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1

Further Evaluation of a Lithium Battery in the MK 16 MOD 0 Underwater Breathing Apparatus (UBA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The MK 16 Underwater Breathing Apparatus (UBA) is an electronically controlled mixed gas rebreather. To meet projected mission requirements, Naval Special Warfare Command (CONNAVSPECWARCOM) tasked Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division (NSWC) to dev...

R. W. Poladian, R. W. Mazzone

1997-01-01

2

Operation and testing of Mark 10 Mod 3 underwater breathing apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance tests on a closed circuit, mixed gas underwater breathing apparatus are reported. The equipment is designed to provide a minimum diving duration of four hours at 1500 ft below sea surface; it senses oxygen partial pressure in the breathing gas mix and controls oxygen content of the breathing gas within narrow limits about a preset value. The breathing circuit subsystem provides respirable gas to the diver and removes carbon dioxide and moisture from the expired gas. Test results indicate undesirable variations in oxygen partial pressure with oxygen addition and insufficient carbon dioxide absorption.

Milwee, W. I., Jr.

1972-01-01

3

Comparison of predicted and measured oxygen levels in a semi-closed underwater breathing apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical model has recently been developed for predicting the circuit oxygen levels in semi-closed underwater breathing apparatus at various mission depths and diver activity levels (Nuckols, Clarke, Marr, 1999). Unmanned testing in June 2000 with a commercially available US Divers Aqualung OxyMix rebreather (NEDU Test Plan Number 00-06 dated May 2000) showed good agreement with this analytical model over

Marshall L. Nuckols; W. Scott Finlayson; Brian Newville

2001-01-01

4

Optimization of variable volume exhaust semi-closed underwater breathing apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of variable volume exhaust rebreathers are characterized by an exhaust volume ratio (EVR), the ratio of the small inner bellows volume relative to the main breathing bellows, and supply gas oxygen concentrations (XO2). This paper details the development of the approach used to enhance the performance of these systems. An analytical model has recently been developed for predicting

W. S. Finlayson; B. R. Niggernann; Marshall L. Nuckols

2001-01-01

5

Remotely operated submersible underwater suction apparatus  

DOEpatents

A completely submersible, remotely operated underwater suction device for collection of irradiated materials in a nuclear pool is disclosed. The device includes a pump means for pumping water through the device, a filter means for capturing irradiated debris, remotely operated releasable connector means, a collection means and a means for remotely maneuvering the collection means. The components of the suction device may be changed and replaced underwater to take advantage of the excellent radiation shielding ability of water to thereby minimize exposure of personnel to radiation.

Kristan, Louis L. (2111 Brentwood Dr., Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

1990-01-01

6

Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-08-26

7

Portable breathing apparatus for coal mines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of the art in portable oxygen breathing equipment is reported. Considered are self-containing as well as chemically generating oxygen sources and their effectiveness and limitations in mine rescue operations.

Vandolah, R. W.

1972-01-01

8

46 CFR 167.45-60 - Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps. 167.45-60 Section...45-60 Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps. Each nautical-school...Charge, Marine Inspection. (b) One flame safety lamp approved by the Coast...

2011-10-01

9

46 CFR 167.45-60 - Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps. 167.45-60 Section...45-60 Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps. Each nautical-school...Charge, Marine Inspection. (b) One flame safety lamp approved by the Coast...

2013-10-01

10

46 CFR 167.45-60 - Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps. 167.45-60 Section...45-60 Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps. Each nautical-school...Charge, Marine Inspection. (b) One flame safety lamp approved by the Coast...

2012-10-01

11

46 CFR 108.703 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...breathing apparatus described in § 108.497(a) to use as protection against gas leaking from a refrigeration unit if it is equipped with any refrigeration unit using— (1) Ammonia to refrigerate any space with a volume of more than 20...

2010-10-01

12

A comparison of the physiological responses to underwater arm cranking and breath holding between synchronized swimmers and breath holding untrained women.  

PubMed

Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 × 10s, 2 × 20s and 2 × 25s) with 2 minutes of normal breathing in between, in either an ascending or descending order while performing arm crank exercise. The intensity of arm crank exercise was set below the individual ventilatory threshold. Both synchronized swimmers and controls were matched on sitting height and then randomly divided into 2 groups: one group started breath holding with the longest (25s) breath holding periods while the other group began breath holding with the shortest (10s) breath holding periods. The synchronized swimmers experienced a significant decrease in heart rate while breath holding for 20 and 25s but the changes in heart rate for the control group was not consistent between subgroups. Full recovery from breath holding was identified for minute ventilation after 25s of recovery from breath holding for all groups. Results suggest synchronized swimmers exhibited a better adaptation to breath holding while exercising underwater. PMID:23487567

Alentejano, Teresa C; Bell, Gordon J; Marshall, Dru

2012-05-01

13

A Comparison of the Physiological Responses to Underwater Arm Cranking and Breath Holding Between Synchronized Swimmers and Breath Holding Untrained Women  

PubMed Central

Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 × 10s, 2 × 20s and 2 × 25s) with 2 minutes of normal breathing in between, in either an ascending or descending order while performing arm crank exercise. The intensity of arm crank exercise was set below the individual ventilatory threshold. Both synchronized swimmers and controls were matched on sitting height and then randomly divided into 2 groups: one group started breath holding with the longest (25s) breath holding periods while the other group began breath holding with the shortest (10s) breath holding periods. The synchronized swimmers experienced a significant decrease in heart rate while breath holding for 20 and 25s but the changes in heart rate for the control group was not consistent between subgroups. Full recovery from breath holding was identified for minute ventilation after 25s of recovery from breath holding for all groups. Results suggest synchronized swimmers exhibited a better adaptation to breath holding while exercising underwater. PMID:23487567

Alentejano, Teresa C.; Bell, Gordon J.; Marshall, Dru

2012-01-01

14

30 CFR 57.22315 - Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines). 57.22315 Section 57.22315 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2013-07-01

15

30 CFR 57.22315 - Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines). 57.22315 Section 57.22315 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2011-07-01

16

30 CFR 57.22315 - Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines). 57.22315 Section 57.22315 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2010-07-01

17

30 CFR 57.22315 - Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines). 57.22315 Section 57.22315 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2012-07-01

18

Effects of self-contained breathing apparatus on ventricular function during strenuous exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of self-contained breathing apparatus on ventricular function during strenuous exercise. J Appl Physiol 106: 395-402, 2009. First published November 13, 2008; doi:10.1152\\/japplphysiol.91193.2008.— The purpose of this study was to investigate left-ventricular function during strenuous exercise with the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). With the use of two-dimensional echocardiography, images of the left ventricle (LV) were acquired during sustained exercise (3

Michael D. Nelson; Mark J. Haykowsky; Jonathan R. Mayne; Richard L. Jones; Stewart R. Petersen

2008-01-01

19

Impaired exercise ventilatory mechanics with the self-contained breathing apparatus are improved with heliox  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) with compressed air (BA-A) on ventilatory mechanics, work of breathing\\u000a (WOB), pulmonary function, and respiratory muscle fatigue, was compared with that of a low resistance breathing valve (LRV).\\u000a Further, the effect of unloading the respiratory muscles with heliox with the SCBA (BA-H) was compared with BA-A and LRV.\\u000a Twelve men completed three

Scott J. Butcher; Richard L. Jones; Jonathan R. Mayne; Timothy C. Hartley; Stewart R. Petersen

2007-01-01

20

High spatial resolution, range gated, underwater imaging method and apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This patent application discloses a method and apparatus for imaging objects in turbid mediums, such as water, the invention using a laser pulse, a detector of the reflected laser pulse, and a shutter on the detector. The shutter is kept closed except at the excepted return time of the laser pulse from the reflected object to be detected and identified at which time the shutter is opened to permit the detector to receive the reflected laser pulse. Typically, laser pulses with widths of about 100 to about 500 psecs are used. In addition, typical shutter times or gate width of about 100 to about 500 psecs are also used. Gate widths on the order of 120 psecs are preferred. The detector or GOI camera is shielded from spurious signals, most notably, scattered laser light from the turbid medium.

McLean, Edgar A.

1993-06-01

21

Field evaluation of a new prototype self-contained breathing apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firefighters are required to use a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) for respiratory protection when engaged in a variety of firefighting duties. While the SCBA provides crucial respiratory support and protection, it is also cumbersome and heavy, thus adding to the physical work performed by the firefighter. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the low profile

Aitor Coca; Jung-Hyun Kim; Richard Duffy; W. Jon Williams

2011-01-01

22

CO (ppm) FABA: Filter Assisted Breathing Apparatus for Fire Protection  

E-print Network

mortalities and 13,000 injuries occur due to residential fires [1]. Over recent decades, increased use of synthetic materials (e.g. nylon and polyester carpeting, plastic appliances) has lead to a rise in the toxicity of gases released in residential fires. Combustion of synthetics produces high levels of the toxic gasses hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO). As few as two breaths containing high levels of CO or HCN can render a civilian or firefighter inanimate [2]. In recent years, deaths caused by smoke inhalation have begun to outnumber deaths caused by burns, currently at a ratio of over 2-to-1 [1]. FABA provides a solution to this problem. This novel filter system prevents the inhalation of CO and HCN, as well as smoke particulates. Currently, there is no other device on the market designed to be carried by a firefighter into a residential fire to help protect the victims inside. FABA is compact and lightweight, making it easy for firefighters to carry and deploy. Problem and Clinical Need There is a shortage of equipment and monitoring systems designed to protect firefighters and victims of fires from the toxic fumes and inhalants that are produced. The victims in fires are especially vulnerable to inhaling these toxins, which include CO and HCN. Currently, firefighters have no way to protect victims from inhalation injuries. An estimated 50-80 % of fire related deaths are caused by smoke inhalation [3]. Two of the deadliest inhalants produced in a fire are CO and HCN. Both of these toxins prevent the body from using oxygen, resulting in issues such as cardiac arrest or suffocation [4].

Evan Gates; Carissa Iannone; Lisa Rising; Jesse Salazar; Dr. Conrad Zapanta; Pj Ostrowski

23

Quantitatively measuring in situ flows using a self-contained underwater velocimetry apparatus (SCUVA).  

PubMed

The ability to directly measure velocity fields in a fluid environment is necessary to provide empirical data for studies in fields as diverse as oceanography, ecology, biology, and fluid mechanics. Field measurements introduce practical challenges such as environmental conditions, animal availability, and the need for field-compatible measurement techniques. To avoid these challenges, scientists typically use controlled laboratory environments to study animal-fluid interactions. However, it is reasonable to question whether one can extrapolate natural behavior (i.e., that which occurs in the field) from laboratory measurements. Therefore, in situ quantitative flow measurements are needed to accurately describe animal swimming in their natural environment. We designed a self-contained, portable device that operates independent of any connection to the surface, and can provide quantitative measurements of the flow field surrounding an animal. This apparatus, a self-contained underwater velocimetry apparatus (SCUVA), can be operated by a single scuba diver in depths up to 40 m. Due to the added complexity inherent of field conditions, additional considerations and preparation are required when compared to laboratory measurements. These considerations include, but are not limited to, operator motion, predicting position of swimming targets, available natural suspended particulate, and orientation of SCUVA relative to the flow of interest. The following protocol is intended to address these common field challenges and to maximize measurement success. PMID:22064442

Katija, Kakani; Colin, Sean P; Costello, John H; Dabiri, John O

2011-01-01

24

Quantitatively Measuring In situ Flows using a Self-Contained Underwater Velocimetry Apparatus (SCUVA)  

PubMed Central

The ability to directly measure velocity fields in a fluid environment is necessary to provide empirical data for studies in fields as diverse as oceanography, ecology, biology, and fluid mechanics. Field measurements introduce practical challenges such as environmental conditions, animal availability, and the need for field-compatible measurement techniques. To avoid these challenges, scientists typically use controlled laboratory environments to study animal-fluid interactions. However, it is reasonable to question whether one can extrapolate natural behavior (i.e., that which occurs in the field) from laboratory measurements. Therefore, in situ quantitative flow measurements are needed to accurately describe animal swimming in their natural environment. We designed a self-contained, portable device that operates independent of any connection to the surface, and can provide quantitative measurements of the flow field surrounding an animal. This apparatus, a self-contained underwater velocimetry apparatus (SCUVA), can be operated by a single scuba diver in depths up to 40 m. Due to the added complexity inherent of field conditions, additional considerations and preparation are required when compared to laboratory measurements. These considerations include, but are not limited to, operator motion, predicting position of swimming targets, available natural suspended particulate, and orientation of SCUVA relative to the flow of interest. The following protocol is intended to address these common field challenges and to maximize measurement success. PMID:22064442

Katija, Kakani; Colin, Sean P.; Costello, John H.; Dabiri, John O.

2011-01-01

25

Development of a speech amplifier system for use with the Navy A4 oxygen breathing apparatus and a proposed firefighting instructor's breathing device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Navy damage control personnel (especially firefighters) are often required to work in areas of possible or actual oxygen deficiency and areas where the concentration of smoke or other toxic gases is high. In these situations, the investigator or firefighter normally wears an Oxygen Breathing Apparatus (OBA) for respiratory protection. Presently, the Naval Ship Engineering Center is considering the use of

T. A. Giordano

1976-01-01

26

A compact Self-Contained Underwater Velocimetry Apparatus (SCUVA) for in situ field measurements in daytime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-field measurements at remote location present a challenge for the measurement systems involved. Not only do these systems have to be self-sufficient in regard to power supply and data acquisition but also robust and easy to handle. With the current level of miniaturization in electronics it becomes possible to construct PIV-systems, which meet these criteria and are even small enough to be used as hand held devices. Following the work of Katija and DabiriootnotetextK. Katija and J.O. Dabiri, "In situ field measurements of aquatic animal-fluid interactions using a Self-Contained Underwater Velocimetry Apparatus (SCUVA)"; Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 6, 162-171 (2008) we present a PIV- system, which is designed for SCUBA divers to take in-field measurements of the flow around marine organisms in daytime. The fact that the system can be operated in daytime makes work for the divers considerably easier. On the other hand it presents an additional challenge due to the laser power, which can be installed in portable devices. A detailed description of the measurement setup will be given together with a discussion of some preliminary results.

Kinzel, Matthias; Dabiri, John

2010-11-01

27

Psychophysiological responses in experienced firefighters undertaking repeated self-contained breathing apparatus tasks.  

PubMed

In order to safely and effectively extinguish fires and rescue life, firefighters are required to routinely wear self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), yet little is known about the specific physiological and psychological demands associated with repeated exposure to tasks that require SCBA. A total of 12 experienced firefighters took part in a series of commonly encountered SCBA activities: free search, guideline search and live firefighting tasks under room temperature (?20°C) and extreme heat (?180°C) conditions to assess changes in heart rate, blood pressure, mood, perceived workload and air usage. Findings demonstrate that live firefighting is associated with greater perceived exhaustion than free search or guideline exercises; however, all tasks lead to high cardiovascular demand regardless of the presence of heat. No significant impact of task upon mood and no significant differences between the perceived demands of guideline, free search and live firefighting exercises were found. Practitioner Summary: This study considered the physiological and psychological responses of firefighters undertaking SCBA exercises. Although live firefighting is associated with greater perceived exertion, the absence of differences in psychological domains between exercises demonstrates that task demands are not always dependent upon the presence of fire and that all tasks are mentally challenging. PMID:25363022

Young, Paul M; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Partington, Elizabeth; Partington, Sarah; Wetherell, Mark A

2014-12-01

28

Field evaluation of a new prototype self-contained breathing apparatus.  

PubMed

Firefighters are required to use a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) for respiratory protection when engaged in a variety of firefighting duties. While the SCBA provides crucial respiratory support and protection, it is also cumbersome and heavy, thus adding to the physical work performed by the firefighter. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the low profile SCBA prototype to a standard SCBA, as assessed by the objective and subjective measures of mobility and comfort, time of donning/doffing, as well as by acquiring user feedback on SCBA design features during field activities. The results of the present study indicated that the prototype SCBA was rated as a significant improvement over the standard SCBA in the areas of range of motion (ROM), mobility, comfort, induction of fatigue, interaction with protective clothing, and operability when worn over a standard firefighter ensemble, while performing a series of International Association of Fire Fighters Fire Ground Survival Program training exercises. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: A prototype SCBA was evaluated and compared with a standard SCBA, focusing on the objective and subjective measures of mobility and comfort during field activities. Feedback from end users was collected during the evaluation. The findings of the present study can be used for improving the system design and overall performance of new prototype SCBAs. PMID:22103727

Coca, Aitor; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Duffy, Richard; Williams, W Jon

2011-12-01

29

46 CFR 196.37-20 - Self-contained breathing apparatus and gas masks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 196.37-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-20 Self-contained breathing...

2010-10-01

30

78 FR 2618 - Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Remaining Service-Life Indicator Performance Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of proposed rulemaking about the use of the heads-up-display for monitoring breathing air depletion or the reliance on teamwork to maintain situational awareness. HHS response: This comment raises training issues regarding the users' response to...

2013-01-14

31

42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...effectively removed and a suitable oxygen concentration restored from...composed of: (i) Compressed oxygen; or (ii) Chemical oxygen; or (iii) Liquid-oxygen...and not rebreathed: (i) Demand-type apparatus. An...

2013-10-01

32

42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...effectively removed and a suitable oxygen concentration restored from...composed of: (i) Compressed oxygen; or (ii) Chemical oxygen; or (iii) Liquid-oxygen...and not rebreathed: (i) Demand-type apparatus. An...

2010-10-01

33

42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...effectively removed and a suitable oxygen concentration restored from...composed of: (i) Compressed oxygen; or (ii) Chemical oxygen; or (iii) Liquid-oxygen...and not rebreathed: (i) Demand-type apparatus. An...

2011-10-01

34

42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...effectively removed and a suitable oxygen concentration restored from...composed of: (i) Compressed oxygen; or (ii) Chemical oxygen; or (iii) Liquid-oxygen...and not rebreathed: (i) Demand-type apparatus. An...

2012-10-01

35

Large body size allows air-breathing vertebrates to increase their oxygen stores and thus prolong underwater foraging  

E-print Network

-breathing vertebrates are the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) and the fin whale (B. physalus). Adult blue whales marine mammals, including the blue whale, glide during a dive, a behavior that appears to reduce oxygen, usually on the basis of body mass (Kooyman, 1989; Boyd, 1997). The TADLs of blue and fin whales are 31

Acevedo, Alejandro

36

Underwater manipulator  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer {plus_minus} 45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer {plus_minus} 10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

1992-12-31

37

Underwater Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Web site comes the Underwater Exploration educational pages. The cool science link tells about decompression, underwater archaeology, student aquanaut research, and more. Other pages include diving, which has information on types of diving and diving hand signals, experiments, quizzes, an underwater exploration timeline, and a tools and gear link that describes such things as scuba gear and diving bells.

2001-01-01

38

Firefighter's Breathing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

1976-01-01

39

Breathing zone air sampler  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

1989-01-01

40

Bad Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... Body Works Main Page The Pink Locker Society Bad Breath KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Healthy > Being Good to ... visit your dentist or doctor . Continue What Causes Bad Breath? Here are three common causes of bad ...

41

Underwater Plume  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment uses inexpensive and easy-to-find items to demonstrate how hot water behaves in a body of cold water. Working in groups of four, students can complete the experiment in a single class period. The printable handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about how cold and hot air and water interact, detailed experiment directions, and a worksheet that helps students use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of how knowledge of what creates underwater geysers can be used to detect deep sea vents.

42

Bad Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... But certain strong-smelling foods like onions and garlic can cause bad breath. So can smoking. And ... that can leave behind strong smells, like cabbage, garlic, raw onions, and coffee. If you’re trying ...

43

Breathing Difficulties  

MedlinePLUS

... confusion) Awakening frequently during the night (insomnia) Difficulty lying flat ALS and Your Lungs When you breathe ... be aware of this phenomenon. When you are lying down the strength of your diaphragm to push ...

44

Breathing Room  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this health activity, learners explore breathing, lungs and asthma. Learners test their lung capacity by blowing air into balloons. Learners are also encouraged to determine how the amount of air in a balloon changes as you vary the size of the hole you blow through. Safety note: Check for latex allergies before purchasing balloons. Learners with respiratory problems should not breathe through the straws or blow up the balloons, but they can help record measurements and collect data.

Television, Twin C.

2010-01-01

45

Tracking an underwater target  

E-print Network

Autonomous underwater vehicles are becoming an important part in marine research. In order to help bring down the cost of running a research mission with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), the method of tracking the ...

Gomez, Christina, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

46

Breathing difficulty - lying down  

MedlinePLUS

... breath; Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... Obesity (does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often aggravates other conditions that lead ...

47

Exercise carbon dioxide (CO2) retention with inhaled CO2 and breathing resistance.  

PubMed

Combined effects on respiratory minute ventilation (VE)--and thus, on end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (P(ET)CO2)--of breathing resistance and elevated inspired carbon dioxide (CO2) had not been determined during heavy exercise. In this Institutional Review Board-approved, dry, sea-level study, 12 subjects in each of three phases exercised to exhaustion at 85% peak oxygen uptake while V(E) and P(ET)CO2 were measured. Participants inhaled 0%, 1%, 2% or 3% CO2 in air, or 0% or 2% CO2 in oxygen, with or without breathing resistance, mimicking the U.S. Navy's MK 16 rebreather underwater breathing apparatus (UBA). Compared to air baseline (0% inspired CO2 in air without resistance): (1) Oxygen decreased baseline V(E) (p < 0.01); (2) Inspired CO2 increased V(E) and P(ET)CO2 (p < 0.01); (3) Resistance decreased V(E) (p < 0.01); (4) Inspired CO2 with resistance elevated P(ET)CO2 (p < 0.01). In air, V(E) did not change from that with resistance alone. In oxygen, V(E) returned to oxygen baseline. End-exercise P(ET)CO2 exceeded 60 Torr (8.0 kPa) in three tests. Subjects identified hypercapnia poorly. Results support dual optimization of arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure and respiratory effort. Because elevated CO2 may not increase V(E) if breathing resistance and VE are high, rebreather UBA safety requires very low inspired CO2. PMID:22908838

Shykoff, Barbara E; Warkander, Dan E

2012-01-01

48

Precision autonomous underwater navigation  

E-print Network

Deep-sea archaeology, an emerging application of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) technology, requires precise navigation and guidance. As science requirements and engineering capabilities converge, navigating in the ...

Bingham, Brian S. (Brian Steven), 1973-

2003-01-01

49

Deep breathing after surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated and ... your or nurse told you. Do these deep-breathing exercises as directed by your doctor or nurse.

50

Breath alcohol test  

MedlinePLUS

Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

51

Shortness of Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms of heart failure include difficult breathing when lying down (this is a specific symptom of heart ... shortness of breath; coughing at night or when lying down; experiencing shortness of breath with activity; swelling ...

52

Do You Have Traveler's Breath?  

MedlinePLUS

... About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Halitosis (Bad Breath) Do You Have Traveler's Breath? Bad breath ... and treatment. ; Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Halitosis (Bad Breath) Does a Smaller Waist Mean Smelly Breath? ...

53

Locating underwater objects. [technology transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Underwater search operations are considered to be engineering and operational problems. A process for proper definition of the problem and selection of instrumentation and operational procedures is described. An outline of underwater search instrumentation and techniques is given.

Grice, C. F.

1974-01-01

54

Breath holding spell  

MedlinePLUS

... holding spell are not at more risk of getting a seizure disorder. ... spells If your child's breath holding spells are getting worse or ... breathing Your child has seizures for more than one minute

55

Minimizing Shortness of Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... pursed-lip breathing. This is one very effective technique that, if used properly, can decrease shortness of ... out slowly, do not force it out. This technique helps to slow down your breathing rate and ...

56

Shortness of Breath and Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... of Breath and Eating Shortness of Breath and Eating Shortness of breath can make eating hard work. If you use all your energy ... tired. Breathe evenly while you are chewing and eating. Stop eating if you need to catch your ...

57

Detection of Breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic signals originate by the flow of air through the trachea during breathing. These signals are possible to pick-up by microphone. This paper describes a method of the breathing detection based on the sensing of acoustic signals in trachea. Parameters of the breathing, detection inspiration and expiration and apnoea pause are possible to determine from these signals. This method is

Jiri Kroutil; M. Husak

2008-01-01

58

Underwater electrical wire explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of the results obtained in recent research of underwater electrical wire explosions using microsecond and nanosecond generators is presented. It was shown that the increase in the rate of energy input into the exploding wire allows one to increase the wire temperature and amplitude of shock waves (SWs). Estimated energy deposition into Cu and Al wire material

Ya E. Krasik; A. Fedotov; D. Sheftman; S. Efimov; A. Sayapin; V. Tz Gurovich; D. Veksler; G. Bazalitski; S. Gleizer; A. Grinenko; V. I. Oreshkin

2010-01-01

59

Underwater Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances, and Challenges  

E-print Network

communication, acoustic communication, underwater sensor networks, autonomous underwater vehicles, acoustic. For example, cabled ocean observatories are being built on submarine cables to deploy an extensive fiber opticUnderwater Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances, and Challenges By John Heidemann1 , Milica

Heidemann, John

60

Splashes from Underwater Explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The splashes from the underwater explosions of 1 and 10 1b. charges of P.E. no. 2 and Nobel's Explosive '808' at various depths have been photographed with cine-cameras. The experiments were carried out in a sheltered pond which enabled the surface phenomena to be studied in greater detail than has been done hitherto, and a number of new phenomena have

H. Kolsky; J. P. Lewis; M. T. Sampson; A. C. Shearman; C. I. Snow

1949-01-01

61

Natural Underwater Adhesives.  

PubMed

The general topic of this review is protein-based underwater adhesives produced by aquatic organisms. The focus is on mechanisms of interfacial adhesion to native surfaces and controlled underwater solidification of natural water-borne adhesives. Four genera that exemplify the broad range of function, general mechanistic features, and unique adaptations are discussed in detail: blue mussels, acorn barnacles, sandcastle worms, and freshwater caddisfly larva. Aquatic surfaces in nature are charged and in equilibrium with their environment, populated by an electrical double layer of ions as well as adsorbed natural polyelectrolytes and microbial biofilms. Surface adsorption of underwater bioadhesives likely occurs by exchange of surface bound ligands by amino acid sidechains, driven primarily by relative affinities and effective concentrations of polymeric functional groups. Most aquatic organisms exploit modified amino acid sidechains, in particular phosphorylated serines and hydroxylated tyrosines (dopa), with high-surface affinity that form coordinative surface complexes. After delivery to the surfaces as a fluid, permanent natural adhesives solidify to bear sustained loads. Mussel plaques are assembled in a manner superficially reminiscent of in vitro layer-by-layer strategies, with sequentially delivered layers associated through Fe(dopa)(3) coordination bonds. The adhesives of sandcastle worms, caddisfly larva, and barnacles may be delivered in a form somewhat similar to in vitro complex coacervation. Marine adhesives are secreted, or excreted, into seawater that has a significantly higher pH and ionic strength than the internal environment. Empirical evidence suggests these environment triggers could provide minimalistic, fail-safe timing mechanisms to prevent premature solidification (insolubilization) of the glue within the secretory system, yet allow rapid solidification after secretion. Underwater bioadhesives are further strengthened by secondary covalent curing. PMID:21643511

Stewart, Russell J; Ransom, Todd C; Hlady, Vladimir

2011-06-01

62

Natural Underwater Adhesives  

PubMed Central

The general topic of this review is protein-based underwater adhesives produced by aquatic organisms. The focus is on mechanisms of interfacial adhesion to native surfaces and controlled underwater solidification of natural water-borne adhesives. Four genera that exemplify the broad range of function, general mechanistic features, and unique adaptations are discussed in detail: blue mussels, acorn barnacles, sandcastle worms, and freshwater caddisfly larva. Aquatic surfaces in nature are charged and in equilibrium with their environment, populated by an electrical double layer of ions as well as adsorbed natural polyelectrolytes and microbial biofilms. Surface adsorption of underwater bioadhesives likely occurs by exchange of surface bound ligands by amino acid sidechains, driven primarily by relative affinities and effective concentrations of polymeric functional groups. Most aquatic organisms exploit modified amino acid sidechains, in particular phosphorylated serines and hydroxylated tyrosines (dopa), with high-surface affinity that form coordinative surface complexes. After delivery to the surfaces as a fluid, permanent natural adhesives solidify to bear sustained loads. Mussel plaques are assembled in a manner superficially reminiscent of in vitro layer-by-layer strategies, with sequentially delivered layers associated through Fe(dopa)3 coordination bonds. The adhesives of sandcastle worms, caddisfly larva, and barnacles may be delivered in a form somewhat similar to in vitro complex coacervation. Marine adhesives are secreted, or excreted, into seawater that has a significantly higher pH and ionic strength than the internal environment. Empirical evidence suggests these environment triggers could provide minimalistic, fail-safe timing mechanisms to prevent premature solidification (insolubilization) of the glue within the secretory system, yet allow rapid solidification after secretion. Underwater bioadhesives are further strengthened by secondary covalent curing. PMID:21643511

Stewart, Russell J.; Ransom, Todd C.; Hlady, Vladimir

2011-01-01

63

Linear optoacoustic underwater communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear mechanism for optical-to-acoustic energy conversion is explored for optoacoustic communication from an in-air platform or surface vessel to a submerged vessel such as a submarine or unmanned undersea vehicle. The communication range that can be achieved is addressed. A number of conventional signals used in underwater acoustic telemetry applications are shown to be capable of being generated experimentally

Fletcher Blackmon; Lee Estes; Gilbert Fain

2005-01-01

64

Fetal breathing: a review.  

PubMed

The history, physiology, pharmacology, and clinical application of fetal breathing are reviewed. Early optimism that measurements of fetal breathing would aid in perinatal management decisions has remained unfulfilled. Problems to be overcome include standardization of technique and measurement parameters and allowance for physiologic variations. Recent research developments indicate that the likely role of fetal breathing in perinatal medicine will be in conjunction with other established tests of fetal health. PMID:36761

Lewis, P; Boylan, P

1979-07-01

65

Sublimation Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The multiple sublimation apparatus is suitable for small batch laboratory use. It includes a pair of identical tubes arranged to be inserted partially within one another, and a plug which closes one end of the assembled tube. This apparatus may be enclose...

A. F. Armington, J. R. Weiner

1965-01-01

66

Cardiorespiratory responses to exercise in air and underwater.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Respiratory gas exchange, end-tidal gas tensions, alveolar ventilation, respiratory frequency, cardiac output, and pulse rate were measured in four healthy adult males at rest and during mild and moderate exercise in air at 18-22 C and underwater at 35.0-35.5 C. Immersion was associated with a 10% increase in pulse rate and cardiac output at all levels of exercise. There were no changes in end-tidal CO2 tension or alveolar ventilation. It is concluded that horizontal subjects breathing at eupneic pressures and working against mild and moderate loads in warm water show the same responses to exercise as in air.-

Denison, D. M.; Wagner, P. D.; Kingaby, G. L.; West, J. B.

1972-01-01

67

Breathing Time Warp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time Warp and Breathing Time Buckets are two general-purpose optimistic synchronization strategies for supporting parallel discrete-event simulations. However, each one of these approaches has potential fatal shortcomings. Time Warp may exhibit rollback explosions that can cause an avalance of antimessages. Breathing Time Buckets, on the other hand, may not be able to process enough events per synchronization cycle to remain

Jeff S. Steinrnan

1993-01-01

68

Underwater gas tornado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first experimental observation of a new hydrodynamic phenomenon, the underwater tornado. Simple measurements show that the tornado forms a vortex of the Rankine type, i.e. the rising gas rotates as a solid body and the liquid rotates with a velocity decreasing hyperbolically with the radius. We obtain the dependence of the tornado radius a on the gas stream value j theoretically: a ? j2/5. Processing of a set of experiments yielded the value 0.36 for the exponent in this expression. We also report the initial stages of the theoretical study of this phenomenon.

Byalko, Alexey V.

2013-07-01

69

Underwater acoustic omnidirectional absorber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gradient index media, which are designed by varying local element properties in given geometry, have been utilized to manipulate acoustic waves for a variety of devices. This study presents a cylindrical, two-dimensional acoustic "black hole" design that functions as an omnidirectional absorber for underwater applications. The design features a metamaterial shell that focuses acoustic energy into the shell's core. Multiple scattering theory was used to design layers of rubber cylinders with varying filling fractions to produce a linearly graded sound speed profile through the structure. Measured pressure intensity agreed with predicted results over a range of frequencies within the homogenization limit.

