's beliefs on problem solving shows that teachers tend to view both mathematics and how students should learn mathematics as body static perspective, while they tend to believe to apply idea of problem solving as dynamic approach when teaching mathematics.

  7. Divided loyalties for physicians: social context and moral problems.

    PubMed

    Murray, T H

    1986-01-01

    An examination of the notion of divided loyalties dilemmas in medicine, situated within their social contexts, yields insight into the contemporary social and moral position of medicine in the United States. In a review of the literature, the author identifies four concepts important to gaining an understanding of the position that divided loyalties play in medicine and the physician-patient relationship. After describing some of the situations in which these dilemmas affect physicians' responses to patients' health care needs, interests, and choices, the author argues that divided loyalties dilemmas are not rare, and will probably increase with the changes in U.S. medicine. Candor and awareness of the importance of the public belief in physician loyalty are seen as necessary in preventing these changes from becoming destructive of the physician-patient relationship. PMID:3798163

  8. Understanding Green Purchase Behavior: College Students and Socialization Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ruoh-Nan; Xu, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    Taking the perspective of consumer socialization theory, this study examined the influences of different socialization agents on consumers' purchases of green products. A total of 224 surveys were distributed to students enrolled in a business-related course at a major university in the northeastern United States. The objectives were twofold. The…

  9. Understanding and Accommodating Online Social Communities: A Common Sense Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    Online social networks such as Facebook have changed the context and definitions of socialization. Focusing on teacher use, this article considers the size and impact of these forums and the importance many young professionals feel toward them. Themed as a common sense approach, the author uses anecdotal points and discussions with

  10. Understanding Social Work in the History of Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soydan, Haluk

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to present a theoretical frame of reference for the study and assessment of social work from the perspective of a history of ideas. Method: The study employed an analysis of primary and secondary historical sources. Results: Social work as a practice and research field is embedded in the genesis of modern…

  11. Understanding Green Purchase Behavior: College Students and Socialization Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ruoh-Nan; Xu, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    Taking the perspective of consumer socialization theory, this study examined the influences of different socialization agents on consumers' purchases of green products. A total of 224 surveys were distributed to students enrolled in a business-related course at a major university in the northeastern United States. The objectives were twofold. The

  12. Understanding and Accommodating Online Social Communities: A Common Sense Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    Online social networks such as Facebook have changed the context and definitions of socialization. Focusing on teacher use, this article considers the size and impact of these forums and the importance many young professionals feel toward them. Themed as a common sense approach, the author uses anecdotal points and discussions with…

  13. Gambling as a Social Problem: On the Social Conditions of Gambling in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barmaki, Reza

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Canadian legalized gambling has undergone a massive growth, resulting in numerous social problems such as crime, political corruption, and, most importantly, pathological gambling. When it comes to theorizing gambling in Canada, pathological gambling has been the centre of the attention for two related reasons: (1) the increasing

  14. Gambling as a Social Problem: On the Social Conditions of Gambling in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barmaki, Reza

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Canadian legalized gambling has undergone a massive growth, resulting in numerous social problems such as crime, political corruption, and, most importantly, pathological gambling. When it comes to theorizing gambling in Canada, pathological gambling has been the centre of the attention for two related reasons: (1) the increasing…

  15. Broad social motives, alcohol use, and related problems: Mechanisms of risk from high school through college.

    PubMed

    Corbin, William R; Iwamoto, Derek K; Fromme, Kim

    2011-03-01

    Broad social motives (not specific to alcohol use) have been established as an important predictor of alcohol use and problems among college students, but we have little understanding of the mechanisms through which such motives operate. Thus, the current study examined broad social motives prior to college entry as a predictor of college drinking/problems and sought to identify potential mechanisms through which they are associated with increased risk. Participants comprised a sample of 2245 incoming college students (59.9% women) transitioning from high school through the college years. The first web-based survey was completed during the summer prior to matriculation with participants reporting on their behavior during the spring of high school senior year. Additional surveys were administered each academic semester through the fall of the fourth year. High school social motives were examined as a predictor of changes in alcohol use/problems from high school through the senior year, with changes in descriptive norms, personal drinking values, and alcohol expectancies from high school to sophomore year examined as possible mediators of these relations. Descriptive norms, personal drinking values, and alcohol expectancies were robust mediators of broad social motives for both alcohol use and problems. Although there were a few differences by race/ethnicity in the alcohol use model, the mechanisms through which broad social motives operated were largely invariant across groups. These findings shed light on important mechanisms that can be targeted in prevention programs, particularly those that target groups who are likely to be high in broad social motives (e.g., fraternity/sorority members). PMID:21126828

  16. Debunking Common Sense and the Taken for Granted: A Pedagogical Strategy for Teaching Social Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMoyne, Terri; Davis, Jean Marie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that one approach to teaching Introduction to Social Problems is to structure the course content around taken-for-granted beliefs that many students have about the social world. In doing so, the authors discuss the social construction of social problems, how sociology differs from common sense, and the importance…

  17. Understanding extraverts' enjoyment of social situations: the importance of pleasantness.

    PubMed

    Lucas, R E; Diener, E

    2001-08-01

    Extraversion is a broad, multifaceted trait, yet researchers are still unsure of its defining characteristics. One possibility is that the essential feature of extraversion is the tendency to enjoy social situations. An alternative possibility is that extraversion represents sensitivity to rewards and the tendency to experience pleasant affect. In three studies, participants rated situations that varied on two dimensions: (a) whether they were social or nonsocial and (b) whether they were very pleasant, moderately pleasant, moderately unpleasant, or very unpleasant. Extraverts only rated social situations more positively than introverts did when the situations were pleasant, and extraverts also rated nonsocial situations more positively than introverts did if the situations were pleasant. Thus, the pleasantness of situations was more important than whether they were social or nonsocial in determining extraverts' and introverts' enjoyment. PMID:11519937

  18. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  19. Social Problem Solving as a Predictor of Well-Being in Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Andrew M. H.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Social problem solving is the cognitive-affective-behavioral process by which people attempt to resolve real-life problems in a social environment, and is of key importance in the management of emotions and well-being. This paper reviews a series of studies on social problem solving conducted by the authors. First, we developed and validated the…

  20. Tackling complexities in understanding the social determinants of health: the contribution of ethnographic research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective The complexities inherent in understanding the social determinants of health are often not well-served by quantitative approaches. My aim is to show that well-designed and well-conducted ethnographic studies have an important contribution to make in this regard. Ethnographic research designs are a difficult but rigorous approach to research questions that require us to understand the complexity of people’s social and cultural lives. Approach I draw on an ethnographic study to describe the complexities of studying maternal health in a rural area in India. I then show how the lessons learnt in that setting and context can be applied to studies done in very different settings. Results I show how ethnographic research depends for rigour on a theoretical framework for sample selection; why immersion in the community under study, and rapport building with research participants, is important to ensure rich and meaningful data; and how flexible approaches to data collection lead to the gradual emergence of an analysis based on intense cross-referencing with community views and thus a conclusion that explains the similarities and differences observed. Conclusion When using ethnographic research design it can be difficult to specify in advance the exact details of the study design. Researchers can encounter issues in the field that require them to change what they planned on doing. In rigorous ethnographic studies, the researcher in the field is the research instrument and needs to be well trained in the method. Implication Ethnographic research is challenging, but nevertheless provides a rewarding way of researching complex health problems that require an understanding of the social and cultural determinants of health. PMID:22168509

  1. Developing Social Interaction and Understanding in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Groupwork Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay, Tommy; Knott, Fiona; Dunlop, Aline-Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Difficulties with social interaction and understanding lie at the heart of the communication disorder that characterises the autism spectrum. This study sought to improve social communication for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by means of a groupwork intervention focusing on social and emotional perspective-taking,…

  2. Understanding University Reform in Japan through the Prism of the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Roger

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at current university reforms in Japan through two slightly different social science prisms: how social science methodologies and theories can help us understand those reforms better and how social science teaching in universities will be affected by the current reform processes. (Contains 3 tables and 7 notes.)

  3. Rural Women's Transitions to Motherhood: Understanding Social Support in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Weaver, Addie; Schommer, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Social support protects women from various negative consequences, yet we have little understanding of how rural women acquire and utilize social support. Using interviews of 24 women in a North Dakota community, this research sought to understand how rural women were supported as new mothers. One, familial women and partners were vital supports to…

  4. Understanding Classrooms through Social Network Analysis: A Primer for Social Network Analysis in Education Research

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA) provides the necessary tool kit for investigating questions involving relational data. We introduce basic concepts in SNA, along with methods for data collection, data processing, and data analysis, using a previously collected example study on an undergraduate biology classroom as a tutorial. We conduct descriptive analyses of the structure of the network of costudying relationships. We explore generative processes that create observed study networks between students and also test for an association between network position and success on exams. We also cover practical issues, such as the unique aspects of human subjects review for network studies. Our aims are to convince readers that using SNA in classroom environments allows rich and informative analyses to take place and to provide some initial tools for doing so, in the process inspiring future educational studies incorporating relational data. PMID:26086650

  5. Toward a Dynamic Conceptualization of Social Ties and Context: Implications for Understanding Immigrant and Latino Health

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Amy J.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have posited that social ties and social support may contribute to better-than-expected health outcomes among Mexican immigrants vis-à-vis their US-born counterparts. However, in our review of studies examining social ties and health by immigration-related variables among this group, we found little support for this hypothesis. To better understand the social factors that contribute to the health of Mexicans in the United States, we conducted a qualitative analysis of social relationships and social context among first- and second-generation Mexican women. Our results highlight the interplay between immigration processes and social ties, draw attention to the importance of identity support and transnational social relationships, and suggest ways to reconceptualize the relationship between social contexts, social ties, and immigrant and Latino health. PMID:19833986

  6. Understanding social complexity within the wildland-urban interface: a new species of human habitation?

    PubMed

    Paveglio, Travis B; Jakes, Pamela J; Carroll, Matthew S; Williams, Daniel R

    2009-06-01

    The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management. PMID:19238478

  7. Understanding Social Complexity Within the Wildland-Urban Interface: A New Species of Human Habitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paveglio, Travis B.; Jakes, Pamela J.; Carroll, Matthew S.; Williams, Daniel R.

    2009-06-01

    The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management.

  8. Emotion understanding, parent mental state language, and behavior problems in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Tarullo, Amanda R; Youssef, Adriana; Frenn, Kristin A; Wiik, Kristen; Garvin, Melissa C; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-05-01

    Internationally adopted postinstitutionalized (PI) children are at risk for lower levels of emotion understanding. This study examined how postadoption parenting influences emotion understanding and whether lower levels of emotion understanding are associated with behavior problems. Emotion understanding and parent mental state language were assessed in 3-year-old internationally adopted PI children (N = 25), and comparison groups of children internationally adopted from foster care (N = 25) and nonadopted (NA) children (N = 36). At 5.5-year follow-up, PI children had lower levels of emotion understanding than NA children, a group difference not explained by language. In the total sample, parent mental state language at age 3 years predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding after controlling for child language ability. The association of parent mental state language and 5.5-year emotion understanding was moderated by adoption status, such that parent mental state language predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding for the internationally adopted children, but not for the NA children. While postadoption experience does not erase negative effects of early deprivation on emotion understanding, results suggest that parents can promote emotion understanding development through mental state talk. At 5.5 years, PI children had more internalizing and externalizing problems than NA children, and these behavioral problems related to lower levels of emotion understanding. PMID:26612541

  9. Understanding ADHD in Girls: Identification and Social Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grskovic, Janice A.; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the hyperactive, impulsive, social, and emotional characteristics of girls with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These characteristics could be used to increase the referral rates of these girls and provide implications for intervention. Parent and self-ratings of a school-based…

  10. Understanding Social Capital Development and Academic Attainment of Mobile Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddie, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    The United States has a long history of searching for utopian possibilities of public school, amidst a steady stream of population mobility. Horace Mann proclaimed that schools would be able to assimilate the millions of immigrants arriving during the late 1700s. He promised that schools could end poverty, crime and social injustice. Today, public…

  11. Understanding and Preventing Burnout among Social Studies Teachers in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Although circumstances that can activate burnout are common in all subjects, those who teach social studies may be more susceptible to it because the profession requires teaching for democratic values and critical thinking, even when cultural influences and the political climate are not supportive of those objectives. In this article, the author…

  12. Understanding Groups in Outdoor Adventure Education through Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jostad, Jeremy; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Relationships are a critical component to the experience of an outdoor adventure education (OAE) program, therefore, more fruitful ways of investigating groups is needed. Social network analysis (SNA) is an effective tool to study the relationship structure of small groups. This paper provides an explanation of SNA and shows how it was used by the…

  13. Understanding Persistent Poverty: Social Class Context in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Cynthia M.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of persistent poverty in rural Texas, Mississippi, and Appalachia illustrate how political economies that rely on low wages and extreme control over labor generate rigid stratification. This structure of inequality determines social interaction and allocation of opportunities in rural communities, blocking upward mobility, and undermines…

  14. Understanding Social Capital Development and Academic Attainment of Mobile Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddie, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    The United States has a long history of searching for utopian possibilities of public school, amidst a steady stream of population mobility. Horace Mann proclaimed that schools would be able to assimilate the millions of immigrants arriving during the late 1700s. He promised that schools could end poverty, crime and social injustice. Today, public

  15. Oxytocin and social cognition in rhesus macaques: Implications for understanding and treating human psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Steve W. C.; Platt, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Converging evidence from humans and non-human animals indicates that the neurohypophysial hormone oxytocin (OT) evolved to serve a specialized function in social behavior in mammals. Although OT-based therapies are currently being evaluated as remedies for social deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders, precisely how OT regulates complex social processes remains largely unknown. Here we describe how a non-human primate model can be used to understand the mechanisms by which OT regulates social cognition and thereby inform its clinical application in humans. We focus primarily on recent advances in our understanding of OT-mediated social cognition in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), supplemented by discussion of recent work in humans, other primates, and rodents. Together, these studies endorse the hypothesis that OT promotes social exploration both by amplifying social motivation and by attenuating social vigilance. PMID:24231551

  16. Children's Social Self-Concept and Internalizing Problems: The Influence of Peers and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilt, Jantine L.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Leflot, Geertje; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how relationships with peers and teachers contribute to the development of internalizing problems via children's social self-concept. The sample included 570 children aged 7 years 5 months (SD = 4.6 months). Peer nominations of peer rejection, child-reported social self-concept, and teacher-reported…

  17. Generalization of Social Skills: Strategies and Results of a Training Program in Problem Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paraschiv, Irina; Olley, J. Gregory

    This paper describes the "Problem Solving for Life" training program which trains adolescents and adults with mental retardation in skills for solving social problems. The program requires group participants to solve social problems by practicing two prerequisite skills (relaxation and positive self-statements) and four problem solving steps: (1)…

  18. Understanding and using the history of social psychology.

    PubMed

    Lubek, I

    2000-01-01

    Authors in this collection offer both critique and contextualist counterpoint to the standard, "official" histories of the field-successive editions of the Handbook of Social Psychology in 1954, 1968, 1985, and 1998. Unlike mainstream histories, the collected studies do not together constitute a seamless chronicle of continual progress for practitioners in a research area seeking social science status, viability, and legitimacy. Rather the authors focus on choice points, crises, and debates (some still ongoing), pay special heed to non-mainstream branches and voices, question numerous assumptions concerning the interrelationships among social psychological methodology, ontology (Danziger; MacMartin & Winston; Stam, Radtke, & Lubek), boundaries (Good), and individualisms (moral, political, and/or methodological). The specific contributions of Floyd and Gordon Allport are discussed from several perspectives as they helped define and shape and write the history of the field (Lubek & Apfelbaum; Parkovnick; Greenwood; Chung), and bridge it to neighboring areas (personality) and disciplines (psychology and sociology) (Nicholson; Barenbaum; Cherry). The constraints, origin myths, insensitivities, and omissions of standard histories are pointed out (Samelson), some partial correctives are advanced, and a more generative role for future historical studies is suggested. PMID:11054729

  19. Posing Problems to Develop Conceptual Understanding: Two Teachers Make Sense of Division of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Alfinio; Turner, Erin E.; Bachman, Renee C.

    2005-01-01

    The way in which two teachers, Elizabeth and Carolyn, posed problems to develop their own conceptual understanding of division of fractions in terms that would also be meaningful for their students is described. Carolyn and Elizabeth's approach is to pose several problems of various degrees of difficulty and complexity for each aspect of the…

  20. Complex Problem Solving in Radiologic Technology: Understanding the Roles of Experience, Reflective Judgment, and Workplace Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…

  1. Promoting College Students' Problem Understanding Using Schema-Emphasizing Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Jie; Lavigne, Nancy C.

    2014-01-01

    Statistics learners often bypass the critical step of understanding a problem before executing solutions. Worked-out examples that identify problem information (e.g., data type, number of groups, purpose of analysis) key to determining a solution (e.g., "t" test, chi-square, correlation) can address this concern. The authors examined the…

  2. Does Understanding Relational Terminology Mediate Effects of Intervention on Compare Word Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Robin F.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether understanding relational terminology (i.e., "more, less," and "fewer") mediates the effects of intervention on compare word problems. Second-grade classrooms (N = 31) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: researcher-designed word-problem intervention, researcher-designed calculation…

  3. A Complete Understanding of Disorientation Problems in Web-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Pei-Ren; Hsu, Yung-Chi; Chen, Sherry Y.

    2012-01-01

    Disorientation problems influence student learning. To address this issue, this study uses an integrative approach to investigate the causes and consequences of disorientation problems so that a complete understanding can be obtained. Unlike previous empirical studies, which use statistical techniques, this study attempts to expose unexpected…

  4. Relative Expertise in an Everyday Reasoning Task: Epistemic Understanding, Problem Representation, and Reasoning Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Experts in cognitive domains differ from non-experts in how they represent problems and knowledge, and in their epistemic understandings of tasks in their domain of expertise. This study investigates whether task-specific epistemic understanding also underlies the representation of knowledge on an everyday reasoning task on which the competent…

  5. Parsing protection and risk for problem behavior versus pro-social behavior among US and Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S

    2014-07-01

    This study investigates the different roles played by protective factors and risk factors-and by particular protective and risk factors-when the concern is with accounting for adolescent problem behavior than when the concern is with accounting for adolescent pro-social behavior. The protective and risk factor literature on adolescent problem behavior reveals considerable conceptual and operational ambiguity; an aim of the present study was to advance understanding in this domain of inquiry by providing a systematic conceptualization of protection and risk and of their measurement. Within the systematic framework of Problem Behavior Theory, four protective and four risk factors are assessed in a cross-national study of both problem behavior and pro-social behavior involving large adolescent samples in China (N = 1,368) and the US (N = 1,087), in grades 9, 10, and 11; females 56 %, US; 50 %, China. The findings reveal quite different roles for protection and risk, and for particular protective and risk factors, when the outcome criterion is problem behavior than when it is pro-social behavior. The protective factor, Controls Protection, which engages rule and regulations and sanctions in the adolescent's ecology, emerges as most important in influencing problem behavior, but it plays a relatively minor role in relationship to pro-social behavior. By contrast, Models Protection, the presence of pro-social models in the adolescent's ecology, and Support Protection, the presence of interest and care in that same ecology, have no significant relationship to problem behavior variation, but they are both the major predictors of variation in pro-social behavior. The findings are robust across the samples from the two very diverse societies. These results suggest that greater attention be given to protection in problem behavior research and that a more nuanced perspective is needed about the roles that particular protective and risk factors play in reducing problem behavior and in promoting pro-social behavior. PMID:24797283

  6. Using Literature and Drama to Understand Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Nancy Rankie; McDermott, Morna

    2010-01-01

    Enlisting pre-service teachers to engage in critical thought about diversity, equity, democracy, and power relationships is a challenging responsibility. The authors' work at a large urban community's metropolitan university in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States is designed to help pre-service teachers understand these concepts at a…

  7. Children's Interpretive Understanding, Moral Judgments, and Emotion Attributions: Relations to Social Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Gasser, Luciano; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated interpretive understanding, moral judgments, and emotion attributions in relation to social behaviour in a sample of 59 5-year-old, 123 7-year-old, and 130 9-year-old children. Interpretive understanding was assessed by two tasks measuring children's understanding of ambiguous situations. Moral judgments and emotion…

  8. Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers' Understandings about the Nature of the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinç, Emin

    2014-01-01

    Social studies is one of the main courses of the elementary and middle school curriculum in Turkey. Social studies took educators attention because it prepares students as exemplary citizens. The term of social studies has been started to use at the end of 1960's in Turkey. Thus, there have been several definitions and classification of the social…

  9. Corporate social policy - problems of institutionalization and experience of Russian oil and gas companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekhoda, E.; Kolbysheva, Yu; Makoveeva, V.

    2015-11-01

    The article examines a range of problems related to the process of institutionalization in the corporate social policy, characterizing the social responsibility of business and representing a part of the general strategy of corporate social responsibility. The experience of the social policy implementation in oil and gas companies is analyzed.

  10. Towards a deep understanding of malware propagation in online social networks

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Guanhua; Eidenbenz, Stephan; Chen, Guanling; Li, Nan

    2009-01-01

    Online social networks, which have been expanding at a blistering speed in the recent years, have emerged as a popular communication infrastructure for Internet users. Meanwhile, malware that specifically targets these online social networks are also on the rise. In this work, we aim to investigate the characteristics of malware propagation in online social networks. Our study is based on a dataset collected from a real-world location-based online social network. We analyze the social structure and user activity patterns of this network. We further use extensive trace-driven simulation to study the impact of initial infection, user click probability, social structure, and activity patterns on malware propagation in online social networks. The results from this work has greatly deepened our understanding of the nature of online social network malware and also shed light on how to defend against them effectively.

