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1

Understanding social motor coordination.  

PubMed

Recently there has been much interest in social coordination of motor movements, or as it is referred to by some researchers, joint action. This paper reviews the cognitive perspective's common coding/mirror neuron theory of joint action, describes some of its limitations and then presents the behavioral dynamics perspective as an alternative way of understanding social motor coordination. In particular, behavioral dynamics' ability to explain the temporal coordination of interacting individuals is detailed. Two experiments are then described that demonstrate how dynamical processes of synchronization are apparent in the coordination underlying everyday joint actions such as martial art exercises, hand-clapping games, and conversations. The import of this evidence is that emergent dynamic patterns such as synchronization are the behavioral order that any neural substrate supporting joint action (e.g., mirror systems) would have to sustain. PMID:20817320

Schmidt, R C; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Caron, Robert; Mergeche, Joanna

2011-10-01

2

Understanding Social Entrepreneurship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of social entrepreneurship in social, cultural and economic terms is increasingly acknowledged. Drawing on data from the second Social Entrepreneurship Monitor report published by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) UK project, this article focuses on the social entrepreneurs who may grow the social enterprises of the future.…

Harding, Rebecca

2007-01-01

3

Social problems in oncology  

PubMed Central

A study was undertaken to describe, evaluate and categorise the social problems experienced by cancer patients. Ninety-six adult cancer patients at all stages of disease participated in either a telephone focus group discussion, a face to face focus group or an individual interview which were tape recorded and transcribed. Six experts analysed the transcripts. A total of 32 social problems were identified categorized under eight headings plus four single items. The categories were: problems with (1) managing in the home, (2) health and welfare services, (3) finances, (4) employment, (5) legal matters, (6) relationships, (7) sexuality and body image and (8) recreation. Problems with relationships and communication were the most frequently reported with financial, employment, body image and domestic problems also being widely endorsed. Female groups, younger patient groups and groups where the aim of treatment was palliative reported more social problems than other groups. Social problems are common and important to cancer patients. The social problems identified in this study will contribute to an item pool generated for developing a Social Problems Inventory that may be included in patient centred assessment as part of routine oncology practice. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 1099–1104. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600642 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12402148

Wright, E P; Kiely, M A; Lynch, P; Cull, A; Selby, P J

2002-01-01

4

Understanding Social Media: Accelerating Social Participation  

E-print Network

Understanding Social Media: Accelerating Social Participation Ben Shneiderman ben, graphics · Instructions, messages, help · Collaboration & Social Media · Help, tutorials, training · Search: Business Intelligence #12;www.hivegroup.com Treemap: Supply Chain #12;Treemap: NY Times ­ Car&Truck Sales

Shneiderman, Ben

5

Social Problems: Sociology 231  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online syllabi and course readings offer good examples of the manner in which the Internet can enrich university courses. Dr. Frank Elwell's fall 1997 course on social problems explored the links between technological development, population growth, environmental degradation, social change and disorganization, social inequality, deviance and crime. Both the course outline and syllabus feature links to essays by Elwell, study guides, and previous exams.

Elwell, Frank W.

1997-01-01

6

Understanding social inequalities in health.  

PubMed

A prominent feature of health in all industrialized countries is the social gradient in health and disease. Many observers believe that this gradient is simply a matter of poor health for the disadvantaged and good health for everyone else, but this is an inadequate analysis. The Whitehall Study documented a social gradient in mortality rates, even among people who are not poor, and this pattern has been confirmed by data from the United States and elsewhere. The social gradient in health is influenced by such factors as social position; relative versus absolute deprivation; and control and social participation. To understand causality and generate policies to improve health, we must consider the relationship between social environment and health and especially the importance of early life experiences. PMID:14563071

Marmot, Michael G

2003-01-01

7

Understanding and Treating Social Phobia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social phobia, a relatively obscure disorder, is receiving increased attention due to evidence suggesting that it is more prevalent and debilitative than once thought. The purpose of this article is to help counselors better understand the nature of and treatments for this disorder. Effective behavioral and pharmacological approaches are reviewed,…

Curtis, Russell C.; Kimball, Amy; Stroup, Erin L.

2004-01-01

8

Understanding Heart Valve Problems and Causes  

MedlinePLUS

Understanding Heart Valve Problems and Causes Updated:May 6,2014 Many heart valve problems are first identified by the ... Congenital Heart Defect See all of our brochures Heart Valve Problems and Disease • Home • About Heart Valves • ...

9

Understanding socially intelligent agents - a multilayered phenomenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate purpose with socially intelligent agent (SIA) technology is not to simulate social intelligence per se, but to let an agent give an impression of social intelligence. Such user-centred SIA technology, must consider the everyday knowledge and expectations by which users make sense of real, fictive, or artificial social beings. This folk-theoretical understanding of other social beings involves several,

Per Persson; Jarmo Laaksolahti; Peter Lönnqvist

2001-01-01

10

Understanding the Problem of Pornography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report was written to clarify the terms often associated with pornography and to help readers understand the issue of pornography more clearly. The first chapter defines pornography, as it was defined by the United States Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, as "that material (which) is predominantly sexually explicit and intended…

Metzger, Leigh Ann

11

Understanding Social Networks Properties for Trustworthy Computing  

E-print Network

these properties and understand the relationship among them and to other characteristics of social networks. We for the effectiveness of applications built on top of the social network. While most applications and primitives builtUnderstanding Social Networks Properties for Trustworthy Computing Abedelaziz Mohaisen, Huy Tran

Kim, Dae-Shik

12

Understanding Education for Social Justice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has become increasingly common for education scholars to claim a social justice orientation in their work. At the same time, education programs seem to be adding statements about the importance of social justice to their mission, and a growing number of teacher education programs are fundamentally oriented around a vision of social justice.…

Hytten, Kathy; Bettez, Silvia C.

2011-01-01

13

Understanding Social Media with Machine Learning  

E-print Network

Understanding Social Media with Machine Learning Xiaojin Zhu jerryzhu@cs.wisc.edu Department Social Media CCF/ADL Beijing 2013 1 / 95 #12;Outline 1 Spatio-Temporal Signal Recovery from Social Media Regularization Stochastic Processes 3 Socioscope: A Probabilistic Model for Social Media 4 Case Study: Roadkill

Zhu, Xiaojin "Jerry"

14

Understanding Friendship and Social Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines social interaction and friendship within Piaget's theory as factors influencing cognitive development. Through social interaction, children construct knowledge about themselves and others within peer and adult cultures. Peer relationships, characterized by mutuality, help children establish a shared identity and develop friendships,…

Burk, Deborah I.

1996-01-01

15

Lesion mapping of social problem solving.  

PubMed

Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511

Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

2014-10-01

16

Understanding latent interactions in online social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Popular online social networks (OSNs) like Facebook and Twitter are changing the way users communicate and interact with the Internet. A deep understanding of user interactions in OSNs can provide important insights into questions of human social behavior, and into the design of social platforms and applications. However, recent studies have shown that a majority of user interactions on OSNs

Jing Jiang; Christo Wilson; Xiao Wang; Peng Huang; Wenpeng Sha; Yafei Dai; Ben Y. Zhao

2010-01-01

17

The concept assignment problem in program understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A person understands a program because they are able to relate the structures of the program and its environment to their human oriented conceptual knowledge about the world. The problem of discovering individud human oriented concepts and assigning them to their implementation oriented counterparts for a given a program is the concept assignment problem. We will argue that the solution

Ted J. Biggerstaff; Bharat G. Mitbander; Dallas E. Webster

1993-01-01

18

Culture, Executive Function, and Social Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of the evidence from the West has shown links between children's developing self-control (executive function), their social experiences, and their social understanding (Carpendale & Lewis, 2006, chapters 5 and 6), across a range of cultures including China. This chapter describes four studies conducted in three Oriental cultures, suggesting…

Lewis, Charlie; Koyasu, Masuo; Oh, Seungmi; Ogawa, Ayako; Short, Benjamin; Huang, Zhao

2009-01-01

19

The Development of Social Role Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the social role understanding of 72 children aged 5, 8, and 11 years. An illustrated story, written especially for the project, was used as the basis for conducting a semistructured interview with each child. The main aspects examined included role definition and children's understanding of the role's characteristics; and…

Hardman, Margaret A.

20

Understanding Fashion Cycles as a Social Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a formal model for studying fashion trends, in terms of three\\u000aparameters of fashionable items: (1) their innate utility; (2) individual\\u000aboredom associated with repeated usage of an item; and (3) social influences\\u000aassociated with the preferences from other people. While there are several\\u000aworks that emphasize the effect of social influence in understanding fashion\\u000atrends, in this

Anish Das Sarma; Sreenivas Gollapudi; Rina Panigrahy; Li Zhang

2010-01-01

21

A guide to understanding social science research for natural scientists.  

PubMed

Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. PMID:24962114

Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah

2014-10-01

22

Research Article Understanding Social Media Logic  

E-print Network

Abstract: Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mechanics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpinning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass media logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmability, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increasingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at

José Van Dijck; Thomas Poell

2013-01-01

23

Using Social Science to Understand and Improve  

E-print Network

The wildland fire community has spent the past decade trying to understand and account for the role of human factors in wildland fire organizations. Social research that is relevant to managing fire organizations can be found in disciplines such as social psychology, management, and communication. However, such research has been published primarily for scientific and business audiences, and much of the fire community has not been exposed to it. Here, we have compiled and organized knowledge from a variety of social science disciplines so that it can be used to improve organizational practices related to firefighter and public safety, to assess the effectiveness of safety campaigns, and to improve firefighter safety trainings. This annotated reading list summarizes approximately 270 books, articles, and online resources that address scientific and management concepts helpful for understanding the human side of fire management. The first section, Human Factors and Firefighting, introduces readers to key workshops and writings that led to the recognition that human factors are prime ingredients of firefighter safety. The second section, Foundations for Understanding Organizations, consists of social science research that provides a foundation for understanding organizational dynamics. This section includes readings on decision making and sensemaking, organizational culture, identification and identity, leadership and change, organizational learning, and teams and crews. The third section, Understanding Organizations in High Risk Contexts, explores organizations that deal regularly with risk, uncertainty and crisis.

United States; Forest Service; Wildland Fire Organizations

2007-01-01

24

Toward an integrative understanding of social phobia.  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to examine the neurobiology of social phobia from the perspectives of basic sciences, genetics, immunology, neuroendocrinology, neurotransmission and neuroimaging and to provide an integrated understanding of social phobia in the framework of a hypothetical neural circuit. Family and twin studies provide evidence that social phobia is heritable with significant genetic influence, and molecular genetics offers possibilities in understanding the nature of the trait that is transmitted. The biologic distinctiveness of social phobia from anxiety disorders and physiological validation of differences between generalized and discrete social phobia subtypes have been implicated in genetic, naturalistic and chemical challenge studies. Evidence of specific dysfunction of dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic and GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acid) neurotransmitter systems has been presented in animal models, challenge studies and treatment investigations. Preliminary neuroimaging research supports previous studies suggesting striatal dopaminergic dysfunction in social phobia and suggests the importance of functional circuits. A neural circuit involving the striatum, thalamus, amygdala and cortical structures may provide a framework for integrating much of the current knowledge on the neurobiology of social phobia. PMID:11394189

Li, D; Chokka, P; Tibbo, P

2001-01-01

25

Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

O'Mara, Joanne

2002-01-01

26

Understanding Student Identity from a Socialization Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter describes the contribution of current research using the Weidman model of undergraduate socialization to understanding student identity development in college. It illustrates ways in which the framework can be used flexibly and adapted for studying impacts of multiple aspects of the college experience on diverse groups of students.

Weidman, John C.; DeAngelo, Linda; Bethea, Kathryn A.

2014-01-01

27

[Obesity as disease and as social problem].  

PubMed

This text is part of a broader line of study that aims to analyze how and why certain eating habits and bodily practices have become social problems, as is the case with fatness. We will show that the ideas that support the definition of obesity as a chronic and avoidable disease are leading experts and health authorities, and other social workers, to know and to think about its evolution in terms of "global" illness (epidemic) and to consider cultural factors as their main cause (obesogenic environment). Paradoxically, the international and national preventive measures taken are focused on changing individual behavior and, in particular, eating habits. The concepts about the regulation of excess weight and food provide interesting information about a particular understanding of lifestyles and culture and they take into account the current promotion of health patterns. PMID:21384635

Gracia Arnaiz, Mabel

2010-01-01

28

Social Signal Processing: Understanding Social Interactions through Nonverbal Behavior Analysis  

E-print Network

to watch the television in a country of which you do not know the language. While you cannot understand what is being said, you can still catch a good deal of infor- mation about social interactions taking the interaction is tense or relaxed, guess the kind of relationships people on the video have in their The work

Vinciarelli, Alessandro

29

Understanding Graph Sampling Algorithms for Social Network Analysis  

E-print Network

Understanding Graph Sampling Algorithms for Social Network Analysis Tianyi Wang1, Yang Chen2 graph, graph sampling provides an efficient, yet inexpensive solution for social network analysis for social network analysis including user behavior measurements [11], social interaction characterization [4

Zhou, Yuanyuan

30

The Facilitation of Social-Emotional Understanding and Social Interaction in High-Functioning Children with Autism: Intervention Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 7-month cognitive behavioral intervention for the facilitation of the social-emotional understanding and social interaction of 15 high-functioning children (8 to 17 years old) with autism. Intervention focused on teaching interpersonal problem solving, affective knowledge, and social interaction. Preintervention and postintervention measures included observations of social interaction, measures of problem solving and of emotion

Nirit Bauminger

2002-01-01

31

Indoor and Outdoor Social Alarms: Understanding Users' Perspectives  

PubMed Central

The elderly population is increasing and there is a need to provide care and safety at a high level with limited resources. New social alarm solutions may contribute to safety and independence for many elderly. However, it is important to understand the needs within the user group. This work studied social alarms in a broad sense and from several user perspectives. In the first study, social alarm use and its aspects were investigated. To understand where there may be problems and weaknesses, users, caregivers, managers of municipalities, and personnel at alarm centers were interviewed. The interviews helped identify a number of problems. For municipalities, the processes of procuring new alarms and managing their organization were found to be complex. The effect of this was that the same social alarm systems had been ordered over and over again without taking into account new user needs or new technical solutions. For alarm users, one large problem was that the alarms had very limited reach and were designed for indoor use only. This has resulted in users hesitating to leave their homes, which in turn has negative effects due to lack of physical activity and fewer social contacts. One important result from the first study was the need for a social alarm solution that worked outdoors. In a second study, needs regarding outdoor social alarms were investigated. The results from this study showed that wearable outdoor alarms must be easy to use, provide communication, and be well designed. Finally, these alarms must work both indoors and outdoors, and the user should not have to worry about where he/she is or who is acting on an alarm. PMID:25099060

2014-01-01

32

Social Problem Solving in Suicidal Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether adolescent suicide attempters would have deficits in interpersonal problem solving and the relation between social problem solving, suicide intent, and medical lethality were evaluated. Compared with psychiatric and normal controls, adolescents who attempted suicide exhibited poorer social problem-solving abilities, particularly in terms of problem orientation. Specifically, suicide attempters brought more maladaptive cognitive–emotional–behavioral response sets to problematic situations than did

Christine Sadowski; Mary Lou Kelley

1993-01-01

33

Understanding Fashion Cycles as a Social Choice  

E-print Network

We present a formal model for studying fashion trends, in terms of three parameters of fashionable items: (1) their innate utility; (2) individual boredom associated with repeated usage of an item; and (3) social influences associated with the preferences from other people. While there are several works that emphasize the effect of social influence in understanding fashion trends, in this paper we show how boredom plays a strong role in both individual and social choices. We show how boredom can be used to explain the cyclic choices in several scenarios such as an individual who has to pick a restaurant to visit every day, or a society that has to repeatedly `vote' on a single fashion style from a collection. We formally show that a society that votes for a single fashion style can be viewed as a single individual cycling through different choices. In our model, the utility of an item gets discounted by the amount of boredom that has accumulated over the past; this boredom increases with every use of the item...

Sarma, Anish Das; Panigrahy, Rina; Zhang, Li

2010-01-01

34

Understanding mobility in a social petri dish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the recent availability of large data sets on human movements, a full understanding of the rules governing motion within social systems is still missing, due to incomplete information on the socio-economic factors and to often limited spatio-temporal resolutions. Here we study an entire society of individuals, the players of an online-game, with complete information on their movements in a network-shaped universe and on their social and economic interactions. Such a ``socio-economic laboratory'' allows to unveil the intricate interplay of spatial constraints, social and economic factors, and patterns of mobility. We find that the motion of individuals is not only constrained by physical distances, but also strongly shaped by the presence of socio-economic areas. These regions can be recovered perfectly by community detection methods solely based on the measured human dynamics. Moreover, we uncover that long-term memory in the time-order of visited locations is the essential ingredient for modeling the trajectories.

Szell, Michael; Sinatra, Roberta; Petri, Giovanni; Thurner, Stefan; Latora, Vito

2012-06-01

35

Understanding mobility in a social petri dish  

E-print Network

Despite the recent availability of large data sets on human movements, a full understanding of the rules governing motion within social systems is still missing, due to incomplete information on the socio-economic factors and to often limited spatio-temporal resolutions. Here we study an entire society of individuals, the players of an online-game, with complete information on their movements in a network-shaped universe and on their social and economic interactions. Such a "socio-economic laboratory" allows to unveil the intricate interplay of spatial constraints, social and economic factors, and patterns of mobility. We find that the motion of individuals is not only constrained by physical distances, but also strongly shaped by the presence of socio-economic areas. These regions can be recovered perfectly by community detection methods solely based on the measured human dynamics. Moreover, we uncover that long-term memory in the time-order of visited locations is the essential ingredient for modeling the t...

Szell, Michael; Petri, Giovanni; Thurner, Stefan; Latora, Vito

2011-01-01

36

The Facilitation of Social-Emotional Understanding and Social Interaction in High-Functioning Children with Autism: Intervention Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study evaluated a 7-month cognitive behavioral intervention for facilitating social-emotional understanding and social interaction of 15 high-functioning children (ages 8-17) with autism. Intervention focused on interpersonal problem solving, affective knowledge, and social interaction. After treatment, children were more likely to initiate…

Bauminger, Nirit

2002-01-01

37

Detonation transfer understanding applied to aerospace problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summary of the findings obtained from a two-year investigation aimed at a quantitative understanding of explosive stimulus transfer. It is felt that the improved understanding achieved on detonation transfer mechanisms will make possible better output tests and specifications, and should result in improved detonators and initiation methods.

Schimmel, M. L.

1974-01-01

38

CONCEPT MAPS: TOOLS FOR UNDERSTANDING COMPLEX PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major obstacles to effectively informing the public about complex problems is the lack of means to make such problems comprehensible. Global warming and nanotechnology are extraordinarily complex issues because they involve a great deal of highly specialised knowledge and also because it is difficult to perceive how they impact our daily lives. It is extremely challenging to

Clara Barroso; Rafael Crespillo

39

Mentalising and social problem solving in adults with Asperger's syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction It is well established that autistic spectrum disorder is linked to difficulties with mentalising, but the ways in which this affects everyday behaviour is less well understood. This study explored the nature and extent of difficulties in everyday social functioning in adults with Asperger's syndrome (AS), since increased understanding can enhance the development of more effective intervention strategies. Methods Individuals with AS (n = 21) were compared with healthy control participants (n = 21) on three tests of social cognition: the Mentalistic Interpretation task, which assesses interpretation of sarcasm and actions; the Social Problem Fluency task, which assesses ability to generate problem solutions; and the Social Problem Resolution task, which assesses judgement in selecting problem solutions. Results Comprehension of both sarcastic remarks and actions was impaired in those with AS on the mentalistic interpretation task. Participants with AS showed difficulties in identifying the awkward elements of everyday social scenarios, and they were also impaired in generating problem solutions but not in judging alternative solutions on the social problem fluency and resolution tasks. Conclusions These tasks potentially provide a means of profiling strengths and weaknesses in social processing, which in turn has implications for informing clinical evaluation and training. PMID:23875885

Channon, Shelley; Crawford, Sarah; Orlowska, Danuta; Parikh, Nimmi; Thoma, Patrizia

2013-01-01

40

Running head: STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING OF MATHEMATICAL INTEGRATION 1 Students' Understanding of Mathematical Integration in Physics Problems  

E-print Network

Running head: STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING OF MATHEMATICAL INTEGRATION 1 Students' Understanding of Mathematical Integration in Physics Problems Using Graphical and Algebraic Representations Dong-Hai Nguyen and N. Sanjay Rebello Kansas State University #12;STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING OF MATHEMATICAL INTEGRATION 2

Zollman, Dean

41

Cooperative problem solving in a social carnivore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous field researchers have described cooperative hunting in social carnivores, but experimental evidence of cooperative problem solving typically derives from laboratory studies of nonhuman primates. We present the first experimental evidence of cooperation in a social carnivore, the spotted hyaena, Crocuta crocuta. Eight captive hyaenas, paired in 13 combinations, coordinated their behaviour temporally and spatially to solve cooperation tasks that

Christine M. Drea; Allisa N. Carter

2009-01-01

42

Understanding Asian Graduate Students' English Literacy Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes three potential English literacy problem areas for Asian graduate students. The three areas are: (1) the influence of cultural and personal prior knowledge, (2) the processes of education that students learned in their native schools, and (3) the linguistic characteristics of ESL students. Instructional ideas are provided…

Wang, Ying; Martin, Michael A.; Martin, Sarah H.

2002-01-01

43

Networks in Social Policy Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.

Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco

2012-08-01

44

Understanding Social Networks Properties for Trustworthy Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ever-increasing popularity of social networks opens new directions for leveraging social networks to build primitives for security and communication, in many contexts. Such primitives utilize the trust in these social networks to ensure collaboration and algorithmic properties exhibited in such networks to argue for the effectiveness of such primitives. Despite the importance of such properties and their quality to

Abedelaziz Mohaisen; Huy Tran; Nicholas Hopper; Yongdae Kim

2011-01-01

45

Group Profiling for Understanding Social Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prolific use of participatory Web and social networking sites is reshaping the ways in which people interact with one another. It has become a vital part of human social life in both the developed and developing world. People sharing certain similarities or affiliates tend to form communities within social media. At the same time, they participate in various online

Lei Tang; Xufei Wang; Huan Liu

2011-01-01

46

The Social Problems of Today's Family  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems of the family affect every individual. Problems have an impact on a variety of different social groups and strata, work collectives and neighborhood communities, young people, adults, children, the aged, and so on. The family's sense of well-being and the processes that affect its functioning can also hardly fail to be of concern to…

Mustaeva, F. A.

2010-01-01

47

Understanding Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, girls have evoked images of sweetness and light, purity and beauty. In this fairytale land of youth, girls are\\u000a angels and princesses, characterized by positive adjustment and certainly not by behavioral or emotional problems. However,\\u000a as Mae West observed, in reality female children and adolescents are much more complex, with both positive and negative aspects\\u000a to their development and

Debora J. Bell; Sharon L. Foster; Eric J. Mash

48

Less drinking, yet more problems: understanding African American drinking and related problems.  

PubMed

Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but also provides within-group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within-group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

Zapolski, Tamika C B; Pedersen, Sarah L; McCarthy, Denis M; Smith, Gregory T

2014-01-01

49

The understanding and experiences of children affected by parental mental health problems: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children of parents with mental health problems (MHPs) have been reported to be ‘at risk’ of diagnosable psychopathology, as well as impairment in cognitive, emotional, social and school functioning. How children understand MHPs has been found to influence how they cope with their family situation. This study explores the understanding and experiences of children affected by parental MHPs (affected children).

Nicola Cogan; Sheila Riddell; Gillian Mayes

2005-01-01

50

Relation of Student Social Position to Consumer Attitudes and Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of Connecticut high school students from different social positions found differences in consumer attitudes and understandings of money management, credit, insurance, and savings and investments. (CH)

Litro, Robert Frank

1970-01-01

51

The Social Context of Infant Intention Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional looking-time paradigms are often used to assess infants’ attention to socio-cognitive phenomena, but the link between these laboratory scenarios and real-world interactions is unclear. The current study investigated hypothesized relations between traditional social-cognitive looking-time paradigms and their real-world counterparts in caregiver-infant social interaction. Seventy-five 10- to 12-month-old infants participated in a structured play session with their caregiver, as well

Sarah Dunphy-Lelii; Jennifer LaBounty; Henry M. Wellman

2012-01-01

52

Understanding Pure Social Networks: Structure, Connectivity, and Patterns of Interests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we attempt to better understand social net- works, as they currently represent an alarming majority of all web site trac. Specifically, we aim to measure the structure, connectivity, and patterns of interests that may emerge. We feel that better understanding such may not only lead to improving social networking sites, but could also lead to developing new

Chris Tanner; Chu-Cheng Hsieh; Keenahn Jung

53

Toward Understanding Friendship in Online Social Networks  

E-print Network

All major on-line social networks, such as MySpace, Facebook, LiveJournal, and Orkut, are built around the concept of friendship. It is not uncommon for a social network participant to have over 100 friends. A natural question arises: are they all real friends of hers, or does she mean something different when she calls them "friends?" Speaking in other words, what is the relationship between off-line (real, traditional) friendship and its on-line (virtual) namesake? In this paper, we use sociological data to suggest that there is a significant difference between the concepts of virtual and real friendships. We further investigate the structure of on-line friendship and observe that it follows the Pareto (or double Pareto) distribution and is subject to age stratification but not to gender segregation. We introduce the concept of digital personality that quantifies the willingness of a social network participant to engage in virtual friendships.

Zinoviev, Dmitry

2009-01-01

54

Social and Motivational Bases for Mathematical Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a model of cognitive and motivational processes in mathematics learning and relates the model to Brazilian street mathematics and abacus operation. Proposes instructional strategies for motivating conceptual understanding in school mathematics learning. (RJC)

Hatano, Giyoo

1988-01-01

55

Understanding Latent Interactions in Online Social Networks  

E-print Network

,wangxiao,huangpeng,swp,dyf}@net.pku.edu.cn, {bowlin,ravenben}@cs.ucsb.edu ABSTRACT Popular online social networks (OSNs) like Facebook and Twitter to date. All friendship links in Renren are public, allowing us to exhaustively crawl a connected graph Renren network, and use statistics of profile visits to study issues of user profile popularity

Zhao, Ben Y.

56

Attribute Learning for Understanding Unstructured Social Activity  

E-print Network

videos of social occassions such graduation ceremony, birthday party, and wedding reception which feature Room, Party House, Coloured light, Indoor, People talking noise, Laugher, Dancing Music, Candles, Tracking moving object Birthday party Birthday party Clapping hands, Hugging,Slow moving, People singing

Kim, Tae-Kyun

57

The Social Context of Infant Intention Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional looking-time paradigms are often used to assess infants' attention to sociocognitive phenomena, but the link between these laboratory scenarios and real-world interactions is unclear. The current study investigated hypothesized relations between traditional social-cognitive looking-time paradigms and their real-world counterparts…

Dunphy-Lelii, Sarah; LaBounty, Jennifer; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.

2014-01-01

58

Interpersonal violence against people with disabilities: understanding the problem from a rural context.  

PubMed

Interpersonal violence against people with disabilities is a significant social problem. Little attention has focused on the rural context and the relevance for understanding violence. Given the dearth of literature exploring interpersonal violence, disability, and rurality, a review of rural-focused literature on domestic violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse was conducted to identify themes that could provide insight into this problem for people with disabilities. Themes include geographic isolation, traditional cultural values and norms, lack of anonymity, lack of resources, and poor response of systems. Implications for understanding interpersonal violence against rural people with disabilities and for social work practice are discussed. PMID:21827301

Fitzsimons, Nancy M; Hagemeister, Annelies K; Braun, Elizabeth J

2011-01-01

59

Understanding Common Perceptions from Online Social Media  

E-print Network

Modern society habitually uses online social media services to publicly share observations, thoughts, opinions, and beliefs at any time and from any location. These geotagged social media posts may provide aggregate insights into people's perceptions on a bad range of topics across a given geographical area beyond what is currently possible through services such as Yelp and Foursquare. This paper develops probabilistic language models to investigate whether collective, topic-based perceptions within a geographical area can be extracted from the content of geotagged Twitter posts. The capability of the methodology is illustrated using tweets from three areas of different sizes. An application of the approach to support power grid restoration following a storm is presented.

Doran, Derek; Dagnino, Aldo

2014-01-01

60

Understanding video propagation in online social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent statistics suggest that online social network (OSN) users regularly share video contents from video sharing sites (VSSes), and a significant amount of views of VSSes are indeed from OSN users nowadays. By crawling and comparing the statistics of same videos shared in both RenRen (the largest Facebook-like OSN in China) and Youku (the largest Youtube-like VSS in China), we

Haitao Li; Jiangchuan Liu; Ke Xu; Song Wen

2012-01-01

61

[Child neuropsychiatric perspectives can contribute to understanding of social disadvantage].  

PubMed

At least five per cent of the general population of children suffer from severe neuropsychiatric impairment. Autism spectrum disorders, ADHD/DAMP, Tourette's syndrome, and a variety of cognitive impairment/neurological syndromes with severe behavioral/emotional symptoms are included among the child neuropsychiatric disorders, the majority of which will lead to ongoing social and academic problems in adult life. Substantial numbers of those affected commit crimes in early adult life, and the incidence of the above-mentioned disorders is higher among young criminal offenders. Early diagnosis, educational, psychological, and, occasionally, medical therapies can affect outcome in a positive way. Child neuropsychiatric disorders should therefore be recognized at an early age so that attitudes can be changed from rejection to understanding, and a gloomy psychosocial outcome avoided. PMID:11374232

Gillberg, C

2001-04-25

62

Understanding Global Migration: A Social Transformation Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to examine some of the difficulties of theory formation in international migration studies, and to suggest a response. The starting point is an examination of the dominant perception of ‘migration as a problem’. This is followed by a discussion of some key obstacles to theoretical advancement in migration studies. I argue that a general theory of migration

Stephen Castles

2010-01-01

63

Understanding child sexual behavior problems: A developmental psychopathology framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children exhibiting sexual behavior have increasingly gained the attention of child welfare and mental health systems, as well as the scientific community. While a heterogeneous group, children with sexual behavior problems consistently demonstrate a number of problems related to adjustment and overall development. In order to appropriately intervene with these children, a comprehensive understanding of etiology is imperative. The overarching

Natasha Elkovitch; Robert D. Latzman; David J. Hansen; Mary Fran Flood

2009-01-01

64

Understanding Interactions in Social Networks and Committee  

E-print Network

(Giacomini and Granger, 2004). The problem of choosing spatial weights becomes a key issue in many economic applications; apart from ge- ographic distances, notions of economic distance (Conley, 1999; Pesaran et al., 2004, Holly et al., 2008), socio... , 1973, Goyal, 2005) In panel data on cross-sections of countries or regions, such a set may include other countries not included in the analysis either because of irregular availability of data or because they are outside the purview of the analysis...

Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Holly, Sean

65

Understanding the impact of socialbot attacks in online social networks  

E-print Network

Online social networks (OSN) like Twitter or Facebook are popular and powerful since they allow reaching millions of users online. They are also a popular target for socialbot attacks. Without a deep understanding of the impact of such attacks, the potential of online social networks as an instrument for facilitating discourse or democratic processes is in jeopardy. In this extended abstract we present insights from a live lab experiment in which social bots aimed at manipulating the social graph of an online social network, in our case Twitter. We explored the link creation behavior between targeted human users and our results suggest that socialbots may indeed have the ability to shape and influence the social graph in online social networks. However, our results also show that external factors may play an important role in the creation of social links in OSNs.

Mitter, Silvia; Strohmaier, Markus

2014-01-01

66

Friendship estimation model for social robots to understand human relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports the friendship estimation model we designed for social robots that understand human social relationships. Our interactive robot autonomously interacts with humans with its human-like body properties, and as a result, induces the humans' friendly group behavior upon direct interaction. Based on these features, as well as inspired by a survey in psychology research on friendship, we propose

Takayuki Kanda; Hiroshi Ishiguro

2004-01-01

67

Understanding music sharing behaviour on social network services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand music sharing behaviour on social networking services (SNS). This study suggests and examines a research model which focuses on the influences of user motivations, such as self-expression, ingratiation, altruism, and interactivity, on music sharing behaviour in SNS through social motivation factors. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected from 153 Korean SNS

Dongwon Lee; Jaimie Yejean Park; Junha Kim; Jaejeung Kim; Junghoon Moon

2011-01-01

68

Time, Space and Gender: Understanding "Problem" Behaviour in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following article reports on a small-scale, exploratory study of aggressive and "problem" behaviour in pre-school children. This project was conceived in the wider context of anxieties about childhood and New Labour's policy focus on "anti-social" behaviour in children. Based on interviews with nursery staff and parents in addition to…

Brown, Jane

2007-01-01

69

Broad social motives, alcohol use, and related problems: Mechanisms of risk from high school through college  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broad social motives (not specific to alcohol use) have been established as an important predictor of alcohol use and problems among college students, but we have little understanding of the mechanisms through which such motives operate. Thus, the current study examined broad social motives prior to college entry as a predictor of college drinking\\/problems and sought to identify potential mechanisms

William R. Corbin; Derek K. Iwamoto; Kim Fromme

2011-01-01

70

Statistical Learning as a Basis for Social Understanding in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many authors have argued that infants understand goals, intentions, and beliefs. We posit that infants' success on such tasks might instead reveal an understanding of behaviour, that infants' proficient statistical learning abilities might enable such insights, and that maternal talk scaffolds children's learning about the social world as well. We…

Ruffman, Ted; Taumoepeau, Mele; Perkins, Chris

2012-01-01

71

Social media and social work education: understanding and dealing with the new digital world.  

