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Sample records for understanding social problems

  1. Intercultural Understanding: The Problem and a Process. Social Studies for the Elementary School. Proficiency Module #7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keach, Everett T., Jr.

    This module is one in a series of teaching modules developed for a contemporary social studies curriculum. The purpose of this module is to develop an understanding of the sources of content to be used in an intercultural awareness curriculum and to reinforce teaching strategies learned in the other modules by applying them to the development of…

  2. Enuresis: A Social Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, James E.

    1978-01-01

    Several theories and treatments of enuresis are described. The authors conclude that enuresis is a social problem (perhaps due to maturational lag, developmental delay or faulty learning) which requires teacher and parental tolerance and understanding. (SE)

  3. Current Social Problem Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Donald J.

    This review of social problem novels for young adults opens with a brief background of the genre, then lists the dominant themes of social problem fiction and nonfiction novels that have been published in the last two years, such as alcoholism, alienation, death, growing up and self-awarness, drugs, and divorce. Other themes mentioned are…

  4. Understanding Columbia's Reentry Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Soon after the Space Shuttle Columbia accident occurred last year, a group of CFD analysts from NASA centers and private industry was organized to help determine the cause of the accident. This group was under the direction of the Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch of the Aeroscience and Flight Mechanics Division at the Johnson Space Center. For external flow simulations, noncommercia2 CFD codes that specialize in hypersonic or high Mach number flows were used. These tools were used to determine heating rates, pressures, and temperatures for a large number of vehicle damage scenarios. Lockheed Martin Space Operations was called upon to provide CFD support in the area of internal flows within the shuttle wing cavity, and for these simulations, FLUENT 6.1 was chosen. Two large-scale, simplified models were m to understand the flow patterns once a breach of the internal wing cavity was initiated. The results were primarily used to visualize flow patterns within the wing cavity. The first CFD model included the entire lee wing without the wheel well cavity. The purpose of the first model, which did not include the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) cavity along the wing leading edge, was to visualize the flow field within the wing cavity immediately after the leading edge spar breach, This model assumed that the flow coming into the wing cavity was normal to the spar. It included all of the primary vents that allow for flow between the main cavities of the wing. A six-inch diameter hole was modeled in the spar at the approximate location where the spar breach was judged to have occurred, which was between RCC panels 8 and 9. The results of the modeling showed that at this location, the high temperature, high velocity gas stream entering the wing cavity impinged on the outboard wheel well cavity. Instrumentation in the Shuttle wheel well cavity registered abnormal temperatures during reentry, so the FLUENT results helped support the conclusion of the accident investigation

  5. Understanding Social Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The importance of social entrepreneurship in social, cultural and economic terms is increasingly acknowledged. Drawing on data from the second Social Entrepreneurship Monitor report published by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) UK project, this article focuses on the social entrepreneurs who may grow the social enterprises of the future.…

  6. Understanding and Treating Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Russell C.; Kimball, Amy; Stroup, Erin L.

    2004-01-01

    Social phobia, a relatively obscure disorder, is receiving increased attention due to evidence suggesting that it is more prevalent and debilitative than once thought. The purpose of this article is to help counselors better understand the nature of and treatments for this disorder. Effective behavioral and pharmacological approaches are reviewed,…

  7. The Understanding Process: Problem Isomorphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Herbert A.; Hayes, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A formal theory of human understanding was developed and embodied in a computer program, UNDERSTAND, which simulates the understanding processes. Due to the number of alternative processing choices, some assumptions were made which are analyzed based on their validity. (Author/DEP)

  8. How Social Problems Are Born.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan

    1994-01-01

    Examines how social conditions can become social problems and argues that there are objective ways of determining the scale of a particular problem. The paper supports its argument through examinations of prohibition, the decline in tobacco consumption, and the war on drugs. (GLR)

  9. Understanding the Problem of Pornography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Leigh Ann

    This report was written to clarify the terms often associated with pornography and to help readers understand the issue of pornography more clearly. The first chapter defines pornography, as it was defined by the United States Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, as "that material (which) is predominantly sexually explicit and intended…

  10. Postindustrial Capitalism and the Problems with Bourdieu's Social and Cultural Capital in Understanding the Black/White Achievement Gap in the United States and United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocombe, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    This hermeneutical essay demonstrates why and how Pierre Bourdieu's social reproduction theory is neither an adequate explanation for understanding praxis nor the Black/White academic achievement gap in contemporary postindustrial economies like that of the United States and the United Kingdom. The underlining hypothesis of the work is that the…

  11. Understanding Lung Problems: Make Each Breath Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Each Breath Healthy Heath and Aging Understanding Lung Problems—Make Each Breath Healthy Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( ... time your likelihood of having a serious lung problem increases, especially if you smoke. Lung problems that ...

  12. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    PubMed

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511

  13. Lesion mapping of social problem solving

    PubMed Central

    Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J.; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511

  14. Understanding Education for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hytten, Kathy; Bettez, Silvia C.

    2011-01-01

    It has become increasingly common for education scholars to claim a social justice orientation in their work. At the same time, education programs seem to be adding statements about the importance of social justice to their mission, and a growing number of teacher education programs are fundamentally oriented around a vision of social justice.…

  15. Using robots to understand social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mitri, Sara; Wischmann, Steffen; Floreano, Dario; Keller, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    A major challenge in studying social behaviour stems from the need to disentangle the behaviour of each individual from the resulting collective. One way to overcome this problem is to construct a model of the behaviour of an individual, and observe whether combining many such individuals leads to the predicted outcome. This can be achieved by using robots. In this review we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of such an approach for studies of social behaviour. We find that robots-whether studied in groups of simulated or physical robots, or used to infiltrate and manipulate groups of living organisms-have important advantages over conventional individual-based models and have contributed greatly to the study of social behaviour. In particular, robots have increased our understanding of self-organization and the evolution of cooperative behaviour and communication. However, the resulting findings have not had the desired impact on the biological community. We suggest reasons for why this may be the case, and how the benefits of using robots can be maximized in future research on social behaviour. PMID:22816672

  16. Children's Understanding of Social Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flapan, Dorothy

    To investigate children's ability to describe and make inferences about feelings, thoughts, and intentions that occur in interpersonal relationships, 60 middle class girls were divided into three age groups: 6, 9, and 12 years. Each group viewed two sections of a movie portraying episodes of social interaction. After each section, the children…

  17. Infants' Developing Understanding of Social Gaze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Jonathan S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Young infants are sensitive to self-directed social actions, but do they appreciate the intentional, target-directed nature of such behaviors? The authors addressed this question by investigating infants' understanding of social gaze in third-party interactions (N = 104). Ten-month-old infants discriminated between 2 people in mutual versus…

  18. Understanding social support burden among family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Washington, Karla; Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Shaunfield, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the abundance of research on social support, both as a variable in larger studies and as a central focus of examination, there is little consensus about the relationship between social support and health outcomes. Current social support measures typically account only for frequency and size of network, and a paucity of research exists that has explained social support burden, defined as the burden associated with accessing and receiving support from others. We analyzed audio-recorded discussions by hospice family caregivers about their caregiving problems and potential solutions to examine social relationships within networks and identify the processes that influence social support seeking and receiving. Using qualitative thematic analysis, we found that caregivers providing hospice care experience social support burden resulting from perceived relational barriers between friends and family, the inclination to remain in control, recognition of the loss of the patient as a source of social support and guidance in decision making, family dynamics, and decreased availability of emotional support. Social support researchers should consider how the quality of communication and relationships within social networks impacts the provision and subsequent outcomes of social support in varying contexts. Findings from this study suggest that hospice social support resources should be tailored to the caregiver's support needs and include assessment on the type of support to be offered. PMID:24345081

  19. Understanding Social Support Burden Among Family Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Karla; Demiris, George; Parker Oliver, Debra; Shaunfield, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the abundance of research on social support, both as a variable in larger studies and as a central focus of examination, there is little consensus about the relationship between social support and health outcomes. Current social support measures typically account only for frequency and size of network and a paucity of research exists that has explained social support burden, defined as the burden associated with accessing and receiving support from others. We analyzed audio-recorded discussions by hospice family caregivers about their caregiving problems and potential solutions to examine social relationships within networks and identify the processes that influence social support seeking and receiving. Using qualitative thematic analysis, we found that caregivers providing hospice care experience social support burden resulting from perceived relational barriers between friends and family, the inclination to remain in control, recognition of the loss of the patient as a source of social support and guidance in decision-making, family dynamics and decreased availability of emotional support. Social support researchers should consider how the quality of communication and relationships within social networks impacts the provision and subsequent outcomes of social support in varying contexts. Findings from this study suggest that hospice social support resources should be tailored to the caregiver’s support needs and include assessment on the type of support to be offered. PMID:24345081

  20. Alcohol use and policy formation: an evolving social problem.

    PubMed

    Levine, Amir

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the evolutionary course that the social problem of alcohol use has taken in the United States since the Colonial Era. This article utilizes a range of theoretical models to analyze the evolving nature of alcohol use from an unrecognized to a perceived social problem. The models used include critical constructionism (Heiner, 2002), top-down policy model (Dye, 2001) and Mauss'(1975) understanding of social problems and movements. These theoretical constructs exhibit the relative nature of alcohol use as a social problem in regards to a specific time, place, and social context as well as the powerful and influential role that social elites have in defining alcohol asa social problem. Studies regarding the development of alcohol policy formation are discussed to illuminate the different powers, constituents, and factors that play a role in alcohol policy formation.Finally, implications for future study are discussed [corrected]. PMID:22963160

  1. Infants’ Developing Understanding of Social Gaze

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Jonathan S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Young infants are sensitive to self-directed social actions, but do they appreciate the intentional, target-directed nature of such behaviors? We addressed this question by investigating infants’ understanding of social gaze in third-party interactions (N = 104). Ten-month-old infants discriminated between two people in mutual versus averted gaze, and expected a person to look at her social partner during conversation. In contrast, 9-month-old infants showed neither ability, even when provided with information that highlighted the gazer's social goals. These results indicate considerable improvement in infants’ abilities to analyze the social gaze of others towards the end of their first year, which may relate to their appreciation of gaze as both a social and goal-directed action. PMID:22224547

  2. A guide to understanding social science research for natural scientists.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. PMID:24962114

  3. Toward an integrative understanding of social phobia.

    PubMed Central

    Li, D; Chokka, P; Tibbo, P

    2001-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the neurobiology of social phobia from the perspectives of basic sciences, genetics, immunology, neuroendocrinology, neurotransmission and neuroimaging and to provide an integrated understanding of social phobia in the framework of a hypothetical neural circuit. Family and twin studies provide evidence that social phobia is heritable with significant genetic influence, and molecular genetics offers possibilities in understanding the nature of the trait that is transmitted. The biologic distinctiveness of social phobia from anxiety disorders and physiological validation of differences between generalized and discrete social phobia subtypes have been implicated in genetic, naturalistic and chemical challenge studies. Evidence of specific dysfunction of dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic and GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acid) neurotransmitter systems has been presented in animal models, challenge studies and treatment investigations. Preliminary neuroimaging research supports previous studies suggesting striatal dopaminergic dysfunction in social phobia and suggests the importance of functional circuits. A neural circuit involving the striatum, thalamus, amygdala and cortical structures may provide a framework for integrating much of the current knowledge on the neurobiology of social phobia. PMID:11394189

  4. Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mara, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

  5. Understanding the Problem. Problem Solving and Communication Activity Series. The Math Forum: Problems of the Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Math Forum @ Drexel, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Different techniques for understanding a problem can lead to ideas for never-used-before solutions. Good problem-solvers use a problem-solving strategy and may come back to it frequently while they are working on the problem to refine their strategy, see if they can find better solutions, or find other questions. Writing is an integral part of…

  6. The Emotional Foundations of Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Heather K.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2008-01-01

    The infant and toddler years are a watershed of development in the emotional domain. These skills lay the foundation for positive social interactions, and ultimately, academic and life success. This article describes the development of three skills that are central in creating successful relationships: expressing emotion, understanding emotion,…

  7. Understanding Student Identity from a Socialization Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidman, John C.; DeAngelo, Linda; Bethea, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the contribution of current research using the Weidman model of undergraduate socialization to understanding student identity development in college. It illustrates ways in which the framework can be used flexibly and adapted for studying impacts of multiple aspects of the college experience on diverse groups of students.

  8. The Politics of Analyzing Social Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Robert; Staines, Graham L.

    Two crucial processes are discussed: (1) that through which social problems become public issues; and (2) that through which conflicts between competing diagnoses of, and responses to, publicly recognized social problems are resolved. Regularities in these transformations are conceptualized as follows: groups differ in their definitions of social…

  9. Social Problems of the Hospitalized Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Garson, J. Z.; Wolfe, Ruth R.

    1975-01-01

    In our Community Clinic practice, we thought elderly people in, or awaiting admission to, hospital, would be likely to have social problems. Over a 12 month period all such people were referred to a social worker (R.W.) who paid a hospital or house call and filled in an assessment form we specially designed. This paper describes the social problems discovered in that population. PMID:20469259

  10. The Social Context of Infant Intention Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Dunphy-Lelii, Sarah; LaBounty, Jennifer; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional looking-time paradigms are often used to assess infants’ attention to socio-cognitive phenomena, but the link between these laboratory scenarios and real-world interactions is unclear. The current study investigated hypothesized relations between traditional social-cognitive looking-time paradigms and their real-world counterparts in caregiver-infant social interaction. Seventy-five 10- to 12-month-old infants participated in a structured play session with their caregiver, as well as a traditional looking-time paradigm targeting intentional action. Infants’ ability to quickly parse intentional displays correlated with several key qualities of their everyday interactions. In particular, caregiver and infant interaction quality, maternal supportiveness, caregiver and infant joint engagement skill, and social attentiveness in infants correlated with faster habituation to looking-time displays. These results support a linkage between social-cognitive looking-time laboratory paradigms and more naturalistic partner interaction, at this key age. The data both provide external validation for the large body of social-cognitive findings emerging from laboratory looking-time paradigms, and contribute to a growing literature tracking the developmental trajectory of infants’ understanding of people over the first two years. PMID:24778577

  11. Developmental pathways for social understanding: linking social cognition to social contexts

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Kimberly A.; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary research, often with looking-time tasks, reveals that infants possess foundational understandings of their social worlds. However, few studies have examined how these early social cognitions relate to the child’s social interactions and behavior in early development. Does an early understanding of the social world relate to how an infant interacts with his or her parents? Do early social interactions along with social-cognitive understandings in infancy predict later preschool social competencies? In the current paper, we propose a theory in which children’s later social behaviors and their understanding of the social world depend on the integration of early social understanding and experiences in infancy. We review several of our studies, as well as other research, that directly examine the pathways between these competencies to support a hypothesized network of relations between social-cognitive development and social-interactive behaviors in the development from infancy to childhood. In total, these findings reveal differences in infant social competences that both track the developmental trajectory of infants’ understanding of people over the first years of life and provide external validation for the large body of social-cognitive findings emerging from laboratory looking-time paradigms. PMID:26074859

  12. Social Problems and Deviance: Some Parallel Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitsuse, John I.; Spector, Malcolm

    1975-01-01

    Explores parallel developments in labeling theory and in the value conflict approach to social problems. Similarities in their critiques of functionalism and etiological theory as well as their emphasis on the definitional process are noted. (Author)

  13. Problems and challenges in social marketing.

    PubMed

    Bloom, P N; Novelli, W D

    1981-01-01

    This article reviews the problems that arise when general marketing principles are applied to social programs. Social marketing is conceptualized as the design, implementation, and control of programs seeking to increase the acceptability of a social ideal or practice in a target group. These problems can occur in 8 basic decision-making areas: market analysis, market segmentation, product strategy development, pricing strategy development, channel strategy development, communications strategy development, organizational design and planning, and evaluation. Social marketers find that they have less good secondary data about their consumers, more problems obtaining valid and reliable measures of relevant variables, more difficulty sorting out the relative influence of determinants of consumer behavior, and more problems getting consumer research funded than marketers in the commercial sector. They tend to have less flexibility in shaping their products and more difficulty formulating product concepts. Problems associated with establishing, utilizing, and controlling distribution channels comprise another major difference between social and more conventional forms of marketing. Social marketers also find that their communications options are somewhat limited as a result of problems associated with use of paid advertisements, pressures not to use certain types of appeals in their messages, and the need to communicate large amounts of information in their messages. Moreover, social marketers must function in organizations where marketing activities are poorly understood, underappreciated, and inappropriately located. Finally, they face problems trying to define effectiveness measures or estimating the contribution their program has made toward the achievement of certain objectives. If all these problems are anticipated and handled creatively, social marketing efforts can succeed. PMID:12280283

  14. Space age management for social problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    Attempts to apply space age management to social problems were plagued with difficulties. Recent experience in the State of Delaware and in New York City, however, indicate new possibilities. Project management as practiced in NASA was applied with promising results in programs dealing with housing and social services. Such applications are feasible, according to recent research, because project management utilizes social and behavioral approaches, as well as advanced management tools, such as PERT, to achieve results.