Naify, Christina J.; Martin, Theodore P.; Layman, Christopher N.; Nicholas, Michael; Thangawng, Abel L.; Calvo, David C.; Orris, Gregory J.

2014-02-01

70

Underwater Vehicles for Deep Ocean Exploration  

E-print Network

University Research Vehicle: JHU ROV · Research in Underwater Vehicle Navigation: ­ DVLNAV Navigation Program. Submarine 3. Underwater Robot Vehicle · Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) · Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV: 72 Hours x 3 Persons Dives Since 1964: 3,800 #12;5 Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicles (ROV

Whitcomb, Louis L.

71

Moling apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A moling apparatus comprises a housing having a head for penetrating ground, an anvil in the housing connected to the head, and a hammer in the housing and spaced therefrom by a spring. A vibrator unit is spaced from the hammer and arranged to transfer vibration to the housing and the hammer. In a first mode of the apparatus, vibration transmitted to the housing causes fluidization of the surrounding ground to allow progressive penetration of the apparatus. In a second mode, the braking effect of the ground on the head causes the hammer to move against the spring and impact the anvil thereby driving the head through the ground, the apparatus being operable at or between each mode.

1998-12-22

72

Apparatus Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes five brief articles on: solar-heating demonstration equipment, mercury or sodium vapor lamp spectroscopy, an apparatus for simulating variable stars, a voltage-to-frequency converter, and an introductory absorption experiment for low-energy beta particles. (MLH)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1976-01-01

73

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a technique to produce samples for x-ray diffraction studies on the Tel-X-Ometer 80 x-ray apparatus from readily available crystalline powders and discusses observations of transverse modes of an optical resonator. (SK)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1982-01-01

74

Medical Issues: Breathing  

MedlinePLUS

... Breathing Care It is important to visit a pulmonologist (a doctor who specializes in respiratory care) soon after an SMA diagnosis. The pulmonologist will evaluate your child, establish a baseline for ...

75

Rapid shallow breathing  

MedlinePLUS

... rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive pulmonary COPD and other chronic lung diseases Heart failure Infection in the smallest air passages of the ...

76

Bad Breath (Halitosis)  

MedlinePLUS

... your cheeks. When bacteria use these cells for food, they produce a foul odor. In addition, bad breath can be caused by the following: Poor dental hygiene — Infrequent or improper brushing and flossing, allows bits ...

77

Compressed air demand-type firefighter's breathing system, volume 1. [design analysis and performance tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The commercial availability of lightweight high pressure compressed air vessels has resulted in a lightweight firefighter's breathing apparatus. The improved apparatus, and details of its design and development are described. The apparatus includes a compact harness assembly, a backplate mounted pressure reducer assembly, a lightweight bubble-type facemask with a mask mounted demand breathing regulator. Incorporated in the breathing regulator is exhalation valve, a purge valve and a whistle-type low pressure warning that sounds only during inhalation. The pressure reducer assembly includes two pressure reducers, an automatic transfer valve and a signaling device for the low pressure warning. Twenty systems were fabricated, tested, refined through an alternating development and test sequence, and extensively examined in a field evaluation program. Photographs of the apparatus are included.

Sullivan, J. L.

1975-01-01

78

Astronauts Practice Station Spacewalk Underwater  

NASA Video Gallery

Astronauts Robert Satcher Jr. and Rick Sturckow conduct an underwater practice spacewalk session at Johnson Space Center?s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. The session was used to help International Sp...

79

Underwater Gas Expansion and Deflagration  

E-print Network

The underwater combustion of a propane-air mixture in an acrylic cylinder is captured on video from multiple angles. This experiment is designed to provide visual data and pressure time-histories for future CFD validation studies.

Jones, Van; Gilbert, John; McCue-Weil, Leigh

2013-01-01

80

Underwater wet welding of steel  

SciTech Connect

Underwater wet welding is conducted directly in water with the shielded metal arc (SMA) and flux cored arc (FCA) welding processes. Underwater wet welding has been demonstrated as an acceptable repair technique down to 100 meters (325 ft.) in depth, but wet welds have been attempted on carbon steel structures down to 200 meters (650 ft.). The primary purpose of this interpretive report is to document and evaluate current understanding of metallurgical behavior of underwater wet welds so that new welding consumables can be designed and new welding practices can be developed for fabrication and repair of high strength steel structures at greater depths. First the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy behaviors of underwater weldments are discussed. Second, modifications of the welding consumables and processes are suggested to enhance the ability to apply wet welding techniques.

Ibarra, S. [Amoco Corporation Research, Naperville, IL (United States); Liu, S.; Olson, D.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

1995-05-01

81

Precision replay of underwater holograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical metrology of holographic images, otherwise known as 'hologrammetry', offers the ability to produce in real space a full-scale, three-dimensional image of a recorded structure, which displays sub-millimetre accuracy in both detail and spatial proportions. In an effort to develop this potential for underwater applications, we have been studying the optical aspects of underwater holographic imaging, in particular those aberrations

J. M. Kilpatrick; J. Watson

1994-01-01

82

Control apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the method and apparatus of the present invention can be utilized to apply either a uniform or a nonuniform covering of material over many different workpieces, the apparatus (20) is advantageously utilized to apply a thermal barrier covering (64) to an airfoil (22) which is used in a turbine engine. The airfoil is held by a gripper assembly (86) while a spray gun (24) is effective to apply the covering over the airfoil. When a portion of the covering has been applied, a sensor (28) is utilized to detect the thickness of the covering. A control apparatus (32) compares the thickness of the covering of material which has been applied with the desired thickness and is subsequently effective to regulate the operation of the spray gun to adaptively apply a covering of a desired thickness with an accuracy of at least plus or minus 0.0015 inches (1.5 mils) despite unanticipated process variations.

Derkacs, Thomas (Inventor); Fetheroff, Charles W. (Inventor); Matay, Istvan M. (Inventor); Toth, Istvan J. (Inventor)

1982-01-01

83

Positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

1983-07-07

84

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some science apparatus: included are a gene kit to demonstrate aspects of population genetics and selection, an electronic thermometer for use in the field of environmental studies, an astrobrella to use in astronomy classes, and crystal display models of different substances for chemistry classes. (GA)

School Science Review, 1978

1978-01-01

85

Thermoforming apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Thermoforming apparatus having a heating station and a forming station provided with upper and lower heaters for softening the thermoplastics sheet material. One of the heaters is movable between the heating and forming stations and is arranged to convey heated sheets from the heating station of the forming station.

Perryman, L.M.

1984-07-31

86

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are reviews of science equipment/apparatus. Items reviewed include: Harris Micro-ecology tubes; Harris chromosome investigation kit; Harris trycult slides; a pressure cooker with thermometer; digital pH meter; digital scaler timer; electrical compensation calorimeter; and Mains alternating current ammeter. (JN)

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

87

Exercise apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

88

Underwater electrical wire explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief review of the results obtained in recent research of underwater electrical wire explosions using microsecond and nanosecond generators is presented. It was shown that the increase in the rate of energy input into the exploding wire allows one to increase the wire temperature and amplitude of shock waves (SWs). Estimated energy deposition into Cu and Al wire material of up to 200 eV/atom was achieved. In microsecond time scale wire explosion, a good agreement was attained between the wire resistance calculated using the equation of state (EOS) and that obtained experimentally. Conversely, in nanosecond time scale wire explosion, the wire resistance of EOS was modified in order to fit experimental data. Analysis of the emitted radiation showed that black body approximation cannot be used to characterize exploding wire radiation. It was found that <=24% of the deposited energy is transferred into the water flow's mechanical energy. Also, it was shown that converging SWs formed by the explosion of cylindrical wire arrays can be used to achieve a pressure up to 250 kbar at the axis of implosion. Hydrodynamic simulations showed that with the use of relatively moderate pulsed power generators with stored energy of several hundred kilojoules, a pressure of several megabar can be achieved at the axis of implosion.

Krasik, Ya E.; Fedotov, A.; Sheftman, D.; Efimov, S.; Sayapin, A.; Gurovich, V. Tz; Veksler, D.; Bazalitski, G.; Gleizer, S.; Grinenko, A.; Oreshkin, V. I.

2010-06-01

89

Linear optoacoustic underwater communication.  

PubMed

The linear mechanism for optical-to-acoustic energy conversion is explored for optoacoustic communication from an in-air platform or surface vessel to a submerged vessel such as a submarine or unmanned undersea vehicle. The communication range that can be achieved is addressed. A number of conventional signals used in underwater acoustic telemetry applications are shown to be capable of being generated experimentally through the linear optoacoustic regime conversion process. These results are in agreement with simulation based on current theoretical models. A number of practical issues concerning linear optoacoustic communication are addressed that lead to a formulation of a linear-regime optoacoustic communication scheme. The use of oblique laser beam incidence at the air-water interface to obtain considerable in-air range from the laser source to the in-water receiver is addressed. Also, the effect of oblique incidence on in-water range is examined. Next, the optimum and suboptimum linear optoacoustic sound-generation techniques for selecting the optical wavelength and signaling frequency for optimizing in-water range are addressed and discussed. Optoacoustic communication techniques employing M-ary frequency shift keying and multifrequency shift keying are then compared with regard to communication parameters such as bandwidth, data rate, range coverage, and number of lasers employed. PMID:15989059

Blackmon, Fletcher; Estes, Lee; Fain, Gilbert

2005-06-20

90

Underwater Data Collection Using Robotic Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

We examine the problem of utilizing an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) to collect data from an underwater sensor network. The sensors in the network are equipped with acoustic modems that provide noisy, range-limited ...

Hollinger, Geoffrey A.

91

Path planning methods for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

E-print Network

From naval operations to ocean science missions, the importance of autonomous vehicles is increasing with the advances in underwater robotics technology. Due to the dynamic and intermittent underwater environment and the ...

Yi?it, Konuralp

2011-01-01

92

Underwater Sensor Nodes and Networks  

PubMed Central

Sensor technology has matured enough to be used in any type of environment. The appearance of new physical sensors has increased the range of environmental parameters for gathering data. Because of the huge amount of unexploited resources in the ocean environment, there is a need of new research in the field of sensors and sensor networks. This special issue is focused on collecting recent advances on underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks in order to measure, monitor, surveillance of and control of underwater environments. On the one hand, from the sensor node perspective, we will see works related with the deployment of physical sensors, development of sensor nodes and transceivers for sensor nodes, sensor measurement analysis and several issues such as layer 1 and 2 protocols for underwater communication and sensor localization and positioning systems. On the other hand, from the sensor network perspective, we will see several architectures and protocols for underwater environments and analysis concerning sensor network measurements. Both sides will provide us a complete view of last scientific advances in this research field. PMID:24013489

Lloret, Jaime

2013-01-01

93

Sampling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface.

Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); King, Lloyd L. (Benton, WA); Jackson, Peter O. (Richland, WA); Zulich, Alan W. (Bel Air, MD)

1989-01-01

94

Metabolic breath analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument measures metabolic breathing rate and dynamics of human beings in atmospheres ranging from normal air to 100 percent oxygen at ambient pressures from 14.7 to 3.0 psia. Measurements are made at rest or performing tasks up to maximum physical capacity under either zero or normal gravity.

Perry, C. L.

1971-01-01

95

Shortness of Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... be caused by many things, including the following: Asthma Other lung diseases, including emphysema (say: "em-fa-see-ma"), which is a lung disease that is most often caused by smoking Heart failure Panic attacks If you are short of breath ...

96

Donât Breathe the Moondust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA site describes how an Apollo caught "lunar dust hay feverâ and how breathing lunar dust poses a serious health risk. The site contains several images of lunar dust. In addition, the even more serious hazard of dust on Mars is presented.

2008-04-25

97

Ion-trap detection of volatile organic compounds in alveolar breath  

SciTech Connect

We describe a method for the collection and microanalysis of the volatile organic compounds in human breath. A transportable apparatus supplies subjects with purified air and samples their alveolar breath; the volatile organic compounds are captured in an adsorptive trap containing activated carbon and molecular sieve. The sample is thermally desorbed from the trap in an automated microprocessor-controlled device, concentrated by two-stage cryofocusing, and assayed by gas chromatography with ion-trap detection. Compounds are identified by reference to a computer-based library of mass spectra with subtraction of the background components present in the inspired air. We used this device to study 10 normal subjects and determined the relative abundance of the volatile organic compounds in their alveolar breath. The breath-collecting apparatus was convenient to operate and was well tolerated by human volunteers.

Phillips, M.; Greenberg, J. (Department of Medicine, St. Vincent's Medical Center of Richmond, Staten Island, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

98

Fundamental underwater cutting method experiment as a dismantling tool for a commercial atomic reactor vessel  

SciTech Connect

A new underwater cutting technique applying underwater dismantling to commercial atomic reactor vessels has been developed. This technique involves gas cutting the mild steel underwater after removing the stainless steel cladding by arc gouging. The arc gouging is achieved by blowing out metal--which is melted by an arc between a mild steel electrode wire and the stainless steel--by jetting water from a rear water nozzle. The fuel gas employed for preheating for the gas cutting was a mixed gas of propane and 30% methylacetylene. The test piece used was made of 300-mm-thick mild steel with 8-mm-thick stainless steel cladding. The fundamental cutting experiment was carried out successfully under a cutting speed condition of 15 cm/min at a water depth of 20 cm. This apparatus is easy to handle, compact, and cheap.

Hamasaki, M.; Murao, Y.; Tateiwa, F.

1982-10-01

99

Tolerance to external breathing resistance with particular reference to high inspiratory resistance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of men to exercise while breathing through graded inspiratory resistances was studied in order to define acceptable respiratory mouthpiece assembly standards. Experimental results with subjects wearing breathing masks and walking for 30 min on treadmills were used to calculate expiratory work rates. It is concluded that the airflow must be appropriate to the upper limit of minute ventilation likely to be encountered in the men wearing the apparatus.

Bentley, R. A.; Griffin, O. G.; Love, R. G.; Muir, D. C. F.; Sweetland, K. F.

1972-01-01

100

Device for underwater cryogenic cutting  

SciTech Connect

An underwater cutting or penetrating device includes a source of liquid nitrogen for cooling a workpiece to a cryogenic temperature before impact by an explosively driven member. Attachment by magnet or clamp, and provision for confining the coolant by flexible gasket or boot are described.

Elkins, J.H.

1982-12-27

101

Thrust Forces in Underwater Swimming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instantaneous and mean static thrust levels were measured for eight underwater swimmers restrained in a submerged force platform. Swimming was examined barefoot and with two types of fins. The main beneficial effect of the fins was to eliminate the substantial negative thrust component associated with barefoot swimming. Higher maximal thrust outputs were achieved with curved fins than with straight-bladed ones.

Raymond A. Christianson; Gershon Weltman; Glen H. Egstrom

1965-01-01

102

Underwater Inspection Of Naval Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nondestructive testing (NDT) performed underwater is one of the major maintenance methods to assure the efficient operation of naval structures such as piers, navigational aids, etc. Methods used for NDT of naval structures include general methods such as visual testing, ultrasonics and radiography. Visual testing, supplemented by instruments such as TV cameras and stereo-photography, offers good capability for surface inspection

H. Berger; R. Brackett; J. Mittleman

1983-01-01

103

Underwater Laser Imaging System (UWLIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical limitations of underwater imaging systems are reached when the noise in the back scattered radiation generated in the water between the imaging system and the target obscures the spatial contrast and the resolution necessary for target discovery and identification. The advent of high power lasers operating in the oceanic transmission window of the visible spectrum (blue-green portion) has led

Mike L. Delong; Tom J. Kulp

1995-01-01

104

Avoiding failure in the checkout of anesthesia apparatus prior to use  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the editor: The Checkout Procedures of Anesthesia Apparatus recommended by the Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists (CPAA-JSA) and the Anesthesia Apparatus Checkout Recommendations developed by the United States Food and Drug Administration (AACR-FDA) help to detect anesthesia machine problems preoperatively [1, 2]. We report a rare case of a breathing circuit obstruction caused by an invisible foreign body, which could

Takashi Imaizumi; Toshiyuki Yano

2008-01-01

105

Decompression sickness following seawater hunting using underwater scooters.  

PubMed

Since the 1960s there have been several reports of divers suffering from decompression sickness (DCS) after repetitive breath-hold (BH) diving. In the period from 1995 to 2000 John Batle observed apparent DCS in 30 free divers competing with underwater scooters in the sea around Mallorca. The cases were treated successfully with recompression therapy. Two of the typical diving profiles, described by Batle, have been submitted to calculations with a modified Haldane model: a perfusion limited, symmetrical multitissue/multilevel model. The model predicts that the two dive profiles will lead to DCS as recorded. A third profile, confirmed by reports to avoid DCS, also were accurately predicted. In order to protect free divers, John Batle developed a dive table for repeated BH diving. According to our calculations the Batle table does not prevent DCS during prolonged exposures. A alternative range of tables is developed and presented. PMID:17987510

Thorsen, Hans-Christian M; Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo; Paulev, Poul-Erik

2007-01-01

106

Monitoring apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for monitoring the temperature inside a refrigeration unit that experiences periodic defrost cycles of a known duration, the apparatus including a temperature sensor located within the refrigeration unit for providing an electrical output signal indicative of the temperature level inside the unit, a comparator means for comparing the sensor output signal level with a preset signal level and providing a first output signal when the sensed temperature level is above the preset level and a second output signal when the sensed temperature level is below the preset level, a timer means connected to the output of the comparator means which is enabled when the comparator means produces the first output signal whereby the timer means generates a continuous chain of timing pulses and is disabled when the comparator means produces the second output signal, counter means being coupled to the timer means for counting the number of pulses generated by the timer means and producing a counter output signal when a preset count is reached. The duration of the counter means cycle is greater than the duration of the defrost cycle, and an audio means coupled to the output of both the timer means and the counter means. An audio transducer means provides a first audible alert signal any time the timer means is enabled and a second audible alarm signal when the counter means reaches the preset count.

Adams, W.H.

1986-12-23

107

Mapleson's Breathing Systems  

PubMed Central

Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification) are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:24249884

Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

2013-01-01

108

Improvement of underwater visibility by reduction of backscatter with a circular polarization technique.  

PubMed

This report presents a brief resume of the underwater visibility problem and explains the circular polarization approach for improving contrast. Experimental apparatus was set up at the Morris Dam facility of the U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station, Pasadena Annex, and tests were conducted both with and without polarization. Results show that use of the polarization technique increased the visibility range in turbid water by at least a factor of two. PMID:20057838

Gilbert, G D; Pernicka, J C

1967-04-01

109

Metabolic analyzer. [for measuring metabolic rate and breathing dynamics of human beings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is described for the measurement of metabolic rate and breathing dynamics in which inhaled and exhaled breath are sensed by sealed, piston-displacement type spirometers. These spirometers electrically measure the volume of inhaled and exhaled breath. A mass spectrometer analyzes simultaneously for oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water vapor. Computation circuits are responsive to the outputs of the spirometers, mass spectrometer, temperature, pressure and timing signals and compute oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, minute volume and respiratory exchange ratio. A selective indicator provides for read-out of these data at predetermined cyclic intervals.

Rummel, J. A.; Perry, C. L. (inventors)

1974-01-01

110

The Air We Breathe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This picture book is designed to introduce children to the Earth's atmosphere and its importance to life on Earth. It also introduces how the addition of new gases (e.g., ozone) contributes to changing the quality of air we breathe. With an understanding of how our atmosphere works, we can begin to understand how our activities may be contributing to some of those changes in air quality.

111

The Baby's First Breath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of Hyperphysics, from Georgia State University, uses elasticity to explain why a baby needs help--like a smack on the bottom--to take its first breath and also why people with emphysema have so much difficulty exhaling. Another section explains why capillaries can be extremely thin, whereas large arteries must have strong, thick walls. A third section describes the physics of the aneurysm, a bulge in the walls of a larger artery.

Nave, Rod

2010-01-14

112

Cardiovascular Biomarkers In Exhaled Breath  

PubMed Central

With each breath we exhale, thousands of molecules are expelled in our breath giving individuals a “breath-print” that can tell a lot about them and their state of health. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as the new frontier in medical testing. The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century have arguably witnessed a revolution in our understanding of the constituents of exhaled breath and the development of the field of breath analysis and testing. Thanks to major breakthroughs in new technologies (infrared, electrochemical, chemiluminescence, and others) and the availability of mass spectrometers, the field of breath analysis has made considerable advances in the 21st century. Several methods are now in clinical use or nearly ready to enter that arena. Breath analysis has the potential to offer relatively inexpensive, rapid, noninvasive methods for detecting and/or monitoring a variety of diseases. Breath analysis also has applications in fields beyond medicine, including environmental monitoring, security and others. This review will focus on exhaled breath as a potential source of biomarkers for medical applications with specific attention to applications (and potential applications) in cardiovascular disease. PMID:22824108

Cikach, Frank S.; Dweik, Raed A.

2014-01-01

113

Collecting apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

Duncan, Charles P. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1983-01-01

114

Well apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus comprising: a well packer having at least two flow ways therethrough, a conduit providing a first control pressure, vent valve means connected to the conduit and controlling one of the flow ways and having a flow member reciprocal in both directions between open and closed positions for multiple cycles in response to a first control pressure in the conduit. The valve means remains closed in the absence of first control pressure and when subjected to a second ambient pressure less than a selected value, and kill valve means associated with the packer and vent valve and in combination with one of the flow ways, the kill valve means opening in response to a second ambient pressure above the selected value.

Echols, R.H.; Patel, B.H.; Renfroe, J.B. Jr.

1986-11-25

115

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1100.degree. to 1900.degree. C., while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products.

Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

1981-01-01

116

Using optical communication for remote underwater robot operation  

E-print Network

Underwater vehicles are typically operated using a tether or a slow acoustic link. We present an underwater optical communication system that enables a high-throughput and low-latency link to an underwater robot. The optical ...

Doniec, Marek Wojciech

117

Adaptive Identification of Dynamically Positioned Underwater Robotic Vehicles  

E-print Network

Adaptive Identification of Dynamically Positioned Underwater Robotic Vehicles David A. Smallwood for the identification of finite- dimensional dynamical models of dynamically positioned underwater robotic vehicles underwater vehicles. The development of model-based control techniques for the dynamic positioning

Whitcomb, Louis L.

118

A novel underwater weather station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new form of underwater weather station has been designed for long term recording with great reliability and low power consumption.The novelty of the instrument lies in its use of a non-destructive,non-volatile magnetic memory. The original instrument was designed as a tide gauge capable of recording deep-sea tides on the ocean floor for at least a year's duration. Analog data

J. Matthews; Gil Mimken

1974-01-01

119

Implementation of a wireless underwater video link  

E-print Network

Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are increasingly being considered for remotely supervised missions, primarily for routine subsea inspection tasks currently performed by tethered remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). ...

Morash, James Paul

2008-01-01

120

Drive apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A drive apparatus is described comprising: an input shaft operatively connected to an engine; an output shaft operatively connected to travelling means; a transmission line operatively interconnected between the input and output shafts, the line including first and second intermediate shafts; clutch means disposed between the first and second intermediate shafts for operatively interconnecting and disconnecting the first and second intermediate shafts; change speed means including at least one change speed shift means for effecting speed changes between the input shaft and the first intermediate shaft. The shift means includes synchro shift means and a first hydraulic switch valve moveable between neutral, first and second change speed positions, the change speed means further including a shift selector for selective operation of the first switch valve; the clutch means being responsive to the neutral position of the shift means for effecting the operative disconnection, and responsive to the change speed positions of the shift means for effecting the operative interconnection of the first and second intermediate shafts; a source of pressurized fluid, the shift selector and clutch means being hydraulically connected in parallel to the source of pressurized fluid; and a first pilot fluid operated switch valve hydraulically connected between the fluid source and clutch means.

Hasegawa, S.; Fukui, T.

1987-01-20

121

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

Friedman, J.; Oberg, C. L.; Russell, L. H.

1981-06-23

122

Preliminary note on a survey of Stoke Point rocks with self-contained diving apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been recogniZed that a proper knowledge of the fauna of sub- merged rocks can be obtained satisfactorily only by direct study with diving apparatus (Gislen, 193°; Kitching et ai., 1934). Although the latest methods of indirect underwater observation, photography and television, may be useful on a smooth sea floor, they can give little information about a rocky

G. R. Forster

1954-01-01

123

The underwater environment: cardiopulmonary, thermal, and energetic demands.  

PubMed

Water covers over 75% of the earth, has a wide variety of depths and temperatures, and holds a great deal of the earth's resources. The challenges of the underwater environment are underappreciated and more short term compared with those of space travel. Immersion in water alters the cardio-endocrine-renal axis as there is an immediate translocation of blood to the heart and a slower autotransfusion of fluid from the cells to the vascular compartment. Both of these changes result in an increase in stroke volume and cardiac output. The stretch of the atrium and transient increase in blood pressure cause both endocrine and autonomic changes, which in the short term return plasma volume to control levels and decrease total peripheral resistance and thus regulate blood pressure. The reduced sympathetic nerve activity has effects on arteriolar resistance, resulting in hyperperfusion of some tissues, which for specific tissues is time dependent. The increased central blood volume results in increased pulmonary artery pressure and a decline in vital capacity. The effect of increased hydrostatic pressure due to the depth of submersion does not affect stroke volume; however, a bradycardia results in decreased cardiac output, which is further reduced during breath holding. Hydrostatic compression, however, leads to elastic loading of the chest wall and negative pressure breathing. The depth-dependent increased work of breathing leads to augmented respiratory muscle blood flow. The blood flow is increased to all lung zones with some improvement in the ventilation-perfusion relationship. The cardiac-renal responses are time dependent; however, the increased stroke volume and cardiac output are, during head-out immersion, sustained for at least hours. Changes in water temperature do not affect resting cardiac output; however, maximal cardiac output is reduced, as is peripheral blood flow, which results in reduced maximal exercise performance. In the cold, maximal cardiac output is reduced and skin and muscle are vasoconstricted, resulting in a further reduction in exercise capacity. PMID:19036887

Pendergast, D R; Lundgren, C E G

2009-01-01

124

Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposure of firefighters during suppression of structural burns  

EPA Science Inventory

Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposure...

125

Clinical applications of breath testing  

PubMed Central

Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years. PMID:21173863

Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam

2010-01-01

126

Patient's breath controls comfort devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

1972-01-01

127

Underwater autonomous manipulation for intervention missions AUVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many underwater intervention tasks are today performed using manned submersibles or remotely operated vehicles in teleoperation mode. Autonomous underwater vehicles are mostly employed in survey applications. In fact, the low bandwidth and significant time delay inherent in acoustic subsea communications represent a considerable obstacle to remotely operate a manipulation system, making it impossible for remote controllers to react to problems

Giacomo Marani; Song K. Choi; Junku Yuh

2009-01-01

128

Design for Underwater Aplanatic Acoustic Mirror  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater acoustic lenses are useful devices for underwater imaging because of their small dimension and low power consumption but have a problem under the condition of changing water temperature because the refractive index depends on the water temperature. To solve this problem, we propose aplanatic acoustic mirrors, which consist of two aspherical mirrors and can remove spherical and coma aberrations.

Yuji Sato; Koichi Mizutani; Naoto Wakatsuki; Toshiaki Nakamura

2010-01-01

129

Vector Sensor Arrays in Underwater Acoustic Applications  

E-print Network

Vector Sensor Arrays in Underwater Acoustic Applications Paulo Santos1, Paulo Felisberto1. A vector sensor measures both the acoustic pressure and the three components of particle velocity of the use of vector sensors in underwater acoustic applications such as direction of arrival (DOA

Jesus, Sérgio M.

130

Multipurpose ROV system for underwater monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents achievements of the Underwater Team at the Faculty of Maritime Technology of the Szczecin Technical University in the field of designing the equipment destined for the underwater monitoring. The multipurpose remotely operated vehicle system is described. Technical specification, some laboratory tank test results, research techniques, operational range, experience and development trends have been discussed.

Graczyk, T. [Technical Univ. of Szczecin (Poland)

1995-12-31

131

DYNAMICS & CONTROL OF UNDERWATER GLIDERS I: STEADY MOTIONS  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 11 The blended wing-body underwater glider Liberdade/XRay. (Solid model in Rhinoceros 3 underwater vehicle which uses gravity for propulsion. Underwater gliders are winged underwater vehicles which Introduction 3 3 Vehicle Dynamic Model 4 4 Wings Level Gliding Flight 8 5 Steady Turning Flight 10 5.1 Turning

Virginia Tech

132

Compressed breathing air - the potential for evil from within.  

PubMed

Human underwater activities rely on an adequate supply of breathable compressed gas, usually air, free from contaminants that could cause incapacitation underwater or post-dive or longer-term health effects. Potentially fatal but well-known hazards are hypoxia secondary to steel cylinder corrosion and carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning due to contaminated intake air. Another phenomenon may be behind some previously unexplained episodes of underwater incapacitation and perhaps death: low-level CO poisoning and/or the effects of gaseous contaminants generated within the compressor, including toluene and other volatile compounds. Many low molecular weight volatile contaminants are anaesthetic and will be potentiated by pressure and nitrogen narcosis. In sub-anaesthetic doses, impaired judgement, lowered seizure threshold and sensitisation of the heart to arrhythmias may occur. Toxic compounds can be volatilised from some compressor oils, especially mineral oils, in overheated compressors, or be created de novo under certain combinations of temperature, humidity and pressure, perhaps catalysed by metal traces from compressor wear and tear. Most volatiles can be removed by activated carbon filtration but many filters are undersized and may overload in hot, moist conditions and with short dwell times. A compressor that passes normal testing could contaminate one or more cylinders after heating up and then return to producing clean air as the filters dry and the systems cool. The scope of this problem is very unclear as air quality is tested infrequently and often inadequately, even after fatalities. More research is needed as well as better education regarding the safe operation and limitations of high-pressure breathing air compressors. PMID:22692708

Millar, Ian L; Mouldey, Peter G

2008-06-01

133

Next generation of underwater vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The needs of undersea defense, and indeed those of the scientific community, overlap those of the offshore oil and gas industry, not least when it comes to subsea operations. They share problems encountered in the design and use of unmanned underwater vehicles, particularly in relation to reliability, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and capabilities. The U.K. Marine Technology Directorate Ltd. (MTD) is managing a research program - Technology for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (TUUV) - formulated with the particular aim of solving the problems identified by industry in relation to the operation of UUVs. The overall goal of the first three TUUV phases is to provide a convincing demonstration that the production of such advanced systems is practical, credible and cost-effective. Despite the advances in TUUV1, discussions with operators and program participants show that broad concerns over vehicle operations remain. TUUV2 and TUUV3 will transform the current purely technical and largely independent projects into an integrated concept demonstration that will justify the mainly industrial investment needed to make TUUV4 a reality in time for the millennium.

Winchester, R.G.J. [Marine Technology Directorate Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

1995-11-01

134

Polarimetric imaging of underwater targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underwater imaging is challenging because of the significant attenuation of light due to absorption and scattering of light in water. Using polarization properties of light is one of the options for improving image quality. We present results of imaging of a polarized target in open ocean (Curacao) and coastal (NY Bight) waters. The target in the shape of a square is divided into several smaller squares, each of which is covered with a polarizing film with different polarization orientations or transmission coefficients was placed on a mirror and imaged under water by a green-band full-Stokes polarimetric video camera at the full range of azimuth angles against the Sun. The values of the Stokes vector components from the images are compared with the modeled image of the target using radiative transfer code for the atmosphere-ocean system combined with the simple imaging model. It is shown that even in clear water the impact of the water body on the polarized underwater image is very significant and retrieval of target polarization characteristics from the image is extremely challenging.