  11. Longitudinal Associations between Depressive Problems, Academic Performance, and Social Functioning in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verboom, Charlotte E.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Ormel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between depressive problems and three types of functioning in…

  12. Mental Health, School Problems, and Social Networks: Modeling Urban Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and…

  13. Mental Health, School Problems, and Social Networks: Modeling Urban Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and

  14. Understanding enabling capacities for managing the 'wicked problem' of nonpoint source water pollution in catchments: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

    2013-10-15

    Nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in catchments is a 'wicked' problem that threatens water quality, water security, ecosystem health and biodiversity, and thus the provision of ecosystem services that support human livelihoods and wellbeing from local to global scales. However, it is a difficult problem to manage because water catchments are linked human and natural systems that are complex, dynamic, multi-actor, and multi-scalar in nature. This in turn raises questions about understanding and influencing change across multiple levels of planning, decision-making and action. A key challenge in practice is enabling implementation of local management action, which can be influenced by a range of factors across multiple levels. This paper reviews and synthesises important 'enabling' capacities that can influence implementation of local management action, and develops a conceptual framework for understanding and analysing these in practice. Important enabling capacities identified include: history and contingency; institutional arrangements; collaboration; engagement; vision and strategy; knowledge building and brokerage; resourcing; entrepreneurship and leadership; and reflection and adaptation. Furthermore, local action is embedded within multi-scalar contexts and therefore, is highly contextual. The findings highlight the need for: (1) a systemic and integrative perspective for understanding and influencing change for managing the wicked problem of NPS water pollution; and (2) 'enabling' social and institutional arenas that support emergent and adaptive management structures, processes and innovations for addressing NPS water pollution in practice. These findings also have wider relevance to other 'wicked' natural resource management issues facing similar implementation challenges. PMID:23792915

  15. The Social Problem-Solving Questionnaire: Evaluation of Psychometric Properties among Turkish Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Children, like adults, face numerous problems and conflicts in their everyday lives, including issues with peers, siblings, older children, parents, teachers, and other adults. The methods children use to solve such problems are more important than actually facing the problems. The lack of effective social problem-solving skills…

  16. Quantitative Understanding to Enhance Social Science Teaching. Project QUESST: Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Resources Center, Inc., Boulder, CO.

    This technical project report provides the National Science Foundation with information regarding the substantive achievements of the Social Science Education Consortium's project QUESST (Quantitative Understanding To Enhance Social Science Teaching). The report begins with a discussion of materials development and project publicity. Thirty-three…

  17. Infants' Social and Motor Experience and the Emerging Understanding of Intentional Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandone, Amanda C.

    2015-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants possess some of the key social--cognitive abilities required for success in a social world: Infants interpret others' actions in terms of their intentions and can use this understanding prospectively to generate predictions about others' behavior. Exactly how these foundational abilities develop is currently…

  18. Getting Vygotskian about Theory of Mind: Mediation, Dialogue, and the Development of Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernyhough, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The ideas of Vygotsky [Vygotsky, L. S. (1987). "Thinking and speech." In "The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky," (Vol. 1). New York: Plenum. (Original work published 1934.)] have been increasingly influential in accounting for social-environmental influences on the development of social understanding (SU). In the first part of this article, I…

  19. Incorporating Dryland Ecohydrology into a Social-Ecological Framework: The Problem of Woody Plant Encroachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Grasslands and savannas across the globe have been transformed into woodlands, through a process often described as woody plant encroachment (WPE). This transformation has important implications for water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles—a topic that has been explored extensively, as reflected in the ecohydrological literature. The changes related to WPE have important societal implications as well. It is clear that human actions are strongly linked with both the causes and the consequences of WPE. At the same time, WPE has proved intractable in the face of attempts to slow or abate the phenomenon. Increasingly, it is being recognized that such complex environmental problems must be treated as social-ecological systems, that is, coupled human and natural systems. In this presentation, I will discuss recent progress in understanding WPE as a social-ecohydrological system and explore potentially promising approaches that merge insights from multiple disciplines—including hydrology, ecology, remote sensing, economics, and social sciences—as a basis for agent-based models that can improve our understanding of this complex phenomenon.

  20. Conceptual problems in laypersons understanding of individualized cancer risk: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Paul K. J.; Lehman, Thomas C.; Massett, Holly; Lee, Simon J. C.; Klein, William M. P.; Freedman, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore laypersons understanding of individualized cancer risk estimates, and to identify conceptual problems that may limit this understanding. Background Risk prediction models are increasingly used to provide people with information about their individual risk of cancer and other diseases. However, laypersons may have difficulty understanding individualized risk information, because of conceptual as well as computational problems. Design A qualitative study was conducted using focus groups. Semi-structured interviews explored participants understandings of the concept of risk, and their interpretations of a hypothetical individualized colorectal cancer risk estimate. Setting and participants Eight focus groups were conducted with 48 adults aged 5074 years residing in two major US metropolitan areas. Participants had high school or greater education, some familiarity with information technology, and no personal or family history of cancer. Results Several important conceptual problems were identified. Most participants thought of risk not as a neutral statistical concept, but as signifying danger and emotional threat, and viewed cancer risk in terms of concrete risk factors rather than mathematical probabilities. Participants had difficulty acknowledging uncertainty implicit to the concept of risk, and judging the numerical significance of individualized risk estimates. The most challenging conceptual problems related to conflict between subjective and objective understandings of risk, and difficulties translating aggregate-level objective risk estimates to the individual level. Conclusions Several conceptual problems limit laypersons understanding of individualized cancer risk information. These problems have implications for future research on health numeracy, and for the application of risk prediction models in clinical and public health settings. PMID:19250148

  1. Is conceptual understanding compromised by a problem-solving emphasis in an introductory physics course?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridenour, J.; Feldman, G.; Teodorescu, R.; Medsker, L.; Benmouna, N.

    2013-01-01

    Developing competency in problem solving and enhancing conceptual understanding are primary objectives in introductory physics, and many techniques and tools are available to help instructors achieve them. Pedagogically, we use an easy-to-implement intervention, the ACCESS protocol, to develop and assess problem-solving skills in our SCALE-UP classroom environment for algebra-based physics. Based on our research and teaching experience, an important question has emerged: while primarily targeting improvements in problem-solving and cognitive development, is it necessary that conceptual understanding be compromised? To address this question, we gathered and analyzed information about student abilities, backgrounds, and instructional preferences. We report on our progress and give insights into matching the instructional tools to student profiles in order to achieve optimal learning in group-based active learning. The ultimate goal of our work is to integrate individual student learning needs into a pedagogy that moves students closer to expert-like status in problem solving.

  2. "But-He'll Fall!": Children with Autism, Interspecies Intersubjectivity, and the Problem of 'Being Social'.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Olga

    2015-06-01

    'Being autistic' or 'having Autism Spectrum Disorder' implies a limited range of 'being social,' but the in situ organization of interaction, what Maynard and Marlaire (Qual Soc 15(2):177-202, 1992) call the 'interactional substrate,' within which this delimitation enfolds is usually hidden from sight. Analysis of processes constituting different 'interactional substrates' provides a view of how one comes to be known by and to self and others as a certain kind of being who is available (or not) for acting and feeling in certain ways. People diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 2013) are often described as 'being' impaired in intersubjective understanding of others. But the story of ASD as an impairment of sociality and intersubjectivity becomes more complicated when animals enter into the picture. I consider two interactional substrates: a psychological interview in a mental health clinic, and an animal-assisted activity in a child's neighborhood. I aim to elucidate the practical problems of 'being social' encountered by two children with ASD, both nine-year-old girls, within these two very differently organized interactional substrates. I consider ways in which 'being with' therapy animals provides a way of 'being social' through "sensory modalities of knowing" (Haraway, When species meet, 2008:371). PMID:25926308

  3. Understanding the Link between Social Organization and Crime in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Chilenski, Sarah M.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Rural communities make up much of America's heartland, yet we know little about their social organization, and how elements of their social organization relate to crime rates. The current study sought to remedy this gap by examining the associations between two measures of social organization – collective efficacy and social trust – with a number of structural community characteristics, local crime rates, and perceptions of safety in a sample of 27 rural and small town communities in two states. Measures of collective efficacy, social trust, and perceived safety, were gathered from key community members in 2006; other measures were drawn from the 2000 Census and FBI Uniform Crime Reporting system. A series of competing hypotheses were tested to examine the relative importance of social trust and collective efficacy in predicting local crime rates. Results do not support the full generalization of the social disorganization model. Correlational analyses showed that neither collective efficacy nor social trust had a direct association with community crime, nor did they mediate the associations between community structural characteristics and crime. However, perceived safety mediated the association between community crime and both measures of social organization. Analyses suggest that social trust may be more important than collective efficacy when understanding the effect of crime on a community's culture in rural areas. Understanding these associations in rural settings can aid decision makers in shaping policies to reduce crime and juvenile delinquency. PMID:26120326

  4. Evaluating Age Differences in Coping Motives as a Mediator of the Link between Social Anxiety Symptoms and Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Clerkin, Elise M.; Werntz, Alexandra J.; Magee, Joshua C.; Lindgren, Kristen P.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate whether coping motives mediate the relationship between self-reported symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems across different age groups, building upon previous research conducted among emerging adults. This study focuses on adult drinkers, including emerging adults (age 18–25; n = 148), young adults (age 26–39; n = 68), and middle-aged adults (age 40–65; n = 51). All participants completed measures of social anxiety symptoms, alcohol problems, and coping motives, administered via the web. Invariance tests using structural equation modeling suggested that among emerging adults (and to some degree middle-aged adults), coping motives mediated the positive relationship between symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems. Interestingly, coping motives appeared to suppress a negative relationship between social anxiety and alcohol problems in young adults. Results suggest that it is critical to consider age differences when attempting to understand the relationships between symptoms of social anxiety, alcohol problems, and coping motives. PMID:24841182

  5. Understanding Knowledge Sharing between IT Professionals--An Integration of Social Cognitive and Social Exchange Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was

  6. Bringing the "Social" Back to Social Studies: Literacy Strategies as Tools for Understanding History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macphee, Deborah A.; Whitecotton, Emily J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of English (2008) defines "literacy" as a collection of cultural and communicative practices shared among members of particular groups. Classrooms are cultures in which the development of these practices not only reflects the social studies, but also expands knowledge of the social studies while fostering civic

  7. Embeddedness and Empathy: How the Social Network Shapes Adolescents' Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfer, Ralf; Cortina, Kai S.; Baumert, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Based on theories of social-cognitive development, the present study investigated the yet unknown social structure that underlies the concept of empathy in adolescence. A total of 3.159 seventh graders (13.67 years, 56% girls) from 166 school classes participated by providing information on empathy, related psychosocial factors, and friendship…

  8. Embeddedness and Empathy: How the Social Network Shapes Adolescents' Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfer, Ralf; Cortina, Kai S.; Baumert, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Based on theories of social-cognitive development, the present study investigated the yet unknown social structure that underlies the concept of empathy in adolescence. A total of 3.159 seventh graders (13.67 years, 56% girls) from 166 school classes participated by providing information on empathy, related psychosocial factors, and friendship

  9. Understanding Knowledge Sharing between IT Professionals--An Integration of Social Cognitive and Social Exchange Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was…

  10. Problems, acceptance and social inequality: a study of the deformed leprosy patients and their families.

    PubMed

    Kopparty, S N

    1995-09-01

    Though the impact of social inequality on health conditions is widely known, its impact on the chronic and stigmatized disease, leprosy, has received little attention. Deformity sometimes leads to disabilities and to handicaps causing problems to the patient and his family. In this paper an attempt has been made to understand the impact of social inequality, prevalent in the form of the caste system in India on the deformed leprosy patients and on their families. This impact was examined in terms of the problems faced by the patients. A sample of 150 deformed patients and their families, drawn from two districts in Tamil Nadu, was selected for the study. About 57% of the deformed patients experienced their deformity as a handicap which caused social and economic problems while the rest did not. Of the three caste groups, the Lower Caste group experienced more severe economic problems while the Upper Caste group faced more social problems. The extent of acceptance of deformed patients in their family varied significantly among those facing and not facing problems due to their deformity. The deformed patients without any handicap were accepted in a large majority of their families (82%) regardless of their caste status. In contrast the deformed but handicapped patients were accepted differentially among the three caste groups with the Upper group accepting them in most of their families (80%) while in the Lower group much less number of families (54%) did. All the families of the deformed but not handicapped patients desired to keep their patients till their death irrespective of their caste status. On the contrary, while all the families in the Upper Caste group expressed their willingness to keep their handicapped patients in the family till their death, 10% in the Middle and 22% in the Lower Caste groups did not want to do so. This suggests the gradual marginalization, rejection and dehabilitation of the affected. Thus, one's caste status can be a broad indicator of the nature and the extent of handicaps and acceptance in the family. This factor needs to be appropriately taken care of for rehabilitation and disability management in leprosy control programmes. PMID:7500821

  11. Complex problems require complex solutions: the utility of social quality theory for addressing the Social Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for multi-sectoral action, which requires research and policy on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping health outcomes. Most conceptual tools available to researchers tend to focus on singular and specific social determinants of health (SDH) (e.g. social capital, empowerment, social inclusion). However, a new and innovative conceptual framework, known as social quality theory, facilitates a more complex and complete understanding of the SDH, with its focus on four domains: social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security, all within the same conceptual framework. This paper provides both an overview of social quality theory in addition to findings from a national survey of social quality in Australia, as a means of demonstrating the operationalisation of the theory. Methods Data were collected using a national random postal survey of 1044 respondents in September, 2009. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results Statistical analysis revealed that people on lower incomes (less than $45000) experience worse social quality across all of the four domains: lower socio-economic security, lower levels of membership of organisations (lower social cohesion), higher levels of discrimination and less political action (lower social inclusion) and lower social empowerment. The findings were mixed in terms of age, with people over 65 years experiencing lower socio-economic security, but having higher levels of social cohesion, experiencing lower levels of discrimination (higher social inclusion) and engaging in more political action (higher social empowerment). In terms of gender, women had higher social cohesion than men, although also experienced more discrimination (lower social inclusion). Conclusions Applying social quality theory allows researchers and policy makers to measure and respond to the multiple sources of oppression and advantage experienced by certain population groups, and to monitor the effectiveness of interventions over time. PMID:21819576

  12. The Sound of Social Cognition: Toddlers' Understanding of How Sound Influences Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Rebecca A.; Brooks, Rechele; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding others' perceptions is a fundamental aspect of social cognition. Children's construal of visual perception is well investigated, but there is little work on children's understanding of others' auditory perception. The current study assesses toddlers' recognition that producing different sounds can affect others…

  13. The Sound of Social Cognition: Toddlers' Understanding of How Sound Influences Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Rebecca A.; Brooks, Rechele; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding others' perceptions is a fundamental aspect of social cognition. Children's construal of visual perception is well investigated, but there is little work on children's understanding of others' auditory perception. The current study assesses toddlers' recognition that producing different sounds can affect others

  14. Improving Social Understanding of Preschool Children: Evaluation of a Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteban, Moises; Sidera, Francesc; Serrano, Jessica; Amado, Anna; Rostan, Carles

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This study tested the effects of a training program intending to foster social understanding or the capacity which enables them to understand themselves and others in terms of intentions, beliefs, desires, and emotions in children at preschool age. A number of studies have shown that in the context of shared narratives, children are…

  15. Problems of Understanding between Immigrants and Officials at Public Authorities in Argentina and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    In conversations between immigrants and officials, problems of understanding are often noticeable. About 280 recordings realised at the Argentine Aliens' Department and at several public authorities in Germany show that knowledge divergences regarding linguistic, cultural and institutional knowledge result in (sometimes grave) difficulties of…

  16. Problems of Understanding between Immigrants and Officials at Public Authorities in Argentina and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    In conversations between immigrants and officials, problems of understanding are often noticeable. About 280 recordings realised at the Argentine Aliens' Department and at several public authorities in Germany show that knowledge divergences regarding linguistic, cultural and institutional knowledge result in (sometimes grave) difficulties of

  17. Thai Grade 10 and 11 Students' Conceptual Understanding and Ability to Solve Stoichiometry Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahsah, Chanyah; Coll, Richard K.

    2007-01-01

    Stoichiometry and related concepts are an important part of student learning in chemistry. In this interpretive-based inquiry, we investigated Thai Grade 10 and 11 students' conceptual understanding and ability to solve numerical problems for stoichiometry-related concepts. Ninety-seven participants completed a purpose-designed survey instrument…

  18. Thai Grade 10 and 11 Students' Conceptual Understanding and Ability to Solve Stoichiometry Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahsah, Chanyah; Coll, Richard K.

    2007-01-01

    Stoichiometry and related concepts are an important part of student learning in chemistry. In this interpretive-based inquiry, we investigated Thai Grade 10 and 11 students' conceptual understanding and ability to solve numerical problems for stoichiometry-related concepts. Ninety-seven participants completed a purpose-designed survey instrument

  19. Building a Meaning Bridge: Therapeutic Progress from Problem Formulation to Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinegar, Meredith Glick; Salvi, Lisa M.; Stiles, William B.; Greenberg, Leslie S.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative analyses of 2 clients' psychotherapies (client centered and process-experiential) investigated the developmental progression from formulating a problem to achieving an understanding of it. The results elaborated one segment in the 8-stage Assimilation of Problematic Experiences Sequence (APES), through which problematic parts of a…

  20. Supporting Holistic Understanding of Geographical Problems: Fieldwork and G-Portal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjea, Kalyani; Chang, Chew-Hung; Lim, Ee-Peng; Zhang, Jun; Theng, Yin-Leng; Go, Dion Hoe-Lian

    2008-01-01

    Fieldwork remains the mainstay in the study of geography and in the analysis of the environmental processes. However, an in-depth understanding of the environmental and geographical processes requires extensive as well as intensive fieldwork that involves time and substantial effort, both of which may pose a problem within a given curriculum time.…

  1. Longer Bars for Bigger Numbers? Children's Usage and Understanding of Graphical Representations of Algebraic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kerry; Khng, Kiat Hui; Ng, Swee Fong; Ng Lan Kong, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In Singapore, primary school students are taught to use bar diagrams to represent known and unknown values in algebraic word problems. However, little is known about students' understanding of these graphical representations. We investigated whether students use and think of the bar diagrams in a concrete or a more abstract fashion. We also…

  2. Social Understanding and Social Lives: From Toddlerhood through to the Transition to School. Essays in Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, researchers have documented a remarkable growth in children's social understanding between toddlerhood and the early school years. However, it is still unclear why some children's awareness of others' thoughts and feelings lags so far behind that of their peers. Based on research that spans an extended developmental…

  3. Associations among False-belief Understanding, Executive Function, and Social Competence: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Razza, Rachel A.

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of studies demonstrate associations among false-belief understanding (FBU), executive function (EF), and social competence. This study extends previous studies by exploring longitudinal associations among FBU and its correlates within a low-income sample of preschoolers attending Head Start. Sixty-eight children (time 1 mean age = 5 years 2 months) were assessed over their preschool and kindergarten years. Results indicated bidirectional relations between FBU and social competence; FBU in preschool was positively associated with social competence in kindergarten and social competence in preschool was positively associated with FBU in kindergarten. Preschool EF was positively associated with social competence both in preschool and kindergarten and with FBU in preschool. Mediation analyses suggest that the bidirectional longitudinal link between FBU and social competence was independent of EF. These findings extend the FBU literature by examining its development and correlates in early childhood. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:20161159

  4. Associations among False-belief Understanding, Executive Function, and Social Competence: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Razza, Rachel A

    2009-05-01

    A growing number of studies demonstrate associations among false-belief understanding (FBU), executive function (EF), and social competence. This study extends previous studies by exploring longitudinal associations among FBU and its correlates within a low-income sample of preschoolers attending Head Start. Sixty-eight children (time 1 mean age = 5 years 2 months) were assessed over their preschool and kindergarten years. Results indicated bidirectional relations between FBU and social competence; FBU in preschool was positively associated with social competence in kindergarten and social competence in preschool was positively associated with FBU in kindergarten. Preschool EF was positively associated with social competence both in preschool and kindergarten and with FBU in preschool. Mediation analyses suggest that the bidirectional longitudinal link between FBU and social competence was independent of EF. These findings extend the FBU literature by examining its development and correlates in early childhood. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:20161159

  5. Youth, Social Change and Education: Issues and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebau, Eckart; Chisholm, Lynne

    1993-01-01

    Introduces six articles exploring youth, social change, and education issues in western Europe, represented by France, Germany, the Netherlands, Britain, Portugal, and Finland. The mainsprings of contemporary European social change lie in economic and technological modernization processes at transnational, national, and regional levels. Youth and…

  6. Problems of Social Science Research at Smaller Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overgaard, Herman, Ed.