PubMed

Accompanying the multiple benefits and innovations of social media are the complex ethical and pedagogical issues that challenge social work educators. Without a clear understanding of the blurred boundaries between public and private, the potentially limitless and unintended audiences, as well as the permanency of the information shared online, social work students who use social media can find themselves in difficult situations in their personal and professional lives. In this article, we present three scenarios that illustrate issues and complexities involving social media use by social work students, followed by a discussion and recommendations for social work educators. PMID:25321930

Fang, Lin; Mishna, Faye; Zhang, Vivian F; Van Wert, Melissa; Bogo, Marion

2014-10-01

72

Economic and Industrial Understanding: The Problems, Opportunities and Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the rationale for the introduction of Economic and Industrial Understanding (EIU) as a component of the elementary and secondary curriculum in the United Kingdom, as well as some of the problems, opportunities, and challenges afforded by this curricular initiative. (Author/MDM)

Ramsey, Maureen

1993-01-01

73

Consecutive Reactions for Batch Reactors Step I --Understanding the Problem  

E-print Network

Consecutive Reactions for Batch Reactors Step I -- Understanding the Problem Consider a reaction isothermically in either the gas or liquid phase in a perfectly mixed batch reactor. The reaction begins. The primary objective is to determine the amount of each substance in the reactor up to time after

Meade, Douglas B.

74

Social Studies Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding Sociology Concepts within Social Studies Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims at investigating social studies student teachers' levels of understanding sociology concepts within social studies curriculum. Study group of the research consists of 266 teacher candidates attending the Department of Social Studies, Faculty of Education, Kastamonu University during 2012 to 2013 education year. A semi-structured…

Karatekin, Kadir

2013-01-01

75

Mass Media Influences on Public Conceptions of Social Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores possible relationships between the mass media of communication and social problems by three-way comparisons between the incidence of social problems suggested in media portrayals, conceptions of the incidence of these problems held by the public, and the relative frequency of such problems reflected in statistics accumulated by official…

Hubbard, Jeffrey C.; And Others

1975-01-01

76

Further Development in Social Reasoning Revealed in Discourse Irony Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the development of social reasoning in school-age children. An irony task is used to assess 5-, 7-, and 9-year-olds' (N 5 72) and adults' (N 5 24) recursive understanding of others' minds. Guttman scale analysis demonstrates that in order to understand a speaker's communicative intention, a child needs to recognize the speaker's belief, the detection of which

Eva Filippova; Janet Wilde Astington

2008-01-01

77

Reaching Higher in Community Psychology: Social Problems, Social Settings, and Social Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty years after the founding of community psychology, we have yet to deliver on the full promissory note of our birth, where\\u000a we were poised to address social problems, social settings, and social change. Despite some success, we are at risk for selling\\u000a ourselves short, for dying out in the discipline of psychology, and for failing to improve the common

Rhona S. Weinstein

2006-01-01

78

Children's Understanding of Approximate Addition Depends on Problem Format  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that five-year-old children can add and compare large numerical quantities through approximate representations of number. However, the nature of this understanding and its susceptibility to influence from canonical, learned mathematics remain unclear. The present study examined whether children's early competence depends on the canonical problem format (i.e., arithmetic operations presented on the left-hand side of space). Children

M. Claire Keultjes; Nicole M. McNeil

79

Network Analysis and Visualization for Understanding Social Computing  

E-print Network

Theory Can Computing Evolve? #12;1) Focus on National Priorities & Impact · Health, energy, education Priorities & Impact · Health, energy, education, business innovation · Disaster response, community safetyNetwork Analysis and Visualization for Understanding Social Computing Ben Shneiderman ben

Shneiderman, Ben

80

Understanding and Combating Link Farming in the Twitter Social Network  

E-print Network

Understanding and Combating Link Farming in the Twitter Social Network Saptarshi Ghosh IIT Kharagpur, India Krishna P. Gummadi MPI-SWS, Germany ABSTRACT Recently, Twitter has emerged as a popular to them. Like the Web, Twitter has become a target for link farming, where users, especially spammers, try

Gummadi, Krishna P.

81

Understanding and Combating Link Farming in the Twitter Social Network  

E-print Network

Understanding and Combating Link Farming in the Twitter Social Network Saptarshi Ghosh IIT Kharagpur - India Krishna P. Gummadi MPI-SWS - Germany ABSTRACT Recently, Twitter has emerged as a popular to them. Like the Web, Twitter has become a target for link farming, where users, especially spammers, try

Ganguly, Niloy

82

Understanding online social network usage from a network perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online Social Networks (OSNs) have already attracted more than half a billion users. However, our understanding of which OSN fea- tures attract and keep the attention of these users is poor. S tudies thus far have relied on surveys or interviews of OSN users or fo- cused on static properties, e. g., the friendship graph, gat hered via sampled crawls.

Fabian Schneider; Anja Feldmann; Balachander Krishnamurthy; Walter Willinger

2009-01-01

83

Understanding the Social Context of School Health Promotion Program Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Although implementation fidelity is an important component in the evaluation of school health promotion programs, it assumes that teaching is the most relevant teacher role. To understand the social context of program implementation, a qualitative study was undertaken with the aim of identifying the schoolteacher's role in implementing…

Cargo, Margaret; Salsberg, Jon; Delormier, Treena; Desrosiers, Serge; Macaulay, Ann C.

2006-01-01

84

Captured by Motion: Dance, Action Understanding, and Social Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this review article, we summarize the main findings from empirical studies that used dance-related forms of rhythmical full body movement as a research tool for investigating action understanding and social cognition. This work has proven to be informative about behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate links between perceptual and motor…

Sevdalis, Vassilis; Keller, Peter E.

2011-01-01

85

Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…

Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

2007-01-01

86

Understanding Individual Problem-Solving Style: A Key to Learning and Applying Creative Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…

Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.

2008-01-01

87

The Investigation of Social Problem Solving Abilities of University Students in Terms of Perceived Social Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to analyze of university students' perceived social support and social problem solving. The participants were 827 (474 female and 353 male) university students. Data were collected Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (Yildirim, 2004) and Social Problem Solving (Maydeu-Olivares and D'Zurilla, 1996)…

Tras, Zeliha

2013-01-01

88

Analysis of Social Problem Solving and Social Self-Efficacy in Prospective Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between social problem solving and social selfefficacy and the predictive role of social problem solving skills with social self-efficacy. The sample consists of 706 prospective teachers (362 female and 344 male) who are majoring in different fields at Mugla Sitki Kocman…

Erozkan, Atilgan

2014-01-01

89

Understanding Classrooms through Social Network Analysis: A Primer for Social Network Analysis in Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA)…

Grunspan, Daniel Z.; Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.

2014-01-01

90

Wherein Lies Children's Intergroup Bias? Egocentrism, Social Understanding, and Social Projection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does children's bias toward their own groups reflect egocentrism or social understanding? After being categorized as belonging to 1 of 2 fictitious groups, 157 six- to ten-year-olds evaluated group members and expressed preferences among neutral items. Children who expected the in-group to share their item preferences (egocentric social

Abrams, Dominic

2011-01-01

91

High school students' understanding and problem solving in population genetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is an investigation of student understanding of population genetics and how students developed, used and revised conceptual models to solve problems. The students in this study participated in three rounds of problem solving. The first round involved the use of a population genetics model to predict the number of carriers in a population. The second round required them to revise their model of simple dominance population genetics to make inferences about populations containing three phenotype variations. The third round of problem solving required the students to revise their model of population genetics to explain anomalous data where the proportions of males and females with a trait varied significantly. As the students solved problems, they were involved in basic scientific processes as they observed population phenomena, constructed explanatory models to explain the data they observed, and attempted to persuade their peers as to the adequacy of their models. In this study, the students produced new knowledge about the genetics of a trait in a population through the revision and use of explanatory population genetics models using reasoning that was similar to what scientists do. The students learned, used and revised a model of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to generate and test hypotheses about the genetics of phenotypes given only population data. Students were also interviewed prior to and following instruction. This study suggests that a commonly held intuitive belief about the predominance of a dominant variation in populations is resistant to change, despite instruction and interferes with a student's ability to understand Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and microevolution.

Soderberg, Patti D.

92

Beyond biomedicine: health through social and cultural understanding.  

PubMed

This article argues that traditional approaches to reproductive health are concerned with safe motherhood. In the discourse of reproductive health, safe motherhood is defined as the ability to bear and raise children, and to plan and space births for safe pregnancy, focusing strictly on the biological abilities of women [Reproductive Health Matters, 2005, 13: 34]. This fails to account for how women construct, negotiate and maintain their health within their own cultural context. To understand how social context influences meanings of health, in-depth interviews were conducted with young Nepalese women living in poverty. Centralizing women's voices not only creates opportunities for exploring how local context shapes meanings of health but also allows alternative health meanings of the cultural participants to emerge. In particular, by highlighting narratives we are able to understand how women actively (re)construct dominant meanings of reproductive health and in turn act upon meanings that are socially and culturally relevant. PMID:21564393

Basnyat, Iccha

2011-06-01

93

Social Problem Solving Ability Predicts Mental Health Among Undergraduate Students  

PubMed Central

Background: The main objective of this study was predicting student's mental health using social problem solving- ability. Methods: In this correlational. descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson's correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Results: Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P < 0.01). Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between social problem solving ability and mental health. PMID:24404372

Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali

2013-01-01

94

Social Emotional Optimization Algorithm for Nonlinear Constrained Optimization Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear programming problem is one important branch in operational research, and has been successfully applied to various real-life problems. In this paper, a new approach called Social emotional optimization algorithm (SEOA) is used to solve this problem which is a new swarm intelligent technique by simulating the human behavior guided by emotion. Simulation results show that the social emotional optimization algorithm proposed in this paper is effective and efficiency for the nonlinear constrained programming problems.

Xu, Yuechun; Cui, Zhihua; Zeng, Jianchao

95

Social problem-solving among adolescents treated for depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving

Emily G. Becker-Weidman; Rachel H. Jacobs; Mark A. Reinecke; Susan G. Silva; John S. March

2010-01-01

96

Social-cognitive Competence, Peer Rejection and Neglect, and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Middle Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective, longitudinal study examines individual differences in two conceptu- ally related but empirically distinct domains of social-cognitive competence (cognitive interpretive understanding and interpersonal perspective co-ordination) as modera- tors of the relation between peer rejection and neglect and behavioral and emotional problems in grades 2 and 3. As expected, peer rejection and neglect increased risks for behavioral and emotional problems

Wendy L. G. Hoglund; Christopher E. Lalonde; Bonnie J. Leadbeater

2008-01-01

97

Journalists' Constructions of Passive Smoking as a Social Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

News media play critical rôles in public understandings of health issues. Media presentation of scientific evidence seems to involve the 'facts', which are then discussed and interpreted by various 'experts'. From an ethnomethodological or social constructionist perspective, however, news 'facts' themselves are socially constituted. Examining how health science is reported thus offers important insight into the social construction of health

Ruth E. Malone; Elizabeth Boyd; Lisa A. Bero

98

Countervailing social network influences on problem behaviors among homeless youth.  

PubMed

The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and were more likely to have HIV risk and anti-social peers. A longer time homeless predicted fewer pro-social peers, more anti-social peers, and more HIV risk peers. Heterosexual youth reported fewer HIV risk peers and more pro-social peers. Youth recruited at agencies were more likely to report pro-social peers. Having pro-social peers predicted less HIV sex risk behavior and less anti-social behavior. Having HIV risk peers predicted all problem behavior outcomes. Anti-social peers predicted more anti-social behavior. Once the association between anti-social and HIV risk peers was accounted for independently, having anti-social peers did not independently predict sex or drug risk behaviors. PMID:18076981

Rice, Eric; Stein, Judith A; Milburn, Norweeta

2008-10-01

99

Social Competence and Behavior Problems in Chinese Preschoolers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated social competence and problem behaviors of 370 Chinese preschoolers. Found anxiety-withdrawal, anger-aggression, and social competence factors related to age and gender differences. Found high reliability and validity for the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation (SCBE-30) scale in this Chinese sample. (DLH)

Chen, Qin; Jiang, Yong

2002-01-01

100

Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

2013-01-01

101

The Genetic Relationship Between Social Cognition and Conduct Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of children and adolescents with conduct problems suggest both genetic and environmental influences on population variance. Any genetic influence is likely to be complex and to act via mediating attributes of personality or cognitive style. One potential mediating attribute is social cognitive ability, as conduct problems have been shown to be associated with deficient social cognitive skills. The current

Jane Scourfield; Neilson Martin; Thalia C. Eley; Peter McGuffin

2004-01-01

102

Do Social Relationships Protect Victimized Children against Internalizing Problems?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether social relationships protect children against the effects of victimization on internalizing problems. We used data from the Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Victimization at age 8 years was associated with internalizing problems at age 9 years. Victims who had siblings, warm parents, and a…

Averdijk, Margit; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

2014-01-01

103

Social Problem Solving and Health Behaviors of Undergraduate Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship of social problem solving to health behaviors as reported by 126 undergraduate students. Findings revealed significant relationships between elements of social problem solving and wellness and accident prevention behaviors, and traffic and substance risk taking. However, correlations revealed differences between men and…

Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others

1997-01-01

104

Rethinking conformity and imitation: divergence, convergence, and social understanding.  

PubMed

Social and developmental psychologists have stressed the pervasiveness and strength of humans' tendencies to conform and to imitate, and social anthropologists have argued that these tendencies are crucial to the formation of cultures. Research from four domains is reviewed and elaborated to show that divergence is also pervasive and potent, and it is interwoven with convergence in a complex set of dynamics that is often unnoticed or minimized. First, classic research in social conformity is reinterpreted in terms of truth, trust, and social solidarity, revealing that dissent is its most salient feature. Second, recent studies of children's use of testimony to guide action reveal a surprisingly sophisticated balance of trust and prudence, and a concern for truth and charity. Third, new experiments indicate that people diverge from others even under conditions where conformity seems assured. Fourth, current studies of imitation provide strong evidence that children are both selective and faithful in who, what, and why they follow others. All of the evidence reviewed points toward children and adults as being engaged, embodied partners with others, motivated to learn and understand the world, others, and themselves in ways that go beyond goals and rules, prediction and control. Even young children act as if they are in a dialogical relationship with others and the world, rather than acting as if they are solo explorers or blind followers. Overall, the evidence supports the hypothesis that social understanding cannot be reduced to convergence or divergence, but includes ongoing activities that seek greater comprehensiveness and complexity in the ability to act and interact effectively, appropriately, and with integrity. PMID:25071687

Hodges, Bert H

2014-01-01

105

Rethinking conformity and imitation: divergence, convergence, and social understanding  

PubMed Central

Social and developmental psychologists have stressed the pervasiveness and strength of humans’ tendencies to conform and to imitate, and social anthropologists have argued that these tendencies are crucial to the formation of cultures. Research from four domains is reviewed and elaborated to show that divergence is also pervasive and potent, and it is interwoven with convergence in a complex set of dynamics that is often unnoticed or minimized. First, classic research in social conformity is reinterpreted in terms of truth, trust, and social solidarity, revealing that dissent is its most salient feature. Second, recent studies of children’s use of testimony to guide action reveal a surprisingly sophisticated balance of trust and prudence, and a concern for truth and charity. Third, new experiments indicate that people diverge from others even under conditions where conformity seems assured. Fourth, current studies of imitation provide strong evidence that children are both selective and faithful in who, what, and why they follow others. All of the evidence reviewed points toward children and adults as being engaged, embodied partners with others, motivated to learn and understand the world, others, and themselves in ways that go beyond goals and rules, prediction and control. Even young children act as if they are in a dialogical relationship with others and the world, rather than acting as if they are solo explorers or blind followers. Overall, the evidence supports the hypothesis that social understanding cannot be reduced to convergence or divergence, but includes ongoing activities that seek greater comprehensiveness and complexity in the ability to act and interact effectively, appropriately, and with integrity. PMID:25071687

Hodges, Bert H.

2014-01-01

106

Understanding student use of differentials in physics integration problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on students’ use of the mathematical concept of differentials in physics problem solving. For instance, in electrostatics, students need to set up an integral to find the electric field due to a charged bar, an activity that involves the application of mathematical differentials (e.g., dr, dq). In this paper we aim to explore students’ reasoning about the differential concept in physics problems. We conducted group teaching or learning interviews with 13 engineering students enrolled in a second-semester calculus-based physics course. We amalgamated two frameworks—the resources framework and the conceptual metaphor framework—to analyze students’ reasoning about differential concept. Categorizing the mathematical resources involved in students’ mathematical thinking in physics provides us deeper insights into how students use mathematics in physics. Identifying the conceptual metaphors in students’ discourse illustrates the role of concrete experiential notions in students’ construction of mathematical reasoning. These two frameworks serve different purposes, and we illustrate how they can be pieced together to provide a better understanding of students’ mathematical thinking in physics.

Hu, Dehui; Rebello, N. Sanjay

2013-12-01

107

Leveraging social networks for understanding the evolution of epidemics  

PubMed Central

Background To understand how infectious agents disseminate throughout a population it is essential to capture the social model in a realistic manner. This paper presents a novel approach to modeling the propagation of the influenza virus throughout a realistic interconnection network based on actual individual interactions which we extract from online social networks. The advantage is that these networks can be extracted from existing sources which faithfully record interactions between people in their natural environment. We additionally allow modeling the characteristics of each individual as well as customizing his daily interaction patterns by making them time-dependent. Our purpose is to understand how the infection spreads depending on the structure of the contact network and the individuals who introduce the infection in the population. This would help public health authorities to respond more efficiently to epidemics. Results We implement a scalable, fully distributed simulator and validate the epidemic model by comparing the simulation results against the data in the 2004-2005 New York State Department of Health Report (NYSDOH), with similar temporal distribution results for the number of infected individuals. We analyze the impact of different types of connection models on the virus propagation. Lastly, we analyze and compare the effects of adopting several different vaccination policies, some of them based on individual characteristics -such as age- while others targeting the super-connectors in the social model. Conclusions This paper presents an approach to modeling the propagation of the influenza virus via a realistic social model based on actual individual interactions extracted from online social networks. We implemented a scalable, fully distributed simulator and we analyzed both the dissemination of the infection and the effect of different vaccination policies on the progress of the epidemics. The epidemic values predicted by our simulator match real data from NYSDOH. Our results show that our simulator can be a useful tool in understanding the differences in the evolution of an epidemic within populations with different characteristics and can provide guidance with regard to which, and how many, individuals should be vaccinated to slow down the virus propagation and reduce the number of infections. PMID:22784620

2011-01-01

108

Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

2012-01-01

109

Social Problem-Solving among Adolescents Treated for Depression  

PubMed Central

Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire – Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19775677

Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

2009-01-01

110

Understanding Wicked Problems: A Key to Advancing Environmental Health Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex environmental health problems—like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning—are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as “wicked problems” wherein stakeholders may have conflicting interpretations of the problem and the science behind it, as

Marshall W. Kreuter; Christopher De Rosa; Elizabeth H. Howze; Grant T. Baldwin

2004-01-01

111

Social capital in its place: using social theory to understand social capital and inequalities in health.  

PubMed

Social capital has been controversially linked to public health benefits, particularly as an explanation for the relationship between economic inequalities and health. This paper focuses on social capital in this context, particularly a recent emphasis on social capital in neighbourhoods and growing use of Bourdieu's social theory in empirical investigations. A review of some of this work is used to suggest the need for a more coherent theoretical approach to using Bourdieu and to introduce an ethnographic study of social connections in New Zealand. Forty-six residents of, a rural town, a deprived city suburb, or an affluent suburb, volunteered to be interviewed about their social connections. Their talk was transcribed and analysed in terms of everyday practice. The results of this study suggest that social connections are not necessarily located in neighbourhoods, and that social capital will be better understood in a broader social context which includes competition for resources between deprived and non-deprived groups, and the practices of all citizens across neighbourhoods. When considering social capital, an exclusive focus on deprived neighbourhoods as sites for research and intervention is not helpful. PMID:18155335

Stephens, Christine

2008-03-01

112

Social-Emotional Problems in Preschool-Aged Children  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate the prevalence of positive screens for social-emotional problems among preschool-aged children in a low-income clinical population and to explore the family context and receptivity to referrals to help guide development of interventions. Design Observational, cross-sectional study. Setting Two urban primary care clinics. Participants A total of 254 parents of 3- and 4-year-old children at 2 urban primary care clinics. Main Outcome Measures Score on a standardized screen for social-emotional problems (Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional) and answers to additional survey questions about child care arrangements, parental depressive symptoms, and attitudes toward preschool and behavioral health referrals. Results Twenty-four percent (95% CI, 16.5%-31.5%) of children screened positive for social-emotional problems. Among those screening positive, 45% had a parent with depressive symptoms, and 27% had no nonparental child care. Among parents of children who screened positive for social-emotional problems, 79% reported they would welcome or would not mind a referral to a counselor or psychologist; only 16% reported a prior referral. Conclusions In a clinical sample, 1 in 4 low-income preschool-aged children screened positive for social-emotional problems, and most parents were amenable to referrals to preschool or early childhood mental health. This represents an opportunity for improvement in primary prevention and early intervention for social-emotional problems. PMID:22926145

Brown, Courtney M.; Copeland, Kristen A.; Sucharew, Heidi; Kahn, Robert S.

2013-01-01

113

Understanding Wicked Problems: A Key to Advancing Environmental Health Promotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have…

Kreuter, Marshall W.; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.

2004-01-01

114

Social problem-solving in dual diagnosis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social problem-solving skills among dual-diagnosis patients were compared to two control groups: psychiatric patients without substance abuse problems and community volunteers. A standardized, behavioral role-play test consisting of four scenarios representing interpersonal problems yielded two reliable dependent variables: (a) specificity, or elaboration, of the problem-solving response and (b) overall effectiveness of the response. Analyses of covariance (using a measure of

Kate B. Carey; Michael P. Carey

1990-01-01

115

Rough?and?tumble play and social problem solving flexibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

There were three goals in this study: To determine the relation between boys’ temperament and rough?and?tumble (R&T) play; to determine the group composition of R&T, games, and other forms of reciprocal social interaction; and to determine the extent to which the vigor and flexibility components of R&T are related to social affiliation and social problem solving flexibility. Thirteen sociometrically defined

A. D. Pellegrini

1992-01-01

116

The Brown Decision Revisited: Mathematizing Social Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost 40 years after the landmark Brown vs. Board of Education decision, African-Americans are still attempting to understand its meaning and significance in their daily lives. Unaware of the potential for divergent constructions of equality, citizens who were barred from equal access to schooling continue to struggle with poor-quality schooling. This article argues that a restrictive form of equality, rather

William F. Tate; Gloria Ladson-Billings; Carl A. Grant

1993-01-01

117

Working Memory Deficits and Social Problems in Children with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social problems are a prevalent feature of ADHD and reflect a major source of functional impairment for these children. The\\u000a current study examined the impact of working memory deficits on parent- and teacher-reported social problems in a sample of\\u000a children with ADHD and typically developing boys (N?=?39). Bootstrapped, bias-corrected mediation analyses revealed that the impact of working memory deficits on

Michael J. Kofler; Mark D. Rapport; Jennifer Bolden; Dustin E. Sarver; Joseph S. Raiker; R. Matt Alderson

2011-01-01

118

Promoting Instructional Change: Using Social Network Analysis to Understand the Hidden Structure of Academic Departments  

E-print Network

1 Promoting Instructional Change: Using Social Network Analysis to Understand the Hidden Structure to understand the hidden social structure of the academic department and introduce social network analysis with whom they discuss teaching and how frequently. Techniques of social network analysis are identified

Henderson, Charles

119

Mentalising and social problem-solving after brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the performance of adults with an acquired brain injury (ABI) on social cognition tasks assessing mentalistic interpretation and social problem-solving. These tasks were based on an earlier version described by Channon and Crawford (1999). Twenty participants with an ABI (10 resulting from a traumatic brain injury, 10 from a cerebrovascular accident), were found to be impaired relative

Shelley Channon; Sarah Crawford

2010-01-01

120

The Social Studies Curriculum: Purposes, Problems, and Possibilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a substantive overview of the issues in curriculum development and implementation faced by social studies educators. The book offers contemporary perspectives on some of the most enduring problems facing the social studies. The collection of essays provides readers with a systematic investigation of a broad range of issues of…

Ross, E. Wayne, Ed.

121

Capacitated team formation problem on social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a team formation problem, one is required to find a group of users that can match the requirements of a collaborative task. Example of such collaborative tasks abound, ranging from software product development to various participatory sensing tasks in knowledge creation. Due to the nature of the task, team members are often required to work on a co-operative basis.

Anirban Majumder; Samik Datta; K. V. M. Naidu

2012-01-01

122

Teaching to Communicate: The Social Psychological Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are two problems with the research on the prediction of achievement in applied communication courses: substantial predictor variables have not been isolated; and theoretical explanation of results have not been developed. The present investigation developed an achievement hypothesis based on similarity-attraction theory. It was predicted…

Conville, Richard L.

123

ClinicalTrials.gov: helping us understand the problem | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

They say you need to understand the problem before you can find a solution. ClinicalTrials.gov, a registry and results database, is a valuable resource for understanding the problem of insufficient clinical trial accrual.

124

Understanding wicked problems: a key to advancing environmental health promotion.  

PubMed

Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have conflicting interpretations of the problem and the science behind it, as well as different values, goals, and life experiences. Accordingly, policy makers, public health professionals, and other stakeholders who grapple with these problems cannot expect to effectively resolve them by relying solely on expert-driven approaches to problem solving. Rather, they need to acknowledge that wicked environmental health problems are most likely to yield to (1) the application of effective community health promotion skills, (2) a sustained commitment to sound toxicological and epidemiological science, (3) the application of systems thinking, and (4) transparent communication among all stakeholders. PMID:15296628

Kreuter, Marshall W; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H; Baldwin, Grant T

2004-08-01

125

Marijuana-Related Problems and Social Anxiety: The Role of Marijuana Behaviors in Social Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. In fact, individuals with social anxiety may be more likely to experience marijuana-related impairment than individuals with other types of anxiety. It is therefore important to determine whether constructs particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals play a role in the expression of marijuana-related problems in this vulnerable population. Given

Julia D. Buckner; Richard G. Heimberg; Russell A. Matthews; Jose Silgado

2012-01-01

126

Alcohol Problems and Marginalization: Social Group Work with Lesbians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social group work presents an ideal format for meeting the challenge of lesbian alcohol problems. By focusing on the individual, her sociopolitical context, and the effects of marginalization on lesbians, groups can provide a supportive environment for exploring a complex problem and deciding how best to respond. This paper describes a study of an innovative intervention group. Participants chose their

Christine Flynn Saulnier

1997-01-01

127

Social Context: A Key to Effective Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a brief presentation of Harold Lasswell's model of the social process, the authors discuss problems of policy formation and meaning determination, describe the "decision seminar" proposed by Lasswell as a technique for facilitating collective problem-solving, and provide illustrations of the seminar's successful application to specific…

Muth, Rodney; Bolland, John M.

1983-01-01

128

Social Networking Sites: An Adjunctive Treatment Modality for Psychological Problems  

PubMed Central

Background: Social networking is seen as a way to enhance social support and feeling of well-being. The present work explores the potentials of social networking sites as an adjunctive treatment modality for initiating treatment contact as well as for managing psychological problems. Materials and Methods: Interview schedule, Facebook intensity questionnaire were administered on 28 subjects with a combination of 18 males and 10 females. They were taken from the in-patient and out-patient psychiatry setting of the hospital. Results: Facebook was the most popular sites and used to seek emotional support on the basis of the frequent updates of emotional content that users put in their profile; reconciliations, escape from the problems or to manage the loneliness; getting information about illness and its treatment and interaction with experts and also manifested as problematic use. Conclusions: It has implications for developing social networking based adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems. PMID:25035548

Menon, Indu S.; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chandra, Prabha S.; Thennarasu, K.

2014-01-01

129

Exposure to Violence, Social Information Processing, and Problem Behavior in Preschool Children  

PubMed Central

Understanding the mechanisms by which early risk factors for social maladjustment contribute to disruptive behaviors in social settings is vital to developmental research and practice. A major risk factor for social maladjustment is early exposure to violence which was examined in this short-term longitudinal study in relation to social information processing patterns and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 256 preschool children. Data on exposure to violence were obtained via parent report, data on social information processing were obtained via child interview, and data on child problem behavior were obtained via teacher report. Findings supported the hypothesis that, compared to children not exposed to violence, children reported to witness and/or experience violence are more likely to attribute hostile intent to peers, generate aggressive responses, and evaluate socially unaccepted responses (aggressive and inept) as socially suitable. The former were also found to exhibit higher levels of externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Finally, social information processing mediated the link between exposure to violence and problem behavior thus supporting this study’s general approach which argues that the link between exposure to violence and children’s problem behaviors are better understood within the context of their perceptions about social relationships. PMID:23011955

Ziv, Yair

2012-01-01

130

Korean immigrant discipline and children's social competence and behavior problems.  

PubMed

The goal of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between Korean immigrant discipline (e.g., positive, appropriate, and harsh discipline) and children's social competence and behavior problems. Self-report data were collected from 58 mothers and 20 fathers of children aged from 3 to 8 years. Only paternal harsh discipline was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Among specific discipline strategies, maternal physical affection, correcting misbehaviors, and reasoning were positively correlated with children's social competence. Paternal physical punishment (e.g., spanking, hitting, and raising arms) was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Immigrant fathers need to learn alternative ways of managing children's misbehaviors. PMID:21035016

Kim, Eunjung; Guo, Yuqing; Koh, Chinkang; Cain, Kevin C

2010-12-01

131

The Culture Gap: Some Problems in Understanding English Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the English curriculum, a course to provide familiarity with Western culture may prevent the problem of foreign students' misunderstanding Western literature. This problem was observed at Iran Girls' College during an American literature short story class conducted for advanced seniors, none of whom had been in America but whose English…

Tezer, Phyllis

132

Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies, 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains abstracts and the complete texts of 19 papers that were presented at a conference held to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. The following papers are included: "Microwave Society and Crock-Pot Government" (Bill Graves); "Citizen Participation, Social Capital and…

Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Merry, Carroll E., Ed.

133

Understanding NUI-supported Nomadic Social Places in a Brazilian Health Care Facility  

E-print Network

Understanding NUI-supported Nomadic Social Places in a Brazilian Health Care Facility Roberto the natural socializing practices of Brazilians within a chronic care hospital setting in order to understand and the privateness of home, where social links are exercised through inclusive and playful conversation. We performed

British Columbia, University of

134

Illuminating the dark matter of social neuroscience: Considering the problem of social interaction from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives  

PubMed Central

Successful human social interaction depends on our capacity to understand other people's mental states and to anticipate how they will react to our actions. Despite its importance to the human condition, the exact mechanisms underlying our ability to understand another's actions, feelings, and thoughts are still a matter of conjecture. Here, we consider this problem from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives. In a critical review, we demonstrate that attempts to draw parallels across these complementary disciplines is premature: The second-person perspective does not map directly to Interaction or Simulation theories, online social cognition, or shared neural network accounts underlying action observation or empathy. Nor does the third-person perspective map onto Theory-Theory (TT), offline social cognition, or the neural networks that support Theory of Mind (ToM). Moreover, we argue that important qualities of social interaction emerge through the reciprocal interplay of two independent agents whose unpredictable behavior requires that models of their partner's internal state be continually updated. This analysis draws attention to the need for paradigms in social neuroscience that allow two individuals to interact in a spontaneous and natural manner and to adapt their behavior and cognitions in a response contingent fashion due to the inherent unpredictability in another person's behavior. Even if such paradigms were implemented, it is possible that the specific neural correlates supporting such reciprocal interaction would not reflect computation unique to social interaction but rather the use of basic cognitive and emotional processes combined in a unique manner. Finally, we argue that given the crucial role of social interaction in human evolution, ontogeny, and every-day social life, a more theoretically and methodologically nuanced approach to the study of real social interaction will nevertheless help the field of social cognition to evolve. PMID:22737120

Przyrembel, Marisa; Smallwood, Jonathan; Pauen, Michael; Singer, Tania

2012-01-01

135

Understanding Social Change in Conducting Research on Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present essay, we focus on G. Stanley Hall's contributions to the study of the role of social change for adolescent development. After introducing Hall's main ideas, we discuss recent demands adolescents face because of social change and how Hall's work could inform research on adolescent development in times of social change.

Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

2005-01-01

136

Understanding Social Media Use as Alienation: A Review and Critique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The opportunities social media provide for agential expressions of subjectivity and experiential learning, relative to social media's role in reproducing digital-era capitalism, are the subject of keen debate. There is now a burgeoning academic literature which suggests that social media users are, to a greater or lesser degree, alienated by…

Reveley, James

2013-01-01

137

VALUE PROBLEMS IN THE QUEST FOR SANCTION IN SOCIAL PLANNING  

E-print Network

of himself. II Hence, any fully conscious man is possessed of a seemingly endless range and variety of values, ranging far and wide over his perceptual and experiential landscape. Erik Erikson (1960:46), reflecting on the weighty role that values play... worker. II In Eileen Younghusband (comp.), Social Work and Social Values. London: AI len and Unwin, Ltd. Value Problems in the Sanction of Social Planning 43 Erikson, Erik 1960 'Youth and the Iife eye Ie. II Chi Idren 7 (March - Apri I). Firey, Walter...

Watts, Thomas Dale

1973-04-01

138

Genetic aspects of birth defects: new understandings of old problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, combined advances in genetics, developmental biology and biochemistry have transformed the study of human birth defects. This review describes the importance of genome architecture, parent of origin effects (imprinting), molecular pathophysiology, developmental pathways, mosaicism and cancer predisposition syndromes in the understanding of birth defects. This knowledge can be applied to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic information,

Katrina R Prescott; Andrew O M Wilkie

2007-01-01

139

Does Neighborhood Social Capital Buffer the Effects of Maternal Depression on Adolescent Behavior Problems?  

PubMed Central

Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives. PMID:24659390

Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

2014-01-01

140

Understanding how social networking influences perceived satisfaction with conference experiences  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Social networking is a key benefit derived from participation in conferences that bind the ties of a professional community. Building social networks can lead to satisfactory experiences while furthering participants' long- and short-term career goals. Although investigations of social networking can lend insight into how to effectively engage individuals and groups within a professional cohort, this area has been largely overlooked in past research. The present study investigates the relationship between social networking and satisfaction with the 10th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau using structural equation modelling. Results partially support the hypothesis that three dimensions of social networking – interpersonal connections, social cohesion, and secondary associations – positively contribute to the performance of various conference attributes identified in two focus group sessions. The theoretical and applied contributions of this paper shed light on the social systems formed within professional communities and resource allocation among service providers.

van Riper, Carena J.; van Riper, Charles, III; Kyle, Gerard T.; Lee, Martha E.

2013-01-01

141

Understanding students' poor performance on mathematical problem solving in physics  

E-print Network

does not help them learn to apply these mathematical resources appropriately; instead, it robs them introductory, algebra-based physics students perform poorly on mathematical problem solving tasks in physics. Additionally, we present an instructional strategy that can help students employ the mathematical knowledge

142

Distributed problem solving and natural language understanding models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory of organization and control for a meaning-based language understanding system is mapped out. In this theory, words, rather than rules, are the units of knowledge, and assume the form of procedural entities which execute as generator-like coroutines. Parsing a sentence in context demands a control environment in wich experts can ask questions of each other, forward hints and suggestions to each other, and suspend. The theory is a cognitive theory of both language representation and parser control.

Rieger, C.

1980-01-01

143

Genetic aspects of birth defects: new understandings of old problems  

PubMed Central

Over the past two decades, combined advances in genetics, developmental biology and biochemistry have transformed the study of human birth defects. This review describes the importance of genome architecture, parent of origin effects (imprinting), molecular pathophysiology, developmental pathways, mosaicism and cancer predisposition syndromes in the understanding of birth defects. This knowledge can be applied to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic information, counselling and sometimes even treatment of these conditions. PMID:17585097

Prescott, Katrina R; Wilkie, Andrew O M

2007-01-01

144

An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence  

PubMed Central

Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both), which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions. PMID:22701416

Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Jasinska, Agnes J.

2012-01-01

145

Fatherless America: Confronting Our Most Urgent Social Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States is rapidly becoming a fatherless society. Fatherlessness is the leading cause of declining child well-being, providing the impetus behind social problems such as crime, domestic violence, and adolescent pregnancy. Challenging the basic assumptions of opinion leaders in academia and in the media, this book debunks the prevailing…

Blankenhorn, David

146

Social Cognition and Conduct Problems: A Developmental Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To estimate associations between trajectories of conduct problems and social-cognitive competences through childhood into early adolescence. Method: A prospective population-based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) recruited in the prenatal period (13,988 children alive at 12 months) formed the basis…

Oliver, Bonamy R.; Barker, Edward D.; Mandy, William P. L.; Skuse, David H.; Maughan, Barbara

2011-01-01

147

Situated, Embodied and Social Problem-Solving in Virtual Worlds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary theories of problem-solving highlight that expertise is domain specific, contingent on the social context and available resources, and involves knowledge, skills, attitudes, emotions and values. Developing educational activities that incorporate all of these elements is a challenge. Through case studies, this paper outlines how…

Cram, Andrew; Hedberg, John G.; Gosper, Maree; Dick, Geoff

2011-01-01

148

Research Problems and Issues in the Area of Socialization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research problems and issues concerning socialization are identified in an effort to aid member agencies of the Interagency Panel on Early Childhood Research and Development in establishing priorities in research. Discussed in Part I are: (1) the development of intergroup and intragroup attitudes and behaviors--stages in their development; the…

Sowder, Barbara J.; Lazar, Joyce B.

149

Social Problems Confronting Black Women at White Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author of the paper examines the experience of black women at predominantly white universities who are confronted with problems emanating from sexism and racism in classroom and non-classroom situations and which acquire complexity because of their subtlety and socially reinforced attitudinal origins. The author points to the black females who…

Hill, Gloria P.

150

Volunteerism and Social Problems: Making Things Better or Worse?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volunteerism is described and defined and then a model of the decision to volunteer is presented. Data from an archival analysis of volunteering after the September 11, 2001 attacks and an on-line survey of volunteers are presented in support of the model. Finally, the implications of increasing volunteerism for the solution of social problems are considered. The focus of this

Louis A. Penner

2004-01-01

151

Integrated Science: Providing a More Complete Understanding of Complex Problems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Integration among sciences is critical in order to address some of our most pressing problems. Because of the inherent complexity of natural systems, and the increasing complexity of human demands on them, narrowly-focused approaches are no longer sufficient. USGS Workshop on Enhancing Integrated Science, November 1998. The Mid-Continent Geographic Science Center is actively participating in several integrated science studies that include research partners from the other disciplines of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), other Federal and State agencies, universities, and private non-government organizations. The following three examples illustrate the diversity of these studies.

2006-01-01

152

Online Groups and Social Loafing: Understanding Student-Group Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the psycho-social aspects of social loafing and free riding in a traditional and distance learning environment. A brief literature review and summaries of frequently cited antecedents and their mitigating factors are reviewed for application by instructors, designers, and administrators in distance education. Distance learning administrative issues related to providing support to instructors to address

Sherry L. Piezon; Robin L. Donaldson

153

Understanding the Delinquency and Social Relationships of Loners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the delinquency and social relations of adolescents who lack close friendships. This study compares the delinquency of "loners" and "nonloners," explores group differences within the larger social context of peers, family, and school, and assesses the efficacy of loner status as a distinct dimension of peer relationships. The…

Demuth, Stephen

2004-01-01

154

Understanding Social Presence in Text-Based Online Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on key aspects of a theory generative study into social presence in text-based online learning environments. The focus of the article is the nature of social presence as experienced by online learners in those environments. Employing a collective case study design, the study accessed online learners' experience-based heuristic…

Kehrwald, Benjamin

2008-01-01

155

Using social data to understand live fes2val audiences  

E-print Network

Eon that reveal spaEotemporal characterisEcs: ­ Individual and group acEvity lines. ­ Detec of data streams · Processing of social media streams involves NLP. · Credibility? · Data Alignment. h0p://scm-l3.technoraE.com/12/01/15/60155/Social-Media

Tokarchuk, Laurissa

156

Understanding Online Community User Participation: A Social Influence Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of online community user participation from a social influence perspective. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on 450 valid responses collected from a survey questionnaire, structural equation modeling (SEM) technology was employed to examine the research model. Findings – The results show that both social identity and group norm have significant

Tao Zhou

2011-01-01

157

Toward Understanding Children's and Adults' Encounters with Social Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the design of social robots, has engaged research- ers for some time, only recently have the human implica- tions of interaction with such robots been considered. In this paper, we address how children and adults behave toward and think about the social robot AIBO. Our work is informed by a conceptual framework that draws on constructs within cognitive psychology:

Gail F. Melson; Peter H. Kahn; Alan Beck; Batya Friedman

158

Understanding Social Work in the History of Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The purpose of this article is to present a theoretical frame of reference for the study and assessment of social work from the perspective of a history of ideas. Method: The study employed an analysis of primary and secondary historical sources. Results: Social work as a practice and research field is embedded in the genesis of modern…

Soydan, Haluk

2012-01-01

159

Understanding Green Purchase Behavior: College Students and Socialization Agents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taking the perspective of consumer socialization theory, this study examined the influences of different socialization agents on consumers' purchases of green products. A total of 224 surveys were distributed to students enrolled in a business-related course at a major university in the northeastern United States. The objectives were twofold. The…

Yan, Ruoh-Nan; Xu, Huimin

2010-01-01

160

The importance of social context in understanding and promoting low-income immigrant women's health.  

PubMed

Understanding the social context and realities of Cape Verdean women in the U.S. as well as other immigrant and ethnic/racial groups is important to promote their overall health and well-being more effectively. The aim of this study was to gain a contextual understanding from the perspectives of health promoters who work with marginalized women. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine Cape Verdean women health promoters about their perspectives and experiences of health promotion practice with immigrant women in their community. Using a Glaserian grounded theory approach to analysis, six salient themes describing women's social context emerged: community and domestic violence, loss and isolation, economic injustice, immigration-related issues and abuse, unequal gender-based power relations, and cultural taboos. These findings challenge health researchers and practitioners to understand health problems and health promotion not only at an individual level, but at multiple levels of influence including interpersonal, family, neighborhood, and structural levels. PMID:19202249

De Jesus, Maria

2009-02-01

161

Understanding morphogen gradients: a problem of dispersion and containment  

PubMed Central

Summary Protein morphogens are instructive signals that regulate growth and patterning of tissues and organs. They form long-range, dynamic gradients by moving from regions of high concentration (producing cells) to regions of low concentration (the adjacent, non-producing developmental field). Since morphogen activity must be limited to the adjacent target field, we want to understand both how signaling proteins move and how their dispersion is restricted. We consider the variety of settings for long-range morphogen systems in Drosophila. In the early embryo, morphogens appear to disperse by free diffusion, and impermeable membranes physically constrain them. However, at later stages, containment is achieved without physical barriers. We argue that in the absence of constraining barriers, gradient-generating dispersion of morphogens cannot be achieved by passive diffusion and that other mechanisms for distribution must be considered. PMID:17643982

Kornberg, Thomas B.; Guha, Arjun

2007-01-01

162

Problems in understanding the structure and assembly of viruses  

SciTech Connect

Though viruses infect the cells of all groups of animals, plants, and microorganisms, their structures follow a limited number of general themes; spherical or cylindrical shells built of hundreds of repeated protein subunits enclosing a nucleic acid - DNA or RNA - genome. Since the 1960s it has been known that the protein shells of spherical viruses in fact conform to icosahedral symmetry or to subtle deviations from icosahedral symmetry. The construction of the shell lattices and the transformations they go through in the different stages of the viral life cycle are not fully understood. The shells contain the nucleic in a highly condensed state, of unknown coiling/organization. Features of the well studied bacterial viruses will be reviewed, with examples from adenoviruses, herpesviruses, poliovirus, and HIV. The emergence of new viral disease has led to increased interest in the development of agents which interfere with virus reproduction at the level of the assembly or function of the organized particle. Recently computational approaches to the problem of virus assembly have made important contributions to clarifying shell assembly processes. 1 ref.

King, J. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-12-01

163

Understanding social influence using network analysis and machine learning  

E-print Network

If we are to enact better policy, fight crime and decrease poverty, we will need better computational models of how society works. In order to make computational social science a useful reality, we will need generative ...

Adjodah, Dhaval D. K. (Adjodlah, Dhaval Dhamnidhi Kumar)

2013-01-01

164

Understanding multimedia content using web scale social media data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, increasingly rich and massive social media data (such as texts, images, audios, videos, blogs, and so on) are being posted to the web, including social networking websites (e.g., MySpace, Facebook), photo and video sharing websites (e.g., Flickr, YouTube), and photo forums (e.g., Photosig.com and Photo.net). Recently, researchers from multidisciplinary areas have proposed to use data-driven approaches for multimedia content

Dong Xu; Lei Zhang; Jiebo Luo

2010-01-01

165

Understanding social presence in text?based online learning environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on key aspects of a theory generative study into social presence in text?based online learning environments. The focus of the article is the nature of social presence as experienced by online learners in those environments. Employing a collective case study design, the study accessed online learners’ experience?based heuristic knowledge through a multi?phase dialogical process which functioned as

Benjamin Kehrwald

2008-01-01

166

Social problem solving and strategy use in young children.  

PubMed

In the present study, the authors investigated what prosocial-assertive, passive, and coercive strategies 6-year-olds (N=257) would propose in response to stories about 2 socially challenging situations: displacing another child in a game and obtaining a toy from another child. The scenarios also varied the gender composition of the characters. Participants' verbalizations while acting out their responses using toy props fell into 13 categories of strategies. Teachers reported antisocial behavior and social competence of the participants. Girls and boys responded similarly in their general suggestions of prosocial or assertive strategies, but girls were more likely to offer prosocial strategies with other girls than with boys. Teacher-rated competence and antisocial behavior interacted in predicting coercive responses by girls but not by boys. The results demonstrate that prosocial and antisocial behaviors need to be considered in interaction to fully understand the nature of social competence. PMID:18476479

Green, Vanessa A; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Rechis, Ruth; Patterson, Meagan M; Hughes, Julie Milligan

2008-03-01

167

Rural Women's Transitions to Motherhood: Understanding Social Support in a Rural Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social support protects women from various negative consequences, yet we have little understanding of how rural women acquire and utilize social support. Using interviews of 24 women in a North Dakota community, this research sought to understand how rural women were supported as new mothers. One, familial women and partners were vital supports to…

Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Weaver, Addie; Schommer, Kathryn

2012-01-01

168

Tackling complexities in understanding the social determinants of health: the contribution of ethnographic research  

PubMed Central

Objective The complexities inherent in understanding the social determinants of health are often not well-served by quantitative approaches. My aim is to show that well-designed and well-conducted ethnographic studies have an important contribution to make in this regard. Ethnographic research designs are a difficult but rigorous approach to research questions that require us to understand the complexity of people’s social and cultural lives. Approach I draw on an ethnographic study to describe the complexities of studying maternal health in a rural area in India. I then show how the lessons learnt in that setting and context can be applied to studies done in very different settings. Results I show how ethnographic research depends for rigour on a theoretical framework for sample selection; why immersion in the community under study, and rapport building with research participants, is important to ensure rich and meaningful data; and how flexible approaches to data collection lead to the gradual emergence of an analysis based on intense cross-referencing with community views and thus a conclusion that explains the similarities and differences observed. Conclusion When using ethnographic research design it can be difficult to specify in advance the exact details of the study design. Researchers can encounter issues in the field that require them to change what they planned on doing. In rigorous ethnographic studies, the researcher in the field is the research instrument and needs to be well trained in the method. Implication Ethnographic research is challenging, but nevertheless provides a rewarding way of researching complex health problems that require an understanding of the social and cultural determinants of health. PMID:22168509

2011-01-01

169

Understanding Value Creation in Social Entrepreneurship: The Importance of Aligning Mission, Strategy and Impact Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores and clarifies the significance of aligning mission, objectives and strategy with impact measurement in social entrepreneurship. We present a framework for understanding the value created by social entrepreneurs, presenting theoretical and practical insights into impact measurement. Drawing on case studies in Latin America, we suggest the presence of a ‘mission measurement paradox’ that affects social entrepreneurs in

Jarrod Ormiston; Richard Seymour

2011-01-01

170

Understanding University Reform in Japan through the Prism of the Social Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article looks at current university reforms in Japan through two slightly different social science prisms: how social science methodologies and theories can help us understand those reforms better and how social science teaching in universities will be affected by the current reform processes. (Contains 3 tables and 7 notes.)

Goodman, Roger

2008-01-01

171

Understanding Participatory Media Using Social Networks Aaditeshwar Seth a3seth@uwaterloo.ca  

E-print Network

Understanding Participatory Media Using Social Networks Aaditeshwar Seth ­ a3seth General model of communication 48 D Graph theoretic model specification 50 E Social capital 52 F Sample participatory media through models built using social networks of people. We first give a few examples

Waterloo, University of

172

Understanding factors affecting perceived sociability of social software Qin Gao *, Yusen Dai, Zao Fan, Ruogu Kang  

E-print Network

Understanding factors affecting perceived sociability of social software Qin Gao *, Yusen Dai, Zao t i c l e i n f o Article history: Available online 14 August 2010 Keywords: Sociability Computer-mediated communication Social software a b s t r a c t Sociability is considered to be important to the success of social

Mankoff, Jennifer

173

Overcoming "Doom and Gloom": Empowering Students in Courses on Social Problems, Injustice, and Inequality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I use principles of civic education and social psychology to identify four main classroom contributors to students' pessimistic appraisals of their ability to improve social problems: authoritarian teaching methods, a culture of "doom and gloom," little attention to solutions to social problems, and no linkage of social problems to…

Johnson, Brett

2005-01-01

174

Boys With Peer Adjustment Problems: Social Cognitive Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the hypothesis that maladjusted children lack specific social cognitive skills. Fourth- and sixth-grade boys with positive (P) and negative (N) peer status were asked to generate alternative solutions to hypothetical problems, to evaluate possible solutions, to describe self-statements, and to rate the likelihood of possible self-statements. Results indicated that N boys generated fewer alternative solutions, proposed fewer

Joan Rosenbaum Asarnow; Judy Weintraub Callan

1985-01-01

175

Understanding Evolved Genetic Programs for a Real World Object Detection Problem  

E-print Network

to be understandable to humans. This is achieved by evolving the rules in a predetermined if-then format, rather thanUnderstanding Evolved Genetic Programs for a Real World Object Detection Problem Victor Ciesielski1 2153, Australia Abstract. We describe an approach to understanding evolved programs for a real world

Ciesielski, Vic

176

Social Realism and the Problem of the Problem of Knowledge in the Sociology of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines from a Social Realist perspective a set of issues in the sociology of education regarding the problem of knowledge. It focuses upon the issue of relativism associated with the constructionist approach that since the time of the New Sociology of Education in the 1970s has constituted in different forms the dominant perspective…

Moore, Rob

2013-01-01

177

Toward a Dynamic Conceptualization of Social Ties and Context: Implications for Understanding Immigrant and Latino Health  

PubMed Central

Researchers have posited that social ties and social support may contribute to better-than-expected health outcomes among Mexican immigrants vis-ŕ-vis their US-born counterparts. However, in our review of studies examining social ties and health by immigration-related variables among this group, we found little support for this hypothesis. To better understand the social factors that contribute to the health of Mexicans in the United States, we conducted a qualitative analysis of social relationships and social context among first- and second-generation Mexican women. Our results highlight the interplay between immigration processes and social ties, draw attention to the importance of identity support and transnational social relationships, and suggest ways to reconceptualize the relationship between social contexts, social ties, and immigrant and Latino health. PMID:19833986

Schulz, Amy J.

2009-01-01

178

Social Security Statements: Social Security Administration Should Better Evaluate Whether Workers Understand Their Statements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Social Security Statement is the federal government's main document for communicating with more than 140 million workers about their Social Security benefits. By law, the statement must show an individual's annual earnings, payments into Social Securi...

2005-01-01

179

Experiments in socially guided machine learning: understanding how humans geach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Socially Guided Machine Learning we explore the ways in which machine learning can more fully take advantage of natural human interaction. In this work we are studying the role real-time human interaction plays in training assistive robots to perform new tasks. We describe an experimental platform, Sophie's World, and present descriptive analysis of human teaching behavior found in a

Andrea Lockerd Thomaz; Guy Hoffman; Cynthia Breazeal

2006-01-01

180

Understanding and combating link farming in the twitter social network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Twitter has emerged as a popular platform for discovering real-time information on the Web, such as news stories and people's reaction to them. Like the Web, Twitter has become a target for link farming, where users, especially spammers, try to acquire large numbers of follower links in the social network. Acquiring followers not only increases the size of a

Saptarshi Ghosh; Bimal Viswanath; Farshad Kooti; Naveen Kumar Sharma; Gautam Korlam; Fabricio Benevenuto; Niloy Ganguly; Krishna Phani Gummadi

2012-01-01

181

Understanding Social Capital Development and Academic Attainment of Mobile Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States has a long history of searching for utopian possibilities of public school, amidst a steady stream of population mobility. Horace Mann proclaimed that schools would be able to assimilate the millions of immigrants arriving during the late 1700s. He promised that schools could end poverty, crime and social injustice. Today, public…

Gaddie, Julie A.

2010-01-01

182

Understanding Groups in Outdoor Adventure Education through Social Network Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships are a critical component to the experience of an outdoor adventure education (OAE) program, therefore, more fruitful ways of investigating groups is needed. Social network analysis (SNA) is an effective tool to study the relationship structure of small groups. This paper provides an explanation of SNA and shows how it was used by the…

Jostad, Jeremy; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

2013-01-01

183

Understanding ADHD in Girls: Identification and Social Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify the hyperactive, impulsive, social, and emotional characteristics of girls with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These characteristics could be used to increase the referral rates of these girls and provide implications for intervention. Parent and self-ratings of a school-based…

Grskovic, Janice A.; Zentall, Sydney S.

2010-01-01

184

Understanding Disturbances and Responses in Social-Ecological Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) often draws on theories of complex adaptive systems, resilience, and robustness. Many studies analyze the resilience, robustness, or vulnerability of these systems to disturbances and stressors, but do not connect their particular case with a general notion of what counts as a disturbance. This makes theoretical generalization of how outcomes are coproduced by

Michael L. Schoon; Michael E. Cox

2011-01-01

185

Understanding Disturbances and Responses in Social-Ecological Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) often draws on theories of complex adaptive systems, resilience, and robustness. Many studies analyze the resilience, robustness, or vulnerability of these systems to disturbances and stressors, but do not connect their particular case with a general notion of what counts as a disturbance. This makes theoretical generalization of how outcomes are coproduced by

Michael L. Schoon; Michael E. Cox

2012-01-01

186

UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECT OF IS CHANGE: A SOCIAL CAPITAL PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that by adopting a social capital perspective of the effects of Information Systems (IS) implementation we are able to provide insights into both human and technological aspects of change interventions. This theoretical paper is firmly embedded within socio-technical approaches and aims to conceptualise and address concerns relating to organisational issues of systems and technology management. IS implementation

Tally Hatzakis

2008-01-01

187

Social Judgment Analysis: Methodology for Improving Interpersonal Communication and Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has found the Social Judgment Analysis (SJA) approach, with its focus on judgment policy and cognitive feedback, to be a significant factor in developing group member agreement and improving member performance. A controlled experiment was designed to assess the relative quality of the judgment making process provided by SJA.…

Rohrbaugh, John; Harmon, Joel

188

Understanding Online Social Network Usage from a Network Perspective  

E-print Network

Online Social Networks (OSNs) such as Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn, Hi5, and StudiVZ, have become popular alone adds over 377,000 users every twenty-four hours and is expected to overtake MySpace in the total

Fisher, Kathleen

189

Benefits of Practicing 4 = 2 + 2: Nontraditional Problem Formats Facilitate Children's Understanding of Mathematical Equivalence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether practice with arithmetic problems presented in a nontraditional problem format improves understanding of mathematical equivalence. Children (M age = 8;0; N = 90) were randomly assigned to practice addition in one of three conditions: (a) traditional, in which problems were presented in the traditional "operations on…

McNeil, Nicole M.; Fyfe, Emily R.; Petersen, Lori A.; Dunwiddie, April E.; Brletic-Shipley, Heather

2011-01-01

190

Understanding Social Complexity Within the Wildland-Urban Interface: A New Species of Human Habitation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management.

Paveglio, Travis B.; Jakes, Pamela J.; Carroll, Matthew S.; Williams, Daniel R.

2009-06-01

191

Understanding social complexity within the wildland-urban interface: a new species of human habitation?  

PubMed

The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management. PMID:19238478

Paveglio, Travis B; Jakes, Pamela J; Carroll, Matthew S; Williams, Daniel R

2009-06-01

192

Clique Relaxations in Social Network Analysis: The Maximum k-plex Problem  

E-print Network

Clique Relaxations in Social Network Analysis: The Maximum k-plex Problem Balabhaskar Balasundaram introduces and studies the maximum k-plex problem, which arises in social network analysis and has wider of interest. Keywords. maximum k-plex problem; maximum clique problem; social network analysis; clique relax

Butenko, Sergiy

193

Understanding Development and Usage of Social Networking Sites: The Social Software Performance Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social networking sites such as MySpace and Facebook thrive on energetic social interaction, but the factors that assure this are not well understood. There is a lack of theory that can describe and predict the successful adoption of new social computing systems. This paper introduces the Social Software Performance Model, and uses it to interpret the evolution and usage of

Catherine Dwyer; Starr Roxanne Hiltz; George Widmeyer

2008-01-01

194

Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

Dereli-Iman, Esra

2013-01-01

195

Understanding in distributed social-administrative network systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding is crucial for smart man-machine communication and therefore in the future of a well balanced information society. A pragmatic definition is given, valid for machines and humans. The solutions follow the developmental course in the history of philosophy and realize them based on the pattern concept of information science and the intelligent methods of frames, scripts, semantic nets and

Tibor Vamos; Mihaly Heder

2011-01-01

196

Conceptual Understanding in Social Education. ACER Research Monograph No. 45.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the results of a 1992 survey of students' economic, geographical, cultural, historical, and political understandings in the state of Victoria (Australia). The conception of some 2,900 students in Years 5 and 9 in government, Catholic and independent schools are investigated and described. The survey is one of a series of…

Doig, Brian; And Others

197

Timing of first sexual intercourse: The role of social control, social learning, and problem behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has pointed to several distinct processes that may affect the timing of first intercourse among adolescents. In the present study, the role of six hypothesized processes was assessed in a sample of 289 rural adolescent boys and girls. Results support the importance of family socialization and problem-behavior for both sexes, the role of biological factors for boys, and

Lisa J. Crockett; C. Raymond Bingham; Joanne S. Chopak; Judith R. Vicary

1996-01-01

198

Does Understanding Relational Terminology Mediate Effects of Intervention on Compare Word Problems?  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess whether understanding relational terminology (i.e., more, less, and fewer) mediates the effects of intervention on compare word problems. Second-grade classrooms (n = 31) were randomly assigned to 3 conditions: researcher-designed word-problem intervention, researcher-designed calculation intervention, or business-as-usual (teacher-designed) control. Students in word-problem intervention classrooms received instruction on the compare problem type, which included a focus on understanding relational terminology within compare word problems. Analyses, which accounted for variance associated with classroom clustering, indicated that (a) compared to the calculation intervention and business-as-usual conditions, word-problem intervention significantly increased performance on all three subtypes of compare problems and on understanding relational terminology; and (b) the intervention effect was fully mediated by students’ understanding of relational terminology for 1 subtype of compare problems and partially mediated by students’ understanding of relational terminology for the other 2 subtypes. PMID:22221461

Schumacher, Robin F.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

2012-01-01

199

Understanding End-user Perception of Network Problems J. Scott Miller  

E-print Network

Understanding End-user Perception of Network Problems J. Scott Miller Northwestern University or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. W-MUST'11, August 19, 2011, Toronto

Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

200

Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

Ludden, Alison Bryant

2012-01-01

201

Towards a deep understanding of malware propagation in online social networks  

SciTech Connect

Online social networks, which have been expanding at a blistering speed in the recent years, have emerged as a popular communication infrastructure for Internet users. Meanwhile, malware that specifically targets these online social networks are also on the rise. In this work, we aim to investigate the characteristics of malware propagation in online social networks. Our study is based on a dataset collected from a real-world location-based online social network. We analyze the social structure and user activity patterns of this network. We further use extensive trace-driven simulation to study the impact of initial infection, user click probability, social structure, and activity patterns on malware propagation in online social networks. The results from this work has greatly deepened our understanding of the nature of online social network malware and also shed light on how to defend against them effectively.

Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eidenbenz, Stephan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Guanling [U OF MASSACHUSETTS LOWELL; Li, Nan [U OF MASSACHUSETTS LOWELL

2009-01-01

202

Debunking Common Sense and the Taken for Granted: A Pedagogical Strategy for Teaching Social Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors argue that one approach to teaching Introduction to Social Problems is to structure the course content around taken-for-granted beliefs that many students have about the social world. In doing so, the authors discuss the social construction of social problems, how sociology differs from common sense, and the importance…

LeMoyne, Terri; Davis, Jean Marie

2011-01-01

203

How Multirobot Systems Research will Accelerate our Understanding of Social Animal Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of social insect behavior has significantly influenced artificial intelligence (AI) and multirobot systems' research (e.g., ant algorithms and swarm robotics). In this work, however, we focus on the opposite question: \\

Tucker Balch; Frank Dellaert; Adam Feldman; Andrew Guillory; Charles L. Isbell; Zia Khan; Stephen C. Pratt; Andrew N. Stein; Hank Wilde

2006-01-01

204

Promoting College Students' Problem Understanding Using Schema-Emphasizing Worked Examples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics learners often bypass the critical step of understanding a problem before executing solutions. Worked-out examples that identify problem information (e.g., data type, number of groups, purpose of analysis) key to determining a solution (e.g., "t" test, chi-square, correlation) can address this concern. The authors examined the…

Yan, Jie; Lavigne, Nancy C.

2014-01-01

205

Does Understanding Relational Terminology Mediate Effects of Intervention on Compare Word Problems?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess whether understanding relational terminology (i.e., "more, less," and "fewer") mediates the effects of intervention on compare word problems. Second-grade classrooms (N = 31) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: researcher-designed word-problem intervention, researcher-designed calculation…

Schumacher, Robin F.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

2012-01-01

206

Anchoring Adolescents' Understanding of Math Concepts in Rich Problem-Solving Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes how eighth-grade students in a remedial math class were able to match the problem solving performance of comparison students in a pre-algebra class. It discusses the use of video-based anchored instruction linked to applied problems to develop students' understanding and skills. (Contains references.) (DB)

Bottge, Brian A.; Heinrichs, Mary; Chan, Shih-Yi; Serlin, Ronald C.

