Sample records for underwater breathing apparatus

  1. Measurement of average resistance in underwater breathing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.R. [Navy Experimental Diving Unit, Panama City, FL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Underwater Breathing Apparatus (UBA) have long been characterized by the mechanical work done on them during simulated breathing. For 20 years, the work of breathing has been divided by tidal volume to yield what is properly considered a volume-averaged pressure. The authors assert that when volume-averaged pressure is divided by a factor proportional to ventilation, the result is a measure of flow resistance averaged over an entire breath. This point is illustrated with both theoretical and actual pressure-volume and pressure-flow curves for a MK 16 closed-circuit UBA.

  2. Passive acoustic detection of closed-circuit underwater breathing apparatus in an operational port environment.

    PubMed

    Fillinger, L; Hunter, A J; Zampolli, M; Clarijs, M C

    2012-10-01

    Divers constitute a potential threat to waterside infrastructures. Active diver detection sonars are available commercially but present some shortcomings, particularly in highly reverberant environments. This has led to research on passive sonar for diver detection. Passive detection of open-circuit UBA (underwater breathing apparatus) has been demonstrated. This letter reports on the detection of a diver wearing closed-circuit UBA (rebreather) in an operational harbor. Beamforming is applied to a passive array of 10 hydrophones in a pseudo-random linear arrangement. Experimental results are presented demonstrating detection of the rebreather at ranges up to 120 m and are validated by GPS ground truth. PMID:23039570

  3. Emergency Response Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace Design & Development, Inc.'s (ADD's) SCAMP was developed under an SBIR contract through Kennedy Space Center. SCAMP stands for Supercritical Air Mobility Pack. The technology came from the life support fuel cell support systems used for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. It uses supercritical cryogenic air and is able to function in microgravity environments. SCAMP's self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA) systems are also ground-based and can provide twice as much air than traditional SCBA's due to its high-density capacity. The SCAMP system was designed for use in launch pad emergency rescues. ADD also developed a protective suit for use with SCAMP that is smaller and lighter system than the old ones. ADD's SCAMP allows for body cooling and breathing from the supercritical cryogenic air, requiring no extra systems. The improvement over the traditional SCBA allows for a reduction of injuries, such as heat stress, and makes it easier for rescuers to save lives.

  4. Underwater oil leakage collecting apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blair

    1972-01-01

    An apparatus for collecting oil leaking from an underwater break in an oil source is described. A number of perforate cones is secured at longitudinally spaced intervals to an elongated cable. The lowermost cone is arranged over an underwater source of oil leakage and the upper end of the cable terminates at an oil-collecting chamber adjacent to the surface of

  5. Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

  6. Self-contained breathing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Giorgini, E. A.; Simmonds, M. R. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    A self-contained breathing apparatus with automatic redundant fluid pressure controls and a facemask mounted low pressure whistle alarm is described. The first stage of the system includes pair of pressure regulators connected in parallel with different outlet pressures, both of which reduce the pressure of the stored supply gas to pressures compatible with the second stage breathing demand regulator. A primary regulator in the first stage delivers a low output pressure to the demand regulator. In the event of a failure closed condition of the primary regulator an automatic transfer valve switches on the backup regulator. A warning that the supply pressure has been depleted is also provided by a supply pressure actuated transfer valve which transfers the output of the first stage pressure regulators from the primary to the backup regulator. The alarm is activated in either the failure closed condition or if the supply pressure is reduced to a dangerously low level.

  7. Turbulence-Induced Acoustic Emission of SCUBA Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donskoy, D.; Imas, L.; Yen, T.; Sedunov, N.; Tsionskiy, M.; Sedunov, A.

    2008-06-01

    Our initial study, [1], demonstrated that the primary originating source of vibration and subsequent acoustic emission from an underwater breathing apparatus is turbulent air flow pressure fluctuations occurring during the inhale phase of breathing. The process of energy release associated with the expansion of compressed air in the high pressure scuba tank, through the first stage regulator, results in a highly turbulent, unsteady, compressible air flow. The paper presents results of experimental investigation and fluid dynamic simulation of turbulence-induced acoustic emission. The simulation reveals complex supersonic flow within the regulator's valve and channel topology. The associated regulator's air turbulent pressure pulsations and underwater acoustic emission are observed in a broadband frequency range.

  8. Environmental testing of escape breathing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stengel, J W

    1982-05-03

    A new generation of 60-minute self-contained breathing apparatus was being introduced into the underground coal mining industry for use as respiratory protection during fires and mine disasters. Little field experience existed from which to predict the survivability of this new life-support equipment. A series of environmental tests was proposed consisting of exposure to heat, cold, shock, and vibration. Treated and untreated apparatus were evaluated and compared by use on human subjects and a mechanical breathing simulator. Results are reported. After field data have been collected, information may be able to be correlated with environmental testing and used as a predictor of survivability.

  9. Air-breathing marine animals that find their food underwater must divide their time between periods spent underwater to

    E-print Network

    Fahlman, Andreas

    angle per breath and breath frequency changed systematically over the surface pause; both were initiallyAir-breathing marine animals that find their food underwater must divide their time between periods with loggers to determine beak angles during breathing. The Humboldt penguins were also fitted with masks

  10. Improved oxygen sources for breathing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, P. C.; Wydeven, T.

    1983-01-01

    Research is described which is directed toward the preparation of chemical oxygen sources which exhibited improved O2 storage and reaction characteristics when compared to potassium superoxide (KO2). The initial focus of the research was the preparation of calcium superoxide (Ca(O2)2) by the disproportionation of calcium peroxide diperoxyhydrate. the Ca(O2)2 was characterized by chemical, thermal, and x ray analyses. Several methods for scaling up the Ca(O2)2 syntheis process were studied. The reactivity of Ca(O2)2 toward humidified carbon dioxide (CO2) was evaluated and was compared to that of KO2 under flow test conditions approximating those existing in portable breathing apparatus. The reactivities of mixtures of KO2 and Ca(O2)2 or lithium peroxide towards humidified CO2 were also studied. Finally, an analysis of two commercial, KO2-based, self contained self rescuers was conducted to determine the potential weight and volume savings which would be possible if Ca(O2)2 or a mixture of KO2 and Ca(O2)2 were used as a replacement for KO2.

  11. A chlorate candle/lithium hydroxide personal breathing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    A portable coal mine rescue and survival equipment is reported that consists of a chlorate candle with a lithium hydroxide carbon-dioxide absorbent for oxygen generation, a breathing bag and tubing to conduct breathing to and from the man. A plastic hood incorporating a mouth piece for communication provides also eye protection and prevents inhalation through the nose. Manned testing of a prototype system demonstrated the feasibility of this closed circuit no-maintenance breathing apparatus that provides for good voice communication.

  12. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  13. Remotely operated submersible underwater suction apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kristan, Louis L. (2111 Brentwood Dr., Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

    1990-01-01

    A completely submersible, remotely operated underwater suction device for collection of irradiated materials in a nuclear pool is disclosed. The device includes a pump means for pumping water through the device, a filter means for capturing irradiated debris, remotely operated releasable connector means, a collection means and a means for remotely maneuvering the collection means. The components of the suction device may be changed and replaced underwater to take advantage of the excellent radiation shielding ability of water to thereby minimize exposure of personnel to radiation.