    The workshop was convened by the Social Science Research Council of Canada as part of its annual meeting. Its purpose was to explore the possible usefulness of a large-scale conference on the same topic. The three papers presented are included in the final report: (1) social science research needs of smaller Canadian universities (John T. Sears);…

  7. Today's Young People: On the Problem of "Deficient" Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorkaia, Nataliia

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1990s, the potential for change in society, the modernization of society, was associated with the younger generations' entering into a "new life." This article focuses on what the younger generations bring with them to the socialization process, and the characteristics of the socialization of young people in the framework…

  8. Personality and Social Problem-Solving: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koruklu, Nermin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relationships among personality, selfesteem and social problem-solving, as well as the mediating role of self-esteem in the link between personality and social problem-solving among Turkish youth. The study utilized a cross-sectional design comprising several self-reports. Data…

  9. How Activists and Media Frame Social Problems: Critical Events versus Performance Trends for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pride, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on the process by which a social problem is redefined in response to a critical events, such as economic depressions, environmental disasters, intense physical confrontations, or strategic initiatives by a social movement organization. Examines a conservative movement's attempt to redefine "the problem" of the schools at the time of a tax…

  10. Friendship Moderates Prospective Associations between Social Isolation and Adjustment Problems in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated prospective links between social isolation and adjustment problems among 166 (77 girls, 89 boys) Finnish children ages 7 to 9. Peer nominations for social engagement and self-reports of internalizing and externalizing problems were collected in the spring of the 1st and 2nd grade. Friendship moderated…

  11. Social Competence as a Mediating Factor in Reduction of Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langeveld, Johannes H.; Gundersen, Knut K.; Svartdal, Frode

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to explore how social competence reduces behavioral problems. Based on previous findings, we assume that increased social competence can be regarded as a mediating factor in reducing behavior problems. All participants (children and adolescents, n = 112) received an intervention intended to increase social…

  12. The Effect of Communication Skills and Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills on Social Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erozkan, Atilgan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication skills, interpersonal problem solving skills, and social self-efficacy perception of adolescents and the predictive role of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. This study is a quantitative and relational study aimed at examining the…

  13. Social Problem-Solving and Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Relations with Externalizing Behavior and Therapeutic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Wijnroks, Lex; Vermeer, Adri; Matthys, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Relations among externalizing behavior, therapeutic context (community care vs. residential care), and social problem-solving by children with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intelligence were examined. Participants were 186 children (12 to 14 years of age) who responded to a video-based social problem-solving task. Of these, 130…

  14. Social Problems as a Mediator of the Link between Reactive Aggression and Withdrawn/Depressed Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Rathert, Jamie L.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined whether social problems accounted for the relation between reactive aggression and withdrawn/depressed symptoms in a sample of 147 children (54.4% male) ranging from 5 to 13 years of age (M = 8.22 years) who attended a community based after-school program. Findings suggested that indeed social problems mediated the link…

  15. Partner Violence and Survivors' Chronic Health Problems: Informing Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Ferron, Joelle; Crosby, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Although most social work professionals may expect that women who experience partner violence will sustain acute physical injuries, social workers may be less knowledgeable about the chronic health problems with which violence survivors often struggle. To inform social work practice, we reviewed and synthesized the recently published research on…

  16. Contextual approach to technology assessment: Implications for one-factor fix solutions to complex social problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    The contextual approach is discussed which undertakes to demonstrate that technology assessment assists in the identification of the full range of implications of taking a particular action and facilitates the consideration of alternative means by which the total affected social problem context might be changed by available project options. It is found that the social impacts of an application on participants, institutions, processes, and social interests, and the accompanying interactions may not only induce modifications in the problem contest delineated for examination with respect to the design, operations, regulation, and use of the posited application, but also affect related social problem contexts.

  17. New Directions in Evaluating Social Problem Solving in Childhood: Early Precursors and Links to Adolescent Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Susan H.; Smith, Karen E.; Swank, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    A major objective of this chapter is to present a novel, ecologically sensitive social problem-solving task for school-aged children that captures the complexity of social and cognitive demands placed on children in naturalistic situations. Competence on this task correlates with a range of skills including executive functions, verbal reasoning,…

  18. Dismantling Anger Control Training for Children: A Randomized Pilot Study of Social Problem-Solving Versus Social Skills Training Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Golub, Arthur; Stone, Erin C.; Orban, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Two components of multimodal anger control training were compared in a randomized study. The first component, social problem-solving training, utilized the techniques of cognitive restructuring, attribution retraining, and solution generation that targeted social-cognitive deficits implicated in anger and aggression. The second component, social…

  19. Towards Understanding IT Needs of Social Activists: The Case of the World Social Forum 2006 Organizing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Saqib; Rohde, Markus; Wulf, Volker

    Recent literature has highlighted that most civil society organizations lack IT appropriation in their work practices. There is strong need to focus on this application area to empower these organizations by IT capabilities. As there is not much literature about the specific needs assessment of voulantary organizations, there is a need to carry out ethnographic studies to better understand IT requirements of this sector. In this paper we have investigated the organizing process of the World Social Forum 2006 event in Karachi, Pakistan. World Social Forum is an important gathering of social movements and voulantary organizations across the globe, and organizing such an event requires extensive communication and effective planning skills. The objective of this paper is to highlight the need and importance of this research issue. Our intention is to introduce appropriate technology in the organizing process to facilitate social activists.

  20. The Energy Problem and Social Education: Some Opportunities, Quandaries, and Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney R.

    1982-01-01

    Justifications for energy education which place a high priority on energy understanding within social systems and social education are presented and classroom opportunities for teaching about the energy crisis are examined. With regard to social studies, the goals of energy education are moral sensitivity and action. (RM)

  1. The impact of perceived self-efficacy on mental time travel and social problem solving.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adam D; Dorfman, Michelle L; Marmar, Charles R; Bryant, Richard A

    2012-03-01

    Current models of autobiographical memory suggest that self-identity guides autobiographical memory retrieval. Further, the capacity to recall the past and imagine one's self in the future (mental time travel) can influence social problem solving. We examined whether manipulating self-identity, through an induction task in which students were led to believe they possessed high or low self-efficacy, impacted episodic specificity and content of retrieved and imagined events, as well as social problem solving. Compared to individuals in the low self efficacy group, individuals in the high self efficacy group generated past and future events with greater (a) specificity, (b) positive words, and (c) self-efficacious statements, and also performed better on social problem solving indices. A lack of episodic detail for future events predicted poorer performance on social problem solving tasks. Strategies that increase perceived self-efficacy may help individuals to selectively construct a past and future that aids in negotiating social problems. PMID:22019214

  2. Social Networks as the Context for Understanding Employment Services Utilization among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with use of employment services among homeless youth. Social network characteristics have been known to be influential in motivating people's decision to seek services. Traditional theoretical frameworks applied to studies of service use emphasize individual factors over social contexts and interactions. Using key social network, social capital, and social influence theories, this paper developed an integrated theoretical framework that could capture the social network processes that act as barriers or facilitators of use of employment services by homeless youth, and understand empirically, the salience of each of these constructs in influencing the use of employment services among homeless youth. We used the “Event based-approach” strategy to recruit a sample of 136 homeless youth at one drop-in agency serving homeless youth in Los Angeles, California in 2008. The participants were queried regarding their individual and network characteristics. Data were entered into NetDraw 2.090 and the spring embedder routine was used to generate the network visualizations. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of the network characteristics on use of employment services. The study findings suggest that social capital is more significant in understanding why homeless youth use employment services, relative to network structure and network influence. In particular, bonding and bridging social capital were found to have differential effects on use of employment services among this population. The results from this study provide specific directions for interventions aimed to increase use of employment services among homeless youth. PMID:24780279

  3. Understanding IT-enabled social action networks: construction, sustainability, and user participation.

    PubMed

    Banks, M Shane

    2012-01-01

    Innovative, humanitarian individuals and organizations are seeking to leverage the power of information technologies by constructing IT-enabled social action networks (ITSANs), networks of actors, connected via an IT platform, working together to improve social conditions and the lives of others. ITSANs are primarily web-based platforms that allow users to collaborate, share information, and pool resources to enhance efforts to address a common social mission. The goal of this research is to investigate how ITSANs are used to positively affect social needs by examining how these platforms are constructed and sustained. Also of interest are factors influencing user participation. To develop an in-depth understanding of ITSANs, this research proposes a qualitative multi-case study approach that seeks to understand ITSANs through the lived experiences of key actors. PMID:22910505

  4. Developmental pathways of language and social communication problems in 9-11 year olds: unpicking the heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Roy, P; Chiat, S

    2014-10-01

    This paper addressed relations between language, social communication and behaviour, and their trajectories, in a sample of 9-11-year-olds (n=91) who had been referred to clinical services with concerns about language as pre-schoolers. Children were first assessed at 2½-4 years, and again 18 months later. Results revealed increasing differentiation of profiles across time. By 9-11 years, 11% of the sample had social communication deficits, 27% language impairment, 20% both, and 42% neither. The size of group differences on key language and social communication measures was striking (2-3 standard deviations). Social communication deficits included autistic mannerisms and were associated with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBDs); in contrast, language impairment was associated with hyperactivity only. Children with both language and social communication problems had the most severe difficulties on all measures. These distinct school-age profiles emerged gradually. Investigation of developmental trajectories revealed that the three impaired groups did not differ significantly on language or SEBD measures when the children were first seen. Only low performance on the Early Sociocognitive Battery, a new measure of social responsiveness, joint attention and symbolic understanding, differentiated the children with and without social communication problems at 9-11 years. These findings suggest that some children who first present with language delay or difficulties have undetected Autism Spectrum Disorders which may or may not be accompanied by language impairment in the longer term. This new evidence of developmental trajectories starting in the preschool years throws further light on the nature of social communication and language problems in school-age children, relations between language impairment and SEBDs, and on the nature of early language development. PMID:25005063

  5. [Social aspects of the problem of suppurative surgical diseases].

    PubMed

    Simbirtsev, S A; Begishev, O B; Konychev, A V; Lebedeva, T P; Morozov, S N; Simonova, L G

    1993-02-01

    The case records of 259 patients with purulent surgical diseases are analysed. The following social groups of patients were distinguished; students--10.4%, office workers--20.5%, factory and agricultural workers--35.9%, lonely pensioners, invalids, and homeless persons--33.2%. The last named group is least socially protected, and the diseases in these cases have a characteristic course and outcomes. In the groups of students and office workers the disease is predominantly marked by the formation of abscesses with rapid resolution after an operative intervention. In the socially unprotected group with somatic diseases, poor nutrition, and absence of care, the purulent process takes a phlegmanous course calling for the use of antibiotics and immunostimulators. The percentage of rehospitalization among these patients is high (up to 20%) due, in many respects, to social factors. PMID:8084153

  6. Evolving social responsibility understandings, motivations, and career goals of undergraduate students initially pursuing engineering degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulifson, Gregory A.

    Engineers impact the lives of every person every day, and need to have a strong sense of social responsibility. Understanding what students think about social responsibility in engineering and their futures is very important. Further, by identifying influences that change these ideas and shape their conceptualizations, we can intervene to help prepare students for their responsibilities as part of the profession in the future. This thesis presents the experiences, in their own words, of 34 students who started in engineering. The study is composed of three parts: (i) engineering students' ideas about socially responsible engineering and what influenced these ideas, (ii) how students see themselves as future socially responsible engineers and how this idea changes over their first three years of college, and (iii) what social responsibility-related reasons students who leave engineering have for choosing a new major. Results show that students are complicated and have varied paths through and out of engineering studies. Students came up with their own ideas about socially responsible engineering that converged over the years on legal and safety related aspects of the profession. Relatedly, students identified with the engineering profession through internships and engineering courses, and rarely described socially responsible aspirations that could be accomplished with engineering. More often, those students who desired to help the disadvantaged through their engineering work left engineering. Their choice to leave was a combination of an unsupportive climate, disinterest in their classes, and a desire to combine their personal and professional social responsibility ambitions. If we want engineering students to push the engineering profession forward to be more socially responsible, we can identify the effective influences and develop a curriculum that encourages critical thinking about the social context and impacts of engineering. Additionally, a social responsibility-related curriculum could provide more opportunities for engagement that keeps those socially-motivated students in engineering. The engineering profession must also reflect these values to keep the new engineers working towards social responsibility and pushing the profession forward.

  7. Understanding The Decision Context: DPSIR, Decision Landscape, And Social Network Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Establishing the decision context for a management problem is the critical first step for effective decision analysis. Understanding the decision context allow stakeholders and decision-makers to integrate the societal, environmental, and economic considerations that must be con...

  8. Understanding suffering and giving compassion: the reach of socially engaged Buddhism into China.

    PubMed

    Kuah-Pearce, Khun Eng

    2014-01-01

    This paper will explore the social engagement of Buddhists through their active voluntary works - works that result in the development of a religious philanthropic culture. Through three case examples, this paper will examine how the sangha and individual Buddhists understand social suffering and compassion and attempt to integrate their understanding of Buddhist virtues and values in their daily life where the performance of voluntary works is seen as Buddhist spiritualism. In this process, the individuals seek to understand the key principles of Buddhism that are of direct relevance to their daily existence and their quest to be a compassionate self. Foremost are two notions of yebao (karma) and gan-en (gratitude) and how through compassionate practices and gratitude for those who accepted compassionate acts, they would be rewarded with good karma. Here, pursuing compassionate acts and the alleviation of social suffering is the pursuit of this-worldly spiritualism. PMID:24559267

  9. Food and eating as social practice--understanding eating patterns as social phenomena and implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Delormier, Treena; Frohlich, Katherine L; Potvin, Louise

    2009-03-01

    Globally, public health agencies recognise obesity trends among populations as a priority. Explanations for population obesity patterns are linked to obesogenic environments and societal trends which encourage patterns of overeating and little physical activity. However, obesity prevention and nutrition intervention focus predominantly on changing individual level eating behaviours. Disappointingly, behaviour-based nutrition education approaches to changing population eating patterns have met with limited success. Sociological perspectives propose that underlying social relations can help explain collective food and eating patterns, and suggest an analysis of the sociocultural context for understanding population eating patterns. We propose a theoretical framework for the examination of eating patterns as social phenomena. Giddens' structuration theory, in particular his concept of social practices understood as an interplay of 'agency' and 'social structure' (rules and resources), is used to study food choice patterns. We discuss the application of these concepts for understanding routine food choice practices of families, elaborating how rules and resources configure the enabling or constraining conditions under which actors make food choices. The framework assists in characterising how social structural properties are integral to food choice practices, and could direct attention to these when considering nutrition interventions aimed at changing population eating patterns. PMID:19220802

  10. Light Phase Testing of Social Behaviors: Not a Problem

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mu; Weber, Michael D.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2008-01-01

    The rich repertoire of mouse social behaviors makes it possible to use mouse models to study neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits. The fact that mice are naturally nocturnal animals raises a critical question of whether behavioral experiments should be strictly conducted in the dark phase and whether light phase testing is a major methodologically mistake. Although mouse social tasks have been performed in both phases in different laboratories, there seems to be no general consensus on whether testing phase is a critical factor or not. A recent study from our group showed remarkably similar social scores obtained from inbred mice tested in the light and the dark phase, providing evidence that light phase testing could yield reliable results as robust as dark phase testing for the sociability test. Here we offer a comprehensive review on mouse social behaviors measured in light and dark phases and explain why it is reasonable to test laboratory mice in experimental social tasks in the light phase. PMID:19225591

  11. Relations between Behavior Problems in Classroom Social and Learning Situations and Peer Social Competence in Head Start and Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Dominguez, Ximena; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Rouse, Heather L.; Fantuzzo, John W.

    2010-01-01

    The relations between early emotional and behavioral problems in classroom situations and peer social competence were examined for a representative sample of urban Head Start children. Behavior problems were assessed within the context of routine peer, teacher, and structured learning classroom situations early in the preschool year. Two path

  12. Conceptual understanding of social capital in a First Nations community: a social determinant of oral health in children

    PubMed Central

    Salehyar, Mohammad H.; Keenan, Louanne; Patterson, Steven; Amin, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the study was: (a) to better understand the concept of social capital and its potential role in oral health of children in a First Nations community and (b) to identify the strengths and resources in terms of social capital and a health promotion model that the community has at its disposal to address its oral health issues. Methods In this qualitative case study, participants were purposively selected in a First Nations community: Seven individual interviews and two focus groups involving 18 parents/care givers were selected. Putnam's concept of social capital guided all the interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed using the NVivo software. Results The community was close-knit and seemed to have strong moral fibre, which encouraged members to help each other. A strong bonding social capital was also found among the members, especially inside the clans (families). A need for improvement in bridging social capital that would help the community to reach external resources was observed. While members of the community were actively involved in religious rituals and cultural ceremonies, more efforts seemed to be required to recruit volunteers for other events or programs. Active engagement of community members in any program requires that members be given a voice as well as some ownership of the process. Mobilizing or building community's social capital can play a role when planning future interventions. Conclusions A better understanding of social capital may enhance the community's investment and efforts by reinforcing healthy oral behaviours and improving access to external resources. With more dynamic collaboration, it may be possible to create more sustainable community-based oral health promotion programs. PMID:25623814

  13. The prairie vole: an emerging model organism for understanding the social brain

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, Lisa A.; Young, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike most mammalian species, the prairie vole is highly affiliative, forms enduring social bonds between mates, and displays biparental behavior. Over two decades of research in this species has enhanced our understanding of the neurobiological basis not only of monogamy, social attachment and nurturing behaviors, but also other aspects of social cognition. Because social cognitive deficits are hallmarks of many psychiatric disorders, discoveries made in prairie voles may direct novel treatment strategies for disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. With the ongoing development of molecular, genetic and genomic tools for this species, prairie voles will likely maintain their current trajectory becoming an unprecedented model organism for basic and translational research focusing on the biology of the social brain. PMID:20005580

  14. Understanding change in recycling and littering behavior across a school social network.

    PubMed

    Long, Jennifer; Harré, Niki; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2014-06-01

    Understanding how communities change requires examining how individuals' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by those around them. This paper investigates behavior change across a large social network following a recycling intervention in a New Zealand high school community. We used a mixed methods design, combining focus group data with social network analysis from two waves of a questionnaire that measured friendship networks; recycling and littering behaviors; perceived behavioral norms; and teacher, friend, and parent encouragement for these behaviors. Recycling behavior increased significantly over the course of our study. Supporting the importance of social networks in this context, both littering and recycling behavior showed clear social clustering. Further, the degree of change in an individuals' littering and recycling behavior across time was predicted by friends' prior behavior. Focus group data provided insight into students' perceptions of social interactions and how these contributed to littering and recycling behavior. PMID:24327210

  15. Religiosity as identity: toward an understanding of religion from a social identity perspective.

    PubMed

    Ysseldyk, Renate; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2010-02-01

    As a social identity anchored in a system of guiding beliefs and symbols, religion ought to serve a uniquely powerful function in shaping psychological and social processes. Religious identification offers a distinctive "sacred" worldview and "eternal" group membership, unmatched by identification with other social groups. Thus, religiosity might be explained, at least partially, by the marked cognitive and emotional value that religious group membership provides. The uniqueness of a positive social group, grounded in a belief system that offers epistemological and ontological certainty, lends religious identity a twofold advantage for the promotion of well-being. However, that uniqueness may have equally negative impacts when religious identity itself is threatened through intergroup conflict. Such consequences are illustrated by an examination of identities ranging from religious fundamentalism to atheism. Consideration of religion's dual function as a social identity and a belief system may facilitate greater understanding of the variability in its importance across individuals and groups. PMID:20089847

  16. Social Psychology, Social Science, and Economics: Twentieth Century Progress and Problems, Twenty-First Century Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, James S.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…

  17. Cross-Field Differences in Creative Problem-Solving Skills: A Comparison of Health, Biological, and Social Sciences.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Michael D; Antes, Alison L; Caughron, Jared J; Connelly, Shane; Beeler, Cheryl

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, 258 doctoral students working in the health, biological, and social sciences were asked to solve a series of field-relevant problems calling for creative thought. Proposed solutions to these problems were scored with respect to critical creative thinking skills such as problem definition, conceptual combination, and idea generation. Results indicated that health, biological, and social scientists differed with respect to their skill in executing various operations, or processes, involved in creative thought. Interestingly, no differences were observed as a function of the students' level of experience. The implications of these findings for understanding cross-field, and cross-experience level, differences in creative thought are discussed. PMID:20936085

  18. Cross-Field Differences in Creative Problem-Solving Skills: A Comparison of Health, Biological, and Social Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Michael D.; Antes, Alison L.; Caughron, Jared J.; Connelly, Shane; Beeler, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, 258 doctoral students working in the health, biological, and social sciences were asked to solve a series of field-relevant problems calling for creative thought. Proposed solutions to these problems were scored with respect to critical creative thinking skills such as problem definition, conceptual combination, and idea generation. Results indicated that health, biological, and social scientists differed with respect to their skill in executing various operations, or processes, involved in creative thought. Interestingly, no differences were observed as a function of the students’ level of experience. The implications of these findings for understanding cross-field, and cross-experience level, differences in creative thought are discussed. PMID:20936085

  19. Understanding health through social practices: performance and materiality in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Maller, Cecily Jane

    2015-01-01

    The importance of recognising structure and agency in health research to move beyond methodological individualism is well documented. To progress incorporating social theory into health, researchers have used Giddens' and Bourdieu's conceptualisations of social practice to understand relationships between agency, structure and health. However, social practice theories have more to offer than has currently been capitalised upon. This article delves into contemporary theories of social practice as used in consumption and sustainability research to provide an alternative, and more contextualised means, of understanding and explaining human action in relation to health and wellbeing. Two key observations are made. Firstly, the latest formulations of social practice theory distinguish moments of practice performance from practices as persistent entities across time and space, allowing empirical application to explain practice histories and future trajectories. Secondly, they emphasise the materiality of everyday life, foregrounding things, technologies and other non-humans that cannot be ignored in a technologically dependent social world. In concluding, I argue the value of using contemporary social practice theories in health research is that they reframe the way in which health outcomes can be understood and could inform more effective interventions that move beyond attitudes, behaviour and choices. PMID:25601064

  20. Factors affecting the social problem-solving ability of baccalaureate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The hospital environment is characterized by time pressure, uncertain information, conflicting goals, high stakes, stress, and dynamic conditions. These demands mean there is a need for nurses with social problem-solving skills. This study set out to (1) investigate the social problem-solving ability of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students in Macao and (2) identify the association between communication skill, clinical interaction, interpersonal dysfunction, and social problem-solving ability. All nursing students were recruited in one public institute through the census method. The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The study used the Chinese version of the Social Problem Solving Inventory short form (C-SPSI-R), Communication Ability Scale (CAS), Clinical Interactive Scale (CIS), and Interpersonal Dysfunction Checklist (IDC). Macao nursing students were more likely to use the two constructive or adaptive dimensions rather than the three dysfunctional dimensions of the C-SPSI-R to solve their problems. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that communication ability (ß=.305, p<.0001), clinical interaction (ß=.129, p=.047), and interpersonal dysfunction (ß=-.402, p<.0001) were associated with social problem-solving after controlling for covariates. Macao has had no problem-solving training in its educational curriculum; an effective problem-solving training should be implemented as part of the curriculum. With so many changes in healthcare today, nurses must be good social problem-solvers in order to deliver holistic care. PMID:23141038

  1. The Social Tunnel Versus the Python: A New Way to Understand the Impact of Baby Booms and Baby Busts on a Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFalls, Joseph A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that the "python analogy," often used to help students understand the negative societal impact of unusually small or large age cohorts, is better replaced by the social tunnel analogy, which is diagramed and illustrated with reference to the educational problems experienced in the United States as a result of the World War II baby boom.…

  2. The Social Tunnel Versus the Python: A New Way to Understand the Impact of Baby Booms and Baby Busts on a Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFalls, Joseph A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that the "python analogy," often used to help students understand the negative societal impact of unusually small or large age cohorts, is better replaced by the social tunnel analogy, which is diagramed and illustrated with reference to the educational problems experienced in the United States as a result of the World War II baby boom.