2001-01-01

207

Understanding knee points in bicriteria problems and their implications as preferred solution principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A knee point is almost always a preferred trade-off solution, if it exists in a bicriteria optimization problem. In this article, an attempt is made to improve understanding of a knee point and investigate the properties of a bicriteria problem that may exhibit a knee on its Pareto-optimal front. Past studies are reviewed and a couple of new definitions are

Kalyanmoy Deb; Shivam Gupta

2011-01-01

208

Children's Theory of Mind: Understanding of Desire, Belief and Emotion with Social Referents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preschoolers' understanding of belief, desire, and emotion was assessed in a new false belief task that explored children's mental state reasoning about social situations. The social analog task presented a change in a partner's play activity rather than a change in the location of a physical object. Two main differences from the usual pattern of theory of mind results were

Leanh Nguyen; Douglas Frye

1999-01-01

209

Understanding the implications of social translucence for systems supporting communication at work  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a study that explored the implications of the Social Translucence framework for designing systems that support communications at work. Two systems designed for communicating availability status were empirically evaluated to understand what constitutes a successful way to achieve Visibility of people's communicative state. Some aspects of the Social Translucence constructs: Visibility , Awareness and Accountability

Agnieszka Matysiak Szóstek; Evangelos Karapanos; Berry Eggen; Mike Holenderski

2008-01-01

210

Friendship estimation model for social robots to understand human relationships Takayuki Kanda, Hiroshi Ishiguro  

E-print Network

Friendship estimation model for social robots to understand human relationships Takayuki Kanda, Hiroshi Ishiguro ATR Intelligent Robotics Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai, Seikacho, Sorakugun Kyoto, 619-0288, JAPAN E-mail kanda@atr.jp Abstract This paper reports our friendship estimation model for social robots

Kanda, Takayuki

211

Revisiting Albert Bandura's Social Learning Theory to Better Understand and Assist Victims of Intimate Personal Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic violence or intimate personal violence, a matter once considered private, has gained increased attention as a public health crisis. In their efforts to better understand and prevent this behavior, social science researchers and epidemiologists have discovered the link between early exposure to violence and spousal abuse. This paper uses Albert Bandura's social learning theory to explain interpersonal and intergenerational

James F. Anderson; Kimberly Kras

2007-01-01

212

Using Social Science to Understand and Improve Wildland Fire Organizations: An Annotated Reading List.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wildland fire community has spent the past decade trying to understand and account for the role of human factors in wildland fire organizations. Social research that is relevant to managing fire organizations can be found in disciplines such as social...

C. Spaulding, G. Larson, G. Rausch, K. Rossetto, V. Wright

2007-01-01

213

Can Problem Solving Affect the Understanding of Rational Numbers in the Middle School Setting?  

E-print Network

with problems, more specifically those involving rational numbers (Lesh, Post, & Behr, 1987). According to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) problem solving allows students to ?experience the power and utility of mathematics? (NCTM, 2000, p... (Behr, Lesh, Post, & Silver, 1983). Statement of Problem The NCTM calls educators to deepen middle school students? understanding of rational numbers in the Principle and Standards for School Mathematics through ?extensive experience with ratios, rates...

Meredith, Krystal B.

2010-07-14

214

Teachers' understandings and enactments of social and environmental justice issues in the classroom: What's  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do five new teachers understand and enact counter-hegemonic pedagogies in their own classes? This study developed from this question. The question arose as I taught critical environmental education, a counter-hegemonic pedagogy, to preservice science teachers. I encouraged the exploration of social and environmental injustices and how they function to reproduce dominant economic agendas. To understand how five teachers, in

Alison J. Sammel

2005-01-01

215

Improving Social Understanding of Preschool Children: Evaluation of a Training Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This study tested the effects of a training program intending to foster social understanding or the capacity which enables them to understand themselves and others in terms of intentions, beliefs, desires, and emotions in children at preschool age. A number of studies have shown that in the context of shared narratives, children are…

Esteban, Moises; Sidera, Francesc; Serrano, Jessica; Amado, Anna; Rostan, Carles

2010-01-01

216

Beyond Family and Ethnic Culture: Understanding the Preconditions for the Potential Realization of Social Capital  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article extends our conceptual understanding of social capital and school achievement through a comparative race and ethnic approach. Using the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) 1988-1990 panel, this article develops a more comprehensive understanding of school achievement by exploring circumstances, which the authors call…

Oseguera, Leticia; Conchas, Gilberto Q.; Mosqueda, Eduardo

2011-01-01

217

PhD Project: `Normal' and `abnormal' climates: understanding their social, psychological and statistical constructions  

E-print Network

PhD Project: `Normal' and `abnormal' climates: understanding their social, psychological, a definition that can be used to isolate normal or abnormal weather in a statistical sense. Individuals by scientific understanding and media practices (Hulme et al., in press). Definitions of normal and abnormal

Hulme, Mike

218

Probing adults' conceptual understanding and transfer of learning via problem posing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper reports on two experiments in which high performing university students having finished an introductory physics course were asked to pose mechanics questions. In Experiment 1, subjects were given problem situations (i.e. a story line accompanied with a diagram from which problems could be constructed) and asked to generate "textbook-like" problems that could be solved with specific concepts (e.g. conservation of mechanical energy, Newton's Second Law). In Experiment 2, subjects were given Concept Scenarios (i.e. a description of the physics principles and concepts that apply to a problem and the order in which they apply) and asked to generate problems that matched the scenarios. Interviews conducted immediately following the experiment asked the subjects to explain how the problems posed matched either the specified concepts, or the Concept Scenarios. Findings indicate that, when followed by an interview, problem solving is a powerful assessment tool for probing students' understanding of physics concepts, as well as their ability to transfer their knowledge to novel contexts. In many instances, students posed appropriate solvable problems, yet displayed major flaws in conceptual understanding. This suggests that even good novices are lacking in the way their conceptual knowledge is organized in memory and linked to problem contexts and procedures. Suggestions for using problem posing as a pedagogical tool are presented.

Mestre, Jose P.

2006-06-09

219

Easy Guidelines for Employee Use of Social Media For all uses of social media and online interaction, you should always consult and understand the following  

E-print Network

Easy Guidelines for Employee Use of Social Media For all uses of social media and online interaction, you should always consult and understand the following: Social Media Policy (DOI) Social Media Computers Personal Use Disclaimer: If you're using social media for personal reasons (e.g., Twitter, You

Torgersen, Christian

220

Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, consumers used the Internet to simply expend content: they read it, they watched it, and they used it to buy products and services. Increasingly, however, consumers are utilizing platforms—such as content sharing sites, blogs, social networking, and wikis—to create, modify, share, and discuss Internet content. This represents the social media phenomenon, which can now significantly impact a firm's reputation,

Jan H. Kietzmann; Kristopher Hermkens; Ian P. McCarthy; Bruno S. Silvestre

2011-01-01

221

Understanding knowledge sharing between IT professionals – an integration of social cognitive and social exchange theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was used with 252 IT professionals from IT companies and departments in Taiwan. Structural equation

Ming-Tien Tsai; Nai-Chang Cheng

2011-01-01

222

The Evolution of Social Pain: Understanding the Neural Network of Social Ostracism through Electroencephalography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of belonging or frequent exposure to social ostracism has maladaptive psychological and physical consequences. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the neural processes of social ostracism. Previously, Williams (2009) showed a decrease in theta power in the frontal lobe when female participants were ostracized in a virtual chat-room. Using male and female Illinois Wesleyan college students,

Daniel M Kern

2011-01-01

223

The Evolution of Social Pain: Understanding the Neural Network of Social Ostracism through Electroencephalogram Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of belonging or frequent exposure to social ostracism has maladaptive psychological and physical consequences. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the neural processes of social ostracism. Previously, Williams (2009) showed a decrease in theta power in the frontal lobe when female participants were ostracized in a virtual chat-room. Using male and female Illinois Wesleyan college students,

Kern Daniel

2011-01-01

224

Embeddedness and Empathy: How the Social Network Shapes Adolescents' Social Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on theories of social-cognitive development, the present study investigated the yet unknown social structure that underlies the concept of empathy in adolescence. A total of 3.159 seventh graders (13.67 years, 56% girls) from 166 school classes participated by providing information on empathy, related psychosocial factors, and friendship…

Wolfer, Ralf; Cortina, Kai S.; Baumert, Jurgen

2012-01-01

225

Understanding enabling capacities for managing the 'wicked problem' of nonpoint source water pollution in catchments: a conceptual framework.  

PubMed

Nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in catchments is a 'wicked' problem that threatens water quality, water security, ecosystem health and biodiversity, and thus the provision of ecosystem services that support human livelihoods and wellbeing from local to global scales. However, it is a difficult problem to manage because water catchments are linked human and natural systems that are complex, dynamic, multi-actor, and multi-scalar in nature. This in turn raises questions about understanding and influencing change across multiple levels of planning, decision-making and action. A key challenge in practice is enabling implementation of local management action, which can be influenced by a range of factors across multiple levels. This paper reviews and synthesises important 'enabling' capacities that can influence implementation of local management action, and develops a conceptual framework for understanding and analysing these in practice. Important enabling capacities identified include: history and contingency; institutional arrangements; collaboration; engagement; vision and strategy; knowledge building and brokerage; resourcing; entrepreneurship and leadership; and reflection and adaptation. Furthermore, local action is embedded within multi-scalar contexts and therefore, is highly contextual. The findings highlight the need for: (1) a systemic and integrative perspective for understanding and influencing change for managing the wicked problem of NPS water pollution; and (2) 'enabling' social and institutional arenas that support emergent and adaptive management structures, processes and innovations for addressing NPS water pollution in practice. These findings also have wider relevance to other 'wicked' natural resource management issues facing similar implementation challenges. PMID:23792915

Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

2013-10-15

226

Interpersonal Sensitivity and Social Problem-Solving: Relations with Academic and Social Self-Esteem, Depressive Symptoms, and Academic Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relation betweeninterpersonal sensitivity and social problem-solving aspredictors of three outcomes in a college population (N= 207): self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and academic performance. Consistent with predictions,interpersonal sensitivity was related to problem-solving-- in particular, negative problem orientation. Bothinterpersonal sensitivity and social problem-solving were significant predictors of self-esteem anddepressive symptoms, each accounting for uniquevariance. Interpersonal sensitivity was a significantpredictor

Randi E. McCabe; Kirk R. Blankstein; Jennifer S. Mills

1999-01-01

227

Do Provocateurs’ Emotion Displays Influence Children’s Social Goals and Problem Solving?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social goals and social problem-solving of children who varied in social adjustment were examined in the context of hypothetical ambiguous provocation situations in which provocateurs’ emotion displays were systematically manipulated. Children rated the importance of six different social goals and explained how they would solve the problems. Social adjustment was measured with rating and nomination sociometric procedures. Rejected-aggressive, rejected-nonaggressive,

Elizabeth A. Lemerise; Bridget K. Fredstrom; Brenna M. Kelley; April L. Bowersox; Rachel N. Waford

2006-01-01

228

Does Social Exclusion Motivate Interpersonal Reconnection? Resolving the Porcupine Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from 6 experiments supports the social reconnection hypothesis, which posits that the experience of social exclusion increases the motivation to forge social bonds with new sources of potential affiliation. Threat of social exclusion led participants to express greater interest in making new friends, to increase their desire to work with others, to form more positive impressions of novel social

Jon K. Maner; C. Nathan DeWall; Roy F. Baumeister; Mark Schaller

2007-01-01

229

The STAR Project: Enhancing Adolescents' Social Understanding through Video-based, Multimedia Scenarios.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a computer game that supports the development of learners' social problem-solving skills. In a controlled three-group design, the group using the prototype game performed significantly better than an attention-placebo control and comparably to a therapist-directed group on measures of problem solving and engagement. However,…

Goldsworthy, Richard C.; Barab, Sasha A.; Goldsworthy, Elizabeth L.

2000-01-01

230

[Development of the Bandama Valley. Sanitary and social problems].  

PubMed

As with all water resources development projects in countries with hot climate, the man-made lake of Kossou in Ivory Coast presents social and sanitary problems. Although the resettlement and the economic recuperation of the inhabitants are well on the way, the health hazards and especially that of the generalization of schistosomiasis calls for an urgent solution. Though well planed in advance, the creation of this man-made lake, illustrates the necessity at the very beginning of a project that will distrub all the ecology of a region, to establish the total disadvantages and health hazards incurved by the people who live there. To the cost of a project should be added that of measures that would contribute to the reduction of these risks before it is too late. PMID:189949

Picot, H

1976-01-01

231

Scaffolded problem-solving, learning approaches and understanding of concepts in an introductory college physics class  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was an exploration of students' use of scaffolded problems as part of their homework in an introductory calculus-based physics class. The study included consideration of the possible relationship of students' meaningful and rote learning approaches. The sample was comprised of 48 students who had completed all study instruments. Of this number, 23 did homework assignments that included scaffolded problems that had been divided into multiple steps that simplify, highlight, and organize the knowledge associated with the problem solving process. The other 25 students did non-scaffolded homework assignments. The Mechanics Baseline Test, given at the beginning of the study, measured students' prior knowledge of physics concepts. The Learning Approach Questionnaire, also given at the beginning of the study, measured students' meaningful and rote approaches to learning. Student responses to 6 qualitative physics problems and their selection of concepts associated with 4 quantitative physics problems was a gauge of their understanding of physics concepts. These 10 problems were distributed between 2 classroom examinations given during the study. At the end of the study 4 students who had done scaffolded homework problems and 4 students who had done non-scaffolded homework problems participated in think aloud protocols. They verbalized their thoughts as they attempted to solve 2 physics problems. Characterizations of individual problem solving approaches emerged from the think aloud protocols. An analysis of statistical data showed that students who did scaffolded problems attained significantly greater understanding of physics concepts than students who did non-scaffolded assignments. There were no significant differences by learning approaches, and no significant interactions. This indicates that scaffolded homework problems may benefit students regardless of learning orientation. Think aloud protocols revealed patterns of difference between students who had done scaffolded homework problems and students who had done non-scaffolded homework problems. These included a greater tendency among scaffolded students to include declarative knowledge and to perform problem checks. It also included a greater tendency among non-scaffolded students to rely on the textbook as a reference during problem representation. Overall, students who had done scaffolded problems appeared to solve problems in a manner closer to that seen in expert problem solvers. Additionally, they showed evidence of problem solving habits, for instance checking, that might have a long term benefit.

Haack, Constance

232

Social Understanding and Social Lives: From Toddlerhood through to the Transition to School. Essays in Developmental Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past thirty years, researchers have documented a remarkable growth in children's social understanding between toddlerhood and the early school years. However, it is still unclear why some children's awareness of others' thoughts and feelings lags so far behind that of their peers. Based on research that spans an extended developmental…

Hughes, Claire

2011-01-01

233

Conceptual problems in laypersons' understanding of individualized cancer risk: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore laypersons’ understanding of individualized cancer risk estimates, and to identify conceptual problems that may limit this understanding. Background Risk prediction models are increasingly used to provide people with information about their individual risk of cancer and other diseases. However, laypersons may have difficulty understanding individualized risk information, because of conceptual as well as computational problems. Design A qualitative study was conducted using focus groups. Semi-structured interviews explored participants’ understandings of the concept of risk, and their interpretations of a hypothetical individualized colorectal cancer risk estimate. Setting and participants Eight focus groups were conducted with 48 adults aged 50–74 years residing in two major US metropolitan areas. Participants had high school or greater education, some familiarity with information technology, and no personal or family history of cancer. Results Several important conceptual problems were identified. Most participants thought of risk not as a neutral statistical concept, but as signifying danger and emotional threat, and viewed cancer risk in terms of concrete risk factors rather than mathematical probabilities. Participants had difficulty acknowledging uncertainty implicit to the concept of risk, and judging the numerical significance of individualized risk estimates. The most challenging conceptual problems related to conflict between subjective and objective understandings of risk, and difficulties translating aggregate-level objective risk estimates to the individual level. Conclusions Several conceptual problems limit laypersons’ understanding of individualized cancer risk information. These problems have implications for future research on health numeracy, and for the application of risk prediction models in clinical and public health settings. PMID:19250148

Han, Paul K. J.; Lehman, Thomas C.; Massett, Holly; Lee, Simon J. C.; Klein, William M. P.; Freedman, Andrew N.

2014-01-01

234

The Social fMRI: Measuring, Understanding, and Designing Social Mechanisms in the Real World  

E-print Network

A key challenge of data-driven social science is the gathering of high quality multi-dimensional datasets. A second challenge relates to design and execution of structured experimental interventions in-situ, in a way ...

Aharony, Nadav

235

Is Conceptual Understanding Compromised By A Problem- Solving Emphasis In An Introductory Physics Course?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developing competency in problem solving and enhancing conceptual understanding are primary objectives in introductory physics, and many techniques and tools are available to help instructors achieve them. Pedagogically, we use an easy-to-implement intervention, the ACCESS protocol, to develop and assess problem-solving skills in our SCALE-UP classroom environment for algebra-based physics. Based on our research and teaching experience, an important question has emerged: while primarily targeting improvements in problem-solving and cognitive development, is it necessary that conceptual understanding be compromised? To address this question, we gathered and analyzed information about student abilities, backgrounds, and instructional preferences. We report on our progress and give insights into matching the instructional tools to student profiles in order to achieve optimal learning in group-based active learning. The ultimate goal of our work is to integrate individual student learning needs into a pedagogy that moves students closer to expert-like status in problem solving.

Ridenour, Joshua; Feldman, Gerald; Teodorescu, Raluca E.; Medsker, Larry; Benmouna, Nawal

2013-07-18

236

Sociology provides the conceptual and methodological framework to understand society. Its primary goal is to stimulate thinking about society, applying imagination and critical analysis to the many facets of social life.  

E-print Network

Sociology provides the conceptual and methodological framework to understand society. Its primary facets of social life. Using the conceptual and methodological tools that sociology provides,we gain; the application of sociology can lead to a better understanding of social problems and issues and suggest how

Seldin, Jonathan P.

237

Relationships Between Social Skills, Behavioral Problems, and School Readiness for Head Start Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study followed 515 4-year-olds from Head Start entry to exit to investigate their social and behavioral skills and the impact of these skills on school readiness outcomes. Results indicated that, on average, social skills improved across the preschool year, while behavior problems remained relatively stable. Social skills and behavior problems were significantly related to multiple child school readiness outcomes

Stacey Storch Bracken; Janet E. Fischel

2007-01-01

238

Social Competence as a Mediating Factor in Reduction of Behavioral Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of the present study was to explore how social competence reduces behavioral problems. Based on previous findings, we assume that increased social competence can be regarded as a mediating factor in reducing behavior problems. All participants (children and adolescents, n = 112) received an intervention intended to increase social

Langeveld, Johannes H.; Gundersen, Knut K.; Svartdal, Frode

2012-01-01

239

Understanding suffering and giving compassion: the reach of socially engaged Buddhism into China.  

PubMed

This paper will explore the social engagement of Buddhists through their active voluntary works - works that result in the development of a religious philanthropic culture. Through three case examples, this paper will examine how the sangha and individual Buddhists understand social suffering and compassion and attempt to integrate their understanding of Buddhist virtues and values in their daily life where the performance of voluntary works is seen as Buddhist spiritualism. In this process, the individuals seek to understand the key principles of Buddhism that are of direct relevance to their daily existence and their quest to be a compassionate self. Foremost are two notions of yebao (karma) and gan-en (gratitude) and how through compassionate practices and gratitude for those who accepted compassionate acts, they would be rewarded with good karma. Here, pursuing compassionate acts and the alleviation of social suffering is the pursuit of this-worldly spiritualism. PMID:24559267

Kuah-Pearce, Khun Eng

2014-01-01

240

Marijuana effect expectancies: Relations to social anxiety and marijuana use problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

High social anxiety is related to marijuana problems, yet the nature of this relation remains unclear. We examined relations between marijuana effect expectancies, social anxiety, and marijuana among undergraduates (N=337). Social anxiety was related positively to Negative Expectancies and negatively to Tension Reduction Expectancies. Among socially anxious individuals, greater belief that marijuana produces Cognitive and Behavioral Impairment was associated with

Julia D. Buckner; Norman B. Schmidt

2008-01-01

241

Understanding The Decision Context: DPSIR, Decision Landscape, And Social Network Analysis  

EPA Science Inventory

Establishing the decision context for a management problem is the critical first step for effective decision analysis. Understanding the decision context allow stakeholders and decision-makers to integrate the societal, environmental, and economic considerations that must be con...

242

Problems and prospects for the social support-reactivity hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social support and integration have been linked to health and longevity in many correlational studies. To explain how social\\u000a relationship might enhance health, investigators are examining the effects of social support on physiological processes implicated\\u000a in disease. Much of this research focuses on testing the social support-reactivity hypothesis, which maintains that social\\u000a support enhances health by reducing psychobiologic reactivity to

Stephen J. Lepore

1998-01-01

243

Towards understanding how to design for social play in exertion games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Players invest significant physical effort when playing exertion games. In addition to improving physical health, exertion\\u000a games are also believed to facilitate social play amongst players. Despite these advantages, our understanding of how to design\\u000a these games to successfully support social play is limited. In this paper, we present a qualitative analysis of player data\\u000a from “Table Tennis for Three”,

Florian Mueller; Martin R. Gibbs; Frank Vetere

2010-01-01

244

Food and eating as social practice--understanding eating patterns as social phenomena and implications for public health.  

PubMed

Globally, public health agencies recognise obesity trends among populations as a priority. Explanations for population obesity patterns are linked to obesogenic environments and societal trends which encourage patterns of overeating and little physical activity. However, obesity prevention and nutrition intervention focus predominantly on changing individual level eating behaviours. Disappointingly, behaviour-based nutrition education approaches to changing population eating patterns have met with limited success. Sociological perspectives propose that underlying social relations can help explain collective food and eating patterns, and suggest an analysis of the sociocultural context for understanding population eating patterns. We propose a theoretical framework for the examination of eating patterns as social phenomena. Giddens' structuration theory, in particular his concept of social practices understood as an interplay of 'agency' and 'social structure' (rules and resources), is used to study food choice patterns. We discuss the application of these concepts for understanding routine food choice practices of families, elaborating how rules and resources configure the enabling or constraining conditions under which actors make food choices. The framework assists in characterising how social structural properties are integral to food choice practices, and could direct attention to these when considering nutrition interventions aimed at changing population eating patterns. PMID:19220802

Delormier, Treena; Frohlich, Katherine L; Potvin, Louise

2009-03-01

245

Thai Grade 10 and 11 Students' Conceptual Understanding and Ability to Solve Stoichiometry Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stoichiometry and related concepts are an important part of student learning in chemistry. In this interpretive-based inquiry, we investigated Thai Grade 10 and 11 students' conceptual understanding and ability to solve numerical problems for stoichiometry-related concepts. Ninety-seven participants completed a purpose-designed survey instrument…

Dahsah, Chanyah; Coll, Richard K.

2007-01-01

246

New approaches to understanding the mechanism of nucleate boiling: Insights into an old problem.  

E-print Network

New approaches to understanding the mechanism of nucleate boiling: Insights into an old problem conductivity than the liquid heated from below as a model system for nucleate boiling. A quasisteady continuum-phase system and find a P-T phase diagram that delineates the boundary between nucleate and film boiling. Under

Lin, Qiao

247

Relation Between Social Problem-Solving Ability and Subsequent Level of Psychological Stress in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective design was used to examine the relation between social problem-solving ability and later psychological stress in college students during the first semester of the academic year. A new social problem-solving inventory measured not only general ability, but also more specific components of the problem-solving process (e.g., problem orientation, problem-solving skills; D'Zurilla & Nezu, 1990). The results of a

Thomas J. DZurilla; Collette F. Sheedy

1991-01-01

248

Big thoughts in small brains? Dogs as a model for understanding human social cognition.  

PubMed

In this review we argued that dogs can provide a good model for both the evolution of human social-cognitive abilities and studying the underlying neural and genetic structures of these behavioural features. The key difference between the present and other approaches for modelling human social evolution lies in the assumption that there is a large overlap between the human and dog behaviour complex because during their evolution in close contact with human groups dogs evolved functionally similar social skills. Thus the parallel investigation of the human and dog behaviour complex widens our possibility for understanding human social cognition because it allows the modelling of the interaction between various components in contrast to other models which are often restricted to modelling a single aspect of human social cognitive skills. PMID:17496805

Miklósi, Adám; Topál, József; Csányi, Vilmos

2007-03-26

249

Understanding change in recycling and littering behavior across a school social network.  

PubMed

Understanding how communities change requires examining how individuals' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by those around them. This paper investigates behavior change across a large social network following a recycling intervention in a New Zealand high school community. We used a mixed methods design, combining focus group data with social network analysis from two waves of a questionnaire that measured friendship networks; recycling and littering behaviors; perceived behavioral norms; and teacher, friend, and parent encouragement for these behaviors. Recycling behavior increased significantly over the course of our study. Supporting the importance of social networks in this context, both littering and recycling behavior showed clear social clustering. Further, the degree of change in an individuals' littering and recycling behavior across time was predicted by friends' prior behavior. Focus group data provided insight into students' perceptions of social interactions and how these contributed to littering and recycling behavior. PMID:24327210

Long, Jennifer; Harré, Niki; Atkinson, Quentin D

2014-06-01

250

The prairie vole: an emerging model organism for understanding the social brain  

PubMed Central

Unlike most mammalian species, the prairie vole is highly affiliative, forms enduring social bonds between mates, and displays biparental behavior. Over two decades of research in this species has enhanced our understanding of the neurobiological basis not only of monogamy, social attachment and nurturing behaviors, but also other aspects of social cognition. Because social cognitive deficits are hallmarks of many psychiatric disorders, discoveries made in prairie voles may direct novel treatment strategies for disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. With the ongoing development of molecular, genetic and genomic tools for this species, prairie voles will likely maintain their current trajectory becoming an unprecedented model organism for basic and translational research focusing on the biology of the social brain. PMID:20005580

McGraw, Lisa A.; Young, Larry J.

2009-01-01

251

Religiosity as identity: toward an understanding of religion from a social identity perspective.  

PubMed

As a social identity anchored in a system of guiding beliefs and symbols, religion ought to serve a uniquely powerful function in shaping psychological and social processes. Religious identification offers a distinctive "sacred" worldview and "eternal" group membership, unmatched by identification with other social groups. Thus, religiosity might be explained, at least partially, by the marked cognitive and emotional value that religious group membership provides. The uniqueness of a positive social group, grounded in a belief system that offers epistemological and ontological certainty, lends religious identity a twofold advantage for the promotion of well-being. However, that uniqueness may have equally negative impacts when religious identity itself is threatened through intergroup conflict. Such consequences are illustrated by an examination of identities ranging from religious fundamentalism to atheism. Consideration of religion's dual function as a social identity and a belief system may facilitate greater understanding of the variability in its importance across individuals and groups. PMID:20089847

Ysseldyk, Renate; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

2010-02-01

252

Understanding dieting: A social cognitive analysis of hedonic processes in self-regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper introduces a novel approach to understanding failures of self-regulation in chronic dieters. Traditional approaches to this problem have focused on consciously controlled processes of eating regulation, such as the realisation that one has overeaten, or the experience of food cravings. We argue, however, that dieters' problem might rather lie in their sensitivity to the hedonic aspects of

Esther K. Papies; Wolfgang Stroebe; Henk Aarts

2009-01-01

253

The Importance of Social Context in Understanding and Promoting Low-Income Immigrant Womens Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the social context and realities of Cape Verdean women in the U.S. as well as other immigrant and ethnic\\/racial groups is important to promote their overall health and well-being more effectively. The aim of this study was to gain a contextual understanding from the perspectives of health promoters who work with marginalized women. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with

Maria De Jesus

2009-01-01

254

The Social Tunnel Versus the Python: A New Way to Understand the Impact of Baby Booms and Baby Busts on a Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that the "python analogy," often used to help students understand the negative societal impact of unusually small or large age cohorts, is better replaced by the social tunnel analogy, which is diagramed and illustrated with reference to the educational problems experienced in the United States as a result of the World War II baby boom.…

McFalls, Joseph A.; And Others

1986-01-01

255

Understanding resilience in armed conflict: social resources and mental health of children in Burundi.  

PubMed

Little is known about the role of cognitive social capital among war-affected youth in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the longitudinal association between cognitive social capital and mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms), functioning, and received social support of children in Burundi. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews with 176 children over three measurement occasions over the span of 4-months. Cognitive social capital measured the degree to which children believed their community was trustworthy and cohesive. Mental health measures included the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) (Birleson, 1981), the Child Posttraumatic Symptom Scale (Foa et al., 2001), and a locally constructed scale of functional impairment. Children reported received social support by listing whether they received different types of social support from self-selected key individuals. Cross-lagged path analytic modeling evaluated relationships between cognitive social capital, symptoms and received support separately over baseline (T1), 6-week follow-up (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3). Each concept was treated and analyzed as a continuous score using manifest indicators. Significant associations between study variables were unidirectional. Cognitive social capital was associated with decreased depression between T1 and T2 (B = -.22, p < .001) and T2 and T3 (? = -.25, p < .001), and with functional impairment between T1 and T2 (? = -.15, p = .005) and T2 and T3 (? = -.14, p = .005); no association was found for PTSD symptoms at either time point. Cognitive social capital was associated with increased social support between T1 and T2 (? = .16, p = .002) and T2 and T3 (? = .16, p = .002). In this longitudinal study, cognitive social capital was related to a declining trajectory of children's mental health problems and increases in social support. Interventions that improve community relations in war-affected communities may alter the trajectories of resource loss and gain with conflict-affected children. PMID:24922609

Hall, Brian J; Tol, Wietse A; Jordans, Mark J D; Bass, Judith; de Jong, Joop T V M

2014-08-01

256

College Students' Intuitive Understanding and Problem-Solving of Energy and Momentum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study addresses students' intuitive understanding of energy and momentum and their problem solving ability. The subjects of this research were students who had experiences with conservation of energy and momentum. Nine undergraduate students completed event-based Interviews with three related events which composed of Event I: Simple collisions, Event II: Newton's cradle and Event III: Gauss gun. Their intuitive understanding was explored through three well-defined items involving Event I and II. The interviews revealed that most students explained the two events by utilizing their intuitive understanding rather than scientific conceptions. Then problem-solving thinking was identified through ill-defined problems involving Event III. From the Gauss gun setting, students were asked to explain how Gauss gun works, how to build the highest power Gauss gun and interpret the graph of mass and distance of steel ball after collisions. Research findings showed that students who have fairly good command of basic knowledge, tended to use of problem solving strategies as expected. For example, a student who understood the perfectly transferring energy and momentum of the equal mass of balls, was able to identify the possible factors for design more effective Gauss gun reasonably. However, most of the students were unable to use suitable vocabulary in providing reasons and explanations for certain problem-solving procedures. Thus, lacking basic knowledge can impede problem-solving thinking. It is hope that these findings will serve as a reference for educators in improving the learning and teaching of energy and momentum in general and problem solving instruction in particular.

Chittasirinuwat, Onchira; Kruatong, Tussatrin; Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat

2010-07-01

257

Graduate Social Work Students' Attitudes toward Research: Problems and Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the attitudes of graduate social work students toward research in the contexts of academic study, professional social work practice, and students' personal lives. The authors collected quantitative and qualitative data from MSW students (n = 102) at a major Canadian school of social work. Findings suggest that MSW students…

Morgenshtern, Marina; Freymond, Nancy; Agyapong, Samuel; Greeson, Clare

2011-01-01

258

Solutions to the Problem of Diminished Social Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social animals, like humans, need to interact with others, but this is not always possible. When genuine social interaction is lacking, individuals may seek out or use sources of interaction that co-opt agency detection mechanisms vis-ŕ-vis the human voice and images of people, called social snacking. Study 1 (N = 240) found that ratings of how alone participants felt were

Peter K. Jonason; Gregory D. Webster; A. Elizabeth Lindsey

259

Teaching Social Studies to Middle School Students with Learning Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of recent legislation, students with mild disabilities frequently receive social studies instruction in the general education classroom. Therefore, middle school teachers have the challenge of teaching social studies to students with a wide range of abilities. Emphasis in the general education social studies curriculum is on high-level…

Steele, Marcee M.

2008-01-01

260

Contextualizing nativity status, social ties, and ethnic enclaves: Implications for understanding immigrant and Latino health paradoxes  

PubMed Central

Objectives Researchers have posited that one potential explanation for the better-than-expected health outcomes observed among some Latino immigrants, vis-ŕ-vis their U.S.-born counterparts, may be the strength of their social ties and social support among immigrants. Methods We examined the association between nativity status and social ties using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study’s Latino subsample, which includes Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Latinos. First, we used Ordinary Least Squares [OLS] regression methods to model the effect of nativity status on five outcomes: informal social integration; social network diversity; network size; instrumental support; and informational support. Using multilevel mixed effects regression models, we estimated the association between Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition on our outcomes, and whether these relationships varied by nativity status. Lastly, we examined the relationship between social ties and immigrants’ length of time in the United States. Results After controlling for individual-level characteristics, immigrant Latinos had significantly lower levels of social ties than their U.S.-born counterparts for all our outcomes, except for informational support. Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition was positively associated with being socially integrated and having larger and more diverse social networks. The associations between two of our outcomes (informal social integration and network size) and living in a neighborhood with greater concentrations of Latinos and immigrants were stronger for U.S.-born Latinos than for immigrant Latinos. U.S.-born Latinos maintained a significant socialties advantage compared to immigrants—regardless of length of time in the United States—for informal social integration, network diversity, and network size. Conclusion At the individual level, our findings challenge the assumption that Latino immigrants would have larger networks and/or higher levels of support and social integration than their U.S.-born counterparts. Our study underscores the importance of understanding the contexts that promote the development of social ties. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding Latino and immigrant social ties and health outcomes. PMID:23947776

Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; Williams, David R.; House, James S.