  14. Maximal working times with a self-contained breathing apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. LOUHEVAARA; J. SMOLANDER; O. KORHONEN; T. TUOMI

    1986-01-01

    The effects of a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA, total weight of 15·5 kg) on relative aerobic strain (%[Vdot]O2max) and heart rate (HR) were studied at light, moderate, and heavy exercise levels on a treadmill in temperate conditions. The subjects comprised 13 firemen whose mean [Vdot]O2 max was 4·161 min (range 2·85 to 5·331 min). Maximal working times (WTmax) with SCBA

  15. Apparatus for use in energizing submergible pumping equipment in underwater wells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zehren

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for energizing submergible pumping equipment in an underwater well comprises a suspension head for the equipment and an adapter spool associated with wellhead apparatus and in which the suspension head seats. The apparatus includes internal electrical contacts within the adapter spool and contacts carried by radially expandable slips on the suspension head for establishing electrical connection between an external

  16. Work of breathing is increased during exercise with the self-contained breathing apparatus regulator.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Scott J; Jones, Richard L; Eves, Neil D; Petersen, Stewart R

    2006-12-01

    The self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) increases the expiratory pressure required to maintain high rates of ventilation, suggesting that the expiratory work of breathing (WOB) is increased; however, this has never been reported. The objective of this study, therefore, was to determine if the WOB is increased with the SCBA regulator (BA condition) compared with a low-resistance breathing valve (RV condition) during exercise. Twelve healthy male subjects underwent two randomized exercise trials, consisting of cycling at 150, 180, 210, and 240 W. Inspired and expired tidal volumes were measured using a body plethysmograph, whereas esophageal pressures were measured with an esophageal balloon. Modified Campbell diagrams were created to calculate the resistive and elastic components of WOB during inspiration and expiration. There were no differences in WOB between BA and RV conditions at 150 W. End-inspiratory and -expiratory lung volumes were elevated (p < 0.05) in the BA condition at higher ventilation rates, which increased inspiratory elastic work and decreased expiratory elastic work at 180 and 210 W (p < 0.05). At 240 W (VE=112 +/- 17 L.min-1 in the BA condition), active expiratory resistive work increased by 59% +/- 51%, inspiratory elastic work increased by 26% +/- 24%, and total WOB increased by 13% +/- 12% in the BA condition (p < 0.05). The SCBA regulator causes an increase in the active expiratory resistive work to maintain high ventilatory rates and an increase inspiratory elastic work through an elevation in lung volumes. PMID:17213883

  17. Effects of self-contained breathing apparatus on ventricular function during strenuous exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Nelson; Mark J. Haykowsky; Jonathan R. Mayne; Richard L. Jones; Stewart R. Petersen

    2008-01-01

    Effects of self-contained breathing apparatus on ventricular function during strenuous exercise. J Appl Physiol 106: 395-402, 2009. First published November 13, 2008; doi:10.1152\\/japplphysiol.91193.2008.— The purpose of this study was to investigate left-ventricular function during strenuous exercise with the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). With the use of two-dimensional echocardiography, images of the left ventricle (LV) were acquired during sustained exercise (3

  18. Impaired exercise ventilatory mechanics with the self-contained breathing apparatus are improved with heliox

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott J. Butcher; Richard L. Jones; Jonathan R. Mayne; Timothy C. Hartley; Stewart R. Petersen

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) with compressed air (BA-A) on ventilatory mechanics, work of breathing\\u000a (WOB), pulmonary function, and respiratory muscle fatigue, was compared with that of a low resistance breathing valve (LRV).\\u000a Further, the effect of unloading the respiratory muscles with heliox with the SCBA (BA-H) was compared with BA-A and LRV.\\u000a Twelve men completed three

  19. Heat and water accumulation in closed-circuit breathing apparatus: a technological challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Myhre; W. Grimm

    1989-01-01

    A prototype closed-circuit self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) was evaluated against a standard 30-min open-circuit SCBA when worn by men performing heavy exercise on a motor-driven treadmill in hot and cold environments. The closed-circuit SCBA provided quality breathing air for a duration exceeding four times that available from the open-circuit system. Although the high temperature and humidity of the air provided

  20. Field evaluation of a new prototype self-contained breathing apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aitor Coca; Jung-Hyun Kim; Richard Duffy; W. Jon Williams

    2011-01-01

    Firefighters are required to use a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) for respiratory protection when engaged in a variety of firefighting duties. While the SCBA provides crucial respiratory support and protection, it is also cumbersome and heavy, thus adding to the physical work performed by the firefighter. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the low profile

  1. Improved self-contained breathing apparatus concept. Final report Oct 80-Jun 82

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. White; J. Walker

    1982-01-01

    Past operational experiences of USAF fire fighting and rescue teams have indicated the need for an improved self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). In October 1980, a contract was awarded to Electronic Data Systems, Panama City, Florida, to design and develop a prototype SCBA that would meet Air Force technical requirements. A prototype was designed, developed, and tested through a subcontract with

  2. Experimental and modeling study of thermal exposure of a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Michelle K; Yang, Jiann C

    2015-08-01

    An experimental apparatus designed to study firefighter safety equipment exposed to a thermal environment was developed. The apparatus consisted of an elevated temperature flow loop with the ability to heat the air stream up to 200°C. The thermal and flow conditions at the test section were characterized using thermocouples and bi-directional probes. The safety equipment examined in this study was a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), including a facepiece and an air cylinder. The SCBA facepiece was placed on a mannequin headform and coupled to a breathing simulator that was programmed with a prescribed breathing pattern. The entire SCBA assembly was placed in the test section of the flow loop for these thermal exposure experiments. Three air stream temperatures, 100°C, 150°C, and 200°C, were used with the average air speed at the test section set at 1.4m/s and thermal exposure durations up to 1200s. Measurements were made using type-K bare-bead thermocouples located in the mannequin's mouth and on the outer surface of the SCBA cylinder. The experimental results indicated that increasing the thermal exposure severity and duration increased the breathing air temperatures supplied by the SCBA. Temperatures of breathing air from the SCBA cylinder in excess of 60°C were observed over the course of the thermal exposure conditions used in most of the experiments. A mathematical model for transient heat transfer was developed to complement the thermal exposure experimental study. The model took into consideration forced convective heat transfer, quasi-steady heat conduction through the composite layers of the SCBA cylinder wall, the breathing pattern and action of the breathing simulator, and predicted air temperatures from the thermally exposed SCBA cylinder and temperatures at the outer surface of the SCBA cylinder. Model predictions agreed reasonably well with the experimental measurements. PMID:25681021

  3. The influence of the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) on ventilatory function and maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Eves, Neil D; Jones, Richard L; Petersen, Stewart R

    2005-10-01

    Our previous work showed that breathing low density gases during exercise with the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) improves maximal ventilation (V(E)) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max). This suggests that the SCBA limits exercise by adding a resistive load to breathing. In this study we compared VO(2)max with and without the various components comprising the SCBA to determine their impact on VO(2)max. Twelve males performed 4 randomly ordered incremental exercise tests to exhaustion on a treadmill: (1) low-resistance breathing valve only (CON); (2) full SCBA (SCBA); (3) SCBA regulator only (REG); and (4) carrying the cylinder and harness assembly but breathing through a low-resistance breathing valve (PACK). Compared to CON, VO(2)max was reduced to a similar extent in the SCBA and REG trials (14.9% and 13.1%, respectively). The PACK condition also reduced VO(2)max, but to a lesser extent (4.8 +/- 5.3%). At VO(2)max, VE was decreased and expiratory mouth pressure and external breathing resistance (BR) were increased in both the SCBA and REG trials. There was a significant correlation between the change in maximal V(E)and VO(2)max with the SCBA. The results show that the SCBA reduces VO(2)max by limiting V(E) secondary to the increased BR of the SCBA regulator. PMID:16293900

  4. Apparatus for detecting and locating leakage in underwater structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wann, L.D.