Gilerson, Alex; Carrizo, Carlos; Tonizzo, Alberto; Ibrahim, Amir; El-Habashi, Ahmed; Foster, Robert; Ahmed, Samir

2013-06-01

135

Virtual Blowgun System for Breathing Movement Exercise  

E-print Network

of life and the body works less effectively by causing blocked nose, insomnia, snoring, sleep apnea, panic@esys.tsukuba.ac.jp Abstract. Breathing is the most basic requirement for having good health. However, unhealthy breathing like Introduction Breathing is the most basic requirement for having good health. However, unhealthy breathing like

Boyer, Edmond

136

EDITORIAL: Bad breath and exhaled breath analysis---common fields with common denominators Bad breath and exhaled breath analysis---common fields with common denominators  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 20th century, bad breath and analysis of breath for medical diagnosis evolved as two separate fields. Papers on bad breath were published almost exclusively in dental journals, whereas papers on exhaled breath analysis were more commonly found in medical and chemical analysis journals. When Daniel van Steenberghe and Mel Rosenberg first discussed setting up an international society for

Mel Rosenberg; Anton Amann

2008-01-01

137

Model based image restoration for underwater images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inspection of offshore parks, dam walls and other infrastructure under water is expensive and time consuming, because such constructions must be inspected manually by divers. Underwater buildings have to be examined visually to find small cracks, spallings or other deficiencies. Automation of underwater inspection depends on established water-proved imaging systems. Most underwater imaging systems are based on acoustic sensors (sonar). The disadvantage of such an acoustic system is the loss of the complete visual impression. All information embedded in texture and surface reflectance gets lost. Therefore acoustic sensors are mostly insufficient for these kind of visual inspection tasks. Imaging systems based on optical sensors feature an enormous potential for underwater applications. The bandwidth from visual imaging systems reach from inspection of underwater buildings via marine biological applications through to exploration of the seafloor. The reason for the lack of established optical systems for underwater inspection tasks lies in technical difficulties of underwater image acquisition and processing. Lightening, highly degraded images make a computational postprocessing absolutely essential.

Stephan, Thomas; Frühberger, Peter; Werling, Stefan; Heizmann, Michael

2013-04-01

138

Determination of acetone in breath  

Microsoft Academic Search

A light emitting diode (LED)-based photometric method for the measurement of gaseous acetone in human breath is presented. The detection chemistry is based on the reaction of acetone with alkaline salicylaldehyde to form a colored product, which absorbs in the blue and can be monitored with GaN-based LEDs with emission centered at 465nm. Gaseous acetone in breath is sampled with

Norio Teshima; Jianzhong Li; Kei Toda; Purnendu K. Dasgupta

2005-01-01

139

Solar energy collecting apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collecting apparatus is described which is integrally incorporated into a conventional building structure so that it does not protrude from the normal contour of the building, and which utilizes components of the building structure as a part of the collecting apparatus to thereby minimize the cost thereof. The collecting apparatus includes a solar energy absorptive panel which

Mcarthur

1980-01-01

140

Solar energy conversion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus is disclosed for converting solar energy to useful energy principally for home use. The apparatus provides a complete system for receiving solar energy over a large area, e.g. 1,000 square feet; concentrating the energy; and directing the energy toward a target of a few square feet at an extremely high temperature. The receiving, concentrating and transmitting apparatus consists of

Thompson

1983-01-01

141

AURP: An AUV-Aided Underwater Routing Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Deploying a multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) in a large area brings about new challenges in reliable data transmissions and survivability of network due to the limited underwater communication range/bandwidth and the limited energy of underwater sensor nodes. In order to address those challenges and achieve the objectives of maximization of data delivery ratio and minimization of energy consumption of underwater sensor nodes, this paper proposes a new underwater routing scheme, namely AURP (AUV-aided underwater routing protocol), which uses not only heterogeneous acoustic communication channels but also controlled mobility of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In AURP, the total data transmissions are minimized by using AUVs as relay nodes, which collect sensed data from gateway nodes and then forward to the sink. Moreover, controlled mobility of AUVs makes it possible to apply a short-range high data rate underwater channel for transmissions of a large amount of data. To the best to our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to employ multiple AUVs as relay nodes in a multi-hop UASN to improve the network performance in terms of data delivery ratio and energy consumption. Simulations, which are incorporated with a realistic underwater acoustic communication channel model, are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, and the results indicate that a high delivery ratio and low energy consumption can be achieved. PMID:22438740

Yoon, Seokhoon; Azad, Abul K.; Oh, Hoon; Kim, Sunghwan

2012-01-01

142

AURP: an AUV-aided underwater routing protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks.  

PubMed

Deploying a multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) in a large area brings about new challenges in reliable data transmissions and survivability of network due to the limited underwater communication range/bandwidth and the limited energy of underwater sensor nodes. In order to address those challenges and achieve the objectives of maximization of data delivery ratio and minimization of energy consumption of underwater sensor nodes, this paper proposes a new underwater routing scheme, namely AURP (AUV-aided underwater routing protocol), which uses not only heterogeneous acoustic communication channels but also controlled mobility of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In AURP, the total data transmissions are minimized by using AUVs as relay nodes, which collect sensed data from gateway nodes and then forward to the sink. Moreover, controlled mobility of AUVs makes it possible to apply a short-range high data rate underwater channel for transmissions of a large amount of data. To the best to our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to employ multiple AUVs as relay nodes in a multi-hop UASN to improve the network performance in terms of data delivery ratio and energy consumption. Simulations, which are incorporated with a realistic underwater acoustic communication channel model, are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, and the results indicate that a high delivery ratio and low energy consumption can be achieved. PMID:22438740

Yoon, Seokhoon; Azad, Abul K; Oh, Hoon; Kim, Sunghwan

2012-01-01

143

New Scientific Underwater Cable System Tokai-SCANNER for Underwater Geophysical Monitoring Utilizing a Decommissioned Optical Underwater Telecommunication Cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new cost-effective scientific underwater cable system named Tokai Submarine Cabled Network Observatory for Nowcast of Earthquake Recurrences (Tokai-SCANNER) using a decommissioned optical underwater telecommunication cable. We have used this cable in two ways simultaneously: (1) to construct an ocean-bottom observatory at the end of the cable, and (2) to use the cable as a long emitting

Kenichi Asakawa; Takashi Yokobiki; Tada-nori Goto; Eiichiro Araki; Takafumi Kasaya; Masataka Kinoshita; Junichi Kojima

2009-01-01

144

Underwater probing with laser radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent advances in laser and electro optics technology have greatly enhanced the feasibility of active optical probing techniques aimed at the remote sensing of water parameters. This paper describes a LIDAR (laser radar) that has been designed and constructed for underwater probing. The influence of the optical properties of water on the general design parameters of a LIDAR system is considered. Discussion of the specific details in the choice of the constructed LIDAR is given. This system utilizes a cavity dumped argon ion laser transmitter capable of 50 watt peak powers, 10 nanosecond pulses and megahertz pulse repetition rates at 10 different wavelengths in the blue green region of the spectrum. The performance of the system, in proving various types of water, is demonstrated by summarizing the results of initial laboratory and field experiments.

Carswell, A. I.; Sizgoric, S.

1975-01-01

145

Analytic and numerical study of underwater implosion  

E-print Network

Underwater implosion, the rapid collapse of a structure caused by external pressure, generates a pressure pulse in the surrounding water that is potentially damaging to adjacent structures or personnel. Understanding the ...

Gish, Lynn Andrew

2013-01-01

146

Design considerations for engineering Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

E-print Network

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) have been established as a viable tool for Oceanographic Sciences. Being untethered and independent, AUVs fill the gap in Ocean Exploration left by the existing manned submersible and ...

Shah, Vikrant P. (Vikrant Pankaj)

2007-01-01

147

Cooperative localization for autonomous underwater vehicles  

E-print Network

Self-localization of an underwater vehicle is particularly challenging due to the absence of Global Positioning System (GPS) reception or features at known positions that could otherwise have been used for position ...

Bahr, Alexander

2009-01-01

148

Designing a wireless underwater optical communication system  

E-print Network

Though acoustic modems have long been the default wireless communication method for underwater applications due to their long range, the need for high speed communication has prompted the exploration of non-acoustic methods ...

Brundage, Heather

2010-01-01

149

Contributions to automated realtime underwater navigation  

E-print Network

This dissertation presents three separate-but related-contributions to the art of underwater navigation. These methods may be used in postprocessing with a human in the loop, but the overarching goal is to enhance vehicle ...

Stanway, Michael Jordan

2012-01-01

150

MECHANICS AND NONLINEAR CONTROL: MAKING UNDERWATER VEHICLES  

E-print Network

MECHANICS AND NONLINEAR CONTROL: MAKING UNDERWATER VEHICLES RIDE AND GLIDE Naomi Ehrich Leonard \\Lambda \\Lambda Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 naomi@princeton.edu Abstract: Methods from geometric mechanics and dynamical systems theory make

Leonard, Naomi

151

Sensor Network Architectures for Monitoring Underwater Pipelines  

PubMed Central

This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (Radio Frequency) wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and integrated wired/RF wireless sensor networks. The paper also discusses the reliability challenges and enhancement approaches for these network architectures. The reliability evaluation, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages among these architectures are discussed and compared. Three reliability factors are used for the discussion and comparison: the network connectivity, the continuity of power supply for the network, and the physical network security. In addition, the paper also develops and evaluates a hierarchical sensor network framework for underwater pipeline monitoring. PMID:22346669

Mohamed, Nader; Jawhar, Imad; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Zhang, Liren

2011-01-01

152

Underwater communication via compact mechanical sound generation  

E-print Network

Effective communication with underwater remotely operated vehicles (UROV) can be difficult to accomplish. In water, simple radio communication is quickly dissipated at higher frequencies and lower frequencies require a ...

Ubellacker, Wyatt

2013-01-01

153

XAUV : modular high maneuverability autonomous underwater vehicle  

E-print Network

The design and construction of a modular test bed autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is analyzed. Although a relatively common stacked-hull design is used, the state of the art is advanced through an aggressive power ...

Walker, Daniel G. (Daniel George)

2009-01-01

154

Building Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educators with an interest in hands-on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines will receive introductory instructions on how to design, engineer and build a fully functional underwater ROV.

Woodall, Debra

155

Breathing pattern in chronic quadriplegia.  

PubMed

The resting breathing pattern in 14 chronic C6 and C7 traumatic quadriplegics was compared with six age-matched healthy controls. All quadriplegics had complete motor loss below the lesion level and were at least two years postinjury. Tests were performed with subjects seated. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0), inspiratory capacity (IC), and maximum inspiratory mouth pressure (Pimax) were measured. Resting breathing pattern was assessed for 20 minutes using mercury in rubber strain gauges and a computer-assisted data acquisition and analysis program. Inspiratory time (Ti), expiratory time (Te), and tidal volume (Vt) were measured, and the remaining timing components were calculated from these values. The variability of breathing was assessed by comparing the coefficients of variation of each variable. The FVC, IC, and Pimax were significantly reduced; Vt was significantly lower (p less than 0.01) and frequency significantly elevated (p less than 0.05) in quadriplegics. The decreased Vt in quadriplegics was due entirely to a significantly decreased mean inspiratory flow (p less than 0.01); Ti was the same in quadriplegics as in controls. The ratio of mean Ti to total cycle time (Ti/Ttot) was significantly longer in quadriplegics (p less than 0.005). There was no difference in variability of breathing between the two groups for any timing component of ventilation. There was no significant difference in sighing frequency between groups for either breaths greater than 2x mean Vt or breaths greater than 3x mean Vt. Chronic quadriplegics demonstrated a rapid, shallow breathing pattern, probably due to the mechanical restrictions resulting from paralysis of the thorax musculature. They retained the ability to sigh, suggesting that chest wall afferents may not be required in this process. PMID:2350219

Loveridge, B M; Dubo, H I

1990-06-01

156

A Study of the Effects of Breath Management Instruction on the Breathing Mode, Knowledge of Breathing, and Performance Skills of College-Level Brass Players.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effectiveness of breathing instruction on the breath management, performance, and knowledge of breathing among college-level brass musicians. Finds that breathing instruction significantly improved the breath management and knowledge of the breathing for the experimental groups and the musical range of the trombone players in the…

Phillips, Kenneth H.; Sehmann, Karin Harfst

1990-01-01

157

Portable containment sleever apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

Rea, Michael J. (North Augusta, SC); Brown, Roger A. (North Augusta, SC)

2000-01-01

158

Dynamic approach to DNA breathing.  

PubMed

Even under physiological conditions, the DNA double-helix spontaneously denatures locally, opening up fluctuating, flexible, single-stranded zones called DNA-bubbles. We present a dynamical description of this DNA-bubble breathing in terms of a Fokker-Planck equation for the bubble size, based on the Poland-Scheraga free energy for DNA denaturation. From this description, we can obtain basic quantities such as the lifetime, an important measure for the description of the interaction of a breathing DNA molecule and selectively single-stranded DNA binding proteins. Our approach is consistent with recent single molecule measurements of bubble fluctuation. We also introduce a master equation approach to model DNA breathing, and discuss its differences from the continuous Fokker-Planck description. PMID:23345902

Metzler, Ralf; Ambjörnsson, Tobias

2005-12-01

159

J. Lata, M. Mohns, J. Krawiec, C. Lu, D. Frank, G. Feldman Team Breathe Easy Halare New Product Development  

E-print Network

disorders, athletes, and the average person. The device provides an audibly delivered breathing program manufacturing objective is to develop a feasible, cost effective design for a device that measures both heart the right ear. The apparatus encompasses a heart rate earlobe clip sensor, an air flow sensor, a speaker

Demirel, Melik C.

160

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1995-01-01

161

Long endurance underwater power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of DARPA's Artificial Gill program, Aquanautics is developing an underwater power source that uses an ambient pressure solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell with an artificial gill that extracts dissolved oxygen from seawater and an Alwatt aluminum corrosion cell that generates the hydrogen. The innovation in this concept is a direct carrier feed fuel cell (CFFC) process which allows the fuel cell to operate at ambient pressure without a costly deep water pressure vessel. Activities during this quarter include: direct feed of oxygen carrier into fuel cell; new batches of electrodes were ordered. These are with a different ion-exchange membrane called Nafion (manufactured by Dupont) as against Raipore (mfd. by RAI Research). There was some concern that hydrogen at high pressures would leak out through the membrane which led to calculation of the hydrogen leakage; it appears that at 6000 m, the loss will be around 20 percent. Eight rectangular membrane cartridges were ordered. The factors varied were type of membrane (solid vs. microporous) and fiber to fiber distance. Theoretical study for sizing of the gill and pumping power required was carried out. Integration of the gill and fuel cell was carried out where oxygen extracted from synthetic ocean water was used in the fuel cell. There was no unforeseen problem. Hydrogen generation using an Alwatt battery was obtained and tested.

1989-08-01

162

Automatic Fish Classification for Underwater Species Behavior Understanding  

E-print Network

Automatic Fish Classification for Underwater Species Behavior Understanding Concetto Spampinato an automatic fish classi- fication system that operates in the natural underwater en- vironment to assist marine biologists in understanding fish behavior. Fish classification is performed by combining two types

Fisher, Bob

163

Dynamic positioning of beacon vehicles for cooperative underwater navigation  

E-print Network

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are used for an ever increasing range of applications due to the maturing of the technology. Due to the absence of the GPS signal underwater, the correct estimation of its position is ...

Bahr, Alexander

164

Active planning for underwater inspection and the benefit of adaptivity  

E-print Network

We discuss the problem of inspecting an underwater structure, such as a submerged ship hull, with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Unlike a large body of prior work, we focus on planning the views of the AUV to ...

Hollinger, Geoffrey A.

165

Development of a low-cost underwater manipulator  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the design, modeling, manufacture, and testing of a low cost, multiple degree-of-freedom underwater manipulator. Current underwater robotic arm technologies are often expensive or limited in functionality. ...

Cooney, Lauren Alise

2006-01-01

166

Breathing with Phox2b  

PubMed Central

In the last few years, elucidation of the architecture of breathing control centres has reached the cellular level. This has been facilitated by increasing knowledge of the molecular signatures of various classes of hindbrain neurons. Here, we review the advances achieved by studying the homeodomain factor Phox2b, a transcriptional determinant of neuronal identity in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Evidence from human genetics, neurophysiology and mouse reverse genetics converges to implicate a small population of Phox2b-dependent neurons, located in the retrotrapezoid nucleus, in the detection of CO2, which is a paramount source of the ‘drive to breathe’. Moreover, the same and other studies suggest that an overlapping or identical neuronal population, the parafacial respiratory group, might contribute to the respiratory rhythm at least in some circumstances, such as for the initiation of breathing following birth. Together with the previously established Phox2b dependency of other respiratory neurons (which we review briefly here), our new data highlight a key role of this transcription factor in setting up the circuits for breathing automaticity. PMID:19651649

Dubreuil, Veronique; Barhanin, Jacques; Goridis, Christo; Brunet, Jean-Francois

2009-01-01

167

Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath  

EPA Science Inventory

The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

168

Breath Ammonia Analysis: Clinical Application and Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review covers in detail the complexity of human breath, how the body metabolizes ammonia, clinical conditions which are directly related to the regulation of ammonia concentration, and analysis of current techniques that are capable of detecting breath ammonia. Focusing on these areas provides the information needed to develop a breath ammonia sensor for monitoring dysfunction of the human body.

Troy Hibbard; Anthony J. Killard

2011-01-01

169

Feasibility of underwater free space quantum key distribution  

E-print Network

We investigate the optical absorption and scattering properties of underwater media pertinent to our underwater quantum key distribution (QKD) channel model. With the vector radiative transfer theory and Monte Carlo method, we calculate the bit rate, the fidelity, and the quantum bit error rate of photons when transmitting underwater. It can be observed from our simulations that maximally secure single photon underwater BB84 QKD is feasible with a distance of about 125m in the clearest ocean water.

Shi, Peng; Li, Wen-Dong; Gu, Yong-Jian

2014-01-01

170

Neural Mechanisms Underlying Breathing Complexity  

PubMed Central

Breathing is maintained and controlled by a network of automatic neurons in the brainstem that generate respiratory rhythm and receive regulatory inputs. Breathing complexity therefore arises from respiratory central pattern generators modulated by peripheral and supra-spinal inputs. Very little is known on the brainstem neural substrates underlying breathing complexity in humans. We used both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher these mechanisms in healthy humans and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is the most frequent chronic lung disease in the general population mainly due to tobacco smoke. In patients, airflow obstruction associated with hyperinflation and respiratory muscles weakness are key factors contributing to load-capacity imbalance and hence increased respiratory drive. Unexpectedly, we found that the patients breathed with a higher level of complexity during inspiration and expiration than controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we scanned the brain of the participants to analyze the activity of two small regions involved in respiratory rhythmogenesis, the rostral ventro-lateral (VL) medulla (pre-Bötzinger complex) and the caudal VL pons (parafacial group). fMRI revealed in controls higher activity of the VL medulla suggesting active inspiration, while in patients higher activity of the VL pons suggesting active expiration. COPD patients reactivate the parafacial to sustain ventilation. These findings may be involved in the onset of respiratory failure when the neural network becomes overwhelmed by respiratory overload We show that central neural activity correlates with airflow complexity in healthy subjects and COPD patients, at rest and during inspiratory loading. We finally used a theoretical approach of respiratory rhythmogenesis that reproduces the kernel activity of neurons involved in the automatic breathing. The model reveals how a chaotic activity in neurons can contribute to chaos in airflow and reproduces key experimental fMRI findings. PMID:24098396

Hess, Agathe; Yu, Lianchun; Klein, Isabelle; De Mazancourt, Marine; Jebrak, Gilles; Mal, Herve; Brugiere, Olivier; Fournier, Michel; Courbage, Maurice; Dauriat, Gaelle; Schouman-Clayes, Elisabeth; Clerici, Christine; Mangin, Laurence

2013-01-01

171

Nonmetric Camera Calibration for Underwater Laser Scanning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of an underwater camera system with a laser line source to measure seafloor features at millimeter scales. The quality of underwater photography is limited by the visibility of the water column. In real underwater environments, there are always suspended particles in the water column and light is scattered by these particles. As a result, photographic

Wang Chau-Chang; Cheng Min-Shine

2007-01-01

172

GE underwater test facility studies in zero G simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The underwater test facility (UTF) is described as an indoor controlled environment test facility designed specifically for zero G simulation, hydrospace manned and unmanned equipment development, and personnel training for both space and underwater exploration. Programs conducted in the UTF include: human engineering criteria for maintenance and repairs of space stations, astronaut performance, helmet distortion, underwater telemetry, and blood transfusion.

Fry, R. H.

1972-01-01

173

Olfaction: Underwater 'sniffing' by semi-aquatic mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial species that forage underwater face challenges because their body parts and senses are adapted for land - for example, it is widely held that mammals cannot use olfaction underwater because it is impossible for them to inspire air (sniff) to convey odorants to the olfactory epithelium. Here I describe a mechanism for underwater sniffing used by the semi-aquatic star-nosed

Kenneth C. Catania

2006-01-01

174

Navigation of an AUV for investigation of underwater structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a great demand for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to investigate artificial underwater structures such as piles and caissons in harbours, and risers and jackets of deep-sea oilfields. This paper proposes an autonomous investigation method of underwater structures using AUVs that is implemented by initially detecting the target objects, localizing them, then approaching them by taking video images while

Hayato Kondo; Tamaki Ura

2004-01-01

175

AUV-Aided Localization for Underwater Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a localization scheme for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWSN) that does not require a priori infra-structure or synchronization between nodes. An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) aids in localizing the sensor nodes while roaming across the underwater sensor field. The objectives of this paper are to describe how to localize nodes using AUV and to describe the tradeoffs involved,

Melike Erol; L. F. M. Vieira; M. Gerla

2007-01-01

176

STABILITY OF A BOTTOMHEAVY UNDERWATER VEHICLE NAOMI EHRICH LEONARD \\Lambda  

E-print Network

: September 7, 1996 Abstract In this paper we study stability of underwater vehicle dynamics for a six degree­Poisson structure for the underwater vehicle dynamics with non­ coincident centers of gravity and buoyancy. UsingSTABILITY OF A BOTTOM­HEAVY UNDERWATER VEHICLE NAOMI EHRICH LEONARD \\Lambda Department

Leonard, Naomi

177

ORTHOPHOTO IMAGING AND GIS FOR SEABED VISUALIZATION AND UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGY  

E-print Network

ORTHOPHOTO IMAGING AND GIS FOR SEABED VISUALIZATION AND UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGY J. Seinturier 1 , P and archaeological data management. In the framework of a phd project we develop a set of tools from underwater data capture to 3D underwater GIS for archaeological excavation. The phd project, managed by Julien Seinturier

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

178

CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD AND APPARATUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic scanning and recording apparatus is designed for scanning a ; chromatographic strip for radioactivity. The apparatus comprises a sealable ; chamber, scanning means within the chamber, a drum for carrying a spirally wound ; chromatographic strip, means for moving the drum to align successive portions of ; the strip with the scanner, detection means, and means for evacuating

E. B. Fowler; W. A. Rhinehart

1962-01-01

179

Variable volume calibration apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is provided for determining the volume of a closed chamber. The apparatus includes a body having a cylindrical cavity therein including a threaded rear portion and a closed front end, and a piston having a threaded portion which mates with threaded rear portion of the cavity and which reciprocates in the cavity. A gas-impermeable seal, which is carried

R. L. Hallman Jr.; R. L. Jr

1991-01-01

180

Mobile drilling apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inventiond discloses a drilling apparatus mounted on a self-propelled base quipped with a joint to permit use on uneven terrain and drilling at various angles with respect to the terrain surface; embodiments of the invention feature suction apparatus for removing drill cuttings, and foldable masts.

C. C. Brown; J. R. Brown

1978-01-01

181

Underwater photogrammetric theoretical equations and technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to have a high level of accuracy of measurement in underwater close-range photogrammetry, this article deals with a study of three varieties of model equations according to the way of imaging upon the water. First, the paper makes a careful analysis for the two varieties of theoretical equations and finds out that there are some serious limitations in practical application and has an in-depth study for the third model equation. Second, one special project for this measurement has designed correspondingly. Finally, one rigid antenna has been tested by underwater photogrammetry. The experimental results show that the precision of 3D coordinates measurement is 0.94mm, which validates the availability and operability in practical application with this third equation. It can satisfy the measurement requirements of refraction correction, improving levels of accuracy of underwater close-range photogrammetry, as well as strong antijamming and stabilization.

Fan, Ya-bing; Huang, Guiping; Qin, Gui-qin; Chen, Zheng

2011-12-01

182

Special Issue "Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks" A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220)  

E-print Network

(salinity, conductivity, turbidity, pH, oxygen, temperature, depth, etc.) - Sediments and pollution sensorSpecial Issue "Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks" A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220) Website: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/sensors/special_issues/underwater_sens Journal

Chen, Min

183

Spatial Mapping System For Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (MAUV) project at the National Bureau of Standards, a spatial mapping system has been developed to provide a model of the underwater environment suitable for autonomous navigation. The system is composed of multi-resolution depth maps designed to integrate sensor data with an a priori model, an object/attribute database for storing information about detected objects, and a set of flags to monitor abnormal or emergency conditions in the environment. This paper describes the struc-ture of the mapping system and the algorithms used to map terrain and obstacles detected by acoustic sonar.

Oskard, David N.; Hong, Tsai-Hong; Shaffer, Clifford A.

1989-01-01

184

Improving visibility method for underwater robots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For improving underwater visibility for robots, a method is presented using a special intervallic series of light pulses, two acts of emitting and receiving are performed by two specially designed optical shutters, and the control signals are delay synchronized. Calculations show that the received backscattering light can be reduced and so the visible distance increased. This method has several advantages which can make it practical for underwater robots and other actual uses. Its feasibility has been demonstrated in the experiments, while only in principle due to the limitation of the experimental conditions at present.

Liu, Shangqing; Xia, Yu-Xing; Bao, Jian; Wawg, Fengping; Li, Tie; Gong, Zhiben

1993-08-01

185

Autonomous underwater pipeline monitoring navigation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details the development of an autonomous motion-control and navigation algorithm for an underwater autonomous vehicle, the Ocean Server IVER3, to track long linear features such as underwater pipelines. As part of this work, the Nonlinear and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (NAS Lab) developed an algorithm that utilizes inputs from the vehicles state of the art sensor package, which includes digital imaging, digital 3-D Sidescan Sonar, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. The resulting algorithms should tolerate real-world waterway with episodic strong currents, low visibility, high sediment content, and a variety of small and large vessel traffic.

Mitchell, Byrel; Mahmoudian, Nina; Meadows, Guy

2014-06-01

186

Controllable underwater anisotropic oil-wetting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Letter demonstrates a simple method to achieve underwater anisotropic oil-wetting using silicon surfaces with a microgroove array produced by femtosecond laser ablation. The oil contact angles along the direction perpendicular to the grooves are consistently larger than those parallel to the microgroove arrays in water because the oil droplet is restricted by the energy barrier that exists between the non-irradiated domain and the trapped water in the laser-ablated microgrooves. This underwater anisotropic oil-wetting is able to be controlled, and the anisotropy can be tuned from 0° to ˜20° by adjusting the period of the microgroove arrays.

Yong, Jiale; Chen, Feng; Yang, Qing; Farooq, Umar; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Hou, Xun

2014-08-01

187

Underwater 3D SLAM through Entropy Minimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—The,aquatic realm,is ideal for testing autonomous robotic technology. The challenges presented,in this environment are numerous,due to the highly dynamic,nature,of the medium. Applications for underwater,robotics include,the autonomous inspection of coral reef, ships, pipelines, and other environmental assessment,programs. In this paper we present current results in using 6DOF Entropy Minimization,SLAM (Simultaneous Localization And Mapping) for creating dense 3D visual maps,of underwater environments,that

Juan Manuel Sáez; Andrew Hogue; Francisco Escolano Ruiz; Michael R. M. Jenkin

2006-01-01

188

Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogus?aw; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

2014-06-01

189

Analysis of exhaled breath for disease detection.  

PubMed

Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways. PMID:25014347

Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogus?aw; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

2014-01-01

190

Olfaction: underwater 'sniffing' by semi-aquatic mammals.  

PubMed

Terrestrial species that forage underwater face challenges because their body parts and senses are adapted for land--for example, it is widely held that mammals cannot use olfaction underwater because it is impossible for them to inspire air (sniff) to convey odorants to the olfactory epithelium. Here I describe a mechanism for underwater sniffing used by the semi-aquatic star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata) and water shrew (Sorex palustris). While underwater, both species exhale air bubbles onto objects or scent trails and then re-inspire the bubbles to carry the smell back through the nose. This newly described behaviour provides a mechanism for mammalian olfaction underwater. PMID:17183311

Catania, Kenneth C

2006-12-21

191

Breath figure patterns made easy.  

PubMed

In this work, a simple breath figure method was proposed to directly fabricate large-area and ordered honeycomb structures on commercial PMMA substrates or PS Petri dishes without the use of an external polymer solution. The obtained honeycomb structure is indeed part of the substrate, providing the honeycomb layer with enough mechanical stability. The breath figure method in this work for the synthesis of honeycomb structure is extremely simple with scale-up capability to large-area production, which offers new insights into surface engineering with great potential in commercial technologies. For example, using the honeycomb-patterned Petri dishes prepared via this method, cells can be easily separated into divided aggregation, which favors understanding of naturally occurring networks in higher organisms and cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, and the therapeutic control of genetic circuits. PMID:24689785

Huang, Chuixiu; Kamra, Tripta; Chaudhary, Shilpi; Shen, Xiantao

2014-04-23

192

Development of Underwater Laser Cladding and Underwater Laser Seal Welding Techniques for Reactor Components (II)  

SciTech Connect

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is one of the major reasons to reduce the reliability of aged reactor components. Toshiba has been developing underwater laser welding onto surface of the aged components as maintenance and repair techniques. Because most of the reactor internal components to apply this underwater laser welding technique have 3-dimensional shape, effect of welding positions and welded shapes are examined and presented in this report. (authors)

Masataka Tamura; Shohei Kawano; Wataru Kouno; Yasushi Kanazawa [Toshiba Corporation (Japan)

2006-07-01

193

Running and Breathing in Mammals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

1983-01-01

194

Cleaning method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

1981-02-27

195

Mirror plasma apparatus  

DOEpatents

A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma.

Moir, Ralph W. (Livermore, CA)

1981-01-01

196

News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.  

PubMed

This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath analysis is now used to diagnose and monitor asthma, check for transplant organ rejection, detect lung cancer and test for Helicobacter pyloriinfection-and the list is growing. A major milestone in the scientific study of breath was marked in the 1970s when Linus Pauling demonstrated that there is more to exhaled breath than the classic gases of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour-a lot more. Based on the gas-liquid partition chromatography analysis, Pauling reported the presence of 250 substances in exhaled breath. We now have the technology to test for any and all of these components. The field of breath analysis has made considerable advances in the 21st century and the utility of breath analysis in health care is advancing quickly. The science is rapidly expanding, the technology is improving and several new applications have been developed or are under commercial development. Breath analysis may rely on both direct (on line) and indirect (off line) reading methods: in the on-line method, breath analysis is immediately available, whereas the use of indirect methods generally involves collecting and trapping the breath sample and subsequently transferring it to an analytical instrument for analysis. Various kinds of breath samples have been used in biological monitoring, including mixed expired air and end expired air: end exhaled air represents the alveolar air concentration and mixed exhaled air represents the gas mixture coming from the dead space of the bronchial tree and the alveolar gas-exchange space. Exhaled breath analysis is an area where the modern day advances in technology and engineering meet the ever expanding need in medicine for more sensitive, specific and non-invasive tests which makes this area a major front in the interface between medicine and engineering. A major breakthrough over the past decade has been the increase in breath-based tests approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Devices measuring common breath gases (oxygen, nitrogen, water vapour and CO(2)) in patient respiratory monitoring have served as

Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

2012-05-23

197

DIFAR PROCESSING IN UNDERWATER DSSS COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach to combat multiple access interference in underwater acoustic DSSS communications. The proposed technique employs directional frequency analysis and recording (DIFAR) sonobuoys, which is used in oceanography for surveillance of marine mammals. The solution offers an efficient alternative when compared with other techniques that use large linear hydrophone arrays. The proposed technique is particularly attractive

Juan Pons; Juan E. Cousseau; Stefan Werner

198

3D reconstruction of underwater structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental change is a growing international concern, calling for the regular monitoring, studying and preserving of detailed information about the evolution of underwater ecosystems. For example, fragile coral reefs are exposed to various sources of hazards and potential destruction, and need close observation. Computer vision offers promising technologies to build 3D models of an environment from two-dimensional images. The state

Chris Beall; Brian J. Lawrence; Viorela Ila; Frank Dellaert

2010-01-01

199

Magnetic Navigation and Tracking of Underwater Vehicles  

E-print Network

Universit´ario de Santiago, 3810 - 193 Aveiro, Portugal (e-mail: fcurado@ua.pt). Laboratory of Robotics associated with geomagnetic field anomalies, without the need of a priori maps. The procedure can also The execution of long-range and long-term missions by robotic underwater vehicles in a fully autonomous mode

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

200

Last Progress in Underwater Electrical Wire Explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the investigation of the underwater electrical wire explosions using a high power nanosecond timescale generator are reported. The spectroscopic analysis of the emitted radiation has unveiled no evidence for the formation of shunting plasma channel. The latter appears in vacuum and gas wire explosions and causes to the seizure of energy deposition into an exploding wire material.