  15. Mentalising and social problem solving in adults with Asperger's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Channon, Shelley; Crawford, Sarah; Orlowska, Danuta; Parikh, Nimmi; Thoma, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction It is well established that autistic spectrum disorder is linked to difficulties with mentalising, but the ways in which this affects everyday behaviour is less well understood. This study explored the nature and extent of difficulties in everyday social functioning in adults with Asperger's syndrome (AS), since increased understanding can enhance the development of more effective intervention strategies. Methods Individuals with AS (n = 21) were compared with healthy control participants (n = 21) on three tests of social cognition: the Mentalistic Interpretation task, which assesses interpretation of sarcasm and actions; the Social Problem Fluency task, which assesses ability to generate problem solutions; and the Social Problem Resolution task, which assesses judgement in selecting problem solutions. Results Comprehension of both sarcastic remarks and actions was impaired in those with AS on the mentalistic interpretation task. Participants with AS showed difficulties in identifying the awkward elements of everyday social scenarios, and they were also impaired in generating problem solutions but not in judging alternative solutions on the social problem fluency and resolution tasks. Conclusions These tasks potentially provide a means of profiling strengths and weaknesses in social processing, which in turn has implications for informing clinical evaluation and training. PMID:23875885

  16. Understanding mobility in a social petri dish

    PubMed Central

    Szell, Michael; Sinatra, Roberta; Petri, Giovanni; Thurner, Stefan; Latora, Vito

    2012-01-01

    Despite the recent availability of large data sets on human movements, a full understanding of the rules governing motion within social systems is still missing, due to incomplete information on the socio-economic factors and to often limited spatio-temporal resolutions. Here we study an entire society of individuals, the players of an online-game, with complete information on their movements in a network-shaped universe and on their social and economic interactions. Such a “socio-economic laboratory” allows to unveil the intricate interplay of spatial constraints, social and economic factors, and patterns of mobility. We find that the motion of individuals is not only constrained by physical distances, but also strongly shaped by the presence of socio-economic areas. These regions can be recovered perfectly by community detection methods solely based on the measured human dynamics. Moreover, we uncover that long-term memory in the time-order of visited locations is the essential ingredient for modeling the trajectories. PMID:22708055

  17. Understanding mobility in a social petri dish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szell, Michael; Sinatra, Roberta; Petri, Giovanni; Thurner, Stefan; Latora, Vito

    2012-06-01

    Despite the recent availability of large data sets on human movements, a full understanding of the rules governing motion within social systems is still missing, due to incomplete information on the socio-economic factors and to often limited spatio-temporal resolutions. Here we study an entire society of individuals, the players of an online-game, with complete information on their movements in a network-shaped universe and on their social and economic interactions. Such a ``socio-economic laboratory'' allows to unveil the intricate interplay of spatial constraints, social and economic factors, and patterns of mobility. We find that the motion of individuals is not only constrained by physical distances, but also strongly shaped by the presence of socio-economic areas. These regions can be recovered perfectly by community detection methods solely based on the measured human dynamics. Moreover, we uncover that long-term memory in the time-order of visited locations is the essential ingredient for modeling the trajectories.

  18. Networks in Social Policy Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco

    2012-08-01

    1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.

  19. Less Drinking, Yet More Problems: Understanding African American Drinking and Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but which also provides within group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  20. Less drinking, yet more problems: understanding African American drinking and related problems.

    PubMed

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Pedersen, Sarah L; McCarthy, Denis M; Smith, Gregory T

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but also provides within-group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within-group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  1. Understanding Social Security: A Civic Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbrink, John E.; Cook, Jeremy W.

    2002-01-01

    Social Security is a contemporary topic that exemplifies a social issue-centered approach to social studies, one that allows students to get beyond the school walls to analyze a contemporary topic that ultimately affects virtually everyone. In this article, the authors provide a brief history of Social Security, describe how it is funded and…

  2. Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

    Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

  3. The Social Fraternity System; Its Increasing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Keith W.; Buxton, Thomas H.

    1972-01-01

    The evidence on social fraternities on two campuses suggests two major problems confronting the system. The first is that of cultural implosiveness or socioeconomic inbreeding. The second involves the heavy emphasis placed upon personality factors in the rushing and pledging processes. (Author)

  4. Associations Between Behavioral Inhibition and Children's Social Problem Solving Behavior During Social Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Olga L.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Penela, Elizabeth C.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the associations between the early childhood temperament of behavioral inhibition and children's displays of social problem-solving (SPS) behavior during social exclusion. During toddlerhood (ages 2-3), maternal report and behavioral observations of behavioral inhibition were collected. At age 7, children's SPS behaviors were observed during a laboratory social exclusion task based on the commonly used Cyberball game. Results showed that behavioral inhibition was positively associated with displayed social withdrawal and negatively associated with assertive behavior during the observed social exclusion task at 7 years of age. These results add to our understanding of inhibited children's SPS behaviors during social exclusion and provide evidence for the associations between toddler temperament and children's social behavior during middle childhood. PMID:25360063

  5. Understanding Resilience: The Role of Social Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Saundra Murray; Mucherah, Wilfridah; Jones, Dana S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses research on the influence of social resources, such as parent, teacher, and school support, on the resilient outcomes of children and adolescents. Findings from the studies considered show the importance of social resources and the need for effective programs of intervention. (SLD)

  6. Understanding the Social Navigation User Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goecks, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    A social navigation system collects data from its users--its community--about what they are doing, their opinions, and their decisions, aggregates this data, and provides the aggregated data--community data--back to individuals so that they can use it to guide behavior and decisions. Social navigation systems empower users with the ability to…

  7. Relation of Student Social Position to Consumer Attitudes and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litro, Robert Frank

    1970-01-01

    A study of Connecticut high school students from different social positions found differences in consumer attitudes and understandings of money management, credit, insurance, and savings and investments. (CH)

  8. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  9. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Mauricio; Armelini, Guillermo; Salvaj, Erica

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  10. A Critique of the Microcounselling Approach to Problem Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Viviane; Halliday, Jan

    This paper concerns microcounseling approaches which involve teaching the component behaviors of effective counseling or interviewing within a problem-solving framework. It notes that Egan, Ivey and Carkhuff, as proponents of this view, stress that later action stages of the problem-solving cycle should be based on an adequate understanding of the…

  11. An Approach to Simulate Understanding Student Problem-Solving Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Z. W.; Willoughby, T. L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a method of understanding student problem-solving behavior during computer-assisted instruction using trigonometry as the example domain. Instead of attempting to model the student's process for solving problems, techniques which infer the equivalence between two adjacent steps in the student's process are used to determine…

  12. Frameworks for Understanding the Politics of Social Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, John D.

    2011-01-01

    This article has three primary goals centring on a re-examination of the research frameworks we use for understanding the politics of social movements. First, I detail the ideological and methodological deficiencies of the old social movement/new social movement framework. Second, I highlight the positive contributions of research that favoured or…

  13. Social Information Processing and Emotional Understanding in Children with LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger, Nirit; Edelsztein, Hany Schorr; Morash, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed to comprehensively examine social cognition processes in children with and without learning disabilities (LD), focusing on social information processing (SIP) and complex emotional understanding capabilities such as understanding complex, mixed, and hidden emotions. Participants were 50 children with LD (age range 9.4-12.7;…

  14. The Social Context of Infant Intention Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunphy-Lelii, Sarah; LaBounty, Jennifer; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional looking-time paradigms are often used to assess infants' attention to sociocognitive phenomena, but the link between these laboratory scenarios and real-world interactions is unclear. The current study investigated hypothesized relations between traditional social-cognitive looking-time paradigms and their real-world counterparts…

  15. Time, Space and Gender: Understanding "Problem" Behaviour in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The following article reports on a small-scale, exploratory study of aggressive and "problem" behaviour in pre-school children. This project was conceived in the wider context of anxieties about childhood and New Labour's policy focus on "anti-social" behaviour in children. Based on interviews with nursery staff and parents in addition to…

  16. Social and Motivational Bases for Mathematical Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatano, Giyoo

    1988-01-01

    Describes a model of cognitive and motivational processes in mathematics learning and relates the model to Brazilian street mathematics and abacus operation. Proposes instructional strategies for motivating conceptual understanding in school mathematics learning. (RJC)

  17. Countervailing Social Network Influences on Problem Behaviors among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Eric; Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta

    2008-01-01

    The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and…

  18. Project Me: Understanding Social Identities through Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwinyattichaiporn, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Intercultural Communication, Communication and Identity, Interpersonal Communication. Objectives: After completing this semester-long activity, students should be able to (1) discuss and apply the concepts of social identities; (2) analyze the influence of self-identities on online communication practices of self to others and others to…

  19. Mass Media Influences on Public Conceptions of Social Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Jeffrey C.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Explores possible relationships between the mass media of communication and social problems by three-way comparisons between the incidence of social problems suggested in media portrayals, conceptions of the incidence of these problems held by the public, and the relative frequency of such problems reflected in statistics accumulated by official…

  20. Individual differences in toddlers' social understanding and prosocial behavior: disposition or socialization?

    PubMed

    Gross, Rebekkah L; Drummond, Jesse; Satlof-Bedrick, Emma; Waugh, Whitney E; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A

    2015-01-01

    We examined how individual differences in social understanding contribute to variability in early-appearing prosocial behavior. Moreover, potential sources of variability in social understanding were explored and examined as additional possible predictors of prosocial behavior. Using a multi-method approach with both observed and parent-report measures, 325 children aged 18-30 months were administered measures of social understanding (e.g., use of emotion words; self-understanding), prosocial behavior (in separate tasks measuring instrumental helping, empathic helping, and sharing, as well as parent-reported prosociality at home), temperament (fearfulness, shyness, and social fear), and parental socialization of prosocial behavior in the family. Individual differences in social understanding predicted variability in empathic helping and parent-reported prosociality, but not instrumental helping or sharing. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior was positively associated with toddlers' social understanding, prosocial behavior at home, and instrumental helping in the lab, and negatively associated with sharing (possibly reflecting parents' increased efforts to encourage children who were less likely to share). Further, socialization moderated the association between social understanding and prosocial behavior, such that social understanding was less predictive of prosocial behavior among children whose parents took a more active role in socializing their prosociality. None of the dimensions of temperament was associated with either social understanding or prosocial behavior. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior is thus an important source of variability in children's early prosociality, acting in concert with early differences in social understanding, with different patterns of influence for different subtypes of prosocial behavior. PMID:26029139

  1. Individual differences in toddlers’ social understanding and prosocial behavior: disposition or socialization?

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Rebekkah L.; Drummond, Jesse; Satlof-Bedrick, Emma; Waugh, Whitney E.; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how individual differences in social understanding contribute to variability in early-appearing prosocial behavior. Moreover, potential sources of variability in social understanding were explored and examined as additional possible predictors of prosocial behavior. Using a multi-method approach with both observed and parent-report measures, 325 children aged 18–30 months were administered measures of social understanding (e.g., use of emotion words; self-understanding), prosocial behavior (in separate tasks measuring instrumental helping, empathic helping, and sharing, as well as parent-reported prosociality at home), temperament (fearfulness, shyness, and social fear), and parental socialization of prosocial behavior in the family. Individual differences in social understanding predicted variability in empathic helping and parent-reported prosociality, but not instrumental helping or sharing. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior was positively associated with toddlers’ social understanding, prosocial behavior at home, and instrumental helping in the lab, and negatively associated with sharing (possibly reflecting parents’ increased efforts to encourage children who were less likely to share). Further, socialization moderated the association between social understanding and prosocial behavior, such that social understanding was less predictive of prosocial behavior among children whose parents took a more active role in socializing their prosociality. None of the dimensions of temperament was associated with either social understanding or prosocial behavior. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior is thus an important source of variability in children’s early prosociality, acting in concert with early differences in social understanding, with different patterns of influence for different subtypes of prosocial behavior. PMID:26029139

  2. Understanding Anticipatory Socialization for New Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Kara M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anticipatory socialization experiences of new student affairs professionals. The focus was to gain a deeper understanding of how new professionals experience their anticipatory socialization, specifically the job search and pre-entry communication with their new organizations. The theory that emerged…

  3. Understanding Students' Interactions: Why Varied Social Tasks Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Kates, Allison D.; Welton, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Many social interactions between school-age children contain both competitive and cooperative elements. In order to gain a better understanding of how students at risk for emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) negotiate social exchanges in cooperative and competitive-related tasks in comparison with non-EBD students: (a) prosocial; (b)…

  4. Links between social understanding and social behavior in verbally able children with autism.

    PubMed

    Travis, L; Sigman, M; Ruskin, E

    2001-04-01

    This study investigated the relations between various measures of social understanding and social interaction competence in verbally able children with autism. Measures of social understanding included measures of verbalizable knowledge (false belief understanding, affective perspective taking), as well as measures of more intuitive forms of social responsiveness (empathy, concern to distress, and initiating joint attention). Two measures of social interaction competence were employed: level of engagement with peers on the playground, and prosocial behavior in a structured laboratory task. For children with autism, initiating joint attention and empathy were strongly related to both measures of social interaction competence. No understanding-behavior links were identified for a language-age matched comparison sample of developmentally delayed children. Several accounts of these understanding-behavior links are considered, including the possibility that for children with autism, more impaired forms of understanding are more closely linked to behavior because they serve as limits on competence. PMID:11450811

  5. Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

    2007-01-01

    Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…

  6. Statistical Learning as a Basis for Social Understanding in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffman, Ted; Taumoepeau, Mele; Perkins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Many authors have argued that infants understand goals, intentions, and beliefs. We posit that infants' success on such tasks might instead reveal an understanding of behaviour, that infants' proficient statistical learning abilities might enable such insights, and that maternal talk scaffolds children's learning about the social world as well. We…

  7. Boot Camp for Occupational Health Nurses: Understanding Social Media.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Debra M; Olszewski, Kimberly

    2015-08-01

    Social media is a buzzword frequently referred to in marketing materials, general media, and personal conversations. Although many refer to the term social media, some individuals do not understand its meaning or how it affects their daily lives at work and home. Since the expansion of the Internet to web 2.0, multiple platforms of communication occur virtually through various social media. Understanding and learning how to use these platforms are essential to stay connected with friends, family, and colleagues; advance connections to professional organizations; and extend educational opportunities. This article presents basic information for occupational health nurses to improve their understanding of social media and how to communicate virtually using different platforms safely and securely. PMID:26240119

  8. Understanding Individual Problem-Solving Style: A Key to Learning and Applying Creative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.

    2008-01-01

    More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…

  9. Social media and social work education: understanding and dealing with the new digital world.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lin; Mishna, Faye; Zhang, Vivian F; Van Wert, Melissa; Bogo, Marion

    2014-10-01

    Accompanying the multiple benefits and innovations of social media are the complex ethical and pedagogical issues that challenge social work educators. Without a clear understanding of the blurred boundaries between public and private, the potentially limitless and unintended audiences, as well as the permanency of the information shared online, social work students who use social media can find themselves in difficult situations in their personal and professional lives. In this article, we present three scenarios that illustrate issues and complexities involving social media use by social work students, followed by a discussion and recommendations for social work educators. PMID:25321930

  10. The Investigation of Social Problem Solving Abilities of University Students in Terms of Perceived Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tras, Zeliha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze of university students' perceived social support and social problem solving. The participants were 827 (474 female and 353 male) university students. Data were collected Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (Yildirim, 2004) and Social Problem Solving (Maydeu-Olivares and D'Zurilla, 1996)…

  11. Analysis of Social Problem Solving and Social Self-Efficacy in Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erozkan, Atilgan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between social problem solving and social selfefficacy and the predictive role of social problem solving skills with social self-efficacy. The sample consists of 706 prospective teachers (362 female and 344 male) who are majoring in different fields at Mugla Sitki Kocman…

  12. Social Studies Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding Sociology Concepts within Social Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatekin, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating social studies student teachers' levels of understanding sociology concepts within social studies curriculum. Study group of the research consists of 266 teacher candidates attending the Department of Social Studies, Faculty of Education, Kastamonu University during 2012 to 2013 education year. A semi-structured…

  13. Captured by motion: dance, action understanding, and social cognition.

    PubMed

    Sevdalis, Vassilis; Keller, Peter E

    2011-11-01

    In this review article, we summarize the main findings from empirical studies that used dance-related forms of rhythmical full body movement as a research tool for investigating action understanding and social cognition. This work has proven to be informative about behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate links between perceptual and motor processes invoked during the observation and execution of spatially-temporally coordinated action and interpersonal interaction. The review focuses specifically on processes related to (a) motor experience and expertise, (b) learning and memory, (c) action, intention, and emotion understanding, and (d) audio-visual synchrony and timing. Consideration is given to the relationship between research on dance and more general embodied cognition accounts of action understanding and social cognition. Finally, open questions and issues concerning experimental design are discussed with a view to stimulating future research on social-cognitive aspects of dance. PMID:21880410

  14. Autobiographical memory and social problem-solving in Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

    2007-02-01

    Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed autobiographical memory, on a cueing task and during social problem-solving, and examined the relationship between access to specific past experiences and social problem-solving ability. Results demonstrated a social problem-solving impairment in the Asperger group. Their solutions were less detailed, less effective and less extended in time. Autobiographical memory performance was also impaired with significantly longer latencies to retrieve specific memories and fewer specific memories retrieved in comparison to controls. PMID:16874561

  15. The Conception of Problem and the Role of Inquiry in Social Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxcy, Spencer J.