    1990-08-14

    This paper discusses a system for monitoring integrity of underwater structures. It comprises at least one enclosure member sealingly secured over at least one selected area of the underwater structure, each enclosure member maintaining a dry void; a coaxial cable having a central conductor and centric shield, and having an input above water and extending down through the at least one enclosure member in water-tight passage. The cable terminating in characteristic resistance and water-tight enclosure; at least one probe having a segment of insulative rod material and a pair of generally equi-spaced wires wound helically on the segment in one direction and reverse wound in overlap to terminate in an open end, and connected between the cable central conductor and shield and being disposed in each at least one dry void. The probe being wound to function as a parallel inductance and capacitance circuit that is resonant at a preselected frequency; means generating a pulse having the preselected frequency as the fundamental frequency applied as the input to the coaxial cable; and means detecting any reflected pulse on the coaxial cable.

  5. Effectiveness of self-contained breathing apparatus in a fire environment

    SciTech Connect

    Held, B.J.; Harder, C.A.

    1980-07-18

    Several tests that are described to help determine the effectiveness of self-contained breathing apparatus operating under some of the stresses imposed on it at a fire scene. It is recommended that tests be devised to measure effects of fire decomposition products and chemicals, either through gradual corrosion or by immediate SCBA failure. Mechanical stress tests are also needed, because fire fighter SCBA are subjected to vibration stress from apparatus moving over rough roads and rough handling at the scene of a fire or emergency. Radiant heat tests are also needed.

  6. Characterizing Inward Leakage in a Pressure-Demand, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney A. Bryant; Amy Mensch

    2011-01-01

    An analytical model of the flow across a resistive flow path such as an orifice or pipe was applied to predict the inward leakage in the facepiece of a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during a steady below-ambient facepiece pressure. The model was used to estimate leakage rates with respect to the size of the leak and for below-ambient (negative) pressure

  7. Effects of the self-contained breathing apparatus and fire protective clothing on maximal oxygen uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy W. Dreger; Richard L. Jones; Stewart R. Petersen

    2006-01-01

    To examine the effects of firefighting personal protective ensemble (PPE) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) on exercise performance, 12 males completed two randomly ordered, graded exercise treadmill tests (GXTPPE and GXTPT). Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) during GXTPPE was 17.3% lower than the GXTPT in regular exercise clothing (43.0 ± 5.7 vs. 52.4 ± 8.5 ml\\/kg per min, respectively). The lower VO2max during the PPE condition

  8. Heat Strain Assessment for Workers Using an Encapsulating Garment and a Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre C. Dessureault; Richard B. Konzen; Newton C. Ellis; Daniel Imbeau

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated the physiological response of subjects wearing a Tyvek[rgrave]-Saranex[rgrave] totally encapsulating suit and a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) while working under four environmental conditions. The work was performed on an ergometer connected to a measuring unit that maintained the work load at 255 W (220 kcal\\/h). Five young male cyclists (mean age = 28.7 years), familiar with the

  9. Lumbar spine loads during education and training with self-contained breathing apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Küpper; M. Haisch

    2000-01-01

    Objective: German fire fighters often complain of lumbar back pain after training with a self-contained breathing apparatus while using\\u000a a device called `Schlag- hammer' (SH). We investigated whether this training produces an excessive load on the lumbar spine.\\u000a Method: We developed a model to estimate the load on the lumbar spine using a vector model similar to Jäger et?al.'s model.

  10. Effects of helium and 40% O2 on graded exercise with self-contained breathing apparatus.

    PubMed

    Eves, Neil D; Petersen, Stewart R; Jones, Richard L

    2003-12-01

    Maximal exercise performance is decreased when breathing from a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), owing to a ventilatory limitation imposed by the increased expiratory resistance. To test the hypothesis that decreasing the density of the breathing gas would improve maximal exercise performance, we studied 15 men during four graded exercise tests with the SCBA. Participants breathed a different gas mixture during each test: normoxia (NOX; 21% O2, 79% N2), hyperoxia (HOX; 40% O2, 60% N2), normoxic helium (HE-OX; 21% O2, 79% He), and hyperoxic helium (HE-HOX; 40% O2, 60% He). Compared to NOX, power output at the ventilatory threshold and at maximal exercise significantly increased with both hyperoxic mixtures. Minute ventilation was increased at peak exercise with both helium mixtures, and maximal aerobic power (VO2max) was significantly increased by 12.9 +/- 5.6%, 10.2 +/- 6.3%, and 21.8 +/- 5.6% with HOX, HE-OX, and HE-HOX, respectively. At peak exercise, the expired breathing resistance imposed by the SCBA was significantly decreased with both helium mixtures, and perceived respiratory distress was lower with HE-HOX. The results show that HE-OX improved maximal exercise performance by minimizing the ventilation limitation. The performance-enhancing effect of HOX may be explained by increased arterial oxygen content. Moreover, HE-HOX appeared to combine the effects of helium and hyperoxia on VO2max. PMID:14992128

  11. Impaired exercise ventilatory mechanics with the self-contained breathing apparatus are improved with heliox.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Scott J; Jones, Richard L; Mayne, Jonathan R; Hartley, Timothy C; Petersen, Stewart R

    2007-12-01

    The effect of the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) with compressed air (BA-A) on ventilatory mechanics, work of breathing (WOB), pulmonary function, and respiratory muscle fatigue, was compared with that of a low resistance breathing valve (LRV). Further, the effect of unloading the respiratory muscles with heliox with the SCBA (BA-H) was compared with BA-A and LRV. Twelve men completed three randomized exercise trials on separate days, each consisting of three 10 min bouts of stepping exercise (Bouts 1, 2, and 3) separated by a 5 min recovery. Subjects wore firefighter protective equipment including the SCBA. At rest, FEV(1) and peak expiratory flow rates were lower with BA-A than with LRV, but were higher with BA-H than either with BA-A or LRV. After Bout 3, expiratory reserve volume, expiratory resistive WOB, and inspiratory elastic WOB were increased in BA-A compared to LRV but these were lower with BA-H compared to BA-A. After Bout 3, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures were reduced with BA-A, but not with LRV or BA-H. In summary, we found that the SCBA reduced resting pulmonary function, and increased expiratory reserve volume, work of breathing, and respiratory muscle fatigue during stepping exercise, and these changes can be reduced with the use of heliox. PMID:17701048

  12. Hyperoxia improves maximal exercise with the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).

    PubMed

    Eves, Neil D; Petersen, Stewart R; Jones, Richard L

    2002-10-10

    The effects of hyperoxia on maximal exercise while breathing from a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) were studied in 25 males. Each participant completed three graded exercise tests (GXT) for the assessment of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)): two with 20.95 +/- 0.28% O(2) and the third (GXT(40)) while breathing hyperoxia (40.64 +/- 1.29% O(2)). No significant differences were found between the two normoxic tests, except for a 16W increase in maximal power output (PO(max)) in the second trial (GXT(21)). Compared to GXT(21), hyperoxia significantly increased VO(2max) and PO(max) by 10.0 +/- 3.8% and 10.2 +/- 7.1%, respectively. This was likely due to an increase in O(2) delivery as suggested by the significantly higher oxyhemoglobin saturation. The increase in VO (2max) with hyperoxia was similar to the increase in carbon dioxide production (9.3 +/- 6.5%). No other significant di.fferences were found at maximal exercise. However, at the intensity that elicited VO(2max) in GXT(21), pulmonary ventilation and SCBA mask pressure were significantly lower during GXT(40), suggesting a decrease in the work of breathing. These findings could have significant implications for occupations that involve heavy work with SCBA. PMID:12487685

  13. Effects of the self-contained breathing apparatus and fire protective clothing on maximal oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Dreger, Randy W; Jones, Richard L; Petersen, Stewart R