Alon Grinenko; Arkady Sayapin; Sergey Efimov; Alexander Fedotov; Yakov E. Krasik

2008-01-01

201

Hydrodynamic implications for submarine launched underwater gliders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater gliders are a type of long range unmanned vehicle that use bouyancy control and lifting surfaces to travel in a sawtooth trajectory through the water column. These vehicles are typically employed by oceanographers for environmental monitoring and also show promise as a sensor platform in military applications. This paper presents investigations of vehicle hydrodynamics relating to the deployment of

Joshua D. Rodgers; John M. Wharington

2010-01-01

202

Underwater explosive cutting in ship salvage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitive use of explosives in ship salvage operations is described with a brief review of the physical phenomena involved in underwater explosive cutting. Specific problems encountered in the design and use of shaped charge cutters are identified; actual on site improvisations are summarized from recent and current case histories of ship salvage involving extensive explosive cutting. Prime factors leading

C. Bartholomew; A. Rynecki; D. Saveker

1975-01-01

203

Spatial diversity processing for underwater acoustic telemetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large increase in the reliability of shipboard or stationary underwater acoustic telemetry systems is achievable by using spatially distributed receivers with aperture sizes from 0.35 to 20 m. Output from each receiver is assigned a quality measure based on the estimated error rate, and the data, weighted by the quality measure, are combined and decoded. The quality measure is

Josko A. Catipovic; L. E. Freitag

1991-01-01

204

Autonomous buoyancy-driven underwater gliders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of small (50 kg, 2 m length), reusable autonomous underwater vehicles capable of operating at speeds of 20-30 cm\\/s with ranges several thousand kilometers and durations of months has been developed and tested. The vehicles, essentially autonomous profiling floats with wings, execute sawtooth patterns between the surface, where they are located and communicate to shore, and depths of

Russ E. Davis; Charles C. Eriksen; Clayton P. Jones

2002-01-01

205

Three-dimensional ocean chlorophyll distributionsfrom underwater  

E-print Network

Three-dimensional ocean chlorophyll distributionsfrom underwater serial-sectioned fluorescence. An inverse method is then used to reconstruct three-dimensional chlorophyll a distributions from the plane of chlorophyll a microstructures for concentrations as low as 0.1 mg of chlorophyll a per cubic meter in 1--m 3

Jaffe, Jules

206

Is odor processing related to oral breathing?  

PubMed

This paper addresses two questions related to the inherent association between breathing and odor perception: Does central nervous processing of odors change when an artificial breathing technique (velopharyngeal closure) is introduced and secondly, does odor processing vary with the oral breathing phase (inhalation or exhalation)? Chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERP) were obtained from eight female subjects while they were smelling an odor mixture (citral, eugenol, linalool, menthol and isoamylacetate). Each subject was required to perform spontaneous mouth breathing (120 trials) as well as the velopharyngeal closure technique (120 trials). Simultaneously, a thermistor monitored the phase of the respiratory cycle. The results reveal that the central nervous correlates of odor processing change with the breathing technique but not with the oral breathing cycle. The findings that early stimulus processing is faster (N1 latency) and late stimulus processing more pronounced (P3 amplitudes) when the subjects are breathing spontaneously are discussed with regard to attentional effects. The reduction of the N1 amplitude during the spontaneous breathing condition may be caused by larger latency variations and longer stimulus rise-times. Furthermore, it is concluded that the oral breathing cycle is less important than the nasal breathing cycle for olfactory information transmission. PMID:10437636

Pause, B M; Krauel, K; Sojka, B; Ferstl, R

1999-06-01

207

Emission Tube Apparatus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an image of an emission tube apparatus with tube in place. When plugged in and turned on the gas in the tube will become excited and emit a specific color of light depending upon the type of gas.

Ward, Charles

2003-01-16

208

Apparatus for growing crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved apparatus and method for growing crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.

Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)

1986-01-01

209

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

Kaun, T.D.

1995-03-14

210

Human breath analysis: methods for sample collection and reduction of localized background effects.  

PubMed

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, to the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath samples without requiring exhaled breath condensate collection. A new procedure, exhaled breath vapor (EBV) collection, involving the active sampling and preconcentration of a breath sample with a SPME fiber fitted inside a modified commercial breath-collection device, the RTube, is described. Immediately after sample collection, compounds are desorbed from the SPME fiber at 250 degrees C in the GC-MS injector. Experiments were performed using EBV collected at -80 degrees C and at room temperature, and the results compared to the traditional method of collecting exhaled breath condensate at -80 degrees C followed by passive SPME sampling of the collected condensate. Methods are compared in terms of portability, ease-of-use, speed of analysis, and detection limits. The need for a clean air supply for the study subjects is demonstrated using several localized sources of VOC contaminants including nail polish, lemonade, and gasoline. Various simple methods to supply clean inhaled air to a subject are presented. Chemical exposures are used to demonstrate the importance of providing cleaned air (organic vapor respirator) or an external air source (tubing stretched to a separate room). These techniques allow for facile data interpretation by minimizing background contaminants. It is demonstrated herein that this active SPME breath-sampling device provides advantages in the forms of faster sample collection and data analysis, apparatus portability and avoidance of power or cooling requirements, and performance for sample collection in a contaminated environment. PMID:19844696

Martin, Audrey N; Farquar, George R; Jones, A Daniel; Frank, Matthias

2010-01-01

211

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

1985-02-26

212

Vacuum pump apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved cryopumping apparatus which comprises a cryopumping space which may be alternately opened and closed from the surrounding area by moveable panels, trubular cryopanels within said cryopumping space through which a coolant such as liquid helium may be passed, and an apparatus for spraying liquid argon onto said cylindrical cryopanels in order to enhance the cryogenic entrapment of such low-z ions, atoms, and molecules as hydrogen and helium.

Batzer, Thomas H. (Livermore, CA); Call, Wayne R. (Tracy, CA)

1985-01-01

213

A portable device to assess underwater changes of cardio dynamic variables by impedance cardiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data concerning heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), and cardiac output (CO) during dynamic apnoea (DA) were collected from 10 healthy male, elite divers by means of an impedance cardiograph adapted to the underwater environment (C. O. Re., from 2C Technologies Inc, Italy). Three trials were performed by the divers in a 3-m-deep pool with a water temperature of 25°C: 3-minute head-out immersion during normal breathing (A), till exhaustion immersed at the surface (B) and at 3m depth (C). Both B and C conditions did not led to changes in HR, SV and CO compared to A. Data indicate that typical diving response consisting in a reduction of HR, SV and CO was not present during DA, probably due to sympathetic activation induced by exercise during DA, which partially obscured the effects of the diving response. Moreover, this study highlights the innovative role of our portable, impedance cardiography device, i.e. the C. O. Re., in easily assessing cardiodynamic changes in subjects engaged in exercise schedules including phases of underwater, dynamic apnoea.

Tocco, F.; Crisafulli, A.; Marongiu, E.; Milia, R.; Kalb, A.; Concu, A.

2012-12-01

214

Breathing-control lowers blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesise that routinely applied short sessions of slow and regular breathing can lower blood pressure (BP). Using a new technology BIM (Breathe with Interactive Music), hypertensive patients were guided towards slow and regular breathing. The present study evaluates the efficacy of the BIM in lowering BP. We studied 33 patients (23M\\/10F), aged 25–75 years, with uncontrolled BP. Patients were

E Grossman; A Grossman; MH Schein; R Zimlichman; B Gavish

2001-01-01

215

Instrumentation and Sensors for Human Breath Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaled breath contains a vast milieu of compounds, both volatile and non-volatile, that appear to correlate with physiological\\u000a processes on-going in the body. These breath biomarkers hold enormous diagnostic potential when they are adequately measured\\u000a and monitored. Thus, instrumentation geared towards breath analysis applications has expanded rapidly in the last decade,\\u000a although challenges for future research still exist. This chapter

Melinda G. Simon; Cristina E. Davis

216

Breath Control of Amusement Rides Joe Marshall, Duncan Rowland1  

E-print Network

this. Observations and interviews from trials of an enhanced bucking bronco ride show that breath Breathing, breath control, amusement ride, biosensing, affective computing, bucking bronco, thrill strategies can be combined through the use of breath control. We have four motivations for this: breath

McAuley, Derek

217

Qigong--Chinese breathing exercise.  

PubMed

Qigong is an ancient Chinese breathing exercise with meditation which is being developed today for therapy of chronic illnesses in the People's Republic of China. It is claimed to cure gastric ulcers, hypertension, anxiety neurosis, otitis media, cancer and has even been used as a form of anaesthesia. Although the physiological effects produced by Qigong resemble those of meditation, there are certain features that are unique and often mysterious. Research in the future may prove Qigong to be a useful adjunct in the practice of medicine. PMID:6763845

Koh, T C

1982-01-01

218

Episodic Breathing in Frogs: Converging Hypotheses on Neural Control of Respiration in Air Breathing Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. The episodic, or intermittent, breathing of frogs and many ecto- thermic vertebrates results in important fluctuations of arterial blood gases. This pattern of breathing differs from the rhythmic and continuous alterna- tion of inspiration observed in most homeotherms, which maintain O2 and CO2 levels within narrow ranges. These differences in pattern of breathing indicate that the respiratory control systems

RICHARD KINKEAD

1997-01-01

219

Breathing  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... size of the thoracic cavity and decreases the pressure inside. As a result, air rushes in and fills the lungs. During expiration, the diaphragm relaxes, and the volume of the thoracic cavity decreases, while the pressure within it increases. As a result, the lungs ...

220

Virtual long baseline (VLBL) autonomous underwater vehicle navigation using a single transponder  

E-print Network

(cont.) Therefore, accurate underwater navigation using a single location transponder would provide dramatic time and cost savings for underwater vehicle operations. This thesis presents a simulation of autonomous underwater ...

LaPointe, Cara Elizabeth Grupe

2006-01-01

221

Polarization Imaging Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polarization imaging apparatus has shown promise as a prototype of instruments for medical imaging with contrast greater than that achievable by use of non-polarized light. The underlying principles of design and operation are derived from observations that light interacts with tissue ultrastructures that affect reflectance, scattering, absorption, and polarization of light. The apparatus utilizes high-speed electro-optical components for generating light properties and acquiring polarization images through aligned polarizers. These components include phase retarders made of OptoCeramic (registered TradeMark) material - a ceramic that has a high electro-optical coefficient. The apparatus includes a computer running a program that implements a novel algorithm for controlling the phase retarders, capturing image data, and computing the Stokes polarization images. Potential applications include imaging of superficial cancers and other skin lesions, early detection of diseased cells, and microscopic analysis of tissues. The high imaging speed of this apparatus could be beneficial for observing live cells or tissues, and could enable rapid identification of moving targets in astronomy and national defense. The apparatus could also be used as an analysis tool in material research and industrial processing.

Zou, Yingyin K.; Chen, Qiushui

2010-01-01

222

Protective supplied breathing air garment  

DOEpatents

A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

Childers, Edward L. (Lakewood, CO); von Hortenau, Erik F. (Golden, CO)

1984-07-10

223

Protective supplied breathing air garment  

DOEpatents

A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

1984-07-10

224

Underwater splice for submarine coaxial cable  

SciTech Connect

The invention is a device for splicing submarine coaxial cable underwater on the seafloor with a simple push-on operation to restore and maintain electrical and mechanical strength integrity; the splice device is mateable directly with the severed ends of a coaxial cable to be repaired. Splicing assemblies comprise a dielectric pressure compensating fluid filled guide cavity, a gelled castor oil cap and wiping seals for exclusion of seawater, electrical contacts, a cable strength restoration mechanism, and a pressure compensation system for controlled extrusion of and depletion loss prevention of dielectric seal fluid during cable splicing. A splice is made underwater by directly inserting prepared ends of coaxial cable, having no connector attachments, into splicing assemblies.

Inouye, A.T.; Roe, T. Jr.; Tausing, W.R.; Wilson, J.V.

1984-10-30

225

21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270 Food...Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm...

2010-04-01

226

21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.  

...2014-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270 Food...Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm...

2014-04-01

227

21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270 Food...Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm...

2012-04-01

228

21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270 Food...Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm...

2011-04-01

229

21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270 Food...Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm...

2013-04-01

230

21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device...

2013-04-01

231

21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device...

2012-04-01

232

21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device...

2011-04-01

233

21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device...

2010-04-01

234

Signal Processing for Underwater Acoustic Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance and complexity of signal processing systems for underwater acoustic communications has dramatically increased over the last two decades. With its origins in non-coherent modulation and detection for communication at rates under 100 bits per second, phase-coherent digital communication systems employing multi- channel adaptive equalization with explicit symbol-timing and phase tracking are being deployed in commercial and military systems

Suleyman S. Kozat; Jill K. Nelson; Andrew C. Singer

235

Underwater hydraulic shock shovel control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control system determines the effectiveness of an underwater hydraulic shock shovel. This paper begins by analyzing the\\u000a working principles of these shovels and explains the importance of their control systems. A new type of control system’s mathematical\\u000a model was built and analyzed according to those principles. Since the initial control system’s response time could not fulfill\\u000a the design requirements,

He-Ping Liu; A-ni Luo; Hai-Yan Xiao

2008-01-01

236

Hydrogen peroxide production in capillary underwater discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen peroxide production by an AC driven capillary underwater discharge was investigated quantitatively. Concentration of formed hydrogen peroxide was measured by a colorimetric method using a specific reaction between H2O2 and a titanium reagent. It comes out that the amount of H2O2 increases linearly during the first hour of the discharge duration and is slightly higher at the high voltage

F. de Baerdemaeker; M. Simek; M. Clupek; P. Lukes; C. Leys

2006-01-01

237

Hydrogen peroxide production in capillary underwater discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen peroxide production by an AC driven capillary underwater discharge was investigated quantitatively. Concentration\\u000a of formed hydrogen peroxide was measured by a colorimetric method using a specific reaction between H2O2 and a titanium reagent. It comes out that the amount of H2O2 increases linearly during the first hour of the discharge duration and is slightly higher at the high voltage

F. De Baerdemaeker; M. Šimek; M. ?lupek; P. Lukeš; C. Leys

2006-01-01

238

Coral World Ocean Park & Underwater Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Award-winning tourist attraction in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, focuses completely on Caribbean reef and island life. Aquarium exhibits include: Underwater Observatory built into the fringing reef; predators tank with sharks, barracuda, moray eels and tarpon; Caribbean Reef Encounter offering interpretive programs; tanks housing smaller reef fishes and invertebrates; as well as touch pool, shark shallows, stingray and turtle pools. Nature walks highlight native plant life and iguanas. Water sports available. Admission fees apply.

239

Biological particle identification apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for making multiparameter light scattering measurements from suspensions of biological particles is described. Fourteen of the sixteen Mueller matrix elements describing the particles under investigation can be substantially individually determined as a function of scattering angle and probing radiations wavelength, eight elements simultaneously for each of two apparatus configurations using an apparatus which incluees, in its simplest form, two polarization modulators each operating at a chosen frequency, one polarizer, a source of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, a detector sensitive to the wavelength of radiation employed, eight phase-sensitive detectors, and appropriate electronics. A database of known biological particle suspensions can be assembled, and unknown samples can be quickly identified once measurements are performed on it according to the teachings of the subject invention, and a comparison is made with the database.

Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Gregg, Charles T. (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, W. Kevin (Los Alamos, NM); Hiebert, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

240

Thermal energy test apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) designed and fabricated a thermal energy test apparatus to permit evaluation of the heat protection provided by crash crew firefighter's proximity clothing materials against radiant and convective heat loads, similar to those found outside the flame zone of aircraft fuel fires. The apparatus employs electrically operated quartz lamp radiant heaters and a hot air convective heater assembly to produce the heat load conditions the materials to be subjected to, and is equipped with heat flux sensors of different sensitivities to measure the incident heat flux on the sample material as well as the heat flux transmitted by the sample. Tests of the apparatus have shown that it can produce radiant heat flux levels equivalent to those estimated to be possible in close proximity to large aircraft fuel fires, and can produce convective heat fluxes equivalent to those measured in close proximity to aircraft fuel fires at upwind and sidewind locations. Work was performed in 1974.

Audet, N. F.

1991-10-01

241

Robot arm apparatus  

DOEpatents

A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1992-01-01

242

Passive orientation apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus that can return a payload to a known orientation after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and orientation after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known orientation by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known orientation after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

243

Afocal viewport optics for underwater imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conventional camera can be adapted for underwater use by enclosing it in a sealed waterproof pressure housing with a viewport. The viewport, as an optical interface between water and air needs to consider both the camera and water optical characteristics while also providing a high pressure water seal. Limited hydrospace visibility drives a need for wide angle viewports. Practical optical interfaces between seawater and air vary from simple flat plate windows to complex water contact lenses. This paper first provides a brief overview of the physical and optical properties of the ocean environment along with suitable optical materials. This is followed by a discussion of the characteristics of various afocal underwater viewport types including flat windows, domes and the Ivanoff corrector lens, a derivative of a Galilean wide angle camera adapter. Several new and interesting optical designs derived from the Ivanoff corrector lens are presented including a pair of very compact afocal viewport lenses that are compatible with both in water and in air environments and an afocal underwater hyper-hemispherical fisheye lens.

Slater, Dan

2014-09-01

244

Design for Underwater Aplanatic Straubel Acoustic Mirror  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aplanatic Fresnel lens was developed in a previous study to reduce the thickness of underwater acoustic lenses. Showing better convergence properties than aplanatic biconvex and hyperbolic Fresnel lenses, the aplanatic Fresnel lens had limitations in terms of frequency and number of waves owing to its shape. An underwater aplanatic Straubel acoustic mirror, the concept o which is based on a Straubel mirror, was designed to remove the two limitations of aplanatic Fresnel lenses. When the lens is used for underwater imaging sonar, the range resolution deteriorates because of these problems. The shape of the aplanatic Straubel mirror was designed using a numerical optimization method, and its convergence properties were evaluated in simulations. The mirror could correct spherical and coma aberrations in accordance with ray theory. In a comparison of the aplanatic Straubel mirror with an aplanatic Fresnel lens, the mirror had less coma aberration and field curvature than the lens. Additionally, the aplanatic Straubel mirror did not have the two limitations of the lens. Therefore, the aplanatic Straubel mirror showed better convergence than the aplanatic Fresnel lens.

Sato, Yuji; Mizutani, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Nakamura, Toshiaki

2011-07-01

245

Detecting elliptical structures in underwater images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the problem of detecting particular underwater structures, e.g., anodes used to join together separated sections of a pipeline, from visual images is addressed. Images are acquired by an autonomous underwater vehicle during sea-bottom surveys for pipeline inspection. Anodes with different characteristics, e.g., material, size, color, etc., can be found on the same pipeline but all are characterized by the same visual feature, i.e., an elliptical arc. To this end, a voting-based method able to detect elliptical arcs on the image plane is used to locate accurately anodes along the pipeline. Three dimensional (3D) geometric information about the scene, e.g., 3D equations of the pipeline borders, is used to reduce from 5 to 2 the dimensions of the parametric space needed for ellipse detection. Then, among the instances of detected ellipses on the image plane, false elliptical arcs, which are not compatible with the 3D scene geometry, are eliminated. Finally, the detection of consecutive true elliptical arcs over a long image sequence is used to infer the presence of an anode. Experimental tests on large sets of real underwater images have been performed to evaluate the effectiveness and the robustness of the method.

Foresti, Gian L.

2002-01-01

246

Feasibility of underwater free space quantum key distribution  

E-print Network

We investigate the optical absorption and scattering properties of underwater media pertinent to our underwater free space quantum key distribution (QKD) channel model. With the vector radiative transfer theory and Monte Carlo method, we obtain the attenuation of photons, the fidelity of the scattered photons, the quantum bit error rate and the sifted key generation rate of underwater quantum communication. It can be observed from our simulations that the most secure single photon underwater free space QKD is feasible in the clearest ocean water.

Peng Shi; Shi-Cheng Zhao; Wen-Dong Li; Yong-Jian Gu

2014-02-19

247

Measuring Your Breathing Frequency at Rest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about the brain and sleep (on page 138 of the PDF), learners measure their resting breathing rates. Learners will discover that breathing frequencies vary amongst individuals. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Astronaut's Sleep" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource guide includes background information and sample evaluation questions.

Macleish, Marlene Y.; Mclean, Bernice R.

2013-05-15

248

Breath testing and highway fatality rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an empirical investigation of the effect of a preliminary breath test law on highway fatality rates. A preliminary breath test law reduces the procedural problems associated with obtaining evidence of drunk driving and thus increases the probability that a drunk driver will be arrested. According to the theory of deterrence, increasing the probability of arrest for drunk

Henry Saffer; Frank Chaloupka

1989-01-01

249

Visual examination apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated visual examination apparatus for measuring visual sensitivity and mapping blind spot location is described. The apparatus includes a projection system for displaying to a patient a series of visual stimuli, a response switch enabling him to indicate his reaction to the stimuli, and a recording system responsive to both the visual stimuli per se and the patient's response. The recording system provides a correlated permanent record of both stimuli and response from which a substantive and readily apparent visual evaluation can be made.

Haines, R. F.; Fitzgerald, J. W.; Rositano, S. A. (inventors)

1973-01-01

250

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

1988-06-20

251

Changes in P300 following alternate nostril yoga breathing and breath awareness  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the effect of alternate nostril yoga breathing (nadisuddhi pranayama) on P300 auditory evoked potentials compared to a session of breath awareness of equal duration, in 20 male adult volunteers who had an experience of yoga breathing practices for more than three months. Peak amplitudes and peak latencies of the P300 were assessed before and after the respective sessions. There was a significant increase in the P300 peak amplitudes at Fz, Cz, and Pz and a significant decrease in the peak latency at Fz alone following alternate nostril yoga breathing. Following breath awareness there was a significant increase in the peak amplitude of P300 at Cz. This suggests that alternate nostril yoga breathing positively influences cognitive processes which are required for sustained attention at different scalp sites (frontal, vertex and parietal), whereas breath awareness brings about changes at the vertex alone. PMID:23721252

2013-01-01

252

Towards A Practical Multicarrier Modem for Underwater Telemetry and Distributed Networks  

E-print Network

Towards A Practical Multicarrier Modem for Underwater Telemetry and Distributed Networks Dr and Synchronization · Existing synchronization used in underwater telemetry are almost exclusively based on linearly

Zhou, Shengli

253

Breathing synchronization in interconnected networks  

PubMed Central

Global synchronization in a complex network of oscillators emerges from the interplay between its topology and the dynamics of the pairwise interactions among its numerous components. When oscillators are spatially separated, however, a time delay appears in the interaction which might obstruct synchronization. Here we study the synchronization properties of interconnected networks of oscillators with a time delay between networks and analyze the dynamics as a function of the couplings and communication lag. We discover a new breathing synchronization regime, where two groups appear in each network synchronized at different frequencies. Each group has a counterpart in the opposite network, one group is in phase and the other in anti-phase with their counterpart. For strong couplings, instead, networks are internally synchronized but a phase shift between them might occur. The implications of our findings on several socio-technical and biological systems are discussed. PMID:24256765

Louzada, V. H. P.; Araujo, N. A. M.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

2013-01-01

254

Breathing synchronization in interconnected networks  

E-print Network

The harmony of an orchestra emerges from the individual effort of musicians towards mutual synchronization of their tempi. When the orchestra is split between two concert halls communicating via Internet, a time delay is imposed which might hinder synchronization. We describe this type of system as two interconnected networks of oscillators with a time delay and analyze its dynamics as a function of the couplings and communication lag. We discover a breathing synchronization regime, namely, for a wide range of parameters, two groups emerge in the orchestra within the same concert hall playing at different tempi. Each group has a mirror in the other hall, one group is in phase and the other in anti-phase with their mirrors. For strong couplings, a phase shift between halls might occur. The implications of our findings on several socio-technical and biological systems are discussed.

Louzada, V H P; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

2013-01-01

255

Determining spherical lens correction for astronaut training underwater  

PubMed Central

Purpose To develop a model that will accurately predict the distance spherical lens correction needed to be worn by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronauts while training underwater. The replica space suit’s helmet contains curved visors that induce refractive power when submersed in water. Methods Anterior surface powers and thicknesses were measured for the helmet’s protective and inside visors. The impact of each visor on the helmet’s refractive power in water was analyzed using thick lens calculations and Zemax optical design software. Using geometrical optics approximations, a model was developed to determine the optimal distance spherical power needed to be worn underwater based on the helmet’s total induced spherical power underwater and the astronaut’s manifest spectacle plane correction in air. The validity of the model was tested using data from both eyes of 10 astronauts who trained underwater. Results The helmet visors induced a total power of ?2.737 D when placed underwater. The required underwater spherical correction (FW) was linearly related to the spectacle plane spherical correction in air (FAir): FW = FAir + 2.356 D. The mean magnitude of the difference between the actual correction worn underwater and the calculated underwater correction was 0.20 ± 0.11 D. The actual and calculated values were highly correlated (R = 0.971) with 70% of eyes having a difference in magnitude of < 0.25 D between values. Conclusions We devised a model to calculate the spherical spectacle lens correction needed to be worn underwater by National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronauts. The model accurately predicts the actual values worn underwater and can be applied (more generally) to determine a suitable spectacle lens correction to be worn behind other types of masks when submerged underwater. PMID:21623249

Porter, Jason; Gibson, C. Robert; Strauss, Samuel

2013-01-01

256

Suspension apparatus for vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suspension apparatus is described for a vehicle provided between a pair of left and right wheels of the vehicle and the vehicle body, comprising: telescopic members integrally connected to suspension springs and expanded and contracted by means of fluid pressure, fluid passages for feeding fluid pressurized by a pump to the telescopic members and discharging the fluid from the

H. Fujita; K. Honma; M. Ogawa

1987-01-01

257

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a coriolis simulator which uses a carbon paper trace technique and a simple specific-heat apparatus, emphasizing instructional considerations. Also indicates that a variac and an ordinary electric drill can be used to wind coil if a lathe or coil winder are unavailable. (JN)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1983-01-01

258

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a "no-cost" apparatus designed to demonstrate rotational inertia. Also describes and evaluates a microprocessor-based instrument (Versatile Laboratory Aid) that performs a large variety of timing and data acquisition tasks encountered in introductory and advanced physics laboratories. (JN)

Minnix, Richard B., Ed.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Ed.

1984-01-01

259

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple apparatus and provides instructions to do relative index of refraction measurements/calculations and to show mathematical relationships betwen indices when light travels from one liquid to another. A listing of a computer program (in BASIC) which will analyze data is available from the author. (JM)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1983-01-01

260

Oil skimming apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for removing a film of oil from a large body of water consists of a pair of generally similar funnel assemblies, one positioned behind and in the wake of the other with a harness for towing them along their common central axis. Each funnel assembly has an impermeable cover with spaced floats to support its wide leading edge above

H. J. Fitzgerald; E. H. Koepf

1971-01-01

261

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a few apparatuses and demonstrations for teaching physics under the headings: demonstrating resonance of the inner ear, constructing a potential well-hill for overhead projectors, rubber tube vacuum pump, improvement on the simple homemade motor, air track to demonstrate sailing into the wind, and center of gravity and stability. (GA)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1978-01-01

262

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains: (1) use of piezoelectric film (connected to power supply and oscilloscope) to reveal force-versus-time curves of bouncing balls; (2) use of bound wood splints or meter sticks to illustrate tree or tower stability; and (3) apparatus of co-axial discs with connected linking rods and suspended bobs to simulate waves. (DH)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1985-01-01

263

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1997-03-25

264

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

1997-01-01

265

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (1739 Grandview #2, Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

1993-01-01

266

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1993-03-23

267

Gait-locomotor apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The gait-locomotor apparatus of the present invention is a device for overcoming impeded locomotion in humans and is aimed at enabling people with handicapped lower limbs to walk. The gait-locomotor apparatus that is wore on a disabled user comprises a brace having a plurality of jointed segments that are adapted to fit the lower body of the disabled user and propulsion means that is adapted to provide relative movement between the plurality of jointed segments. The gait-locomotor apparatus further comprises at least one sensor adapted to monitor the angular position of at least one of the plurality of jointed segments and a control unit that is adapted to supervise the propulsion means and to receive feedback information from the sensors so as to facilitate the brace to perform walking patterns. The disabled user that wears the gait-locomotor apparatus of the present invention is able to steadily stand in a stance position supported by the brace, and is able to walk in various walking patterns using the control unit while fully participating in the process.

2006-12-26

268

Hydrogen-Detection Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus continuously monitors concentration of hydrogen, at level ranging from few parts per million to several percent, in mixture of gases. Simple and fast, providing high sensitivity and linear response. Used to alert technicians to potentially explosive concentrations of residual hydrogen.

Ross, H. Richard; Bourgeois, Chris M.

1995-01-01

269

Fluidized coal pyrolysis apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Method and apparatus are claimed for pyrolyzing agglomerative coals. The method comprises introducing a fluidized bed of hot char particles into a pyrolysis chamber or reactor, and injecting upwardly into the chamber a high velocity jet of agglomerative coal particles in a carrier gas, the fluidized hot char particles surrounding the high velocity coal jet and heating the coal particles

1982-01-01

270

Controlled nuclear fusion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fusion power generating device is disclosed having a relatively small and inexpensive core region which may be contained within an energy absorbing blanket region. The fusion power core region contains apparatus of the toroidal type for confining a high density plasma. The fusion power core is removable from the blanket region and may be disposed and\\/or recycled for subsequent

R. W. Bussard; B. Coppi

1982-01-01

271

Transient detector apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transient detector apparatus utilizing peak and slope detectors to determine the presence of transient signal in a logic signal. Individual slope measurements of the input signal are compared with a logic criteria to establish the occurrence of a transient. The peak voltage and pulse width of a transient are digitized in order to time tag or isolate a transient

Lapeyrolerie

1985-01-01

272

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two experimental set-ups. The first demonstrates the law of Malus using a pair of Polaroid polarizers and a monochromatic light source with an interference filter. The second describes a modification of Hilton's apparatus to demonstrate the effects of the magnetic hysteresis on an overhead projector. (CS)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1980-01-01

273

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

Hayward, Milton L. (2305 Greenbrook Blvd., Richland, WA 99352); Harper, William H. (1454 Amon Dr., Richland, WA 99352)

1987-01-01

274

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

1987-06-30

275

Apparatus for imparting seismic signals into the earth  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for imparting a seismic signal into the earth. It comprises seismic generator means for generating a seismic signal, comprising: an impact mass; and propulsion means for driving the impact mass to produce the seismic signal; coupling means, in engagement with the earth and engagable with the generator means, for transferring, into the earth, signals generated by the propulsion means driving the impact mass into engagement with the coupling means; lift frame means located above the coupling means and resiliently connected thereto; hollow housing means encompassing at least a portion of the generator means for inhibiting the entrance of water into the apparatus when used in an underwater environment and for confining noise produced by the apparatus when used in an atmospheric environment, comprising: a first end portion connected to the generator means; and a second generally annular end portion, the second end portion extending toward the coupling means; an annular connector member flexibly connecting the second end of the housing means to the lift frame means; and pivot means pivotally connecting the seismic generator means to the lift frame means.

Airhart, T.P.