2014-01-01

261

A geovisual analytic approach to understanding geo-social relationships in the international trade network.  

PubMed

The world has become a complex set of geo-social systems interconnected by networks, including transportation networks, telecommunications, and the internet. Understanding the interactions between spatial and social relationships within such geo-social systems is a challenge. This research aims to address this challenge through the framework of geovisual analytics. We present the GeoSocialApp which implements traditional network analysis methods in the context of explicitly spatial and social representations. We then apply it to an exploration of international trade networks in terms of the complex interactions between spatial and social relationships. This exploration using the GeoSocialApp helps us develop a two-part hypothesis: international trade network clusters with structural equivalence are strongly 'balkanized' (fragmented) according to the geography of trading partners, and the geographical distance weighted by population within each network cluster has a positive relationship with the development level of countries. In addition to demonstrating the potential of visual analytics to provide insight concerning complex geo-social relationships at a global scale, the research also addresses the challenge of validating insights derived through interactive geovisual analytics. We develop two indicators to quantify the observed patterns, and then use a Monte-Carlo approach to support the hypothesis developed above. PMID:24558409

Luo, Wei; Yin, Peifeng; Di, Qian; Hardisty, Frank; MacEachren, Alan M

2014-01-01

262

Some Challenging Problems in Mining Social Media Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab April 22, 2014 1  

E-print Network

Some Challenging Problems in Mining Social Media Arizona State University Problems in Mining Social Media Huan Liu Joint work with Ali Abbasi Shamanth in Mining Social Media Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning

Liu, Huan

263

Socializing Infants toward a Cultural Understanding of Expressing Negative Affect: A Bakhtinian Informed Discursive Psychology Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane, everyday interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian theorizing, it claims that caregivers' appraisals of…

Demuth, Carolin

2013-01-01

264

Degree of Influence on Perception of Belief and Social Setting: Its Relevance to Understanding Pendulum Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modern visualization techniques in science education present a challenge of sorting out the contributions of perception to understanding science. These contributions range over degrees to which perception is influenced by belief (including systematic sets of beliefs which comprise scientific theories) and social setting. This paper proposes a…

Lomas, Dennis

2004-01-01

265

Maltreated Children's Social Understanding and Empathy: A Preliminary Exploration of Foster Carers' Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research suggests that parental abuse and neglect can have adverse effects on children's peer relationships and self-perceptions. Emerging theoretical and empirical work suggests that children's social understanding and empathy could play a key role as mediators of these effects, but we have little knowledge about the viability of such a…

Luke, Nikki; Banerjee, Robin

2012-01-01

266

Social Attitudes Toward Science of Freshmen at Hinds Junior College Relative to Their Understanding of Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported is a study to: (1) measure the initial social attitudes of college freshmen toward science in comparison to their understanding of science, and (2) evaluate changes in the freshmen attitudes which may occur during the students' first academic year in a science course. The 413 students in this study were enrolled in one of the following…

Williamson, Troy Lee

267

BRIEF REPORTS Development of the Cognitive Appraisal and Understanding of Social Events (CAUSE) Videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the development and validation of 4 videos designed to assess adolescent cognitive appraisals and understanding of social events (the CAUSE Videos). Story lines varied in outcome (2 negative and 2 ambiguous). Convergent and divergent validity were tested in samples of college freshmen and sophomores. As hypothesized, threatening interpretations during ambiguous situations were positively associated with trait hostility

Edith Chen; Karen A. Matthews

268

Structural Exclusion through School Mathematics: Using Bourdieu to Understand Mathematics as a Social Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we explore a sociological approach to mathematics education and offer a theoretical lens through which we can come to understand mathematics education as part of a wider set of social practices. Many studies of children's experiences in school show that a child's academic success is a product of many factors, some of which…

Jorgensen, Robyn; Gates, Peter; Roper, Vanessa

2014-01-01

269

Predictors of Children's Prosocial Lie-Telling: Motivation, Socialization Variables, and Moral Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children tell prosocial lies for self- and other-oriented reasons. However, it is unclear how motivational and socialization factors affect their lying. Furthermore, it is unclear whether children's moral understanding and evaluations of prosocial lie scenarios (including perceptions of vignette characters' feelings) predict their actual prosocial…

Popliger, Mina; Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela

2011-01-01

270

Towards the Understanding of the Neurogenesis of Social Cognition: Evidence from Impaired Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

One accepted and straightforward approach to understand the genesis of social cogni- tion - as of any particular human neoformation - is to look for specific developmental disorders in the hope to find clear double dissociations. In this regard, contrasting subjects with autistic spec- trum disorders on the one hand and subjects with Williams syndrome on the other has gained

Miklós Gy?ri; Ágnes Lukács; Csaba Pléh

2004-01-01

271

Helping Adolescents Understand Cause/Effect Text Structure in Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Question networks as a strategy to assist students in understanding cause and effect text structures in their social studies textbooks. Describes the strategy in detail and offers a procedure for using it. Includes an example of how middle school students can create a Question network. (CMK)

Ciardiello, A. Vincent

2002-01-01

272

Understanding the relationship between urban land surface temperature, landscape heterogeneity and social structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban areas are generally several degrees hotter than surrounding rural areas, which is referred to as the urban heat island effect. Understanding the spatial pattern of land surface temperature (LST) in cities is important for urban planning, heat mitigation, and air pollution studies. This study developed five models to compare how land cover classes, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), social

Ganlin Huang; Weiqi Zhou; M. L. Cadenasso

2010-01-01

273

Associations between Social Understanding, Sibling Relationship Quality, and Siblings' Conflict Strategies and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sibling relationship quality and social understanding (second-order false belief, conflict interpretation, and narrative conflict perspective references) were examined as unique and interactive correlates of sibling conflict behavior in 62 dyads (older M age = 8.39 years and younger M age = 6.06 years). High-quality relationships were associated…

Recchia, Holly E.; Howe, Nina

2009-01-01

274

Peer group cultures and social identity: an integrated approach to understanding masculinities1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociological research investigating boys' masculinity performances has commonly recognised the importance of peer group cultures in identity construction. Whilst such work has undoubtedly offered important and useful frameworks for interpreting and understanding boys' behaviour in schools, the article argues that social psychological theories of intergroup relations also proffer important insights. Drawing upon interview and survey data, the article focuses on

Nigel Sherriff

2007-01-01

275

Early Social Cognition: Understanding Others in the First Months of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, much stimulating research has emerged in relation to children's theories of mind, construed as the understanding of others' intentions, beliefs, and desires. Within that context, there is renewed interest in the developmental origins of social cognition. An expression of that new interest, this book assembles current…

Rochat, Philippe, Ed.

276

Socializing infants towards a cultural understanding of expressing negative affect: A Bakhtinian informed discursive psychology approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane every day interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian theorizing, it claims that caregiver's appraisals of infant's emotion expression are dialogically intertwined with broader speech genres or

Carolin Demuth

2012-01-01

277

Enhancing social cognition by training children in emotion understanding: a primary school study.  

PubMed

We investigated whether training school-age children in emotion understanding had a significant effect on their social cognition. Participants were 110 children (mean age=7 years 3 months) assigned to training and control conditions. Over a 2-month intervention program, after the reading of illustrated scenarios based on emotional scripts, the training group was engaged in conversations on emotion understanding, whereas the control group was simply asked to produce a drawing about the story. The training group outperformed the control group on emotion comprehension, theory of mind, and empathy, and the positive training outcomes for emotion understanding remained stable over 6 months. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24280639

Ornaghi, Veronica; Brockmeier, Jens; Grazzani, Ilaria

2014-03-01

278

Parallel Computation of Large-Scale Nonlinear Network Problems in the Social and Economic Sciences  

E-print Network

In this paper we focus on the parallel computation of large - scale equilibrium and optimization problems arising in the social and economic sciences. In particular, we consider problems which can be visualized and ...

Nagurney, Anna

279

Understanding and Acting on the Growing Childhood and Adolescent Weight Crisis: A Role for Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate. Numerous individual, family, community, and social factors contribute to overweight and obesity in children and are explored. If left unaddressed, the epidemic of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity may lead to amplified problems for individual…

Lawrence, Shawn; Hazlett, Rebekah; Hightower, Peggy

2010-01-01

280

Understanding neighbourhoods, communities and environments: new approaches for social work research  

PubMed Central

This article discusses some new ways in which social work research can explore the interaction between neighbourhoods and child and adult wellbeing. The authors note that social work practices are often criticised for taking an individualistic approach and paying too little attention to the service user’s environment. The article uses examples of research projects from Chile, the United States of America and Wales, to discuss the use of spatially oriented research methods for understanding neighbourhood factors. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods approaches that are particularly appropriate for investigating social work relevant topics are discussed in turn, including quantitative and qualitative uses for geographical information systems (GIS), hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) for analysing spatially clustered data and qualitative mobile interviews. The article continues with a discussion of the strengths and limitations of using spatially orientated research designs in social work research settings and concludes optimistically with suggestions for future directions in this area. PMID:21738281

Holland, Sally; Burgess, Stephen; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge

2011-01-01

281

Evidence of Social Understanding Impairment in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

The present study aims at clarifying the nature of the Theory of Mind (ToM) deficits associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). ToM is the ability to attribute mental states such as intentions and beliefs to others in order to understand and predict their behaviour and to behave accordingly. Several neuroimaging studies reported the prefrontal cortices as the brain region underlying a key ToM ability, i.e. the comprehension of social intentions. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortices in patients with ALS has been indicated by a range of neuroimaging studies. The frontal syndrome that appears to characterize up to 50% of ALS has been noted to be similar to the profile that characterizes patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative condition characterised by ToM deficits. In the present paper, we hypothesize that the performance of patients with ALS is significantly worse than healthy controls' performance on tasks requiring the comprehension of social contexts, whereas patients' performance is comparable to healthy controls' performance on tasks not requiring the comprehension of social contexts. To this end, we tested 15 patients with ALS with an experimental protocol that distinguishes between private (non-social) intentions and social intentions. The pattern of results followed the experimental hypothesis: the performance of patients with ALS and healthy controls significantly differed on the comprehension of social context only, with an impairment in patients with ALS. Single case analysis confirmed the findings at an individual level. The present study is the first which has examined and compared the understanding of social and non-social contexts in patients with ALS and shown a specific and selective deficit in the former only. The current findings further support the notion of a continuum of cognitive dysfunction ranging from ALS to FTD, with parallel cognitive profiles in both disorders. PMID:21998727

Cavallo, Marco; Adenzato, Mauro; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Karwig, Gillian; Enrici, Ivan; Abrahams, Sharon

2011-01-01

282

Does social exclusion motivate interpersonal reconnection? Resolving the "porcupine problem".  

PubMed

Evidence from 6 experiments supports the social reconnection hypothesis, which posits that the experience of social exclusion increases the motivation to forge social bonds with new sources of potential affiliation. Threat of social exclusion led participants to express greater interest in making new friends, to increase their desire to work with others, to form more positive impressions of novel social targets, and to assign greater rewards to new interaction partners. Findings also suggest potential boundary conditions to the social reconnection hypothesis. Excluded individuals did not seem to seek reconnection with the specific perpetrators of exclusion or with novel partners with whom no face-to-face interaction was anticipated. Furthermore, fear of negative evaluation moderated responses to exclusion such that participants low in fear of negative evaluation responded to new interaction partners in an affiliative fashion, whereas participants high in fear of negative evaluation did not. PMID:17201541

Maner, Jon K; DeWall, C Nathan; Baumeister, Roy F; Schaller, Mark

2007-01-01

283

Social Problem Solving Cognitions and Strategies of Student Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines cognitive elements used by 29 student teachers in solving problems involving instruction, discipline, supervisors, and time demands. Assesses relationship between problem types and teachers' strategies. Examines effect of experience and knowledge on problem-solving processes. Links problem-solving decisions to task environments…

Cummings, Anne L.; Curtis, Karen

1992-01-01

284

Preschool Predictors of Social Problem-Solving and Their Relations to Social and Academic Adjustment in Early Elementary School  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study took a multi-method approach to examine the influence of temperament on children’s social problem solving (SPS) abilities and, in turn, whether SPS skills are a mechanism through which early temperament influences later social and academic adjustment. Participants included 270 children. Maternal reports of temperament were collected when the children were 2, 3, and 4 years old. At

Olga L Walker

2011-01-01

285

Relationships between Social Skills, Behavioral Problems, and School Readiness for Head Start Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study followed 515 4-year-olds from Head Start entry to exit to investigate their social and behavioral skills and the impact of these skills on school readiness outcomes. Results indicated that, on average, social skills improved across the preschool year, while behavior problems remained relatively stable. Social skills and behavior…

Bracken, Stacey Storch; Fischel, Janet

2007-01-01

286

Relations Between Social Self-Perceptions, Time Use, and Prosocial or Problem Behaviors During Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relations between social self-perceptions, time use, and later involvement in prosocial or problem behaviors during early, middle, and later adolescence. The authors used an idiographic approach to identify four different patterns of social self-perceptions (confident, anxious, unconcerned, desperate) and then examined the relations between group membership and time use. As predicted, social selfperceptions were significantly related

Janis E. Jacobs; Margaret K. Vernon; Jacquelynne S. Eccles

2004-01-01

287

Partner Violence and Survivors' Chronic Health Problems: Informing Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most social work professionals may expect that women who experience partner violence will sustain acute physical injuries, social workers may be less knowledgeable about the chronic health problems with which violence survivors often struggle. To inform social work practice, we reviewed and synthesized the recently published research on…

Macy, Rebecca J.; Ferron, Joelle; Crosby, Carmen

2009-01-01

288

Social Capital in Mutual Funds: The Implications for Agency Problem, Governance, and Synergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although agency problem, governance, and synergy in mutual fund industry have been studied in financia l literature, the implications of social capital for these issues have not been studied. Using 12,809 investments in open-ended mutual funds collected from Taiwan, this study finds that social capital between mutual funds and their inves tors results in agency problems. The reciprocal relationships betwe

Cheng-Min Chuang

2009-01-01

289

The Effect of Communication Skills and Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills on Social Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine communication skills, interpersonal problem solving skills, and social self-efficacy perception of adolescents and the predictive role of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. This study is a quantitative and relational study aimed at examining the…

Erozkan, Atilgan

2013-01-01

290

Internet-Related Problems Coming to the Attention of School Social Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author provides a preliminary assessment of the extent to which a sample of 264 school social workers are aware of the Internet-related problems children are experiencing and proposes ways in which Internet-related problems could affect youths' social and academic competence and performance in a school setting. The findings have implications…

Wells, Melissa

2006-01-01

291

Teaching Social Studies in Caribbean Schools: Perceived Problems of Elementary School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concerns of social studies teachers in the islands of the English-speaking Caribbean represent an under-researched area. This study investigated the perceived problems in teaching elementary school social studies in the Eastern Caribbean. A distinctive group of teachers, who have had some years of teaching experiences prior to their formal teacher education, respondents in this study perceived three major problems

Anthony D. Griffith

1999-01-01

292

Managing Stress and Maintaining Well-Being: Social Support, Problem-Focused Coping, and Avoidant Coping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social

Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

2011-01-01

293

Marijuana effect expectancies: relations to social anxiety and marijuana use problems.  

PubMed

High social anxiety is related to marijuana problems, yet the nature of this relation remains unclear. We examined relations between marijuana effect expectancies, social anxiety, and marijuana among undergraduates (N=337). Social anxiety was related positively to Negative Expectancies and negatively to Tension Reduction Expectancies. Among socially anxious individuals, greater belief that marijuana produces Cognitive and Behavioral Impairment was associated with greater marijuana use rates. Negative Expectancies mediated the social anxiety-marijuana problems link. These data provide new insight into problematic marijuana use among this high-risk group. PMID:18694625

Buckner, Julia D; Schmidt, Norman B

2008-11-01

294

Today's Young People: On the Problem of "Deficient" Socialization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the beginning of the 1990s, the potential for change in society, the modernization of society, was associated with the younger generations' entering into a "new life." This article focuses on what the younger generations bring with them to the socialization process, and the characteristics of the socialization of young people in the framework…

Zorkaia, Nataliia

2009-01-01

295

IntroductionThe Problem of Exporting Social Survey Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social survey is primarily an American product, although it originated in England about the beginning of the 20th century. American society is now the most surveyed society in the world. The export of social survey research is a major American product. The articles examine these issues by means of discussion of comparative, cross-national survey research, and articles discussing survey

MARTIN BULMER

1998-01-01

296

The School in Planned Social Change--Problem or Solution?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a comparative sociology of education, using case studies from Canada, India, and China. In each case, government or others attempted to promote social change through introducing relevance into the curriculum. States that modern schools cannot escape having a role in social change. (CH)

Zachariah, Mathew

1987-01-01

297

Age Moderates the Relationship Between Social Support and Psychosocial Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social support is commonly assumed to protect people from the experience of psychological distress and to enhance well-being. However, past research shows that the effectiveness of social support from family members and friends varies over the life span. Both the stage model of life satisfaction and compensatory processes associated with aging provide accounts for why this may be the case.

Chris Segrin

2003-01-01

298

The complex problem of monetizing virtual electronic social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

As traditional advertising is losing its impact, both advertisers and the media owners who are dependent upon them are desperately seeking alternative ways to reach consumers and alternative ways to earn revenues by doing so. Although there are many ways to earn money from social network traffic, attempting to do so by treating social networks as just another entertainment medium

Eric K. Clemons

2009-01-01

299

Becoming a Social Partner with Peers: Cooperation and Social Understanding in One- and Two-year-olds  

PubMed Central

One- and two-year old peer dyads were presented with a simple cooperative task. Age differences were found in amount of coordinated activity, monitoring the peer’s activity and location in relation to the goal, and attempting to achieve the goal when the peer was (or was not) available as a partner. One-year-olds’ coordinated actions appeared more coincidental than cooperative whereas older children appeared to be more actively cooperating toward a shared goal. Differences in coordinated activity with peers were associated with differences in attention-sharing with an adult and with language about self and other. The ability to cooperate with peers, becoming a true social partner, develops over the second and third years of life in concert with growing social understanding. PMID:16942491

Brownell, Celia A.; Ramani, Geetha B.; Zerwas, Stephanie

2012-01-01

300

Relations between Behavior Problems in Classroom Social and Learning Situations and Peer Social Competence in Head Start and Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relations between early emotional and behavioral problems in classroom situations and peer social competence were examined for a representative sample of urban Head Start children. Behavior problems were assessed within the context of routine peer, teacher, and structured learning classroom situations early in the preschool year. Two path…

Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Dominguez, Ximena; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Rouse, Heather L.; Fantuzzo, John W.

2010-01-01

301

Social cognition in ADHD: irony understanding and recursive theory of mind.  

PubMed

The main goal of the present study was to characterise the social cognition abilities of French children with ADHD, in terms of their understanding of people's recursive mental states and their irony comprehension. We hypothesised that these children have difficulty understanding second-order false beliefs and ironic remarks, owing to the executive dysfunction that is characteristic of ADHD. We therefore conducted an experiment in which children with ADHD and typically developing matched controls performed second-order false-belief and executive function tasks. They then listened to ironic stories and answered questions about the ironic comments and about the speakers' beliefs and attitudes. The groups differed significantly on second-order theory of mind, irony comprehension and executive functions, confirming that children with ADHD have impaired social cognition. PMID:25155741

Caillies, Stéphanie; Bertot, Vincine; Motte, Jacques; Raynaud, Christine; Abely, Michel

2014-11-01

302

From Bayes to Tarantola: New insights to understand uncertainty in inverse problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anyone working on inverse problems is aware of their ill-posed character. In the case of inverse problems, this concept (ill-posed) proposed by J. Hadamard in 1902, admits revision since it is somehow related to their ill-conditioning and the use of local optimization methods to find their solution. A more general and interesting approach regarding risk analysis and epistemological decision making would consist in analyzing the existence of families of equivalent model parameters that are compatible with the prior information and predict the observed data within the same error bounds. Otherwise said, the ill-posed character of discrete inverse problems (ill-conditioning) originates that their solution is uncertain. Traditionally nonlinear inverse problems in discrete form have been solved via local optimization methods with regularization, but linear analysis techniques failed to account for the uncertainty in the solution that it is adopted. As a result of this fact uncertainty analysis in nonlinear inverse problems has been approached in a probabilistic framework (Bayesian approach), but these methods are hindered by the curse of dimensionality and by the high computational cost needed to solve the corresponding forward problems. Global optimization techniques are very attractive, but most of the times are heuristic and have the same limitations than Monte Carlo methods. New research is needed to provide uncertainty estimates, especially in the case of high dimensional nonlinear inverse problems with very costly forward problems. After the discredit of deterministic methods and some initial years of Bayesian fever, now the pendulum seems to return back, because practitioners are aware that the uncertainty analysis in high dimensional nonlinear inverse problems cannot (and should not be) solved via random sampling methodologies. The main reason is that the uncertainty “space” of nonlinear inverse problems has a mathematical structure that is embedded in the forward physics and also in the observed data. Thus, problems with structure should be approached via linear algebra and optimization techniques. This paper provides new insights to understand uncertainty from a deterministic point of view, which is a necessary step to design more efficient methods to sample the uncertainty region(s) of equivalent solutions.

Fernández-Martínez, J. L.; Fernández-Muńiz, Z.; Pallero, J. L. G.; Pedruelo-González, L. M.

2013-11-01

303

Towards an Understanding of How Students Use Representations In Physics Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skill with different representations and multiple representations is highly valued in physics, and prior work has shown that novice physics students can struggle with the representations typically used in solving physics problems. There exists work in PER examining student use of representations and multiple representations, but there have been no comprehensive attempts to understand what factors influence how introductory students succeed or fail in using representations in physics. This thesis is such an attempt, and is organized around four main goals and results. First, we establish that representation is a major factor in student performance, and uncover some of the mechanisms by which representation can affect performance, including representation-dependent cueing. Second, we study the effect of different instructional environments on student learning of multiple representation use during problem solving, and find that courses that are rich in representations can have significant impacts on student skills. Third, we evaluate the role of meta- representational skills in solving physics problems at the introductory level, and find that the meta-representational abilities that we test for in our studies are poorly developed in introductory students. Fourth, we characterize the differences in representation use between expert and novice physics problem solvers, and note that the major differences appear not to lie in whether representations are used, but in how they are used. With these results in hand, we introduce a model of student use of representations during physics problem solving. This model consists of a set of practical heuristics plus an analysis framework adapted from cultural-constructivist theory. We demonstrate that this model can be useful in understanding and synthesizing our results, and we discuss the instructional implications of our findings.

Kohl, Patrick B.

2010-06-30

304

The Neural Bases of Social Intention Understanding: The Role of Interaction Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decoding others' intentions is a crucial aspect of social cognition. Neuroimaging studies suggest that inferring immediate goals engages the neural system for action understanding (i.e. mirror system), while the decoding of long-term intentions requires the system subserving the attribution of mental states (i.e. mentalizing). A controversial issue, stimulated by recent inconsistent results, concerns whether the two systems are concurrently vs.

Nicola Canessa; Federica Alemanno; Federica Riva; Alberto Zani; Alice Mado Proverbio; Nicola Mannara; Daniela Perani; Stefano F. Cappa

2012-01-01

305

Peer and self-reports of victimization and bullying: their differential association with internalizing problems and social adjustment.  

PubMed

Researchers typically employ either peer or self-reports to assess involvement in bullying. In this study, we examined the merits of each method for the identification of child characteristics related to victimization and bullying others. Accordingly, we investigated the difference between these two methods with regard to their relationship with social adjustment (i.e., perceived popularity, likeability, and self-perceived social acceptance) and internalizing problems (i.e., anxiety, depression, and self-worth) in 1192 Dutch school children, aged 9 to 12 years. Perceived popularity and likeability were more strongly correlated with peer reports than self-reports, for both victimization and for bullying others. Self-perceived social acceptance correlated equally strong with peer and self- reports of victimization. Furthermore, peer reports of bullying were also correlated with self-perceived social acceptance, whereas self-reports of bullying were not. All internalizing problems showed stronger relations with self-reports than peer reports; although only the relation between self-reported victimization and internalizing problems was of practical significance. Despite our findings indicating that using only one type of report could be efficient for examining the relation between bullying behaviors and separate child characteristics, both types of report are necessary for a complete understanding of the personal and social well-being of the children involved. PMID:23245499

Bouman, Thijs; van der Meulen, Matty; Goossens, Frits A; Olthof, Tjeert; Vermande, Marjolijn M; Aleva, Elisabeth A

2012-12-01

306

Ethnographic Approaches to Understanding Social Sustainability in Small-scale Water Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social sustainability is an important, but often neglected, aspect of determining the success of small-scale water systems. This paper reviews ethnographic approaches for understanding how indigenous knowledge enhances social sustainability of small-scale water systems, particularly in small-scale water systems threatened by water scarcity. After reviewing the literature on common-pool and traditional resource management strategies, the paper will focus on the case of a community-managed small-scale water system in Cochabamba, Bolivia. This study uses ethnographic evidence to demonstrate how indigenous institutions can be used to manage a small-scale urban water system sustainably. Several factors were crucial to the institution's success. First, indigenous residents had previous experience with common management of rural irrigation systems which they were able to adapt for use in an urban environment. Second, institutional rules were designed to prioritize the conservation of the water source. Third, indigenous Andean social values of uniformity, regularity, and transparency ensured that community members perceived the system as legitimate and complied with community rules. Fourth, self-governance enabled community members to quickly adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as seasonal scarcity and groundwater overdraft. The paper concludes with a discussion of the promise and limitations of ethnographic approaches and indigenous knowledge for understanding social sustainability in small-scale water systems.

Wutich, A.

2011-12-01

307

SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS Network models have played a vital role in understanding many large systems such as  

E-print Network

of life ­ communication, business transactions, social contact, opinion sharing and shaping, advertising by interaction through social media. In this new course, we will address some of the questions raisedSOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS Network models have played a vital role in understanding many large systems

Ravikumar, B.

308

Using Memes and Memetic Processes to Explain Social and Conceptual Influences on Student Understanding about Complex Socio-Scientific Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated seventh grade learners' decision making about genetic engineering concepts and applications. A social network analyses supported by technology tracked changes in student understanding with a focus on social and conceptual influences. Results indicated that several social and conceptual mechanisms potentially affected how…

Yoon, Susan

2008-01-01

309

Silos and Social Identity: The Social Identity Approach as a Framework for Understanding and Overcoming Divisions in Health Care  

PubMed Central

Context One of health care's foremost challenges is the achievement of integration and collaboration among the groups providing care. Yet this fundamentally group-related issue is typically discussed in terms of interpersonal relations or operational issues, not group processes. Methods We conducted a systematic search for literature offering a group-based analysis and examined it through the lens of the social identity approach (SIA). Founded in the insight that group memberships form an important part of the self-concept, the SIA encompasses five dimensions: social identity, social structure, identity content, strength of identification, and context. Findings Our search yielded 348 reports, 114 of which cited social identity. However, SIA-citing reports varied in both compatibility with the SIA's metatheoretical paradigm and applied relevance to health care; conversely, some non-SIA-citers offered SIA-congruent analyses. We analyzed the various combinations and interpretations of the five SIA dimensions, identifying ten major conceptual currents. Examining these in the light of the SIA yielded a cohesive, multifaceted picture of (inter)group relations in health care. Conclusions The SIA offers a coherent framework for integrating a diverse, far-flung literature on health care groups. Further research should take advantage of the full depth and complexity of the approach, remain sensitive to the unique features of the health care context, and devote particular attention to identity mobilization and context change as key drivers of system transformation. Our article concludes with a set of “guiding questions” to help health care leaders recognize the group dimension of organizational problems, identify mechanisms for change, and move forward by working with and through social identities, not against them. PMID:22709391

Kreindler, Sara A; Dowd, Damien A; Dana Star, Noah; Gottschalk, Tania

2012-01-01

310

Analyzing HIV/AIDS and Alcohol and Other Drug Use as a Social Problem  

PubMed Central

Most prevention and intervention activities directed toward HIV/AIDS and alcohol and other drug use separately as well as the combining of the two (e.g., those who are both HIV/AIDS and using alcohol and other drugs) comes in the form of specific, individualized therapies without consideration of social influences that may have a greater impact on this population. Approaching this social problem from the narrowed view of individualized, mi-cro solutions disregards the larger social conditions that affect or perhaps even are at the root of the problem. This paper analyzes the social problem of HIV/AIDS and alcohol and other drug abuse using three sociological perspectives—social construction theory, ethnomethodology, and conflict theory—informing the reader of the broader influences accompanying this problem. PMID:23264724

PATTERSON, DAVID A.; Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), Silver

2012-01-01

311

Understanding infants' and children's social learning about foods: previous research and new prospects.  

PubMed

Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the development of social cognition: food. We begin by reviewing the available literature on infants' and children's development in the food domain and identify situations in which children evidence both successes and failures in their interactions with foods. We focus specifically on the role that other people play in guiding what children eat and argue that understanding patterns of successes and failures in the food domain requires an appreciation of eating as a social phenomenon. We next propose a series of questions for future research and suggest that examining food selection as a social phenomenon can shed light on mechanisms underlying children's learning from others and provide ideas for promoting healthy social relationships and eating behaviors early in development. PMID:22390670

Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D; DeJesus, Jasmine M

2013-03-01

312

Can Universities Develop Advanced Technology and Solve Social Problems?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents case studies on how Cuban universities have increasingly become directly involved with the economic and social development of the country. The paper shows how Cuban universities, from the early 1980s and early 1990s, started reorientation and organization of their scientific research, becoming more directly and intensely involved in the economic and social development of the country. In this way, special reference is made to the case of a research group at the University of Havana: the Laboratory of Synthetic Antigens. This group developed the first synthetic vaccine for human use approved in the world. In the article, public policies involved in this success as well as different obstacles are discussed. These obstacles demonstrate the difficulties and challenges that universities face when carrying out research and innovation activities related to economic and social development.

Pérez Ones, Isarelis; Núńez Jover, Jorge

313

The Problem of Ideal in Technical and Social Creativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technique is always influencing society in different ways. This influence is determined by social-economic conditions of the socium. The development of techniques and technologies is also powerfully influenced by economical, political and ideological institutions of the state which may stimulate science-technological progress or hinder it.

N. V. Bruhantseva; A. A. Stepanov

2005-01-01

314

Economic theory and social change: problems and revisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many economists do a serious and respectable work, main stream economic theory contains an almost complete disregard for the importance of social, cultural and political structures which are the very foundation of the society. Worse than that, such disregard is developed into arrogance when representatives and textbook maintain the illusions of economic main stream science as value free, and

Angelo Fusari

2010-01-01

315

Social Networking Sites, Literacy, and the Authentic Identity Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current interest in social media for educational purposes has led many to consider the importance of literacy development in online spaces (e.g., new media literacies, digital literacies, etc.). Relying heavily upon New Literacy Studies (NLS) as a base, these approaches treat literacy expansively to include socio-cultural factors beyond mere skill…

Kimmons, Royce

2014-01-01

316

Social Security: Process and Problems. (Part One and Two).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This two-part program, first broadcast in April 2000, is being rebroadcast in response to requests from judges and court personnel for information that will help them deal more effectively with the fast growing Social Security disability docket. Part one ...

2000-01-01

317

Organisational Problem Based Learning and Social Communities for SMEs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights reasons for SMEs low uptake of training and argues that current offerings are not suitable for their needs. It highlights the need to leverage the benefits of work based learning through the use of technology. Social media and web 2.0 has significantly changed the way people learn and access knowledge. The body of knowledge…

O'Brien, Emma; Hamburg, Ileana

2013-01-01

318

Social Problem Solving and Strategy Use in Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the authors investigated what prosocial-assertive, passive, and coercive strategies 6-year-olds (N = 257) would propose in response to stories about 2 socially challenging situations: displacing another child in a game and obtaining a toy from another child. The scenarios also varied the gender composition of the characters. Participants' verbalizations while acting out their responses using toy

Vanessa A. Green; Antonius H. N. Cillessen; Ruth Rechis; Meagan M. Patterson; Julie Milligan Hughes

2008-01-01

319

Shyness and Social Phobia: A Social Work Perspective on a Problem in Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social phobia can be conceptualized from a social work perspective as an extreme shyness that can be overcome with cognitive learning and behavioral rehearsal. This article reviews the biopsychosocial causes of social phobia and presents a summary of cognitive and behavioral interventions with empirically demonstrated effectiveness. (Author)

Walsh, Joseph

2002-01-01

320

Understanding and accounting for relational context is critical for social neuroscience  

PubMed Central

Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all) do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1) all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger), and (2) relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: (a) we describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others’ emotions, providing help, and receiving help) that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. (b) We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research. PMID:24723868

Clark-Polner, Elizabeth; Clark, Margaret S.