  3. Social aspects of HIV and their relationship to craniofacial problems: workshop 4C.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, K R; Blignaut, E; Glick, M; Nasir, E; Yengopal, V; Younai, F; Robinson, P G

    2011-04-01

    The oral research community needs an understanding of the social causes, consequences, and costs of disease in relation to oral health. This workshop concluded that HIV infection constitutes a special dental need requiring specific arrangements to facilitate oral care for infected persons. Oral manifestations of HIV infection affect everyday life, but more evidence is needed on the effects of interventions to alleviate these impacts. Other oral health habits add to the burden of HIV/AIDS-associated oral diseases and compete with them for resources. These problems are most acute where the prevalence of HIV is high and resources are scarce. Effective health promotion is therefore important in these areas. Without data on the utility of oral health care in developing countries, practical approaches are guided by societal and multidisciplinary principles. There are also important ethical considerations. PMID:21441492

  4. The Neural Bases of Social Intention Understanding: The Role of Interaction Goals

    PubMed Central

    Canessa, Nicola; Alemanno, Federica; Riva, Federica; Zani, Alberto; Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mannara, Nicola; Perani, Daniela; Cappa, Stefano F.

    2012-01-01

    Decoding others' intentions is a crucial aspect of social cognition. Neuroimaging studies suggest that inferring immediate goals engages the neural system for action understanding (i.e. mirror system), while the decoding of long-term intentions requires the system subserving the attribution of mental states (i.e. mentalizing). A controversial issue, stimulated by recent inconsistent results, concerns whether the two systems are concurrently vs. exclusively involved in intention understanding. This issue is particularly relevant in the case of social interactions, whose processing has been mostly, but not uncontroversially, associated with the mentalizing system. We tested the alternative hypothesis that the relative contribution of the two systems in intention understanding may also depend on the shared goal of interacting agents. To this purpose, 27 participants observed social interactions differing in their cooperative vs. affective shared goal during functional-Magnetic-Resonance-Imaging. The processing of both types of interactions activated the right temporo-parietal junction involved in mentalizing on action goals. Additionally, whole-brain and regions-of-interest analyses showed that the action understanding system (inferior prefrontal-parietal cortex) was more strongly activated by cooperative interactions, while the mentalizing-proper system (medial prefrontal cortex) was more strongly engaged by affective interactions. These differences were modulated by individual differences in empathizing. Both systems can thus be involved in understanding social intentions, with a relative weighting depending on the specific shared goal of the interaction. PMID:22848759

  5. What do infants understand of others' action? A theoretical account of early social cognition.

    PubMed

    Uithol, Sebo; Paulus, Markus

    2014-09-01

    Intention reading and action understanding have been reported in ever-younger infants. However, the notions of intention attribution and action understanding, as well as their relation to each other, are surrounded by much confusion, making it difficult to assess the meaning and value of such findings. In this paper we set out to clarify the notions of 'action understanding' and 'intention attribution'. We will show that what is commonly referred to as 'action understanding' in fact encompasses various heterogeneous association and prediction mechanisms. In general, these forms of action understanding will not result in the attribution of an intention to an observed actor. By detaching intention attribution from action understanding, and by exposing the latter as an umbrella notion, we provide a theoretical framework on early social cognition that allows for better comparison of findings from different experimental paradigms, and better assessment of infant action understanding abilities. Taking into account the plurality of forms that action understanding can adopt will help cognitive neuroscience to gain a full understanding of the early roots of social cognition. PMID:24100453

  6. Analyzing HIV/AIDS and Alcohol and Other Drug Use as a Social Problem

    PubMed Central

    PATTERSON, DAVID A.; Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), Silver

    2012-01-01

    Most prevention and intervention activities directed toward HIV/AIDS and alcohol and other drug use separately as well as the combining of the two (e.g., those who are both HIV/AIDS and using alcohol and other drugs) comes in the form of specific, individualized therapies without consideration of social influences that may have a greater impact on this population. Approaching this social problem from the narrowed view of individualized, mi-cro solutions disregards the larger social conditions that affect or perhaps even are at the root of the problem. This paper analyzes the social problem of HIV/AIDS and alcohol and other drug abuse using three sociological perspectives—social construction theory, ethnomethodology, and conflict theory—informing the reader of the broader influences accompanying this problem. PMID:23264724

  7. Analyzing HIV/AIDS and Alcohol and Other Drug Use as a Social Problem.

    PubMed

    Patterson, David A; Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, Silver

    2010-01-01

    Most prevention and intervention activities directed toward HIV/AIDS and alcohol and other drug use separately as well as the combining of the two (e.g., those who are both HIV/AIDS and using alcohol and other drugs) comes in the form of specific, individualized therapies without consideration of social influences that may have a greater impact on this population. Approaching this social problem from the narrowed view of individualized, mi-cro solutions disregards the larger social conditions that affect or perhaps even are at the root of the problem. This paper analyzes the social problem of HIV/AIDS and alcohol and other drug abuse using three sociological perspectives-social construction theory, ethnomethodology, and conflict theory-informing the reader of the broader influences accompanying this problem. PMID:23264724

  8. Can Universities Develop Advanced Technology and Solve Social Problems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Ones, Isarelis; Núñez Jover, Jorge

    This paper presents case studies on how Cuban universities have increasingly become directly involved with the economic and social development of the country. The paper shows how Cuban universities, from the early 1980s and early 1990s, started reorientation and organization of their scientific research, becoming more directly and intensely involved in the economic and social development of the country. In this way, special reference is made to the case of a research group at the University of Havana: the Laboratory of Synthetic Antigens. This group developed the first synthetic vaccine for human use approved in the world. In the article, public policies involved in this success as well as different obstacles are discussed. These obstacles demonstrate the difficulties and challenges that universities face when carrying out research and innovation activities related to economic and social development.

  9. Professionals: Their Problems, Their Fears, and Their Social Responsibilities *

    PubMed Central

    Perl, Martin L.

    1973-01-01

    Professional societies have been reluctant to enter actively into the public processes by which decisions are made on economic, social, and political issues. This reluctance comes from (1) fears about the status of the profession and the professional society, (2) fears about economic reprisal, (3) potential conflicts between the goals of a philosophy of trade unionism and the goals of a philosophy of professional social responsibility, and (4) domination of some professional societies by nonprofessional business, industrial, or administrative groups. This reluctance has been justified by the development of a myth that the professional can exercise individual social responsibility while maintaining the neutrality of his institutions and societies. This myth must be ignored because our public decision-making processes can only function properly if groups, such as professional societies, actively enter that decision-making process. PMID:4691329

  10. The default mode network and social understanding of others: what do brain connectivity studies tell us

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wanqing; Mai, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) has been found to be involved in various domains of cognitive and social processing. The present article will review brain connectivity results related to the DMN in the fields of social understanding of others: emotion perception, empathy, theory of mind, and morality. Most of the reviewed studies focused on healthy subjects with no neurological and psychiatric disease, but some studies on patients with autism and psychopathy will also be discussed. Common results show that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) plays a key role in the social understanding of others, and the subregions of the MPFC contribute differently to this function according to their roles in different subsystems of the DMN. At the bottom, the ventral MPFC in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem and its connections with emotion regions are mainly associated with emotion engagement during social interactions. Above, the anterior MPFC (aMPFC) in the cortical midline structures (CMS) and its connections with posterior and anterior cingulate cortex contribute mostly to making self-other distinctions. At the top, the dorsal MPFC (dMPFC) in the dMPFC subsystem and its connection with the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) are primarily related to the understanding of other's mental states. As behaviors become more complex, the related regions in frontal cortex are located higher. This reflects the transfer of information processing from automatic to cognitive processes with the increase of the complexity of social interaction. Besides the MPFC and TPJ, the connectivities of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) also show some changes during tasks from the four social fields. These results indicate that the DMN is indispensable in the social understanding of others. PMID:24605094

  11. Peer and self-reports of victimization and bullying: their differential association with internalizing problems and social adjustment.

    PubMed

    Bouman, Thijs; van der Meulen, Matty; Goossens, Frits A; Olthof, Tjeert; Vermande, Marjolijn M; Aleva, Elisabeth A

    2012-12-01

    Researchers typically employ either peer or self-reports to assess involvement in bullying. In this study, we examined the merits of each method for the identification of child characteristics related to victimization and bullying others. Accordingly, we investigated the difference between these two methods with regard to their relationship with social adjustment (i.e., perceived popularity, likeability, and self-perceived social acceptance) and internalizing problems (i.e., anxiety, depression, and self-worth) in 1192 Dutch school children, aged 9 to 12 years. Perceived popularity and likeability were more strongly correlated with peer reports than self-reports, for both victimization and for bullying others. Self-perceived social acceptance correlated equally strong with peer and self- reports of victimization. Furthermore, peer reports of bullying were also correlated with self-perceived social acceptance, whereas self-reports of bullying were not. All internalizing problems showed stronger relations with self-reports than peer reports; although only the relation between self-reported victimization and internalizing problems was of practical significance. Despite our findings indicating that using only one type of report could be efficient for examining the relation between bullying behaviors and separate child characteristics, both types of report are necessary for a complete understanding of the personal and social well-being of the children involved. PMID:23245499

  12. The Identification and Social Problems of the Gifted Bilingual-Bicultural Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Esther K.

    The paper outlines identification and social problems regarding the gifted bilingual bicultural student and offers suggestions to parents and teachers for alleviating those problems. Noted among problems in identification is that minority students may not exhibit behaviors and characteristics which are recognized as manifestation of talents and…

  13. Socially Shared Metacognition of Dyads of Pupils in Collaborative Mathematical Problem-Solving Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iiskala, Tuike; Vauras, Marja; Lehtinen, Erno; Salonen, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how metacognition appears as a socially shared phenomenon within collaborative mathematical word-problem solving processes of dyads of high-achieving pupils. Four dyads solved problems of different difficulty levels. The pupils were 10 years old. The problem-solving activities were videotaped and transcribed in terms of…

  14. Contextualizing nativity status, social ties, and ethnic enclaves: Implications for understanding immigrant and Latino health paradoxes

    PubMed Central

    Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; Williams, David R.; House, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Researchers have posited that one potential explanation for the better-than-expected health outcomes observed among some Latino immigrants, vis-à-vis their U.S.-born counterparts, may be the strength of their social ties and social support among immigrants. Methods We examined the association between nativity status and social ties using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study’s Latino subsample, which includes Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Latinos. First, we used Ordinary Least Squares [OLS] regression methods to model the effect of nativity status on five outcomes: informal social integration; social network diversity; network size; instrumental support; and informational support. Using multilevel mixed effects regression models, we estimated the association between Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition on our outcomes, and whether these relationships varied by nativity status. Lastly, we examined the relationship between social ties and immigrants’ length of time in the United States. Results After controlling for individual-level characteristics, immigrant Latinos had significantly lower levels of social ties than their U.S.-born counterparts for all our outcomes, except for informational support. Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition was positively associated with being socially integrated and having larger and more diverse social networks. The associations between two of our outcomes (informal social integration and network size) and living in a neighborhood with greater concentrations of Latinos and immigrants were stronger for U.S.-born Latinos than for immigrant Latinos. U.S.-born Latinos maintained a significant socialties advantage compared to immigrants—regardless of length of time in the United States—for informal social integration, network diversity, and network size. Conclusion At the individual level, our findings challenge the assumption that Latino immigrants would have larger networks and/or higher levels of support and social integration than their U.S.-born counterparts. Our study underscores the importance of understanding the contexts that promote the development of social ties. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding Latino and immigrant social ties and health outcomes. PMID:23947776

  15. A Geovisual Analytic Approach to Understanding Geo-Social Relationships in the International Trade Network

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Yin, Peifeng; Di, Qian; Hardisty, Frank; MacEachren, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The world has become a complex set of geo-social systems interconnected by networks, including transportation networks, telecommunications, and the internet. Understanding the interactions between spatial and social relationships within such geo-social systems is a challenge. This research aims to address this challenge through the framework of geovisual analytics. We present the GeoSocialApp which implements traditional network analysis methods in the context of explicitly spatial and social representations. We then apply it to an exploration of international trade networks in terms of the complex interactions between spatial and social relationships. This exploration using the GeoSocialApp helps us develop a two-part hypothesis: international trade network clusters with structural equivalence are strongly balkanized (fragmented) according to the geography of trading partners, and the geographical distance weighted by population within each network cluster has a positive relationship with the development level of countries. In addition to demonstrating the potential of visual analytics to provide insight concerning complex geo-social relationships at a global scale, the research also addresses the challenge of validating insights derived through interactive geovisual analytics. We develop two indicators to quantify the observed patterns, and then use a Monte-Carlo approach to support the hypothesis developed above. PMID:24558409

  16. Social Problem Solving and Strategy Use in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Vanessa A.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Rechis, Ruth; Patterson, Meagan M.; Hughes, Julie Milligan

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated what prosocial-assertive, passive, and coercive strategies 6-year-olds (N = 257) would propose in response to stories about 2 socially challenging situations: displacing another child in a game and obtaining a toy from another child. The scenarios also varied the gender composition of the characters.…

  17. Teaching Social Studies to High School Students with Learning Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2007-01-01

    Because of recent legislation, many students with mild disabilities enroll in high school social studies courses in general education rather than special education settings. Therefore, teachers may have students with learning disabilities, behavioral disorders, communication disorders, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in their history,…

  18. Social Networking Sites, Literacy, and the Authentic Identity Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmons, Royce

    2014-01-01

    Current interest in social media for educational purposes has led many to consider the importance of literacy development in online spaces (e.g., new media literacies, digital literacies, etc.). Relying heavily upon New Literacy Studies (NLS) as a base, these approaches treat literacy expansively to include socio-cultural factors beyond mere skill…

  19. Organisational Problem Based Learning and Social Communities for SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Emma; Hamburg, Ileana

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights reasons for SMEs low uptake of training and argues that current offerings are not suitable for their needs. It highlights the need to leverage the benefits of work based learning through the use of technology. Social media and web 2.0 has significantly changed the way people learn and access knowledge. The body of knowledge…

  20. Understanding and Acting on the Growing Childhood and Adolescent Weight Crisis: A Role for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Shawn; Hazlett, Rebekah; Hightower, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate. Numerous individual, family, community, and social factors contribute to overweight and obesity in children and are explored. If left unaddressed, the epidemic of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity may lead to amplified problems for individual…

  1. Understanding and Acting on the Growing Childhood and Adolescent Weight Crisis: A Role for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Shawn; Hazlett, Rebekah; Hightower, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate. Numerous individual, family, community, and social factors contribute to overweight and obesity in children and are explored. If left unaddressed, the epidemic of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity may lead to amplified problems for individual

  2. Constructing Understandings: An Ethnographic Study of Young Children's Social Emotional Learnings in a Multiage Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Cammy J.

    2009-01-01

    This ethnography drew on Vygotsky's (1986, 1978) sociocultural theory of development to understand social emotional learnings of young children. The unique K-8 span of circle group--coupled with intentional activities--provided the rich context for language and interactions between students. Examining a school with a mature philosophy and…

  3. Greek Teachers' Understandings and Constructions of What Constitutes Social and Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triliva, Sofia; Poulou, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a research initiative which explored Greek teachers' perceptions and understandings on what constitutes social and emotional competencies and how these competencies can best be enhanced within the classroom. In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 elementary school teachers in two different geographical…

  4. Greek Teachers' Understandings and Constructions of What Constitutes Social and Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triliva, Sofia; Poulou, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a research initiative which explored Greek teachers' perceptions and understandings on what constitutes social and emotional competencies and how these competencies can best be enhanced within the classroom. In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 elementary school teachers in two different geographical

  5. Collision of Epistemological Frameworks: Religion and Social Science's Unshared Understanding of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    Religious scholars and social science experts frequently differ and sometimes clash when writing and discussing issues of ethics. Sometimes unshared understandings on fundamental world-view issues is the etiology for these differences. Differences in defining truth, whether philosophically or empirically, often is at the root etiology in these…

  6. Understanding Learning Culturally: Overcoming the Dualism between Social and Individual Views of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Phil; Biesta, Gert; James, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies limitations within the current literature on understanding learning. Overcoming these limitations entails replacing dualist views of learning as either individual or social, by using a theory of learning cultures and a cultural theory of learning, which articulate with each other. To do this, we argue that it is possible and…

  7. A Phenomenological Study: Understanding the Management of Social Categorization Diversity Issues Associated with College Athletic Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickelman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study explored the social categorization diversity management experiences of NCAA Division I, II and III athletic coaches. The research study used a combination of questionnaire, observation and coaching interviews to obtain an understanding of the skills, tools and techniques that these coaches used to…

  8. Structural Exclusion through School Mathematics: Using Bourdieu to Understand Mathematics as a Social Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn; Gates, Peter; Roper, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore a sociological approach to mathematics education and offer a theoretical lens through which we can come to understand mathematics education as part of a wider set of social practices. Many studies of children's experiences in school show that a child's academic success is a product of many factors, some of which…

  9. Increasing Understanding and Social Acceptance of Individuals with Disabilities through Exploration of Comics Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Research supports the inclusion of children with disabilities in general education classrooms as a way to boost academic and social development, not only for children with disabilities, but also for typically developing children. A wide variety of perspectives and abilities in the classroom builds empathy, understanding, and creativity--all

  10. Students' Understandings of Religious Identities and Relations: Issues of Social Cohesion and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this article is on issues of social cohesion and citizenship as they relate to students' understandings of religion and religious identity. The article draws on data gathered from a study conducted at a highly diverse English comprehensive school and is set amid broader anxieties about religion, community disharmony and national…

  11. Increasing Understanding and Social Acceptance of Individuals with Disabilities through Exploration of Comics Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Research supports the inclusion of children with disabilities in general education classrooms as a way to boost academic and social development, not only for children with disabilities, but also for typically developing children. A wide variety of perspectives and abilities in the classroom builds empathy, understanding, and creativity--all…

  12. Understanding Social and Professional Integration as an Adjustment Process: Contribution to a Theory of Coadaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative research was designed to understand how the social integration process in the workplace unfolds with adults who have intellectual disabilities. Participant observation and interviews permitted an in-depth examination of 10 integration situations within a company, with regard for the actions and perceptions of the stakeholders.…

  13. Degree of Influence on Perception of Belief and Social Setting: Its Relevance to Understanding Pendulum Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomas, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    Modern visualization techniques in science education present a challenge of sorting out the contributions of perception to understanding science. These contributions range over degrees to which perception is influenced by belief (including systematic sets of beliefs which comprise scientific theories) and social setting. This paper proposes a…

  14. Do Social and Cognitive Deficits Curtail Musical Understanding? Evidence from Autism and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Pamela; Allen, Rory; Williams, Kerry; Cummins, Omar; Happe, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    Children with autism experience difficulties in understanding social affective cues, and it has been suggested that such deficits will generalize to music. In order to investigate this proposal, typically developing individuals and children with autism and Down syndrome were compared on tasks measuring perception of affective and movement states…

  15. Associations between Social Understanding, Sibling Relationship Quality, and Siblings' Conflict Strategies and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recchia, Holly E.; Howe, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Sibling relationship quality and social understanding (second-order false belief, conflict interpretation, and narrative conflict perspective references) were examined as unique and interactive correlates of sibling conflict behavior in 62 dyads (older M age = 8.39 years and younger M age = 6.06 years). High-quality relationships were associated…

  16. Theory of Mind "Emotion", Developmental Characteristics and Social Understanding in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Francoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of development of ToM-emotion abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM-emotion abilities were examined. EDEI-R (Perron-Borelli, M. (1996). "Echelles Differentielles

  17. Theory of Mind "Beliefs", Developmental Characteristics and Social Understanding in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Francoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of development of ToM belief abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM belief abilities were examined. EDEI-R [Perron-Borelli M. (1996). "Echelles Differentielles

  18. Mexican American Children's Ethnic Identity, Understanding of Ethnic Prejudice, and Parental Ethnic Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 47 Mexican-American children in grades 2 and 6 and their parents revealed that parental ethnic socialization about ethnic discrimination was associated with children's development of ethnic knowledge. Children's understanding of ethnic prejudice was related to their ethnic knowledge but not their ethnic behaviors. Contains 24…

  19. Predictors of Children's Prosocial Lie-Telling: Motivation, Socialization Variables, and Moral Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popliger, Mina; Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Children tell prosocial lies for self- and other-oriented reasons. However, it is unclear how motivational and socialization factors affect their lying. Furthermore, it is unclear whether children's moral understanding and evaluations of prosocial lie scenarios (including perceptions of vignette characters' feelings) predict their actual prosocial…

  20. Early Social Cognition: Understanding Others in the First Months of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochat, Philippe, Ed.