    1986-01-01

    Delineates three prevailing positions in social education theory: (1) traditional (positivist), (2) liberal/neoliberal, and (3) radical. Argues that the analysis of these positions provides a more powerful understanding of such issues as indoctrination and student selection of social problems to be studied. (JDH)

  16. Social Emotional Optimization Algorithm for Nonlinear Constrained Optimization Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuechun; Cui, Zhihua; Zeng, Jianchao

    Nonlinear programming problem is one important branch in operational research, and has been successfully applied to various real-life problems. In this paper, a new approach called Social emotional optimization algorithm (SEOA) is used to solve this problem which is a new swarm intelligent technique by simulating the human behavior guided by emotion. Simulation results show that the social emotional optimization algorithm proposed in this paper is effective and efficiency for the nonlinear constrained programming problems.

  17. High school students' understanding and problem solving in population genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderberg, Patti D.

    This study is an investigation of student understanding of population genetics and how students developed, used and revised conceptual models to solve problems. The students in this study participated in three rounds of problem solving. The first round involved the use of a population genetics model to predict the number of carriers in a population. The second round required them to revise their model of simple dominance population genetics to make inferences about populations containing three phenotype variations. The third round of problem solving required the students to revise their model of population genetics to explain anomalous data where the proportions of males and females with a trait varied significantly. As the students solved problems, they were involved in basic scientific processes as they observed population phenomena, constructed explanatory models to explain the data they observed, and attempted to persuade their peers as to the adequacy of their models. In this study, the students produced new knowledge about the genetics of a trait in a population through the revision and use of explanatory population genetics models using reasoning that was similar to what scientists do. The students learned, used and revised a model of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to generate and test hypotheses about the genetics of phenotypes given only population data. Students were also interviewed prior to and following instruction. This study suggests that a commonly held intuitive belief about the predominance of a dominant variation in populations is resistant to change, despite instruction and interferes with a student's ability to understand Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and microevolution.

  18. Problem Solving/Decision Making for Social and Academic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.; Tobias, Steven E.

    Based on the premise that systematic instruction in social decision-making and problem-solving skills is a developmental right of all children, this book provides an in-service training program for teaching a set of social decision-making and problem-solving steps that are essential for success in school, in the family, with friends, in the world…

  19. Social Context of Drinking and Alcohol Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for…

  20. Improving Students' Ability To Problem Solve through Social Skills Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Mary Ann; Horn, Cheryl L.; McGraw, Kelleen; Meyer, Jenny

    When elementary and middle level students lack effective problem-solving skills, they may make poor behavior choices in social conflicts, contributing to a negative learning and instructional environment. This action research project evaluated the impact of using social skills instruction to improve students' ability to solve problems related to…

  1. Do Social Relationships Protect Victimized Children against Internalizing Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averdijk, Margit; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether social relationships protect children against the effects of victimization on internalizing problems. We used data from the Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Victimization at age 8 years was associated with internalizing problems at age 9 years. Victims who had siblings, warm parents, and a…

  2. Working Memory Deficits and Social Problems in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofler, Michael J.; Rapport, Mark D.; Bolden, Jennifer; Sarver, Dustin E.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Alderson, R. Matt

    2011-01-01

    Social problems are a prevalent feature of ADHD and reflect a major source of functional impairment for these children. The current study examined the impact of working memory deficits on parent- and teacher-reported social problems in a sample of children with ADHD and typically developing boys (N = 39). Bootstrapped, bias-corrected mediation…

  3. Social Problem Solving and Health Behaviors of Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of social problem solving to health behaviors as reported by 126 undergraduate students. Findings revealed significant relationships between elements of social problem solving and wellness and accident prevention behaviors, and traffic and substance risk taking. However, correlations revealed differences between men and…

  4. Using Mind Maps To Teach Social Problems Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Anne R.; Snyder, Paula J.

    This paper identifies five difficulties in teaching the analysis of social problems, and proffers "mind maps," a concept that refers to the ways in which students create a visual representation of their thinking patterns, as a possible solution. In constructing mind maps, especially for a Social Problems course, the following four steps are…

  5. Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

  6. Designing Problem-Driven Instruction with Online Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyeong-Ju Seo, Kay, Ed.; Pellegrino, Debra A., Ed.; Engelhard, Chalee, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Designing Problem-Driven Instruction with Online Social Media has the capacity to transform an educator's teaching style by presenting innovative ways to empower problem-based instruction with online social media. Knowing that not all instructors are comfortable in this area, this book provides clear, systematic design approaches for instructors…

  7. Age Moderates the Relationship between Social Support and Psychosocial Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segrin, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Examines the association between social support from various sources and psychosocial problems, and how these associations vary over the life span. Finds that perceived social support and contact with social network members appears to have beneficial effects for all participants, as evidenced through reduced symptoms of depression and loneliness.…

  8. Matriculating Masculinity: Understanding Undergraduate Men's Precollege Gender Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank, III; Harper, Shaun R.

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists, educational researchers, postsecondary educators (including student affairs professionals), and others have attempted to understand problematic behavioral trends and developmental outcomes among undergraduate men. Little attention has been devoted to examining the masculine identities and ideals about manhood that these students…

  9. Understanding the Social Context of School Health Promotion Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargo, Margaret; Salsberg, Jon; Delormier, Treena; Desrosiers, Serge; Macaulay, Ann C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Although implementation fidelity is an important component in the evaluation of school health promotion programs, it assumes that teaching is the most relevant teacher role. To understand the social context of program implementation, a qualitative study was undertaken with the aim of identifying the schoolteacher's role in implementing…

  10. Understanding the Dynamics of Motivation in Socially Shared Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvela, Sanna; Jarvenoja, Hanna; Veermans, Marjaana

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the dynamics of motivation in socially shared learning from both individual and group perspectives. Higher education students' motivation was analysed in the context of collaborative learning tasks, applying quantitative and qualitative methods. The research questions were: (1) what kind of…

  11. Captured by Motion: Dance, Action Understanding, and Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevdalis, Vassilis; Keller, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    In this review article, we summarize the main findings from empirical studies that used dance-related forms of rhythmical full body movement as a research tool for investigating action understanding and social cognition. This work has proven to be informative about behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate links between perceptual and motor…

  12. Understanding Islamist political violence through computational social simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Jennifer H; Mackerrow, Edward P; Patelli, Paolo G; Eberhardt, Ariane; Stradling, Seth G

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the process that enables political violence is of great value in reducing the future demand for and support of violent opposition groups. Methods are needed that allow alternative scenarios and counterfactuals to be scientifically researched. Computational social simulation shows promise in developing 'computer experiments' that would be unfeasible or unethical in the real world. Additionally, the process of modeling and simulation reveals and challenges assumptions that may not be noted in theories, exposes areas where data is not available, and provides a rigorous, repeatable, and transparent framework for analyzing the complex dynamics of political violence. This paper demonstrates the computational modeling process using two simulation techniques: system dynamics and agent-based modeling. The benefits and drawbacks of both techniques are discussed. In developing these social simulations, we discovered that the social science concepts and theories needed to accurately simulate the associated psychological and social phenomena were lacking.

  13. [Biological and bio-similar pharmaceuticals: understanding the problem].

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The patent expiration of many biotechnology drugs has effectively opened to the pharmaceutical industry the possibility of producing biosimilar, allowing an expansion of the market and a reduction in costs and, therefore, allowing to extend the therapeutic benefits of biotechnological medicines to more patients. This is a new complex theme and many are the discussions promoted in the recent past years around this topic (what type of erythropoietin prescribe and when). The need to understand the argument emerges from the ongoing debate among doctors, researchers, regulators and manufacturers about the relationship between biotechnology patent medicines and Biosimilar. In this field is also necessary understand the provisions of the various Italian regions. In this article I have tried to avoid any statement which could be biased and I only reported data from official documents (AIFA, EMA,C.C. etc.), trying to "understand" the problem and trying to motivate the choice of nephrologist; at the end, the prescription is anyway under the responsibility of the nephrologist. PMID:24402661

  14. Applied social and behavioral science to address complex health problems.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W

    2011-11-01

    Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists. PMID:22011425

  15. Embodied artificial agents for understanding human social cognition.

    PubMed

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Chaminade, Thierry; Cheng, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose that experimental protocols involving artificial agents, in particular the embodied humanoid robots, provide insightful information regarding social cognitive mechanisms in the human brain. Using artificial agents allows for manipulation and control of various parameters of behaviour, appearance and expressiveness in one of the interaction partners (the artificial agent), and for examining effect of these parameters on the other interaction partner (the human). At the same time, using artificial agents means introducing the presence of artificial, yet human-like, systems into the human social sphere. This allows for testing in a controlled, but ecologically valid, manner human fundamental mechanisms of social cognition both at the behavioural and at the neural level. This paper will review existing literature that reports studies in which artificial embodied agents have been used to study social cognition and will address the question of whether various mechanisms of social cognition (ranging from lower- to higher-order cognitive processes) are evoked by artificial agents to the same extent as by natural agents, humans in particular. Increasing the understanding of how behavioural and neural mechanisms of social cognition respond to artificial anthropomorphic agents provides empirical answers to the conundrum 'What is a social agent?' PMID:27069052

  16. Embodied artificial agents for understanding human social cognition

    PubMed Central

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Chaminade, Thierry; Cheng, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose that experimental protocols involving artificial agents, in particular the embodied humanoid robots, provide insightful information regarding social cognitive mechanisms in the human brain. Using artificial agents allows for manipulation and control of various parameters of behaviour, appearance and expressiveness in one of the interaction partners (the artificial agent), and for examining effect of these parameters on the other interaction partner (the human). At the same time, using artificial agents means introducing the presence of artificial, yet human-like, systems into the human social sphere. This allows for testing in a controlled, but ecologically valid, manner human fundamental mechanisms of social cognition both at the behavioural and at the neural level. This paper will review existing literature that reports studies in which artificial embodied agents have been used to study social cognition and will address the question of whether various mechanisms of social cognition (ranging from lower- to higher-order cognitive processes) are evoked by artificial agents to the same extent as by natural agents, humans in particular. Increasing the understanding of how behavioural and neural mechanisms of social cognition respond to artificial anthropomorphic agents provides empirical answers to the conundrum ‘What is a social agent?’ PMID:27069052

  17. Social problem solving strategies and posttraumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Reich, Catherine M; Blackwell, Náthali; Simmons, Catherine A; Beck, J Gayle

    2015-05-01

    Social factors are often associated with the development or maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the aftermath of interpersonal traumas. However, social problem solving strategies have received little attention. The current study explored the role of social problem solving styles (i.e., rational approaches, impulsive/careless strategies, or avoidance strategies) as intermediary variables between abuse exposure and PTSD severity among intimate partner violence survivors. Avoidance problem solving served as an intermediating variable for the relationship between three types of abuse and PTSD severity. Rational and impulsive/careless strategies were not associated with abuse exposure. These findings extend the current understanding of social problem solving among interpersonal trauma survivors and are consistent with more general avoidance coping research. Future research might examine whether avoidance problem solving tends to evolve in the aftermath of trauma or whether it represents a longstanding risk factor for PTSD development. PMID:25840140

  18. Children's Expectations and Understanding of Kinship as a Social Category.

    PubMed

    Spokes, Annie C; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2016-01-01

    In order to navigate the social world, children need to understand and make predictions about how people will interact with one another. Throughout most of human history, social groups have been prominently marked by kinship relations, but few experiments have examined children's knowledge of and reasoning about kinship relations. In the current studies, we investigated how 3- to 5-year-old children understand kinship relations, compared to non-kin relations between friends, with questions such as, "Who has the same grandmother?" We also tested how children expect people to interact based on their relations to one another, with questions such as "Who do you think Cara would like to share her treat with?" Both in a storybook context and in a richer context presenting more compelling cues to kinship using face morphology, 3- and 4-year-old children failed to show either robust explicit conceptual distinctions between kin and friends, or expectations of behavior favoring kin over friends, even when asked about their own social partners. By 5 years, children's understanding of these relations improved, and they showed some expectation that others will preferentially aid siblings over friends. Together, these findings suggest that explicit understanding of kinship develops slowly over the preschool years. PMID:27065213

  19. [Social gynecologic problems of the older female].

    PubMed

    Weissbach-Rieger, A

    1982-01-01

    An analysis was made of the situation of the aged woman, above 55 years of age, in the GDR, on the basis of sociogynaecological studies into 1,500 women. The studies were undertaken by means of semistandardised questionnaires and interviews. They included medical, psychological, familial, occupational, and social aspects. A comparison between the situation of aged women in socialist countries and that in capitalist countries has cast light at the gap between the two systems and illustrated the advantages of socialism. PMID:7136365

  20. Understanding Classrooms through Social Network Analysis: A Primer for Social Network Analysis in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunspan, Daniel Z.; Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA)…

  1. Understanding student use of differentials in physics integration problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dehui; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2013-12-01

    This study focuses on students’ use of the mathematical concept of differentials in physics problem solving. For instance, in electrostatics, students need to set up an integral to find the electric field due to a charged bar, an activity that involves the application of mathematical differentials (e.g., dr, dq). In this paper we aim to explore students’ reasoning about the differential concept in physics problems. We conducted group teaching or learning interviews with 13 engineering students enrolled in a second-semester calculus-based physics course. We amalgamated two frameworks—the resources framework and the conceptual metaphor framework—to analyze students’ reasoning about differential concept. Categorizing the mathematical resources involved in students’ mathematical thinking in physics provides us deeper insights into how students use mathematics in physics. Identifying the conceptual metaphors in students’ discourse illustrates the role of concrete experiential notions in students’ construction of mathematical reasoning. These two frameworks serve different purposes, and we illustrate how they can be pieced together to provide a better understanding of students’ mathematical thinking in physics.

  2. Social Problem-Solving among Adolescents Treated for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire – Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19775677

  3. Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

  4. Problems with measuring satisfaction with social care.

    PubMed

    Willis, Rosalind; Evandrou, Maria; Pathak, Pathik; Khambhaita, Priya

    2016-09-01

    The measurement of customer satisfaction has become widespread in both healthcare and social care services, and is informative for performance monitoring and service development. Satisfaction with social care services is routinely measured with a single question on overall satisfaction with care, comprising part of the Adult Social Care Survey. The measurement of satisfaction has been problematised, and existing satisfaction measures are known to be under-theorised. In this article, the process of making an evaluation of satisfaction with social care services is first informed by a literature review of the theoretical background, and second examined through qualitative interviews conducted in 2012-2013 with 82 service users and family carers in Hampshire, Portsmouth and Southampton. Participants in this study were from white British and South Asian backgrounds, and the influence of ethnicity in the process of satisfaction evaluation is discussed. The findings show that the majority of participants selected a positive satisfaction rating even though both positive and negative experiences with services were described in their narratives. It is recommended that surveys provide opportunity for service users and family carers to elaborate on their satisfaction ratings. This addition will provide more scope for services to review their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25809928

  5. Applying social theory to understand health-related behaviours.

    PubMed

    Holman, Daniel; Borgstrom, Erica

    2016-06-01

    Health-related behaviours are a concern for contemporary health policy and practice given their association with a range of illness outcomes. Many of the policies and interventions aimed at changing health-related behaviours assume that people are more or less free to choose their behaviour and how they experience health. Within sociology and anthropology, these behaviours are viewed not as acts of choice but as actions and practices situated within a larger sociocultural context. In this paper, we outline three theoretical perspectives useful in understanding behaviours that may influence one's health in this wider context: theories of social practice, social networks and interactionism. We argue that by better understanding how health-related behaviours are performed in people's everyday lives, more suitable interventions and clinical management can be developed. PMID:26494826

  6. Emotion perception and learning potential: mediators between neurocognition and social problem-solving in schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Friis, Svein; Simonsen, Carmen; Birkenaes, Astrid B; Jónsdóttir, Halldora; Ringen, Petter Andreas; Andreassen, Ole A

    2008-03-01

    Social cognition and learning potential have been proposed as mediating variables between neurocognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia. The present study examined this relation in a schizophrenia group (N = 26) with normal IQ. Neurocognition was measured with a composite score from tests of verbal learning, psychomotor speed, and executive functioning. Functional outcome was defined as social problem-solving skills and assessed with a role-play test. Social cognition was indexed by tests of visual and auditory emotion perception; and learning potential by estimating a gain score using a triple administration of the WCST. Neurocognition was confirmed to be a strong predictor of social problem-solving, and emotion perception was related to both neurocognition and social problem-solving. When controlling for emotion perception, the association between neurocognition and social problem-solving was weakened, implying a mediating role of emotion perception. Learning potential was not significantly related to neurocognition or social problem-solving, and thus not found to mediate the studied relation. In conclusion, our study indicates that emotion perception is a mediator between neurocognition and functional outcome as assessed with a social problem-solving task and thus a key factor in understanding functional outcome of schizophrenia. PMID:18282325

  7. [Incontinence in old age: a social and economic problem].