    2006-08-15

    To examine the effects of firefighting personal protective ensemble (PPE) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) on exercise performance, 12 males completed two randomly ordered, graded exercise treadmill tests (GXTPPE and GXTPT). Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) during GXTPPE was 17.3% lower than the GXTPT in regular exercise clothing (43.0 +/- 5.7 vs. 52.4 +/- 8.5 ml/kg per min, respectively). The lower VO2max during the PPE condition was significantly related (r = 0.81, p < 0.05) to attenuated peak ventilation (142.8 +/- 18.0 vs. 167.1 +/- 15.6 l/min), which was attributed to a significant reduction in tidal volume (2.6 +/- 10.4 vs. 3.2 +/- 0.4 l). Breathing frequency at peak exercise was unchanged (55 +/- 7 vs. 53 +/- 7 breaths/min). The results of this investigation demonstrate that PPE and the SCBA have a negative impact on VO2max. These factors must be considered when evaluating aerobic demands of fire suppression work and the fitness levels of firefighters. PMID:16803723

  14. The effect of hyperoxia on submaximal exercise with the self-contained breathing apparatus.

    PubMed

    Eves, Neil D; Petersen, Stewart R; Jones, Richard L

    2002-10-10

    The effects of hyperoxia on submaximal exercise with the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) were studied in 25 males. Each participant completed a graded exercise test for the determination of ventilatory threshold (VT) and then a submaximal practice trial with a normoxic gas mixture. The normoxic (20.93 +/- 0.22% O(2); SUB(21)) and hyperoxic (40.18 +/- 0.73% O(2); SUB(40)) submaximal trials were then administered in a random order. All exercise tests were completed on separate days while wearing firefighting gear and the SCBA. Compared with SUB(21), hyperoxia significantly reduced minute ventilation (V(E)), mask pressure (P(mask)), heart rate, blood lactate concentration, perceived exertion, and perceived breathing distress. As expected, hemoglobin saturation remained higher (p < 0.05) during SUB(40). The reductions in both V(E) and P(mask) with hyperoxia imply a reduction in the work of breathing during exercise. Total gas consumption was 10.3 +/- 8.1% lower during SUB(40) when compared to SUB(21), another finding that has significant practical implications for occupational safety. PMID:12487686

  15. Study of facepiece leakage of self-contained breathing apparatus by DOP man tests. Progress report, July 1, 1971February 29, 1972

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. Hyatt; C. P. Richards

    1972-01-01

    Protection factors (PF's) for Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) have been proposed. The revised B of M Approval Schedules do not have provisions for the determination of protection factors for Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA). A protection factor is a measure of the degree of protection afforded by a respiratory protective device during use and is defined as the ratio of the

  16. An evaluation of physiological demands and comfort between the use of conventional and lightweight self-contained breathing apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J Hooper; J. O Crawford; D Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The additional physiological strain associated with the use of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) is mostly linked to the additional weight. Lightweight and conventional SCBA were assessed in a submaximal step test performed in full firekit (total weights 15 and 27kg, respectively). Factors assessed were: comparative energy expenditure of the two sets, relationship between comparative energy expenditure and aerobic fitness and

  17. Evaluation of proposed methods to update human testing of self-contained breathing apparatus.

    PubMed

    Turner, N; Beeckman, D; Hodous, T

    1995-12-01

    The current Man Test protocols used by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health for the certification testing of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) do not provide continuous real-time information on the performance of these devices during actual use. In addition, current protocols do not test human subjects at the same absolute work rates but at rates that vary according to the subjects' body weights. This study was conducted to evaluate revised "Use Test" protocols proposed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, which are normalized to subjects' body weights. No differences in duration were observed among the three body weight categories for the multiple work rate. Use Test 2. It was concluded that the proposed Use Test protocols could form the basis for eventual recommendations to revise the current Man Tests for SCBA performance evaluation. PMID:8533734

  18. Improved self-contained breathing apparatus concept. Final report Oct 80-Jun 82

    SciTech Connect

    White, L.; Walker, J.

    1982-08-01

    Past operational experiences of USAF fire fighting and rescue teams have indicated the need for an improved self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). In October 1980, a contract was awarded to Electronic Data Systems, Panama City, Florida, to design and develop a prototype SCBA that would meet Air Force technical requirements. A prototype was designed, developed, and tested through a subcontract with Reimers Consultants, Falls Church, Virginia. This report describes the technical requirements, a detailed technical description of the unit, and the unmanned test procedures and results. The unmanned testing demonstrate that the prototype SCBA meets all performance requirements, except for weight. The fully charged prototype weights 34 pounds, the maximum acceptable weight is 30 pounds. With the other performance requirements either met or exceeded, manned testing of the SCBA can proceed.

  19. Quantitatively Measuring In situ Flows using a Self-Contained Underwater Velocimetry Apparatus (SCUVA)

    PubMed Central

    Katija, Kakani; Colin, Sean P.; Costello, John H.; Dabiri, John O.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to directly measure velocity fields in a fluid environment is necessary to provide empirical data for studies in fields as diverse as oceanography, ecology, biology, and fluid mechanics. Field measurements introduce practical challenges such as environmental conditions, animal availability, and the need for field-compatible measurement techniques. To avoid these challenges, scientists typically use controlled laboratory environments to study animal-fluid interactions. However, it is reasonable to question whether one can extrapolate natural behavior (i.e., that which occurs in the field) from laboratory measurements. Therefore, in situ quantitative flow measurements are needed to accurately describe animal swimming in their natural environment. We designed a self-contained, portable device that operates independent of any connection to the surface, and can provide quantitative measurements of the flow field surrounding an animal. This apparatus, a self-contained underwater velocimetry apparatus (SCUVA), can be operated by a single scuba diver in depths up to 40 m. Due to the added complexity inherent of field conditions, additional considerations and preparation are required when compared to laboratory measurements. These considerations include, but are not limited to, operator motion, predicting position of swimming targets, available natural suspended particulate, and orientation of SCUVA relative to the flow of interest. The following protocol is intended to address these common field challenges and to maximize measurement success. PMID:22064442

  20. Fatal and nonfatal drowning outcomes related to dangerous underwater breath-holding behaviors - new york state, 1988-2011.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Christopher; Levy, Amanda; McProud, Trevor; Huang, Lilly; Raneses, Eli; Olson, Carolyn

    2015-05-22

    Drowning is an important cause of preventable injury and mortality, ranking fifth among leading causes of unintentional injury death in the United States. In 2011, two healthy young men died in a drowning incident at a New York City (NYC)-regulated swimming facility. The men became unconscious underwater after performing intentional hyperventilation before submersion. The phenomenon of healthy swimmers becoming unconscious underwater has been described elsewhere as hypoxic blackout. Prompted by this incident, the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) in collaboration with the New York State Department of Health (SDOH) conducted a case review of New York state fatal and nonfatal drownings reported during 1988-2011 to investigate similar behaviors in other incidents. DOHMH identified 16 cases, three in NYC, with a consistent set of voluntary behaviors associated with unintentional drowning and designated this class of behaviors as "dangerous underwater breath-holding behaviors" (DUBBs). For this small sample, the frequency of different DUBBs varied by age and swimming level, and practicing more than one DUBB increased the risk for fatality. This research contributes to the literature on drowning by focusing on contributing behaviors rather than drowning outcomes. NYC recently enacted public health education and regulations that discourage DUBBs; these interventions have the potential to effectively reduce unintentional drowning related to these behaviors and could be considered by other municipalities and jurisdictions. PMID:25996093

  1. Self-contained breathing apparatus remaining service-life indicator performance requirements. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-01-14

    On June 25, 2012, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) published a notice of proposed rulemaking proposing to update respirator approval standards in response to a petition to amend our regulations, current requirements for self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) remaining service-life indicators or warning devices. These indicators are built into a respirator to alert the user that the breathing air provided by the respirator is close to depletion. In this final rule, HHS responds to public comment on the proposed rule and revises the current standard, employed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) located within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), to allow greater flexibility in the setting of the indicator alarm to ensure that the alarm more effectively meets the different worker protection needs of different work operations. This final rule sets a minimum alarm point at 25 percent of the rated service time and allows the manufacturer to offer remaining service life set point at a higher value or values appropriate to the purchaser's use scenario. PMID:23476970

  2. 42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...hazardous atmospheres, are described as follows: (1) Closed-circuit apparatus. An apparatus of the type in which the...oxygen; or (iii) Liquid-oxygen. (2) Open-circuit apparatus. An apparatus of the following types...