    In recent years, much stimulating research has emerged in relation to children's theories of mind, construed as the understanding of others' intentions, beliefs, and desires. Within that context, there is renewed interest in the developmental origins of social cognition. An expression of that new interest, this book assembles current…

  1. Socializing Infants toward a Cultural Understanding of Expressing Negative Affect: A Bakhtinian Informed Discursive Psychology Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane, everyday interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian theorizing, it claims that caregivers' appraisals of…

  2. Students' Understandings of Religious Identities and Relations: Issues of Social Cohesion and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this article is on issues of social cohesion and citizenship as they relate to students' understandings of religion and religious identity. The article draws on data gathered from a study conducted at a highly diverse English comprehensive school and is set amid broader anxieties about religion, community disharmony and national

  3. From Bayes to Tarantola: New insights to understand uncertainty in inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Martínez, J. L.; Fernández-Muñiz, Z.; Pallero, J. L. G.; Pedruelo-González, L. M.

    2013-11-01

    Anyone working on inverse problems is aware of their ill-posed character. In the case of inverse problems, this concept (ill-posed) proposed by J. Hadamard in 1902, admits revision since it is somehow related to their ill-conditioning and the use of local optimization methods to find their solution. A more general and interesting approach regarding risk analysis and epistemological decision making would consist in analyzing the existence of families of equivalent model parameters that are compatible with the prior information and predict the observed data within the same error bounds. Otherwise said, the ill-posed character of discrete inverse problems (ill-conditioning) originates that their solution is uncertain. Traditionally nonlinear inverse problems in discrete form have been solved via local optimization methods with regularization, but linear analysis techniques failed to account for the uncertainty in the solution that it is adopted. As a result of this fact uncertainty analysis in nonlinear inverse problems has been approached in a probabilistic framework (Bayesian approach), but these methods are hindered by the curse of dimensionality and by the high computational cost needed to solve the corresponding forward problems. Global optimization techniques are very attractive, but most of the times are heuristic and have the same limitations than Monte Carlo methods. New research is needed to provide uncertainty estimates, especially in the case of high dimensional nonlinear inverse problems with very costly forward problems. After the discredit of deterministic methods and some initial years of Bayesian fever, now the pendulum seems to return back, because practitioners are aware that the uncertainty analysis in high dimensional nonlinear inverse problems cannot (and should not be) solved via random sampling methodologies. The main reason is that the uncertainty “space” of nonlinear inverse problems has a mathematical structure that is embedded in the forward physics and also in the observed data. Thus, problems with structure should be approached via linear algebra and optimization techniques. This paper provides new insights to understand uncertainty from a deterministic point of view, which is a necessary step to design more efficient methods to sample the uncertainty region(s) of equivalent solutions.

  4. Shyness and Social Phobia: A Social Work Perspective on a Problem in Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Social phobia can be conceptualized from a social work perspective as an extreme shyness that can be overcome with cognitive learning and behavioral rehearsal. This article reviews the biopsychosocial causes of social phobia and presents a summary of cognitive and behavioral interventions with empirically demonstrated effectiveness. (Author)

  5. [Loneliness in the elderly as a social and medical problem].

    PubMed

    Dóci, I; Hosák, L; Kovárová, M

    2003-08-01

    The proportion of elderly people in the Czech population is increasing. Old age is often associated with loneliness, which significantly leads to a medical institutionalization. In addition to that, depression, dementia, and alcohol abuse may occur as a result and cause of further deterioration. We describe a case of a woman who has spent substantial part of the last five years of her life being hospitalized at departments of psychiatry, neurology, and internal medicine respectively. Social factors played an important role in this development. The vicious circle of loneliness, depression, and institutionalization of elderly people may be overcome in several ways, e.g. by an adequate physical, mental, and social activity, self-education, psychotherapy, outpatients nursing care, and an early diagnostics and treatment of depression. PMID:14626568

  6. Between Individual Agency and Structure in HIV Prevention: Understanding the Middle Ground of Social Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kippax, Susan; Parker, Richard G.; Aggleton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    When HIV prevention targets risk and vulnerability, it focuses on individual agency and social structures, ignoring the centrality of community in effective HIV prevention. The neoliberal concept of risk assumes individuals are rational agents who act on information provided to them regarding HIV transmission. This individualistic framework does not recognize the communities in which people act and connect. The concept of vulnerability on the other hand acknowledges the social world, but mainly as social barriers that make it difficult for individuals to act. Neither approach to HIV prevention offers understanding of community practices or collective agency, both central to success in HIV prevention to date. Drawing on examples of the social transformation achieved by community action in Australia and Brazil, this article focuses on this middle ground and its role in effective HIV prevention. PMID:23763397

  7. Towards a better understanding of people's responses to renewable energy technologies: Insights from Social Representations Theory.

    PubMed

    Batel, Susana; Devine-Wright, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    In the past few years, social research has been examining what contributes to the attitude-behaviour gap in people's responses to large-scale renewable energy technologies. The NIMBY explanation for the gap has long dominated that area of research, but has also been criticised. Alternative proposals to NIMBY were advanced, but it is still evident that some of those maintain presuppositions of NIMBY and that this area of research needs more integration, namely at a theoretical level. In this paper we argue that to overcome those aspects it is relevant, first, to situate the promotion of renewable energy production as a social change process in today's societies, and, second, to therefore consider the socio-psychological aspects involved in people's responses to social change. We discuss specifically how the Theory of Social Representations may help us with that and contribute to a better understanding of people's responses to renewable energy technologies. PMID:24448027

  8. Understanding neighbourhoods, communities and environments: new approaches for social work research

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Sally; Burgess, Stephen; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses some new ways in which social work research can explore the interaction between neighbourhoods and child and adult wellbeing. The authors note that social work practices are often criticised for taking an individualistic approach and paying too little attention to the service user’s environment. The article uses examples of research projects from Chile, the United States of America and Wales, to discuss the use of spatially oriented research methods for understanding neighbourhood factors. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods approaches that are particularly appropriate for investigating social work relevant topics are discussed in turn, including quantitative and qualitative uses for geographical information systems (GIS), hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) for analysing spatially clustered data and qualitative mobile interviews. The article continues with a discussion of the strengths and limitations of using spatially orientated research designs in social work research settings and concludes optimistically with suggestions for future directions in this area. PMID:21738281

  9. Enhancing Social Support for Parents of Developmentally Disabled Children: Training in Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intagliata, James; Doyle, Nancy

    1984-01-01

    Interpersonal problem solving skills training, an approach to increasing social support and decreasing stress, was found to be a relevant and potentially helpful service intervention with three single parents and one couple, all of whom had developmentally disabled children. (CL)

  10. Access to generic drugs in the 1950s: the politics of a social problem.

    PubMed Central

    Facchinetti, N J; Dickson, W M

    1982-01-01

    From the published literature of the 1950s, the social history of anti-substitution law is analyzed in terms of sociological theory on the construction of social problems. The analysis reveals how the substitution of generic drugs for prescribed brands came to be recognized as a social problem in need of remedial legislation. The most influential party in the process was the brand-drug industry which centered the debate on matters of public health and professionalism instead of industrial profitability. The industry was able to form a coalition of interests and establish the saliency and legitimacy of the problem, even though there was no objective evidence to establish brand substitution as a hazard to health. The case fits well into the theory of social problem construction. Other issues in health care, particularly drug issues can be studied from this same perspective. PMID:7065335

  11. Social interaction as a heuristic for combinatorial optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanari, José F.

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the performance of a variant of Axelrod’s model for dissemination of culture—the Adaptive Culture Heuristic (ACH)—on solving an NP-Complete optimization problem, namely, the classification of binary input patterns of size F by a Boolean Binary Perceptron. In this heuristic, N agents, characterized by binary strings of length F which represent possible solutions to the optimization problem, are fixed at the sites of a square lattice and interact with their nearest neighbors only. The interactions are such that the agents’ strings (or cultures) become more similar to the low-cost strings of their neighbors resulting in the dissemination of these strings across the lattice. Eventually the dynamics freezes into a homogeneous absorbing configuration in which all agents exhibit identical solutions to the optimization problem. We find through extensive simulations that the probability of finding the optimal solution is a function of the reduced variable F/N1/4 so that the number of agents must increase with the fourth power of the problem size, N∝F4 , to guarantee a fixed probability of success. In this case, we find that the relaxation time to reach an absorbing configuration scales with F6 which can be interpreted as the overall computational cost of the ACH to find an optimal set of weights for a Boolean binary perceptron, given a fixed probability of success.

  12. Current Domestic Problems, Social Studies: 6416.18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John A.

    Secondary students learn to deal objectively with domestic issues and problems in this quinmester elective course. Emphasis is upon providing students with an opportunity for indepth study in critical thinking on current controversial issues, using activity units as a principal teaching technique. The objectives are for students to identify and…

  13. Seeking Synthesis: The Integrative Problem in Understanding Language and Its Evolution.

    PubMed

    Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T; Schoenemann, P Thomas

    2016-04-01

    We discuss two problems for a general scientific understanding of language, sequences and synergies: how language is an intricately sequenced behavior and how language is manifested as a multidimensionally structured behavior. Though both are central in our understanding, we observe that the former tends to be studied more than the latter. We consider very general conditions that hold in human brain evolution and its computational implications, and identify multimodal and multiscale organization as two key characteristics of emerging cognitive function in our species. This suggests that human brains, and cognitive function specifically, became more adept at integrating diverse information sources and operating at multiple levels for linguistic performance. We argue that framing language evolution, learning, and use in terms of synergies suggests new research questions, and it may be a fruitful direction for new developments in theory and modeling of language as an integrated system. PMID:26988387

  14. Experiences of Social Work Educators Working with Students with Psychiatric Disabilities or Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Social work educators have an ethical responsibility to graduate students who are academically, behaviorally, and professionally prepared to enter the social work profession. Although a student's suitability to the profession is not necessarily hindered because of the effects of a psychiatric disability or an emotional problem, sometimes it is.

  15. Predicting Depression, Social Phobia, and Violence in Early Adulthood from Childhood Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lengua, Liliana J.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study examined childhood behavior problems at ages 10 and 11 years as predictors of young adult depression, social phobia, and violence at age 21 years. Method: Data were collected as part of the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study of 808 elementary school students from high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle.…

  16. School Social Work with Students with Mental Health Problems: Examining Different Practice Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManama O'Brien, Kimberly H.; Berzin, Stephanie C.; Kelly, Michael S.; Frey, Andy J.; Alvarez, Michelle E.; Shaffer, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    School social workers frequently serve as the primary mental health providers to youths with mental health problems. Although school social workers play a primary role in care, many students also receive outside counseling services. Previous research has not examined whether practice approaches differ when considering mental health practice with…

  17. An Investigation of Preschool Classroom Behavioral Adjustment Problems and Social-Emotional School Readiness Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John W.; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca; Fusco, Rachel A.; McWayne, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The study examined the unique relationship between multiple dimensions of classroom behavioral adjustment problems and salient social-emotional competencies for urban Head Start children. These relationships were investigated using a hierarchical model that controlled for the variance in social-emotional outcomes attributed to age, gender, and…

  18. Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in…

  19. Relations Between Social Self-Perceptions, Time Use, and Prosocial or Problem Behaviors During Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Janis E.; Vernon, Margaret K.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between social self-perceptions, time use, and later involvement in prosocial or problem behaviors during early, middle, and later adolescence. The authors used an idiographic approach to identify four different patterns of social self-perceptions (confident, anxious, unconcerned, desperate) and then examined…

  20. Identification of Social-Emotional Problems among Young Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jee, Sandra H.; Conn, Anne-Marie; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Blumkin, Aaron; Baldwin, Constance D.; Szilagyi, Moira A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how best to implement behavioral screening recommendations in practice, especially for children in foster care, who are at risk for having social-emotional problems. Two validated screening tools are recommended for use with young children: the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE) identifies…

  1. The Role of Social Comments in Problem-Solving Groups in an Online Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, Deana L.

    2004-01-01

    This grounded theory article focuses on the role of social communications during an online group problem-solving class. The proposed theory states that students working collaboratively and asynchronously with people they do not know use social comments to overcome emotional and geographical distance feelings. The subthemes of self-revelation,…

  2. Experiences of Social Work Educators Working with Students with Psychiatric Disabilities or Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Social work educators have an ethical responsibility to graduate students who are academically, behaviorally, and professionally prepared to enter the social work profession. Although a student's suitability to the profession is not necessarily hindered because of the effects of a psychiatric disability or an emotional problem, sometimes it is.…

  3. Teaching Intellectually Challenging Social Studies in the Middle School: Problems and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Hilary G.

    2011-01-01

    Are middle schoolers capable of discussing the war in Iraq in meaningful ways? Can seventh graders develop informed ideas about presidential candidates' positions on health care? Should young adolescents discuss controversial public issues, interpret primary sources, and analyze social problems? Thoughtful social studies educators disagree. While…

  4. Enhancing Social Problem Solving in Children with Autism and Normal Children through Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard-Opitz, Vera; Sriram, N.; Nakhoda-Sapuan, Sharul

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated computer assisted instruction in social skills using hypothetical animated social situations. Evaluation with eight preschool children with autism (and eight matched normal children) suggested the program's potential for teaching problem-solving skills to children with and without autism. Children with autism were…

  5. Social Problem Solving in High-Risk Mother-Child Dyads: An Intergenerational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Julie P.; Stack, Dale M.; Serbin, Lisa A.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Ledingham, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of maternal childhood histories of aggression and social withdrawal to the prediction of mother-child social problem solving in the next generation. Fifty-seven women (M = 37.32 years), previously rated (on a version of the pupil evaluation inventory) by their peers during childhood on measures of aggression…

  6. Physiological Arousal, Distress Tolerance, and Social Problem-Solving Deficits among Adolescent Self-Injurers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that people engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) because they (a) experience heightened physiological arousal following stressful events and use NSSI to regulate experienced distress and (b) have deficits in their social problem-solving skills that interfere with the performance of more adaptive social responses. However,…

  7. Social Support among Offenders with Substance Abuse Problems: Overlooked and Underused?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemieux, Catherine M.

    2002-01-01

    The author examined correlates of social support among 101 offenders in corrections-based treatment programs. Respondents perceived high levels of support despite numerous interpersonal problems. Social support was significantly associated with visits, letters, arrests, and days in treatment. The author describes strategies for implementing…

  8. Limited social learning of a novel technical problem by spotted hyenas.

    PubMed

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Heinen, Virginia K; Gessner, Amelia; Weldele, Mary L; Holekamp, Kay E

    2014-11-01

    Social learning can have profound evolutionary consequences because it drives the diffusion of novel behaviours among individuals and promotes the maintenance of traditions within populations. We inquired whether spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), generalist carnivores living in complex, primate-like societies, acquire information from conspecifics about a novel problem-solving task. Previously, we presented wild hyenas with a food-access puzzle and found that social learning opportunities did not affect problem-solving success among observers, but did reduce observers' neophobia. However, we had little control over which individuals observed conspecifics solve the problem, and few wild hyenas were successful. Therefore, we conducted an experiment in captivity where we controlled observer access to two demonstration styles. Again, social learning opportunities did not affect problem-solving success, but tended to reduce neophobia among captive observers. Social learning opportunities also influenced problem-solving style. Captive hyenas showed limited evidence for directed social learning; low-ranking individuals paid closer attention to demonstrators than high-ranking individuals, although this greater attention did not result in greater success. We conclude that wild and captive hyenas exploit social learning opportunities similarly, and that the limited social learning shown by hyenas on this task is likely based on localized stimulus enhancement. PMID:25245305

  9. Social Reactions, Self-Blame and Problem Drinking in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to test a model of the relations of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure, self-blame and problem drinking. This is the first study to investigate whether type of self-blame has different relationships with social reactions and problem drinking in a large, diverse sample of sexually assaulted women. These relationships are important to investigate in order to identify specific targets for treatment and intervention with sexual assault victims and their social networks. Method Community-residing female sexual assault survivors (N = 1863) in a large metropolitan area completed a mail survey about sexual assault, social reactions to disclosure, self-blame attributions, and problem drinking symptoms. Results Structural equation modeling showed that characterological self-blame mediated the effect of negative social reactions on drinking, but behavioral self-blame did not function as a mediator. A second model showed unique relationships of specific positive and negative social reactions to drinking through characterological and behavioral self-blame. Conclusions Characterological self-blame needs to be targeted in treatment and intervention with survivors, as it appears to be a key mechanism through which social reactions may influence recovery. Secondary prevention with informal social networks should educate people about social reactions to avoid negative reactions and promote those that are helpful, so people can better respond to survivors’ sexual assault disclosures and improve recovery. PMID:26366320

  10. Understanding protected area resilience: a multi-scale, social-ecological approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cumming, Graeme S.; Allen, Craig R.; Ban, Natalie C.; Biggs, Duan; Biggs, Harry C.; Cumming, David H.M; De Vos, Alta; Epstein, Graham; Etienne, Michel; Maciejewski, Kristine; Mathevet, Raphael; Moore, Christine; Nenadovic, Mateja; Schoon, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) remain central to the conservation of biodiversity. Classical PAs were conceived as areas that would be set aside to maintain a natural state with minimal human influence. However, global environmental change and growing cross-scale anthropogenic influences mean that PAs can no longer be thought of as ecological islands that function independently of the broader social-ecological system in which they are located. For PAs to be resilient (and to contribute to broader social-ecological resilience), they must be able to adapt to changing social and ecological conditions over time in a way that supports the long-term persistence of populations, communities, and ecosystems of conservation concern. We extend Ostrom's social-ecological systems framework to consider the long-term persistence of PAs, as a form of land use embedded in social-ecological systems, with important cross-scale feedbacks. Most notably, we highlight the cross-scale influences and feedbacks on PAs that exist from the local to the global scale, contextualizing PAs within multi-scale social-ecological functional landscapes. Such functional landscapes are integral to understand and manage individual PAs for long-term sustainability. We illustrate our conceptual contribution with three case studies that highlight cross-scale feedbacks and social-ecological interactions in the functioning of PAs and in relation to regional resilience. Our analysis suggests that while ecological, economic, and social processes are often directly relevant to PAs at finer scales, at broader scales, the dominant processes that shape and alter PA resilience are primarily social and economic.

  11. Understanding protected area resilience: a multi-scale, social-ecological approach.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Graeme S; Allen, Craig R; Ban, Natalie C; Biggs, Duan; Biggs, Harry C; Cumming, David H M; De Vos, Alta; Epstein, Graham; Etienne, Michel; Maciejewski, Kristine; Mathevet, Raphaël; Moore, Christine; Nenadovic, Mateja; Schoon, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Protected areas (PAs) remain central to the conservation of biodiversity. Classical PAs were conceived as areas that would be set aside to maintain a natural state with minimal human influence. However, global environmental change and growing cross-scale anthropogenic influences mean that PAs can no longer be thought of as ecological islands that function independently of the broader social-ecological system in which they are located. For PAs to be resilient (and to contribute to broader social-ecological resilience), they must be able to adapt to changing social and ecological conditions over time in a way that supports the long-term persistence of populations, communities, and ecosystems of conservation concern. We extend Ostrom's social-ecological systems framework to consider the long-term persistence of PAs, as a form of land use embedded in social-ecological systems, with important cross-scale feedbacks. Most notably, we highlight the cross-scale influences and feedbacks on PAs that exist from the local to the global scale, contextualizing PAs within multi-scale social-ecological functional landscapes. Such functional landscapes are integral to understand and manage individual PAs for long-term sustainability. We illustrate our conceptual contribution with three case studies that highlight cross-scale feedbacks and social-ecological interactions in the functioning of PAs and in relation to regional resilience. Our analysis suggests that while ecological, economic, and social processes are often directly relevant to PAs at finer scales, at broader scales, the dominant processes that shape and alter PA resilience are primarily social and economic. PMID:26263656

  12. Modifying a Social Problem-Solving Program With the Input of Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities and Their Staff

    PubMed Central

    Ailey, Sarah H.; Friese, Tanya R.; Nezu, Arthur M.