    PubMed

    Welz-Barth, A

    2007-04-01

    Being afflicted with urinary incontinence in old age represents manifold medical, social, and economic problems and restrictions. The objective loss of control and decreased self-confidence result in reduced social interactions and lead to isolation and ostracism accompanied by withdrawal and depression. Giving up leisure time activities, losing social contacts, and the increasing need for long-term care often lead inevitably to a higher degree of dependency and institutionalization. In addition, the taboo still placed on this problem by those affected as well as by the attending physicians has resulted in too few patients receiving adequate diagnosis and being offered sensible treatment options. These problems can only be solved by an interdisciplinary approach. Further information, continuing education, and sensitivity toward these aspects are needed. Only then can incontinence in old age as a social and economic problem exacerbated by the demographic changes be improved. PMID:17310392

  8. Recognizing Physical Disability as a Social Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Charles

    Physical disability is an enormous psychosocio-economic-medical problem that affects over 24 million Americans. Public policy endorses a multi-disciplinary approach in analyzing this issue. Legislation has broadened the meaning of physical disability to include persons with mental and emotional disorders. Some of the costs associated with physical…

  9. Rethinking conformity and imitation: divergence, convergence, and social understanding

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Bert H.

    2014-01-01

    Social and developmental psychologists have stressed the pervasiveness and strength of humans’ tendencies to conform and to imitate, and social anthropologists have argued that these tendencies are crucial to the formation of cultures. Research from four domains is reviewed and elaborated to show that divergence is also pervasive and potent, and it is interwoven with convergence in a complex set of dynamics that is often unnoticed or minimized. First, classic research in social conformity is reinterpreted in terms of truth, trust, and social solidarity, revealing that dissent is its most salient feature. Second, recent studies of children’s use of testimony to guide action reveal a surprisingly sophisticated balance of trust and prudence, and a concern for truth and charity. Third, new experiments indicate that people diverge from others even under conditions where conformity seems assured. Fourth, current studies of imitation provide strong evidence that children are both selective and faithful in who, what, and why they follow others. All of the evidence reviewed points toward children and adults as being engaged, embodied partners with others, motivated to learn and understand the world, others, and themselves in ways that go beyond goals and rules, prediction and control. Even young children act as if they are in a dialogical relationship with others and the world, rather than acting as if they are solo explorers or blind followers. Overall, the evidence supports the hypothesis that social understanding cannot be reduced to convergence or divergence, but includes ongoing activities that seek greater comprehensiveness and complexity in the ability to act and interact effectively, appropriately, and with integrity. PMID:25071687

  10. Social Problems of Drug Use and Drug Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Joel

    The social and legal policies that control or prevent the use of mind-altering drugs are the main cause of the social problems arising from their use. The existing policies are ineffective; the wrong drugs receive the most attention and laws are directed at the wrong phase of the cycle of promotion, distribution and use. The following reforms are…

  11. Cultural Differences in Social Interaction during Group Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrenya, William K., Jr.; Barba, Lourdes

    Cross-cultural psychology has begun to analyze cultural differences on collectivism and the implications of these differences for social processes such as group productivity. This study examined natural social interaction during a problem-solving task that required discussion and the establishment of a consensus. The relationship of collectivist…

  12. Drug Abuse and Politics: The Construction of a Social Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Eric L.; And Others

    Relying on the social constructionist approach as advanced by Armand L. Mauss (1975), this paper analyzes the construction of a recent U.S. social problem, drug abuse. It is argued that the objective conditions of drug use alone cannot explain why drugs became an issue immediately prior to the 1986 Congressional elections. Explanations for the…

  13. Understanding Wicked Problems: A Key to Advancing Environmental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreuter, Marshall W.; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.

    2004-01-01

    Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have…

  14. Narrativity and enaction: the social nature of literary narrative understanding

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Yanna B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones. PMID:25202286

  15. Precarious employment: understanding an emerging social determinant of health.

    PubMed

    Benach, J; Vives, A; Amable, M; Vanroelen, C; Tarafa, G; Muntaner, C

    2014-01-01

    Employment precariousness is a social determinant that affects the health of workers, families, and communities. Its recent popularity has been spearheaded by three main developments: the surge in "flexible employment" and its associated erosion of workers' employment and working conditions since the mid-1970s; the growing interest in social determinants of health, including employment conditions; and the availability of new data and information systems. This article identifies the historical, economic, and political factors that link precarious employment to health and health equity; reviews concepts, models, instruments, and findings on precarious employment and health inequalities; summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of this literature; and highlights substantive and methodological challenges that need to be addressed. We identify two crucial future aims: to provide a compelling research program that expands our understanding of employment precariousness and to develop and evaluate policy programs that effectively put an end to its health-related impacts. PMID:24641559

  16. Social Context: A Key to Effective Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, Rodney; Bolland, John M.

    1983-01-01

    Following a brief presentation of Harold Lasswell's model of the social process, the authors discuss problems of policy formation and meaning determination, describe the "decision seminar" proposed by Lasswell as a technique for facilitating collective problem-solving, and provide illustrations of the seminar's successful application to specific…

  17. Social Networking Sites: An Adjunctive Treatment Modality for Psychological Problems

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Indu S.; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chandra, Prabha S.; Thennarasu, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social networking is seen as a way to enhance social support and feeling of well-being. The present work explores the potentials of social networking sites as an adjunctive treatment modality for initiating treatment contact as well as for managing psychological problems. Materials and Methods: Interview schedule, Facebook intensity questionnaire were administered on 28 subjects with a combination of 18 males and 10 females. They were taken from the in-patient and out-patient psychiatry setting of the hospital. Results: Facebook was the most popular sites and used to seek emotional support on the basis of the frequent updates of emotional content that users put in their profile; reconciliations, escape from the problems or to manage the loneliness; getting information about illness and its treatment and interaction with experts and also manifested as problematic use. Conclusions: It has implications for developing social networking based adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems. PMID:25035548

  18. Leveraging social networks for understanding the evolution of epidemics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To understand how infectious agents disseminate throughout a population it is essential to capture the social model in a realistic manner. This paper presents a novel approach to modeling the propagation of the influenza virus throughout a realistic interconnection network based on actual individual interactions which we extract from online social networks. The advantage is that these networks can be extracted from existing sources which faithfully record interactions between people in their natural environment. We additionally allow modeling the characteristics of each individual as well as customizing his daily interaction patterns by making them time-dependent. Our purpose is to understand how the infection spreads depending on the structure of the contact network and the individuals who introduce the infection in the population. This would help public health authorities to respond more efficiently to epidemics. Results We implement a scalable, fully distributed simulator and validate the epidemic model by comparing the simulation results against the data in the 2004-2005 New York State Department of Health Report (NYSDOH), with similar temporal distribution results for the number of infected individuals. We analyze the impact of different types of connection models on the virus propagation. Lastly, we analyze and compare the effects of adopting several different vaccination policies, some of them based on individual characteristics -such as age- while others targeting the super-connectors in the social model. Conclusions This paper presents an approach to modeling the propagation of the influenza virus via a realistic social model based on actual individual interactions extracted from online social networks. We implemented a scalable, fully distributed simulator and we analyzed both the dissemination of the infection and the effect of different vaccination policies on the progress of the epidemics. The epidemic values predicted by our simulator match

  19. Networked Community Change: Understanding Community Systems Change through the Lens of Social Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Jennifer A; Neal, Zachary P

    2016-06-01

    Addressing complex problems in communities has become a key area of focus in recent years (Kania & Kramer, 2013, Stanford Social Innovation Review). Building on existing approaches to understanding and addressing problems, such as action research, several new approaches have emerged that shift the way communities solve problems (e.g., Burns, 2007, Systemic Action Research; Foth, 2006, Action Research, 4, 205; Kania & Kramer, 2011, Stanford Social Innovation Review, 1, 36). Seeking to bring clarity to the emerging literature on community change strategies, this article identifies the common features of the most widespread community change strategies and explores the conditions under which such strategies have the potential to be effective. We identify and describe five common features among the approaches to change. Then, using an agent-based model, we simulate network-building behavior among stakeholders participating in community change efforts using these approaches. We find that the emergent stakeholder networks are efficient when the processes are implemented under ideal conditions. PMID:27221668

  20. Korean immigrant discipline and children's social competence and behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjung; Guo, Yuqing; Koh, Chinkang; Cain, Kevin C

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between Korean immigrant discipline (e.g., positive, appropriate, and harsh discipline) and children's social competence and behavior problems. Self-report data were collected from 58 mothers and 20 fathers of children aged from 3 to 8 years. Only paternal harsh discipline was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Among specific discipline strategies, maternal physical affection, correcting misbehaviors, and reasoning were positively correlated with children's social competence. Paternal physical punishment (e.g., spanking, hitting, and raising arms) was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Immigrant fathers need to learn alternative ways of managing children's misbehaviors. PMID:21035016

  1. Impaired Social Decision-Making Mediates the Association Between ADHD and Social Problems.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Galán, Chardeé A; Tottenham, Nim; Lee, Steve S

    2016-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) reliably predicts social dysfunction, ranging from poor social competence and elevated peer rejection to inadequate social skills. Yet, the factors mediating predictions of social problems from childhood ADHD are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated social functioning in 186 (69 % male) 6 to 10 year-old (M = 7.88, SD = 1.17) children with (n = 98) and without (n = 87) ADHD who were followed prospectively for two years. We implemented a well-validated measure of social problems as well as a novel social decision-making task assessing dynamic response to changing affective cues at the two-year follow-up. According to separate parent and teacher report, baseline ADHD symptoms positively predicted social problems at the two-year follow-up; individual differences on the social decision-making task mediated this association. This finding was replicated when ADHD dimensions (i.e., inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity) were separately examined. These findings suggest that the deficient use of affective cues to effectively guide behavior may partially underlie poor social functioning among children with ADHD. If replicated, these preliminary findings suggest that social skills interventions that target interpretation of affective cues to aid in social decision-making behavior may improve social outcomes negatively affected by early ADHD symptoms. PMID:26486935

  2. Analysis of Online Social Networks to Understand Information Sharing Behaviors Through Social Cognitive Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of leaders on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of followers , people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.

  3. Exposure to Violence, Social Information Processing, and Problem Behavior in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which early risk factors for social maladjustment contribute to disruptive behaviors in social settings is vital to developmental research and practice. A major risk factor for social maladjustment is early exposure to violence which was examined in this short-term longitudinal study in relation to social information processing patterns and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 256 preschool children. Data on exposure to violence were obtained via parent report, data on social information processing were obtained via child interview, and data on child problem behavior were obtained via teacher report. Findings supported the hypothesis that, compared to children not exposed to violence, children reported to witness and/or experience violence are more likely to attribute hostile intent to peers, generate aggressive responses, and evaluate socially unaccepted responses (aggressive and inept) as socially suitable. The former were also found to exhibit higher levels of externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Finally, social information processing mediated the link between exposure to violence and problem behavior thus supporting this study’s general approach which argues that the link between exposure to violence and children’s problem behaviors are better understood within the context of their perceptions about social relationships. PMID:23011955

  4. Problemes de Developpement et D'Adaptation Sociale. [Problems of Development and Social Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tardif, Genevieve; Coutu, Sylvain; Lavigueur, Susanne; Dubeau, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Reviews and summarizes the literature on developmental and behavior problems displayed by young children. Focuses on the definition and classification of problems found in family or child care settings, prevalence of problems as reported by epidemiological studies, and the relative stability of behavior problems from preschool to adolescence.…

  5. Developing Shift Problems to Foster Geometrical Proof and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palha, Sonia; Dekker, Rijkje; Gravemeijer, Koeno; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Meaningful learning of formal mathematics in regular classrooms remains a problem in mathematics education. Research shows that instructional approaches in which students work collaboratively on tasks that are tailored to problem solving and reflection can improve students' learning in experimental classrooms. However, these sequences involve…

  6. Wherein Lies Children's Intergroup Bias? Egocentrism, Social Understanding, and Social Projection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    Does children's bias toward their own groups reflect egocentrism or social understanding? After being categorized as belonging to 1 of 2 fictitious groups, 157 six- to ten-year-olds evaluated group members and expressed preferences among neutral items. Children who expected the in-group to share their item preferences (egocentric social…

  7. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Merry, Carroll E., Ed.

    This document contains abstracts and the complete texts of 19 papers that were presented at a conference held to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. The following papers are included: "Microwave Society and Crock-Pot Government" (Bill Graves); "Citizen Participation, Social Capital and…

  8. Social Competence and Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, Farahman; Farajian, Fathemeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examines development of social competence, and behavior problems in kindergarten children during a specific period of childhood. Method A sample of 499 kindergarten children (244 girls and 255 boys) with the age range of 2 years up to 5 years and 6 months was selected using the random stratified sampling method. To collect data, California Preschool Social Competence Scale and Social Skills Rating System were completed by kindergarten teachers. Results The trend analysis shows that both the linear and quadratic trends for verbal facility were statistically significant. Similarly, both the linear and cubic trends were significant for considerateness, and the linear trend tendency was significant for subscales of extraversion, response to unfamiliar and task orientation. Pearson's correlation coefficient yielded a low-to-moderate and negative correlation patterns between social component and problem behaviors. Conclusion The study findings indicate a significant linear trend between the progression in social competence and increasing age, consequently leading to a decrease in social problems for children whose age was from 2 years up to 5 years and 6 months. PMID:23139694

  9. Philosophical problems with social research on health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, S P; Forbes, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper offers a realist critique of social research on health inequalities. A conspectus of the field of health inequalities research identifies two main research approaches: the positivist quantitative survey and the interpretivist qualitative 'case study'. We argue that both approaches suffer from serious philosophical limitations. We suggest that a turn to realism offers a productive 'third way' both for the development of health inequality research in particular and for the social scientific understanding of the complexities of the social world in general. PMID:11186025

  10. Understanding and Predicting Human Behavior for Social Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoes, Jose; Magedanz, Thomas

    Over the last years, with the rapid advance in technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible for people to take advantage of the devices and services in the surrounding environment to remain "connected" and continuously enjoy the activity they are engaged in, be it sports, entertainment, or work. Such a ubiquitous computing environment will allow everyone permanent access to the Internet anytime, anywhere and anyhow [1]. Nevertheless, despite the evolution of services, social aspects remain in the roots of every human behavior and activities. Great examples of such phenomena are online social networks, which engage users in a way never seen before in the online world. At the same time, being aware and communicating context is a key part of human interaction and is a particularly powerful concept when applied to a community of users where services can be made more personalized and useful. Altogether, harvesting context to reason and learn about user behavior will further enhance the future multimedia vision where services can be composed and customized according to user context. Moreover, it will help us to understand users in a better way.

  11. Social and behavioral problems among five gambling severity groups.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Jacquelene F; Yoon, Gihyun; Campos, Michael D; Fong, Timothy W

    2015-12-15

    Gambling has been associated with various social and behavioral problems, but previous analyses have been limited by sample bias regarding gambling symptom severity range and the role of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). This study utilized a nationally representative data set and examined various characteristics of behavioral problems and ASPD among five gambling severity groups. Participants were 42,038 individuals who took part in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and provided information on social and behavioral problems, ASPD, and gambling. Using DSM-IV criteria, we derived five gambling groups from the total sample: non-gambling, low-risk, at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling. Associations between all problematic behaviors and nearly every gambling severity level were significant prior to adjustment for sociodemographic variables and ASPD. Following the adjustment, all significant associations persisted, with the exception of sexual coercion. In the adjusted model, the financially oriented behaviors had the strongest associations with gambling. All gambling severity levels were associated with an increased risk for a number of problematic behaviors and social problems in comparison to non-gamblers.Further examination of gambling problems in financial and criminal justice settings is recommended. PMID:26391652

  12. Understanding Disadvantaged Youth: Their Problems and Potentials. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieson, Moira B., Comp.; Tatis, Rita M., Comp.

    Designed as a resource guide for teachers and teacher educators, this annotated bibliography contains 102 citations (e.g., journal articles, program descriptions, research reports) most of them dated between 1968 and 1970. There are five sections: 1) Characteristics and Problems of the Disadvantaged--22 items; 2) Attitudes Toward the…

  13. Understanding Student Use of Differentials in Physics Integration Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Dehui; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on students' use of the mathematical concept of differentials in physics problem solving. For instance, in electrostatics, students need to set up an integral to find the electric field due to a charged bar, an activity that involves the application of mathematical differentials (e.g., "dr," "dq"). In…

  14. Contributions of Neuropsychology to Our Understanding of Developmental Reading Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riccio, Cynthia A.; Hynd, George W.