  3. Effects of self-contained breathing apparatus on ventricular function during strenuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael D; Haykowsky, Mark J; Mayne, Jonathan R; Jones, Richard L; Petersen, Stewart R

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate left-ventricular function during strenuous exercise with the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). With the use of two-dimensional echocardiography, images of the left ventricle (LV) were acquired during sustained exercise (3 x 10 min) under two conditions: 1) SCBA, or 2) low resistance breathing valve. Twenty healthy men volunteered for the study, and in each condition subjects wore fire protective equipment. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, cavity areas during systole and diastole (ESCA and EDCA, respectively), esophageal pressure, ventilation rate, oxygen consumption, perceived physical, thermal and respiratory distress, and core temperature were measured at regular intervals. Urine specific gravity (<1.020 g/ml) and hematological variables were used to infer hydration status. All subjects began both trials in a euhydrated state. No differences were found between conditions for heart rate, systolic blood pressure, ventilation rate, oxygen consumption, perceived distress, or any hematological variables. Peak expiratory esophageal pressure was always higher (P < 0.05), while EDCA and stroke area (SA) were significantly lower (P < 0.05) with the SCBA. ESCA, end-systolic transmural pressure (ESTMP), and LV contractility (ESTMP/ESCA) were similar between conditions. Sustained exercise with fire protective equipment resulted in significant reductions in EDCA, ESCA, and SA from the start of exercise, which was associated with a 6.3 +/- 0.8% reduction in plasma volume, an increase in core temperature (37.0 +/- 0.4 to 38.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C), and a significant increase in heart rate (146.9 +/- 2.1 to 181.7 +/- 2.4 beats/min) throughout exercise. The results from this study support research by others showing that increased intrathoracic pressure reduces LV preload (EDCA); however, the novelty of the present study is that when venous return is compromised by sustained exercise and heat stress, SA cannot be maintained. PMID:19008481

  4. Effects of firefighters' self-contained breathing apparatus' weight and its harness design on the physiological and subjective responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilham Bakri; Joo-Young Lee; Kouhei Nakao; Hitoshi Wakabayashi; Yutaka Tochihara

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effects of firefighters' self-contained breathing apparatus' (SCBA) weight and its harness design on the physiological and subjective responses, eight male students performed treadmill exercise under four conditions: the 8 kg firefighter protective clothing (PC) (Control), the PC + an 11 kg SCBA with an old harness (Test A), the PC + a 6.4 kg SCBA with an old harness (Test

  5. Characterizing inward leakage in a pressure-demand, self-contained breathing apparatus.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Rodney A; Mensch, Amy

    2011-07-01

    An analytical model of the flow across a resistive flow path such as an orifice or pipe was applied to predict the inward leakage in the facepiece of a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during a steady below-ambient facepiece pressure. The model was used to estimate leakage rates with respect to the size of the leak and for below-ambient (negative) pressure conditions reflective of measured occurrences. Results of the model were also used to make quantitative estimates of the protection level of the respirator. Experiments were designed to induce a continuous below-ambient pressure inside the facepiece of a pressure-demand SCBA mounted on a headform. Negative facepiece pressure measured in the presence of a leak correlated with the measured particle concentration ratio. Results show that the analytical model generated reasonable estimates of leakage rates during conditions of negative pressure inside the facepiece. Thus, the analytical model performed well for constant flow conditions, demonstrating the capability to predict a momentary compromise in respirator protection during momentary negative facepiece pressure conditions. PMID:21667373

  6. Field evaluation of a new prototype self-contained breathing apparatus.

    PubMed

    Coca, Aitor; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Duffy, Richard; Williams, W Jon

    2011-12-01

    Firefighters are required to use a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) for respiratory protection when engaged in a variety of firefighting duties. While the SCBA provides crucial respiratory support and protection, it is also cumbersome and heavy, thus adding to the physical work performed by the firefighter. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the low profile SCBA prototype to a standard SCBA, as assessed by the objective and subjective measures of mobility and comfort, time of donning/doffing, as well as by acquiring user feedback on SCBA design features during field activities. The results of the present study indicated that the prototype SCBA was rated as a significant improvement over the standard SCBA in the areas of range of motion (ROM), mobility, comfort, induction of fatigue, interaction with protective clothing, and operability when worn over a standard firefighter ensemble, while performing a series of International Association of Fire Fighters Fire Ground Survival Program training exercises. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: A prototype SCBA was evaluated and compared with a standard SCBA, focusing on the objective and subjective measures of mobility and comfort during field activities. Feedback from end users was collected during the evaluation. The findings of the present study can be used for improving the system design and overall performance of new prototype SCBAs. PMID:22103727

  7. Portable breathing system. [a breathing apparatus using a rebreathing system of heat exchangers for carbon dioxide removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, J. S. (inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A semiclosed-loop rebreathing system is discussed for use in a hostile environment. A packed bed regenerative heat exchanger providing two distinct temperature humidity zones of breathing gas with one zone providing cool, relatively dry air and the second zone providing hot, moist air is described.

  8. Estimated workplace protection factors for positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L; Noonan, G P; Merinar, T R; Stobbe, J A

    1994-04-01

    An analytical model is presented that estimates the distribution of workplace protection factor (WPF) values for positive-pressure respirators. Input for the model is (1) the instantaneous facepiece pressure measured as a function of time and (2) the distribution of WPF values for a negative-pressure version of the respirator. As an example application, the model was applied to 57 measurements of facepiece pressure made in a previous National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health study called "Firesmoke." That study involved professional firefighters wearing positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). During Firesmoke, there were four donnings in which facepiece pressure momentarily went negative one or more times during use. The purpose of the effort described here was to assess the significance of these momentary, negative excursions in facepiece pressure. To that end, an analytical model was developed that estimates the ratio of the mass of contaminant that enters the facepiece during these negative excursions to that which would be expected to enter a negative-pressure respirator utilizing the same facepiece. Thus, the performance of a positive-pressure SCBA can be determined relative to the performance of a negative-pressure respirator with the same facepiece--either a negative-pressure SCBA or a negative pressure air-purifying respirator. The NIOSH-assigned protection factor (APF) for a negative-pressure full facepiece is 50; the APF for a positive-pressure SCBA is 10,000. The results of the application of this analytical model are consistent with the current NIOSH APF for a positive-pressure SCBA. PMID:8209837

  9. Using underwater cameras to assess the effects of snorkeler and SCUBA diver presence on coral reef fish abundance, family richness, and species composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Dearden; M. Theberge; M. Yasué

    2010-01-01

    The results of underwater visual fish censuses (UVC) could be affected by fish changing their behavior in response to the\\u000a snorkeler or diver conducting the survey. We used an underwater video camera to assess how fish abundance, family richness,\\u000a and community composition were affected by the presence of snorkelers (n?=?12) and self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) divers (n?=?6) on a

  10. 30 CFR 57.22315 - Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22315 Self-contained breathing...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22315 - Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22315 Self-contained breathing...

  12. 30 CFR 57.22315 - Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22315 Self-contained breathing...