    2016-01-01

    Social problem-solving programs have shown success in reducing aggressive/challenging behaviors among individuals with intellectual disabilities in clinical settings, but have not been adapted for health promotion in community settings. We modified a social problem-solving program for the community setting of the group home. Multiple sequential methods were used to seek advice from community members on making materials understandable and on intervention delivery. A committee of group home supervisory staff gave advice on content and delivery. Cognitive interviews with individuals with intellectual disabilities and residential staff provided input on content wording and examples. Piloting the program provided experience with content and delivery. The process provides lessons on partnering with vulnerable populations and community stakeholders to develop health programs. PMID:22753149

  13. Children’s Expectations and Understanding of Kinship as a Social Category

    PubMed Central

    Spokes, Annie C.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    In order to navigate the social world, children need to understand and make predictions about how people will interact with one another. Throughout most of human history, social groups have been prominently marked by kinship relations, but few experiments have examined children’s knowledge of and reasoning about kinship relations. In the current studies, we investigated how 3- to 5-year-old children understand kinship relations, compared to non-kin relations between friends, with questions such as, “Who has the same grandmother?” We also tested how children expect people to interact based on their relations to one another, with questions such as “Who do you think Cara would like to share her treat with?” Both in a storybook context and in a richer context presenting more compelling cues to kinship using face morphology, 3- and 4-year-old children failed to show either robust explicit conceptual distinctions between kin and friends, or expectations of behavior favoring kin over friends, even when asked about their own social partners. By 5 years, children’s understanding of these relations improved, and they showed some expectation that others will preferentially aid siblings over friends. Together, these findings suggest that explicit understanding of kinship develops slowly over the preschool years. PMID:27065213

  14. Multiple audience problem: a strategic communication perspective on social perception.

    PubMed

    Fleming, J H; Darley, J M; Hilton, J L; Kojetin, B A

    1990-04-01

    Examined how communicators send mixed messages containing an explicit surface content and a covert hidden content. In Study 1, Ss wrote constrained essays presenting either an introverted or extraverted personality. Although authors reported manipulating essay credibility and readers reported relying on credibility to make their judgments, readers succumbed to correspondence bias. In Studies 2 and 3, Ss again prepared either constrained essays (Study 2) or constrained videotapes (Study 3) and included in them a hidden message that would be understood by only their friends but not by strangers. Observers then read these essays or watched these videotapes. Friends detected and decoded the hidden messages, whereas strangers did not. We discuss these findings in terms of social perception and strategic communication. PMID:2348361

  15. Understanding resilience in armed conflict: Social resources and mental health of children in Burundi

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Brian J.; Tol, Wietse A.; Jordans, Mark J.D.; Bass, Judith; de Jong, Joop T.V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the role of cognitive social capital among war-affected youth in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the longitudinal association between cognitive social capital and mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms), functioning, and received social support of children in Burundi. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews with 176 children over three measurement occasions over the span of 4-months. Cognitive social capital measured the degree to which children believed their community was trustworthy and cohesive. Mental health measures included the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) (Birleson, 1981), the Child Posttraumatic Symptom Scale (Foa, Johnson, & Feeny, 2001), and a locally constructed scale of functional impairment. Children reported received social support by listing whether they received different types of social support from self-selected key individuals. Cross-lagged path analytic modeling evaluated relationships between cognitive social capital, symptoms and received support separately over baseline (T1), 6-week follow-up (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3). Each concept was treated and analyzed as a continuous score using manifest indicators. Significant associations between study variables were unidirectional. Cognitive social capital was associated with decreased depression between T1 and T2 (B=−0.22, p<.001) and T2 and T3 (β=−0.25, p<.001), and with functional impairment between T1 and T2 (β=−0.15, p=.005) and T2 and T3 (β=−0.14, p=.005); no association was found for PTSD symptoms at either time point. Cognitive social capital was associated with increased social support between T1 and T2 (β=0.16, p=.002) and T2 and T3 (β=0.16, p=.002). In this longitudinal study, cognitive social capital was related to a declining trajectory of children’s mental health problems and increases in social support. Interventions that improve community relations in war-affected communities may alter the trajectories of resource loss and gain with conflict-affected children. PMID:24922609

  16. Understanding resilience in armed conflict: social resources and mental health of children in Burundi.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian J; Tol, Wietse A; Jordans, Mark J D; Bass, Judith; de Jong, Joop T V M

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the role of cognitive social capital among war-affected youth in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the longitudinal association between cognitive social capital and mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms), functioning, and received social support of children in Burundi. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews with 176 children over three measurement occasions over the span of 4-months. Cognitive social capital measured the degree to which children believed their community was trustworthy and cohesive. Mental health measures included the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) (Birleson, 1981), the Child Posttraumatic Symptom Scale (Foa et al., 2001), and a locally constructed scale of functional impairment. Children reported received social support by listing whether they received different types of social support from self-selected key individuals. Cross-lagged path analytic modeling evaluated relationships between cognitive social capital, symptoms and received support separately over baseline (T1), 6-week follow-up (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3). Each concept was treated and analyzed as a continuous score using manifest indicators. Significant associations between study variables were unidirectional. Cognitive social capital was associated with decreased depression between T1 and T2 (B = -.22, p < .001) and T2 and T3 (β = -.25, p < .001), and with functional impairment between T1 and T2 (β = -.15, p = .005) and T2 and T3 (β = -.14, p = .005); no association was found for PTSD symptoms at either time point. Cognitive social capital was associated with increased social support between T1 and T2 (β = .16, p = .002) and T2 and T3 (β = .16, p = .002). In this longitudinal study, cognitive social capital was related to a declining trajectory of children's mental health problems and increases in social support. Interventions that improve community relations in war-affected communities may alter the trajectories of resource loss and gain with conflict-affected children. PMID:24922609

  17. "Kracking" the Missing Data Problem: Applying Krackhardt's Cognitive Social Structures to School-Based Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2008-01-01

    Social network analysis can enrich school-based research on children's peer relationships. Unfortunately, accurate network analysis requires near-complete data on all students and is underutilized in school-based research because of low rates of parental consent. This article advocates Krackhardt's cognitive social structures (CSS) as a solution…

  18. Upper Elementary School Children's Understanding and Solution of a Quantitative Problem inside and outside the Mathematics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewolf, Tinne; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2011-01-01

    We confronted 151, 5th and 6th elementary grade pupils with a quantitative problem in a mathematics or religion class, to examine the influence of the context on pupils' understanding and solution of such problems inside and outside the mathematics class. Pupils were first asked to solve a problem about fair sharing either during a mathematics or…

  19. Cognitive conflict links behavioral inhibition and social problem solving during social exclusion in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lahat, Ayelet; Walker, Olga L.; Lamm, Connie; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by heightened negative affect and social reticence to unfamiliar peers. In a longitudinal study, 291 infants were assessed for BI at 24 and 36 months of age. At age 7, N2 amplitude was measured during a Flanker task. Also at age 7, children experienced social exclusion in the lab during an interaction with an unfamiliar peer and an experimenter. Our findings indicate that children characterized as high in BI, relative to those low in BI, had larger (i.e., more negative) N2 amplitudes. Additionally, among children with a large N2, BI was positively related to withdrawal and negatively related to assertiveness during social exclusion. These findings suggest that variations in conflict detection among behaviorally inhibited children plays a role in their social behavior during stressful social situations. PMID:25705132

  20. Peer influences on internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents: a longitudinal social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents who like each other may become more similar to each other with regard to internalizing and externalizing problems, though it is not yet clear which social mechanisms explain these similarities. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed four mechanisms that may explain similarity in adolescent peer networks with regard to externalizing and internalizing problems: selection, socialization, avoidance and withdrawal. At three moments during one school-year, we asked 542 adolescents (8th grade, M-age = 13.3 years, 51 % female) to report who they liked in their classroom, and their own internalizing and externalizing problems. Adolescents tend to prefer peers who have similar externalizing problem scores, but no significant selection effect was found for internalizing problems. Adolescents who share the same group of friends socialize each other and then become more similar with respect to externalizing problems, but not with respect to internalizing problems. We found no significant effects for avoidance or withdrawal. Adolescents may choose to belong to a peer group that is similar to them in terms of externalizing problem behaviors, and through peer group socialization (e.g., enticing, modelling, mimicking, and peer pressure) become more similar to that group over time. PMID:25119729

  1. Adjective Check List Correlates of Social Conflict Problems in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbrun, Alfred B., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Assesses ability of Adjective Check List (ACL) to distinguish between clients of a college mental health facility who admitted to social alienation as a primary or secondary problem and clients who denied the importance of this problem- Scores on scales measuring affiliation and heterosexuality and an affiliation minus succorance" index differed

  2. An Approach for Addressing the Multiple Testing Problem in Social Policy Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.

    2009-01-01

    In social policy evaluations, the multiple testing problem occurs due to the many hypothesis tests that are typically conducted across multiple outcomes and subgroups, which can lead to spurious impact findings. This article discusses a framework for addressing this problem that balances Types I and II errors. The framework involves specifying…

  3. Managing Stress and Maintaining Well-Being: Social Support, Problem-Focused Coping, and Avoidant Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social…

  4. An experimental exploration of social problem solving and its associated processes in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Sternheim, Lot; Startup, Helen; Pretorius, Natalie; Johnson-Sabine, Eric; Schmidt, Ulrike; Channon, Shelley

    2012-12-30

    People with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) have well-documented socio-emotional and neurocognitive impairments. As yet, little is known about their ability to solve problems in social situations, although a link with cognitive avoidance has been suggested. This study explored social problem-solving (SPS), using an experimental task. Secondly, the role of cognitive avoidance in SPS was investigated. Individuals with AN (n=31) and healthy controls (HC; n=39) completed the Social Problem Resolution Task which consists of problem scenarios involving awkward everyday social situations. Participants were asked to generate both the optimal solution and their personal solution. Solutions were rated in terms of how socially sensitive and practically effective they were. AN patients produced relatively poorer personal solutions compared to optimal solutions than HC participants and had higher scores on a measure of cognitive avoidance than the HC group. In AN patients, cognitive avoidance was partially associated with poor SPS. These findings suggest that whilst people with AN have no difficulty in generating socially sensitive and effective solutions to problems, but may have difficulty applying this knowledge to themselves. PMID:22809854

  5. Silos and Social Identity: The Social Identity Approach as a Framework for Understanding and Overcoming Divisions in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Kreindler, Sara A; Dowd, Damien A; Dana Star, Noah; Gottschalk, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Context One of health care's foremost challenges is the achievement of integration and collaboration among the groups providing care. Yet this fundamentally group-related issue is typically discussed in terms of interpersonal relations or operational issues, not group processes. Methods We conducted a systematic search for literature offering a group-based analysis and examined it through the lens of the social identity approach (SIA). Founded in the insight that group memberships form an important part of the self-concept, the SIA encompasses five dimensions: social identity, social structure, identity content, strength of identification, and context. Findings Our search yielded 348 reports, 114 of which cited social identity. However, SIA-citing reports varied in both compatibility with the SIA's metatheoretical paradigm and applied relevance to health care; conversely, some non-SIA-citers offered SIA-congruent analyses. We analyzed the various combinations and interpretations of the five SIA dimensions, identifying ten major conceptual currents. Examining these in the light of the SIA yielded a cohesive, multifaceted picture of (inter)group relations in health care. Conclusions The SIA offers a coherent framework for integrating a diverse, far-flung literature on health care groups. Further research should take advantage of the full depth and complexity of the approach, remain sensitive to the unique features of the health care context, and devote particular attention to identity mobilization and context change as key drivers of system transformation. Our article concludes with a set of “guiding questions” to help health care leaders recognize the group dimension of organizational problems, identify mechanisms for change, and move forward by working with and through social identities, not against them. PMID:22709391

  6. Understanding adolescence as a period of social-affective engagement and goal flexibility.

    PubMed

    Crone, Eveline A; Dahl, Ronald E

    2012-09-01

    Research has demonstrated that extensive structural and functional brain development continues throughout adolescence. A popular notion emerging from this work states that a relative immaturity in frontal cortical neural systems could explain adolescents' high rates of risk-taking, substance use and other dangerous behaviours. However, developmental neuroimaging studies do not support a simple model of frontal cortical immaturity. Rather, growing evidence points to the importance of changes in social and affective processing, which begin around the onset of puberty, as crucial to understanding these adolescent vulnerabilities. These changes in social-affective processing also may confer some adaptive advantages, such as greater flexibility in adjusting one's intrinsic motivations and goal priorities amidst changing social contexts in adolescence. PMID:22903221

  7. Gazing at me: the importance of social meaning in understanding direct-gaze cues.

    PubMed

    de C Hamilton, Antonia F

    2016-01-19

    Direct gaze is an engaging and important social cue, but the meaning of direct gaze depends heavily on the surrounding context. This paper reviews some recent studies of direct gaze, to understand more about what neural and cognitive systems are engaged by this social cue and why. The data show that gaze can act as an arousal cue and can modulate actions, and can activate brain regions linked to theory of mind and self-related processing. However, all these results are strongly modulated by the social meaning of a gaze cue and by whether participants believe that another person is really watching them. The implications of these contextual effects and audience effects for our theories of gaze are considered. PMID:26644598

  8. Emotion Socialization Practices in Latina and European American Mothers of Preschoolers with Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Breaux, Rosanna P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined mothers’ emotion socialization of 3-year-old children with behavior problems, to determine whether emotion socialization practices, as well as the relation between these practices and child functioning, varied across ethnicities. Participants were 134 preschoolers with behavior problems. Mothers were European American (n = 96) and Latina American (n = 38; predominately Puerto Rican). Audiotaped mother-child interactions were coded for emotion socialization behaviors. Latina and European American mothers used similar emotion socialization practices on most dimensions. Latina mothers were more likely to minimize or not respond to their children’s negative affect. However, this difference did not appear to have ramifications for children. This study provided evidence for both differences and similarities across ethnicities on emotion socialization practices. PMID:27042157

  9. Understanding the Interplay Between Neighborhood Structural Factors, Social Processes, and Alcohol Outlets on Child Physical Abuse.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    This article seeks to understand the relative influence of neighborhood structural characteristics (e.g., disadvantage) and social processes (e.g., interactions between residents) on child physical abuse. Using multilevel modeling in a sample of 3,023 parents in 194 zip codes, structural characteristics of factor scores representing residential stability and foreign-born Latino males were negatively related to child physical abuse. High proportions of naturalized and Asian/Pacific Islander families were positively related to the frequency of physical abuse. Higher levels of neighborhood social disorder were related to more frequent physical abuse, while higher levels of collective efficacy were related to less frequent physical abuse. Programs designed to alleviate disorder and increase neighborly interactions may be effective at reducing physical abuse. By understanding the relative importance of the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods and the actions and interactions of residents within the neighborhoods, policy and practice can be tailored more effectively to prevent maltreatment. PMID:26251328

  10. Social cognition in ADHD: irony understanding and recursive theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Caillies, Stéphanie; Bertot, Vincine; Motte, Jacques; Raynaud, Christine; Abely, Michel

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the present study was to characterise the social cognition abilities of French children with ADHD, in terms of their understanding of people's recursive mental states and their irony comprehension. We hypothesised that these children have difficulty understanding second-order false beliefs and ironic remarks, owing to the executive dysfunction that is characteristic of ADHD. We therefore conducted an experiment in which children with ADHD and typically developing matched controls performed second-order false-belief and executive function tasks. They then listened to ironic stories and answered questions about the ironic comments and about the speakers' beliefs and attitudes. The groups differed significantly on second-order theory of mind, irony comprehension and executive functions, confirming that children with ADHD have impaired social cognition. PMID:25155741

  11. Individual differences in social and non-social behaviors in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) during the acquisition, extinction and reacquisition of a problem solving task.

    PubMed

    Shimabukuro, Carolina; Putrino, Natalia; Helbling, Julia; Tognetti, Sandra; Bentosela, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    Dogs are able to solve different problems by trial and error learning, but it seems that they cannot understand the means-end connection. Some studies suggest that dogs' performance is influenced by their breed and by the level of familiarity with the person they interact with. In our study, we assess individual differences in both social and non-social responses in a problem-solving task during the acquisition, extinction, and reacquisition phases. In order to investigate the effect of familiarity, in the first experiment, the human present during the task was either a familiar (the dog's owner) or unfamiliar person. In the second experiment, we compared breeds (Retrievers and Shepherds) that had previously shown differences in a communicative task. The results revealed that all groups learned the task and became more efficient in the acquisition trials. These non-social responses diminished during extinction, where an increase in social responses was observed. With regard to individual differences, dogs were more persistent in searching the reward during the second extinction trial when the owner was present (in contrast with a stranger), and also looked longer at the unfamiliar person at the beginning of the acquisition trial. On the other hand, Retrievers showed greater social motivation during reacquisition and Shepherds picked up more bones during the third acquisition trial, thus suggesting a more persistent search of the reward. These findings highlight the relevance of studying different learning schedules as well as individual differences in problem-solving ability so as to improve selection and training techniques. PMID:25682735

  12. What can alienation theory contribute to an understanding of social inequalities in health?

    PubMed

    Crinson, Iain; Yuill, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This article examines both the contribution and the limitations of research that has sought to develop a causal understanding of the psychosocial dimension of inequalities in health. The article seeks to revive interest in Marx's theory of alienation in developing the case for an alternative materialist conceptualization that is able to postulate the pathways from alienation as a psychosocial generative structure to social inequalities in health outcomes within late modern societies. PMID:18724577

  13. Some aspects of social problems facing conservation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Márcio Ayres, J

    1986-08-01

    There has been growing concern in Brazil for environmental issues in the last two decades. The conservation policies for Amazonia, which still represents the largest portion of forests of the country, are still based on isolated decisions made in the late 1970's. Among these policies there is, for instance, the plan for the establishment of a net of National Parks, proposed by Wetterberg et al. (1), based on the 'Pleistocene refugia' model. These refugia are areas of high species endemism, representing forest islands formed during the dry periods of the Pleistocene age, constituting the center of evolution and dispersal of Amazonian species (2). A number of parks and biological reserves have since been established and the decreese of laws protecting some elements of the fauna have been implemented. In 1979, studies for a more comprehensive plan for the conservation and development of Brazilian Amazonia were carried out in several institutions committed to research in Amazonia. As a result, several documents were handed to the government, but nothing has yet been implemented. Indeed, no environmental policy for Amazonia will succeed without an effective and comprehensive social plan, and the latter has yet to be formulated. PMID:21227780

  14. Ethnographic Approaches to Understanding Social Sustainability in Small-scale Water Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutich, A.

    2011-12-01

    Social sustainability is an important, but often neglected, aspect of determining the success of small-scale water systems. This paper reviews ethnographic approaches for understanding how indigenous knowledge enhances social sustainability of small-scale water systems, particularly in small-scale water systems threatened by water scarcity. After reviewing the literature on common-pool and traditional resource management strategies, the paper will focus on the case of a community-managed small-scale water system in Cochabamba, Bolivia. This study uses ethnographic evidence to demonstrate how indigenous institutions can be used to manage a small-scale urban water system sustainably. Several factors were crucial to the institution's success. First, indigenous residents had previous experience with common management of rural irrigation systems which they were able to adapt for use in an urban environment. Second, institutional rules were designed to prioritize the conservation of the water source. Third, indigenous Andean social values of uniformity, regularity, and transparency ensured that community members perceived the system as legitimate and complied with community rules. Fourth, self-governance enabled community members to quickly adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as seasonal scarcity and groundwater overdraft. The paper concludes with a discussion of the promise and limitations of ethnographic approaches and indigenous knowledge for understanding social sustainability in small-scale water systems.

  15. Using Memes and Memetic Processes to Explain Social and Conceptual Influences on Student Understanding about Complex Socio-Scientific Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated seventh grade learners' decision making about genetic engineering concepts and applications. A social network analyses supported by technology tracked changes in student understanding with a focus on social and conceptual influences. Results indicated that several social and conceptual mechanisms potentially affected how…

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Kimberly; Negi, Nalini; Fowler, Dawnovise N.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students' commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors' process of assimilation,…

  17. Using Memes and Memetic Processes to Explain Social and Conceptual Influences on Student Understanding about Complex Socio-Scientific Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated seventh grade learners' decision making about genetic engineering concepts and applications. A social network analyses supported by technology tracked changes in student understanding with a focus on social and conceptual influences. Results indicated that several social and conceptual mechanisms potentially affected how

  18. Capitalism and Socialism: How 7th Graders Understand and Misunderstand the Information Presented in Their Geography Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berti, Anna Emilia

    1991-01-01

    Presents findings of an analysis of Italian seventh grade students' understanding of capitalism and socialism. Reports that knowledge of the topics was rather poor. Concludes that students who had studied the topics more thoroughly had somewhat, but not substantially, greater understanding of capitalism and socialism. Calls for more research. (SG)

  19. Understanding social collaboration between actors and technology in an automated and digitised deep mining environment.

    PubMed

    Sanda, M-A; Johansson, J; Johansson, B; Abrahamsson, L

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop knowledge and learning on the best way to automate organisational activities in deep mines that could lead to the creation of harmony between the human, technical and the social system, towards increased productivity. The findings showed that though the introduction of high-level technological tools in the work environment disrupted the social relations developed over time amongst the employees in most situations, the technological tools themselves became substitute social collaborative partners to the employees. It is concluded that, in developing a digitised mining production system, knowledge of the social collaboration between the humans (miners) and the technology they use for their work must be developed. By implication, knowledge of the human's subject-oriented and object-oriented activities should be considered as an important integral resource for developing a better technological, organisational and human interactive subsystem when designing the intelligent automation and digitisation systems for deep mines. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study focused on understanding the social collaboration between humans and the technologies they use to work in underground mines. The learning provides an added knowledge in designing technologies and work organisations that could better enhance the human-technology interactive and collaborative system in the automation and digitisation of underground mines. PMID:21973002

  20. [Child labour: a social problem that we are committed to].

    PubMed

    Cutri, Adrián; Hammermüller, Erica; Zubieta, Ana; Müller Opet, Beatriz; Miguelez, Lilia

    2012-08-01

    Child labor is a complex problem that violates the fundamental rights of children and affects their psychophysical development. Child labor affects 215 million children in the world and 115 million perform activities defined as the "worst forms of child labor". Most child labor is in agriculture (60%), where the majority are unpaid family workers, compared to 26% in services and 7% in industry. Argentina has adopted the abolitionist position, promoting prevention and eradication within an inclusive public policy aimed to all children can exercise their rights. The Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría endorses this approach and proposes a course of action: the health team training, and dissemination of the risks of child labor and occupational teenager safety standards. As pediatricians we must be involved in defending children rights, and be able to detect any situation of child labor, and protect the health of children and adolescents. The joint interaction with family, community and other sectors of society will strengthen the network needed to implement child labor eradication policies. PMID:22859332

  1. Direct and Indirect Associations Between Social Anxiety and Nicotine Dependence and Cessation Problems: Multiple Mediator Analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Little empirical work has evaluated why socially anxious smokers are especially vulnerable to more severe nicotine dependence and cessation failure. Presumably, these smokers rely on cigarettes to help them manage their chronically elevated negative affect elicited by a wide array of social contexts. Methods: The current study examined the direct and indirect effects of social anxiety cross-sectionally in regard to a range of smoking processes among 466 treatment-seeking smokers. Negative affect and negative affect reduction motives were examined as mediators of the relations of social anxiety with nicotine dependence and cessation problems. Results: Social anxiety was directly and robustly associated with perceived barriers to smoking cessation and problems experienced during past quit attempts. Social anxiety was also associated with greater nicotine dependence and smoking inflexibility indirectly through negative affect and negative affect smoking motives. Negative affect and smoking to reduce negative affect mediated these relations. Conclusions: These findings document the important role of negative affect and negative affect reduction motives in the relationships of social anxiety with nicotine dependence and cessation problems. PMID:24492021

  2. Why should I care? Engaging students in conceptual understanding using global context to develop social attitudes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forder, S. E.; Welstead, C.; Pritchard, M.