2014-01-01

321

Understanding and accounting for relational context is critical for social neuroscience.  

PubMed

Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all) do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1) all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger), and (2) relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: (a) we describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others' emotions, providing help, and receiving help) that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. (b) We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research. PMID:24723868

Clark-Polner, Elizabeth; Clark, Margaret S

2014-01-01

322

Understanding India, globalisation and health care systems: a mapping of research in the social sciences  

PubMed Central

National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India – a ‘rising power’ with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health related commodities provide some excellent examples of illuminating social science. Future research agendas on health systems issues need to include innovative empirical work that captures the dynamics of transnational processes and that links macro-level change to fine-grained observations of social life. PMID:22963264

2012-01-01

323

Efficient Assessment of Social Problem-Solving Abilities in Medical and Rehabilitation Settings: A Rasch Analysis of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised  

PubMed Central

The Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Scale (SPSI-R) has been shown to be a reliable and valid self-report measure of social problem-solving abilities. In busy medical and rehabilitation settings, a brief and efficient screening version with psychometric properties similar to the SPSI-R would have numerous benefits including decreased patient and caregiver assessment burden and administration/scoring time. Thus, the aim of the current study was to identify items from the SPSI-R that would provide for a more efficient assessment of global social problem-solving abilities. This study consisted of three independent samples: 121 persons in low-vision rehabilitation (M age = 71 years old, SD = 15.53), 301 persons living with diabetes mellitus (M age = 58, and SD = 14.85), and 131 family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities (M age = 56 years old, SD = 12.15). All persons completed a version of the SPSI-R, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Using Rasch scaling of the SPSI-R short-form, we identified a subset of 10 items that reflected the five-component model of social problem solving. The 10 items were separately validated on the sample of persons living with diabetes mellitus and the sample of family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities. Results indicate that the efficient 10-item version, analyzed separately for all three samples, demonstrated good reliability and validity characteristics similar to the established SPSI-R short form. The 10-item version of the SPSI-R represents a brief, effective way in which clinicians and researchers in busy health care settings can quickly assess global problem-solving abilities and identify those persons at-risk for complicated adjustment. Implications for the assessment of social problem-solving abilities are discussed. PMID:19267395

Dreer, Laura E.; Berry, Jack; Rivera, Patricia; Snow, Marsha; Elliott, Timothy R.; Miller, Doreen; Little, Todd D.

2009-01-01

324

Understanding the Relationship Between PTSD and Social Support: The Role of Negative Network Orientation  

PubMed Central

Network orientation is conceptualized as an individual’s attitudes and expectations regarding the usefulness of support networks in coping with stress. The present research examined the potential for network orientation to explicate the well documented association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and attenuated social support. Data collected from survivors of serious motor vehicle trauma (N = 458) were used to test the hypothesis that severity of PTSD would hold a significant indirect relationship with social support through negative network orientation. Childhood victimization and elapsed time from the accident were examined as potential moderators of this indirect relationship. Consistent with hypotheses, path analyses demonstrated a significant indirect relationship between PTSD and social support through negative network orientation. Specifically, this indirect effect was the result of a direct association between PTSD severity and negative network orientation and an inverse association between negative network orientation and social support. This pattern of relationships was invariant across mode of PTSD assessment (interview vs. self-report). No moderation effects were noted. These data suggest that network orientation may be an important factor in understanding interface of interpersonal processes and posttrauma pathology. PMID:19162260

Clapp, Joshua D.; Beck, J. Gayle

2009-01-01

325

Parenting Practices and Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Moderating Effects of Socially Demanding Kin Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…

Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang

2012-01-01

326

Heavy users of emergency services: social construction of a policy problem.  

PubMed

A relatively small subgroup of emergency department (ED) patients is responsible for a disproportionate amount of ED visits and costs. This subgroup, the heavy users of ED services, is identified as a medically and socially vulnerable population. Heavy users of ED services are identified as a 'problem' in the United States that opens a 'window' on the wider social issues critical to consensus on health care reform. The problem is nested within a complex of larger, interdependent problems including access to care, lack of primary/preventive services, absent or inadequate social services, and fragmented service delivery. This article uses the literature on heavy users of ED services to argue that social constructions of the problem and articulation of solutions by different key players in health care reform are based on divergent and often conflicting premises. PMID:7725121

Malone, R E

1995-02-01

327

Stunden abstract. Der Einsatz von Nachrichten im Leistungskurs "Social Problems" (Class-Hour Plan. The Introduction of News in the Honors Course "Social Problems")  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives a detailed ESL (English as a second language) class-hour plan for using a BBC radio news program on vandalism as a social problem. Teaching goals, teaching materials and methodology are discussed. The working texts are appended; the news tests are available free from the author. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

Pegler, Klaus

1977-01-01

328

Developing school psychologists as agents of social justice: a qualitative analysis of student understanding across three years.  

PubMed

This study employed a cohort-sequential design with four cohorts over 3 years to investigate school psychology graduate trainees' (n=37) understanding of social justice. Using consensual qualitative research methods, participants' perspectives on social justice writ large, social justice as it applies to school psychology, and effective aspects of social justice training in their graduate training program were collected through semi-structured focus group interviews. Field-based training though service-learning in diverse communities provided trainees with exposure to experiences that were viewed as instrumental in their understanding of social justice in general and as it applies to school psychology. Trainees described aspects of the training program that were viewed as conducive to educating school psychologists as agents of social justice. Based on findings from the study, a descriptive model of school psychology training for social justice is proposed. PMID:24930823

Moy, Gregory E; Briggs, Alissa; Shriberg, David; Furrey, Katie Jackson; Smith, Portia; Tompkins, Nicole

2014-06-01

329

Un probleme social: le conflit des genres en dano-norvegien (A Social Problem: Gender Conflict in Dano-Norwegian)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the co-existence in Dano-Norwegian of two different systems of grammatical gender, one belonging to Dano-Norwegian, and the other to Norwegian. The conflict is described as social, cultural and political in nature as well as linguistic. (Text is in French.) (AM)

Flydal, Leiv

1975-01-01

330

Social problem solving in unsafe situations: Implications for sexual abuse education programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the impact of two subject variables (age and gender) and two contextual factors (antagonist age and nature of the\\u000a social dilemma) on children's social problem solving (SPS). Preschoolers (N=62) were individually presented with four stories that varied the antagonist age (peer vs. adult) and social dilemma (nonsexual\\u000a vs. sexual). Responses were coded for three SPS variables: number of alternative

Jacqueline S. Grober; G. Anne Bogat

1994-01-01

331

Can guanxi be a problem? Contexts, ties, and some unfavorable consequences of social capital in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social capital is generally believed to enhance the effectiveness of organizations in certain cultural contexts. However,\\u000a even with substantial social capital in place, China, during its economic transition towards market systems in the past decades,\\u000a witnessed problems stemming from underdevelopment and organizational dysfunction. To address this paradox, we delineate a\\u000a unique type of networks-based social capital in China: dense strong-ties

Jun Lin; Steven X. Si

2010-01-01

332

Cognitive predictors of skill acquisition on social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between social problem solving ability, clinical features and cognitive\\u000a functions, and determine the predictors of benefit from social problem solving training in 63 patients with schizophrenia.\\u000a We administered Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Digit Span Test, Continuous Performance\\u000a Test (CPT) and the Assessment of Interpersonal

Alp Üçok; Sibel Çak?r; Zekiye Çetinkaya Duman; Aysun Di?cigil; Pinar Kandemir; Hatice Atl?

2006-01-01

333

Cultural Differences, Perfectionism, and Suicidal Risk in a College Population: Does Social Problem Solving Still Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between cultural influences,perfectionism, social problem solving, and subsequentsuicidal risk (viz., hopelessness and suicide potential)were examined among 148 college students. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to determinewhether social problem solving predicted suicidal risk(1 month later) beyond what was accounted for by ethnicstatus (Asian American or Caucasian American) and perfectionism. Results of these analysesindicated that ethnic status (Step 1) was

Edward C. Chang

1998-01-01

334

Primary Health Care Physicians' Treatment of Psychosocial Problems: Implications for Social Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores extent to which physicians in Israel serve as gatekeepers for treatment of psychosocial problems and have contact with social workers. Gatekeeping variables included large caseloads, specializing in family medicine, practicing in a rural location, and being under age 55. Social work contact variables were affiliation with the largest…

Gross, Revital; And Others

1996-01-01

335

Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in…

Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

2011-01-01

336

Designing a Problem-Oriented Multi-Disciplinary Academic Curriculum: Integrating Biomedical, Psychological, and Social Sciences  

E-print Network

.g., diabetes) or mental problems (e.g., mood disorders), care for elderly persons in their living environment, Psychological, and Social Sciences with Ambient Intelligence, Artificial Intelligence and Informatics Jan Treur girls) choose for studies in biomedical, psychological or social sciences and do not develop their exact

Treur, Jan

337

Relations Between Social Self-Perceptions, Time Use, and Prosocial or Problem Behaviors During Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relations between social self-perceptions, time use, and later involvement in prosocial or problem behaviors during early, middle, and later adolescence. The authors used an idiographic approach to identify four different patterns of social self-perceptions (confident, anxious, unconcerned, desperate) and then examined…

Jacobs, Janis E.; Vernon, Margaret K.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

2004-01-01

338

An Investigation of Preschool Classroom Behavioral Adjustment Problems and Social-Emotional School Readiness Competencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the unique relationship between multiple dimensions of classroom behavioral adjustment problems and salient social-emotional competencies for urban Head Start children. These relationships were investigated using a hierarchical model that controlled for the variance in social-emotional outcomes attributed to age, gender, and…

Fantuzzo, John W.; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca; Fusco, Rachel A.; McWayne, Christine

2005-01-01

339

Physiological Arousal, Distress Tolerance, and Social Problem-Solving Deficits among Adolescent Self-Injurers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been suggested that people engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) because they (a) experience heightened physiological arousal following stressful events and use NSSI to regulate experienced distress and (b) have deficits in their social problem-solving skills that interfere with the performance of more adaptive social responses. However,…

Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

2008-01-01

340

Social Support among Offenders with Substance Abuse Problems: Overlooked and Underused?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examined correlates of social support among 101 offenders in corrections-based treatment programs. Respondents perceived high levels of support despite numerous interpersonal problems. Social support was significantly associated with visits, letters, arrests, and days in treatment. The author describes strategies for implementing…

Lemieux, Catherine M.

2002-01-01

341

Indicators of Successful Social Justice Leadership: Problems, Strategies and What Counts as Successful Remedies for Injustice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a social justice leader who was a principal of a high performing school I have wondered if the outcomes that we achieved were significantly different for our students than the rest of the State because of my emphasis on social justice problems and what I considered indicators of success. I have also wondered if my actions were idiosyncratic or…

McNulty, Charles

2011-01-01

342

The Rise and Fall of a Social Problem: Critical Reflections on Educational Policy and Research Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines a growing and distressing social phenomenon, namely, bullying, the historical development, social dimensions, and political impact of which are taken into account and subjected to reflection and critical consideration. It describes both the progress of and problems with the concept of bullying. It also reflects on the…

Franberg, Gun-Marie; Wrethander, Marie

2012-01-01

343

Problem gambling in poker: money, rationality and control in a skill-based social game  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores problem gambling in poker. The distinctions between chance and skill and between bank games and social games are applied to demonstrate how poker is structurally different from most other gambling games. Bank games are organised around a central actor such as the house, the casino or the bookmaker. In social games, players compete against each other on

Ole Bjerg

2010-01-01

344

Assessment of social skills and problem behaviors in young children with spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study assessed social and emotional adjustment in young children with spina bifida. Role-play tests, and parents' and teachers' ratings of social competence and problem behaviors were utilized in this evaluation. Results indicated that children with spina bifida did not differ significantly from controls on verbal and nonverbal components of conversational skill and negative assertion. Also, spina bifida and

Vincent B. Van Hasselt; Robert T. Ammerman; Michel Hersen; Donald H. Reigel; Fern L. Rowley

1991-01-01

345

College drinking problems and social anxiety: The importance of drinking context.  

PubMed

Social anxiety more than quadruples the risk of developing an alcohol use disorder, yet it is inconsistently linked to heavy alcohol use. Elucidation of the relation between social anxiety and alcohol use is an important next step in treating and preventing risky drinking. College students routinely face potentially anxiety-provoking social situations (e.g., meeting new people) and socially anxious undergraduates are especially vulnerable to alcohol-related impairment. Drinking to cope with social anxiety is thought to reinforce alcohol use, yet research on coping-motivated drinking among socially anxious students has yielded inconsistent findings. Further, undergraduate drinking varies by drinking context, yet the role of context in drinking behaviors among socially anxious individuals remains unclear. The current study sought to examine the relationship of social anxiety and drinking quantity in specific drinking contexts among undergraduates (N = 611). We also evaluated whether relevant drinking contexts mediated the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol-related problems. Clinically elevated social anxiety was related to heavier consumption in negative emotion (e.g., feeling sad or angry) and personal/intimate (e.g., before sexual intercourse) contexts, but not social/convivial contexts (e.g., parties, bars). Quantity of alcohol consumed in negative emotion and personal/intimate contexts mediated the relationship between social anxiety and drinking problem severity. Drinking in personal/intimate contexts demonstrated a unique mediational role. Findings suggest that heavy drinking in particular contexts (especially personal/intimate and negative emotion) may play an important role in drinking problems among socially anxious individuals. PMID:24955673

Terlecki, Meredith A; Ecker, Anthony H; Buckner, Julia D

2014-06-01

346

Social interaction as a heuristic for combinatorial optimization problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the performance of a variant of Axelrod’s model for dissemination of culture—the Adaptive Culture Heuristic (ACH)—on solving an NP-Complete optimization problem, namely, the classification of binary input patterns of size F by a Boolean Binary Perceptron. In this heuristic, N agents, characterized by binary strings of length F which represent possible solutions to the optimization problem, are fixed at the sites of a square lattice and interact with their nearest neighbors only. The interactions are such that the agents’ strings (or cultures) become more similar to the low-cost strings of their neighbors resulting in the dissemination of these strings across the lattice. Eventually the dynamics freezes into a homogeneous absorbing configuration in which all agents exhibit identical solutions to the optimization problem. We find through extensive simulations that the probability of finding the optimal solution is a function of the reduced variable F/N1/4 so that the number of agents must increase with the fourth power of the problem size, N?F4 , to guarantee a fixed probability of success. In this case, we find that the relaxation time to reach an absorbing configuration scales with F6 which can be interpreted as the overall computational cost of the ACH to find an optimal set of weights for a Boolean binary perceptron, given a fixed probability of success.

Fontanari, José F.

2010-11-01

347

Learning in friendship groups: developing students' conceptual understanding through social interaction  

PubMed Central

The role that student friendship groups play in learning was investigated here. Employing a critical realist design, two focus groups on undergraduates were conducted to explore their experience of studying. Data from the “case-by-case” analysis suggested student-to-student friendships produced social contexts which facilitated conceptual understanding through discussion, explanation, and application to “real life” contemporary issues. However, the students did not conceive this as a learning experience or suggest the function of their friendships involved learning. These data therefore challenge the perspective that student groups in higher education are formed and regulated for the primary function of learning. Given these findings, further research is needed to assess the role student friendships play in developing disciplinary conceptual understanding. PMID:25309488

Senior, Carl; Howard, Chris

2014-01-01

348

Epidemiology of infertility: social problems of the infertile couples.  

PubMed

Infertility is of public health importance in Nigeria and many other developing nations because of its high prevalence and especially due to its serious social implications. A review of the epidemiology of infertility in Nigeria and other parts of Sub-Saharan Africa is presented and socio-cultural issues including the social impact on couples are discussed. The major cause of infertility in Africa is infection--STDs, post-abortal and puerperal sepsis. Beliefs about causes, and failure of orthodox methods of treatment have led many couples to seek solution from traditional doctors and faith healers without success. Infertility causes marital disharmony, which often leads to divorce. Women are often blamed for the infertility and men engage in polygyny in an attempt to have children. The couple can also suffer stress from the management of the infertility. Adoption is not popular and assisted reproduction has medico-legal implications. Preventive measures are suggested, including counselling at every stage of the management. PMID:14529236

Araoye, Margaret O

2003-06-01

349

Using Social Policy Research for Reducing Social Problems: An Empirical Analysis of Structure and Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigating three samples of social policy research in The Netherlands, the authors analyzed the conditions and functions influencing utilization (impact). Interorganizational context, intergroup relations, and role interaction were found to relate to utilization. The impact of social policy research upon organizational decisions is cognitive, communicative, and diagnostic. The cognitive function correlates negatively with publishing for scholarly audiences. Of the communicative

Mark Van de Vall; Cheryl Bolas

1982-01-01

350

Social Work Students' Changing Perceptions of Social Problems After a Year of Community Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to throw light on the emotional and cognitive processes of students within social change-oriented field work as they develop over a year, as described through a projective and phenomenological art medium drawn and discussed at the beginning and at the end of the year. The literature on social work points to a discrepancy between the cognitive structural

Roni Kaufman; Ephrat Huss; Dorit Segal-Engelchin

2011-01-01

351

Gold deposits in metamorphic belts: Overview of current understanding, outstanding problems, future research, and exploration significance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metamorphic belts are complex regions where accretion or collision has added to, or thickened, continental crust. Gold-rich deposits can be formed at all stages of orogen evolution, so that evolving metamorphic belts contain diverse gold deposit types that may be juxtaposed or overprint each other. This partly explains the high level of controversy on the origin of some deposit types, particularly those formed or overprinted/remobilized during the major compressional orogeny that shaped the final geometry of the hosting metamorphic belts. These include gold-dominated orogenic and intrusion-related deposits, but also particularly controversial gold deposits with atypical metal associations. There are a number of outstanding problems for all types of gold deposits in metamorphc belts. These include the following: (1) definitive classifications, (2) unequivocal recognition of fluid and metal sources, (3) understanding of fluid migration and focusing at all scales, (4) resolution of the precise role of granitoid magmatism, (5) precise gold-depositional mechanisms, particularly those producing high gold grades, and (6) understanding of the release of CO2-rich fluids from subducting slabs and subcreted oceanic crust and granitoid magmas at different crustal levels. Research needs to be better coordinated and more integrated, such that detailed fluid-inclusion, trace-element, and isotopic studies of both gold deposits and potential source rocks, using cutting-edge technology, are embedded in a firm geological framework at terrane to deposit scales. Ultimately, four-dimensional models need to be developed, involving high-quality, three-dimensional geological data combined with integrated chemical and fluid-flow modeling, to understand the total history of the hydrothermal systems involved. Such research, particularly that which can predict superior targets visible in data sets available to exploration companies before discovery, has obvious spin-offs for global- to deposit-scale targeting of deposits with superior size and grade in the covered terranes that will be the exploration focus of the twenty-first century.

Groves, D.I.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Robert, F.; Hart, C.J.R.

2003-01-01

352

Cognitive Shifting as a Predictor of Progress in Social Understanding in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism: A Prospective Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This prospective study of 17 high-functioning residentially treated adolescents with autism found that cognitive shifting, as measured by card sorting tests, was the only significant factor in predicting progress in social understanding. (Author/JDD)

Berger, Hans J. C.; And Others

1993-01-01

353

Gender Differences in the Social Problem-Solving Performance of Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Means-End Problem-Solving Procedure and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire were administered to 207 adolescents. Fewer adolescents today are likely to identify with traditional feminine roles, and sex-related personality traits have a relatively limited impact on social problem-solving skills. (Author/LHW)

Murphy, Laura O.; Ross, Steven M.

1987-01-01

354

Maternal child-rearing practices and social problem-solving strategies among preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the relation of nurturant and restrictive maternal childrearing practices and maternal education to the types of social problem-solving strategies used by 72 preschoolers (mean age 4 yrs 7 mo). Children were administered the Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving Test, and mothers completed the Child Rearing Practices Report. Maternal variables successfully predicted 5 out of 9 strategies identified. Restrictiveness was positively

Diane C. Jones; Annette U. Rickel; Richard L. Smith

1980-01-01

355

Gender Differences in Social and Psychological Problems of Substance Abusers: A Comparison to Nonsubstance Abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines gender differences in 16 social and psychological problems among substance abusers and nonsubstance abusers in a community population to determine whether such differences are simply a reflection of differences between men and women in the general population. Data were gathered from 119 respondents using the Addiction Severity Index. Loglinear analysis suggests that problems typically attributed to “being

Diane Rae Davis; Diana M. DiNitto

1996-01-01

356

The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producersâ?? attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A â??multi-methodâ?ť or â??mixed methodâ?ť research methodology was employed for each case study.

Dr. Theresa L. Selfa; Dr. Richard Goe; Dr. Laszlo Kulcsar; Dr. Gerad Middendorf; Dr. Carmen Bain

2013-02-11

357

Severe Problem Behaviors Related to Social Interaction1: Attention Seeking and Social Avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies concerning the functional analysis of severe problem behaviors have suggested that it is important to identify the different categories of stimuli that control problem behavior because each has unique treatment implications. The present study explored the differential effects of adult attention on the severe problem behaviors of two groups of children with developmental disabilities. A third group of nonproblem

Jill Chapman Taylor; Edward G. Carr

1992-01-01

358

Understanding student learning in context: relationships between university students’ social identity, approaches to learning, and academic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research focuses on understanding how socio-psychological dimensions such as student social identity and student perceptions\\u000a of their learning community affect learning at university. To do this, it integrates ideas from phenomenographic research\\u000a into student learning with ideas from research on social identity. In two studies (N?=?110, and N?=?97) the relationships between student social identity, perceptions of the learning community,

Ana-Maria Bliuc; Robert A. Ellis; Peter Goodyear; Daniela Muntele Hendres

2011-01-01

359

Understanding the Influence of Social Media in the Workplace: An Integration of Media Synchronicity and Social Capital Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social media has deeply penetrated workplace, which has affected multiple aspects of employees' lives. This paper aims to investigate the influence of social media on employees' work performance and the underlying mechanism for how they create value at work. Based on media synchronicity and social capital theories, we propose that social media can promote work performance by stimulating trust among

Xiongfei Cao; Douglas R. Vogel; Xitong Guo; Hefu Liu; Jibao Gu

2012-01-01

360

Understanding the Positive Social Psychological Benefits of Sport Team Identification: The Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a theoretical model designed to account for the positive relationship between identification with a local sport team and social psychological health. This model, labeled the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model, predicts that team identification facilitates well-being by increasing social connections for the fan. Two forms of social connections are developed through team identification: enduring and temporary. Although

Daniel L. Wann

2006-01-01

361

Understanding the Assessment of Psychotropic Drug Harms in Clinical Trials to Improve Social Workers' Role in Medication Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this integrative review is to facilitate social work practitioners' understanding of how psychotropic drug harms are assessed in clinical trials and to make specific suggestions for social workers' increased involvement in detecting drug harms in their clients. The authors undertook a comprehensive review of interdisciplinary…

Hughes, Shannon; Cohen, David

2010-01-01

362

Understanding Student Learning in Context: Relationships between University Students' Social Identity, Approaches to Learning, and Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research focuses on understanding how socio-psychological dimensions such as student social identity and student perceptions of their learning community affect learning at university. To do this, it integrates ideas from phenomenographic research into student learning with ideas from research on social identity. In two studies (N = 110, and N…

Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Ellis, Robert A.; Goodyear, Peter; Hendres, Daniela Muntele

2011-01-01

363

Korean Born, Korean-American High School Students' Entry into Understanding Race and Racism through Social Interactions and Conversations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores how a group of Korean born, Korean-American high school students came to understand race and racism in the US through social interactions and conversations, with particular attention paid to the locality of time, space and people engaged. Therefore, we explore not only how race and racism are socially constructed in the lives…

Palmer, John D.; Jang, Eun-Young

2005-01-01

364

Korean born, Korean?American high school students' entry into understanding race and racism through social interactions and conversations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how a group of Korean born, Korean?American high school students came to understand race and racism in the US through social interactions and conversations, with particular attention paid to the locality of time, space and people engaged. Therefore, we explore not only how race and racism are socially constructed in the lives of the participants, but also

John D. Palmer

2005-01-01

365

Utilizing Social Networks in Times of Crisis: Understanding, Exploring and Analyzing Critical Incident Management at Institutions of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rising number of major crises on college campuses today (Security on Campus Inc., 2009), institutions of higher education can benefit from understanding of how social networks may be used in times of emergency. What is currently known about the usage of social networks is not integral to the current practices of crisis management that are…

Asselin, Martha Jo

2012-01-01

366

The Department of Anthropology Anthropologists try to understand human social and cultural life in the broadest possible terms.  

E-print Network

The Department of Anthropology Anthropologists try to understand human social and cultural life in the broadest possible terms. Alone among the social sciences, Anthropology studies human experience in every media. The openness of the field of anthropology to new ideas, values, attitudes and directions

Seldin, Jonathan P.

367

The Department of Anthropology Anthropologists try to understand human social and cultural life in the broadest possible terms.Alone  

E-print Network

The Department of Anthropology Anthropologists try to understand human social and cultural life in the broadest possible terms.Alone among the social sciences,Anthropology studies human experience in every part of the world, from tiny traditional communities to modern metropoles.The openness of the field of anthropology

Seldin, Jonathan P.

368

How A.I. and multi-robot systems research will accelerate our understanding of social animal  

E-print Network

of social animal behavior, details of their implementation, and quantitative experimental results using themHow A.I. and multi-robot systems research will accelerate our understanding of social animal animal behavior?." As we show, we are able to contribute at several levels: First, using algorithms

Isbell, Charles L.

369

Intersectional understandings of disability and implications for a social justice reform agenda in education policy and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the multiple and shifting ways in which disability intersects with other sources of social disadvantage. Disablism forms part of an intricate web of social conditions that subjugate certain forms of ‘student-subjects' and create compounding forms of oppression and exclusion that need to be addressed through relevant education policy and practice. Intersectional understandings of disability expose the multiple

Anastasia Liasidou

2012-01-01

370

Manipulatives and Problem Situations as Escalators for Students' Geometric Understanding: A Semiotic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical learning and teaching are increasingly seen as a multimodal experience involved in cultural and social semiotic registers and means, and as such social-cultural semiotic analysis is expected to shed light on learning and teaching processes occurring in the mathematics classroom. In this research, three social-cultural semiotic…

Daher, Wajeeh M.

2014-01-01

371

Experimental activities based on ill-structured problems improve Brazilian school students' understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Science education can help people to understand the nature and utility of science, and contribute to developing informed and active citizen. Hence, the purpose of this study was to see if problem-based learning (PBL) in experimental vacation' courses, with emphasis on the historical and epistemological foundations, could increase students' understanding regarding nature of scientific knowledge. After initial strangeness, our

Vanderlei Folmer; Félix A. Soares; Joăo B. T. Rocha

2009-01-01

372

Enhancing Grade 10 Thai Students' Stoichiometry Understanding and Ability to Solve Numerical Problems via a Conceptual Change Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The international literature suggests students frequently resort to the use of formulae when solving stoichiometry problems without understanding the concepts. In prior work we identified Thai student alternative conceptions and ability to solve numerical problem for stoichiometry. The results indicate that many Thai students also hold alternative…

Dahsah, Chanyah; Coll, Richard K.; Sung-ong, Sunan; Yutakom, Naruemon; Sanguanruang, Sudjit

2008-01-01

373

A consistent and understandable method of teaching Newton's Laws of Motion for the solution of rigid-body problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a simple and effective technique for teaching Newton's Laws of Motion for rigid-body problems, and extends existing Free Body Diagram methods to include a Kinematics Diagram. Students find that this approach makes dynamics problems understandable. Several worked examples are included.

Colin P. Ratcliffe

1992-01-01

374

Home Away Home: Better Understanding of the Role of Social Support in Predicting Cross-Cultural Adjustment among International Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have examined international students' adjustment problems, yet, these studies have not explored the mechanisms through which social support operates in the context of stressful events in predicting cross-cultural adjustment among international students. Using Barrera's (1988) models of social support, the present study…

Baba, Yoko; Hosoda, Megumi

2014-01-01

375

Testing problem-solving capacities: differences between individual testing and social group setting.  

PubMed

Testing animals individually in problem-solving tasks limits distractions of the subjects during the test, so that they can fully concentrate on the problem. However, such individual performance may not indicate the problem-solving capacity that is commonly employed in the wild when individuals are faced with a novel problem in their social groups, where the presence of a conspecific influences an individual's behaviour. To assess the validity of data gathered from parrots when tested individually, we compared the performance on patterned-string tasks among parrots tested singly and parrots tested in social context. We tested two captive groups of orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) with several patterned-string tasks. Despite the differences in the testing environment (singly vs. social context), parrots from both groups performed similarly. However, we found that the willingness to participate in the tasks was significantly higher for the individuals tested in social context. The study provides further evidence for the crucial influence of social context on individual's response to a challenging situation such as a problem-solving test. PMID:24668582

Krasheninnikova, Anastasia; Schneider, Jutta M

2014-09-01

376

[Child labour: a social problem that we are committed to].  

PubMed

Child labor is a complex problem that violates the fundamental rights of children and affects their psychophysical development. Child labor affects 215 million children in the world and 115 million perform activities defined as the "worst forms of child labor". Most child labor is in agriculture (60%), where the majority are unpaid family workers, compared to 26% in services and 7% in industry. Argentina has adopted the abolitionist position, promoting prevention and eradication within an inclusive public policy aimed to all children can exercise their rights. The Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría endorses this approach and proposes a course of action: the health team training, and dissemination of the risks of child labor and occupational teenager safety standards. As pediatricians we must be involved in defending children rights, and be able to detect any situation of child labor, and protect the health of children and adolescents. The joint interaction with family, community and other sectors of society will strengthen the network needed to implement child labor eradication policies. PMID:22859332

Cutri, Adrián; Hammermüller, Erica; Zubieta, Ana; Müller Opet, Beatriz; Miguelez, Lilia

2012-08-01

377

Developing Understanding Through Confronting Varying Views: The Case of Solving Qualitative Physics Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explores high school students' collaborative efforts in solving qualitative physics problems and investigates how and whether confronting students with varying views improves problem solving skills. (Contains 22 references.)

Tao, Ping-Kee

2006-12-07

378

MMORPG escapism predicts decreased well-being: examination of gaming time, game realism beliefs, and online social support for offline problems.  

PubMed

Massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) escapists are individuals who indulge in the MMORPG environment to avoid real world problems. Though a relationship between escapism and deteriorated well-being has been established, little is known about particular pathways that mediate this relationship. In the current study, we examined this topic by testing an integrative model of MMORPG escapism, which includes game realism beliefs, gaming time, offline social support, and online social support for offline problems. MMORPG players (N=1,056) completed measures of escapist motivation, game realism beliefs, social support, well-being, and reported gaming time. The tested structural equation model had a good fit to the data. We found that individuals with escapist motivation endorsed stronger game realism beliefs and spent more time playing MMORPGs, which, in turn, increased online support but decreased offline social support. Well-being was favorably affected by both online and offline social support, although offline social support had a stronger effect. The higher availability of online social support for offline problems did not compensate for the lower availability of offline support among MMORPG escapists. Understanding the psychological factors related to depletion of social resources in MMORPG players can help optimize MMORPGs as leisure activities. PMID:24605951

Kaczmarek, Lukasz D; Dr??kowski, Dariusz

2014-05-01

379

The Effect of the Values Education Programme on 5.5-6 Year Old Children's Social Development: Social Skills, Psycho-Social Development and Social Problem Solving Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education…

Dereli-Iman, Esra

2014-01-01

380

Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice  

PubMed Central

This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students’ commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors’ process of assimilation, and to reflect on their ethnic and racial identity as a means toward increased self-awareness and future culturally responsive practice. Content analysis revealed 11 themes, including students’ enlightenment of their privilege, experiences of cultural loss, and acknowledgment of biases as integral parts of culturally responsive practice. Implications for social work education and research are addressed. PMID:23255873

BENDER, KIMBERLY; NEGI, NALINI; FOWLER, DAWNOVISE N.

2012-01-01

381

A Comparison of Two Peer-Referenced Assessment Techniques with Parent and Teacher Ratings of Social Skills and Problem Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship of parent and teacher ratings of social skills and problem behaviors, using the Social Skills Rating System with two peer-reference measures, were examined with 101 fifth- and sixth-graders. Teacher ratings of social skills, problem behaviors, and academic competence showed moderate correlations with both peer measures. (Contains…

Wright, Dan; Torrey, Gregory K.