  13. Effects of the self-contained breathing apparatus on left-ventricular function at rest and during graded exercise.

    PubMed

    Mayne, Jonathan R; Haykowsky, Mark J; Nelson, Michael D; Hartley, Timothy C; Butcher, Scott J; Jones, Richard L; Petersen, Stewart R

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) on left-ventricular (LV) function at rest and during mild- to moderate-intensity exercise, using 2-dimensional echocardiography. Twenty-three healthy male volunteers exercised on a stair-climber at work rates equivalent to 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of peak oxygen consumption. Esophageal pressure LV diastolic and systolic cavity areas, and myocardial areas were acquired during the final minute of each stage of exercise. As expected, the esophageal pressure response during SCBA breathing revealed significantly lower (more negative) inspiratory pressures and higher (more positive) expiratory pressures and, consequently, higher pressure swings, than free breathing (FB). End-diastolic cavity area (EDCA) and end-systolic cavity area (ESCA) were lower with the SCBA than with FB. LV contractility was higher (p < 0.05) with the SCBA, which can partially be explained by decreases in end-systolic wall stress. Therefore, the SCBA was found to decrease LV preload during moderate-intensity exercise, but did not negatively affect stroke area because of a similar reduction in ESCA. PMID:19767797

  14. Apparatus and method for installing and energizing submergible pump in underwater well

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiefer

    1983-01-01

    A submergible pump is suspended from a suspension head and lowered into an underwater well. The pump is lowered through the bore of a spool at the wellhead, and the suspension head is supported on a shoulder in the spool. A contact region of the bore has a first set of contacts engageable with corresponding contacts of a second set

  15. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing...

  16. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing...

  17. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing...

  18. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing...

  19. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing...

  20. An evaluation of physiological demands and comfort between the use of conventional and lightweight self-contained breathing apparatus.

    PubMed

    Hooper, A J; Crawford, J O; Thomas, D

    2001-08-01

    The additional physiological strain associated with the use of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) is mostly linked to the additional weight. Lightweight and conventional SCBA were assessed in a submaximal step test performed in full firekit (total weights 15 and 27 kg, respectively). Factors assessed were: comparative energy expenditure of the two sets, relationship between comparative energy expenditure and aerobic fitness and subjective discomfort. Measured variables were: oxygen consumption, heart rate, estimated VO2max and subjective discomfort (body part discomfort scale). The lightweight SCBA displayed a significant oxygen consumption benefit, which was independent of dynamic workrate and valued at 0.2561 min(-1). Mean heart rate responses were significantly lower with the light set. No relationship was found between comparative energy expenditure and aerobic fitness. The light set was rated as significantly more comfortable than the heavy. Further research is required to assess the extent of the energy consumption benefit in realistic fire suppression protocols and the contribution of ergonomic factors to the energy and comfort benefits. PMID:11461041

  1. Breathing Like a Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  2. The use of superoxide mixtures as air-revitalization chemicals in hyperbaric, self-contained, closed-circuit breathing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, P. C.; Wydeven, T.

    1985-01-01

    In portable breathing apparatus applications at 1 atm, potassium superoxide (KO2) has exhibited low-utilization efficiency of the available oxygen (O2) and diminished carbon dioxide-(CO2) scrubbing capacity caused by the formation of a fused, hydrated-hydroxide/carbonate product coating on the superoxide granules. In earlier work, it was discovered that granules fabricated from an intimate mixture of KO2 and calcium superoxide, Ca(O2)2, did not exhibit formation of a fused product coating and the utilization efficiency with respect to both O2 release and CO2 absorption was superior to KO2 granules when both types of granules were reacted with humidified CO2 under identified conditions. In the work described here, single pellets of KO2, KO2/Ca(O2), mixtures and commercially available KO2 tables and granules were reacted with a flow of humidified CO2 in helium at 1- and 10-atm total pressure and at an initial temperature of 40 C. In the 1-atm flow tests, the reaction rates and utilization efficiency of the KO2/Ca(O2)2 pellets were markedly superior to the KO2 pellets, tablets, and granules when the samples were reacted under identical conditions. However, at 10 atm, the rates of O2 release and CO2 absorption, as well as the utilization efficiencies of all the superoxide samples, were one-third to one-eighth of the values observed at 1 atm. The decrease in reaction performance at 10 atm compared to that at 1 atm has been attributed principally to the lower bulk diffusivity of the CO2 and H2O reactants in helium at the higher pressure and secondarily to the moderation of the reaction temperature caused by the higher heat capacity of the 10-atm helium.

  3. Large body size allows air-breathing vertebrates to increase their oxygen stores and thus prolong underwater foraging

    E-print Network

    Acevedo, Alejandro

    -breathing vertebrates are the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) and the fin whale (B. physalus). Adult blue whales marine mammals, including the blue whale, glide during a dive, a behavior that appears to reduce oxygen, usually on the basis of body mass (Kooyman, 1989; Boyd, 1997). The TADLs of blue and fin whales are 31

  4. Microcontroller-based underwater acoustic ECG telemetry system.

    PubMed

    Istepanian, R S; Woodward, B

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a microcontroller-based underwater acoustic telemetry system for digital transmission of the electrocardiogram (ECG). The system is designed for the real time, through-water transmission of data representing any parameter, and it was used initially for transmitting in multiplexed format the heart rate, breathing rate and depth of a diver using self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA). Here, it is used to monitor cardiovascular reflexes during diving and swimming. The programmable capability of the system provides an effective solution to the problem of transmitting data in the presence of multipath interference. An important feature of the paper is a comparative performance analysis of two encoding methods, Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) and Pulse Position Modulation (PPM). PMID:11020817

  5. 77 FR 37862 - Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Remaining Service-Life Indicator Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ...indicators), which are devices built into a respirator to alert the user that the breathing air provided by the respirator is...indicator or warning device,'' \\1\\ which is intended to alert users when the breathing air supply has been depleted to a...

  6. Apparatus for use in placing a submarine structure on the sea bed alongside an underwater well and method of drilling a plurality of closely spaced underwater wells

    SciTech Connect

    Shotbolt, K.

    1982-03-02

    A template for spacing a submarine structure such as an anchor block or a guide base for a second underwater well alongside an existing underwater well comprises a beam attached at one end, by means of a hinge, to a lowering guide which can be threaded over and be lowered along two guide wires of the first well, and at the other end by a remote-controlled release mechanism to the submarine structure such as the anchor block itself or a guide base for a second well. The beam, with such a submarine structure attached, is lowered down the guide wires while held in a vertical configuration, and is then swung into a generally horizontal configuration at the sea bed.

  7. Effect of wearing personal protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus on heart rate, temperature and oxygen consumption during stepping exercise and live fire training exercises.

    PubMed

    Bruce-Low, S S; Cotterrell, D; Jones, G E

    2007-01-15

    Fire fighter breathing apparatus instructors (BAIs) must possess the ability to respond to both the extrinsic stress of a high temperature environment and the intrinsic stress from wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), repeatedly and regularly, whilst training recruits in live fire training exercises (LFTEs). There are few previous investigations on BAIs in hot environments such as LFTEs, since the main research focus has been on regular fire fighters undertaking exercises in temperate or fire conditions at a moderate to high exercise intensity. In this study, the intrinsic cardiovascular stress effects of wearing PPE + SCBA were first investigated using a step test whilst wearing gym kit (control), weighted gym kit (a rucksack weighted to the equivalent of PPE + SCBA) and full PPE + SCBA (weight plus the effects of protective clothing). The extrinsic effects of the very hot environment were investigated in BIAs in LFTEs compared to mock fire training exercises (MFTEs), where the fire was not ignited. There was an increase in heart rate due to the modest workload imposed on the BAIs through carrying out the MFTEs (25.0 (18.7)%) compared to resting. However, when exposed to fire during the LFTEs, heat storage appears to be significant as the heart rate increased by up to 39.8 (+/-20.1)% over that of the mock LFTEs at temperate conditions. Thus, being able to dissipate heat from the PPE is particularly important in reducing the cardiovascular responses for BAIs during LFTEs. PMID:17178653

  8. Do fire-fighters develop specific ventilatory responses in order to cope with exercise whilst wearing self-contained breathing apparatus?