1991-03-19

276

Active breathing control (ABC): Determination and reduction of breathing-induced organ motion in the chest  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Extensive radiotherapy volumes for tumors of the chest are partly caused by interfractional organ motion. We evaluated the feasibility of respiratory observation tools using the active breathing control (ABC) system and the effect on breathing cycle regularity and reproducibility. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with unresectable tumors of the chest were selected for evaluation of the ABC system. Computed tomography scans were performed at various respiratory phases starting at the same couch position without patient movement. Threshold levels were set at minimum and maximum volume during normal breathing cycles and at a volume defined as shallow breathing, reflecting the subjective maximal tolerable reduction of breath volume. To evaluate the extent of organ movement, 13 landmarks were considering using commercial software for image coregistration. In 4 patients, second examinations were performed during therapy. Results: Investigating the differences in a normal breathing cycle versus shallow breathing, a statistically significant reduction of respiratory motion in the upper, middle, and lower regions of the chest could be detected, representing potential movement reduction achieved through reduced breath volume. Evaluating interfraction reproducibility, the mean displacement ranged between 0.24 mm (chest wall/tracheal bifurcation) to 3.5 mm (diaphragm) for expiration and shallow breathing and 0.24 mm (chest wall) to 5.25 mm (diaphragm) for normal inspiration. Conclusions: By modifying regularity of the respiratory cycle through reduction of breath volume, a significant and reproducible reduction of chest and diaphragm motion is possible, enabling reduction of treatment planning margins.

Gagel, Bernd [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: BGagel@UKAachen.de; Demirel, Cengiz M.P. [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Kientopf, Aline [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Pinkawa, Michael [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Piroth, Marc [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Stanzel, Sven [Institute of Medical Statistics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Breuer, Christian [Department of Internal Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Asadpour, Branka [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Jansen, Thomas [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Holy, Richard [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Wildberger, Joachim E. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Eble, Michael J. [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

2007-03-01

277

An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring  

PubMed Central

The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569). PMID:25140632

Arlotto, Philippe; Grimaldi, Michel; Naeck, Roomila; Ginoux, Jean-Marc

2014-01-01

278

Video tracking in the extreme: video analysis for nocturnal underwater animal movement.  

PubMed

Computer analysis of video footage is one option for recording locomotor behavior for a range of neurophysiological and behavioral studies. This technique is reasonably well established and accepted, but its use for some behavioral analyses remains a challenge. For example, filming through water can lead to reflection, and filming nocturnal activity can reduce resolution and clarity of filmed images. The aim of this study was to develop a noninvasive method for recording nocturnal activity in aquatic decapods and test the accuracy of analysis by video tracking software. We selected crayfish, Cherax destructor, because they are often active at night, they live underwater, and data on their locomotion is important for answering biological and physiological questions such as how they explore and navigate. We constructed recording arenas and filmed animals in infrared light. Wethen compared human observer data and software-acquired values. In this article, we outline important apparatus and software issues to obtain reliable computer tracking. PMID:18183891

Patullo, B W; Jolley-Rogers, G; Macmillan, D L

2007-11-01

279

Design and identification of high performance steel alloys for structures subjected to underwater impulsive loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To characterize the performance of naval structures, underwater blast experiments have been developed. Martensitic and austenitic steel alloys were designed to optimize the performance of structures subjected to impulsive loads. The deformation and fracture characteristics of the designed steel alloys were investigated experimentally and computationally. The experiments were based on an instrumented fluid structure interaction apparatus, in which deflection profiles were recorded. The computational study was based on a modified Gurson damage model able to accurately describe ductile failure under various loading paths. The model was calibrated for two high performance martensitic steels (HSLA-100 and BA-160) and an austenitic steel (TRIP-120). The martensitic steel (BA-160) was designed to maximize strength and fracture toughness while the austenitic steel (TRIP-120) was designed to maximize uniform ductility. The combined experimental-computational approach provided insight into the relationships between material properties and blast resistance of structures.

Wei, Xiaoding; Latourte, Felix; Feinberg, Zack; Olson, Gregory; Espinosa, Horacio

2011-06-01

280

Adaptive Decentralized Control of Underwater Sensor Networks for Modeling Underwater Phenomena  

E-print Network

Sensing BP oil spill ­ riser pipe Image from reuters.com SenSys 2010­Carrick Detweiler (carrick@cse.unl.edu) 2 #12;Motivation: Underwater Sensing BP oil spill ­ extent is unknown SenSys 2010­Carrick Detweiler

Farritor, Shane

281

An Underwater Sensor Network with Dual Communications, Sensing, and  

E-print Network

. Introduction Underwater modeling, mapping, and monitoring for marine biology, environmental, and security pur a similar level of automation. More than 70% of our planet is covered by water. It is widely believed for underwater sensor networks that will (a) auto- mate data collection and scale-up in time and space, (b) speed

Farritor, Shane

282

An Underwater Network Testbed: Design, Implementation and Measurement  

E-print Network

.00. complicated aquatic environments and underwater acoustic com- munication, however, require a standard platform deployed in real underwater environments, which can be used to test, evaluate, and compare different of the field. To bridge the gap between real system implementation and mod- elling/simulation evaluation

Cui, Jun-Hong

283

Battery Lifetime Estimation and Optimization for Underwater Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic technology has been established as the exclusive technology that provides robust underwater communications for military and civilian applications. One particular civilian application of interest is the deployment of underwater acoustic sensor networks. The main challenges of deploying such a network are the cost and the limited battery resources of individual sensor nodes. Here, we provide a method that addresses

Raja Jurdak; Cristina Videira Lopes; Pierre Baldi

2006-01-01

284

A camcorder for 3D underwater reconstruction of archeological objects  

E-print Network

map of the zone (coastal oceanographic or fluvial archaeology applications). This map is to analyze natural underwater scenes and especially the 3D cartography of submarine environments. Many in the fusion of two kinds of maps obtained with sensors of different resolutions. An Autonomous Underwater

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

285

Toward large-area mosaicing for underwater scientific applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe attenuation and backscatter of light fundamentally limits our ability to image extended underwater scenes. Generating a composite view or mosaic from multiple overlapping images is usually the most practical and flexible way around this limitation. In this paper, we look at the general constraints associated with imaging from underwater vehicles for scientific applications - low overlap, nonuniform lighting, and

Oscar Pizarro; Hanumant Singh

2003-01-01

286

76 FR 52734 - Underwater Locating Devices (Acoustic) (Self-Powered)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

This notice announces the planned revocation of all Technical Standard Order authorizations (TSOA) issued for the production of Underwater Locating Devices (Acoustic) (Self-Powered) manufactured to the TSO-C121 and TSO-C121a specifications. These actions are necessary because the planned issuance of TSO-C121b, Underwater Locating Devices (Acoustic) (Self-Powered), with a minimum performance......

2011-08-23

287

Wormhole-Resilient Secure Neighbor Discovery in Underwater Acoustic Networks  

E-print Network

Wormhole-Resilient Secure Neighbor Discovery in Underwater Acoustic Networks Rui Zhang and Yanchao,yczhang}@njit.edu Abstract--Neighbor discovery is a fundamental requirement and need be done frequently in underwater acoustic networks (UANs) with floating node mobility. In hostile environments, neighbor discovery

Zhang, Rui

288

UNDERWATER TELEVISION VEHICLE FOR USE IN FISHERIES RESEARCH  

E-print Network

in operation involves motion underwater, an improved means of continued observation was required to see Dimensions of Underwater Television Vehicle and Stabilizing Rudder 5 3. Camera vessel. 6 Ua. View of drive in operation has allowed but a small measure of success by trial and error methods. Since most fishing gear

289

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Procedure on Accounting for Quasi Underwater Endowments  

E-print Network

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Procedure on Accounting for Quasi Underwater Endowments For all UW endowments for Quasi Endowments: 1. Underwater Quasi endowment funds will not receive the entire spending. 4. Quarterly, UW endowment spending funds will be reviewed. a. If the fund balance is positive

Salama, Khaled

290

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Procedure on Accounting for True Underwater Endowments  

E-print Network

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Procedure on Accounting for True Underwater Endowments Is the endowment Underwater (UW) as of June 30, 2011? a. Calculation: Book +/- Market Value = Appreciation b. If Appreciation is less than $0, YES, endowment is UW for FY12 c. All other endowments are classified as Above

Salama, Khaled

291

Visual-adaptation-mechanism based underwater object extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the major obstacles originating from the strong light absorption and scattering in a dynamic underwater environment, underwater optical information acquisition and processing suffer from effects such as limited range, non-uniform lighting, low contrast, and diminished colors, causing it to become the bottleneck for marine scientific research and projects. After studying and generalizing the underwater biological visual mechanism, we explore its advantages in light adaption which helps animals to precisely sense the underwater scene and recognize their prey or enemies. Then, aiming to transform the significant advantage of the visual adaptation mechanism into underwater computer vision tasks, a novel knowledge-based information weighting fusion model is established for underwater object extraction. With this bionic model, the dynamical adaptability is given to the underwater object extraction task, making them more robust to the variability of the optical properties in different environments. The capability of the proposed method to adapt to the underwater optical environments is shown, and its outperformance for the object extraction is demonstrated by comparison experiments.

Chen, Zhe; Wang, Huibin; Xu, Lizhong; Shen, Jie

2014-03-01

292

Causes and effects of underwater noise on fish abundance estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power of modern research vessels using diesel engines means significant levels of noise may be radiated underwater. At low frequencies a surveying vessel must not cause fish avoidance behaviour when it is using trawl or acoustic assessment methods. All the main mechanisms that form the essential propulsion system are described and discussed in terms of underwater radiated noise. Diesel

Ron B Mitson; Hans P Knudsen

2003-01-01

293

Evaluating the SCC resistance of underwater welds in sodium tetrathionate  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility of welds to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is enhanced by the surface residual tensile stresses generated by the typical welding process. However, underwater plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding has been shown to produce compressive surface residual stresses, an encouraging result if repairs of cracked boiling water reactor (BWR) components are to be made without further endangering them to SCC. This program was designed to verify that underwater PTA welds are resistant to SCC and to determine if underwater PTA welding could mitigate SCC in potentially susceptible welds. This was achieved by exposing various welds on solution annealed (SA) and SA + thermally sensitized 304 stainless steel at 25 C in a solution of 1.5 gm/liter of sodium sulfide added to 0.05M sodium tetrathionate, titrated to a pH of 1.25 with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The autogeneous welds were produced using gas tungsten arc (GTA) and plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding under atmospheric conditions, and PTA welding underwater. After 1 hour of sodium tetrathionate exposure, GTA and air PTA welds exhibited SCC while the underwater PTA weld heat affected zones were more resistant. Underwater PTA welds bisecting a GTA weld eliminated the cracking in the GTA weld heat affected zone under certain conditions. The lack of IG cracking in the region influenced by the underwater PTA weld is consistent with the measurement of compressive surface residual stresses inherent to the underwater welding process.

White, R.A.; Angeliu, T.M. [General Electric Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States). Corporate Research and Development

1997-12-01

294

Solar underwater glider of photovoltaic system research and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar PV systems for underwater glider to solve the energy shortage, in this paper. First, establishes the mathematical model of solar panels equipped with underwater glider, and then analyzes the characteristics of solar radiation, and then gives the energy output of solar panels formula, and completed a solar photovoltaic system design, finally a brief analysis of the feasibility of carrying

Yu Zhang; Peiwu Xu

2010-01-01

295

Active Visual SLAM with Exploration for Autonomous Underwater Navigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the major challenges in the field of underwater robotics is the opacity of the water medium to radio frequency transmission modes, which precludes the use of a global positioning system (GPS) and high speed radio communication in underwater navigat...

A. Kim

2012-01-01

296

Interval SLAM for underwater robots; a new experiment  

E-print Network

Interval SLAM for underwater robots; a new experiment Fabrice LE BARS Alain BERTHOLOM Jan SLIWKA the results of an interval SLAM (Simultaneous Localization And Mapping) method. The SLAM problem is cast). Keywords: SLAM; interval analysis; underwater robot; constraint propagation; set-membership estimation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

297

Surfacers change their dive tactics depending on the aim of the dive: evidence from simultaneous measurements of breaths and energy expenditure.  

PubMed

Air-breathing divers are assumed to have evolved to apportion their time between surface and underwater periods to maximize the benefit gained from diving activities. However, whether they change their time allocation depending on the aim of the dive is still unknown. This may be particularly crucial for 'surfacers' because they dive for various purposes in addition to foraging. In this study, we counted breath events at the surface and estimated oxygen consumption during resting, foraging and other dives in 11 green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the wild. Breath events were counted by a head-mounted acceleration logger or direct observation based on an animal-borne video logger, and oxygen consumption was estimated by measuring overall dynamic body acceleration. Our results indicate that green turtles maximized their submerged time, following this with five to seven breaths to replenish oxygen for resting dives. However, they changed their dive tactic during foraging and other dives; they surfaced without depleting their estimated stores of oxygen, followed by only a few breaths for effective foraging and locomotion. These dichotomous surfacing tactics would be the result of behavioural modifications by turtles depending on the aim of each dive. PMID:25297856

Okuyama, Junichi; Tabata, Runa; Nakajima, Kana; Arai, Nobuaki; Kobayashi, Masato; Kagawa, Shiro

2014-11-22

298

Infinite Lifetime of Underwater Superhydrophobic States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submerged superhydrophobic (SHPo) surfaces are well known to transition from the dewetted to wetted state over time. Here, a theoretical model is applied to describe the depletion of trapped air in a simple trench and rearranged to prescribe the conditions for infinite lifetime. By fabricating a microscale trench in a transparent hydrophobic material, we directly observe the air depletion process and verify the model. The study leads to the demonstration of infinite lifetime (>50 days) of air pockets on engineered microstructured surfaces under water for the first time. Environmental fluctuations are identified as the main factor behind the lack of a long-term underwater SHPo state to date.

Xu, Muchen; Sun, Guangyi; Kim, Chang-Jin

2014-09-01

299

Pipeline inspection using an autonomous underwater vehicle  

SciTech Connect

Pipeline inspection can be carried out by means of small Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), operating either with a control link to a surface vessel, or totally independently. The AUV offers an attractive alternative to conventional inspection methods where Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) or paravanes are used. A flatfish type AUV ``MARTIN`` (Marine Tool for Inspection) has been developed for this purpose. The paper describes the proposed types of inspection jobs to be carried out by ``MARTIN``. The design and construction of the vessel, its hydrodynamic properties, its propulsion and control systems are discussed. The pipeline tracking and survey systems, as well as the launch and recovery systems are described.

Egeskov, P.; Bech, M. [Maridan Aps., Hoersholm (Denmark); Bowley, R. [TSS Ltd., Weston-on-the-Green (United Kingdom); Aage, C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Ocean Engineering

1995-12-31

300

Modeling the concentration of ethanol in the exhaled breath following pretest breathing maneuvers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously developed mathematical model that describes the relationship between blood alcohol (ethanol) concentration and\\u000a the concentration of alcohol in the exhaled breath at end-exhalation (BrAC) has been used to quantitate the effect of pretest\\u000a breathing conditios on BrAC. The model was first used to “condition” the airways with different breathing maneuvers prior\\u000a to simulating a single exhalation maneuver, the

Steven C. George; Albert L. Babb; Michael P. Hlastala

1995-01-01

301

Regular slow-breathing exercise effects on blood pressure and breathing patterns at rest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies reported that a device-guided slow-breathing (DGB) exercise decreases resting blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients. This study investigated the effects of daily practice of DGB on (a) 24-h BP and breathing patterns in the natural environment, as well as (b) BP and breathing pattern during clinic rest. Altogether, 40 participants with pre-hypertension or stage 1 hypertension were trained

D E Anderson; J D McNeely; B G Windham

2010-01-01

302

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

Brandt, D.

1984-06-05

303

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

Brandt, Daniel (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

304

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is disclosed for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area. 3 figs.

Brandt, D.

1985-12-31

305

The radon EDM apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) at current experimentally accessible levels would provide clear evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. EDMs violate CP symmetry, making them a possible route to explaining the size of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe. The Radon EDM Experiment aims to search for an EDM in radon isotopes whose sensitivity to CP-odd interactions is enhanced by octupole-deformed nuclei. A prototype apparatus currently installed in the ISAC hall at TRIUMF includes a gas handling system to move radon from a collection foil to a measurement cell and auxiliary equipment for polarization diagnostics and validation. The features and capabilities of the apparatus are described and an overview of the experimental design for a gamma-ray-anisotropy based EDM measurement is provided.

Tardiff, E. R.; Rand, E. T.; Ball, G. C.; Chupp, T. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P.; Hayden, M. E.; Kierans, C. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Pearson, M. R.; Schaub, C.; Svensson, C. E.

2014-01-01

306

Image display apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An image display apparatus includes: a display displaying an image with a predetermined number of pixels; an image holding unit holding an original image composed of a number of pixels larger than a number of pixels that is displayable on the display; and an object judgment unit judging whether or not an object is included in the original image held in the image holding unit, and generating object information related to the object in a case where the object is included in the original image. The image display apparatus also includes a display image generation unit extracting at least a part of an object area from the original image based on the original image specified by the user as well as on the object information corresponding to the original image, and generating a display image composed of a number of pixels corresponding to the number of pixels that is displayable on the display.

2008-12-23

307

Ophthalmic method and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for removing material and components such as the lens from an eye is described. High speed rotary cutting members at one end of a rod macerate the lens while an annular tubing disposed around the cutting members vibrates ultrasonically to coact with the cutting members in macerating the lens. At the same time, a liquid is supplied to the chamber behind the cornea of the eye. Spiral grooves extending along the rotating rod from the cutting members evacuate the liquid and the macerated material from the eye. An alternate embodiment of the apparatus includes a tube through which liquid is supplied to the operative site of the ultrasonically vibrating tube and the cutting members in the area of the lens.

Evvard, J. C.; Mcgannon, W. J.; Vargo, D. J. (inventors)

1973-01-01

308

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Moore, Troy K. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

309

Electrowinning apparatus and process  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and processes are disclosed for electrowinning metal from a fluid stream. A representative apparatus comprises at least one spouted bed reactor wherein each said reactor includes an anolyte chamber comprising an anode and configured for containing an anolyte, a catholyte chamber comprising a current collector and configured for containing a particulate cathode bed and a flowing stream of an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid, and a membrane separating said anolyte chamber and said catholyte chamber, an inlet for an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid stream; and a particle bed churning device configured for spouting particle bed particles in the catholyte chamber independently of the flow of said metal-containing fluid stream. In operation, reduced heavy metals or their oxides are recovered from the cathode particles.

Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

2012-06-19

310

Oil recovery apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An oil spill recovery method and apparatus is disclosed. The method of recovery involves the pumping of an oil/water mixture from a concentration area to the submerged portion of a vertically oriented cylinder, open at both ends, and the separation of the oil from the water in the cylinder. Oil floats to and accumulates on the surface of the water in the cylinder and uncontaminated water flows out through the lower open end of the cylinder. The apparatus includes a collection unit which defines the concentration area within three walls thereof, a recovery unit which follows the collection unit and mounts the cylinder therein, and a submerged pumping unit which carries an oil/water mixture from the concentration area in the collection unit to the cylinder in the recovery unit. There is very little emulsification of the oil in the cylinder and hence there is very efficient separation onf the oil from the water.

Wylie, M. M.

1985-04-09

311

Visual examination apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated visual examination apparatus for measuring visual sensitivity and mapping blind spot location including a projection system for displaying to a patient a series of visual stimuli. A response switch enables him to indicate his reaction to the stimuli, and a recording system responsive to both the visual stimuli per se and the patient's response. The recording system thereby provides a correlated permanent record of both stimuli and response from which a substantive and readily apparent visual evaluation can be made.

Haines, R. F.; Fitzgerald, J. W.; Rositano, S. A. (inventors)

1976-01-01

312

Portable cutting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

Gilmore, R.F.

1984-07-17

313

Kinesimetric method and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and method for the determination of functional capability of bodies are disclosed. Reach as well as velocity, acceleration and force generation at various positions may be determined for a body by a three dimensional kinesimeter equipped with an ergometer. A general data package indicative of performance potential of a subject body or collection of bodies is provided for interfacing with data characteristics of various environments.

Thornton, W. E. (inventor)

1980-01-01

314

Lunar deep drill apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

1989-01-01

315

Ion beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

1987-12-22

316

Demand illumination control apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar illuminating compensating apparatus is disclosed whereby the interior of a building is illuminated to a substantially constant, predetermined level of light intensity by a combination of natural illumination from the sun and artificial illumination from electricity wherein the intensity of said artificial illumination is controlled by fully electronic means which increases the level of artificial illumination when the natural illumination is inadequate and vice versa.

Warren, Carl (Inventor); Arline, Jimmie (Inventor); LaPalme, Julius (Inventor)

1981-01-01

317

Apparatus Circulates Sterilizing Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus circulates sterilizing gas containing ethylene oxide and chlorofluorocarbon through laboratory or medical equipment. Confines sterilizing gas, circulating it only through parts to be treated. Consists of two units. One delivers ethylene oxide/chlorofluorocarbon gas mixture and removes gas after treatment. Other warms, humidifies, and circulates gas through equipment to be treated. Process provides reliable sterilization with negligible residual toxicity from ethylene oxide. Particularly suitable for sterilization of interiors of bioreactors, heart/lung machines, dialyzers, or other equipment including complicated tubing.

Cross, John H.; Schwarz, Ray P.

1991-01-01

318

Fire suppressing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubes depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, Kenneth E. (Northridge, CA)

1982-11-02

319

Portable cutting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

Gilmore, Richard F. (Kennewick, WA)

1986-01-01

320

Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian ( ... Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (??????????) French (français) Incentive Spirometer Spiromètre incitatif - français (French) Bilingual PDF ...

321

Breathing Better with a COPD Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... breathiNg? When lungs are healthy, the airways and air sacs have an elastic, flexible quality. They expand to ... in and out. In people with COPD, the air sacs no longer bounce back to their original shape, ...

322

Just Breathe Green: Measuring Transpiration Rates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through multi-trial experiments, students are able to see and measure something that is otherwise invisible to themâseeing plants breathe. Student groups are given two small plants of native species and materials to enclose them after watering with colored water. After being enclosed for 5, 10 and 15 minutes, teams collect and measure the condensed water from the plants' "breathing," and then calculate the rates at which the plants breathe. A plant's breath is known as transpiration, which is the flow of water from the ground where it is taken up by roots (plant uptake) and then lost through the leaves. Students plot volume/time data for three different native plant species, determine and compare their transpiration rates to see which had the highest reaction rate and consider how a plant's unique characteristics (leaf surface area, transpiration rate) might figure into engineers' designs for neighborhood stormwater management plans.

Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET),

323

Method and apparatus for non-invasive evaluation of diaphragmatic function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for non-invasive evaluation of diaphragmatic function in humans measures the thickness of the diaphragm in real time with an ultrasonic device, and displays the variations of diaphragm thickness versus time. Formulae are given for calculating a quantitative value for the reserve fatigue capacity of a patient's diaphragm from data obtained by measuring the time limits for maintaining a constant breathing pattern on the display at two different pressure differentials in series with the patient's airways. An apparatus for displaying the diaphragm thickness in real time is also described. The method can be used both on healthy patients and on patients with so severe breathing dysfunctions that they require breathing support from respirators.

Yost, William T. (inventor); Wait, Juliette L. (inventor); Nahormek, Patricia A. (inventor); Cantrell, John H. (inventor); Hanna-Hawver, Pamela D. (inventor)

1995-01-01

324

Wellbore fluid sampling apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for capturing a sample of fluid from a wellbore characterized by: an elongated generally tubular body member, the body member including means for connecting the apparatus to means for lowering the apparatus into a wellbore; the body member including means defining a generally cylindrical bore and port means in the body member opening into the bore for conducting a flow of fluid to be sampled into the bore; piston means disposed in the bore and dividing the bore into first and second chambers, the first chamber being operable to be in flow communication with the port means for receiving the fluid sample through the port means, and the second chamber being filled with a displacement fluid to prevent displacement of the piston means to increase the volume of the first chamber; valve means in communication with the second chamber for selectively valving displacement fluid from the second chamber to permit the piston means to increase the volume of the first chamber; and closure means for the first chamber for closing off communication of the first chamber with the port means when the first chamber has received the fluid sample.

Petermann, S.G.

1988-08-30

325

[Sleep-disordered breathing and dentofacial development].  

PubMed

Humans breathe an average of 20 times per minute, totalling about 30,000 times a day, and swallow nearly 2,000 times a day. These functions are vital for life. Growing children must adapt their developing structures to various destabilizing processes. When these factors outweigh the compensatory mechanisms, growth may become unbalanced by favoring the development of pathological processes such as sleep breathing disorders. PMID:21354491

Cobo Plana, Juan; de Carlos Villafranca, Félix

2010-12-01

326

Breathing costs, lifejacket inflation and parachute harnesses  

E-print Network

BREATHING COSTS LIFEJACXET INFLATION AND PARACHUTE HARNESSES A Thesis by RAYMOND ALAN JORDAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the reauirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 1974 Major Subject: Industrial Enqineerinq BREATHING COSTS~ LIFEJACKET INFLATION PARACHVTE HARNESSES A Thesis by RAIMOND ALAN JORDAN Approved as to style and content by: Put' ~ Chairman of Committee) Head of Depa tment (Member) (Member...

Jordan, Raymond Alan

2012-06-07

327

Breathing patterns during eccentric exercise.  

PubMed

Eccentric (ECC) work is interesting for rehabilitation purposes because it is more efficient than concentric (CON). This study assessed respiratory patterns and electromyographic activity (EMG) during ECC and CON cycling, both at similar power outputs and VO2 in eight healthy male subjects. Measurements include ventilation (VE), tidal volume (Vt), breathing frequency (Fb), arterial blood gases, and vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps brachii (BB) EMG. At the same mechanical power, VO2 and VE were fivefold lower in ECC as was VL EMG while BB EMG, Vd/Vt, PaO2 and PaCO2, were not different between modalities. At the same VO2, there was no difference in VE but Vt was lower and Fb higher in ECC. VL EMG was not different between modalities while BB EMG was higher in ECC. The latter observation suggests that ECC cycling may result in arm bracing and restricted chest expansion. Since hyperpnea is a known trigger of exaggerated dynamic hyperinflation, the prescription of ECC cycling for patient rehabilitation requires further assessment. PMID:25083913

Lechauve, J B; Perrault, H; Aguilaniu, B; Isner-Horobeti, M E; Martin, V; Coudeyre, E; Richard, R

2014-10-01

328

Breath-based biomarkers for tuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the potential of breath analysis by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to discriminate between samples collected prospectively from patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB). Samples were obtained in a TB endemic setting in South Africa where 28% of the culture proven TB patients had a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) negative sputum smear. A training set of breath samples from 50 sputum culture proven TB patients and 50 culture negative non-TB patients was analyzed by GC-MS. A classification model with 7 compounds resulted in a training set with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 79% compared with culture. The classification model was validated with an independent set of breath samples from 21 TB and 50 non-TB patients. A sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 84% and accuracy of 77% was found. We conclude that the 7 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that discriminate breath samples from TB and non-TB patients in our study population are probably host-response related VOCs and are not derived from the VOCs secreted by M. tuberculosis. It is concluded that at present GC-MS breath analysis is able to differentiate between TB and non-TB breath samples even among patients with a negative ZN sputum smear but a positive culture for M. tuberculosis. Further research is required to improve the sensitivity and specificity before this method can be used in routine laboratories.

Kolk, Arend H. J.; van Berkel, Joep J. B. N.; Claassens, Mareli M.; Walters, Elisabeth; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Dallinga, Jan W.; van Schooten, Fredrik-Jan

2012-06-01

329

Swimming in air-breathing fishes.  

PubMed

Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in swim flumes stimulated air-breathing behaviour, and there is evidence that surfacing frequency and oxygen uptake from air show an exponential increase with increasing swimming speed. In some species, this was associated with an increase in the proportion of aerobic metabolism met by aerial respiration, while in others the proportion remained relatively constant. The ecological significance of anaerobic swimming activities, such as sprinting and fast-start manoeuvres during predator-prey interactions, has been little studied in air-breathing fishes. Some species practise air breathing during recovery itself, while others prefer to increase aquatic respiration, possibly to promote branchial ion exchange to restore acid-base balance, and to remain quiescent and avoid being visible to predators. Overall, the diversity of air-breathing fishes is reflected in their swimming physiology as well, and further research is needed to increase the understanding of the differences and the mechanisms through which air breathing is controlled and used during exercise. PMID:24502687

Lefevre, S; Domenici, P; McKenzie, D J

2014-03-01

330

Historical perspectives on the control of breathing.  

PubMed

Among the several topics included in respiratory studies investigators have focused on the control of breathing for a relatively few number of years, perhaps only the last 75 to 80. For a very long time, the phenomenon of respiration presented a great mystery. The Chinese had suggestions for proper breathing, and later the Egyptians sought to understand its purpose. But in the western world, the early Greeks made the more significant observations. Centuries passed before the anatomical structures pertinent to respiration were properly visualized and located. There followed efforts to understand if lung movement was necessary for life and what happened in the lung. The rise of chemistry in the 18th century eventually clarified the roles of the gases significant in respiratory behavior. More time was needed to understand what gases provoked increases in breathing and where those gases worked. At this point, control of breathing became a significant focus of respiratory investigators. Studies included identifying the structures and functions of central and peripheral chemoreceptors, and airway receptors, sources of respiratory rhythm and pattern generation, the impact of the organism's status on its breathing including environment and disease/trauma. At this same time, mid- to late-20th century, efforts to mathematicize the variables in the control of breathing appeared. So though wonderment about the mysterious phenomenon of respiration began over two millennia ago, serious physiological investigation into its control is by comparison very young. PMID:23798292

Fitzgerald, Robert S; Cherniack, Neil S

2012-04-01

331

Hydrogen breath tests in gastrointestinal diseases.  

PubMed

Hydrogen breath tests are widely used to explore pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and carbohydrate malabsorption are disorders detected by these tests that have been proposed to be of great importance for symptoms of GI diseases. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for diagnosis of SIBO whereas lactose and fructose hydrogen breath tests are used for detection of lactose and fructose maldigestion respectively. Lactulose hydrogen breath test is also used widely to measure the orocecal transit time for GI motility. These methods are noninvasive and inexpensive. Many patients with functional gut disorders are unaware of the relationship between diet and GI symptoms they present. In particular, patients with chronic symptoms may regard their condition as normal and may not be aware that their symptoms can be effectively managed following a proper diagnosis. Patients with symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and altered bowel movements (diarrhea and constipation), or with a medical diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome or celiac disease, may have undiagnosed carbohydrate malabsorption or SIBO. Hydrogen breath tests are specific and sensitive diagnostic tests that can be used to either confirm or eliminate the possibility of carbohydrate malabsorption or SIBO in such patients. Breath tests, though valuable tools, are underutilized in evaluating dyspepsia and functional bloating and diarrhea as well as suspected malabsorption. However, because of their simplicity, reproducibility and safety of procedure they are now being substituted to more uncomfortable and expensive techniques that were traditionally used in gastroenterology. PMID:25298621

Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

2014-10-01

332

Exhaled breath analysis for lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis of lung cancer results in improved survival compared to diagnosis with more advanced disease. Early disease is not reliably indicated by symptoms. Because investigations such as bronchoscopy and needle biopsy have associated risks and substantial costs, they are not suitable for population screening. Hence new easily applicable tests, which can be used to screen individuals at risk, are required. Biomarker testing in exhaled breath samples is a simple, relatively inexpensive, non-invasive approach. Exhaled breath contains volatile and non-volatile organic compounds produced as end-products of metabolic processes and the composition of such compounds varies between healthy subjects and subjects with lung cancer. Many studies have analysed the patterns of these compounds in exhaled breath. In addition studies have also reported that the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can reveal gene mutations or DNA abnormalities in patients with lung cancer. This review has summarised the scientific evidence demonstrating that lung cancer has distinct chemical profiles in exhaled breath and characteristic genetic changes in EBC. It is not yet possible to accurately identify individuals with lung cancer in at risk populations by any of these techniques. However, analysis of both volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and of EBC have great potential to become clinically useful diagnostic and screening tools for early stage lung cancer detection. PMID:24163746

Sutedja, Tom G.; Zimmerman, Paul V.