    2014-12-01

    A glance through the Harvard Business Review reveals many suggestions and research pieces reviewing sales and marketing techniques. Most educators will be familiar with the notion that making accurate first impressions and being responsive, whilst maintaining pace is critical to engaging an audience. There are lessons to be learnt from industry that can significantly impact upon our teaching. Eisenkraft, in his address to the NSTA, proposed four essential questions. This presentation explores one of those questions: 'Why should I care?', and discusses why this question is crucial for engaging students by giving a clear purpose for developing their scientific understanding. Additionally, this presentation explores how The ISF Academy has adapted the NGSS, using the 14 Grand Engineering Challenges and the IB MYP, to provide current, authentic global contexts, in order to give credibility to the concepts, understandings and skills being learnt. The provision of global contexts across units and within lessons supports a platform for students to have the freedom to explore their own sense of social responsibility. The Science Department believes that planning lessons with tasks that elaborate on the student's new conceptualisations, has helped to transfer the student's new understanding into social behavior beyond the classroom. Furthermore, extension tasks have been used to transfer conceptual understanding between different global contexts.

  3. Counsel Exceptional Students with Personal-Social Problems. Module L-10 of Category L--Serving Students with Special/Exceptional Needs. Professional Teacher Education Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lust, Nancy L.

    This learning module, one in a series of 127 performance-based teacher education learning packages focusing upon specific professional competencies of vocational teachers, deals with counseling exceptional students with personal and social problems. Addressed in the individual learning experiences are the following topics: understanding the…

  4. Testing problem-solving capacities: differences between individual testing and social group setting.

    PubMed

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia; Schneider, Jutta M

    2014-09-01

    Testing animals individually in problem-solving tasks limits distractions of the subjects during the test, so that they can fully concentrate on the problem. However, such individual performance may not indicate the problem-solving capacity that is commonly employed in the wild when individuals are faced with a novel problem in their social groups, where the presence of a conspecific influences an individual's behaviour. To assess the validity of data gathered from parrots when tested individually, we compared the performance on patterned-string tasks among parrots tested singly and parrots tested in social context. We tested two captive groups of orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) with several patterned-string tasks. Despite the differences in the testing environment (singly vs. social context), parrots from both groups performed similarly. However, we found that the willingness to participate in the tasks was significantly higher for the individuals tested in social context. The study provides further evidence for the crucial influence of social context on individual's response to a challenging situation such as a problem-solving test. PMID:24668582

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol dependence: individual and combined associations with social network problems.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Courtney E; Adams, Thomas; Bujarski, Sarah; Badour, Christal L; Feldner, Matthew T

    2014-01-01

    People with either posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or alcohol dependence (AD) are apt to report problems in their social networks, including low perceived support and elevated conflict. However, little research has examined social networks among people with comorbid PTSD/AD despite evidence suggesting these two conditions commonly co-occur and are linked to particularly severe problems. To test the hypothesis that people with comorbid PTSD/AD experience particularly elevated social network problems, individuals with lifetime diagnoses of PTSD, AD, comorbid PTSD/AD, or no lifetime history of Axis I psychopathology in the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication were compared on four dimensions of social networks: (1) Closeness, (2) Conflict, (3) Family Support, and (4) Apprehension. Persons with PTSD, AD, or comorbid PTSD/AD endorsed more problems with the Conflict, Family Support, and Apprehension factors compared to people with no history of Axis I psychopathology. Moreover, individuals with comorbid PTSD/AD endorsed greater Apprehension and significantly less Family Support compared to the other three groups. Results suggest people with comorbid PTSD/AD experience increased problems with their family as well as greater concerns about enlisting social support than even people with PTSD or AD alone. Treatments for people suffering from comorbid PTSD/AD should consider assessing for and possibly targeting family support and apprehension about being close to others. PMID:24462749

  6. Gold deposits in metamorphic belts: Overview of current understanding, outstanding problems, future research, and exploration significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groves, D.I.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Robert, F.; Hart, C.J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Metamorphic belts are complex regions where accretion or collision has added to, or thickened, continental crust. Gold-rich deposits can be formed at all stages of orogen evolution, so that evolving metamorphic belts contain diverse gold deposit types that may be juxtaposed or overprint each other. This partly explains the high level of controversy on the origin of some deposit types, particularly those formed or overprinted/remobilized during the major compressional orogeny that shaped the final geometry of the hosting metamorphic belts. These include gold-dominated orogenic and intrusion-related deposits, but also particularly controversial gold deposits with atypical metal associations. There are a number of outstanding problems for all types of gold deposits in metamorphc belts. These include the following: (1) definitive classifications, (2) unequivocal recognition of fluid and metal sources, (3) understanding of fluid migration and focusing at all scales, (4) resolution of the precise role of granitoid magmatism, (5) precise gold-depositional mechanisms, particularly those producing high gold grades, and (6) understanding of the release of CO2-rich fluids from subducting slabs and subcreted oceanic crust and granitoid magmas at different crustal levels. Research needs to be better coordinated and more integrated, such that detailed fluid-inclusion, trace-element, and isotopic studies of both gold deposits and potential source rocks, using cutting-edge technology, are embedded in a firm geological framework at terrane to deposit scales. Ultimately, four-dimensional models need to be developed, involving high-quality, three-dimensional geological data combined with integrated chemical and fluid-flow modeling, to understand the total history of the hydrothermal systems involved. Such research, particularly that which can predict superior targets visible in data sets available to exploration companies before discovery, has obvious spin-offs for global- to deposit-scale targeting of deposits with superior size and grade in the covered terranes that will be the exploration focus of the twenty-first century.

  7. Two investigations of students' understanding of the mole concept and its use in problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staver, John R.; Lumpe, Andrew T.

    The authors' purpose in a series of two investigations is to examine the following research questions: (1) How do college students define the mole concept? (2) How do college students explain the numerical identity between the atomic or molecular mass of a substance and its molar mass? (3) Is there a connection between students' definitions of the mole concept and their explanations of the numerical identity between the atomic or molecular mass and the molar mass of a substance? (4) Do the connections in question 3 extend to students' ability to solve mole concept problems? Research questions 1-3 are examined first through an analysis of students' answers and errors on a chemistry examination question that assesses their knowledge of the mole concept and the numerical identity between the atomic or molecular mass of a substance and its molar mass. Forty-eight students in the first quarter of first-year chemistry for scientists and engineers at a large, urban, midwestern research university during summer session are the subjects. One question on the first exam assesses the extent to which students understand the mole concept and the above-mentioned relation. Results indicate that students' most frequent errors are: (1) failing to define the mole in terms of 12C; (2) defining the mole as Avogadro's number; (3) defining the mole as a mass; and (4) constructing a logical argument in vague terms or by using improper knowledge. The results and limitations of the first investigation prompted a follow-up study in which the authors add research question 4 and further examine research questions 1-3 through qualitative methods. In the second study, the subjects are 12 college students enrolled in a chemistry course for students with little or no background in chemistry. Each subject participates in a think-aloud protocol designed to focus on the research questions. The authors qualitatively analyze the content of written transcripts of the audiotaped think-aloud sessions. Results of the second investigation indicate that students' definitions of the mole vary and that their definitions are connected to their understanding of the numerical identity issue. Moreover, students' understanding of the numerical identity issue is a major stumbling block in terms of their ability to solve two problems in the think-aloud protocol. Results of both investigations are discussed in terms of research in chemical education and in cognitive science.

  8. Understanding and accounting for relational context is critical for social neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Clark-Polner, Elizabeth; Clark, Margaret S.

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all) do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1) all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger), and (2) relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: (a) we describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others’ emotions, providing help, and receiving help) that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. (b) We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research. PMID:24723868

  9. Understanding India, globalisation and health care systems: a mapping of research in the social sciences.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Ramila; Pitchforth, Emma; Murray, Susan F

    2012-01-01

    National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India - a 'rising power' with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health related commodities provide some excellent examples of illuminating social science. Future research agendas on health systems issues need to include innovative empirical work that captures the dynamics of transnational processes and that links macro-level change to fine-grained observations of social life. PMID:22963264

  10. Understanding and accounting for relational context is critical for social neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Clark-Polner, Elizabeth; Clark, Margaret S

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all) do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1) all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger), and (2) relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: (a) we describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others' emotions, providing help, and receiving help) that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. (b) We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research. PMID:24723868

  11. Understanding India, globalisation and health care systems: a mapping of research in the social sciences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India – a ‘rising power’ with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health related commodities provide some excellent examples of illuminating social science. Future research agendas on health systems issues need to include innovative empirical work that captures the dynamics of transnational processes and that links macro-level change to fine-grained observations of social life. PMID:22963264

  12. [Profile of social problem solving and coping profile in anxious and depressed Chileans].

    PubMed

    Kramp, Uwe

    2012-11-01

    According to the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization, in 2020, depression will become the second cause of disability worldwide. In Chile, anxiety and depressive disorders account for almost 28% of the total years of healthy life lost due to illness. This research seeks to explore a profile of social problem solving and coping present in people who suffer from anxious and depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 1179 analogous Chilean participants (55.9% women), with a mean of 22.23 years (range between 18-48 years). The results suggest statistically significant differences for all social problem solving and coping strategies evaluated. Thus, if anxious or depressive symptoms increase, social problem solving or coping strategies become less adaptive. PMID:23079347

  13. Manipulatives and Problem Situations as Escalators for Students' Geometric Understanding: A Semiotic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Wajeeh M.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical learning and teaching are increasingly seen as a multimodal experience involved in cultural and social semiotic registers and means, and as such social-cultural semiotic analysis is expected to shed light on learning and teaching processes occurring in the mathematics classroom. In this research, three social-cultural semiotic…

  14. Manipulatives and Problem Situations as Escalators for Students' Geometric Understanding: A Semiotic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Wajeeh M.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical learning and teaching are increasingly seen as a multimodal experience involved in cultural and social semiotic registers and means, and as such social-cultural semiotic analysis is expected to shed light on learning and teaching processes occurring in the mathematics classroom. In this research, three social-cultural semiotic

  15. Understanding the Social Networks That Form within the Context of an Obesity Prevention Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Sabina B.; Bess, Kimberly D.; Barkin, Shari L.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Antiobesity interventions have generally failed. Research now suggests that interventions must be informed by an understanding of the social environment. Objective. To examine if new social networks form between families participating in a group-level pediatric obesity prevention trial. Methods. Latino parent-preschool child dyads (N = 79) completed the 3-month trial. The intervention met weekly in consistent groups to practice healthy lifestyles. The control met monthly in inconsistent groups to learn about school readiness. UCINET and SIENA were used to examine network dynamics. Results. Children's mean age was 4.2 years (SD = 0.9), and 44% were overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Parents were predominantly mothers (97%), with a mean age of 31.4 years (SD = 5.4), and 81% were overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25). Over the study, a new social network evolved among participating families. Parents selectively formed friendship ties based on child BMI z-score, (t = 2.08; P < .05). This reveals the tendency for mothers to form new friendships with mothers whose children have similar body types. Discussion. Participating in a group-level intervention resulted in new social network formation. New ties were greatest with mothers who had children of similar body types. This finding might contribute to the known inability of parents to recognize child overweight. PMID:22655175

  16. Understanding and Predicting Social Media Use Among Community Health Center Patients: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of social media by health care organizations is growing and provides Web-based tools to connect patients, caregivers, and providers. Objective The aim was to determine the use and factors predicting the use of social media for health care–related purposes among medically underserved primary care patients. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to 444 patients of a federally qualified community health center. Results Community health center patients preferred that their providers use email, cell phones for texting, and Facebook and cell phone apps for sharing health information. Significantly more Hispanic than white patients believed their providers should use Facebook (P=.001), YouTube (P=.01), and Twitter (P=.04) for sharing health information. Use and intentions to use social media for health-related purposes were significantly higher for those patients with higher subjective norm scores. Conclusions Understanding use and factors predicting use can increase adoption and utilization of social media for health care–related purposes among underserved patients in community health centers. PMID:25427823

  17. Understanding the Relationship Between PTSD and Social Support: The Role of Negative Network Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Beck, J. Gayle

    2009-01-01

    Network orientation is conceptualized as an individual’s attitudes and expectations regarding the usefulness of support networks in coping with stress. The present research examined the potential for network orientation to explicate the well documented association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and attenuated social support. Data collected from survivors of serious motor vehicle trauma (N = 458) were used to test the hypothesis that severity of PTSD would hold a significant indirect relationship with social support through negative network orientation. Childhood victimization and elapsed time from the accident were examined as potential moderators of this indirect relationship. Consistent with hypotheses, path analyses demonstrated a significant indirect relationship between PTSD and social support through negative network orientation. Specifically, this indirect effect was the result of a direct association between PTSD severity and negative network orientation and an inverse association between negative network orientation and social support. This pattern of relationships was invariant across mode of PTSD assessment (interview vs. self-report). No moderation effects were noted. These data suggest that network orientation may be an important factor in understanding interface of interpersonal processes and posttrauma pathology. PMID:19162260

  18. Understanding students visions about environmental global problems. Experience and lessons learned of teaching in Lithuania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Siarova, Hanna; Misiūnė, Ieva; Cerda, Artemi; Úbeda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, environment is accepted to be an important element of our welfare. Our activities and societal status are strongly related with the quality of the environment where we live. On the other hand historical and cultural backgrounds shape importantly our views about the environment and how we act towards it in our daily life. In a context of globalization and increase of competition at international level, knowledge appears to be one of the key components for the advance of the word. Most of the knowledge produced comes from high level education institutions and research centres, which have responsibility to create and encourage critical thinking. Individuals aware of the problems can be more active and can push things forward. We think that environmental knowledge and awareness are fundamental for the future of the society. In order to develop better methodologies are developed if we have a better perception of students understanding of environmental problems. The objective of this work is to study the Lithuanian university level student's perception about some environmental challenges of our society. We selected several questions for the students rate according the relevance of the question, as "Air Pollution", "Waste Management", "Resources overexplotation", "Biodiversity reduction", "Human Overpopulation" "Poverty", "Global Warming/Climate change", Natural disasters", "Terrorism", "Economical crisis", "War and armed conflicts" and the "Spread of infectious diseases". We ask to the respondents to rate the importance using a likert scale (1=Not Important, 2= not so important, 3=important, 4=very important, 5=the most important). Among all the questions, the most rated where the Water pollution, the Spread of infectious diseases and Air Pollution and the less important where Biodiversity Reduction, Human overpopulation and climate change. These results helped us to identify where some efforts should be taken to raise student's awareness about global environmental problems. The awareness is different according to the gender. Normally females are more concerned than males about environmental questions. Students between the age of 18-24 are more concerned problems related to the Spread of infectious diseases and war and armed conflicts, while the respondents between the age of 25-39, rated higher Air pollution, Water pollution and Poverty. These preliminary results allowed us to identify potential topics that could be more explored at university level and increase the environmental awareness.

  19. Problem Solving in Social Interactions on the Internet: Rumor as Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordia, Prashant; DiFonzo, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Rumor discourse has been conceptualized as an attempt to reduce anxiety and uncertainty via a process of social sensemaking. Fourteen rumors transmitted on various Internet discussion groups were observed and content analyzed over the life of each rumor. With this (previously unavailable) more ecologically robust methodology, the intertwined…

  20. The Effect of the Values Education Programme on 5.5-6 Year Old Children's Social Development: Social Skills, Psycho-Social Development and Social Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education…

  1. Understanding Suicide in Socially Vulnerable Contexts: Psychological Autopsy in a Small Town in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Hernández, Ana-María; Macías-García, Luis-Fernando

    2016-02-01

    In Mexico, suicides are increasing in certain latitudes where local rates have grown to levels of alert; suicide is also the second most common cause of death for the group aged 15 to 19. The psychological autopsy method was utilized to uncover and analyze common factors in all of the registered suicides within 2011 and 2012 in a small town of the state of Guanajuato, located in the center of Mexico. A total of nine decedents were analyzed, and 22 interviews were conducted. The most salient factors were as follows: poverty, financial stress, substance abuse, low levels of education, conflictive relationships, and a poor handling of emotions. The concepts of social exclusion and vulnerability were employed to analyze suicides as symptoms of a much deeper problem of this country, suggesting that anomie and social malady are nowadays important suicidal factors, mostly for children and young people. PMID:25893954

  2. MMORPG escapism predicts decreased well-being: examination of gaming time, game realism beliefs, and online social support for offline problems.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Lukasz D; Drążkowski, Dariusz

    2014-05-01

    Massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) escapists are individuals who indulge in the MMORPG environment to avoid real world problems. Though a relationship between escapism and deteriorated well-being has been established, little is known about particular pathways that mediate this relationship. In the current study, we examined this topic by testing an integrative model of MMORPG escapism, which includes game realism beliefs, gaming time, offline social support, and online social support for offline problems. MMORPG players (N=1,056) completed measures of escapist motivation, game realism beliefs, social support, well-being, and reported gaming time. The tested structural equation model had a good fit to the data. We found that individuals with escapist motivation endorsed stronger game realism beliefs and spent more time playing MMORPGs, which, in turn, increased online support but decreased offline social support. Well-being was favorably affected by both online and offline social support, although offline social support had a stronger effect. The higher availability of online social support for offline problems did not compensate for the lower availability of offline support among MMORPG escapists. Understanding the psychological factors related to depletion of social resources in MMORPG players can help optimize MMORPGs as leisure activities. PMID:24605951

  3. Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Using a multi-component, process-oriented approach, the links between Social Information Processing in the preschool years and a) sociodemographic risk, and b) behavior problems in preschool, were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in preschool are related to both sociodemographic risk and to behavior problems in preschool. Response evaluation, and in particular, the positive evaluation of an aggressive response, were related to both sociodemographic risk and children’s aggressive behavior and partially mediated the links between sociodemographic risk and aggressive behavior in preschool. PMID:21420102

  4. Ambivalence About Interpersonal Problems and Traits Predicts Cross-Situational Variability of Social Behavior.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Thane M; Newman, Michelle G; Peterson, Jessica; Scarsella, Gina

    2015-08-01

    Multiple theoretical perspectives suggest that maladjusted personality is characterized by not only distress, but also opposing or "ambivalent" self-perceptions and behavioral lability across social interactions. However, the degree to which ambivalence about oneself predicts cross-situational variability in social behavior has not been examined empirically. Using the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) as a nomological framework, the present study investigated the extent to which endorsing opposing or "ambivalent" tendencies on IPC measures predicted variability in social behavior across a range of hypothetical interpersonal scenarios (Part 1; N = 288) and naturalistic social interactions (Part 2; N = 192). Ambivalent responding for interpersonal problems and traits was associated with measures of distress, maladaptive interpersonal tendencies, and greater variability of social behavior across both hypothetical and daily social interactions, though more consistently for interpersonal problems. More conservative tests suggested that ambivalence predicted some indexes of behavioral variability even when accounting for mean levels and squared means of social behaviors, vector length, gender, and depressive symptoms. Results suggest that processes theorized as typifying personality disorder may apply more broadly to personality maladjustment occurring outside of clinical samples. PMID:25046450

  5. A Column Generation Approach to Solve Multi-Team Influence Maximization Problem for Social Lottery Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jois, Manjunath Holaykoppa Nanjunda

    The conventional Influence Maximization problem is the problem of finding such a team (a small subset) of seed nodes in a social network that would maximize the spread of influence over the whole network. This paper considers a lottery system aimed at maximizing the awareness spread to promote energy conservation behavior as a stochastic Influence Maximization problem with the constraints ensuring lottery fairness. The resulting Multi-Team Influence Maximization problem involves assigning the probabilities to multiple teams of seeds (interpreted as lottery winners) to maximize the expected awareness spread. Such a variation of the Influence Maximization problem is modeled as a Linear Program; however, enumerating all the possible teams is a hard task considering that the feasible team count grows exponentially with the network size. In order to address this challenge, we develop a column generation based approach to solve the problem with a limited number of candidate teams, where new candidates are generated and added to the problem iteratively. We adopt a piecewise linear function to model the impact of including a new team so as to pick only such teams which can improve the existing solution. We demonstrate that with this approach we can solve such influence maximization problems to optimality, and perform computational study with real-world social network data sets to showcase the efficiency of the approach in finding lottery designs for optimal awareness spread. Lastly, we explore other possible scenarios where this model can be utilized to optimally solve the otherwise hard to solve influence maximization problems.

  6. Holistic science: An understanding of science education encompassing ethical and social issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekpour, Susan

    Science has often been viewed, by the majority of our educators and the general public, as being objective and emotionless. Based on this view, our educators teach science in the same manner, objectively and in an abstract form. This manner of teaching has hindered our learners' ability for active learning and distanced them from the subject matter. In this action research, I have examined holistic science pedagogy in conjunction with a constructivism theory. In holistic science pedagogy, scientific knowledge is combined with subjective personal experiences and social issues. There is an interaction between student and scientific data when the student's context, relationships, and lived experiences that play a role in the scientific recognition of the world were incorporated into the learning process. In this pedagogical model, the factual content was viewed from the context of social and ethical implications. By empowering learners with this ability, science knowledge will no longer be exclusive to a select group. This process empowers the general population with the ability to understand scientific knowledge and therefore the ability to make informed decisions based on this knowledge. The goal was to make curriculum developers more conscious of factors that can positively influence the learning process and increase student engagement and understanding within the science classroom. The holistic approach to science pedagogy has enlightened and empowered our adult learners more effectively. Learners became more actively engaged in their own process of learning. Teachers must be willing to listen and implement student suggestions on improving the teaching/learning process. Teachers should be willing to make the effort in connecting with their students by structuring courses so the topics would be relevant to the students in relation to real world and social/ethical and political issues. Holistic science pedagogy strives for social change through the empowerment of adult learners with scientific knowledge. This research has demonstrated that learners can better understand the decision-making process and more easily relate their experiences, and therefore their knowledge, to social/political and ethical issues.