    PubMed

    Donovan, K J; McConnell, A K

    1999-07-01

    In the present study we compared the ventilatory performance whilst wearing self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during exercise, of a group of male fire-fighters (FF, n = 8), with a matched group of male civilians (CV, n = 7). The mean (SEM) physiological characteristics of the subjects (FF vs CV) were: age 31 (2) years vs 32 (4) years; height 179 (2) cm vs 183 (3) cm, P < 0.05; mass 80 (2) kg vs 84 (3) kg; maximum oxygen uptake 4.52 (0.14) 1 x min(-1) vs 4.39 (0.27) 1 x min(-1). Volunteers performed a 23-minute fire-fighting simulation (Firetest), without and with SCBA (Fire-fighter II, Siebe-Gorman/North Safety, Cheshire, UK). During SCBA wear, the FF group used significantly less air and rated their breathlessness significantly lower than the CV group. The mean tidal volume (V(T)) of the FF group remained constant between non-SCBA and SCBA wear conditions, but the CV group increased their mean V(T) by 18%, (P < 0.01). There were no significant between-group differences during the Firetest in total breath duration, inspiratory or expiratory duration, breathing frequency (fb), or heart rate. These data suggest that the respiratory responses of firefighters while wearing SCBA, which are characterised by increases in (fb) but not V(T), may help to reduce their breathlessness during exercise while wearing SCBA. PMID:10408320

  9. Underwater welding test chamber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berghof

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus is described which is capable of testing a small hand-held welding chamber for use in underwater welding. Specifically, the apparatus includes 2 interconnected chambers, one being elevated above the other. Within the lower chamber, there is a plate on which is positioned a workpiece to be welded. The welding chamber, a tubular welding housing having a side aperture

  10. Chemical defense collective protection technology. Volume 12. A procedure for recharging self-contained breathing apparatus air bottles in the presence of simulated chemical warfare agents. Final report, 6-11 September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, J.P.; Tucker, D.M.; Moore, G.

    1993-05-01

    A procedure was developed and tested for recharging Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) cylinders in an atmosphere contaminated with chemical agent simulant at concentrations which would produce casualties if actual agent were used. With the exception of a rack for storing the cylinders before and after recharging, all items used are currently available commercially or through off-the-shelf DOD supply sources. Cylinders were successfully recharged without contamination in the presence of chemical agent simulant in the compressor area as well as in the cylinder filling area. Inexperienced personnel easily learned and successfully followed the recharging procedures even though they were burdened by protective clothing and equipment. Chemical agents, SCBA, Firefighting, Self-contained breathing apparatus.

  11. Chemical defense collective protection technology. Volume 12. A procedure for recharging self-contained breathing apparatus air bottles in the presence of simulated chemical warfare agents. Final report, 6-11 September 1990

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Conkle; D. M. Tucker; G. Moore

    1993-01-01

    A procedure was developed and tested for recharging Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) cylinders in an atmosphere contaminated with chemical agent simulant at concentrations which would produce casualties if actual agent were used. With the exception of a rack for storing the cylinders before and after recharging, all items used are currently available commercially or through off-the-shelf DOD supply sources. Cylinders

  12. Absolute vs. weight-related maximum oxygen uptake in firefighters: fitness evaluation with and without protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus among age group.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Guidetti, Laura; Cignitti, Lamberto; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    During fire emergencies, firefighters wear personal protective devices (PC) and a self-contained breathing apparatus (S.C.B.A.) to be protected from injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of aerobic level in 197 firefighters (age: 34±7 yr; BMI: 24.4±2.3 kg.m-2), evaluated by a Queen's College Step field Test (QCST), performed with and without fire protective garments, and to analyze the differences among age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr, 31-35 yr, 36-40 yr and >40 yr). Variance analysis was applied to assess differences (p < 0.05) between tests and age groups observed in absolute and weight-related values, while a correlation was examined between QCST with and without PC+S.C.B.A. The results have shown that a 13% of firefighters failed to complete the test with PC+S.C.B.A. and significant differences between QCST performed with and without PC+S.C.B.A. in absolute (F(1,169) = 42.6, p < 0.0001) and weight-related (F(1,169) = 339.9, p < 0.0001) terms. A better correlation has been found in L•min-1 (r=0.67) than in ml•kg-1•min-1 (r=0.54). Moreover, we found significant differences among age groups both in absolute and weight-related values. The assessment of maximum oxygen uptake of firefighters in absolute term can be a useful tool to evaluate the firefighters' cardiovascular strain. PMID:25764201

  13. Underwater manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1993-04-20

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  14. Underwater manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Schrum, Phillip B. (Clairton, PA); Cohen, George H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer .+-.45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer .+-.10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  15. Underwater manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer {plus_minus} 45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer {plus_minus} 10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  16. Firefighter's Breathing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

  17. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  18. Bad Breath

    MedlinePLUS

    ... breath? Maybe you shouldn't have put extra onions on your hamburger at lunch. What's a kid ... bad breath: foods and drinks, such as garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene ( ...

  19. NASA firefighters breathing system program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.

  20. Google™ underwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    The first underwater panoramic images were added to Google Maps™, the company announced on 25 September. This first “underwater Street View collection,” launched in partnership with the Caitlin Seaview Survey, provides people with the opportunity to “become the next virtual Jacques Cousteau.” For more information, see: maps.google.com/ocean.

  1. Computer simulation of breathing systems for divers

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, P.G.; Nuckols, M.L.

    1983-02-01

    A powerful new tool for the analysis and design of underwater breathing gas systems is being developed. A versatile computer simulator is described which makes possible the modular ''construction'' of any conceivable breathing gas system from computer memory-resident components. The analysis of a typical breathing gas system is demonstrated using this simulation technique, and the effects of system modifications on performance of the breathing system are shown. This modeling technique will ultimately serve as the foundation for a proposed breathing system simulator under development by the Navy. The marriage of this computer modeling technique with an interactive graphics system will provide the designer with an efficient, cost-effective tool for the development of new and improved diving systems.

  2. Underwater breathing: the mechanics of plastron respiration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. FLYNN; JOHN W. M. BUSH

    2008-01-01

    The rough, hairy surfaces of many insects and spiders serve to render them water- repellent; consequently, when submerged, many are able to survive by virtue of a thin air layer trapped along their exteriors. The diusion of dissolved oxygen from the am- bient water may allow this layer to function as a respiratory bubble or 'plastron', and so enable certain

  3. Vision Underwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information regarding underwater vision. Includes a discussion of optically important interfaces, increased eye size of organisms at greater depths, visual peculiarities regarding the habitat of the coastal environment, and various pigment visual systems. (CS)

  4. Breathing Room

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-28

    In this health activity, learners explore breathing, lungs and asthma. Learners test their lung capacity by blowing air into balloons. Learners are also encouraged to determine how the amount of air in a balloon changes as you vary the size of the hole you blow through.

    Safety note: Check for latex allergies before purchasing balloons. Learners with respiratory problems should not breathe through the straws or blow up the balloons, but they can help record measurements and collect data.

  5. Breathing and Holding Your Breath

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingrid Waldron

    Students begin with interactive activities to develop a basic understanding of why cells need oxygen and need to get rid of carbon dioxide, how the circulatory and respiratory systems cooperate to bring oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from cells all over the body, and how the nervous system regulates breathing. Then, students carry out an experiment to test whether changing levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide influence how long they can hold their breath.

  6. Underwater welding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Lythall; E. M. Wilson

    1977-01-01

    A process is described for arc welding in an under-water environment wherein a welding chamber is positioned adjacent a workpiece, and an arc welding torch is positioned therein. A gas under pressure is introduced into the chamber to displace the water, and a gas is supplied to the torch at a pressure greater than the pressure of the gas in

  7. Breathing Yeasties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    Does yeast breathe? Find out by watching how plastic bags filled with yeast, warm water and different amounts of sugar change over time. Demonstrate the interaction of microorganisms and the carbon cycle with yeast, sugar and water, and discover how organisms are dependent on water and energy flow.