2013-01-01

333

A free-breathing lung motion model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer deaths for decades in the United States. Although radiotherapy is one of the most effective treatments, side effects from error in delivery of radiation due to organ motion during breathing remain a significant issue. To compensate the breathing motion during the treatment, a free breathing lung motion model, x= x0+?v+betaf, was developed and discussed, where x is the position of a piece of tissue located at reference position x0. ? is a parameter which characterizes the motion due to local air filling (motion as a function of tidal volume) and beta is the parameter that accounts for the motion due to the imbalance of dynamical stress distributions during inspiration and exhalation which cause lung motion hysteresis (motion as a function of airflow). The parameters ? and beta together provide a quantitative characterization of breathing motion that inherently includes the complex hysteresis interplay. The theoretical foundation of the model was built by investigating the stress distribution inside of a lung and the biomechanical properties of the lung tissues. Accuracy of the model was investigated by using 49 free-breathing patient data sets. Applications of the model in localizing lung cancer, monitoring radiation damage and suppressing artifacts in free-breathing PET images were also discussed. This work supported in part by NIHR01CA096679 and NIHR01CA116712.

Zhao, Tianyu

334

Last Progress in Underwater Electrical Wire Explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the investigation of the underwater electrical wire explosions using a high power nanosecond timescale generator are reported. The spectroscopic analysis of the emitted radiation has unveiled no evidence for the formation of shunting plasma channel. The latter appears in vacuum and gas wire explosions and causes to the seizure of energy deposition into an exploding wire material. The combination of mechanism for the suppression of formation of shunting channel together with the increased energy deposition rate allow busting the efficiency of energy deposition into the exploding wire. Estimated energy deposition into Cu and Al wire material of up to 200 eV/atom was reported. Careful analysis of the generated shock waves show, that 15 % of the deposited energy is transferred into the mechanical energy of the produced water flow. In addition experiments with converging shock waves produced by underwater explosion of cylindrical wire arrays demonstrated the possibility of producing shock waves with pressure amplitude up to 0.25 Mbar at 0.1 mm distance from the axis of the implosion.

Grinenko, Alon; Sayapin, Arkady; Efimov, Sergey; Fedotov, Alexander; Krasik, Yakov E.

335

Range Imaging for Underwater Vision Enhancement  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results from a series of preliminary tests to evaluate a scannerless range-imaging device as a potential sensory enhancement tool for divers and as a potential identification sensor for deployment on small unmanned underwater vehicles. The device, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, forms an image on the basis of point-to-point range to the target rather than an intensity map. The range image is constructed through a classical continuous wave phase detection technique in which the light source is amplitude modulated at radio frequencies. The receiver incorporates a gain-modulated image intensifier, and range information is calculated on the basis of the phase difference between the transmitted and reflected signal. The initial feasibility test at the Coastal Systems Station showed the device to be effective at imaging low-contrast underwater targets such as concertina wire. It also demonstrated success at imaging a 21-inch sphere at a depth of 10 feet in the water column through a wavy air-water interface.

Rish, J.W.; Blume, B.; Nellums, B.; Sackos, J.; Foster, J.; Wood, J.L.

1999-04-19

336

SPH and Eulerian underwater bubble collapse simulations  

SciTech Connect

SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) is a gridless Lagrangian technique which is appealing as a possible alternative to numerical techniques currently used to analyze high deformation impulsive loading events. Previously, the SPH algorithm has been subjected to detailed testing and analysis to determine the feasibility of using the coupled finite-element/SPH code PRONTO/SPH for the analysis of various types of underwater explosion problems involving fluid-structure and shock-structure interactions. Here, SPH and Eulerian simulations are used to study the details of underwater bubble collapse, particularly the formation of re-entrant jets during collapse, and the loads generated on nearby structures by the jet and the complete collapse of the bubble. Jet formation is shown to be due simply to the asymmetry caused by nearby structures which disrupt the symmetry of the collapse. However, the load generated by the jet is a minor precursor to the major loads which occur at the time of complete collapse of the bubble.

Swegle, J.W.; Kipp, M.E.

1998-05-01

337

Underwater wet welding (a state of the art report)  

SciTech Connect

This practical report discusses recent advancements in shielded metal arc underwater wet welding technology including wet welds made with ferritic, stainless steel and nickel welding electrodes that meet the requirement of welds made above water. Also discussed is a unique multiple temper bead welding technique that prevents hydrogen induced cracking in the heat affected zones (HAZ) of crack susceptible high strength steels and produces wet weldments with acceptable levels of HAZ hardness and notch toughness. The report recognizes current underwater developmental programs and describes underwater wet welded repairs made on offshore structures, harbor facilities and nuclear power plants and reports their fitness for purpose after ten to twenty years of service.

Grubbs, C.E. [Global Divers and Contractors, Inc., Lafayette, LA (United States). Underwater Welding Research and Development

1993-12-31

338

Chemical sensors for breath gas analysis: the latest developments at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013.  

PubMed

Profiling the body chemistry by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath opens exciting new avenues in medical diagnostics. Gas sensors could provide ideal platforms for realizing portable, hand-held breath testing devices in the near future. This review summarizes the latest developments and applications in the field of chemical sensors for diagnostic breath testing that were presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013 in Wallerfangen, Germany. Considerable progress has been made towards clinically applicable breath testing devices, especially by utilizing chemo-sensitive nanomaterials. Examples of several specialized breath testing applications are presented that are either based on stand-alone nanomaterial-based sensors being highly sensitive and specific to individual breath compounds over others, or on combinations of several highly specific sensors, or on experimental nanomaterial-based sensors arrays. Other interesting approaches include the adaption of a commercially available MOx-based sensor array to indirect breath testing applications, using a sample pre-concentration method, and the development of compact integrated GC-sensor systems. The recent trend towards device integration has led to the development of fully integrated prototypes of point-of-care devices. We describe and compare the performance of several prototypes that are based on different sensing technologies and evaluate their potential as low-cost and readily available next-generation medical devices. PMID:24682160

Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

2014-06-01

339

Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise.  

PubMed

Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in physiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH, intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications. PMID:7180696

Lo, C W; Carter, E A; Walker, W A

1982-01-01

340

Development of Underwater Laser Cladding and Underwater Laser Seal Welding Techniques for Reactor Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been reported at the aged components in many nuclear power plants. Toshiba has been developing the underwater laser welding. This welding technique can be conducted without draining the water in the reactor vessel. It is beneficial for workers not to exposure the radiation. The welding speed can be attaining twice as fast as that of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). The susceptibility of SCC can also be lower than the Alloy 600 base metal.

Hino, Takehisa; Tamura, Masataka; Tanaka, Yoshimi; Kouno, Wataru; Makino, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Shohei; Matsunaga, Keiji

341

Mixing method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

Green, Norman W. (Redwood City, CA)

1982-06-15

342

Energy efficient apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An energy efficient apparatus is described suitable for use in hot arid climates wherein a source of water is available, comprising in combination: (A) a wheel member having a hub portion and a rim portion, the wheel portion being submerged within the water to a depth sufficient to more than immerse the wheel member hub portion, the wheel member having a plurality of spoke means equally disposed of about the circumference of the hub portion disposed between the hub portion and the rim portion.

Suroff, H.

1986-09-02

343

Sonic levitation apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sonic levitation apparatus is disclosed which includes a sonic transducer which generates acoustical energy responsive to the level of an electrical amplifier. A duct communicates with an acoustical chamber to deliver an oscillatory motion of air to a plenum section which contains a collimated hole structure having a plurality of parallel orifices. The collimated hole structure converts the motion of the air to a pulsed. Unidirectional stream providing enough force to levitate a material specimen. Particular application to the production of microballoons in low gravity environment is discussed.

Dunn, S. A.; Pomplum, A. R.; Paquette, E. G.; Ethridge, E. C.; Johnson, J. L. (inventors)

1984-01-01

344

Combustion Experiment Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior of a combustion experiment apparatus used in the 2.2-second drop tower at NASA's Glenn Research Center. This was shown to students participating in the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

2002-01-01

345

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

Mayberry, J.L.

1988-04-13

346

DNA Sequencing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An automated DNA sequencing apparatus having a reactor for providing at least two series of DNA products formed from a single primer and a DNA strand, each DNA product of a series differing in molecular weight and having a chain terminating agent at one end; separating means for separating the DNA products to form a series bands, the intensity of substantially all nearby bands in a different series being different, band reading means for determining the position an This invention was made with government support including a grant from the U.S. Public Health Service, contract number AI-06045. The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.

Tabor, Stanley (Cambridge, MA); Richardson, Charles C. (Chestnut Hill, MA)

1992-01-01

347

Foil changing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A self-contained hermetically sealed foil changer for advancing a portion of foil web into a position normal to the path of a high energy particle beam. The path of the beam is defined generally by an aperture plate and cooperating axially movable barrel such that the barrel can be advanced toward the plate thereby positioning a portion of the foil across the beam path and sealing the foil between the barrel and the plate to form a membrane across said beam path. A spooling apparatus contained in the foil changer permits selectively advancing a fresh supply of foil across the beam path without breaking the foil changer seal.

Crist, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ives, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Leifeste, Gordon T. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Robert B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01

348

Apparatus for chemical synthesis  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herring, J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-05-10

349

Optoelectronic Apparatus Measures Glucose Noninvasively  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optoelectronic apparatus has been invented as a noninvasive means of measuring the concentration of glucose in the human body. The apparatus performs polarimetric and interferometric measurements of the human eye to acquire data from which the concentration of glucose in the aqueous humor can be computed. Because of the importance of the concentration of glucose in human health, there could be a large potential market for instruments based on this apparatus.

Ansari, Rafat R.; Rovati, Luigi L.

2003-01-01

350

Regulatory issues on breath tests and updates of recent advances on [13C]-breath tests.  

PubMed

Over the last decade non invasive diagnostic phenotype [(13)C]-breath tests as well as tests using endogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath have been researched extensively. However, only three breath tests have been approved by the FDA over the last 15 years. Despite the potential benefits of these companion diagnostic tests (CDx) for evaluation of drug metabolizing enzyme activities and standalone diagnostic tests for disease diagnosis to personalize medicine, the clinical and commercial development of breath tests will need to overcome a number of regulatory, financial and scientific hurdles prior to their acceptance into routine clinical practice. The regulatory agencies (FDA and EMEA) need to adapt and harmonize their approval process for companion diagnostic tests as well as standalone diagnostic breath tests for personalized medicine. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health has deemed any breath test that involves a labeled (13)C substrate/drug and a device requires a Pre Market Approval (PMA), which is analogous to an approved New Drug Application. A PMA is in effect, a private license granted to the applicant for marketing a particular medical device. Any breath test with endogenous VOCs along with a device can be approved via the 510(k) application. A number of (13)C breath tests with clinical applications have been researched recently and results have been published in reputed journals. Diagnostic companies will need to invest the necessary financial resources to develop and get regulatory approval for diagnostic breath tests capable of identifying responders/non responders for FDA approved drugs with narrow therapeutic indices (personalized medicine) or for evaluating the activity of drug metabolizing P450 polymorphic enzymes or for diagnosing diseases at an early stage or for monitoring the efficacy of medications. The financial success of these diagnostic breath tests will then depend entirely on how the test is marketed to physicians, healthcare organizations, payers (reimbursement), insurance companies and most importantly to patients, the eventual beneficiaries. PMID:23774086

Modak, Anil S

2013-09-01

351

Pulse Ejection Presentation System Synchronized with Breathing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trials on transmission of olfactory information together with audio/visual information are currently being conducted in the field of multimedia. However, continuous emission of scents in high concentration creates problems of human adaptation and remnant odors in air. To overcome such problems we developed an olfactory display in conjunction with Canon Inc. This display has high emission control in the ink-jet so that it can provide stable pulse emission of scents. Humans catch a scent when they breathe in and inhale smell molecules in air. Therefore, it is important that the timing of scent presentation is synchronized with human breathing. We also developed a breath sensor which detects human inspiration. In this study, we combined the olfactory display with the breath sensor to make a pulse ejection presentation system synchronized the breath. The experimental evaluation showed that the system had more than 90 percent of detection rate. Another evaluation was held at KEIO TECHNO-MALL 2007. From questionnaire results of the participants, we found that the system made the user feel continuous sense of smell avoiding adaptation. It is expected that our system enables olfactory information to be synchronized with audio/visual information in arbitrary duration at any time.

Kadowaki, Ami; Sato, Junta; Ohtsu, Kaori; Bannai, Yuichi; Okada, Kenichi

352

On the physics of underwater acoustic communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital communications have been traditionally treated using signal processing approaches. Algorithm and performance is system-model dependent. For underwater acoustic communications, the system model is very complex due to the different channel environmental conditions which can vary rapidly with time, and are location dependent. Performance modeling is difficult without a profound channel model. Work over the last decades have shown that robust performance can be achieved by exploiting the channel physics allowing at the same time an initial estimation of the communication performance. This paper will review the basic signal processing approaches using languages familiar to the physicists/acousticians, point out the communication related physics issues, and discuss how channel physics can be exploited to improve the performance.

Yang, T. C.

2012-11-01

353

Improved Underwater Excitation-Emission Matrix Fluorometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact, high-resolution, two-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorometer (EEMF) has been designed and built specifically for use in identifying and measuring the concentrations of organic compounds, including polluting hydrocarbons, in natural underwater settings. Heretofore, most EEMFs have been designed and built for installation in laboratories, where they are used to analyze the contents of samples collected in the field and brought to the laboratories. Because the present EEMF can be operated in the field, it is better suited to measurement of spatially and temporally varying concentrations of substances of interest. In excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorometry, fluorescence is excited by irradiating a sample at one or more wavelengths, and the fluorescent emission from the sample is measured at multiple wavelengths. When excitation is provided at only one wavelength, the technique is termed one-dimensional (1D) EEM fluorometry because the resulting matrix of fluorescence emission data (the EEM) contains only one row or column. When excitation is provided at multiple wavelengths, the technique is termed two-dimensional (2D) EEM fluorometry because the resulting EEM contains multiple rows and columns. EEM fluorometry - especially the 2D variety - is well established as a means of simultaneously detecting numerous dissolved and particulate compounds in water. Each compound or pool of compounds has a unique spectral fluorescence signature, and each EEM is rich in information content, in that it can contain multiple fluorescence signatures. By use of deconvolution and/or other mixture-analyses techniques, it is often possible to isolate the spectral signature of compounds of interest, even when their fluorescence spectra overlap. What distinguishes the present 2D EEMF over prior laboratory-type 2D EEMFs are several improvements in packaging (including a sealed housing) and other aspects of design that render it suitable for use in natural underwater settings. In addition, the design of the present 2D EEMF incorporates improvements over the one prior commercial underwater 2D EEMF, developed in 1994 by the same company that developed the present one. Notable advanced features of the present EEMF include the following: 1) High sensitivity and spectral resolution are achieved by use of an off-the-shelf grating spectrometer equipped with a sensor in the form of a commercial astronomical- grade 256 532-pixel charge-coupled-device (CCD) array. 2) All of the power supply, timing, control, and readout circuits for the illumination source and the CCD, ancillary environmental monitoring sensors, and circuitry for controlling a shutter or filter motor are custom-designed and mounted compactly on three circuit boards below a fourth circuit board that holds the CCD (see figure). 3) The compactness of the grating spectrometer, CCD, and circuit assembly makes it possible to fit the entire instrument into a compact package that is intended to be maneuverable underwater by one person. 4) In mass production, the cost of the complete instrument would be relatively low - estimated at approximately $30,000 at 2005 prices.

Moore, Casey; daCunha, John; Rhoades, Bruce; Twardowski, Michael

2007-01-01

354

Vector Sensor Arrays in Underwater Acoustic Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, ocean acoustic signals have been acquired using hydrophones, which measure the pressure field and are typically omnidirectional. A vector sensor measures both the acoustic pressure and the three components of particle velocity. Assembled into an array, a vector sensor array (VSA) improves spatial filtering capabilities when compared with arrays of same length and same number of hydrophones. The objective of this work is to show the advantage of the use of vector sensors in underwater acoustic applications such as direction of arrival (DOA) estimation and geoacoustic inversion. Beyond the improvements in DOA estimation, it will be shown the advantages of using the VSA in bottom parameters estimation. Additionally, is tested the possibility of using high frequency signals (say 8-14 kHz band), acquired during the MakaiEx 2005, to allow a small aperture array, reducing the cost of actual sub-bottom profilers and providing a compact and easy-to-deploy system.

Santos, Paulo; Felisberto, Paulo; Jesus, Sérgio M.

355

Development of Underwater Laser Scaling Adapter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the developed laser scaling adapter is presented. The scaling adapter is equipped with a twin laser unit where the two parallel laser beams are projected onto any target giving an exact indication of scale. The body of the laser scaling adapter is made of Teflon, the density of which is approximately two times the water density. The development involved multiple challenges - numerical hydrodynamic calculations for choosing an appropriate shape which would reduce the effects of turbulence, an accurate sealing of the power supply and the laser diodes, and others. The precision is estimated by the partial derivation method. Both experimental and theoretical data conclude the overall precision error to be in the 1% margin. This paper presents the development steps of such an underwater laser scaling adapter for a remotely operated vehicle (ROV).

Bluss, Kaspars

2012-12-01

356

Variable volume calibration apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An apparatus is provided for determining the volume of a closed chamber. The apparatus includes a body having a cylindrical cavity therein including a threaded rear portion and a closed front end, and a piston having a threaded portion which mates with threaded rear portion of the cavity and which reciprocates in the cavity. A gas-impermeable seal, which is carried by the piston in one embodiment, forms a closed chamber in the front end of the cavity. A linear-movement indicator, attached to the rear end of the piston, measures the reciprocating movement of the piston in the cavity, while a pressure sensing device, connected to the front end of the cavity, determines the pressure in the closed system. In use, a vessel, having a volume enclosing experimental materials, is also connected to the front end of the cavity, and pressure and piston movement measurements are made which enable calculation of a volume change in the vessels. The design and operation of this instrument are presented.

Hallman, R. L., Jr.

1991-06-01

357

Variable volume calibration apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is provided for determining the volume of a closed chamber. The apparatus includes a body having a cylindrical cavity therein including a threaded rear portion and a closed front end, and a piston having a threaded portion which mates with threaded rear portion of the cavity and which reciprocates in the cavity. A gas-impermeable seal, which is carried by the piston in one embodiment, forms a closed chamber in the front end of the cavity. A linear-movement indicator, attached to the rear end of the piston, measures the reciprocating movement of the piston in the cavity, while a pressure sensing device, connected to the front end of the cavity, determines the pressure in the closed system. In use, a vessel, having a volume enclosing experimental materials, is also connected to the front end of the cavity, and pressure and piston movement measurements are made which enable calculation of a volume change in the vessels. The design and operation of this instrument are presented. 7 figs.

Hallman, R.L. Jr.

1991-01-01

358

Polarization imaging apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set 11, a linear polarizer 14 with its optical axis 18, a first variable phase retarder 12 with its optical axis 16 aligned 22.5.degree. to axis 18, a second variable phase retarder 13 with its optical axis 17 aligned 45.degree. to axis 18, a imaging sensor 15 for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller 101 and a computer 102. Two variable phase retarders 12 and 13 were controlled independently by a computer 102 through a controller unit 101 which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13. A set of four intensity images, I.sub.0, I.sub.1, I.sub.2 and I.sub.3 of the sample were captured by imaging sensor 15 when the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13 were set at (0,0), (.pi.,0), (.pi.,.pi.) and (.pi./2,.pi.), respectively Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S.sub.0, S.sub.1, S.sub.2 and S.sub.3 were calculated using the four intensity images.

Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor); Zhao, Hongzhi (Inventor)

2010-01-01

359

Fluidized bed calciner apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

Owen, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Klem, Jr., Michael J. (Richland, WA); Cash, Robert J. (Richland, WA)

1988-01-01

360

Agitation apparatus. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

Agitation apparatus includes a tank with a cylindrical upper portion, a frustoconical intermediate portion, and a cylindrical lower portion, a lift tube extending from the upper portion of the tank to a point near an end cap attached to the lower portion of the tank, the lift tube being concentric with the lower portion of the tank to provide a flow passage there between, and a plurality of air supply conduits extending along the lift tube and spaced apart around its perimeter, these air supply conduits terminating adjacent the lower end of the lift tube. Air discharged from the lower ends of the air supply conduits causes liquid in the tank to flow upwardly through the lift tube and out of apertures in the upper portion thereof. Due to the unique properties of nuclear fuel dissolver solutions and the constraint placed on the amount of air that can be injected therein by conventional apparatus, there has been a need for a more effective means for agitating liquid in nuclear fuel digester tanks.

Beets, A.L.; Lewis, B.E. Jr.

1982-03-12

361

Underwater disaster victim identification: the process and the problems.  

PubMed

An underwater disaster may involve a crime scene investigation which should be handled as if it were located above water and include a detailed description and documentation of items, belongings and findings. The environment, however, creates special circumstances, each with specific problems that are not encountered during land investigations. Risks associated with underwater recovery cannot be overestimated and underwater disaster recovery diving should not be performed without special training and careful pre-dive planning. Handling of cadavers in an underwater recovery operation also requires special training and a systematic approach to victim recovery. Environmental circumstances, local judicial requirements, religious and cultural issues and the scope of the disaster are only some of the factors that have to be considered before commencing any aquatic disaster victim recovery operation. PMID:21837513

Winskog, Calle

2012-06-01

362

Exploring Architectural Challenges in Scalable Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

warning and prevention ­ Seismic monitoring ­ Tsunami Off-shore exploration and underwater construction Coastline protection and tactical surveillance Target detection ­ Mine ­ Shipwreck 4 of 12 Application

Shi, Zhijie Jerry

363

Decision algorithms for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles during offensive operations  

E-print Network

The field of research involving autonomous vehicles has expanded greatly over the past decade. This thesis addresses the case of a system of Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) operating in littoral areas in an offensive ...

Smith, Tyler B. (Tyler Bradford)

2006-01-01

364

Direct-form adaptive equalization for underwater acoustic communication  

E-print Network

Adaptive equalization is an important aspect of communication systems in various environments. It is particularly important in underwater acoustic communication systems, as the channel has a long delay spread and is subject ...

Yellepeddi, Atulya

2012-01-01

365

Touch at a distance : underwater object identification using pressure sensors  

E-print Network

While the vast majority of underwater vehicles rely exclusively on sonar and vision to detect obstacles and maneuver, live fish also use their lateral line organ. The role played by the canal lateral line system is ...

Maertens, Audrey (Audrey Paulette Solange)

2011-01-01

366

A parallel hypothesis method of autonomous underwater vehicle navigation  

E-print Network

This research presents a parallel hypothesis method for autonomous underwater vehicle navigation that enables a vehicle to expand the operating envelope of existing long baseline acoustic navigation systems by incorporating ...

LaPointe, Cara Elizabeth Grupe

2009-01-01

367

Autonomous Depth Adjustment for Underwater Sensor Networks: Design and Applications  

E-print Network

To fully understand the ocean environment requires sensing the full water column. Utilizing a depth adjustment system on an underwater sensor network provides this while also improving global sensing and communications. ...

Detweiler, Carrick

368

Toward autonomous underwater mapping in partially structured 3D environments  

E-print Network

Motivated by inspection of complex underwater environments, we have developed a system for multi-sensor SLAM utilizing both structured and unstructured environmental features. We present a system for deriving planar ...

VanMiddlesworth, Mark (Mark Allen)

2014-01-01

369

Reduced bandwidth frequency domain equalization for underwater acoustic communications  

E-print Network

Two challenges facing adaptive decision feedback equalizers (DFEs) in the underwater acoustic channel are those of the channel changing too rapidly to allow for the stable adaptation of the number of coefficients required ...

Wornell, Gregory W.

370

Path planning of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles for adaptive sampling  

E-print Network

This thesis develops new methods for path planning of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles for adaptive sampling. The problem is approached in an optimization framework and two methods are developed to solve it based on Mixed ...

Yilmaz, Namik Kemal, 1975-

2006-01-01

371

Underwater Sensor Networks: A New Energy Efficient and Robust Architecture  

PubMed Central

The specific characteristics of underwater environments introduce new challenges for networking protocols. In this paper, a specialized architecture for underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) is proposed and evaluated. Experiments are conducted in order to analyze the suitability of this protocol for the subaquatic transmission medium. Moreover, different scheduling techniques are applied to the architecture in order to study their performance. In addition, given the harsh conditions of the underwater medium, different retransmission methods are combined with the scheduling techniques. Finally, simulation results illustrate the performance achievements of the proposed protocol in end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio and energy consumption, showing that this protocol can be very suitable for the underwater medium. PMID:22368492

Climent, Salvador; Capella, Juan Vicente; Meratnia, Nirvana; Serrano, Juan Jose

2012-01-01

372

Design of an underwater vertical glider for subsea equipment delivery  

E-print Network

Delivery of subsea equipment and sensors is generally accomplished with unguided sinking platforms or powered autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). An alternative would be to augment existing platforms with navigation and ...

Ambler, Charles Kirby

2010-01-01

373

Autonomous underwater vehicle navigation and mapping in dynamic, unstructured environments  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a system for automatically building 3-D optical and bathymetric maps of underwater terrain using autonomous robots. The maps that are built improve the state of the art in resolution by an order of ...

Kunz, Clayton Gregory

2012-01-01

374

Image Enhancement Software for Underwater Recovery Operations-User's Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes software for performing image enhancement on live or recorded video images. The software was developed for operational use during underwater recovery operations at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station. The image processing ...

C. W. Therrien, W. J. Partridge

1989-01-01

375

Large scale structure from motion for autonomous underwater vehicle surveys  

E-print Network

Our ability to image extended underwater scenes is severely limited by attenuation and backscatter. Generating a composite view from multiple overlapping images is usually the most practical and flexible way around this ...

Pizarro, Oscar

2004-01-01

376

Large area 3-D reconstructions from underwater optical surveys  

E-print Network

Robotic underwater vehicles are regularly performing vast optical surveys of the ocean floor. Scientists value these surveys since optical images offer high levels of detail and are easily interpreted by humans. Unfortunately, ...

Singh, Hanumant

377

Large-area visually augmented navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles  

E-print Network

This thesis describes a vision-based, large-area, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm that respects the low-overlap imagery constraints typical of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) while exploiting ...

Eustice, Ryan M

2005-01-01

378

Computational strategies for understanding underwater optical image datasets  

E-print Network

A fundamental problem in autonomous underwater robotics is the high latency between the capture of image data and the time at which operators are able to gain a visual understanding of the survey environment. Typical ...

Kaeli, Jeffrey W

2013-01-01

379

Modeling and control of a biorobotic autonomous underwater vehicle  

E-print Network

Current research into Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) has included work on biologically inspired propulsion mechanisms, for instance flapping foils. The first aim of this thesis is to develop an accurate non-linear ...

Booth, William Duncan Lewis

2006-01-01

380

Toward a compact underwater structured light 3-D imaging system  

E-print Network

A compact underwater 3-D imaging system based on the principles of structured light was created for classroom demonstration and laboratory research purposes. The 3-D scanner design was based on research by the Hackengineer ...

Dawson, Geoffrey E

2013-01-01

381

Image Feature Detection and Matching in Underwater Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main challenge in underwater imaging and image analysis is to overcome the effects of blurring due to the strong scattering of light by the water and its constituents. This blurring adds complexity to already challenging problems like object detection...

K. Oliver, S. Wang, W. Hou

2010-01-01

382

Imaging sonar-aided navigation for autonomous underwater harbor surveillance  

E-print Network

In this paper we address the problem of drift-free navigation for underwater vehicles performing harbor surveillance and ship hull inspection. Maintaining accurate localization for the duration of a mission is important ...

Johannsson, Hordur

383

Particle Swarm Inspired Underwater Sensor Self-Deployment  

PubMed Central

Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) can be applied in sea resource reconnaissance, pollution monitoring and assistant navigation, etc., and have become a hot research field in wireless sensor networks. In open and complicated underwater environments, targets (events) tend to be highly dynamic and uncertain. It is important to deploy sensors to cover potential events in an optimal manner. In this paper, the underwater sensor deployment problem and its performance evaluation metrics are introduced. Furthermore, a particle swarm inspired sensor self-deployment algorithm is presented. By simulating the flying behavior of particles and introducing crowd control, the proposed algorithm can drive sensors to cover almost all the events, and make the distribution of sensors match that of events. Through extensive simulations, we demonstrate that it can solve the underwater sensor deployment problem effectively, with fast convergence rate, and amiable to distributed implementation. PMID:25195852

Du, Huazheng; Xia, Na; Zheng, Rong

2014-01-01

384

Stochastic Control for Underwater Optimal Trajectories Adrien N`egre  

E-print Network

Stochastic Control for Underwater Optimal Trajectories Adrien N`egre DCNS Research Toulon, France adrien.negre@dcnsgroup.com Olivier Marceau DCNS Research Paris, France olivier.marceau@dcnsgroup.com Dann

De Saporta, Benoîte

385

Micromachined thermal shear-stress sensor for underwater applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the development of micromachined thermal shear-stress sensors for underwater applications. The thermal shear-stress sensor is a polysilicon resistor sitting atop a vacuum-insulated nitride diaphragm. Special challenges for underwater measurements, such as the waterproof coating and minimization of pressure crosstalk, have been addressed. More rigid diaphragms than the aerial sensors are implemented to increase the operating range and

Yong Xu; Qiao Lin; Guoyu Lin; Rakesh B. Katragadda; Fukang Jiang; Steve Tung; Yu-Chong Tai

2005-01-01

386

Tones for Real: Managing Multipath in Underwater Acoustic Wakeup  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of sensor networks—low-power, wire- less, in-situ sensing with many inexpensive sensors—are only recently penetrating into underwater research. Acous- tic communication is best suited for underwater commu- nication, since other methods (optical and radio) attenuate very quickly. Yet acoustic propagation is five orders-of- magnitude slower than RF, so propagation times stretch to hundreds of milliseconds. A new generation of

Affan A. Syed; John S. Heidemann; Wei Ye

2010-01-01

387

The Maski underwater robot: Technology, field experience and benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydro-Que?bec operates 58 hydroelectric power plants and owns over 500 dams and control structures. In order to ensure their safety and proper operation, Hydro-Que?bec develops robotic technologies that can perform diagnosis and interventions tasks underwater. More than an ROV, Maski is really an underwater robot, as it can perform motion in a fully automated fashion, in manual piloting or using

A. Croteau; N. Duguay

2010-01-01

388

An Underwater Robotic Network for Monitoring Nuclear Waste Storage Pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear power provides a significant portion of our current energy demand and is likely to become more wide spread with growing\\u000a world population. However, the radioactive waste generated in these power plants must be stored for around 60 years in underwater\\u000a storage pools before permanent disposal. These underwater storage environments must be carefully monitored and controlled\\u000a to avoid an environmental

Sarfraz Nawaz; Muzammil Hussain; Simon Watson; Niki Trigoni; Peter N. Green

389

Morphological observation of marine organisms by underwater ultrasonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high resolution underwater ultrasonic camera enclosed in a pressure-resistant case was developed to observe underwater animals. It enables to measure size, shape, and movement of living marine animals as well as tissue, shape, and movement of internal organs. Ultrasonic camera is originally used for medical diagnosis. A convex\\/linear type transducer array is driven by 3.5 to 5 MHz ultrasonic

Kohji IIDA; Tohru MUKAI; D. Kang; M. Sato

2004-01-01

390

Performance Analysis of Multichannel Lattice Equalization in Coherent Underwater Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work examines the numerical fixed-point performance of a new multichannel lattice RLS filtering algorithm using data from two underwater acoustic communication experiments. The algorithm may be an appealing choice for underwater equalization due to its robust numerical behavior and linear scaling of the computational complexity with filter order. Simple modifications to widely-used methods for carrier\\/timing synchronization and symbol slicing

J. Gomes; A. Silva; S. Jesus

2007-01-01

391

Spatiotemporal reconstruction of the breathing function.  