    1995-01-01

    Examines how neuropsychological research has increased understanding of the reading process and reading disabilities in children. Variations in impaired processes in reading disabilities can best be understood when brain-behavior relations involved in reading are conceptualized as a widespread functional system. Discusses implications for…

  15. Does Neighborhood Social Capital Buffer the Effects of Maternal Depression on Adolescent Behavior Problems?

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

    2014-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives. PMID:24659390

  16. Illuminating the dark matter of social neuroscience: Considering the problem of social interaction from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Przyrembel, Marisa; Smallwood, Jonathan; Pauen, Michael; Singer, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Successful human social interaction depends on our capacity to understand other people's mental states and to anticipate how they will react to our actions. Despite its importance to the human condition, the exact mechanisms underlying our ability to understand another's actions, feelings, and thoughts are still a matter of conjecture. Here, we consider this problem from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives. In a critical review, we demonstrate that attempts to draw parallels across these complementary disciplines is premature: The second-person perspective does not map directly to Interaction or Simulation theories, online social cognition, or shared neural network accounts underlying action observation or empathy. Nor does the third-person perspective map onto Theory-Theory (TT), offline social cognition, or the neural networks that support Theory of Mind (ToM). Moreover, we argue that important qualities of social interaction emerge through the reciprocal interplay of two independent agents whose unpredictable behavior requires that models of their partner's internal state be continually updated. This analysis draws attention to the need for paradigms in social neuroscience that allow two individuals to interact in a spontaneous and natural manner and to adapt their behavior and cognitions in a response contingent fashion due to the inherent unpredictability in another person's behavior. Even if such paradigms were implemented, it is possible that the specific neural correlates supporting such reciprocal interaction would not reflect computation unique to social interaction but rather the use of basic cognitive and emotional processes combined in a unique manner. Finally, we argue that given the crucial role of social interaction in human evolution, ontogeny, and every-day social life, a more theoretically and methodologically nuanced approach to the study of real social interaction will nevertheless help the field of social cognition

  17. Environmental Problems and the Social Sciences: What Should We Teach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cylke, F. Kurt, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental issues that can be explored in social science courses include problems with potential to cause serious or irreversible change to an ecosystem or biosphere. Areas for discussion include: environmental attitudes, values, and behaviors; the environmental movement; risk perceptions; and the political economy of the environment and…

  18. Collective Socialization and Child Conduct Problems. Data Trends #105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" presents findings from research examining the influence of collective socialization, concentration of disadvantage, and prevalence of crime on conduct problems among African…

  19. The Social Psychology of Potential Problems in Family Vacation Travel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Paul C.; Russell, Martha G.

    1975-01-01

    Social psychological thinking and the data of an exploratory study are used to illuminate potential problems in family vacation travel. Vacation travel is seen as providing both the opportunity for revitalization and creative change and the opportunity for serious interpersonal difficulties. (Author)

  20. Cognitive Abstractness, Interpersonal Perception, Factual and Social Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckloff, Maurine C.; Petelle, John

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive abstractness levels, interpersonal perception abilities, and task type (factual or social problem solving) on group performance as measured by time consumed and adequacy of solutions. Eighteen college classes from Kearney State College participated in testing of perceptual…

  1. Social Cognition and Conduct Problems: A Developmental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Barker, Edward D.; Mandy, William P. L.; Skuse, David H.; Maughan, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To estimate associations between trajectories of conduct problems and social-cognitive competences through childhood into early adolescence. Method: A prospective population-based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) recruited in the prenatal period (13,988 children alive at 12 months) formed the basis…

  2. Attachment and Social Problem Solving in Juvenile Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, Saritha S.; And Others

    This study investigates characteristics of juvenile delinquency and youth violence by examining attachment and social problem skills. Attachment theory integrates features of psychoanalytic theory, ethology, and cognitive psychology. Research on adolescent attachment suggests that parents continue to function as a secure base for their teenage…

  3. Fatherless America: Confronting Our Most Urgent Social Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenhorn, David

    The United States is rapidly becoming a fatherless society. Fatherlessness is the leading cause of declining child well-being, providing the impetus behind social problems such as crime, domestic violence, and adolescent pregnancy. Challenging the basic assumptions of opinion leaders in academia and in the media, this book debunks the prevailing…

  4. Collaborative Problem Solving in Five-Year-Old Children: Evidence of Social Facilitation and Social Loafing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterberry, Martha E.; Cain, Kathleen M.; Chopko, Stephanie A.

    2007-01-01

    Children's problem solving while working by themselves or with a partner was investigated to explore whether young children are susceptible to social facilitation and social loafing. Five-year-olds were asked to complete easy or hard puzzles, either alone or with a partner. Half of the children were given instructions indicating that their…

  5. Distributed problem solving and natural language understanding models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, C.

    1980-01-01

    A theory of organization and control for a meaning-based language understanding system is mapped out. In this theory, words, rather than rules, are the units of knowledge, and assume the form of procedural entities which execute as generator-like coroutines. Parsing a sentence in context demands a control environment in wich experts can ask questions of each other, forward hints and suggestions to each other, and suspend. The theory is a cognitive theory of both language representation and parser control.

  6. Understanding Crowd-Powered Search Groups: A Social Network Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingpeng; Wang, Fei-Yue; Zeng, Daniel; Wang, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Background Crowd-powered search is a new form of search and problem solving scheme that involves collaboration among a potentially large number of voluntary Web users. Human flesh search (HFS), a particular form of crowd-powered search originated in China, has seen tremendous growth since its inception in 2001. HFS presents a valuable test-bed for scientists to validate existing and new theories in social computing, sociology, behavioral sciences, and so forth. Methodology In this research, we construct an aggregated HFS group, consisting of the participants and their relationships in a comprehensive set of identified HFS episodes. We study the topological properties and the evolution of the aggregated network and different sub-groups in the network. We also identify the key HFS participants according to a variety of measures. Conclusions We found that, as compared with other online social networks, HFS participant network shares the power-law degree distribution and small-world property, but with a looser and more distributed organizational structure, leading to the diversity, decentralization, and independence of HFS participants. In addition, the HFS group has been becoming increasingly decentralized. The comparisons of different HFS sub-groups reveal that HFS participants collaborated more often when they conducted the searches in local platforms or the searches requiring a certain level of professional knowledge background. On the contrary, HFS participants did not collaborate much when they performed the search task in national platforms or the searches with general topics that did not require specific information and learning. We also observed that the key HFS information contributors, carriers, and transmitters came from different groups of HFS participants. PMID:22761888

  7. Applying DNA computation to intractable problems in social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rick C S; Yang, Stephen J H

    2010-09-01

    From ancient times to the present day, social networks have played an important role in the formation of various organizations for a range of social behaviors. As such, social networks inherently describe the complicated relationships between elements around the world. Based on mathematical graph theory, social network analysis (SNA) has been developed in and applied to various fields such as Web 2.0 for Web applications and product developments in industries, etc. However, some definitions of SNA, such as finding a clique, N-clique, N-clan, N-club and K-plex, are NP-complete problems, which are not easily solved via traditional computer architecture. These challenges have restricted the uses of SNA. This paper provides DNA-computing-based approaches with inherently high information density and massive parallelism. Using these approaches, we aim to solve the three primary problems of social networks: N-clique, N-clan, and N-club. Their accuracy and feasible time complexities discussed in the paper will demonstrate that DNA computing can be used to facilitate the development of SNA. PMID:20566337

  8. Problems in understanding the structure and assembly of viruses

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.

    1997-12-01

    Though viruses infect the cells of all groups of animals, plants, and microorganisms, their structures follow a limited number of general themes; spherical or cylindrical shells built of hundreds of repeated protein subunits enclosing a nucleic acid - DNA or RNA - genome. Since the 1960s it has been known that the protein shells of spherical viruses in fact conform to icosahedral symmetry or to subtle deviations from icosahedral symmetry. The construction of the shell lattices and the transformations they go through in the different stages of the viral life cycle are not fully understood. The shells contain the nucleic in a highly condensed state, of unknown coiling/organization. Features of the well studied bacterial viruses will be reviewed, with examples from adenoviruses, herpesviruses, poliovirus, and HIV. The emergence of new viral disease has led to increased interest in the development of agents which interfere with virus reproduction at the level of the assembly or function of the organized particle. Recently computational approaches to the problem of virus assembly have made important contributions to clarifying shell assembly processes. 1 ref.

  9. Understanding Social Media Use as Alienation: A Review and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reveley, James

    2013-01-01

    The opportunities social media provide for agential expressions of subjectivity and experiential learning, relative to social media's role in reproducing digital-era capitalism, are the subject of keen debate. There is now a burgeoning academic literature which suggests that social media users are, to a greater or lesser degree, alienated by…

  10. Understanding Social Change in Conducting Research on Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2005-01-01

    In the present essay, we focus on G. Stanley Hall's contributions to the study of the role of social change for adolescent development. After introducing Hall's main ideas, we discuss recent demands adolescents face because of social change and how Hall's work could inform research on adolescent development in times of social change.

  11. Understanding Online Health Groups for Depression: Social Network and Linguistic Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental health problems have become increasingly prevalent in the past decade. With the advance of Web 2.0 technologies, social media present a novel platform for Web users to form online health groups. Members of online health groups discuss health-related issues and mutually help one another by anonymously revealing their mental conditions, sharing personal experiences, exchanging health information, and providing suggestions and support. The conversations in online health groups contain valuable information to facilitate the understanding of their mutual help behaviors and their mental health problems. Objective We aimed to characterize the conversations in a major online health group for major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in a popular Chinese social media platform. In particular, we intended to explain how Web users discuss depression-related issues from the perspective of the social networks and linguistic patterns revealed by the members’ conversations. Methods Social network analysis and linguistic analysis were employed to characterize the social structure and linguistic patterns, respectively. Furthermore, we integrated both perspectives to exploit the hidden relations between them. Results We found an intensive use of self-focus words and negative affect words. In general, group members used a higher proportion of negative affect words than positive affect words. The social network of the MDD group for depression possessed small-world and scale-free properties, with a much higher reciprocity ratio and clustering coefficient value as compared to the networks of other social media platforms and classic network models. We observed a number of interesting relationships, either strong correlations or convergent trends, between the topological properties and linguistic properties of the MDD group members. Conclusions (1) The MDD group members have the characteristics of self-preoccupation and negative thought content, according to Beck

  12. Social Understanding of High-Ability Children in Middle and Late Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boor-Klip, Henrike J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its importance in social development, social understanding has hardly been studied in high-ability children. This study explores differences in social understanding between children in high-ability and regular classrooms, specifically theory of mind (ToM) and perception accuracy, as well as associations between individual characteristics…

  13. Social Realism and the Problem of the Problem of Knowledge in the Sociology of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines from a Social Realist perspective a set of issues in the sociology of education regarding the problem of knowledge. It focuses upon the issue of relativism associated with the constructionist approach that since the time of the New Sociology of Education in the 1970s has constituted in different forms the dominant perspective…

  14. Understanding how social networking influences perceived satisfaction with conference experiences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Carena J.; van Riper, Charles, III; Kyle, Gerard T.; Lee, Martha E.

    2013-01-01

    Social networking is a key benefit derived from participation in conferences that bind the ties of a professional community. Building social networks can lead to satisfactory experiences while furthering participants' long- and short-term career goals. Although investigations of social networking can lend insight into how to effectively engage individuals and groups within a professional cohort, this area has been largely overlooked in past research. The present study investigates the relationship between social networking and satisfaction with the 10th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau using structural equation modelling. Results partially support the hypothesis that three dimensions of social networking – interpersonal connections, social cohesion, and secondary associations – positively contribute to the performance of various conference attributes identified in two focus group sessions. The theoretical and applied contributions of this paper shed light on the social systems formed within professional communities and resource allocation among service providers.

  15. Social Determinants and Their Unequal Distribution: Clarifying Policy Understandings

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Hilary

    2004-01-01

    Public health policy in older industrialized societies is being reconfigured to improve population health and to address inequalities in the social distribution of health. The concept of social determinants is central to these policies, with tackling the social influences on health seen as a way to reduce health inequalities. But the social factors promoting and undermining the health of individuals and populations should not be confused with the social processes underlying their unequal distribution. This distinction is important because, despite better health and improvement in health determinants, social disparities persist. The article argues that more emphasis on social inequalities is required for a determinants-oriented approach to be able to inform policies to address health inequalities. PMID:15016245

  16. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Understanding the Problem; Understanding the Solution; What Indian Communities Can Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streissguth, Ann P.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes facts about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), including physical and mental symptoms; cause; prevalence overall and in Indian communities; and problems of infants, children, and adults with FAS. Emphasizes the importance of public awareness, professional education, and provision of community services to prevent FAS. Outlines specific…

  17. Measurements of student understanding on complex scientific reasoning problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Alisa Sau-Lin

    While there has been much discussion of cognitive processes underlying effective scientific teaching, less is known about the response nature of assessments targeting processes of scientific reasoning specific to biology content. This study used multiple-choice (m-c) and short-answer essay student responses to evaluate progress in high-order reasoning skills. In a pilot investigation of student responses on a non-content-based test of scientific thinking, it was found that some students showed a pre-post gain on the m-c test version while showing no gain on a short-answer essay version of the same questions. This result led to a subsequent research project focused on differences between alternate versions of tests of scientific reasoning. Using m-c and written responses from biology tests targeted toward the skills of (1) reasoning with a model and (2) designing controlled experiments, test score frequencies, factor analysis, and regression models were analyzed to explore test format differences. Understanding the format differences in tests is important for the development of practical ways to identify student gains in scientific reasoning. The overall results suggested test format differences. Factor analysis revealed three interpretable factors---m-c format, genetics content, and model-based reasoning. Frequency distributions on the m-c and open explanation portions of the hybrid items revealed that many students answered the m-c portion of an item correctly but gave inadequate explanations. In other instances students answered the m-c portion incorrectly yet demonstrated sufficient explanation or answered the m-c correctly and also provided poor explanations. When trying to fit test score predictors for non-associated student measures---VSAT, MSAT, high school grade point average, or final course grade---the test scores accounted for close to zero percent of the variance. Overall, these results point to the importance of using multiple methods of testing and of

  18. Social environmental influences on the development and resolution of alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    McCrady, Barbara S; Zucker, Robert A; Molina, Brooke S G; Ammon, Lyndsay; Ames, Genevieve M; Longabaugh, Richard

    2006-04-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the 2005 Annual Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, Santa Barbara, California, June 25-30. The overall goal of the symposium was to consider the broad impact of the social environment on the development of and successful or unsuccessful resolution of drinking problems. The presentations addressed multiple social environmental influences including: the influence of children on parents (Dr. Zucker), the influence of peers and parents on adolescents (Dr. Molina), the influence of family members on adult drinking (Dr. McCrady), the influence of adult peers/friends (Dr. Kaskutas), and the influence of the occupational environment (Dr. Ames). Dr. Longabaugh, the symposium discussant, addressed models for understanding the relationships between social influences and drinking problems. PMID:16573588

  19. The Problem is People, Social Studies: 6425.07.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratchford, Frank

    Population education is the focus of this quinmester curriculum guide for secondary students. By examining and comparing past population theories of Malthus and Marx with present theories students will better understand the present situation, cultural attitudes toward the problems, and the ecological consequences of overpopulation. Objectives are…

  20. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Jasinska, Agnes J.

    2012-01-01

    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both), which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions. PMID:22701416

  1. An Investigation of Secondary Teachers’ Understanding and Belief on Mathematical Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuli Eko Siswono, Tatag; Wachidul Kohar, Ahmad; Kurniasari, Ika; Puji Astuti, Yuliani

    2016-02-01

    Weaknesses on problem solving of Indonesian students as reported by recent international surveys give rise to questions on how Indonesian teachers bring out idea of problem solving in mathematics lesson. An explorative study was undertaken to investigate how secondary teachers who teach mathematics at junior high school level understand and show belief toward mathematical problem solving. Participants were teachers from four cities in East Java province comprising 45 state teachers and 25 private teachers. Data was obtained through questionnaires and written test. The results of this study point out that the teachers understand pedagogical problem solving knowledge well as indicated by high score of observed teachers‘ responses showing understanding on problem solving as instruction as well as implementation of problem solving in teaching practice. However, they less understand on problem solving content knowledge such as problem solving strategies and meaning of problem itself. Regarding teacher's difficulties, teachers admitted to most frequently fail in (1) determining a precise mathematical model or strategies when carrying out problem solving steps which is supported by data of test result that revealed transformation error as the most frequently observed errors in teachers’ work and (2) choosing suitable real situation when designing context-based problem solving task. Meanwhile, analysis of teacher's beliefs on problem solving shows that teachers tend to view both mathematics and how students should learn mathematics as body static perspective, while they tend to believe to apply idea of problem solving as dynamic approach when teaching mathematics.