2001-01-01

382

Understanding Farmers’ Forecast Use from Their Beliefs, Values, Social Norms, and Perceived Obstacles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the accuracy of weather and climate forecasts is continuously improving and new information retrieved from climate data is adding to the understanding of climate variation, use of the forecasts and climate information by farmers in farming decisions has changed little. This lack of change may result from knowledge barriers and psychological, social, and economic factors that undermine farmer motivation to use forecasts and climate information. According to the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the motivation to use forecasts may arise from personal attitudes, social norms, and perceived control or ability to use forecasts in specific decisions. These attributes are examined using data from a survey designed around the TPB and conducted among farming communities in the region of eastern Nebraska and the western U.S. Corn Belt. There were three major findings: 1) the utility and value of the forecasts for farming decisions as perceived by farmers are, on average, around 3.0 on a 0 7 scale, indicating much room to improve attitudes toward the forecast value. 2) The use of forecasts by farmers to influence decisions is likely affected by several social groups that can provide “expert viewpoints” on forecast use. 3) A major obstacle, next to forecast accuracy, is the perceived identity and reliability of the forecast makers. Given the rapidly increasing number of forecasts in this growing service business, the ambiguous identity of forecast providers may have left farmers confused and may have prevented them from developing both trust in forecasts and skills to use them. These findings shed light on productive avenues for increasing the influence of forecasts, which may lead to greater farming productivity. In addition, this study establishes a set of reference points that can be used for comparisons with future studies to quantify changes in forecast use and influence.

Hu, Qi; Pytlik Zillig, Lisa M.; Lynne, Gary D.; Tomkins, Alan J.; Waltman, William J.; Hayes, Michael J.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Artikov, Ikrom; Hoffman, Stacey J.; Wilhite, Donald A.

2006-09-01

383

Community engagement as conflict prevention: Understanding the social license to operate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis examines community engagement as a form of conflict prevention in order to obtain the social license to operate (SLO) in Alberta's oil and gas industry. It does this by answering the question: what are the key elements of the Social License to Operate and how can these elements be applied to community engagement/consultation in a way that prevents conflicts in Alberta's oil and gas industry? The underlying assumption of this thesis is that building good relationships and working collaboratively functions as a form of conflict prevention and that this in turn leads to the SLO. This thesis outlines the key features of both successful community engagement and of the SLO, to provide a guideline for what is needed to obtain the SLO. Data was collected from semi-structured interviews and through a literature review. The data analysis concluded that there are direct parallels between the key elements of effective community engagement and the key elements of the SLO as identified in the interviews. These parallels are: knowing the community, addressing community needs, corporate social responsibility, relationship building, follow through and evidence for what has been done, executive buy-in, excellent communication, and open dialogue, all within a process which is principled (there is trust, understanding, transparency and respect), inclusive, dynamic, flexible, ongoing, and long-term. Moreover, the key elements of effective community engagement and of the SLO identified in the interviews also overlapped with those found in the literature review, with only one exception. The literature review explicitly named early involvement as a key element of both effective community engagement and the SLO, whereas the interview participants only explicitly indicated it as a key factor of community engagement and implied it to be a key element of the SLO.

Knih, Dejana

384

How does money memorize social interactions? Understanding time-homogeneity in monetary systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how money shapes and memorizes our social interactions is central to modern life. There are many schools of thought on as to how monetary systems contribute to crises or boom/bust cycles and how monetary policy can try to avert them. We find that statistical physics gives a refreshing perspective [1-3]. We analyze how credit mechanisms introduce non-locality and time-heterogeneity to the monetary memory. Motivated by an analogy to particle physics, locality and time-homogeneity can be imposed to monetary systems. As a result, a full reserve banking system [4] is complemented with a bi-currency system of non-bank assets (``money'') and bank assets (``antimoney''). Payment can either be made by passing on money or by receiving antimoney. As a result, a free floating exchange rate between non-bank assets and bank assets is established. Interestingly, this monetary memory allows for credit creation by the simultaneous transfer of money and antimoney at a negotiated exchange rate. We analyze this novel mechanism of liquidity transfer in a model of random social interactions, yielding analytical results for all relevant distributions and the price of liquidity under the conditions of a fully transparent credit market.[4pt] [1] European Physical Journal B 17, 723729 (2000).[0pt] [2] Reviews of Modern Physics 81, 1703 (2009).[0pt] [3] Physica A 321, 605--618 (2003).[0pt] [4] Ryan-Collins, Greenham, Werner, Jackson, Where Does Money Come From? positivemoney.org.uk.

Braun, Dieter; Schmitt, Matthias; Schacker, Andreas

2013-03-01

385

Understanding the Professional Socialization of Canadian Physical Therapy Students: A Qualitative Investigation  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: To understand the professional socialization of physical therapy (PT) students. Method: Forty-two students enrolled in our newly developed master's degree programme wrote three-page reflective journals on a critical learning incident after each of three selected clinical experiences. The journals were coded and analyzed, and major themes were identified and described. A separate cohort of 44 students participated in focus groups after the same three clinical experiences to check the trustworthiness of the results. Results: Following the first placement, the main themes coded were emotions, self-confidence, professionalism in the real world, communication, and learning by doing. After the intermediate placement, major themes were idealism versus realism, depth of communication with clients, and breadth of communication with family members and colleagues. Aspects of clinical learning were variable, and self-confidence remained an issue. After the final placement, most students were deeply engaged with their clients and self-confidence had developed to the point of self-efficacy. Tensions increased between the concept of ideal practice and the pragmatics of actual practice, and the concept of self as protégé (rather than as object of the supervisor's evaluation) emerged. The themes were subsequently assembled in a booklet with representative quotations. Conclusion: These results contribute to foundational knowledge required by PT educators, including clinical instructors, by explicitly describing the professional socialization of PT students. PMID:20145748

Deborah Lucy, S.; Bisbee, Leslie; Conti-Becker, Angela

2009-01-01

386

Using Students' Representations Constructed during Problem Solving to Infer Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The differences in the types of representations constructed during successful and unsuccessful problem-solving episodes were investigated within the context of graduate students working on problems that involve concepts from 2D-NMR. Success at problem solving was established by having the participants solve five problems relating to material just…

Domin, Daniel; Bodner, George

2012-01-01

387

New territory: Problems of adjusting to the first year of a social science PhD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1982 there have been considerable structural changes in the funding and organisation of the social science PhD, yet what knowledge there is concerning the actual PhD process is scant. In an attempt to remedy this state of affairs, this paper examines in some depth the problems which first year social science PhD students encounter when adapting to their new

John Hockey

1994-01-01

388

Errors and Understanding: The Effects of Error-Management Training on Creative Problem-Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

People make errors in their creative problem-solving efforts. The intent of this article was to assess whether error-management training would improve performance on creative problem-solving tasks. Undergraduates were asked to solve an educational leadership problem known to call for creative thought where problem solutions were scored for quality, originality, and elegance. Prior to beginning work on their problem solutions, participants

Issac C. Robledo; Kimberly S. Hester; David R. Peterson; Jamie D. Barrett; Eric A. Day; Dean P. Hougen; Michael D. Mumford

2012-01-01

389

Understanding and controlling hot spots of crime: the importance of formal and informal social controls.  

PubMed

Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs that address opportunity or structural factors related to crime are usually delivered to entire cities, sections of cities or to specific neighborhoods, but our results indicate geographically targeting these programs to specific street segments may increase their efficacy. We link crime incidents to over 24,000 street segments (the two block faces on a street between two intersections) over a 16-year period, and identify distinct developmental patterns of crime at street segments using group-based trajectory analysis. One of these patterns, which we term chronic crime hot spots, includes just 1 % of street segments but is associated with 23 % of crime in the city during the study period. We then employ multinomial regression to identify the specific risk and protective factors that are associated with these crime hot spots. We find that both situational opportunities and social characteristics of places strongly distinguish chronic crime hot spots from areas with little crime. Our findings support recent efforts to decrease crime opportunities at crime hot spots through programs like hot spots policing, but they also suggest that social interventions directed at crime hot spots will be important if we are to do something about crime problems in the long run. We argue in concluding that micro level programs which focus crime prevention efforts on specific street segments have the potential to be less costly and more effective than those targeted at larger areas such as communities or neighborhoods. PMID:23435556

Weisburd, David; Groff, Elizabeth R; Yang, Sue-Ming

2014-02-01

390

The puzzle of problem-solving efficacy: understanding anxiety among urban children coping with asthma-related and life stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with asthma living in urban environments are at risk for experiencing anxiety by virtue of both social context and health-related stressors. Although the use of active coping strategies is generally associated with more optimal psychosocial functioning, there is evidence that active coping is less helpful in response to uncontrollable or severe stress. Expectations that one can fix a problem

Karla Klein Murdock; Carolyn Greene; Sue K. Adams; William Hartmann; Sally Bittinger; Kelly Will

2010-01-01

391

Applicability of the Social Development Model to Urban Ethnic Minority Youth: Examining the Relationship between External Constraints, Family Socialization, and Problem Behaviors  

PubMed Central

The development of preventive interventions targeting adolescent problem behaviors requires a thorough understanding of risk and protective factors for such behaviors. However, few studies examine whether different cultural and ethnic groups share these factors. This study is an attempt to fill a gap in research by examining similarities and differences in risk factors across racial and ethnic groups. The social development model has shown promise in organizing predictors of problem behaviors. This article investigates whether a version of that model can be generalized to youth in different racial and ethnic groups (N = 2,055, age range from 11 to 15), including African American (n = 478), Asian Pacific Islander (API) American (n = 491), multiracial (n = 442), and European American (n = 644) youth. The results demonstrate that common risk factors can be applied to adolescents, regardless of their race and ethnicity. The findings also demonstrate that there are racial and ethnic differences in the magnitudes of relationships among factors that affect problem behaviors. Further study is warranted to develop a better understanding of these differential magnitudes. PMID:21625351

Choi, Yoonsun; Harachi, Tracy W.; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Catalano, Richard F.

2011-01-01

392

Situating suicide as an anthropological problem: ethnographic approaches to understanding self-harm and self-inflicted death.  

PubMed

More than a century after Durkheim's sociological classic placed the subject of suicide as a concern at the heart of social science, ethnographic, cross-cultural analyses of what lie behind people's attempts to take their own lives remain few in number. But by highlighting how the ethnographic method privileges a certain view of suicidal behaviour, we can go beyond the limited sociological and psychological approaches that define the field of 'suicidology' in terms of social and psychological 'pathology' to engage with suicide from our informants' own points of view-and in so doing cast the problem in a new light and new terms. In particular, suicide can be understood as a kind of sociality, as a special kind of social relationship, through which people create meaning in their own lives. In this introductory essay we offer an overview of the papers that make up this special issue and map out the theoretical opportunities and challenges they present. PMID:22395948

Staples, James; Widger, Tom

2012-06-01

393

The Native American adolescent: social network structure and perceptions of alcohol induced social problems.  

PubMed

Race/ethnicity and the structure of an adolescent's social network are both important factors in the etiology of delinquent behavior. Yet, much of the minority-group delinquency literature overlooks the Native American youth population that traditionally exhibits high rates of alcohol use and abuse. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we compare the structural characteristics of school-based friendship networks of American Indian youth and other racial/ethnic groups. Our core sample for the descriptive analysis consists of 70,841 youth (Caucasian = 42,096; Black = 13,554; Asian = 4,758; Hispanic = 4,464; American Indian = 3,426; Other = 2,543; Female = 50%). We find that Native American youth generally occupy similar social positions within school hierarchies compared to other minority groups. However, American Indian youth have fewer ties at the school level than Caucasian youth, including reports of fewer reciprocated friendships, a smaller number of in-school friends, and membership in less cohesive personal networks. We also focus on the detrimental social and physical consequences of alcohol use during adolescence and offer an extended consequences model (n = 5,841) that includes the interactive effects of race/ethnicity, age, and drinking influences on relationships with friends (Caucasian = 59%; Black = 19%; Asian = 7%; Hispanic = 7%; American Indian = 5%; Other = 3%; Female = 54%). American Indian youth are no more likely than other youth to report personal drinking as being detrimental to social relationships with parents, peers, and romantic partners. We address ties between our findings and criminal justice policies and practices, as well as the implications for similar network analyses involving other racial/ethnic groups. PMID:24061859

Rees, Carter; Freng, Adrienne; Winfree, L Thomas

2014-03-01

394

Understanding the Causes and Management of Problem Behaviour in Zimbabwean Schools: Teacher Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem behaviour continues to present a challenge for school-teachers worldwide. Since school-teachers around the globe have different conceptualisations of what constitutes problem behaviour, the purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of Zimbabwean school-teachers about their perceived causes of problem behaviour among students in…

Chitiyo, Morgan; Chitiyo, George; Chitiyo, Jonathan; Oyedele, Victoria; Makoni, Richard; Fonnah, Davidson; Chipangure, Luke

2014-01-01

395

Psychometric Evaluation of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised among Overweight or Obese Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving is a key component of weight loss programs. The Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R) has not been evaluated in weight loss studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometrics of the SPSI-R. Cronbach's a (0.95 for total score; 0.67-0.92 for subscales) confirmed internal consistency reliability. The…

Wang, Jing; Matthews, Judith T.; Sereika, Susan M.; Chasens, Eileen R.; Ewing, Linda J.; Burke, Lora E.

2013-01-01

396

Preschool Behavioral and Social-Cognitive Problems as Predictors of (Pre)Adolescent Disruptive Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age 10-12 and at age 13-15. ODD and ACD were assessed by…

Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

2007-01-01

397

Appalachia's People, Problems, Alternatives. An Introductory Social Science Reader, Vol. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compiled by the Peoples Appalachian Research Collective, this social science reader on Appalachia was designed to enable students, teachers, workers, and all people to understand the Appalachian region. The document consists of selected readings classified under the following major headings: An Introduction to the Appalachian region (why…

Peoples Appalachian Research Collective, Morgantown, WV.

398

Understanding the mechanism of social network in the knowledge transfer process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social network as a knowledge transfer mechanism is widely accepted. However, the process of the mechanism is vague. The goal of this study is to clearly expatiate on the functioning mechanism of social network during the process of knowledge transfer. We develop a model of social network which consists of the nodes and ties. The nodes in the knowledge social

Bing Wang; Jiting Yang; Hongpei Liu

2010-01-01

399

Understanding Social Media Culture and its Ethical Challenges for Art Therapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses ethics in the context of the participatory culture of social media as it relates to art therapy. The authors present the view that social media formats are important venues for expression that contribute to interpersonal connections and social learning via the active participation of their members. To make informed ethical choices regarding participation in social media, it

Christopher M. Belkofer; Jill V. McNutt

2011-01-01

400

Psychiatric morbidity and people's experience of and response to social problems involving rights.  

PubMed

Psychiatric morbidity has been shown to be associated with the increased reporting of a range of social problems involving legal rights ('rights problems'). Using a validated measure of psychiatric morbidity, this paper explores the relationship between psychiatric morbidity and rights problems and discusses the implications for the delivery of health and legal services. New representative national survey data from the English and Welsh Civil and Social Justice Survey (CSJS) surveyed 3040 adults in 2007 to explore the relationship between GHQ-12 scores and the self reported incidence of and behaviour surrounding, rights problems. It was found that the prevalence of rights problems increased with psychiatric morbidity, as did the experience of multiple problems. It was also found the likelihood of inaction in the face of problems increased with psychiatric morbidity, while the likelihood of choosing to resolve problems without help decreased. Where advice was obtained, psychiatric morbidity was associated with a greater tendency to obtain a combination of 'legal' and 'general' support, rather than 'legal' advice alone. The results suggest that integrated and 'outreach' services are of particular importance to the effective support of those facing mental illness. PMID:20522118

Balmer, Nigel J; Pleasence, Pascoe; Buck, Alexy

2010-11-01

401

How Do Young Adolescents Cope with Social Problems? An Examination of Social Goals, Coping with Friends, and Social Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated individual differences in sixth-grade students (N = 181; 47% girls, ethnically diverse) use of friends as a coping resource when dealing with a social stressor with another peer at school. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized three factor structure of coping with friends: mastery, avoidance, and…

Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.

2012-01-01

402

Towards Better Human Robot Interaction: Understand Human Computer Interaction in Social Gaming Using a Video-Enhanced Diary Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents findings from a descriptive research on social gaming. A video-enhanced diary method was used to understand the user experience in social gaming. From this experiment, we found that natural human behavior and gamer’s decision making process can be elicited and speculated during human computer interaction. These are new information that we should consider as they can help us build better human computer interfaces and human robotic interfaces in future.

See, Swee Lan; Tan, Mitchell; Looi, Qin En

403

Apps for Social Justice: Motivating Computer Science Learning with Design and Real-World Problem Solving  

E-print Network

; College Entrance Examination Board 2005)" [9]. Without a concerted effort to make computer scienceApps for Social Justice: Motivating Computer Science Learning with Design and Real-World Problem of practice-linked identities [13], we argue that an integrative approach to introducing computer science

Parikh, Tapan S.

404

Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

2012-01-01

405

Parental Interpersonal Sensitivity and Youth Social Problems: A Mediational Role for Child Emotion Dysregulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the relations between parental interpersonal sensitivity and youth social problems and explored the mediational role of child emotion dysregulation. Mothers (N = 42; M age = 39.38) and fathers (N = 41; M age = 39.38) of youth aged 7-12 (N = 42; M age = 9.12) completed measures of their own interpersonal sensitivity and reported on…

Suveg, Cynthia; Jacob, Marni L.; Payne, Mary

2010-01-01

406

Neurological and medico-social problems of spina bifida patients in adolescence and adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronological changes in the neurological manifestations of spina bifida are well recognized in the early developmental periods: fetal, neonatal, infantile, pre-school and school life. However, little has been written about the medical and medico-social problems of spina bifida patients in adulthood. Patients now in this age group had the condition diagnosed and managed in an era when modern neurosurgical concepts

Shizuo Oi; Osamu Sato; Satoshi Matsumoto

1996-01-01

407

Ethical Issues in the use of Embedded Social Protocols to Resolve Technical Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between various computer applications and the social and organisational behaviour they are intended to support are not natural or pregiven. They are always constructed and always the result of decisions made somewhere. This paper takes a fragment of shared design work and considers some solutions to one of the technical problems that arise when technology is used to

Toni Robertson

2002-01-01

408

[Information servicing for the complex problems of social and occupational research].  

PubMed

Research directions set in 1976 on opening the Institute for Complex Problems of Hygiene and Occupational diseases with SD USSR AMSc in Novokuznetsk were based on new methodologic approaches. Fundamentals of the approaches are concept of life support, complex systemic attitude to social and hygienic research and to health care management--these are topical ones nowadays. PMID:11530523

Chechenin, G I

2001-01-01

409

Pro-Social Behaviour and Behaviour Problems Independently Predict Maternal Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities generally report more stress than other parents. Child behavioural features, and specifically their behaviour problems, have been shown to account for some of the variation in parents' experience of stress. However, there has been no exploration of whether the child's pro-social

Beck, Alexandra; Hastings, Richard; Daley, Dave; Stevenson, Jim

2004-01-01

410

Social Skills and Problem Behavior Assessment of General and Special Education Career and Technical Education Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Low employment and underemployment rates for students with disabilities have drawn national attention resulting in federal legislation. The research literature indicates a strong relationship between job success and interpersonal factors, especially for employees with disabilities. This study investigated social skills and problem behaviors of…

Monahan, Michael P.

2003-01-01

411

Assessment and treatment of social problem solving in offenders with intellectual disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mainstream offender work there has been a significant amount of theory and applied research linking moral development, perspective taking and poor social problem solving to offending. Given that such deficits are likely to feature in offenders with intellectual disability (ID), it is surprising that this research has not spread to the field of ID. Study 1 employed 132 participants

William R. Lindsay; Clare Hamilton; Stuart Moulton; Steve Scott; Michael Doyle; Mary McMurran

2011-01-01

412

Binge Drinking and College Students: An Investigation of Social Problem-Solving Abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined social problem-solving skills and binge drinking among 286 undergraduate men (N = 90) and women (N = 196). The sample consisted of primarily first-year students (39%), sophomores (27%), juniors (21%), and seniors (13%), with an average age of 20. The makeup of the sample was predominantly Caucasian. Men were more likely than women to be classified as binge

Laura E. Dreer; George F. Ronan; Donna W. Ronan; David M. Dush; Timothy R. Elliott

2004-01-01

413

Children Exposed to Violence: An Often Neglected Social, Mental Health, and Public Health Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children's exposure to violence has been identified as a mental health, social, and public health problem. However, this issue has not reached national priority status or received major funding for prevention and intervention programs. This article summarizes the conclusions and recommendations of a Think Tank that was conducted in Fall 2006 by the Institute on Violence, Abuse, and Trauma at

Robert Geffner; Dawn Alley Griffin; James Lewis III

2008-01-01

414

Educationalization: On the Appropriateness of Asking Educational Institutions to Solve Social and Economic Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educationalization is a term most frequently used to indicate that government (in particular) has inappropriately imposed on educational institutions responsibility for providing the solution to some social or economic problem. In this essay David Bridges illustrates, however, the way in which educational institutions collude in this process,…

Bridges, David

2008-01-01

415

The Social Construction of the Divorce "Problem": Morality, Child Victims, and the Politics of Gender.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although divorce rates have been stable or dropping for two decades, Americans seem anxious about the state of marriage. This article examines reasons for this collective anxiety, documenting how the divorce "problem" has been framed by organizations promoting conservative family values. Also identifies social contexts associated with cyclical…

Coltrane, Scott; Adams, Michele

2003-01-01

416

Impact of Adolescent Drug Use and Social Support on Problems of Young Adults: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite widespread concern regarding the effects of teenage drug use, there has been little effort to establish specifically what long-term consequences arise from such use and whether these adverse outcomes may be mitigated by a supportive social network. We obtained data from 654 teenagers when they were in early and late adolescence and used it to evaluate resultant problems reported

Michael D. Newcomb; Peter M. Bentler

1988-01-01

417

Analysis of the Effect of a Social Problem-Solving Program on the Aggression of Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research was to establish the effect of a social problem-solving training program for 8th grade students. In the experimental group, 14 students were 14 years old and 1 student was 15 years old. In the control group, 13 students were 14 years old and 2 students were 15 years old. The Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) was administered…

Secer, Zarife; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

2011-01-01

418

When Religion Becomes Deviance: Introducing Religion in Deviance and Social Problems Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on teaching new religious movements (NRMs), or cults, within deviance or social problems courses. Provides information about the conceptions and theories of deviance. Includes three illustrations of how to use deviant religions in a deviance course and offers insights into teaching religion as deviance. Includes references. (CMK)

Perrin, Robin D.

2001-01-01

419

Social Skills and Behavior Problems in Children with Disabilities with and without Siblings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined social skills and behavior of children with disabilities (CWD) and the impact of siblings on these behaviors. Eighty-five CWD diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder only (ADHD-o), Learning Disability or Learning Problems (LD/LP), ADHD and LD combined (ADHD/LD) or Spina Bifida (SB) and their siblings were…

Fussell, Jill J.; Macias, Michelle M.; Saylor, Conway F.

2005-01-01

420

Evaluation of a social problem-solving skills program for third- and fourth-grade students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a social problem-solving (SPS) training program for entire classrooms of third- and fourth-grade children were examined in two studies. In the first study, experimental children showed significantly greater improvement in knowledge and performance of SPS skills than control children. However, both positive and negative effects of the intervention (varying by classroom) were found on measures of behavioral

Geoffrey Nelson; Patricia Carson

1988-01-01

421

Family Business or Social Problem? The Cost of Unreported Domestic Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social interest in problems such as domestic violence is typically motivated by concerns regarding equity, rather than efficiency. However, we document that taking steps to reduce domestic violence by reporting it yields substantial benefits to external parties. Specifically, we find that although children exposed to as-yet-unreported domestic…

Carrell, Scott E.; Hoekstra, Mark

2012-01-01

422

The role of social understanding and empathic disposition in young children's responsiveness to distress in parents and peers  

PubMed Central

The second year of life marks the beginning of empathic responsiveness to others’ distress, a hallmark of human interaction. We examined the role of social understanding (self-other understanding and emotion understanding) and empathic disposition in individual differences in 12- to 24-month olds’ responses to mothers’ and an unfamiliar infant peer’s distress (N = 71). Results reveal associations between empathic responsiveness to distressed mother and crying infant peer, suggesting that individual differences in prosocial motivation may exist right from the outset, when the ability to generate an empathic, prosocial response first emerges. We further found that above and beyond such dispositional characteristics (and age), children with more advanced social understanding were more empathically responsive to a peer’s distress. However, responses to mothers’ distress were explained by children’s empathic disposition only, and not by their social understanding. Thus, as early as the second year of life some children are dispositionally more inclined to empathy regardless of who is in distress, whether mother or peer. At the same time, emotion understanding and self-other understanding appear to be especially important for explaining individual differences in young children’s empathic responsiveness to a peer’s distress. PMID:22639760

Nichols, Sara R.; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A.

2012-01-01

423

Predictors of children's prosocial lie-telling: Motivation, socialization variables, and moral understanding.  

PubMed

Children tell prosocial lies for self- and other-oriented reasons. However, it is unclear how motivational and socialization factors affect their lying. Furthermore, it is unclear whether children's moral understanding and evaluations of prosocial lie scenarios (including perceptions of vignette characters' feelings) predict their actual prosocial behaviors. These were explored in two studies. In Study 1, 72 children (36 second graders and 36 fourth graders) participated in a disappointing gift paradigm in either a high-cost condition (lost a good gift for a disappointing one) or a low-cost condition (received a disappointing gift). More children lied in the low-cost condition (94%) than in the high-cost condition (72%), with no age difference. In Study 2, 117 children (42 preschoolers, 41 early elementary school age, and 34 late elementary school age) participated in either a high- or low-cost disappointing gift paradigm and responded to prosocial vignette scenarios. Parents reported on their parenting practices and family emotional expressivity. Again, more children lied in the low-cost condition (68%) than in the high-cost condition (40%); however, there was an age effect among children in the high-cost condition. Preschoolers were less likely than older children to lie when there was a high personal cost. In addition, compared with truth-tellers, prosocial liars had parents who were more authoritative but expressed less positive emotion within the family. Finally, there was an interaction between children's prosocial lie-telling behavior and their evaluations of the protagonist's and recipient's feelings. Findings contribute to understanding the trajectory of children's prosocial lie-telling, their reasons for telling such lies, and their knowledge about interpersonal communication. PMID:21663918

Popliger, Mina; Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela

2011-11-01

424

Towards a balanced social psychology: causes, consequences, and cures for the problem-seeking approach to social behavior and cognition.  

PubMed

Mainstream social psychology focuses on how people characteristically violate norms of action through social misbehaviors such as conformity with false majority judgments, destructive obedience, and failures to help those in need. Likewise, they are seen to violate norms of reasoning through cognitive errors such as misuse of social information, self-enhancement, and an over-readiness to attribute dispositional characteristics. The causes of this negative research emphasis include the apparent informativeness of norm violation, the status of good behavior and judgment as unconfirmable null hypotheses, and the allure of counter-intuitive findings. The shortcomings of this orientation include frequently erroneous imputations of error, findings of mutually contradictory errors, incoherent interpretations of error, an inability to explain the sources of behavioral or cognitive achievement, and the inhibition of generalized theory. Possible remedies include increased attention to the complete range of behavior and judgmental accomplishment, analytic reforms emphasizing effect sizes and Bayesian inference, and a theoretical paradigm able to account for both the sources of accomplishment and of error. A more balanced social psychology would yield not only a more positive view of human nature, but also an improved understanding of the bases of good behavior and accurate judgment, coherent explanations of occasional lapses, and theoretically grounded suggestions for improvement. PMID:15736870

Krueger, Joachim I; Funder, David C

2004-06-01

425

Social Adversity, Stress, and Alcohol Problems: Are Racial/Ethnic Minorities and the Poor More Vulnerable?  

PubMed Central

Objective: Experiences of racial/ethnic bias and unfair treatment are risk factors for alcohol problems, and population differences in exposure to these social adversities (i.e., differential exposure) may contribute to alcohol-related disparities. Differential vulnerability is another plausible mechanism underlying health disparities, yet few studies have examined whether populations differ in their vulnerability to the effects of social adversity on psychological stress and the effects of psychological stress on alcohol problems. Method: Data from the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey (N = 4,080 adult drinkers) were analyzed using structural equation modeling to assess an overall model of pathways linking social adversity, depressive symptoms, heavy drinking, and alcohol dependence. Multiple group analyses were conducted to assess differences in the model’s relationships among Blacks versus Whites, Hispanics versus Whites, and the poor (income below the federal poverty line) versus non-poor (income above the poverty line). Results: The overall model explained 48% of the variance in alcohol dependence and revealed significant pathways between social adversity and alcohol dependence involving depressive symptoms and heavy drinking. The effects of social adversity and depressive symptoms were no different among Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. However, the poor (vs. non-poor) showed stronger associations between unfair treatment and depressive symptoms and between depressive symptoms and heavy drinking. Conclusions: Contrary to some prior studies, these findings suggest that racial disparities in alcohol problems may be more a function of racial/ethnic minorities’ greater exposure, rather than vulnerability, to chronic stressors such as social adversity. However, observed differences between the poor and non-poor imply that differential vulnerability contributes to socioeconomic disparities in alcohol problems. Efforts to reduce both differential exposure and vulnerability might help to mitigate these disparities. PMID:22630795

Mulia, Nina; Zemore, Sarah E.

2012-01-01

426

Metacognition and action: a new pathway to understanding social and cognitive aspects of expertise in sport  

PubMed Central

For over a century, psychologists have investigated the mental processes of expert performers – people who display exceptional knowledge and/or skills in specific fields of human achievement. Since the 1960s, expertise researchers have made considerable progress in understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie such exceptional performance. Whereas the first modern studies of expertise were conducted in relatively formal knowledge domains such as chess, more recent investigations have explored elite performance in dynamic perceptual-motor activities such as sport. Unfortunately, although these studies have led to the identification of certain domain-free generalizations about expert-novice differences, they shed little light on an important issue: namely, experts’ metacognitive activities or their insights into, and regulation of, their own mental processes. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the present paper argues that metacognitive processes and inferences play an important if neglected role in expertise. In particular, we suggest that metacognition (including such processes as “meta-attention,” “meta-imagery” and “meta-memory,” as well as social aspects of this construct) provides a window on the genesis of expert performance. Following a critique of the standard empirical approach to expertise, we explore some research on “metacognition” and “metacognitive inference” among experts in sport. After that, we provide a brief evaluation of the relationship between psychological skills training and metacognition and comment on the measurement of metacognitive processes. Finally, we summarize our conclusions and outline some potentially new directions for research on metacognition in action. PMID:25360126

MacIntyre, Tadhg E.; Igou, Eric R.; Campbell, Mark J.; Moran, Aidan P.; Matthews, James

2014-01-01

427

Gender differences in social and psychological problems of substance abusers: a comparison to nonsubstance abusers.  

PubMed

This study examines gender differences in 16 social and psychological problems among substance abusers and nonsubstance abusers in a community population to determine whether such differences are simply a reflection of differences between men and women in the general population. Data were gathered from 119 respondents using the Addiction Severity Index. Loglinear analysis suggests that problems typically attributed to "being a female substance abuser" may be due to the effect of gender or substance abuse alone. Only two problems significantly distinguish female substance abusers from the other comparison groups: psychiatric hospitalizations and relatives with substance abuse. However, women in the overall sample were more troubled by family problems, had more parents with psychiatric problems, and received more outpatient psychiatric treatment. Problems associated with substance abuse, not gender, include divorce, problems controlling violence, and parents with substance abuse problems. These findings suggest that substance-abusing women experience a "double whammy" because they incur both the problems of women and the problems of substance abusers. Disaggregating gender and substance abuse effects has implications for treatment-matching and relapse prevention, specifically for suggesting strategies that address the special vulnerabilities of substance-abusing women. PMID:8811582

Davis, D R; DiNitto, D M

1996-01-01

428

The Role of Presentation and Response Format in Understanding, Preconceptions and Alternative Concepts in Algebra Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that students have great difficulty solving certain algebra word problems. These solutions, moreover, appear to be due to some situational factors characteristic of algebra problems, e.g., presentation and response format. This study investigates students' preconceptions, post facto alternative concepts based on key features of…

Abouchedid, Kamal; Nasser, Ramzi

429

Understanding and Preventing the Problem of Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Adult Education Series. Discussion Paper One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion in Native American communities of problems related to alcoholism and drug abuse is encouraged through reading this paper, working on suggested activities and questions, and applying the information to improve local situations. Alcohol and drug abuse symptoms are described along with statistics illustrating the scope of the problem. The…

Lethbridge Univ. (Alberta). Four Worlds Development Project.

430

Understanding the link between changes in social support and changes in outcomes with the sociometric badge  

E-print Network

The goal of this thesis is to show that social support created through face-to-face interaction is a driving factor in a number of important outcomes. Through a series of studies we show that social support, operationalized ...