  7. Enhancing Grade 10 Thai Students' Stoichiometry Understanding and Ability to Solve Numerical Problems via a Conceptual Change Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahsah, Chanyah; Coll, Richard K.; Sung-ong, Sunan; Yutakom, Naruemon; Sanguanruang, Sudjit

    2008-01-01

    The international literature suggests students frequently resort to the use of formulae when solving stoichiometry problems without understanding the concepts. In prior work we identified Thai student alternative conceptions and ability to solve numerical problem for stoichiometry. The results indicate that many Thai students also hold alternative…

  8. Force, Velocity, and Work: The Effects of Different Contexts on Students' Understanding of Vector Concepts Using Isomorphic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare students' understanding of vector concepts in problems with no physical context, and with three mechanics contexts: force, velocity, and work. Based on our "Test of Understanding of Vectors," a multiple-choice test presented elsewhere, we designed two isomorphic shorter versions of 12 items each: a test

  9. Force, Velocity, and Work: The Effects of Different Contexts on Students' Understanding of Vector Concepts Using Isomorphic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare students' understanding of vector concepts in problems with no physical context, and with three mechanics contexts: force, velocity, and work. Based on our "Test of Understanding of Vectors," a multiple-choice test presented elsewhere, we designed two isomorphic shorter versions of 12 items each: a test…

  10. Psychometric Evaluation of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised among Overweight or Obese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing; Matthews, Judith T.; Sereika, Susan M.; Chasens, Eileen R.; Ewing, Linda J.; Burke, Lora E.

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving is a key component of weight loss programs. The Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R) has not been evaluated in weight loss studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometrics of the SPSI-R. Cronbach's a (0.95 for total score; 0.67-0.92 for subscales) confirmed internal consistency reliability. The…

  11. Psychometric Evaluation of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised among Overweight or Obese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing; Matthews, Judith T.; Sereika, Susan M.; Chasens, Eileen R.; Ewing, Linda J.; Burke, Lora E.

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving is a key component of weight loss programs. The Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R) has not been evaluated in weight loss studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometrics of the SPSI-R. Cronbach's a (0.95 for total score; 0.67-0.92 for subscales) confirmed internal consistency reliability. The

  12. Stillbirth--a neglected priority: understanding its social meaning in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Saima; Malik, Asmat Ullah; Richard, Fabienne

    2014-03-01

    Despite being ranked 3rd among the countries having highest burden of stillbirths, it remains a neglected priority in Pakistan. We review the evidence regarding social and biomedical understanding of stillbirths by both communities and healthcare providers. The terminology used to define stillbirth worldwide remains inconsistent. Not only do the health professionals mis-classify and under-report stillbirths, but also the parents and families are unclear about the difference between miscarriage, stillbirth and early neonatal deaths. Stillbirths occur more in poor families and are not recognised by tradition and religion as a loss comparable to a newborn who was born alive. There is need to understand perspective of communities and healthcare providers to identify prevention and management strategies along with providing support for coping with the implications of stillbirths. Future government policies on stillbirths must be informed by the influence of culture on the attitudes, beliefs and practices of the communities and the healthcare providers. PMID:24864610

  13. Learning in friendship groups: developing students’ conceptual understanding through social interaction

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Carl; Howard, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The role that student friendship groups play in learning was investigated here. Employing a critical realist design, two focus groups on undergraduates were conducted to explore their experience of studying. Data from the “case-by-case” analysis suggested student-to-student friendships produced social contexts which facilitated conceptual understanding through discussion, explanation, and application to “real life” contemporary issues. However, the students did not conceive this as a learning experience or suggest the function of their friendships involved learning. These data therefore challenge the perspective that student groups in higher education are formed and regulated for the primary function of learning. Given these findings, further research is needed to assess the role student friendships play in developing disciplinary conceptual understanding. PMID:25309488

  14. [Regulation of Positive and Negative Emotions as Mediator between Maternal Emotion Socialization and Child Problem Behavior].

    PubMed

    Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way. PMID:26032031

  15. Errors and Understanding: The Effects of Error-Management Training on Creative Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robledo, Issac C.; Hester, Kimberly S.; Peterson, David R.; Barrett, Jamie D.; Day, Eric A.; Hougen, Dean P.; Mumford, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    People make errors in their creative problem-solving efforts. The intent of this article was to assess whether error-management training would improve performance on creative problem-solving tasks. Undergraduates were asked to solve an educational leadership problem known to call for creative thought where problem solutions were scored for…

  16. Errors and Understanding: The Effects of Error-Management Training on Creative Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robledo, Issac C.; Hester, Kimberly S.; Peterson, David R.; Barrett, Jamie D.; Day, Eric A.; Hougen, Dean P.; Mumford, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    People make errors in their creative problem-solving efforts. The intent of this article was to assess whether error-management training would improve performance on creative problem-solving tasks. Undergraduates were asked to solve an educational leadership problem known to call for creative thought where problem solutions were scored for

  17. Using Students' Representations Constructed during Problem Solving to Infer Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domin, Daniel; Bodner, George

    2012-01-01

    The differences in the types of representations constructed during successful and unsuccessful problem-solving episodes were investigated within the context of graduate students working on problems that involve concepts from 2D-NMR. Success at problem solving was established by having the participants solve five problems relating to material just

  18. Connectedness, social support and internalising emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents displaced by the Chechen conflict.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton

    2012-10-01

    The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents. PMID:22443099

  19. Connectedness, social support and internalising emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents displaced by the Chechen conflict

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents. PMID:22443099

  20. The Hispanic Women's Social Stressor Scale: Understanding the Multiple Social Stressors of U.S.- and Mexico-Born Hispanic Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodkind, Jessica R.; Gonzales, Melissa; Malcoe, Lorraine H.; Espinosa, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of social stressors among Hispanic women is a growing and important area of study, particularly in terms of understanding explanatory mechanisms for health disparities. This study involved adaptation of the Hispanic Stress Inventory and the Latin American Stress Inventory to create a measure of social stressors specifically for both…

  1. Empirically Understanding Can Make Problems Go Away: The Case of the Chinese Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overskeid, Geir

    2005-01-01

    The many authors debating whether computers can understand often fail to clarify what understanding is, and no agreement exists on this important issue. In his Chinese room argument, Searle (1980) claims that computers running formal programs can never understand. I discuss Searle's claim based on a definition of understanding that is empirical,…

  2. Applicability of the Social Development Model to Urban Ethnic Minority Youth: Examining the Relationship between External Constraints, Family Socialization, and Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonsun; Harachi, Tracy W.; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    The development of preventive interventions targeting adolescent problem behaviors requires a thorough understanding of risk and protective factors for such behaviors. However, few studies examine whether different cultural and ethnic groups share these factors. This study is an attempt to fill a gap in research by examining similarities and differences in risk factors across racial and ethnic groups. The social development model has shown promise in organizing predictors of problem behaviors. This article investigates whether a version of that model can be generalized to youth in different racial and ethnic groups (N = 2,055, age range from 11 to 15), including African American (n = 478), Asian Pacific Islander (API) American (n = 491), multiracial (n = 442), and European American (n = 644) youth. The results demonstrate that common risk factors can be applied to adolescents, regardless of their race and ethnicity. The findings also demonstrate that there are racial and ethnic differences in the magnitudes of relationships among factors that affect problem behaviors. Further study is warranted to develop a better understanding of these differential magnitudes. PMID:21625351

  3. A Path Analysis of Social Problem-Solving as a Predictor of White Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Amanda G.; Caskie, Grace I. L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined (a) whether a developmental model or a model in which all subscales' measurement errors are correlated best explains the relationships among White racial identity (WRI) statuses, and (b) social problem-solving (SPS) skills as a predictor of WRI. Path analysis was conducted with a sample of 255 White undergraduate students from…

  4. Temperament and Social Problem Solving Competence in Preschool: Influences on Academic Skills in Early Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Olga L.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the current study were to examine whether children's social problem solving (SPS) skills are a mechanism through which temperament influences later academic achievement and whether sex moderates these associations. The participants included 1117 children enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of…

  5. Social Skills and Behavior Problems in Children with Disabilities with and without Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fussell, Jill J.; Macias, Michelle M.; Saylor, Conway F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined social skills and behavior of children with disabilities (CWD) and the impact of siblings on these behaviors. Eighty-five CWD diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder only (ADHD-o), Learning Disability or Learning Problems (LD/LP), ADHD and LD combined (ADHD/LD) or Spina Bifida (SB) and their siblings were…

  6. Is It Social Problem Solving or Decision Making? Implications for Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frauenknecht, Marianne; Black, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes a case that decision making (DM) is not social problem solving (SPS) and DM is subordinate and subsumed within SPS. Both terms are defined and distinguished. Confusion between SPS and DM is widespread and has occurred for at least four decades. DM, not SPS, has been established as one of the seven National Health Education…

  7. Use of Superstition and Fatalism by Secondary Students in Explaining Problems in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferro, Gregory E.

    1981-01-01

    Students, whether they are academic or vocational-technical majors, need to interpret social studies problems by use of the scientific approach rather than by the use of fatalism, supernaturalism, and superstition. To ensure this outcome, secondary school curricula must provide enriching experiences through modern instructional techniques which…

  8. Pro-Social Behaviour and Behaviour Problems Independently Predict Maternal Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Alexandra; Hastings, Richard; Daley, Dave; Stevenson, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Parents of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities generally report more stress than other parents. Child behavioural features, and specifically their behaviour problems, have been shown to account for some of the variation in parents' experience of stress. However, there has been no exploration of whether the child's pro-social

  9. Social Problem Solving through Science: An Approach to Critical, Place-Based, Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Cory A.

    2010-01-01

    The Social Problem Solving through Science (SPSS) project engaged middle school-aged youth in the study of local environmental challenges with implications for human health and well-being, both globally and locally. Students considered environmental risk factors in a series of structured activities to develop background knowledge on environmental…

  10. Examination of a Social Problem-Solving Intervention to Treat Selective Mutism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark; McNally, Deirdre; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Green, Vanessa; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Machalicek, Wendy; Sorrells, Audrey; Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the use of a social problem-solving intervention to treat selective mutism with 2 sisters in an elementary school setting. Both girls were taught to answer teacher questions in front of their classroom peers during regular classroom instruction. Each girl received individualized instruction from a therapist and was taught to…

  11. Parental Interpersonal Sensitivity and Youth Social Problems: A Mediational Role for Child Emotion Dysregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suveg, Cynthia; Jacob, Marni L.; Payne, Mary

    2010-01-01

    We examined the relations between parental interpersonal sensitivity and youth social problems and explored the mediational role of child emotion dysregulation. Mothers (N = 42; M age = 39.38) and fathers (N = 41; M age = 39.38) of youth aged 7-12 (N = 42; M age = 9.12) completed measures of their own interpersonal sensitivity and reported on…

  12. The Social Construction of the Divorce "Problem": Morality, Child Victims, and the Politics of Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coltrane, Scott; Adams, Michele

    2003-01-01

    Although divorce rates have been stable or dropping for two decades, Americans seem anxious about the state of marriage. This article examines reasons for this collective anxiety, documenting how the divorce "problem" has been framed by organizations promoting conservative family values. Also identifies social contexts associated with cyclical

  13. Participation in Organized Activities and Conduct Problems in Elementary School: The Mediating Effect of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denault, Anne-Sophie; Déry, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test a mediation model in which social skills mediate the relationship between participation in organized activities and conduct problems among elementary school children. Two moderators of these associations were also examined, namely, gender and reception of special education services. A total of 563 children (45%…

  14. The Role of Emotion Regulation in the Social Problems of Boys with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Fernandes-Richards, Siobhan; Aarskog, Cyrena; Osborn, Teresa; Capetillo, Darla

    2007-01-01

    Parents and teachers reported that 6- to 8-year-old boys with developmental delays were less able to regulate their emotions than nondelayed boys matched on chronological age. Compared to nondelayed boys, boys with developmental delays had more social problems, which persisted and increased over a 3-year period. Children's ability to regulate…

  15. Scaffolding Teachers Integrate Social Media into a Problem-Based Learning Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buus, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    At Aalborg University (AAU) we are known to work with problem-based learning (PBL) in a particular way designated "The Aalborg PBL model." In PBL the focus is on participant control, knowledge sharing, collaboration among participants, which makes it interesting to consider the integration of social media in the learning that takes place. In this…

  16. Participation in Organized Activities and Conduct Problems in Elementary School: The Mediating Effect of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denault, Anne-Sophie; Dry, Michle

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test a mediation model in which social skills mediate the relationship between participation in organized activities and conduct problems among elementary school children. Two moderators of these associations were also examined, namely, gender and reception of special education services. A total of 563 children (45%

  17. When Religion Becomes Deviance: Introducing Religion in Deviance and Social Problems Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Robin D.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on teaching new religious movements (NRMs), or cults, within deviance or social problems courses. Provides information about the conceptions and theories of deviance. Includes three illustrations of how to use deviant religions in a deviance course and offers insights into teaching religion as deviance. Includes references. (CMK)

  18. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Moderating Effects of Socially Demanding Kin Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang

    2012-01-01

    Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…

  19. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  20. Sickle Cell Screening: Medical, Legal, Ethical, Psychological and Social Problems; A Sickle Cell Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James E.

    In recent years, sickle cell screening programs have been initiated by community groups, health centers, hospitals, medical schools, health departments, school systems, city and State governments, various branches of the Federal Government, fraternal and social clubs, and other organizations. Problems have resulted from mass sickle cell screening,

  1. Binge Drinking and College Students: An Investigation of Social Problem-Solving Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreer, Laura E.; Ronan, George F.; Ronan, Donna W.; Dush, David M.; Elliott, Timothy R.

    2004-01-01

    We examined social problem-solving skills and binge drinking among 286 undergraduate men (N = 90) and women (N = 196). The sample consisted of primarily first-year students (39%), sophomores (27%), juniors (21%), and seniors (13%), with an average age of 20. The makeup of the sample was predominantly Caucasian. Men were more likely than women to…

  2. The Social Construction of the Divorce "Problem": Morality, Child Victims, and the Politics of Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coltrane, Scott; Adams, Michele

    2003-01-01

    Although divorce rates have been stable or dropping for two decades, Americans seem anxious about the state of marriage. This article examines reasons for this collective anxiety, documenting how the divorce "problem" has been framed by organizations promoting conservative family values. Also identifies social contexts associated with cyclical…

  3. Parental Interpersonal Sensitivity and Youth Social Problems: A Mediational Role for Child Emotion Dysregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suveg, Cynthia; Jacob, Marni L.; Payne, Mary

    2010-01-01

    We examined the relations between parental interpersonal sensitivity and youth social problems and explored the mediational role of child emotion dysregulation. Mothers (N = 42; M age = 39.38) and fathers (N = 41; M age = 39.38) of youth aged 7-12 (N = 42; M age = 9.12) completed measures of their own interpersonal sensitivity and reported on

  4. Exploring the Relationships of Women's Sexual Assault Disclosure, Social Reactions, and Problem Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Starzynski, Laura L.; Long, Susan M.; Mason, Gillian E.; Long, LaDonna M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this exploratory study was to examine correlates of sexual assault disclosure and social reactions in female victims with and without drinking problems. An ethnically diverse sample of sexual assault survivors was recruited from college, community, and mental health agencies. Ethnic minority women were less likely to disclose assault,

  5. Social Growth Problems Experienced by First-Grade Students at Bseera District, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrfooh, Atif Eid

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at exploring the problems of social growth experienced by students, and as recognized by teachers at "Bseera", Jordan. The study sample consisted of (88) male and female students from first-grade in the public schools in Bseera/governorate of Tafila/Jordan 2009/2010. The researcher has developed a questionnaire which…

  6. Schooling and Traditional Collaborative Social Organization of Problem Solving by Mayan Mothers and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavajay, Pablo; Rogoff, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether the social organization of problem solving of Guatemalan Mayan indigenous mothers and children varied with the mothers' school experience. Found that mothers with little schooling were involved more in horizontal, multiparty engagements while solving a puzzle with three children, whereas mothers with extensive schooling were…

  7. Self-Reported Life Events, Social Support and Psychological Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hastings, Richard P.; Crowe, Rachel; Pemberton, Jemma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported relationships between life events and psychological problems in people with intellectual disabilities. In contrast to the general literature, data have consistently been collected via proxy informants and putative moderator variables such as social support have not been examined. Materials and Methods:…

  8. Social and Behavioral Problems of Children with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badaruddin, Denise H.; Andrews, Glena L.; Bolte, Sven; Schilmoeller, Kathryn J.; Schilmoeller, Gary; Paul, Lynn K.; Brown, Warren S.

    2007-01-01

    Archival data from a survey of parent observations was used to determine the prevalence of social and behavioral problems in children with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). Parent observations were surveyed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for 61 children with ACC who were selected from the archive based on criteria of motor…

  9. Methodological Considerations in Evaluating School-Based Programs to Promote Social Competence and Reduce Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massetti, Greta M.; Crean, Hugh; Johnson, Deborah; DuBois, David; Ji, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Interventions that aim to promote social competence, reduce problem behavior, and improve school climate are common at all levels of schooling. This whole-school focus, coupled with researchers' concerns about contamination or spillover effects in evaluations that randomly assign classrooms or students to conditions, as well as advances in…

  10. Family Business or Social Problem? The Cost of Unreported Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrell, Scott E.; Hoekstra, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Social interest in problems such as domestic violence is typically motivated by concerns regarding equity, rather than efficiency. However, we document that taking steps to reduce domestic violence by reporting it yields substantial benefits to external parties. Specifically, we find that although children exposed to as-yet-unreported domestic…

  11. Problems and Possibilities of Web-Based Instruction: Transforming Social Studies Methods and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Karen L.; Stern, Barbara Slater

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on the use of Web-based instruction in social studies methods courses. They examine in what ways Web-based instruction transforms both teaching and learning and explore the problems and possibilities involved with electronic classrooms, including Web-supported instruction. Their study is classroom…

  12. Sickle Cell Screening: Medical, Legal, Ethical, Psychological and Social Problems; A Sickle Cell Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James E.

    In recent years, sickle cell screening programs have been initiated by community groups, health centers, hospitals, medical schools, health departments, school systems, city and State governments, various branches of the Federal Government, fraternal and social clubs, and other organizations. Problems have resulted from mass sickle cell screening,…

  13. The Winning Ways of a Losing Strategy: Educationalizing Social Problems in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labaree, David F

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, David Labaree examines the paradox of educationalization in the American context. He argues that, like most modern Western societies, the United States has displayed a strong tendency over the years for educationalizing social problems, even though schools have repeatedly proven that they are an ineffective mechanism for solving…

  14. Parental Emotion Socialization in Adolescence: Differences in Sex, Age and Problem Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Brand, Ann E.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Usher, Barbara; Hastings, Paul D.; Kendziora, Kimberly; Garside, Rula B.

    2007-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on how mothers and fathers socialize emotion in their adolescent sons and daughters. This study was based on 220 adolescents (range 11- to 16-years-old) who exhibit a range of emotional and behavioral problems and their parents. Parental responses to their children's displays of sadness, anger and fear were assessed.…

  15. Peer Ratings of Aggression: Relation to Social Skills, Behavior Problems, and Friendships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Ruth; Vaughn, Sharon

    This study examined the aggressive behaviors of children through peer ratings to teacher ratings of problem behaviors and social skills and peer ratings of friendship. Peer data are valid measures and may be more accurate than teacher or self measures because peers are more likely to be present when aggression occurs. This study examines a peer…

  16. Exploring the Relationships of Women's Sexual Assault Disclosure, Social Reactions, and Problem Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Starzynski, Laura L.; Long, Susan M.; Mason, Gillian E.; Long, LaDonna M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this exploratory study was to examine correlates of sexual assault disclosure and social reactions in female victims with and without drinking problems. An ethnically diverse sample of sexual assault survivors was recruited from college, community, and mental health agencies. Ethnic minority women were less likely to disclose assault,…

  17. Adolescent Gender Differences in Alcohol Problem Behaviors and the Social Contexts of Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Katherine A.; Beck, Kenneth H.

    1996-01-01

    This study of over 1300 high school students examined gender differences in the social context of drinking associated with 4 alcohol problem behaviors (high intensity drinking, binge drinking, driving while intoxicated, and riding with an intoxicated driver). Student surveys revealed significant multivariate interaction effects between gender and

  18. Family Business or Social Problem? The Cost of Unreported Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrell, Scott E.; Hoekstra, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Social interest in problems such as domestic violence is typically motivated by concerns regarding equity, rather than efficiency. However, we document that taking steps to reduce domestic violence by reporting it yields substantial benefits to external parties. Specifically, we find that although children exposed to as-yet-unreported domestic

  19. Analysis of the Effect of a Social Problem-Solving Program on the Aggression of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secer, Zarife; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to establish the effect of a social problem-solving training program for 8th grade students. In the experimental group, 14 students were 14 years old and 1 student was 15 years old. In the control group, 13 students were 14 years old and 2 students were 15 years old. The Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) was administered…

  20. Understanding the psychology of bullying: Moving toward a social-ecological diathesis-stress model.

    PubMed

    Swearer, Susan M; Hymel, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    With growing recognition that bullying is a complex phenomenon, influenced by multiple factors, research findings to date have been understood within a social-ecological framework. Consistent with this model, we review research on the known correlates and contributing factors in bullying/victimization within the individual, family, peer group, school and community. Recognizing the fluid and dynamic nature of involvement in bullying, we then expand on this model and consider research on the consequences of bullying involvement, as either victim or bully or both, and propose a social-ecological, diathesis-stress model for understanding the bullying dynamic and its impact. Specifically, we frame involvement in bullying as a stressful life event for both children who bully and those who are victimized, serving as a catalyst for a diathesis-stress connection between bullying, victimization, and psychosocial difficulties. Against this backdrop, we suggest that effective bullying prevention and intervention efforts must take into account the complexities of the human experience, addressing both individual characteristics and history of involvement in bullying, risk and protective factors, and the contexts in which bullying occurs, in order to promote healthier social relationships. PMID:25961315