  2. Combining Computational and Social Effort for Collaborative Problem Solving

    PubMed Central

    Wagy, Mark D.; Bongard, Josh C.

    2015-01-01

    Rather than replacing human labor, there is growing evidence that networked computers create opportunities for collaborations of people and algorithms to solve problems beyond either of them. In this study, we demonstrate the conditions under which such synergy can arise. We show that, for a design task, three elements are sufficient: humans apply intuitions to the problem, algorithms automatically determine and report back on the quality of designs, and humans observe and innovate on others’ designs to focus creative and computational effort on good designs. This study suggests how such collaborations should be composed for other domains, as well as how social and computational dynamics mutually influence one another during collaborative problem solving. PMID:26544199

  3. Combining Computational and Social Effort for Collaborative Problem Solving.

    PubMed

    Wagy, Mark D; Bongard, Josh C

    2015-01-01

    Rather than replacing human labor, there is growing evidence that networked computers create opportunities for collaborations of people and algorithms to solve problems beyond either of them. In this study, we demonstrate the conditions under which such synergy can arise. We show that, for a design task, three elements are sufficient: humans apply intuitions to the problem, algorithms automatically determine and report back on the quality of designs, and humans observe and innovate on others' designs to focus creative and computational effort on good designs. This study suggests how such collaborations should be composed for other domains, as well as how social and computational dynamics mutually influence one another during collaborative problem solving. PMID:26544199

  4. Understanding and Accommodating Online Social Communities: A Common Sense Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    Online social networks such as Facebook have changed the context and definitions of socialization. Focusing on teacher use, this article considers the size and impact of these forums and the importance many young professionals feel toward them. Themed as a common sense approach, the author uses anecdotal points and discussions with…

  5. Understanding Social Presence in Text-Based Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehrwald, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on key aspects of a theory generative study into social presence in text-based online learning environments. The focus of the article is the nature of social presence as experienced by online learners in those environments. Employing a collective case study design, the study accessed online learners' experience-based heuristic…

  6. Observing and Understanding Children's Social Interactions. An Impression Management Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, J. Amos

    1994-01-01

    Describes ways of observing and interpreting children's peer social behavior based on the impression management perspective, which focuses on the social construction of a child's individual self-concept. Suggests that teachers and caregivers can use impression management strategies to observe and promote prosocial development in young children.…

  7. Understanding Green Purchase Behavior: College Students and Socialization Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ruoh-Nan; Xu, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    Taking the perspective of consumer socialization theory, this study examined the influences of different socialization agents on consumers' purchases of green products. A total of 224 surveys were distributed to students enrolled in a business-related course at a major university in the northeastern United States. The objectives were twofold. The…

  8. Understanding Adolescent Parenting: The Dimensions and Functions of Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Pamela S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents model of adolescent parenting, emphasizing multiple influences that social support has on maternal personality, health and nutritional status, cognitive readiness for parenting, and actual parenting behavior and child development. Concludes life span perspective is useful in evaluating teenage mother's social support needs and individual…

  9. Understanding Social Work in the History of Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soydan, Haluk

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to present a theoretical frame of reference for the study and assessment of social work from the perspective of a history of ideas. Method: The study employed an analysis of primary and secondary historical sources. Results: Social work as a practice and research field is embedded in the genesis of modern…

  10. Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

  11. Divided loyalties for physicians: social context and moral problems.

    PubMed

    Murray, T H

    1986-01-01

    An examination of the notion of divided loyalties dilemmas in medicine, situated within their social contexts, yields insight into the contemporary social and moral position of medicine in the United States. In a review of the literature, the author identifies four concepts important to gaining an understanding of the position that divided loyalties play in medicine and the physician-patient relationship. After describing some of the situations in which these dilemmas affect physicians' responses to patients' health care needs, interests, and choices, the author argues that divided loyalties dilemmas are not rare, and will probably increase with the changes in U.S. medicine. Candor and awareness of the importance of the public belief in physician loyalty are seen as necessary in preventing these changes from becoming destructive of the physician-patient relationship. PMID:3798163

  12. Gambling as a Social Problem: On the Social Conditions of Gambling in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barmaki, Reza

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Canadian legalized gambling has undergone a massive growth, resulting in numerous social problems such as crime, political corruption, and, most importantly, pathological gambling. When it comes to theorizing gambling in Canada, pathological gambling has been the centre of the attention for two related reasons: (1) the increasing…

  13. Broad Social Motives, Alcohol Use, and Related Problems: Mechanisms of Risk From High School through College

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, William R.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Broad social motives (not specific to alcohol use) have been established as an important predictor of alcohol use and problems among college students, but we have little understanding of the mechanisms through which such motives operate. Thus, the current study examined broad social motives prior to college entry as a predictor of college drinking/problems and sought to identify potential mechanisms through which they are associated with increased risk. Participants comprised a sample of 2,245 incoming college students (59.9% women) transitioning from high school through the college years. The first web-based survey was completed during the summer prior to matriculation with participants reporting on their behavior during the spring of high school senior year. Additional surveys were administered each academic semester through the fall of the fourth year. High school social motives were examined as a predictor of changes in alcohol use/problems from high school through senior year, with changes in descriptive norms, personal drinking values, and alcohol expectancies from high school to sophomore year examined as possible mediators of these relations. Descriptive norms, personal drinking values, and alcohol expectancies were robust mediators of broad social motives for both alcohol use and problems. Although there were a few differences by race/ethnicity in the alcohol use model, the mechanisms through which broad social motives operated were largely invariant across groups. These findings shed light on important mechanisms that can be targeted in prevention programs, particularly those that target groups who are likely to be high in broad social motives (e.g., fraternity/sorority members). PMID:21126828

  14. Tackling complexities in understanding the social determinants of health: the contribution of ethnographic research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective The complexities inherent in understanding the social determinants of health are often not well-served by quantitative approaches. My aim is to show that well-designed and well-conducted ethnographic studies have an important contribution to make in this regard. Ethnographic research designs are a difficult but rigorous approach to research questions that require us to understand the complexity of people’s social and cultural lives. Approach I draw on an ethnographic study to describe the complexities of studying maternal health in a rural area in India. I then show how the lessons learnt in that setting and context can be applied to studies done in very different settings. Results I show how ethnographic research depends for rigour on a theoretical framework for sample selection; why immersion in the community under study, and rapport building with research participants, is important to ensure rich and meaningful data; and how flexible approaches to data collection lead to the gradual emergence of an analysis based on intense cross-referencing with community views and thus a conclusion that explains the similarities and differences observed. Conclusion When using ethnographic research design it can be difficult to specify in advance the exact details of the study design. Researchers can encounter issues in the field that require them to change what they planned on doing. In rigorous ethnographic studies, the researcher in the field is the research instrument and needs to be well trained in the method. Implication Ethnographic research is challenging, but nevertheless provides a rewarding way of researching complex health problems that require an understanding of the social and cultural determinants of health. PMID:22168509

  15. Debunking Common Sense and the Taken for Granted: A Pedagogical Strategy for Teaching Social Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMoyne, Terri; Davis, Jean Marie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that one approach to teaching Introduction to Social Problems is to structure the course content around taken-for-granted beliefs that many students have about the social world. In doing so, the authors discuss the social construction of social problems, how sociology differs from common sense, and the importance…

  16. Social Justice as a Lens for Understanding Workplace Mistreatment.

    PubMed

    Moffa, Christine; Longo, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Workplace mistreatment can be viewed as a social injustice that prohibits one from achieving optimal well-being. Cognitive and interpersonal skills required of nurses can be impacted by workplace mistreatment, thus extending injustices by violating the rights of patients to optimal care. The purpose of this article is to view workplace mistreatment through the lens of Powers and Faden's theory of social justice. Workplace mistreatment is explored through the 6 dimensions of well-being, including health, personal security, reasoning, respect, attachment, and self-determination, identified in the theory. The implications for practice and policy are discussed and recommendations for research made. PMID:27490877

  17. Understanding University Reform in Japan through the Prism of the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Roger

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at current university reforms in Japan through two slightly different social science prisms: how social science methodologies and theories can help us understand those reforms better and how social science teaching in universities will be affected by the current reform processes. (Contains 3 tables and 7 notes.)

  18. Rural Women's Transitions to Motherhood: Understanding Social Support in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Weaver, Addie; Schommer, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Social support protects women from various negative consequences, yet we have little understanding of how rural women acquire and utilize social support. Using interviews of 24 women in a North Dakota community, this research sought to understand how rural women were supported as new mothers. One, familial women and partners were vital supports to…

  19. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  20. Understanding Classrooms through Social Network Analysis: A Primer for Social Network Analysis in Education Research

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA) provides the necessary tool kit for investigating questions involving relational data. We introduce basic concepts in SNA, along with methods for data collection, data processing, and data analysis, using a previously collected example study on an undergraduate biology classroom as a tutorial. We conduct descriptive analyses of the structure of the network of costudying relationships. We explore generative processes that create observed study networks between students and also test for an association between network position and success on exams. We also cover practical issues, such as the unique aspects of human subjects review for network studies. Our aims are to convince readers that using SNA in classroom environments allows rich and informative analyses to take place and to provide some initial tools for doing so, in the process inspiring future educational studies incorporating relational data. PMID:26086650

  1. Social Problem Solving as a Predictor of Well-Being in Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Andrew M. H.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Social problem solving is the cognitive-affective-behavioral process by which people attempt to resolve real-life problems in a social environment, and is of key importance in the management of emotions and well-being. This paper reviews a series of studies on social problem solving conducted by the authors. First, we developed and validated the…

  2. Emotion understanding, parent mental state language, and behavior problems in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Tarullo, Amanda R; Youssef, Adriana; Frenn, Kristin A; Wiik, Kristen; Garvin, Melissa C; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-05-01

    Internationally adopted postinstitutionalized (PI) children are at risk for lower levels of emotion understanding. This study examined how postadoption parenting influences emotion understanding and whether lower levels of emotion understanding are associated with behavior problems. Emotion understanding and parent mental state language were assessed in 3-year-old internationally adopted PI children (N = 25), and comparison groups of children internationally adopted from foster care (N = 25) and nonadopted (NA) children (N = 36). At 5.5-year follow-up, PI children had lower levels of emotion understanding than NA children, a group difference not explained by language. In the total sample, parent mental state language at age 3 years predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding after controlling for child language ability. The association of parent mental state language and 5.5-year emotion understanding was moderated by adoption status, such that parent mental state language predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding for the internationally adopted children, but not for the NA children. While postadoption experience does not erase negative effects of early deprivation on emotion understanding, results suggest that parents can promote emotion understanding development through mental state talk. At 5.5 years, PI children had more internalizing and externalizing problems than NA children, and these behavioral problems related to lower levels of emotion understanding. PMID:26612541

  3. Understanding Groups in Outdoor Adventure Education through Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jostad, Jeremy; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Relationships are a critical component to the experience of an outdoor adventure education (OAE) program, therefore, more fruitful ways of investigating groups is needed. Social network analysis (SNA) is an effective tool to study the relationship structure of small groups. This paper provides an explanation of SNA and shows how it was used by the…

  4. Understanding Social Capital Development and Academic Attainment of Mobile Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddie, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    The United States has a long history of searching for utopian possibilities of public school, amidst a steady stream of population mobility. Horace Mann proclaimed that schools would be able to assimilate the millions of immigrants arriving during the late 1700s. He promised that schools could end poverty, crime and social injustice. Today, public…

  5. Social Judgment Analysis: Methodology for Improving Interpersonal Communication and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbaugh, John; Harmon, Joel

    Research has found the Social Judgment Analysis (SJA) approach, with its focus on judgment policy and cognitive feedback, to be a significant factor in developing group member agreement and improving member performance. A controlled experiment was designed to assess the relative quality of the judgment making process provided by SJA.…

  6. Toward a Dynamic Conceptualization of Social Ties and Context: Implications for Understanding Immigrant and Latino Health

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Amy J.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have posited that social ties and social support may contribute to better-than-expected health outcomes among Mexican immigrants vis-à-vis their US-born counterparts. However, in our review of studies examining social ties and health by immigration-related variables among this group, we found little support for this hypothesis. To better understand the social factors that contribute to the health of Mexicans in the United States, we conducted a qualitative analysis of social relationships and social context among first- and second-generation Mexican women. Our results highlight the interplay between immigration processes and social ties, draw attention to the importance of identity support and transnational social relationships, and suggest ways to reconceptualize the relationship between social contexts, social ties, and immigrant and Latino health. PMID:19833986

  7. Understanding social complexity within the wildland-urban interface: a new species of human habitation?

    PubMed

    Paveglio, Travis B; Jakes, Pamela J; Carroll, Matthew S; Williams, Daniel R

    2009-06-01

    The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management. PMID:19238478

  8. Understanding Social Complexity Within the Wildland-Urban Interface: A New Species of Human Habitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paveglio, Travis B.; Jakes, Pamela J.; Carroll, Matthew S.; Williams, Daniel R.

    2009-06-01

    The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management.

  9. Understanding the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol use in college students: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schry, Amie R; White, Susan W

    2013-11-01

    Many college students use alcohol, and most of these students experience problems related to their use. Emerging research indicates that socially anxious students face heightened risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems, although the extant research on alcohol use and social anxiety in this population has yielded inconsistent findings. This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol variables in college students. A literature search was used to identify studies on college students that included measures of social anxiety and at least one of the alcohol variables of interest. All analyses were conducted using random effects models. We found that social anxiety was negatively correlated with alcohol use variables (e.g., typical quantity and typical frequency), but significantly positively correlated with alcohol-related problems, coping, conformity, and social motives for alcohol use, and positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies. Several moderators of effect sizes were found to be significant, including methodological factors such as sample ascertainment approach. Given that social anxiety was negatively related to alcohol use but positively related to alcohol-related problems, research is needed to address why individuals high in social anxiety experience more problems as a result of their alcohol use. Avoidance of social situations among socially anxious students should also be taken into account when measuring alcohol use. The primary limitation of this study is the small number of studies available for inclusion in some of the analyses. PMID:23906724

  10. Promoting College Students' Problem Understanding Using Schema-Emphasizing Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Jie; Lavigne, Nancy C.

    2014-01-01

    Statistics learners often bypass the critical step of understanding a problem before executing solutions. Worked-out examples that identify problem information (e.g., data type, number of groups, purpose of analysis) key to determining a solution (e.g., "t" test, chi-square, correlation) can address this concern. The authors examined the…

  11. Complex Problem Solving in Radiologic Technology: Understanding the Roles of Experience, Reflective Judgment, and Workplace Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…

  12. Students' Understanding and Application of the Area under the Curve Concept in Physics Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how students understand and apply the area under the curve concept and the integral-area relation in solving introductory physics problems. We interviewed 20 students in the first semester and 15 students from the same cohort in the second semester of a calculus-based physics course sequence on several problems involving…

  13. A Complete Understanding of Disorientation Problems in Web-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Pei-Ren; Hsu, Yung-Chi; Chen, Sherry Y.