PubMed

Breathing waveform extracted via nasal thermistor is the most common method to study respiratory function in sleep studies. In essence, this is a temporal waveform of mean temperatures in the nostril region that at every time step collapses two-dimensional data into a single point. Hence, spatial heat distribution in the nostrils is lost along with valuable functional and anatomical cues. This article presents the construction and experimental validation of a spatiotemporal profile for the breathing function via thermal imaging of the nostrils. The method models nasal airflow advection by using a front-propagating level set algorithm with optimal parameter selection. It is the first time that the full two-dimensional advantage of thermal imaging is brought to the fore in breathing computation. This new multi-dimensional measure is likely to bring diagnostic value in sleep studies and beyond. PMID:23285546

Duong, D; Shastri, D; Tsiamyrtzis, P; Pavlidis, I

2012-01-01

392

Cardiovascular Response During Submaximal Underwater Treadmill Exercise in Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the cardiovascular response during head-out water immersion, underwater treadmill gait, and land treadmill gait in stroke patients. Methods Ten stroke patients were recruited for underwater and land treadmill gait sessions. Each session was 40 minutes long; 5 minutes for standing rest on land, 5 minutes for standing rest in water or on treadmill, 20 minutes for treadmill walking in water or on land, 5 minutes for standing rest in water or on treadmill, and 5 minutes for standing rest on land. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured during each session. In order to estimate the cardiovascular workload and myocardial oxygen demand, the rate pressure product (RPP) value was calculated by multiplying systolic BP (SBP) by HR. Results SBP, DBP, mean BP (mBP), and RPP decreased significantly after water immersion, but HR was unchanged. During underwater and land treadmill gait, SBP, mBP, DBP, RPP, and HR increased. However, the mean maximum increases in BP, HR and RPP of underwater treadmill walking were significantly lower than that of land treadmill walking. Conclusion Stroke patients showed different cardiovascular responses during water immersion and underwater gait as opposed to standing and treadmill-walking on land. Water immersion and aquatic treadmill gait may reduce the workload of the cardiovascular system. This study suggested that underwater treadmill may be a safe and useful option for cardiovascular fitness and early ambulation in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:25379492

Yoo, Jeehyun; Lim, Kil-Byung; Lee, Hong-Jae

2014-01-01

393

Image feature detection and matching in underwater conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main challenge in underwater imaging and image analysis is to overcome the effects of blurring due to the strong scattering of light by the water and its constituents. This blurring adds complexity to already challenging problems like object detection and localization. The current state-of-the-art approaches for object detection and localization normally involve two components: (a) a feature detector that extracts a set of feature points from an image, and (b) a feature matching algorithm that tries to match the feature points detected from a target image to a set of template features corresponding to the object of interest. A successful feature matching indicates that the target image also contains the object of interest. For underwater images, the target image is taken in underwater conditions while the template features are usually extracted from one or more training images that are taken out-of-water or in different underwater conditions. In addition, the objects in the target image and the training images may show different poses, including rotation, scaling, translation transformations, and perspective changes. In this paper we investigate the effects of various underwater point spread functions on the detection of image features using many different feature detectors, and how these functions affect the capability of these features when they are used for matching and object detection. This research provides insight to further develop robust feature detectors and matching algorithms that are suitable for detecting and localizing objects from underwater images.

Oliver, Kenton; Hou, Weilin; Wang, Song

2010-04-01

394

General anesthesia and exhaled breath hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

To study the role of free radical formation on the impairment of pulmonary function seen with general anesthesia, we measured the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in the exhaled breath condensate of 27 patients. Patients were divided into three study groups: a healthy patient group (group 1, n = 15) consisting of ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients undergoing elective noncardiothoracic surgery; a specific anesthetic event group (group 2, n = 6) composed of patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); and a positive control group (group 3, n = 6) consisting of patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The exhaled breath condensate was collected by diverting exhaled breath through a glass condensation coil submerged in an ice/salt water bath. The exhaled breath condensate samples were then assayed using a spectrophotometric method. In group 1, samples were collected before and after the induction of general anesthesia with intravenous drugs, and before and after the administration of the inhalational anesthetics isoflurane (1.5%) (n = 7) or N2O (70%) (n = 8). In group 2, samples were collected pre- and post-CPB, and in group 3, when specific diagnostic criteria for ARDS were met. There was no significantly detectable H2O2 (not significantly different from zero) in any of the samples from the group 1 patients. Similarly, group 2 patients had exhaled breath H2O2 concentrations near zero except for one patient who was positive for the lupus anticoagulant. Group 3 patients had a mean (+/- SE) exhaled breath H2O2 concentration of 0.55 (+/- 0.08) microM, which was significantly greater than zero (P less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1575337

Wilson, W C; Swetland, J F; Benumof, J L; Laborde, P; Taylor, R

1992-05-01

395

Well perforating apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for perforating a well casing and surrounding formation are disclosed. The perforating apparatus includes a laser source for projecting a high intensity laser beam transversely through the well bore and surrounding formation and a nozzle assembly for injecting exothermically reactive gas along the path of the laser beam. The gas stream shields the output lens of

1980-01-01

396

Twin tower gas fractionation apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for adsorptive fractionation of a gaseous mixture. The apparatus is a twin tower fractionator or dryer including a pair of sorbent beds. A filter and valve assembly directs a flow of the gaseous mixture from a source thereof to one of the beds for removing a gaseous component of said mixture while simultaneously directing a flow of purge

R. A. Null; L. C. laughlin; M. L. Goldberg

1985-01-01

397

An elutriation apparatus for macroinvertebrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An inexpensive hydropneumatic apparatus screens macroinvertebrates from bottom samples containing silt, mud, or clay. The elutriator, an acrylic cylinder with screened windows, cemented on an upright plastic funnel, retains benthic fauna while the sediment is washed away. The apparatus yields clean samples and has reduced the time required to sort benthos samples by more than 80%.

Worswick, Joseph M., Jr.; Barbour, Michael T.

1974-01-01

398

Evidence of endogenous volatile organic compounds as biomarkers of diseases in alveolar breath.  

PubMed

The effect of oxygen on markers of oxidative stress has been partially elucidated. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are created during the oxidative burst and excreted in the human alveolar breath, which indeed contains biomarkers. A general concept including collection, separation, detection and clinical biomakers validation is presented in this article: (i) a method for the collection and GC-MS of halogenated VOCs in human alveolar breath is described: a transportable apparatus which sampled specifically alveolar breath; the VOCs were captured in a thermal desorption tube, Carbotrap 200® and each sample was thermally desorbed from the trap in an automated GC-MS apparatus; (ii) the inhibitory effects of halogenated alkanes on mitochondria are suspected likely to fight against oxidative stress deleterious reactions; (iii) two-dimensional gas chromatography occurs by the repeated and re-injection of effluent from one chromatographic column into a second column of orthogonal phase. A new commercial GCxGC system is presented; it is accomplished with a dual-stage, quad-jet thermal modulator positioned between the two columns; (iv) the affinity-based sensors usually used in connection with the GCxGC system face a difficulty to take into account different biases coming from different sources of drifting. Compared to other affinity-based sensing modes like electrical ones, gravimetric sensors enable a better decoupling. Nano Electro Mechanical Systems (NEMS)-based resonators are a particular type of gravimetric gas sensors. They are coated with a sensitive layer of polymer where gases of interest present in the atmosphere adsorb, generating an additional mass load which is measured through a frequency shift; (v) examination of exhaled breath has the potential to change the existing routine approaches in human medicine. Breath sampling to identify volatile biomarkers in diseases has been proposed in several respiratory diseases. Several VOCs have been identified in these patients by GC-MS. However, the use of traditional analytical instruments such as GC-MS to detect biomarkers of diseases has not become a routine for clinical applications. Consequently the electronic nose was the logical instrument of choice for disease diagnosis due to the capability of identifying complex mixtures of VOCs (as a whole) within sampled air using pattern-recognition algorithms. PMID:23835018

Sarbach, C; Stevens, P; Whiting, J; Puget, P; Humbert, M; Cohen-Kaminsky, S; Postaire, E

2013-07-01

399

Sleep-disordered breathing in neurologic conditions.  

PubMed

Sleep-related breathing disorder or sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) encompasses central sleep apnea (CSA), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and sleep-related hypoventilation or hypoxemic syndromes. SDB is common in neurologic conditions that affect the central and/or peripheral nervous systems. Patients with neurologic conditions are at risk for SDB due to a combination of factors such as muscular weakness, damage to areas of the brain that control respiration, use of sedating medications, and weight gain from limited physical activity. This article discusses recognition and treatment of SDB as important aspects of treating patients with neurologic disease. PMID:25156770

Deak, Maryann C; Kirsch, Douglas B

2014-09-01

400

49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section...Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected,...

2013-10-01

401

49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section...Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected,...

2012-10-01

402

49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section...Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected,...

2011-10-01

403

Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2006-12-12

404

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

Jenkins, Charles F. (Aiken, SC); Howard, Boyd D. (Augusta, GA)

1998-01-01

405

Oil shale retort apparatus  

DOEpatents

A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

1990-01-01

406

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOEpatents

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

1983-01-01

407

Image forming apparatus  

DOEpatents

In an image forming apparatus having a detachable process cartridge in which an image carrier on which an electrostatic latent image is formed, and a developing unit which develops the electrostatic latent image so that a toner image can be formed, both integrally formed into one unit. There is provided a developer container including a discharge section which can be inserted into a supply opening of the developing unit, and a container in which a predetermined amount of developer is contained, wherein the developer container is provided to the toner supply opening of the developing unit and the developer is supplied into the developing unit housing when a toner stirring screw of the developing unit is rotated.

Satoh, Hisao (Hachioji, JP); Haneda, Satoshi (Hachioji, JP); Ikeda, Tadayoshi (Hachioji, JP); Morita, Shizuo (Hachioji, JP); Fukuchi, Masakazu (Hachioji, JP)

1996-01-01

408

Apparatus for flaring gas  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for flaring gas. It comprises: flare stack means, having a base, for flaring gas; fluid pit means for storing fluid; gooseneck pipe means, coupled to the base of the flare stack means and to the fluid pit means. The gooseneck pipe means being configured to maintain a reservoir of fluid therein at a predetermined level; high pressure inlet means for introducing a first combination of waste gas and liquid of a first predetermined pressure or greater, into the flare stack means; low pressure inlet means for introducing a second combination of waste gas and liquid, of a second predetermined pressure less than that of the first predetermined pressure, into the flare stack means; and means for routing the liquid separated from the first and second combination of waste gas and liquid into the gooseneck pipe.

Zimmiond, L.

1990-01-09

409

Solar furnace apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A solar furnace apparatus is described including a reflector portion, a collector portion and a fluid transfer portion. The reflector portion includes a generally dish-shaped reflective member. The reflective member having a conic section configuration with a large open face and a highly reflective internal surface. The collector portion is disposed at the focal point of the reflective member, and it includes a chamber formed of a plurality of concave longitudinal sections and therewith form an enclosed chamber, inlet and outlet members communicating with the chamber. The fluid transfer portion includes a conduit member connected to the inlet and outlet members of the collector portion and mechanism associated with said conduit member for circulating fluid to heat storage or heat dissipating members.

Strickland, B.W.

1981-09-29

410

Multiparameter vision testing apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact vision testing apparatus is described for testing a large number of physiological characteristics of the eyes and visual system of a human subject. The head of the subject is inserted into a viewing port at one end of a light-tight housing containing various optical assemblies. Visual acuity and other refractive characteristics and ocular muscle balance characteristics of the eyes of the subject are tested by means of a retractable phoroptor assembly carried near the viewing port and a film cassette unit carried in the rearward portion of the housing (the latter selectively providing a variety of different visual targets which are viewed through the optical system of the phoroptor assembly). The visual dark adaptation characteristics and absolute brightness threshold of the subject are tested by means of a projector assembly which selectively projects one or both of a variable intensity fixation target and a variable intensity adaptation test field onto a viewing screen located near the top of the housing.

Hunt, S. R., Jr.; Homkes, R. J.; Poteate, W. B.; Sturgis, A. C. (inventors)

1975-01-01

411

Spine immobilization apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (inventors)

1981-01-01

412

Apparatus for dispensing material  

DOEpatents

An apparatus capable of dispensing drops of material with volumes on the order of zeptoliters is described. In some embodiments of the inventive pipette the size of the droplets so dispensed is determined by the size of a hole, or channel, through a carbon shell encapsulating a reservoir that contains material to be dispensed. The channel may be formed by irradiation with an electron beam or other high-energy beam capable of focusing to a spot size less than about 5 nanometers. In some embodiments, the dispensed droplet remains attached to the pipette by a small thread of material, an atomic scale meniscus, forming a virtually free-standing droplet. In some embodiments the droplet may wet the pipette tip and take on attributes of supported drops. Methods for fabricating and using the pipette are also described.

Sutter, Peter Werner (Beach, NY); Sutter, Eli Anguelova (Beach, NY)

2011-07-05

413

Isotope separation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Isotope separation apparatus consisting of a plurality of cells disposed adjacent to each other in an evacuated container. A common magnetic field is established extending through all of the cells. A source of energetic electrons at one end of the container generates electrons which pass through the cells along the magnetic field lines. Each cell includes an array of collector plates arranged in parallel or in tandem within a common magnetic field. Sets of collector plates are disposed adjacent to each other in each cell. Means are provided for differentially energizing ions of a desired isotope by applying energy at the cyclotron resonant frequency of the desired isotope. As a result, the energized desired ions are preferentially collected by the collector plates.

Arnush, Donald (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); MacKenzie, Kenneth R. (Pacific Palisades, CA); Wuerker, Ralph F. (Palos Verdes Estates, CA)

1980-01-01

414

Freeze drying apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

2001-01-01

415

Thermal synthesis apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-08-18

416

Taking your breath away: metabolomics breathes life in to personalized medicine.  

PubMed

Breath-based metabolomics (breathomics) is an exciting developing area of biotechnology that centers on the capture, identification, and quantification of volatile organic compound (VOC) patterns in human breath and their utilization as tools in the diagnosis of a broad spectrum of medical problems. With the age of personalized medicines demanding rapid bespoke diagnosis and treatment, this area of molecular diagnostics is beginning to see an upsurge in biotechnological advancement. Here, we discuss recent improvements and directions in the development of breath VOC analysis and diagnosis platforms that offer the potential for disease biomarker discovery and disease prognosis. PMID:25179940

Rattray, Nicholas J W; Hamrang, Zahra; Trivedi, Drupad K; Goodacre, Royston; Fowler, Stephen J

2014-10-01

417

Meeting Reports for 2013: Recent Advances in Breath Biomarker Research  

EPA Science Inventory

This article reports the efforts of the breath research community affiliated with the International Association of Breath Research (IABR) in disseminating research results in high profile technical meetings in the United States (US). Specifically, we describe presentations at a ...

418

21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of asthma. A breath nitric oxide test system combines...

2010-04-01

419

21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.  

...nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of asthma. A breath nitric oxide test system combines...

2014-04-01

420

21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of asthma. A breath nitric oxide test system combines...

2012-04-01

421

21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of asthma. A breath nitric oxide test system combines...

2013-04-01

422

Coughing Wheezing Shortness of Breath Tightness in Chest  

MedlinePLUS

... Issues Coughing Wheezing Shortness of Breath Tightness in Chest Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... short of breath or feel tightness in your chest, you might have asthma. If you do, you ...

423

HIGH INSPJRED AIR TEMPERATURES SUPPLIED BY BREATHING APPARATUS DURING FIREFIGHTING MAY LIMIT HEAT EXPOSURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

carried out by the Royal Navy (RN), subjects reported that the air supplied by the BA during 10 minutes exposure to 160°C became uncomfortably hoe, suggesting that they may be at risk ofthermal injuries to their lungs during exposure to higher temperatures. Normally, RN firefighters are protected from high temperatures by a sea water system which produces a near vertical

James R. House

424

46 CFR 28.205 - Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements for Documented Vessels That Operate Beyond the Boundary Lines or With More Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender...one flashlight, a rigid helmet, boots, gloves, protective clothing, and one fire axe. (d) At least one spare air...

2010-10-01

425

46 CFR 28.205 - Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirements for Documented Vessels That Operate Beyond the Boundary Lines or With More Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender...one flashlight, a rigid helmet, boots, gloves, protective clothing, and one fire axe. (d) At least one spare air...

2011-10-01

426

46 CFR 28.205 - Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Requirements for Documented Vessels That Operate Beyond the Boundary Lines or With More Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender...one flashlight, a rigid helmet, boots, gloves, protective clothing, and one fire axe. (d) At least one spare air...

2012-10-01

427

46 CFR 28.205 - Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirements for Documented Vessels That Operate Beyond the Boundary Lines or With More Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender...one flashlight, a rigid helmet, boots, gloves, protective clothing, and one fire axe. (d) At least one spare air...

2013-10-01

428

Online sample conditioning for portable breath analyzers.  

PubMed

Various innovative chemical sensors have been developed in recent years to sense dangerous substances in air and trace biomarkers in breath. However, in order to solve real world problems, the sensors must be equipped with efficient sample conditioning that can, e.g., control the humidity, which is discussed much less in the literature. To meet the demand, a miniaturized mouthpiece was developed for personal breath analyzers. A key function of the mouthpiece is to condition the humidity in real breath samples without changing the analyte concentrations and introducing substantial backpressure, which is achieved with optimized packing of desiccant particles. Numerical simulations were carried out to determine the performance of the mouthpiece in terms of various controllable parameters, such as the size, density, and geometry of the packing. Mouthpieces with different configurations were built and tested, and the experimental data validated the simulation findings. A mouthpiece with optimized performance reducing relative humidity from 95% (27,000 ppmV) to 29% (8000 ppmV) whereas retaining 92% nitric oxide (50 ppbV to 46 ppbV) was built and integrated into a hand-held exhaled nitric oxide sensor, and the performance of exhaled nitric oxide measurement was in good agreement with the gold standard chemiluminescence technique. Acetone, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ammonia samples were also measured after passing through the desiccant mouthpiece using commercial sensors to examine wide applicability of this breath conditioning approach. PMID:22812638

Prabhakar, Amlendu; Iglesias, Rodrigo A; Shan, Xiaonan; Xian, Xiaojun; Zhang, Lihua; Tsow, Francis; Forzani, Erica S; Tao, Nongjian

2012-08-21

429

Exhaled breath condensate in pulmonary arterial hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, several new agents have been developed for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and blood biomarkers have been developed which aim to monitor such treatment, and which correlate well with physiological parameters, symptoms and mortality. However, little is known regarding biomarkers collected using non-invasive methods such as exhaled breath condensate (EBC). EBC biomarkers show potential

Geoffrey Warwick; Eugene Kotlyar; Sharron Chow; Paul S Thomas; Deborah H Yates

2012-01-01

430

Dynamic Breathing Buildings to Combat Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic breathing building (DBB) is a new, innovative approach to construction that effectively reduces heat loss \\/ gain through the fabric of a building, delivers pre-tempered ventilation air that has been filtered of Particulate Matter (PM) and reduces the operating and capital costs of the building. By drawing ventilation air in through a permeable Dynamic Insulation (DI) layer it is

Alexander R. Brown; Mohammed S. Imbabi; Andrew D. Peacock

431

Breathing Your Way to a Better Chorus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a series of breathing exercises designed to produce a more focused and cohesive choral group. Maintains that these exercises will improve singing, develop body awareness, and result in a more vital and responsive class. Exercises are illustrated by accompanying photographs. (MJP)

Boardman, Susan D.

1996-01-01

432

Dentofacial morphology of mouth breathing children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between dentofacial morphology and respiration has been debated and investigated from various approaches. The aim of this study was to verify the skeletal and dental relationship of mouth and nose breathing children. Thirty-five children, 7 to 10 years of age, were submitted to orthodontic and otorhinolaryngologic evaluations and were separated into 2 groups: 15 nose breathers and 20

Patrícia Toledo; Monteiro FARIA; Oliveira RUELLAS; Mírian Aiko; Nakane MATSUMOTO

2002-01-01

433

Mercury in human breath from dental amalgams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report the results of measurements of mercury vapor concentrations in the exhaled breath of 172 persons, a few of which exceed probable safe exposure limits and appear high enough to be a chronic toxicologic hazard for some people with numerous amalgam fillings.

J. E. Patterson; B. G. Weissberg; P. J. Dennison

1985-01-01

434

The Physics of Breath-Hold Diving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes physical features of breath-hold diving. Considers the diver's descent and the initial surface dive and presents examples that show the diver's buoyancy equilibrium varying with depth, the driving force supplied by finning, and the effect of friction between the water and the diver. (Author/JRH)

Aguilella, Vicente; Aguilella-Arzo, Marcelo

1996-01-01

435

Genomics of Sleep-disordered Breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technologies of genomics and proteomics are powerful tools for discovering novel gene and protein expression responses to disease. Considerable evidence indicates that a genetic basis exists to the causes of sleep-disordered breathing, in particular its most common form of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which is character- ized by periods of intermittent hypoxia and disrupted sleep. How- ever, the genetic

Vsevolod Y. Polotsky; Christopher P. O'Donnell

2007-01-01

436

Crew equipment applications - Firefighter's Breathing System.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Firefighter's Breathing System (FBS) represents a significant step in applying NASA's crew equipment technologists and technologies to civilian sector problems. This paper describes the problem, the utilization of user-design committees as a forum for development of design goals, the design of the FBS, and the field test program to be conducted.

Smith, W. L.

1973-01-01

437

The NASA firefighter's breathing system program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research is reported in the development of a firefighter's breathing system (FBS) to satisfy the operational requirements of fire departments while remaining within their cost constraints. System definition for the FBS is discussed, and the program status is reported. It is concluded that the most difficult problem in the FBS Program is the achievement of widespread fire department acceptance of the system.

Mclaughlan, P. B.; Carson, M. A.

1974-01-01

438

Fast and accurate exhaled breath ammonia measurement.  

PubMed

This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations. PMID:24962141

Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A; Risby, Terence H

2014-01-01

439

METHODS FOR SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF BREATH  

EPA Science Inventory

The research program surveyed and evaluated the methods and procedures used to identify and quantitate chemical constituents in human breath. Methods have been evaluated to determine their ease and rapidity, as well as cost, accuracy, and precision. During the evaluation, a secon...

440

Does a Smaller Waist Mean Smelly Breath?  

MedlinePLUS

... causing particles. ; 2. Chew sugarless gum with xylitol ; Chewing sugarless gum after meals can help keep bad breath away. ... production and rinse food particles from the mouth. Chewing parsley can have the same effect ... ; Sugar-free gum with xylitol can also help prevent cavities. Xylitol ...

441

Screening of Pediatric Sleep-Disordered Breathing  

PubMed Central

Background: Identification of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) using questionnaires is critical from a clinical and research perspective. However, which questions to use and how well such questionnaires perform has thus far been fraught with substantial uncertainty. We aimed at delineating the usefulness of a set of questions for identifying pediatric SDB. Methods: Random prospective sampling of urban 5- to 9-year-old children from the community and enriched for habitual snoring underwent overnight sleep study. Subjective indicators or questions were evaluated to further characterize and discriminate SDB. Results: Of 1,133 subjects, 52.8% were habitual snorers. This sample was analyzed based on a clinical grouping (ie, established apnea-hypopnea index cutoffs). Several statistical steps were performed and indicated that complaints can be ranked according to a severity hierarchy: shake child to breathe, apnea during sleep, struggle breathing when asleep, and breathing concerns while asleep, followed by loudness of snoring and snoring while asleep. With a posteriori cutoff, a predictive score > 2.72 on the severity scale was found (ie, area under the curve, 0.79 ± 0.03; sensitivity, 59.03%; specificity, 82.85%; positive predictive value, 35.4; negative predictive value, 92.7), making this cutoff applicable for confirmatory purposes. Conclusions: As a result, the set of six hierarchically arranged questions will aid the screening of children at high risk for SDB but cannot be used as the sole diagnostic approach. PMID:22677350

Spruyt, Karen

2012-01-01

442

Capped ceramic underwater sound projector: The 'cymbal'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes the design, fabrication, modeling, and calibration of cymbal-type flextensional transducers for use as underwater electroacoustic projectors and receivers. The cymbal-type transducel-consists of a piezoelectric (PZT) disk poled in the thickness direction which is coupled to two thin metal caps on each of its electroded faces. Each cap is shaped such that a shallow air pocket exists between the cap and ceramic after they are attached. These caps serve as mechanical transformers for converting and amplifying the small radial displacement of the disk into a large axial displacement normal to the caps. The standard size cymbal transducer is 13.7 mm in diameter with a PZT thickness of 1.00 mm. The caps are 0.35 mm thick containing a cavity 9 mm in diameter and 300 /mu m in height at the apex. The in-air performance of these transducers was tested by examining the effect of the cap material and geometry as well as the PZT type on the resonance frequency, admittance spectra, coupling coefficient, and permittivity. One of the distinct advantages of the cymbal transducer, aside from its cheap cost and easy manufacturability, is the ability to readily tailor its properties by simply changing the cap material or the cap shape. The in-air fundamental resonance frequency for a 12.7 mm diameter cymbal can be set anywhere from 10 kHz to 50 kHz. Single element transducers were then evaluated under hydrostatic pressures up to 7 MPa to ascertain both performance capability and means of failure. It was found that the cap material and cap geometry both strongly influence the pressures the device is able to withstand before failure. Using an anechoic underwater test chamber, the hydrophone and projector performance of these transducers (both as single elements and as small arrays) was evaluated. The effect of different cap materials, cap shapes, PZT types, and potting on electroacoustic performance was examined. Computer modeling was also performed using finite element analysis (ANSYSoler). The calculated data was correlated with that measured experimentally. Both air and water loads were applied to the model. Resonance frequencies, mode shapes, and admittance spectra were calculated.

Tressler, James F.

1997-11-01

443

Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Magnetic Mapping System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Magnetic Mapping (MM) System has been developed and tested for military munitions detection as well as pipeline locating, wreck searches, and geologic surveys in underwater environments. The system is comprised of a high sensitivity Geometrics G-880AUV cesium vapor magnetometer integrated with a Teledyne-Gavia AUV and associated Doppler enabled inertial navigation further utilizing traditional acoustic bathymetric and side scan imaging. All onboard sensors and associated electronics are managed through customized crew members to autonomously operate through the vehicles primary control module. Total field magnetic measurements are recorded with asynchronous time-stamped data logs which include position, altitude, heading, pitch, roll, and electrical current usage. Pre-planned mission information can be uploaded to the system operators to define data collection metrics including speed, height above seafloor, and lane or transect spacing specifically designed to meet data quality objectives for the survey. As a result of the AUVs modular design, autonomous navigation and rapid deployment capabilities, the AUV MM System provides cost savings over current surface vessel surveys by reducing the mobilization/demobilization effort, thus requiring less manpower for operation and reducing or eliminating the need for a surface support vessel altogether. When the system completes its mission, data can be remotely downloaded via W-LAN and exported for use in advanced signal processing platforms. Magnetic compensation software has been concurrently developed to accept electrical current measurements directly from the AUV to address distortions from permanent and induced magnetization effects on the magnetometer. Maneuver and electrical current compensation terms can be extracted from the magnetic survey missions to perform automated post-process corrections. Considerable suppression of system noise has been observed over traditional compensation methods that do not use electrical current terms. Recent demonstrations of the AUV MM System conducted at test plots seeded with inert munitions show reliable detection of 75mm and larger projectiles at altitudes of over 2 meters above the seafloor. Improvement ratios between 11 and 12.4 were observed in the survey data after magnetic compensation, reducing system noise to approximately ±0.25 nano-Tesla. Co-registered side scan sonar images were acquired with the magnetic data to augment target analysis and interpretation. No net drift of the navigation solution was observed during survey missions thus confirming target positional accuracy to better than 1 meter.;

Steigerwalt, R.; Johnson, R. M.; Trembanis, A. C.; Schmidt, V. E.; Tait, G.

2012-12-01

444

14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL...equipment, breathing gas, and communication...equivalent level of safety. (3) That...portable breathing gas supply meeting...equivalent level of safety. (iii...equivalent level of safety. (c) Equipment...the breathing gas supply and...

2010-01-01

445

14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL...equipment, breathing gas, and communication...equivalent level of safety. (3) That...portable breathing gas supply meeting...equivalent level of safety. (iii...equivalent level of safety. (c) Equipment...the breathing gas supply and...

2013-01-01

446

14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.  

...REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL...equipment, breathing gas, and communication...equivalent level of safety. (3) That...portable breathing gas supply meeting...equivalent level of safety. (iii...equivalent level of safety. (c) Equipment...the breathing gas supply and...

2014-01-01

447

14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL...equipment, breathing gas, and communication...equivalent level of safety. (3) That...portable breathing gas supply meeting...equivalent level of safety. (iii...equivalent level of safety. (c) Equipment...the breathing gas supply and...

2011-01-01

448

14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL...equipment, breathing gas, and communication...equivalent level of safety. (3) That...portable breathing gas supply meeting...equivalent level of safety. (iii...equivalent level of safety. (c) Equipment...the breathing gas supply and...

2012-01-01

449

Breath Analysis: Potential for Clinical Diagnosis and Exposure Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breath tests are among the least invasive methods avail- able for clinical diagnosis, disease state monitoring, and environmental exposure assessment. In recent years, interest in breath analysis for clinical purposes has increased. This review is intended to describe the po- tential applications of breath tests, including clinical diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of environmental pollutant exposure, with emphasis on oxidative

Wenqing Cao; Yixiang Duan; Simon Davies; P. Spanel; D. Smith; K. A. Cope; M. T. Watson; W. M. Foster; S. S. Sehnert; T. H. Risby; Y. Duan

2010-01-01

450

21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862...Test Systems § 862.3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to...

2014-04-01

451

Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

2003-01-01

452

Apparatus for transporting hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are provided for selectively receiving, transporting, and releasing one or more radioactive or other hazardous samples for analysis on a differential thermal analysis (DTA) apparatus. The apparatus includes a portable sample transporting apparatus for storing and transporting the samples and includes a support assembly for supporting the transporting apparatus when a sample is transferred to the DTA apparatus. The transporting apparatus includes a storage member which includes a plurality of storage chambers arrayed circumferentially with respect to a central axis. An adjustable top door is located on the top side of the storage member, and the top door includes a channel capable of being selectively placed in registration with the respective storage chambers thereby permitting the samples to selectively enter the respective storage chambers. The top door, when closed, isolates the respective samples within the storage chambers. A plurality of spring-biased bottom doors are located on the bottom sides of the respective storage chambers. The bottom doors isolate the samples in the respective storage chambers when the bottom doors are in the closed position. The bottom doors permit the samples to leave the respective storage chambers from the bottom side when the respective bottom doors are in respective open positions. The bottom doors permit the samples to be loaded into the respective storage chambers after the analysis for storage and transport to a permanent storage location.

Osterman, Robert A. (Canonsburg, PA); Cox, Robert (West Mifflin, PA)

1992-01-01

453

A simple breathing circuit allowing precise control of inspiratory gases for experimental respiratory manipulations  

PubMed Central

Background Respiratory manipulations modulating blood flow and oxygenation levels have become an important component of modern functional MRI applications. Manipulations often consist of temporarily switching inspired fractions of CO2 and O2; and have typically been performed using simple oxygen masks intended for applications in respiratory therapy. However, precise control of inspired gas composition is difficult using this type of mask due to entrainment of room air and resultant dilution of inspired gases. We aimed at developing a gas delivery apparatus allowing improved control over the fractional concentration of inspired gases, to be used in brain fMRI studies. Findings The breathing circuit we have conceived allowed well controlled step changes in FiO2 and FiCO2, at moderate flow rates achievable on standard clinical flow regulators. In a two run test inside the scanner we demonstrate that tightly controlled simple gas switching manipulations can afford good intra-subject reproducibility of induced hyperoxia/hypercapnia responses. Although our approach requires a non-vented mask fitting closely to the subject’s face, the circuit ensures a continuous supply of breathable air even if the supply of medical gases is interrupted, and is easily removable in case of an emergency. The apparatus we propose is also compact and MRI compatible, allowing subject placement in confined spaces such as an MRI scanner for brain examinations. Conclusions We have reported a new approach for the controlled administration of medical gases, and describe an implementation of the breathing circuit that is MRI compatible and uses commercially available parts. The resultant apparatus allows simple, safe and precise manipulations of FiO2 and FiCO2. PMID:24725848

2014-01-01

454

Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns.  