Waber, Benjamin Nathan

2011-01-01

431

Understanding Black Male Athlete Social Responsibility (BMASR): A Case Study of an NBA Franchise  

E-print Network

While there is voluminous research on the Black male athlete, the literature does not touch on the notion of social responsibility. Thus, the purpose of this study was to garner perceptions of Black male athlete social responsibility (BMASR) from...

Agyemang, Kwame Jesse Asamoah

2012-07-16

432

Understanding L2 Speaking Problems: Implications for ESL Curriculum Development in a Teacher Training Institution in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the result of a study that aimed to identify the problems with oral English skills of ESL (English as a second language) students at a tertiary teacher training institution in Hong Kong. The study, by way of semi-structured interview, addresses the gap in our understanding of the difficulties ESL students encountered in their…

Gan, Zhengdong

2012-01-01

433

The relation between social problem-solving ability and subsequent level of academic competence in college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective design was used to examine the relations between problem-solving scores derived from the Social Problem-Solving Inventory (SPSI) and later academic performance in college students, while controlling for the level of academic aptitude. The SPSI is a new, multidimensional, self-report measure of social problem-solving ability that provides for a separate assessment of a person's “problem orientation” (i.e., generalized cognitive—emotional—behavioral

Thomas J. D'Zurilla; Collette F. Sheedy

1992-01-01

434

Building a Social and Motivational Framework for Understanding Satisfaction in Online Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how social and motivational attributes may influence students' online learning experiences. Based on a review of social theories of learning and research about individual characteristics associated with motivation four constructs were included: social ability, learning goal orientation, perceived task value, and self-efficacy.…

Lin, Yi-Mei; Lin, Guan-Yu; Laffey, James M.

2008-01-01

435

Understanding Negative Impacts of Perceived Cognitive Load on Job Learning Effectiveness: A Social Capital Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study proposes a model explaining how social capital helps ease excessively required mental effort.Background: Although organizational researchers have studied both social capital and cognitive load, no prior research has critically examined the role of social capital in improving individuals’ mental load and effort and consequently enhancing job learning effectiveness.Method: This study surveys participants made up of professionals in

Chieh-Peng Lin

2010-01-01

436

SOCIAL LEARNING AS A TOOL TO UNDERSTAND COMPLEX ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTIONS  

E-print Network

into social learning issues which emerge in long term collaborative partnerships. Keywords: co in the program today and, in areas where social learning is low, potential causes of this impasse are explored Report; forest practices Subject Terms: co-management; social learning theory; Washington State; adaptive

437

Understanding Social Media Culture and its Ethical Challenges for Art Therapists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses ethics in the context of the participatory culture of social media as it relates to art therapy. The authors present the view that social media formats are important venues for expression that contribute to interpersonal connections and social learning via the active participation of their members. To make informed ethical…

Belkofer, Christopher M.; McNutt, Jill V.

2011-01-01

438

Understanding Women's Underrepresentation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: The Role of Social Coping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enrollment of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors is disproportionately small and declining. This study examines social coping to explain the gender gap. Women undergraduates reported using significantly more social coping than did men. Multiple regression analyses revealed that social coping was a stronger…

Morganson, Valerie J.; Jones, Meghan P.; Major, Debra A.

2010-01-01

439

Using perturbation theory to understand the two body problem in general relativity  

E-print Network

Binary systems composed of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes) radiate gravitational waves (GWs). The prospect of detecting these GWs using ground and space based experiments has made it imperative to understand ...

Adhyam Sundararajan, Pranesh

2009-01-01

440

Understanding Cultural Frames in the Multicultural Sales Organization: Prospects and Problems for the Sales Manager  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in social demographics, legislation, and wealth distribution have prompted modern sales organizations to recognize the importance of cultural diversity within customer markets and sales forces. Some sales forces have employed multicultural salespersons to aide their pursuit of multicultural target markets. Traditionally, organizations have conceptualized cultural identity as membership in one particular category, or frame, determined by race or nationality.

Brent Smith; Trina Larsen; Bert Rosenbloom

2009-01-01

441

Understanding the different types of social support offered by audience to A-list diary-like and informative bloggers.  

PubMed

Blogs offer audiences a forum through which they can exchange ideas and provide feedback about the everyday lives and experiences of the bloggers. Such interactions and communication between audiences and bloggers could be regarded as a kind of social support. The present study aims to identify and compare the types of social support offered by audiences to continuous popular diary-like and informative bloggers, and to explore the possible benefits that bloggers may obtain from such social support. Content analysis was used to analyze the 485 and 390 comments provided by the audiences to the A-list diary-like and informative blog posts, respectively. Results reveal that validation, compliment, and encouragement are the most common types of social support given by audiences to A-list bloggers. Chi-square test results show that the audiences offer more encouragement-type of social support to diary-like bloggers and more complimentary and informational social support to informative bloggers. Such types of social support may enhance A-list bloggers' self-esteem, boost their confidence, promote their self-understanding, and help them obtain the benefits of social validation, which in turn encourage bloggers to commit continuous self-disclosure. PMID:23363225

Ko, Hsiu-Chia; Wang, Li-Ling; Xu, Yi-Ting

2013-03-01

442

Understanding the Different Types of Social Support Offered by Audience to A-List Diary-Like and Informative Bloggers  

PubMed Central

Abstract Blogs offer audiences a forum through which they can exchange ideas and provide feedback about the everyday lives and experiences of the bloggers. Such interactions and communication between audiences and bloggers could be regarded as a kind of social support. The present study aims to identify and compare the types of social support offered by audiences to continuous popular diary-like and informative bloggers, and to explore the possible benefits that bloggers may obtain from such social support. Content analysis was used to analyze the 485 and 390 comments provided by the audiences to the A-list diary-like and informative blog posts, respectively. Results reveal that validation, compliment, and encouragement are the most common types of social support given by audiences to A-list bloggers. Chi-square test results show that the audiences offer more encouragement-type of social support to diary-like bloggers and more complimentary and informational social support to informative bloggers. Such types of social support may enhance A-list bloggers' self-esteem, boost their confidence, promote their self-understanding, and help them obtain the benefits of social validation, which in turn encourage bloggers to commit continuous self-disclosure. PMID:23363225

Wang, Li-Ling; Xu, Yi-Ting

2013-01-01

443

Coping and social problem solving correlates of asthma control and quality of life.  

PubMed

In a sample of adults with asthma receiving care and medication in an outpatient pulmonary clinic, this study tested for statistical associations between social problem-solving styles, asthma control, and asthma-related quality of life. These variables were measured cross sectionally as a first step toward more systematic application of social problem-solving frameworks in asthma self-management training. Recruitment occurred during pulmonology clinic service hours. Forty-four adults with physician-confirmed diagnosis of asthma provided data including age, gender, height, weight, race, income, and comorbid conditions. The Asthma Control Questionnaire, the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Short Form), and peak expiratory force measures offered multiple views of asthma health at the time of the study. Maladaptive coping (impulsive and careless problem-solving styles) based on transactional stress models of health were assessed with the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form. Controlling for variance associated with gender, age, and income, individuals reporting higher impulsive-careless scores exhibited significantly lower scores on asthma control (? = 0.70, p = 0.001, confidence interval (CI) [0.37-1.04]) and lower asthma-related quality of life (? = 0.79, p = 0.017, CI [0.15-1.42]). These findings suggest that specific maladaptive problem-solving styles may uniquely contribute to asthma health burdens. Because problem-solving coping strategies are both measureable and teachable, behavioral interventions aimed at facilitating adaptive coping and problem solving could positively affect patient's asthma management and quality of life. PMID:24431407

McCormick, Sean P; Nezu, Christine M; Nezu, Arthur M; Sherman, Michael; Davey, Adam; Collins, Bradley N

2014-02-01

444

An Algorithm for Critical Nodes Problem in Social Networks Based on Owen Value  

PubMed Central

Discovering critical nodes in social networks has many important applications. For finding out the critical nodes and considering the widespread community structure in social networks, we obtain each node's marginal contribution by Owen value. And then we can give a method for the solution of the critical node problem. We validate the feasibility and effectiveness of our method on two synthetic datasets and six real datasets. At the same time, the result obtained by using our method to analyze the terrorist network is in line with the actual situation. PMID:25006592

Wang, Xue-Guang

2014-01-01

445

Understanding and Effectively Preventing the ABA Problem in Descriptor-Based Lock-Free Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of modern real-time systems and the nowadays ubiquitous multicore architectures demand the application of programming techniques for reliable and efficient concurrent synchronization. Some recently developed Compare-And-Swap (CAS) based nonblocking techniques hold the promise of delivering practical and safer concurrency. The ABA problem is a fundamental problem to many CAS-based designs. Its significance has increased with the suggested

Damian Dechev; Peter Pirkelbauer; Bjarne Stroustrup

2010-01-01

446

USING EXAMPLES RELATED TO HIV\\/AIDS TO ENHANCE UNDERSTANDING OF STATISTICAL THEORY AND OF SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF STATISTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without practical applications of theory, students often do not understand why they are studying the techniques and what statistics is about. Service course students are often antagonistic to and afraid of the statistics courses. Some progress can be made by noting that anyone who crosses a road and survive, is an expert in probability. Relating techniques to current social issues

Jacky Galpin

2006-01-01

447

Adolescent Peer Relationships and Behavior Problems Predict Young Adults' Communication on Social Networking Websites  

PubMed Central

This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13–14 years and again at ages 20–22 years. At ages 20–22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship quality on their web pages were coded by observers. Results suggested that youths who had been better adjusted at ages 13–14 years were more likely to be using social networking web pages at ages 20–22 years, after statistically controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and parental income. Overall, youths' patterns of peer relationships, friendship quality, and behavioral adjustment at ages 13–14 years and at ages 20–22 years predicted similar qualities of interaction and problem behavior on their social networking websites at ages 20–22 years. Findings are consistent with developmental theory asserting that youths display cross-situational continuity in their social behaviors and suggest that the conceptualization of continuity may be extended into the online domain. PMID:20053005

Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Evans, Meredyth A.; Hare, Amanda L.

2010-01-01

448

Validation of the SSRS-T, Preschool Level as a Measure of Positive Social Behavior and Conduct Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence for the validity of the Social Skills Rating System for Teachers, Preschool Level (SSRS-T) as a measure of positive social skills and conduct problems was examined in a sample of Head Start preschoolers. One feature of the study was the comparative analysis of the original published factor structure of the Social Skills Scale (i.e.,…

Rich, Erika Carpenter; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Nangle, Douglas W.

2008-01-01

449

Mothers' and Fathers' Responsive Problem Solving with Early Adolescents: Do Gender, Shyness, and Social Acceptance Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed the extent to which youths' (n = 231) shyness and social acceptance in preadolescence were associated with parents' responsive problem solving 1 year later after controlling for initial levels of parents' problem solving. Teachers (n = 176) completed assessments of youths' shyness and social acceptance, and parents (n = 231 married…

Miller, Scott R.; Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma M.

2010-01-01

450

Some Cognitive Characteristics of Night-Sky Watchers: Correlations between Social Problem-Solving, Need for Cognition, and Noctcaelador  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationship between night-sky watching and self-reported cognitive variables: need for cognition and social problem-solving. University students (N = 140) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, the Need for Cognition Scale, and the Social Problem Solving Inventory. The results indicated that an interest in the night-sky was…

Kelly, William E.

2005-01-01

451

Mental Health and the Experience of Social Problems Involving Rights: Findings from the United Kingdom and New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

As with general morbidity, psychiatric morbidity has been linked to an array of social problems, with interest in those links heightened by the noted vulnerability of those with mental illness and the cost of mental illness to the economy. Legal rights have a bearing upon many social problems. This study, based on data drawn from surveys of 2,628 adults in

Pascoe Pleasence; Nigel J. Balmer

2009-01-01

452

Writing Children's Books in Sociology Class: An Innovative Approach to Teaching Social Problems to Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this instructional article, we describe a non-traditional course assignment in which we ask students in our social problems courses to write, illustrate, and present a children's book about a social problem as part of the process of learning. Over the course of the semester, students utilize guided handouts to create a children's book…

Maples, James N.; Taylor, William V.

2013-01-01

453

Perceptions of School Violence as a Problem and Reports of Violent Events: A National Survey of School Social Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used a national survey (N=1,200) to explore social workers' perceptions of school violence. Results suggest that solitary incidents did not convince social workers that violence is a serious problem. Perceptions of a serious problem depended on the presence of multiple types of violence and the school's community setting. (RJM)

Astor, Ron Avi; Behre, William J.; Fravil, Kimberly A.; Wallace, John M.

1997-01-01

454

Executive Function as a Mediator in the Link between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Cognitive processes and mechanisms underlying the strong link between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social problems remain unclear. Limited knowledge also exists regarding a subgroup of youth with ADHD who do not have social problems. This study investigated the extent to which executive function (EF) mediated the…

Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

2013-01-01

455

Understanding the determinants of problem-solving behavior in a complex environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is often argued that problem-solving behavior in a complex environment is determined as much by the features of the environment as by the goals of the problem solver. This article explores a technique to determine the extent to which measured features of a complex environment influence problem-solving behavior observed within that environment. In this study, the technique is used to determine how complex flight deck and air traffic control environment influences the strategies used by airline pilots when controlling the flight path of a modern jetliner. Data collected aboard 16 commercial flights are used to measure selected features of the task environment. A record of the pilots' problem-solving behavior is analyzed to determine to what extent behavior is adapted to the environmental features that were measured. The results suggest that the measured features of the environment account for as much as half of the variability in the pilots' problem-solving behavior and provide estimates on the probable effects of each environmental feature.

Casner, Stephen A.

1994-01-01

456

Using Science to Promote Preservice Teacher Understanding of Problem Solving in Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preservice elementary teachers need to be given the experiences of integrating mathematics with other subjects. They need to go into the classroom with the understanding that mathematics is not an isolated topic. This article describes a paper airplane activity that was presented in a class of preservice elementary education teachers to show how…

Tobias, Jennifer M.; Ortiz, Enrique

2007-01-01

457

Effect of a Problem Based Simulation on the Conceptual Understanding of Undergraduate Science Education Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the effect of science teaching with a multimedia simulation on water quality, the "River of Life," on the science conceptual understanding of students (N = 83) in an undergraduate science education (K-9) course is reported. Teaching reality-based meaningful science is strongly recommended by the National Science Education Standards…

Kumar, David Devraj; Sherwood, Robert D.

2007-01-01

458

Eight Problems for the Mirror Neuron Theory of Action Understanding in Monkeys and Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of mirror neurons in macaque frontal cortex has sparked a resurgence of interest in motor\\/embodied theories of cognition. This critical review examines the evidence in support of one of these theories, namely, that mirror neurons provide the basis of action understanding. It is argued that there is no evidence from monkey data that directly tests this theory, and

Gregory Hickok

2008-01-01

459

Eight Problems for the Mirror Neuron Theory of Action Understanding in Monkeys and Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of mirror neurons in macaque frontal cortex has sparked a resurgence of interest in motor\\/embodied theories of cognition. This critical review examines the evidence in support of one of these theories, namely, that mirror neurons provide the basis of action understanding. It is argued that there is no evidence from monkey data that directly tests this theory, and

Gregory Hickok

2009-01-01

460

[Transforming the hunger problem into food and nutritional approach: a continuous social inequality].  

PubMed

The origin of the social (public) politics related to food and nutrition in Brazil has a discontinuous and neglected course by the Brazilian State throughout its history. The objective of this article is to rescue this process and to identify elements that interfere in the insertion of the food and nutrition question in the Brazilian politics agenda. Thus, it reviews the politics and social programs formulated since the decade of 40s aimed to solve the problem of hunger in Brazil, identifying the changes of an epidemiological and nutritional transition of the local population. It is necessary to progress in the agreement of the biological manifestations of the hunger: malnutrition or obesity (bad nutrition) is reflected on a social development model that privileges the capital in detriment of the welfare state. Also it reflects the alimentary and nutritional context, therefore the submission of the society to the capital reflecting in the ways of eating, living, falling ill and dying. PMID:20169239

Pinheiro, Anelise Rizzolo de Oliveira; de Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Cruz Correia

2010-01-01

461

Social determinants of self-reported emotional and behavioral problems in Greek adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  This study aimed to assess the social factors associated with self-reported emotional and behavioral problems among Greek\\u000a adolescents.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  At age 18, a population-based sample of 3373 Greek adolescents completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR) questionnaire.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The results from the multivariate analysis indicated that both lack of intimate friendships and not having parental monitoring\\u000a were independently associated with problem behavior among both

Aikaterini Kapi; Alexandra Veltsista; George Kavadias; Vasso Lekea; Chryssa Bakoula

2007-01-01

462

The Puzzle of Problem-Solving Efficacy: Understanding Anxiety Among Urban Children Coping with Asthma-Related and Life Stress  

PubMed Central

Children with asthma living in urban environments are at risk for experiencing anxiety by virtue of both social context and health-related stressors. Although the use of active coping strategies is generally associated with more optimal psychosocial functioning, there is evidence that active coping is less helpful in response to uncontrollable or severe stress. Expectations that one can fix a problem that is uncontrollable or insurmountable may create distress. Problem-solving efficacy was examined as a moderator of the association between stress and anxiety among children residing in inner-city neighborhoods. It was hypothesized that children’s perceptions of high problem-solving efficacy would exacerbate their vulnerability to stress. Forty-five parent-child dyads were recruited from urban community health centers. Most participants were members of ethnic minority groups. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed main effects of asthma-related stress and life stress on children’s anxiety. However, these effects were moderated by problem-solving efficacy. Asthma-related stress and life stress were positively associated with anxiety only for children who had the highest levels of problem-solving efficacy. In other words, positive expectations about the ability to solve problems functioned as a liability for highly stressed children. Implications for psychosocial interventions with at-risk children are discussed. PMID:19636994

Murdock, Karla Klein; Greene, Carolyn; Adams, Sue K.; Hartmann, William; Bittinger, Sally; Will, Kelly

2012-01-01

463

Understanding Students' Adaptation to Graduate School: An Integration of Social Support Theory and Social Learning Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contemporary business world demands adaptive individuals (Friedman & Wyman, 2005). Adaptation is essential for any life transition. It often involves developing coping mechanisms, strategies, and seeking of social support. Adaptation occurs in many settings from moving to a new culture, taking a new job, starting or finishing an…

Tsay, Crystal Han-Huei

2012-01-01

464

Assessment of children's social problem-solving skills in hypothetical and actual conflict situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the social problem-solving skills of 57 maladjusted and 57 well adjusted first and second graders in a series of hypothetical and actual provocations. All children were asked how they would react to four videotaped provocations involving same-age peers. They were also exposed to three provocations simulated by a peer-confederate; their verbal and nonverbal behaviors were videotaped. Multivariate

Frank Vitaro; Daniel Pelletier

1991-01-01

465

Social competence and emotional\\/behavioural problems in children of psychiatric inpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social competence and emotional\\/behavioural problems among 80 5–16-year-old children of 46 inpatients with various psychiatric\\u000a disorders were assessed by the parents using a Swedish version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The ratings of these\\u000a children were compared to a normative sample of school children, but also whether type of psychiatric disorder among the parents\\u000a was related to psychosocial

B. Larsson; L. Knutsson-Medin; C. Sundelin; A. C. Trost von Werder

2000-01-01

466

Impact of neighborhood social conditions and household socioeconomic status on behavioral problems among US children.  

PubMed

We examine the impact of neighborhood social conditions and household socioeconomic status (SES) on the prevalence of parent-reported behavioral problems among US children aged 6-17 years. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health was used to develop a factor analytic index and a dichotomous measure of serious behavioral problems (SBP) in children. The outcome measures were derived from 11 items capturing parents' ratings of their children on a set of behaviors, e.g., arguing, bullying, and feelings of worthlessness, depression, and detachment. Dichotomous measures of perceived safety, presence of garbage/litter, poor/dilapidated housing, and vandalism were used to assess neighborhood social conditions. Household SES was measured using parental education and household poverty status. Logistic and least squares regression models were used to analyze neighborhood and household socioeconomic effects on the continuous and binary outcome measures after controlling for sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, including behavioral risk factors, family cohesion, social participation, and geographic mobility. Higher levels of behavioral problems were associated with socially disadvantaged neighborhoods and lower household SES. Adjusted logistic models showed that children in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods (those characterized by safety concerns, poor housing, garbage/litter in streets, and vandalism) had 1.9 times higher odds, children in poverty had 3.7 times higher odds, and children of parents with less than high school education had 1.9 times higher odds of SBP than their more advantaged counterparts. Improvements in neighborhood conditions and household SES may both help to reduce childhood behavioral problems. PMID:22481571

Singh, Gopal K; Ghandour, Reem M

2012-04-01

467

The New Workforce Generation: Understanding the Problems Facing Parental Involvement in Jordanian Kindergartens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate the problems facing parental involvement in Jordanian kindergartens from the parents' perspectives. A 36-item questionnaire that addressed five domains was designed by the researchers and distributed among the study participants. The study sample consisted of 297 parents of kindergarten children from various…

Ihmeideh, Fathi; Khasawneh, Samer; Mahfouz, Safi; Khawaldeh, Moustafa

2008-01-01

468

Advancing the "Colorado Graduates" Agenda: Understanding the Dropout Problem and Mobilizing to Meet the Graduation Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ambitious goal set by Colorado's governor to address the state's dropout problem is a model for the nation. Helping thousands of young people to receive their high school diplomas instead of leaving school without them is a crucial step in improving the quality of life for all Colorado residents. Accomplishing this goal will require focused…

Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Balfanz, Robert; Byrnes, Vaughan

2009-01-01

469

The Problem of Projects: Understanding the Theoretical Underpinnings of Project-Led PBL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many years there has been a sharp division between project-based learning, and problem-based learning, with the former adopting a more technical rationalist approach while the latter adopts a more Socratic or dialogic approach. This article argues that current notions of project-based learning are too narrow and that combining the two…

Hanney, Roy; Savin-Baden, Maggi

2013-01-01

470

Acquiring an Understanding of Design: Evidence from Children's Insight Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments yield data suggesting that the structure of children's concept of artifact function changes profoundly between age 5 and 7, with striking effects on problem-solving performance. This effect is not caused by differences in children's knowledge about the typical use of particular tools, but rather, is mediated by the structure of the…

Defeyter, Margaret Anne; German, Tim P.

2003-01-01

471

Sex on the Internet: Furthering Our Understanding of Men With Online Sexual Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey on the MSNBC Web site identified 384 men as having online sexual problems (OSP). Respondents' reasons for online sexual activity (OSA) and their preferred Internet medium were associated with several online and offline consequences and behaviors, including important aspects of real-time relationships and sexual experimentation. Two broad behavior patterns manifested by men with OSP were identified: Men who

Al Cooper; Nathan Galbreath; Michael A. Becker

2004-01-01

472

Problem-Solving Performance and Understanding of High and Low Self-Regulated Kindergarten Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the kinds of self-regulated learning strategies used by kindergarten children related to effective problem-solving and examined their awareness of self-regulated behaviors. Participating in the study were 40 kindergarten children attending a primary school in the southeastern United States. Twenty-one high self-regulated…

Hwang, Young Suk

473

Understanding the Role of Linguistic Processes in the Solution of Arithmetic Word Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ongoing work toward developing a learning environment that will perform real-time diagnoses of students' difficulties in solving mathematical word problems is described. The learning environment designed consists of a microworld and expert modules. The microworld (or toolbox) is a collection of mouse-driven interfaces that facilitate a transition…

LeBlanc, Mark D.

474

Understanding the Effects of Databases as Cognitive Tools in a Problem-Based Multimedia Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the potential of using computer databases as cognitive tools to share learners' cognitive load and facilitate learning in a multimedia problem-based learning (PBL) environment designed for sixth graders. Two research questions were: (a) can the computer database tool share sixth-graders' cognitive load? and…

Li, Rui; Liu, Min

2007-01-01

475

Understanding Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Youth Mental Health Services: Do Disparities Vary by Problem Type?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined racial/ethnic disparities in mental health service use based on problem type (internalizing/externalizing). A diverse sample of youth in contact with public sectors of care and their families provided reports of youth's symptoms and functional impairment during an initial interview. Specialty and school-based mental health…

Gudino, Omar G.; Lau, Anna S.; Yeh, May; McCabe, Kristen M.; Hough, Richard L.

2009-01-01

476

Children's Understanding of Globes as a Model of the Earth: A problem of contextualizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual representations play an important role in science teaching. The way in which visual representations may help children to acquire scientific concepts is a crucial test in the debate between constructivist and socio?cultural oriented researchers. In this paper, the question is addressed as a problem of how to contextualize conceptions and explanations in cognitive frameworks and visual descriptions in cultural

Karin Ehrlén

2008-01-01

477

MENDEL: An Intelligent Computer Tutoring System for Genetics Problem-Solving, Conjecturing, and Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an advice-giving computer system being developed for genetics education called MENDEL that is based on research in learning, genetics problem solving, and expert systems. The value of MENDEL as a design tool and the tutorial function are stressed. Hypothesis testing, graphics, and experiential learning are also discussed. (Author/LRW)

Streibel, Michael; And Others

1987-01-01

478

Understanding Head Start Children's Problem Behaviors in the Context of Arrest or Incarceration of Household Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the nationally representative Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES), the relationships between living in a household where a household member had been arrested or incarcerated and conduct problems of preschool children enrolled in Head Start were examined. Children who lived in such households showed more…

Ziv, Yair; Alva, Soumya; Zill, Nicholas

2010-01-01

479

A Scheme for Understanding Group Processes in Problem-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify, describe and interpret group processes occurring in tutorials in problem-based learning. Another aim was to investigate if a combination of Steiner's (Steiner, I. D. (1972). "Group process and productivity". New York: Academic Press.) theory of group work and Bion's (Bion, W. R. (1961). "Experiences in…

Hammar Chiriac, Eva

2008-01-01

480

Children's Understanding of Globes as a Model of the Earth: A Problem of Contextualizing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual representations play an important role in science teaching. The way in which visual representations may help children to acquire scientific concepts is a crucial test in the debate between constructivist and socio-cultural oriented researchers. In this paper, the question is addressed as a problem of how to contextualize conceptions and…

Ehrlen, Karin

2008-01-01

481

Reciprocal Teaching as a Comprehension Strategy for Understanding Mathematical Word Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ms. Johnson was concerned about the inconsistent performance of several of her students in solving mathematical word problems. A number of her students were one to two grade levels below their grade placement in reading, spoke English as a second language, and had identified reading disabilities. On mathematics assignments that required minimal…

Van Garderen, Delinda

2004-01-01

482

[Work disability--a problem of many dimensions. Careful analysis can facilitate understanding].  

PubMed

Discrepancies between patients' and medical doctors' perceptions of disability as a result of illness and impaired function, respectively, is common in clinical practice. The evaluation of chronic pain is complicated, especially in a transcultural context. A multi-dimensional diagnostic schedule used at a health care center in a multiethnic community is discussed here. It encompasses somatic and psychiatric health, psychosocial pressure, social adaptation, pain communication, attitudes toward pain, and current place of employment. This schedule is used by two primary care physicians who assess patients' ability to participate in work and the extent to which their ability might be reduced. PMID:11320788

Löfvander, M

2001-03-21

483

Understanding Social and Emotional Needs as an Approach in Developing a Positive Classroom Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classroom environment is an important aspect of classroom management that concerns many teachers. Properly engaging students in the classroom can foster a positive environment. This study examines social and emotional needs of students and its implications in developing a positive classroom. How can meeting social and emotional needs of…

Ozorio, Kristen

2014-01-01

484

Towards an Understanding of Teacher Judgement in the Context of Social Moderation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social moderation involves teachers gathering together to discuss their judgements of the quality of student work and to reach agreement regarding the standard awarded. This qualitative study conducted over a three-year period investigated the social practice of moderation and the influence on teachers' judgements of students' work. An initial…

Adie, Lenore Ellen; Klenowski, Valentina; Wyatt-Smith, Claire

2012-01-01

485

Understanding and Changing Older Adults' Perceptions and Learning of Social Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults’ perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious, and to the eventual willingness to actually contribute content. Privacy was

Bo Xie; Ivan Watkins; Jen Golbeck; Man Huang

2012-01-01

486

Life without Work: Understanding Social Class Changes and Unemployment through Theoretical Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unemployment is a stark reality in today's economic climate, and many Americans report a fear of loss or decrease in social status as a result of unexpected unemployment. Despite vocational psychology's emphasis on work as a domain of life, very little exploration on how social class shifts impact workers has been conducted. One way to rectify the…

Ali, Saba Rasheed; Fall, Kevin; Hoffman, Tina

2013-01-01

487

"The View from Inside": Understanding Service User Involvement in Health and Social Care Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Service users are increasingly involved in health and social care education, whilst the government is committed to increasing access to employment for people with mental health needs. The benefits of involving service users in social work education have been identified, including increasing skills, confidence, and building capacity; yet there is…

Fox, Joanna

2011-01-01

488

Understanding How Social and Emotional Skill Deficits Contribute to School Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing number of children are entering kindergarten without the skills that enable them to be successful in an academic setting. However, it is not children's cognitive skills that concern educators; it is their social and emotional skill deficits that are most troublesome. This article discusses how family and community risk factors can inhibit social and emotional development (i.e., skills

Kathryn S. Whitted

2011-01-01

489

Toward an Integrative Understanding of Social Behavior: New Models and New Opportunities  

PubMed Central

Social interactions among conspecifics are a fundamental and adaptively significant component of the biology of numerous species. Such interactions give rise to group living as well as many of the complex forms of cooperation and conflict that occur within animal groups. Although previous conceptual models have focused on the ecological causes and fitness consequences of variation in social interactions, recent developments in endocrinology, neuroscience, and molecular genetics offer exciting opportunities to develop more integrated research programs that will facilitate new insights into the physiological causes and consequences of social variation. Here, we propose an integrative framework of social behavior that emphasizes relationships between ultimate-level function and proximate-level mechanism, thereby providing a foundation for exploring the full diversity of factors that underlie variation in social interactions, and ultimately sociality. In addition to identifying new model systems for the study of human psychopathologies, this framework provides a mechanistic basis for predicting how social behavior will change in response to environmental variation. We argue that the study of non-model organisms is essential for implementing this integrative model of social behavior because such species can be studied simultaneously in the lab and field, thereby allowing integration of rigorously controlled experimental manipulations with detailed observations of the ecological contexts in which interactions among conspecifics occur. PMID:20661457

Blumstein, Daniel T.; Ebensperger, Luis A.; Hayes, Loren D.; Vasquez, Rodrigo A.; Ahern, Todd H.; Burger, Joseph Robert; Dolezal, Adam G.; Dosmann, Andy; Gonzalez-Mariscal, Gabriela; Harris, Breanna N.; Herrera, Emilio A.; Lacey, Eileen A.; Mateo, Jill; McGraw, Lisa A.; Olazabal, Daniel; Ramenofsky, Marilyn; Rubenstein, Dustin R.; Sakhai, Samuel A.; Saltzman, Wendy; Sainz-Borgo, Cristina; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Stewart, Monica L.; Wey, Tina W.; Wingfield, John C.; Young, Larry J.

2010-01-01

490

On translating ourselves: Understanding dialogue and its role in social work education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper illustrates a pedagogical approach that enhances the development of a student's personal and professional social work identity. By utilizing three principles found in Intergroup Dialogue while learning about issues of race, racism, power and privilege, social work students are engaged in a process that encourages self?reflection and discovery. Intergroup Dialogue (IGD) is a program created by the University

Lisa Werkmeister Rozas

2004-01-01

491

Thwarting the Need to Belong: Understanding the Interpersonal and Inner Effects of Social Exclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to belong is a powerful motivational basis for interpersonal behavior, and it is thwarted by social exclusion and rejection. Laboratory work has uncovered a destructive set of consequences of being socially excluded, such as increased aggressiveness and reduced helpfulness toward new targets. Rejected persons do, however, exhibit a cautious interest in finding new friends. Theory and intuition associate

Roy F. Baumeister; Lauren E. Brewer; Dianne M. Tice; Jean M. Twenge

2007-01-01

492

Sharing by Design: Understanding and Supporting Personal Health Information Sharing and Collaboration within Social Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Friends, family, and community provide important support and help to patients who face an illness. Unfortunately, keeping a social network informed about a patient's health status and needs takes effort, making it difficult for people who are sick and exhausted from illness. Members of a patient's social network are often eager to help, but can be…

Skeels, Meredith McLain

2010-01-01

493

Understanding and Changing Older Adults' Perceptions and Learning of Social Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults' perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious, and to…

Xie, Bo; Watkins, Ivan; Golbeck, Jen; Huang, Man

2012-01-01