    2012-01-01

    Disorientation problems influence student learning. To address this issue, this study uses an integrative approach to investigate the causes and consequences of disorientation problems so that a complete understanding can be obtained. Unlike previous empirical studies, which use statistical techniques, this study attempts to expose unexpected…

  14. Relative Expertise in an Everyday Reasoning Task: Epistemic Understanding, Problem Representation, and Reasoning Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Experts in cognitive domains differ from non-experts in how they represent problems and knowledge, and in their epistemic understandings of tasks in their domain of expertise. This study investigates whether task-specific epistemic understanding also underlies the representation of knowledge on an everyday reasoning task on which the competent…

  15. Children's Social Self-Concept and Internalizing Problems: The Influence of Peers and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilt, Jantine L.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Leflot, Geertje; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how relationships with peers and teachers contribute to the development of internalizing problems via children's social self-concept. The sample included 570 children aged 7 years 5 months (SD = 4.6 months). Peer nominations of peer rejection, child-reported social self-concept, and teacher-reported…

  16. Generalization of Social Skills: Strategies and Results of a Training Program in Problem Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paraschiv, Irina; Olley, J. Gregory

    This paper describes the "Problem Solving for Life" training program which trains adolescents and adults with mental retardation in skills for solving social problems. The program requires group participants to solve social problems by practicing two prerequisite skills (relaxation and positive self-statements) and four problem solving steps: (1)…

  17. Mother-Child Conversation and Children's Social Understanding During Middle Childhood.

    PubMed

    Pearson, RaeAnne M; Pillow, Bradford H

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between mother-child conversation and children's social understanding during middle childhood. Thirty-eight mother-child pairs participated, including a younger group (5-7 years old) and an older group (8-10 years old). Children completed 2 measures of social understanding and mothers and children discussed 4 stories involving social dilemmas. Results indicated that compared to the younger group, the older group (a) performed better on both measures of social understanding and (b) produced more basic mental talk (i.e., talk about beliefs, emotions, personality traits, and desires), and more advanced mental talk (i.e., talk about contrasting perspectives, recursion and relationship between mental states, and advanced emotions). Mothers of older children also produced more basic and advanced mental talk. Mothers' advanced mental talk predicted both children's social understanding and children's advanced mental talk. PMID:27341382

  18. Conceptual Understanding in Social Education. ACER Research Monograph No. 45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doig, Brian; And Others

    This report describes the results of a 1992 survey of students' economic, geographical, cultural, historical, and political understandings in the state of Victoria (Australia). The conception of some 2,900 students in Years 5 and 9 in government, Catholic and independent schools are investigated and described. The survey is one of a series of…

  19. Children's Interpretive Understanding, Moral Judgments, and Emotion Attributions: Relations to Social Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Gasser, Luciano; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated interpretive understanding, moral judgments, and emotion attributions in relation to social behaviour in a sample of 59 5-year-old, 123 7-year-old, and 130 9-year-old children. Interpretive understanding was assessed by two tasks measuring children's understanding of ambiguous situations. Moral judgments and emotion…

  20. Blindness as a challenging medical and social problem in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shixing

    2002-03-01

    China, a country with about one fifth of the world's population, has been gaining a rapid economic growth since 1980s. This country has around 5 million blind people, accounting for 18% of the blind in the world. The major causes of blindness include cataract, corneal diseases, trachoma, glaucoma, vitreoretinopathy and a number of factors contributing to blindness in children. The principal cause of blindness in China was no longer trachoma but cataracts. Vitamin A deficiency remains a public health problem in the under-developed areas. Age-related conditions in China, such as vision loss due to cataract and retinal disorders, will increase accordingly if no preventive meaunes are taken. Glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy appear to be predominant induction of the devastating blind. In this fast developing country blindness is not only a medical or health, but also a social problem. Developed strategies have been adopted simultaneously by national efforts under the leadership of the government, international agencies, nongovernmental organizations, as well as private sectors in their every-day work to prevent and treat blindness. PMID:15510666

  1. Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers' Understandings about the Nature of the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinç, Emin

    2014-01-01

    Social studies is one of the main courses of the elementary and middle school curriculum in Turkey. Social studies took educators attention because it prepares students as exemplary citizens. The term of social studies has been started to use at the end of 1960's in Turkey. Thus, there have been several definitions and classification of the social…

  2. Parsing protection and risk for problem behavior versus pro-social behavior among US and Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S

    2014-07-01

    This study investigates the different roles played by protective factors and risk factors-and by particular protective and risk factors-when the concern is with accounting for adolescent problem behavior than when the concern is with accounting for adolescent pro-social behavior. The protective and risk factor literature on adolescent problem behavior reveals considerable conceptual and operational ambiguity; an aim of the present study was to advance understanding in this domain of inquiry by providing a systematic conceptualization of protection and risk and of their measurement. Within the systematic framework of Problem Behavior Theory, four protective and four risk factors are assessed in a cross-national study of both problem behavior and pro-social behavior involving large adolescent samples in China (N = 1,368) and the US (N = 1,087), in grades 9, 10, and 11; females 56 %, US; 50 %, China. The findings reveal quite different roles for protection and risk, and for particular protective and risk factors, when the outcome criterion is problem behavior than when it is pro-social behavior. The protective factor, Controls Protection, which engages rule and regulations and sanctions in the adolescent's ecology, emerges as most important in influencing problem behavior, but it plays a relatively minor role in relationship to pro-social behavior. By contrast, Models Protection, the presence of pro-social models in the adolescent's ecology, and Support Protection, the presence of interest and care in that same ecology, have no significant relationship to problem behavior variation, but they are both the major predictors of variation in pro-social behavior. The findings are robust across the samples from the two very diverse societies. These results suggest that greater attention be given to protection in problem behavior research and that a more nuanced perspective is needed about the roles that particular protective and risk factors play in reducing problem

  3. Understanding loneliness during adolescence: developmental changes that increase the risk of perceived social isolation.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Brett; Hartl, Amy C

    2013-12-01

    Loneliness is typically defined in terms of feeling states. In this review, we take a somewhat different approach, describing loneliness in terms of perceived social isolation. Vulnerabilities to perceived social isolation differ across the lifespan. Unique properties of adolescence are identified that carry special risk for perceived social isolation. These include (but are not limited to) developmental changes in companions, developmental changes in autonomy and individuation, identity exploration, cognitive maturation, developmental changes in social perspective taking, and physical maturation. Scholars are encouraged to consider loneliness through the lens of perceived social isolation so as to better understand how the experience of physical isolation varies across adolescence. PMID:23866959

  4. Towards a deep understanding of malware propagation in online social networks

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Guanhua; Eidenbenz, Stephan; Chen, Guanling; Li, Nan

    2009-01-01

    Online social networks, which have been expanding at a blistering speed in the recent years, have emerged as a popular communication infrastructure for Internet users. Meanwhile, malware that specifically targets these online social networks are also on the rise. In this work, we aim to investigate the characteristics of malware propagation in online social networks. Our study is based on a dataset collected from a real-world location-based online social network. We analyze the social structure and user activity patterns of this network. We further use extensive trace-driven simulation to study the impact of initial infection, user click probability, social structure, and activity patterns on malware propagation in online social networks. The results from this work has greatly deepened our understanding of the nature of online social network malware and also shed light on how to defend against them effectively.

  5. Scaffolded problem-solving, learning approaches and understanding of concepts in an introductory college physics class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Constance

    This study was an exploration of students' use of scaffolded problems as part of their homework in an introductory calculus-based physics class. The study included consideration of the possible relationship of students' meaningful and rote learning approaches. The sample was comprised of 48 students who had completed all study instruments. Of this number, 23 did homework assignments that included scaffolded problems that had been divided into multiple steps that simplify, highlight, and organize the knowledge associated with the problem solving process. The other 25 students did non-scaffolded homework assignments. The Mechanics Baseline Test, given at the beginning of the study, measured students' prior knowledge of physics concepts. The Learning Approach Questionnaire, also given at the beginning of the study, measured students' meaningful and rote approaches to learning. Student responses to 6 qualitative physics problems and their selection of concepts associated with 4 quantitative physics problems was a gauge of their understanding of physics concepts. These 10 problems were distributed between 2 classroom examinations given during the study. At the end of the study 4 students who had done scaffolded homework problems and 4 students who had done non-scaffolded homework problems participated in think aloud protocols. They verbalized their thoughts as they attempted to solve 2 physics problems. Characterizations of individual problem solving approaches emerged from the think aloud protocols. An analysis of statistical data showed that students who did scaffolded problems attained significantly greater understanding of physics concepts than students who did non-scaffolded assignments. There were no significant differences by learning approaches, and no significant interactions. This indicates that scaffolded homework problems may benefit students regardless of learning orientation. Think aloud protocols revealed patterns of difference between students who had

  6. Understanding enabling capacities for managing the 'wicked problem' of nonpoint source water pollution in catchments: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

    2013-10-15

    Nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in catchments is a 'wicked' problem that threatens water quality, water security, ecosystem health and biodiversity, and thus the provision of ecosystem services that support human livelihoods and wellbeing from local to global scales. However, it is a difficult problem to manage because water catchments are linked human and natural systems that are complex, dynamic, multi-actor, and multi-scalar in nature. This in turn raises questions about understanding and influencing change across multiple levels of planning, decision-making and action. A key challenge in practice is enabling implementation of local management action, which can be influenced by a range of factors across multiple levels. This paper reviews and synthesises important 'enabling' capacities that can influence implementation of local management action, and develops a conceptual framework for understanding and analysing these in practice. Important enabling capacities identified include: history and contingency; institutional arrangements; collaboration; engagement; vision and strategy; knowledge building and brokerage; resourcing; entrepreneurship and leadership; and reflection and adaptation. Furthermore, local action is embedded within multi-scalar contexts and therefore, is highly contextual. The findings highlight the need for: (1) a systemic and integrative perspective for understanding and influencing change for managing the wicked problem of NPS water pollution; and (2) 'enabling' social and institutional arenas that support emergent and adaptive management structures, processes and innovations for addressing NPS water pollution in practice. These findings also have wider relevance to other 'wicked' natural resource management issues facing similar implementation challenges. PMID:23792915

  7. Poor Social Skills Are a Vulnerability Factor in the Development of Psychosocial Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segrin, Chris; Flora, Jeanne

    2000-01-01

    Presumes that poor social skills are thought to make people vulnerable to psychosocial problems pursuant to the experience of stressful life events. Indicates that lower social skills scores of a group of college freshmen were predictive of a worsening of psychosocial problems. Finds that social skills interacted with stressful life events to…

  8. Effects of Emotion and Goal Value on Social Problem-Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Bak, Irene; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    This paper reports on a study of situational influences of affect and goal value on social problem-solving in middle childhood. It was expected that the adequacy of any particular social problem-solving process would be reduced by increases in goal intensity. On the basis of prior testing, two social goals of high value and two of low value were…

  9. The Problem of Pseudoscience in Social Work Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyer, Bruce A.; Pignotti, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of Social Workers requires social workers to obtain continuing education (CE) after they receive their social work degrees. A large and profitable industry that has emerged catering to this need for CE that is particularly focused on the needs of licensed social workers. Quality control mechanisms in place to monitor the…

  10. Social networks and social control of probationers with co-occurring mental and substance abuse problems.

    PubMed

    Skeem, Jennifer; Eno Louden, Jennifer; Manchak, Sarah; Vidal, Sarah; Haddad, Eileen

    2009-04-01

    Probationers with co-occurring mental and substance abuse problems (PCPs) are both subject to considerable social control, and at high risk of probation failure. In this study, we screened 601 probationers for symptoms, interviewed 82 identified PCPs about their relationships, and then followed these PCPs for eight months to record treatment nonadherence and other probation violations. First, PCPs' social networks were small, heavily comprised of professionals and opposing forces who engaged in risky behavior, and saturated with pressure to adhere to treatment. Second, the size and composition of PCPs' social networks were more relevant to rule compliance than social support and undermining. Third, the quality of PCPs' relationships was key: satisfying relationships with clinicians and, to a lesser extent, officers and the core network related to low perceived coercion, high treatment adherence, and low risk of future violations. In particular, having a likable clinician who engaged in participatory decision-making reduced the risk of violations. Implications for contextually sensitive risk reduction efforts are discussed. PMID:18581220

  11. Corporate social policy - problems of institutionalization and experience of Russian oil and gas companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekhoda, E.; Kolbysheva, Yu; Makoveeva, V.

    2015-11-01

    The article examines a range of problems related to the process of institutionalization in the corporate social policy, characterizing the social responsibility of business and representing a part of the general strategy of corporate social responsibility. The experience of the social policy implementation in oil and gas companies is analyzed.

  12. Is conceptual understanding compromised by a problem-solving emphasis in an introductory physics course?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridenour, J.; Feldman, G.; Teodorescu, R.; Medsker, L.; Benmouna, N.

    2013-01-01

    Developing competency in problem solving and enhancing conceptual understanding are primary objectives in introductory physics, and many techniques and tools are available to help instructors achieve them. Pedagogically, we use an easy-to-implement intervention, the ACCESS protocol, to develop and assess problem-solving skills in our SCALE-UP classroom environment for algebra-based physics. Based on our research and teaching experience, an important question has emerged: while primarily targeting improvements in problem-solving and cognitive development, is it necessary that conceptual understanding be compromised? To address this question, we gathered and analyzed information about student abilities, backgrounds, and instructional preferences. We report on our progress and give insights into matching the instructional tools to student profiles in order to achieve optimal learning in group-based active learning. The ultimate goal of our work is to integrate individual student learning needs into a pedagogy that moves students closer to expert-like status in problem solving.

  13. Understanding in Counselling: A Preliminary Social Constructionist and Conversation Analytic Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Increasing numbers of counsellors practise using social constructionist (e.g. narrative, collaborative language systems and solution-focused) approaches. Social constructionist theory holds that matters such as "understanding" are constructed and upheld in human interaction though counselling approaches derived from this theory offer little…

  14. Infants' Social and Motor Experience and the Emerging Understanding of Intentional Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandone, Amanda C.

    2015-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants possess some of the key social--cognitive abilities required for success in a social world: Infants interpret others' actions in terms of their intentions and can use this understanding prospectively to generate predictions about others' behavior. Exactly how these foundational abilities develop is currently…

  15. Quantitative Understanding to Enhance Social Science Teaching. Project QUESST: Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Resources Center, Inc., Boulder, CO.

    This technical project report provides the National Science Foundation with information regarding the substantive achievements of the Social Science Education Consortium's project QUESST (Quantitative Understanding To Enhance Social Science Teaching). The report begins with a discussion of materials development and project publicity. Thirty-three…

  16. Literacy and Social Justice: Understanding Student Perceptions and Conceptions about Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosthwaite, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Literacy and learning is a social process, one that is both transformative, empowering, and can often lead to social change. The following study is based on the idea that literacy can be used as a tool not only to teach the basic skills of reading, but the skills for individuals to learn to be compassionate towards others, understand their…

  17. Getting Vygotskian about Theory of Mind: Mediation, Dialogue, and the Development of Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernyhough, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The ideas of Vygotsky [Vygotsky, L. S. (1987). "Thinking and speech." In "The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky," (Vol. 1). New York: Plenum. (Original work published 1934.)] have been increasingly influential in accounting for social-environmental influences on the development of social understanding (SU). In the first part of this article, I…

  18. Longitudinal Associations between Depressive Problems, Academic Performance, and Social Functioning in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verboom, Charlotte E.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Ormel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between depressive problems and three types of functioning in…

  19. Mental Health, School Problems, and Social Networks: Modeling Urban Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and…

  20. The socialization of emotional understanding: a comparison of neglectful and nonneglectful mothers and their children.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Anna; Shipman, Kimberly; Brown, Amy

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of maternal socialization (i.e., maternal support, discussion of emotion, negative affect) on children's emotional understanding in 24 neglectful mother-child dyads and a matched control group. Mothers and children were administered an interaction task. Mothers were also assessed for negative emotional experience, and children were assessed for emotional understanding and expectations of maternal support. Findings indicated that neglectful mothers, compared with nonneglectful mothers, provided less support in response to their children's emotional displays, engaged in less emotional discussion, and reported more negative emotion. As well, neglected children demonstrated lower levels of emotional understanding than nonmaltreated children. Further, maternal support mediated the relation between neglect and children's emotional understanding. Findings are discussed from the functionalist approach to emotional development, emphasizing the importance of social context and socialization on children's emotional understanding. PMID:15983112

  1. Medical and social problems among women headed families in Baghdad

    PubMed Central

    Lafta, Riyadh K; Hayawi, Ali H; Khudhairi, Jamal M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Women-headed families tend to be the most marginalized and poverty prone in any given community. One in 10 Iraqi households is headed by woman according to International Organization for Migration, though their assessments suggest that this ratio rises to 1 in 8 in displaced families. Objective: To draw attention to the exposure and vulnerability of women headed families to key medical and social problems. Methods: This cross – sectional study was conducted from March through February 2011. Eleven non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were chosen to be the pool of data collection, in addition to 50 primary, intermediate, and secondary schools for girls. The actual participants were 720 with a response rate of (97%). Women headed families participated in the study were distributed in different areas of Baghdad and the districts around. Results: Hypertension is the leading disease (20%) followed by arthritis (9.6%), heart disease (7.6%), and diabetes mellitus (5.2%), the least was tuberculosis (0.1%). On the other hand, the number of sons and daughters with chronic disease was 159 (6.4%). Respiratory system disease is at the top of the list at a rate of (20.6 per 1000) while the gastrointestinal disease is at the bottom at a rate of (1.6 per 1000). 7.8% of the studied household-heading women were exposed to violence that was either verbal (75%) or physical (25%), the source was the woman's parents (42.9%), husband's family (34%), neighbors (8.9%), and others (14.3%). The percentage of problematic sons (17.9%) who show different types of behavior, (30.2%) of them not obeying their mothers, (21%) hit their brothers, (9.3%) insulting the mother, (2.3%) have problems with neighbors. PMID:25003041

  2. The Social Problem-Solving Questionnaire: Evaluation of Psychometric Properties among Turkish Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Children, like adults, face numerous problems and conflicts in their everyday lives, including issues with peers, siblings, older children, parents, teachers, and other adults. The methods children use to solve such problems are more important than actually facing the problems. The lack of effective social problem-solving skills…

  3. Incorporating Social Anxiety Into a Model of College Problem Drinking: Replication and Extension

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Lindsay S.; Hope, Debra A.