PubMed

Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposures over a working lifetime, in particular about low-level exposures that might serve as initiating events for adverse outcome pathways (AOP) leading to cancer. As part of a larger US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of dermal exposure protection from safety gear used by the City of Chicago firefighters, we collected pre- and post-fire fighting breath samples and analyzed for single-ring and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as bioindicators of occupational exposure to gas-phase toxicants. Under the assumption that SCBA protects completely against inhalation exposures, any changes in the exhaled profile of combustion products were attributed to dermal exposures from gas and particle penetration through the protective clothing. Two separate rounds of firefighting activity were performed each with 15 firefighters per round. Exhaled breath samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analyzed with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a targeted approach using selective ion monitoring. We found that single ring aromatics and some PAHs were statistically elevated in post-firefighting samples of some individuals, suggesting that fire protective gear may allow for dermal exposures to airborne contaminants. However, in comparison to a previous occupational study of Air Force maintenance personnel where similar compounds were measured, these exposures are much lower suggesting that firefighters' gear is very effective. This study suggests that exhaled breath sampling and analysis for specific targeted compounds is a suitable method for assessing systemic dermal exposure in a simple and non-invasive manner. PMID:25190461

Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Fent, Kenneth W

2014-09-01

455

8/25/08 8:13 AMLung provides breathing room underwater -The Boston Globe Page 1 of 1http://www.boston.com/news/science/articles/2008/08/25/lung_provides_breathing_room_underwater?mode=PF  

E-print Network

pressure increases. Pollution, though, can change the wetting properties of the hairs, affecting One afternoon, John Bush, MIT math guru, ventured to Fresh Pond to collect insects known as water bucket. "I accidentally caught a backswimmer while I was lunging for a water strider," recalled

Flynn, Morris R.

456

Breath measurements as volatile organic compound biomarkers.  

PubMed Central

A brief review of the uses of breath analysis in studies of environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is provided. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's large-scale Total Exposure Assessment Methodology Studies have measured concentrations of 32 target VOCs in the exhaled breath of about 800 residents of various U.S. cities. Since the previous 12-hr integrated personal air exposures to the same chemicals were also measured, the relation between exposure and body burden is illuminated. Another major use of the breath measurements has been to detect unmeasured pathways of exposure; the major impact of active smoking on exposure to benzene and styrene was detected in this way. Following the earlier field studies, a series of chamber studies have provided estimates of several important physiological parameters. Among these are the fraction, f, of the inhaled chemical that is exhaled under steady-state conditions and the residence times. tau i in several body compartments, which may be associated with the blood (or liver), organs, muscle, and fat. Most of the targeted VOCs appear to have similar residence times of a few minutes, 30 min, several hours, and several days in the respective tissue groups. Knowledge of these parameters can be helpful in estimating body burden from exposure or vice versa and in planning environmental studies, particularly in setting times to monitor breath in studies of the variation with time of body burden. Improvements in breath methods have made it possible to study short-term peak exposure situations such as filling a gas tank or taking a shower in contaminated water. PMID:8933027

Wallace, L; Buckley, T; Pellizzari, E; Gordon, S

1996-01-01

457

Oxygen cost of breathing in dogs.  

PubMed

The O2 cost of breathing has been calculated in awake and anesthetized dogs breathing spontaneously. Respiratory variables were measured in tracheostomized dogs in the standing position, while supported in a canvas sling, at room temperatures between 20 and 23 degrees C. Minute ventilation ranged between 3 and 53 liters/min while VO2 ranged from 61 to 686 ml/min. VE, VO2 and f varied considerably from measurement to measurement even though body temperatures and experimental conditions changed very little. VO2 increased with VE: VO2 = 10.2 VE + 58.4 r = 0.94. A cubic polynomial equation was also calculated for these data: VO2 = 11.6 + 19.0 VE-0.42 (VE)2 + 0.0057 (VE)3. Awake dogs showed panting and considerable hyperventilation (PACO2 = 22.5 +/- SD of 4.5 mm Hg). Anesthetized dogs had lower average values of f, VE and VO2; while average PACO2 was 29.1 +/- 4.5 mm Hg. VO2 and VE measured when the dogs were anesthetized, paralyzed and artifically ventilated were related by this equation: VO2 = 5.9 VE + 87.5, r = 0.88. The O2 cost of breathing, calculated by subtracting the regression equation obtained while the dogs were under artificial respiration, from the cubic polynomial equation, increased with increasing VE in a curvilinear fashion. The values for O2 cost of breathing at high levels of ventilation were high because dogs' lungs are small. After correcting for lung size, values for O2 cost of breathing were similar to those in humans. PMID:635302

Romo-Salas, F; Aquin, L; Searles, J M; Banchero, N

1978-01-01

458

Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus  

DOEpatents

A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an "as-fabricated" position to a final position and locking of the shuttle in the final position. With the shuttle moved to the final position, the apparatus can perform one or more functions including completing an explosive train or an electrical switch closure, or allowing a light beam to be transmitted through the device.

Koehler, David R. (Sherwood, OR); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Weichman, Louis S. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Beggans, Michael H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-06-10

459

Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus  

DOEpatents

A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an "as-fabricated" position to a final position and locking of the shuttle in the final position. With the shuttle moved to the final position, the apparatus can perform one or more functions including completing an explosive train or an electrical switch closure, or allowing a light beam to be transmitted through the device.

Koehler, David R. (Placitas, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Weichman, Louis S. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Beggans, Michael H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-30

460

Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Thermoelectric Power Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are a vital part of the oceanographer's toolbox, allowing long-term measurements across a range of ocean depths of a number of ocean properties such as salinity, fluorescence, and temperature profile. Buoyancy-based gliding, rather than direct propulsion, dramatically reduces AUV power consumption and allows long-duration missions on the order of months rather than hours or days, allowing large distances to be analyzed or many successive analyses of a certain area without the need for retrieval. Recent versions of these gliders have seen the buoyancy variation system change from electrically powered to thermally powered using phase-change materials, however a significant battery pack is still required to power communications and sensors, with power consumption in the region of 250 mW. The authors propose a novel application of a thermoelectric generation system, utilizing the depth-related variation in oceanic temperature. A thermal energy store provides a temperature differential across which a thermoelectric device can generate from repeated dives, with the primary purpose of extending mission range. The system is modeled in Simulink to analyze the effect of variation in design parameters. The system proves capable of generating all required power for a modern AUV.

Buckle, J. R.; Knox, A.; Siviter, J.; Montecucco, A.

2013-07-01

461

Acoustic Transmitters for Underwater Neutrino Telescopes  

PubMed Central

In this paper acoustic transmitters that were developed for use in underwater neutrino telescopes are presented. Firstly, an acoustic transceiver has been developed as part of the acoustic positioning system of neutrino telescopes. These infrastructures are not completely rigid and require a positioning system in order to monitor the position of the optical sensors which move due to sea currents. To guarantee a reliable and versatile system, the transceiver has the requirements of reduced cost, low power consumption, high pressure withstanding (up to 500 bars), high intensity for emission, low intrinsic noise, arbitrary signals for emission and the capacity of acquiring and processing received signals. Secondly, a compact acoustic transmitter array has been developed for the calibration of acoustic neutrino detection systems. The array is able to mimic the signature of ultra-high-energy neutrino interaction in emission directivity and signal shape. The technique of parametric acoustic sources has been used to achieve the proposed aim. The developed compact array has practical features such as easy manageability and operation. The prototype designs and the results of different tests are described. The techniques applied for these two acoustic systems are so powerful and versatile that may be of interest in other marine applications using acoustic transmitters. PMID:22666022

Ardid, Miguel; Martinez-Mora, Juan A.; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Larosa, Giuseppina; Adrian-Martinez, Silvia; Llorens, Carlos D.

2012-01-01

462

VSiPMT for underwater neutrino telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underwater neutrino telescopes are nowadays considered among the most important aims in the field of astroparticle physics. Their structure consists of a cubic-kilometer three-dimensional array of photosensitive devices aimed at the detection of the Cherenkov light emitted by charged particles produced by high energy neutrino interactions with the Earth. To date, a crucial role in this kind of experiments has been played by PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMTs), however they suffer from many drawbacks such as linearity-to-gain relationship and difficulty in single photon counting. The next generation of experiments will require further improvements in photon detectors performances, therefore alternatives to PMTs are currently under study. In particular the most promising development in this field is represented by the rapidly emerging CMOS p-n Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode technology (G-APD or SiPM), that will allow the detection of high-speed single photons with high gain and linearity. In order to overcome the limit of small sensitive surfaces we suggest an innovative design for a modern hybrid, high gain, silicon based Vacuum Silicon Photomultiplier Tube (VSiPMT) based on the combination of a SiPM with a hemispherical vacuum glass PMT standard envelope. In this work we describe the full SiPM characterization realized by our group and we present the results of our Geant4-based simulations of electron backscattering over the SiPM surface.

Barbarino, Giancarlo; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Rosa, Gianfranca; Maximiliano Mollo, Carlos; Vivolo, Daniele

2013-10-01

463

Ultra-fast underwater suction traps  

PubMed Central

Carnivorous aquatic Utricularia species catch small prey animals using millimetre-sized underwater suction traps, which have fascinated scientists since Darwin's early work on carnivorous plants. Suction takes place after mechanical triggering and is owing to a release of stored elastic energy in the trap body accompanied by a very fast opening and closing of a trapdoor, which otherwise closes the trap entrance watertight. The exceptional trapping speed—far above human visual perception—impeded profound investigations until now. Using high-speed video imaging and special microscopy techniques, we obtained fully time-resolved recordings of the door movement. We found that this unique trapping mechanism conducts suction in less than a millisecond and therefore ranks among the fastest plant movements known. Fluid acceleration reaches very high values, leaving little chance for prey animals to escape. We discovered that the door deformation is morphologically predetermined, and actually performs a buckling/unbuckling process, including a complete trapdoor curvature inversion. This process, which we predict using dynamical simulations and simple theoretical models, is highly reproducible: the traps are autonomously repetitive as they fire spontaneously after 5–20 h and reset actively to their ready-to-catch condition. PMID:21325323

Vincent, Olivier; Weisskopf, Carmen; Poppinga, Simon; Masselter, Tom; Speck, Thomas; Joyeux, Marc; Quilliet, Catherine; Marmottant, Philippe

2011-01-01

464

Underwater radiated noise from modern commercial ships.  

PubMed

Underwater radiated noise measurements for seven types of modern commercial ships during normal operating conditions are presented. Calibrated acoustic data (<1000 Hz) from an autonomous seafloor-mounted acoustic recorder were combined with ship passage information from the Automatic Identification System. This approach allowed for detailed measurements (i.e., source level, sound exposure level, and transmission range) on ships of opportunity. A key result was different acoustic levels and spectral shapes observed from different ship-types. A 54 kGT container ship had the highest broadband source level at 188 dB re 1 ?Pa@1m; a 26 kGT chemical tanker had the lowest at 177 dB re 1 ?Pa@1m. Bulk carriers had higher source levels near 100 Hz, while container ship and tanker noise was predominantly below 40 Hz. Simple models to predict source levels of modern merchant ships as a group from particular ship characteristics (e.g., length, gross tonnage, and speed) were not possible given individual ship-type differences. Furthermore, ship noise was observed to radiate asymmetrically. Stern aspect noise levels are 5 to 10 dB higher than bow aspect noise levels. Collectively, these results emphasize the importance of including modern ship-types in quantifying shipping noise for predictive models of global, regional, and local marine environments. PMID:22280574

McKenna, Megan F; Ross, Donald; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

2012-01-01

465

Underwater sound generation using carbon nanotube projectors.  

PubMed

The application of solid-state fabricated carbon nanotube sheets as thermoacoustic projectors is extended from air to underwater applications, thereby providing surprising results. While the acoustic generation efficiency of a liquid immersed nanotube sheet is profoundly degraded by nanotube wetting, the hydrophobicity of the nanotube sheets in water results in an air envelope about the nanotubes that increases pressure generation efficiency a hundred-fold over that obtained by immersion in wetting alcohols. Due to nonresonant sound generation, the emission spectrum of a liquid-immersed nanotube sheet varies smoothly over a wide frequency range, 1-10(5) Hz. The sound projection efficiency of nanotube sheets substantially exceeds that of much heavier and thicker ferroelectric acoustic projectors in the important region below about 4 kHz, and this performance advantage increases with decreasing frequency. While increasing thickness by stacking sheets eventually degrades performance due to decreased ability to rapidly transform thermal energy to acoustic pulses, use of tandem stacking of separated nanotube sheets (that are addressed with phase delay) eliminates this problem. Encapsulating the nanotube sheet projectors in argon provided attractive performance at needed low frequencies, as well as a realized energy conversion efficiency in air of 0.2%, which can be enhanced by increasing the modulation of temperature. PMID:20507157

Aliev, Ali E; Lima, Marcio D; Fang, Shaoli; Baughman, Ray H

2010-07-14

466

EDITORIAL: Exhaled breath analysis: the new frontier in medical testing Exhaled breath analysis: the new frontier in medical testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

With each breath we exhale, thousands of molecules are expelled in our breath and each one of us has a 'breathprint' that can tell a lot about his or her state of health. While this may be news to some, it should not be to people in medicine. For one can argue that the field of breath analysis is as

Raed A. Dweik; Anton Amann

2008-01-01

467

Population screening for the human adult lactase phenotypes with a multiple breaths version of the breath hydrogen test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose tolerance tests with conventional blood glucose determination and with breath hydrogen analysis after storage of breath samples in aluminium aerosol cans were simultaneously performed in 60 healthy adult subjects. Both tests were equally reliable in the diagnosis of the lactase phenotype in healthy persons. In subjects with decreased glucose metabolism the breath hydrogen test seems to be more reliable

J. N. Howell; T. Schockenhoff; G. Flatz

1981-01-01

468

Communication protocols for underwater data collection using a robotic sensor network  

E-print Network

We examine the problem of collecting data from an underwater sensor network using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The sensors in the network are equipped with acoustic modems that provide noisy, range-limited ...

Singh, Hanumant

2013-05-01

469

Control of a compact, tetherless ROV for in-contact inspection of complex underwater structures  

E-print Network

In this paper we present the dynamic modeling and control of EVIE (Ellipsoidal Vehicle for Inspection and Exploration), an underwater surface contact ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) for inspection and exploration. Underwater ...

Bhattacharyya, Sampriti

470

Open loop performance of a biomimetic flapping foil autonomous underwater vehicle  

E-print Network

Flapping foil propulsion is emerging as an alternative to conventional propulsion for underwater vehicles. MIT's Biomimetic Flapping Foil Autonomous Underwater Vehicle is a prototype vehicle that uses four three-dimensional ...

Wolf, Malima Isabelle, 1981-

2006-01-01

471

Suspension apparatus for vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A suspension apparatus is described for a vehicle provided between a pair of left and right wheels of the vehicle and the vehicle body, comprising: telescopic members integrally connected to suspension springs and expanded and contracted by means of fluid pressure, fluid passages for feeding fluid pressurized by a pump to the telescopic members and discharging the fluid from the telescopic members, controlling valves provided in the fluid passages, each valve having a cylindrical inner valve member, a cylindrical outer valve member rotatably fitted on the inner valve member and a main body containing and supporting the inner and outer valve members for rotation respectively, means for connecting each inner valve member to a steering mechanism to rotate the inner valve member in accordance with the movement of the steering mechanism, and means for connecting each outer valve member to one of the telescopic members to rotate the outer valve member in accordance with the movement of the telescopic member relative to the vehicle body, whereby the controlling valves are connected to the steering mechanism and to the telescopic members to control the valves not only with respect to the steering but also with respect to the movement of the telescopic members relative to the vehicle body so that the vehicle body is caused to decline toward turning center side due to telescopic movement of the telescopic members in accordance with a steering operation.

Fujita, H.; Honma, K.; Ogawa, M.

1987-04-21

472

Thermal Insulation Test Apparatuses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) seeks to license its Thermal Insulation Test Apparatuses. Designed by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, these patented technologies (U.S. Patent Numbers: Cryostat 1 - 6,742,926, Cryostat 2 - 6,487,866, and Cryostat 4 - 6,824,306) allow manufacturers to fabricate and test cryogenic insulation at their production and/or laboratory facilities. These new inventions allow for the thermal performance characterization of cylindrical and flat specimens (e.g., bulk-fill, flat-panel, multilayer, or continuously rolled) over the full range of pressures, from high vacuum to no vacuum, and over the full range of temperatures from 77K to 300K. In today's world, efficient, low-maintenance, low-temperature refrigeration is taking a more significant role, from the food industry, transportation, energy, and medical applications to the Space Shuttle. Most countries (including the United States) have laws requiring commercially available insulation materials to be tested and rated by an accepted methodology. The new Cryostat methods go beyond the formal capabilities of the ASTM methods to provide testing for real systems, including full-temperature differences plus full-range vacuum conditions.

Berman, Brion

2005-01-01

473

Belt conveyor apparatus  

DOEpatents

A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

Oakley, David J. (Richland, WA); Bogart, Rex L. (Kennewick, WA)

1987-01-01

474

Integrated-magnetic apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosure is made of an integrated-magnetic apparatus, comprising: winding structure for insulatingly carrying at least two generally flat, laterally offset and spaced apart electrical windings of a power converter around an aperture; a core having a flat exterior face, an interior cavity and an un-gapped core-column that is located within the cavity and that passes through the aperture of the winding structure; flat-sided surface carried by the core and forming an interior chamber that is located adjacent to the flat face of the core and forming a core-column that has a gap and that is located within the chamber; and structure, located around the gapped core-column, for carrying a third electrical winding of the power converter. The first two electrical windings are substantially located within the cavity and are adapted to be transformingly coupled together through the core. The third electrical winding is adapted to be inductively coupled through the gapped core-column to the other electrical windings, and is phased to have the magnetic flux passing through the gapped core-column substantially in the same direction as the magnetic flux passing through the un-gapped core-column and to have substantially the same AC components of flux in the gapped core-column and in the un-gapped core-column.

Bloom, Gordon E. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

475

Flow cytometry apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an apparatus for orienting cells in a sheath fluid in a otometer/sorter. It comprises: flow chamber; means for flowing the sheath fluid through the flow chamber along a direction of flow; means for obstructing the flow of the sheath fluid in the flow chamber with a first dimension, which extends substantially across the flow chamber and is substantially perpendicular to the direction of flow and with a thickness perpendicular to the first dimension of the obstructing means wherein the sheath fluid flows around the thickness so that the sheath fluid converges in only one dimension at the downstream edge of the means for obstructing; and means for introducing the cells through the means for obstructing the flow to the region where the sheath fluid converges in only one dimension in the sheath fluid to orient the cells, with an aperture wherein as the cells pass from the means for introducing the cells to the region where the sheath fluid converges the cells pass through the aperture with a cross-sectional length substantially less than or equal to the thickness of the means for obstructing the flow.

Pinkel, D.

1991-01-29

476

Solar furnace apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A solar furnace apparatus including a reflector portion, a collector portion and a fluid transfer portion; the reflector portion including a generally dish-shaped reflective member, the reflective member having a conic section configuration with a large open face and a highly reflective internal surface, the reflective member including a fixed base section concentric with the axis of the reflective member, a plurality of movable curved segments extending from the fixed base section to the free edge of the open face of the reflective member, the end of each segment adjacent to the fixed base section being pivotally connected thereto; the collector portion being disposed along the axis and the focal point of the reflective member, the collector portion including a chamber formed of a plurality of concave longitudinal conductive metal sections joined at their edges, the cross section of the longitudinal sections forming a generally star-shaped configuration, the concave longitudinal sections being disposed substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the reflective member, end sections affixed to the free edges of the concave longitudinal sections and therewith forming an enclosed chamber, a central conduit extending from one of the end sections to a point adjacent the other end section but spaced therefrom, a plurality of discrete longitudinal baffles disposed within the chamber around the central conduit, an inlet and an outlet communicating with the chamber.

Strickland, B.W.

1983-12-27

477

Exhaust gas reflux apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas reflux apparatus is described comprising: EGR regulating valve means for controlling a reflux amount of an exhaust gas which is refluxed into an intake system of an internal combustion engine; having at least two operating states; sensing means for sensing the operating state of the engine; first control means responsive to the sensing means for detecting the start of a predetermined one of the operating states of the engine, in which the temperature of the exhaust gas becomes high; timer means responsive to detection by the first control means of the start of the predetermined operating state for measuring a time delay, and time delay beginning immediately after and only in response to the detection of the start of the predetermined operating state and expiring a predetermined time interval thereafter; and second control means responsive to the timer means for controlling the EGR regulating valve means to stop the reflux of the exhaust gas immediately after expiration of the predetermined time interval.

Osada, A.

1988-01-19

478

Concealed wire tracing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-05-31

479

Modeling fluorescence LIDAR transmission for underwater object detection and recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) systems have been proven powerful for detecting and recognizing underwater objects in several applications. Such Fluorescence systems have been employed mainly for detecting and recognizing oil spill and chemicals dissolved in the sea and to identify phytoplankton species. This work focuses on the use of Fluorescence LIDAR systems in underwater object recognition applications. In fact, the fluorescence spectra induced over object and materials may be exploited to derive chemical-physical information about object nature useful to recognition. Specifically, a model for fluorescence LIDAR transmission in the water medium, both in the presence and absence, of an underwater object is proposed. The developed model describes the interaction of the transmitted laser beam with underwater objects, bottom, and water molecules. Specifically, the fluorescence return signals are modeled involving the inelastic backscattering contributions due to the Raman scattering by water molecules and fluorescence by water constituents, bottom, and objects. A range of simulations have been performed modeling the immersion of an object at different depths within the water column for a variety of system characteristics and water environmental conditions. Simulation results show the model flexibility for reproducing the signals acquired in different operational scenarios on the basis of various system parameters, acquisition geometries, and water environments. The transmission model may be useful to predict the performance of a given fluorescence LIDAR in specific underwater object detection and recognition applications.

Zotta, Laura; Matteoli, Stefania; Diani, Marco; Corsini, Giovanni

2014-05-01

480

Underwater Shock Wave Research Applied to Therapeutic Device Developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chronological development of underwater shock wave research performed at the Shock Wave Research Center of the Institute of Fluid Science at the Tohoku University is presented. Firstly, the generation of planar underwater shock waves in shock tubes and their visualization by using the conventional shadowgraph and schlieren methods are described. Secondly, the generation of spherical underwater shock waves by exploding lead azide pellets weighing from several tens of micrograms to 100 mg, that were ignited by irradiating with a Q-switched laser beam, and their visualization by using double exposure holographic interferometry are presented. The initiation, propagation, reflection, focusing of underwater shock waves, and their interaction with various interfaces, in particular, with air bubbles, are visualized quantitatively. Based on such a fundamental underwater shock wave research, collaboration with the School of Medicine at the Tohoku University was started for developing a shock wave assisted therapeutic device, which was named an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL). Miniature shock waves created by irradiation with Q-switched HO:YAG laser beams are studied, as applied to damaged dysfunctional nerve cells in the myocardium in a precisely controlled manner, and are effectively used to design a catheter for treating arrhythmia.

Takayama, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Shimokawa, H.

2013-07-01

481

Design and implementation of an underwater sound recording device.  

PubMed

To monitor the underwater sound and pressure waves generated by anthropogenic activities such as underwater blasting and pile driving, an autonomous system was designed to record underwater acoustic signals. The underwater sound recording device (USR) allows for connections of two hydrophones or other dynamic pressure sensors, filters high frequency noise out of the collected signals, has a gain that can be independently set for each sensor, and allows for 2 h of data collection. Two versions of the USR were created: a submersible model deployable to a maximum depth of 300 m, and a watertight but not fully submersible model. Tests were performed on the USR in the laboratory using a data acquisition system to send single-frequency sinusoidal voltages directly to each component. These tests verified that the device operates as designed and performs as well as larger commercially available data acquisition systems, which are not suited for field use. On average, the designed gain values differed from the actual measured gain values by about 0.35 dB. A prototype of the device was used in a case study to measure blast pressures while investigating the effect of underwater rock blasting on juvenile Chinook salmon and rainbow trout. In the case study, maximum positive pressure from the blast was found to be significantly correlated with frequency of injury for individual fish. The case study also demonstrated that the device withstood operation in harsh environments, making it a valuable tool for collecting field measurements. PMID:22164089

Martinez, Jayson J; Myers, Josh R; Carlson, Thomas J; Deng, Z Daniel; Rohrer, John S; Caviggia, Kurt A; Woodley, Christa M; Weiland, Mark A

2011-01-01

482

Continuous steel production and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

Peaslee, Kent D. (Rolla, MO); Peter, Jorg J. (McMinnville, OR); Robertson, David G. C. (Rolla, MO); Thomas, Brian G. (Champaign, IL); Zhang, Lifeng (Trondheim, NO)

2009-11-17

483

Apparatus for photon excited catalysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is described for increasing the yield of photonically excited gas phase reactions by extracting excess energy from unstable, excited species by contacting the species with the surface of a finely divided solid.

Saffren, M. M. (inventor)

1977-01-01

484

Cherry-Slush-Candling Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed infrared-scanning apparatus for use in bakeries making cherry pies detect cherry pits remaining in cherry slush after pitting process. Pits detected via their relative opacity to infrared radiation.

Stephens, James B.; Weiss, James R.; Hoover, Gordon

1996-01-01

485

Asset Management of Power Apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the details and difficulties on asset management process of power apparatus used in power network. The\\u000a actual condition of power apparatus is far more important than its age. The regulatory and market forces in the current competitive\\u000a energy market that are challenging the electric utility require more proactive methods of utility asset management. The utilities\\u000a try to

S. Birlasekaran; G. Ledwich

486

When does apparatus dead space matter for the pediatric patient?  

PubMed

Physiologic dead space is defined as the volume of the lung where gas exchange does not occur. Apparatus dead space increases dead space volume, causing either increased PaCO2 or the need to increase minute ventilation to maintain normocapnia. Children are especially vulnerable because small increases in apparatus dead space can significantly increase dead space to tidal volume ratio (Vd/Vt). The effect of changes in dead space on arterial CO2 (PaCO2) and required minute ventilation were calculated for patients weighing 2 to 17 kg that corresponds to 0 to 36 months of age. Apparatus volumes for typical devices were obtained from the manufacturer or measured by the volume of water required to fill the device. The relationship between the fraction of alveolar CO2 (FaCO2) and dead space volume (Vd) was derived from the Bohr equation, FaCO2 = VCO2/(RR*(Vt - Vd)), where VCO2 is CO2 production, RR is respiratory rate, and Vt is tidal volume. VCO2 was estimated by using Brody's equation for humans aged up to 36 months, (VCO2 = 5.56*(wt)), where weight is in kilogram. Initial conditions were Vt = 8 mL/kg, Vd/Vt = 0.3, and a RR of 20 breaths per minute. The relationship between PaCO2 and dead space was determined for increasing Vd. Rearranging the Bohr equation, the RR required to maintain PaCO2 of 40 mm·Hg was determined as dead space increased. The apparatus Vd of typical device arrangements ranged from 8 to 55 mL, and these values were used for the dead space values in the model. PaCO2 increased exponentially with increasing apparatus dead space. For smaller patients, the PaCO2 increased more rapidly for small changes in Vd than that in larger patients. Similarly, RR required to maintain PaCO2 of 40 mm·Hg increased exponentially with increasing dead space. Increasing apparatus Vd can lead to exponential increases in PaCO2 and/or RR required to maintain normal PaCO2. The effect on PaCO2 is less as patient weight increases, but these data suggest it can be significant for typical circuit components up to at least 17 kg or aged 36 months. PMID:24651232

Pearsall, Matthew F; Feldman, Jeffrey M

2014-04-01

487

Metabolite Content Profiling of Bottlenose Dolphin Exhaled Breath  

PubMed Central

Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

2014-01-01

488

Metabolite content profiling of bottlenose dolphin exhaled breath.  

PubMed

Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

Aksenov, Alexander A; Yeates, Laura; Pasamontes, Alberto; Siebe, Craig; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Simmons, Jason; McCartney, Mitchell M; Deplanque, Jean-Pierre; Wells, Randall S; Davis, Cristina E

2014-11-01

489

Basic requirements and options for communication systems in scientific underwater cable networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

New innovative scientific underwater cable networks have been proposed and initiated in many locations around the world. These networks have become feasible due to recent evolution of underwater telecommunication cable technology. However, their communication systems are quite different from standard telecommunication cable systems. Differences between the characteristics of existing submarine telecommunication systems and the basic technical requirements of scientific underwater

F. Sonnichsen; A. Maffei; K. Asakawa; X. Garcia

2004-01-01

490

77 FR 38236 - Special Local Regulation, Underwater Music Festival, Carr Inlet, Cutts Island, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation, Underwater Music Festival, Carr Inlet, Cutts Island...the maritime public during the Underwater Music Festival and would do so by establishing...notice. Basis and Purpose The Underwater Music Festival is an event which includes...

2012-06-27

491

Disturbance observer-based robust control for underwater robotic systems with passive joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater exploration requires mobility and manipulation. Underwater robotic vehicles (URV) have been employed for mobility, and robot manipulators attached to the underwater vehicle (i.e. rover) perform the manipulation. Usually, the manipulation mode takes place when the rover is stationary. The URV is then modeled as a passive joint and joints of the manipulator are modeled as active joints. URV motions

Goo Bong Chung; Kwang Sik Eom; Byung-ju Yi; Il Hong Suh; Oh Sang-rok; Wan Kyun Chung; J. O. Kim

2001-01-01

492

Protection Versus Public Access: Two Concepts Compared within the Italian Underwater Cultural Heritage Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts of protection and public access relating to underwater cultural heritage are often taken as two contrasting notions in the Italian underwater cultural heritage management panorama. This contribution aims to review these concepts with the objective of emphasizing the possibility of sound and scientifically compelling public access to the underwater cultural heritage, keeping protection principles intact. With the support

Massimiliano Secci

2011-01-01

493

A Transparent Boundary Condition for an Elastic Bottom in Underwater Acoustics  

E-print Network

A Transparent Boundary Condition for an Elastic Bottom in Underwater Acoustics Anton Arnold condition (TBC) for the coupling of the standard "parabolic" equation (SPE) in underwater acoustics) models appear in (underwater) acoustics as one-way approximations to the Helmholtz equation

Arnold, Anton

494

Stabilization of Steady Motions of an Underwater Vehicle \\Lambda Naomi Ehrich Leonard y  

E-print Network

In this paper we show how to stabilize underwater vehicle dynamics for a six degree­of­ freedom vehicle modeled exploration and other nontraditional undersea missions. Because underwater vehicle dynamics are nonlinear exploit the geometry of underwater vehicle dynamics to derive control laws that stabilize otherwise

Leonard, Naomi

495

Stability and Drift of Underwater Vehicle Dynamics: Mechanical Systems with Rigid Motion Symmetry \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Stability and Drift of Underwater Vehicle Dynamics: Mechanical Systems with Rigid Motion Symmetry on stability of underwater vehicle dynamics, it is of particular interest that, in some cases, we can allow vehicle dynamics. The stability of specific relative equilibria for the underwater vehicle is studied

Leonard, Naomi

496

Hardware ROV simulation facility for the evaluation of novel underwater manipulation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a hardware facility to simulate movements of a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) in a water basin for the evaluation of novel underwater manipulation techniques as it was build at the underwater robotics department of the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) in Bremen. The three main functionalities of the ROV simulator are to

Leif Christensen; Peter Kampmann; Marc Hildebrandt; Jan Albiez; Frank Kirchner

2009-01-01

497

A Modular, Continuously Learning Control System for Thruster-Based Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

E-print Network

A Modular, Continuously Learning Control System for Thruster-Based Autonomous Underwater Vehicles A Modular, Continuously Learning Control System for Thruster-Based Autonomous Underwater Vehicles and Test A Modular, Continuously Learning Control System for Thruster-Based Autonomous Underwater Vehicles and Test

Wood, Stephen L.

498

Pose-graph Visual SLAM with Geometric Model Selection for Autonomous Underwater Ship Hull Inspection  

E-print Network

Pose-graph Visual SLAM with Geometric Model Selection for Autonomous Underwater Ship Hull) to the prob- lem of autonomous ship hull inspection by an underwater vehicle. The goal of this work is to automatically map and navigate the underwater surface area of a ship hull for foreign object detection

Eustice, Ryan

499

Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits.  

PubMed

Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC) disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS), integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS), cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS), cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS), photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS). Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis. PMID:22408503

Wang, Chuji; Sahay, Peeyush

2009-01-01

500

Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits  

PubMed Central

Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC) disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS), integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS), cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS), cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS), photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS). Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis. PMID:22408503

Wang, Chuji; Sahay, Peeyush

2009-01-01