    2009-01-01

    Although research has found an association between social anxiety and alcohol use in noncollege samples, results have been mixed for college samples. College students face many novel social situations in which they may drink to reduce social anxiety. In the current study, the authors tested a model of college problem drinking, incorporating social anxiety and related psychosocial variables among 228 undergraduate volunteers. According to structural equation modeling (SEM) results, social anxiety was unrelated to alcohol use and was negatively related to drinking consequences. Perceived drinking norms mediated the social anxiety–alcohol use relation and was the variable most strongly associated with problem drinking. College students appear to be unique with respect to drinking and social anxiety. Although the notion of social anxiety alone as a risk factor for problem drinking was unsupported, additional research is necessary to determine whether there is a subset of socially anxious students who have high drinking norms and are in need of intervention. PMID:16938075

  4. Understanding the Link between Social Organization and Crime in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Chilenski, Sarah M.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Rural communities make up much of America's heartland, yet we know little about their social organization, and how elements of their social organization relate to crime rates. The current study sought to remedy this gap by examining the associations between two measures of social organization – collective efficacy and social trust – with a number of structural community characteristics, local crime rates, and perceptions of safety in a sample of 27 rural and small town communities in two states. Measures of collective efficacy, social trust, and perceived safety, were gathered from key community members in 2006; other measures were drawn from the 2000 Census and FBI Uniform Crime Reporting system. A series of competing hypotheses were tested to examine the relative importance of social trust and collective efficacy in predicting local crime rates. Results do not support the full generalization of the social disorganization model. Correlational analyses showed that neither collective efficacy nor social trust had a direct association with community crime, nor did they mediate the associations between community structural characteristics and crime. However, perceived safety mediated the association between community crime and both measures of social organization. Analyses suggest that social trust may be more important than collective efficacy when understanding the effect of crime on a community's culture in rural areas. Understanding these associations in rural settings can aid decision makers in shaping policies to reduce crime and juvenile delinquency. PMID:26120326

  5. Social competence and conduct problems in young children: issues in assessment.

    PubMed

    Webster-Stratton, C; Lindsay, D W

    1999-03-01

    Examined the differences in various facets of social competence in 2 groups of young children (ages 4-7 years)--a clinic-referred group of aggressive children (N = 60) diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct problems and a matched comparison group of typically developing children (N = 60). Four aspects of social competence were assessed: social information processing, actual observations of conflict management skills and social play interactions during peer interactions, positive social interactions with mothers and fathers at home, and teacher reports of social competence. The social information processing assessed included problem-solving skills (hypothetical skills as demonstrated on a social problem-solving test), self-perceptions (child's awareness of his or her own social self and feelings of loneliness), perceptions of others (attributions), and perceptions of others' attitudes toward oneself. To determine the construct validity of various means of assessing child social competence, we correlated children's social information processing measures with parent and teacher reports of social adjustment and with actual observations of interactions during peer play and at home with parents. Results comparing the 2 groups suggest that young children with conduct problems have deficits in their social information processing awareness or interpretation of social cues--they overestimate their own social competence and misattribute hostile intent to others. Tests of cognitive problem solving and observations of peer play interactions indicated that the children with conduct problems had significantly fewer positive problem-solving strategies and positive social skills, more negative conflict management strategies, and delayed play skills with peers than the comparison children. Correlation analyses indicated significant correlations between children's negative attributions and the ratio of positive to negative problem-solving strategies with observations

  6. Bringing the "Social" Back to Social Studies: Literacy Strategies as Tools for Understanding History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macphee, Deborah A.; Whitecotton, Emily J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of English (2008) defines "literacy" as a collection of cultural and communicative practices shared among members of particular groups. Classrooms are cultures in which the development of these practices not only reflects the social studies, but also expands knowledge of the social studies while fostering civic…

  7. Understanding Knowledge Sharing between IT Professionals--An Integration of Social Cognitive and Social Exchange Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was…

  8. Embeddedness and Empathy: How the Social Network Shapes Adolescents' Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfer, Ralf; Cortina, Kai S.; Baumert, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Based on theories of social-cognitive development, the present study investigated the yet unknown social structure that underlies the concept of empathy in adolescence. A total of 3.159 seventh graders (13.67 years, 56% girls) from 166 school classes participated by providing information on empathy, related psychosocial factors, and friendship…

  9. Incorporating Dryland Ecohydrology into a Social-Ecological Framework: The Problem of Woody Plant Encroachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Grasslands and savannas across the globe have been transformed into woodlands, through a process often described as woody plant encroachment (WPE). This transformation has important implications for water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles—a topic that has been explored extensively, as reflected in the ecohydrological literature. The changes related to WPE have important societal implications as well. It is clear that human actions are strongly linked with both the causes and the consequences of WPE. At the same time, WPE has proved intractable in the face of attempts to slow or abate the phenomenon. Increasingly, it is being recognized that such complex environmental problems must be treated as social-ecological systems, that is, coupled human and natural systems. In this presentation, I will discuss recent progress in understanding WPE as a social-ecohydrological system and explore potentially promising approaches that merge insights from multiple disciplines—including hydrology, ecology, remote sensing, economics, and social sciences—as a basis for agent-based models that can improve our understanding of this complex phenomenon.

  10. Graduate Social Work Students' Attitudes toward Research: Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenshtern, Marina; Freymond, Nancy; Agyapong, Samuel; Greeson, Clare

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the attitudes of graduate social work students toward research in the contexts of academic study, professional social work practice, and students' personal lives. The authors collected quantitative and qualitative data from MSW students (n = 102) at a major Canadian school of social work. Findings suggest that MSW students…

  11. Teaching Social Studies to Middle School Students with Learning Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2008-01-01

    Because of recent legislation, students with mild disabilities frequently receive social studies instruction in the general education classroom. Therefore, middle school teachers have the challenge of teaching social studies to students with a wide range of abilities. Emphasis in the general education social studies curriculum is on high-level…

  12. The STAR Project: Enhancing Adolescents' Social Understanding through Video-based, Multimedia Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsworthy, Richard C.; Barab, Sasha A.; Goldsworthy, Elizabeth L.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes a computer game that supports the development of learners' social problem-solving skills. In a controlled three-group design, the group using the prototype game performed significantly better than an attention-placebo control and comparably to a therapist-directed group on measures of problem solving and engagement. However,…

  13. The Sound of Social Cognition: Toddlers' Understanding of How Sound Influences Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Rebecca A.; Brooks, Rechele; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding others' perceptions is a fundamental aspect of social cognition. Children's construal of visual perception is well investigated, but there is little work on children's understanding of others' auditory perception. The current study assesses toddlers' recognition that producing different sounds can affect others…

  14. Improving Social Understanding of Preschool Children: Evaluation of a Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteban, Moises; Sidera, Francesc; Serrano, Jessica; Amado, Anna; Rostan, Carles

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This study tested the effects of a training program intending to foster social understanding or the capacity which enables them to understand themselves and others in terms of intentions, beliefs, desires, and emotions in children at preschool age. A number of studies have shown that in the context of shared narratives, children are…

  15. Beyond Family and Ethnic Culture: Understanding the Preconditions for the Potential Realization of Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, Leticia; Conchas, Gilberto Q.; Mosqueda, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    This article extends our conceptual understanding of social capital and school achievement through a comparative race and ethnic approach. Using the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) 1988-1990 panel, this article develops a more comprehensive understanding of school achievement by exploring circumstances, which the authors call…

  16. Supporting Holistic Understanding of Geographical Problems: Fieldwork and G-Portal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjea, Kalyani; Chang, Chew-Hung; Lim, Ee-Peng; Zhang, Jun; Theng, Yin-Leng; Go, Dion Hoe-Lian

    2008-01-01

    Fieldwork remains the mainstay in the study of geography and in the analysis of the environmental processes. However, an in-depth understanding of the environmental and geographical processes requires extensive as well as intensive fieldwork that involves time and substantial effort, both of which may pose a problem within a given curriculum time.…

  17. Contributions of the National Assessment to Understanding the Problems of Literacy and Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rexford

    To understand the contributions of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) toward solving the problems of literacy and equity, this report addresses two questions: (1) How can NAEP provide useful information concerning educational equity and standards of and levels of literacy, particularly with regard to linguistic and ethnic…

  18. Problems of Understanding between Immigrants and Officials at Public Authorities in Argentina and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    In conversations between immigrants and officials, problems of understanding are often noticeable. About 280 recordings realised at the Argentine Aliens' Department and at several public authorities in Germany show that knowledge divergences regarding linguistic, cultural and institutional knowledge result in (sometimes grave) difficulties of…

  19. Building a Meaning Bridge: Therapeutic Progress from Problem Formulation to Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinegar, Meredith Glick; Salvi, Lisa M.; Stiles, William B.; Greenberg, Leslie S.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative analyses of 2 clients' psychotherapies (client centered and process-experiential) investigated the developmental progression from formulating a problem to achieving an understanding of it. The results elaborated one segment in the 8-stage Assimilation of Problematic Experiences Sequence (APES), through which problematic parts of a…

  20. Longer Bars for Bigger Numbers? Children's Usage and Understanding of Graphical Representations of Algebraic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kerry; Khng, Kiat Hui; Ng, Swee Fong; Ng Lan Kong, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In Singapore, primary school students are taught to use bar diagrams to represent known and unknown values in algebraic word problems. However, little is known about students' understanding of these graphical representations. We investigated whether students use and think of the bar diagrams in a concrete or a more abstract fashion. We also…

  1. Modeling Scientific Processes with Mathematics Equations Enhances Student Qualitative Conceptual Understanding and Quantitative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchardt, Anita M.; Schunn, Christian D.

    2016-01-01

    Amid calls for integrating science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (iSTEM) in K-12 education, there is a pressing need to uncover productive methods of integration. Prior research has shown that increasing contextual linkages between science and mathematics is associated with student problem solving and conceptual understanding. However,…

  2. Thai Grade 10 and 11 Students' Conceptual Understanding and Ability to Solve Stoichiometry Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahsah, Chanyah; Coll, Richard K.

    2007-01-01

    Stoichiometry and related concepts are an important part of student learning in chemistry. In this interpretive-based inquiry, we investigated Thai Grade 10 and 11 students' conceptual understanding and ability to solve numerical problems for stoichiometry-related concepts. Ninety-seven participants completed a purpose-designed survey instrument…

  3. Social problem solving, family functioning, and suicidal ideation among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C Lai; Shek, Daniel T L

    2009-01-01

    Based on the responses of 5,557 Chinese secondary students in Hong Kong, the relationship among social problem solving, perceived family functioning, and suicidal ideation were examined in this study. Results showed that suicidal ideation was negatively related to social problem solving and family functioning. It was further found that the linkage between social problem solving and adolescent suicidal ideation was stronger under high family functioning relative to low family functioning, thus suggesting the moderating effect of family functioning on the effect of social problem solving on suicidal ideation. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:19764274

  4. "But-He'll Fall!": Children with Autism, Interspecies Intersubjectivity, and the Problem of 'Being Social'.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Olga

    2015-06-01

    'Being autistic' or 'having Autism Spectrum Disorder' implies a limited range of 'being social,' but the in situ organization of interaction, what Maynard and Marlaire (Qual Soc 15(2):177-202, 1992) call the 'interactional substrate,' within which this delimitation enfolds is usually hidden from sight. Analysis of processes constituting different 'interactional substrates' provides a view of how one comes to be known by and to self and others as a certain kind of being who is available (or not) for acting and feeling in certain ways. People diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 2013) are often described as 'being' impaired in intersubjective understanding of others. But the story of ASD as an impairment of sociality and intersubjectivity becomes more complicated when animals enter into the picture. I consider two interactional substrates: a psychological interview in a mental health clinic, and an animal-assisted activity in a child's neighborhood. I aim to elucidate the practical problems of 'being social' encountered by two children with ASD, both nine-year-old girls, within these two very differently organized interactional substrates. I consider ways in which 'being with' therapy animals provides a way of 'being social' through "sensory modalities of knowing" (Haraway, When species meet, 2008:371). PMID:25926308

  5. Evaluating Age Differences in Coping Motives as a Mediator of the Link between Social Anxiety Symptoms and Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Clerkin, Elise M.; Werntz, Alexandra J.; Magee, Joshua C.; Lindgren, Kristen P.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate whether coping motives mediate the relationship between self-reported symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems across different age groups, building upon previous research conducted among emerging adults. This study focuses on adult drinkers, including emerging adults (age 18–25; n = 148), young adults (age 26–39; n = 68), and middle-aged adults (age 40–65; n = 51). All participants completed measures of social anxiety symptoms, alcohol problems, and coping motives, administered via the web. Invariance tests using structural equation modeling suggested that among emerging adults (and to some degree middle-aged adults), coping motives mediated the positive relationship between symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems. Interestingly, coping motives appeared to suppress a negative relationship between social anxiety and alcohol problems in young adults. Results suggest that it is critical to consider age differences when attempting to understand the relationships between symptoms of social anxiety, alcohol problems, and coping motives. PMID:24841182

  6. College Students' Intuitive Understanding and Problem-Solving of Energy and Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittasirinuwat, Onchira; Kruatong, Tussatrin; Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat

    2010-07-01

    This study addresses students' intuitive understanding of energy and momentum and their problem solving ability. The subjects of this research were students who had experiences with conservation of energy and momentum. Nine undergraduate students completed event-based Interviews with three related events which composed of Event I: Simple collisions, Event II: Newton's cradle and Event III: Gauss gun. Their intuitive understanding was explored through three well-defined items involving Event I and II. The interviews revealed that most students explained the two events by utilizing their intuitive understanding rather than scientific conceptions. Then problem-solving thinking was identified through ill-defined problems involving Event III. From the Gauss gun setting, students were asked to explain how Gauss gun works, how to build the highest power Gauss gun and interpret the graph of mass and distance of steel ball after collisions. Research findings showed that students who have fairly good command of basic knowledge, tended to use of problem solving strategies as expected. For example, a student who understood the perfectly transferring energy and momentum of the equal mass of balls, was able to identify the possible factors for design more effective Gauss gun reasonably. However, most of the students were unable to use suitable vocabulary in providing reasons and explanations for certain problem-solving procedures. Thus, lacking basic knowledge can impede problem-solving thinking. It is hope that these findings will serve as a reference for educators in improving the learning and teaching of energy and momentum in general and problem solving instruction in particular.

  7. Social Understanding and Social Lives: From Toddlerhood through to the Transition to School. Essays in Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, researchers have documented a remarkable growth in children's social understanding between toddlerhood and the early school years. However, it is still unclear why some children's awareness of others' thoughts and feelings lags so far behind that of their peers. Based on research that spans an extended developmental…

  8. Infants' social and motor experience and the emerging understanding of intentional actions.

    PubMed

    Brandone, Amanda C

    2015-04-01

    During the first year of life, infants possess some of the key social-cognitive abilities required for success in a social world: Infants interpret others' actions in terms of their intentions and can use this understanding prospectively to generate predictions about others' behavior. Exactly how these foundational abilities develop is currently unknown. The goal of this study was to shed light on the developmental mechanisms underlying changes in infants' understanding of intentional actions by documenting relations between infants' intention understanding and other emerging social (joint attention) and motor (means-end and self-locomotion) abilities. Using eye tracking, 8- to 11-month-olds infants' (N = 80) ability to visually predict the goal of an ongoing successful or failed intentional action was examined in relation to their developing means-end, self-locomotion, and joint attention abilities. Results confirmed previous findings showing improvements in infants' ability to interpret and make predictions about others' failed intentional actions. Importantly, results also indicated that parent-report measures of infants' initiating-joint-attention and self-locomotion abilities were associated with the ability to visually predict the outcome of a failed reaching action. These data support the view that infants' social and motor experiences may contribute to changes in their social-cognitive abilities. In particular, joint-attentive social interactions that occur with increasing frequency as infants learn to crawl and walk may shape infants' understanding of others as intentional agents. PMID:25689000

  9. Social Networks as the Context for Understanding Employment Services Utilization among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with use of employment services among homeless youth. Social network characteristics have been known to be influential in motivating people's decision to seek services. Traditional theoretical frameworks applied to studies of service use emphasize individual factors over social contexts and interactions. Using key social network, social capital, and social influence theories, this paper developed an integrated theoretical framework that could capture the social network processes that act as barriers or facilitators of use of employment services by homeless youth, and understand empirically, the salience of each of these constructs in influencing the use of employment services among homeless youth. We used the “Event based-approach” strategy to recruit a sample of 136 homeless youth at one drop-in agency serving homeless youth in Los Angeles, California in 2008. The participants were queried regarding their individual and network characteristics. Data were entered into NetDraw 2.090 and the spring embedder routine was used to generate the network visualizations. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of the network characteristics on use of employment services. The study findings suggest that social capital is more significant in understanding why homeless youth use employment services, relative to network structure and network influence. In particular, bonding and bridging social capital were found to have differential effects on use of employment services among this population. The results from this study provide specific directions for interventions aimed to increase use of employment services among homeless youth. PMID:24780279

  10. Today's Young People: On the Problem of "Deficient" Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorkaia, Nataliia

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1990s, the potential for change in society, the modernization of society, was associated with the younger generations' entering into a "new life." This article focuses on what the younger generations bring with them to the socialization process, and the characteristics of the socialization of young people in the framework…