  8. Construction of a Junction Box for Use with an Inexpensive, Commercially Available Underwater Video Camera Suitable for Aquatic Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Cooke; Christopher M. Bunt

    2004-01-01

    Underwater video camera apparatus is an important fisheries research tool. Such cameras, developed and marketed for recreational anglers, provide an opportunity for researchers to easily obtain cost-effective and waterproof video apparatus for fisheries research. We detail a series of modifications to an inexpensive, commercially available underwater video camera (about US$125) that provide flexibility for deploying the equipment in the laboratory

  9. 42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...apparatus. (a) Service time will be measured with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88...according to the length of time it supplies air or oxygen to the breathing machine. (c) The service time obtained on this test...

  10. 42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...apparatus. (a) Service time will be measured with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88...according to the length of time it supplies air or oxygen to the breathing machine. (c) The service time obtained on this test...

  11. 42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...apparatus. (a) Service time will be measured with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88...according to the length of time it supplies air or oxygen to the breathing machine. (c) The service time obtained on this test...

  12. Underwater ROV

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2006-01-01

    In this online Flash game, learners will explore a coral reef using an underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Faced with concerns that environments around the world might be undergoing rapid change in the face of global warming, learners are assigned to use their ROV to investigate the tropical reef and snap photos of the fish species living in its various regions. There are three levels of play (easy, moderate, hard) that learners can master.

  13. Breathing Blue

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mission Science Workshop

    2013-01-01

    In this activity, learners test exhaled breath for carbon dioxide and learn how to use an indicator as a simple way to measure pH. Learners also explore what happens when an acid (lemon) is mixed with the indicator. This activity can be related to the topic of global climate change. This activity can also be used to discuss atmospheric warming, which is occurring due to increased amounts of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane in the atmosphere.

  14. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePLUS

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  15. Breathing Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bleja, David

    Visual simulation and representation programs and applications have been popping up online in greater numbers, and this recent find is one that will pique the interest of scientists, policy makers, and others who are concerned about carbon dioxide emission rates across the Earth. The Breathing Earth site was created by David Bleja, and he draws on a number of resources (such as the World Factbook and the United Nations) for the data that is utilized to create this site. Visitors can scroll over different countries to learn about their population, their emissions, and their birth and death rate. This interactive map and educational resource also contains a legend in the right-hand corner which explains the various symbols in use here.

  16. Tracking an underwater target

    E-print Network

    Gomez, Christina, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles are becoming an important part in marine research. In order to help bring down the cost of running a research mission with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), the method of tracking the ...

  17. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Describes three pieces of scientific apparatus and their demonstrational use: a high temperature apparatus for positron annihilation studies, a digitally synthesized classroom variable star, and a demonstration of plasma laser-beam focusing using paint stripper flames. (GA)

  18. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.

    PubMed

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events. PMID:22574634

  19. Underwater hearing: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M.; Martin, A.; Nedwell, J.

    1993-05-01

    In view of the prevalence of hearing loss among commercial divers and the absence of widely accepted noise exposure limits for occupational underwater use, a review of studies of underwater hearing thresholds and hearing mechanisms was undertaken with the ultimate aim of developing noise exposure limits. Previous studies of underwater hearing thresholds appear to show that the ear underwater is less sensitive than compared with air. However, a surprisingly wide range of values for underwater hearing thresholds was reported, for example 35-90 dB SPL(re 20 MuPa) at 0.25 kHz and 30-80 dB at 1 kHz. No representative single threshold curve can be extracted with any validity. Possible reasons for such a wide scatter of results include high underwater ambient noise levels which may have masked the subjects underwater hearing thresholds, ill defined stimuli and underwater sound fields, and variable and informal audiometric methodology. Previous authors have proposed three somewhat interlinked theories to explain how sound is transmitted from water to the cochlea. These involve: the 'auricular' conduction pathway, the bone conduction pathway, and the dual conduction pathway. Up to this day, no one pathway has been shown to predominate, and all of them have been poorly evaluated. It is also possible that the presence of air bubbles in the ear canal and increased water depth may have significant effects on underwater hearing thresholds. These effects may be dependent on the underwater hearing mechanism. Again, the studies reviewed give conflicting results and no valid conclusion can be drawn. It is apparent that further experimental studies are required to establish underwater hearing thresholds and to provide an understanding of the mechanisms of hearing underwater. These should be based upon suitable facilities and methodologies for testing hearing thresholds underwater following modern and scientific audio metric practice.

  20. Ion-trap detection of volatile organic compounds in alveolar breath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Phillips; J. Greenberg

    1992-01-01

    We describe a method for the collection and microanalysis of the volatile organic compounds in human breath. A transportable apparatus supplies subjects with purified air and samples their alveolar breath; the volatile organic compounds are captured in an adsorptive trap containing activated carbon and molecular sieve. The sample is thermally desorbed from the trap in an automated microprocessor-controlled device, concentrated

  1. CARBON MONOXIDE AND WATER VAPOR CONTAMINATION OF COMPRESSED BREATHING AIR FOR FIREFIGHTERS AND DIVERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Austin; D. J. Ecobichon; G. Dussault; C. Tirado

    1997-01-01

    Compressed breathing air, used in self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) by firefighters and other categories of workers as well as by recreational and commercial divers, is prepared with the aid of high-pressure compressors operating in the range of 5000 psig. There have been reports of unexplained deaths of SCUBA divers and anecdotal accounts of decreased time to exhaustion in firefighters using

  2. Method for the Collection and Assay of Volatile Organic Compounds in Breath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Phillips

    1997-01-01

    Breath testing for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) provides an intrinsically safe method for investigating human metabolism. An improved breath-collecting apparatus (BCA) is described which was acceptable to patients, simple to use, highly sensitive, and free from chemical contamination. VOCs in 10.0 L alveolar breath and 10.0 L room air were collected onto adsorptive traps. Using automated instrumentation, VOCs were thermally

  3. An underwater shock simulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Deshpande; A. H EAVER; N. A. Fleck

    2006-01-01

    An underwater shock simulator has been developed for the underwater shock loading of materials and test structures within the laboratory. The tube is struck at one end by a steel projectile, with the test structure placed at the opposite end of the tube. Realistic exponentially decaying pressure pulses are generated in the water with peak pressures in the range 15-70

  4. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another important concern is a suite of products from chemical reactions among oxidizing compounds with biological chemicals such as amines, thiols and carbonyls. SAMAP Meeting We (Armin and Joachim) attended the 2011 SAMAP conference in Taranto, Italy (10-14 October), which occurred just a few weeks after the IABR meeting in Parma, Italy (11-15 September 2011). It was held at the Officers' Club of the Taranto Naval Base under the patronage of the Italian navy; the local host was Lucio Ricciardi of the University of Insubria, Varese, Italy. At the 2011 SAMAP meeting, the theme was air-independent propulsion (AIP), meaning the capability of recharging the main batteries of the submarine without the need to surface. Only a few navies (e.g. US, UK, France, Russia, China) have historically had this capability using nuclear-powered submarines that can function underwater for extended periods of time (months). Most navies operate submarines with conventional diesel-electric propulsion, wherein diesel-powered generators charge battery banks which then drive an electric motor connected to the propeller. The batteries are charged while the boat is on the surface or during snorkelling, when the boat is submerged a few meters below the surface and a snorkel tube is extended to the surface. The period between battery charges can vary from several hours to one or two days depending on the power requirements and the nature of the mission. The process is necessary for breathing air revitalization (flushing out accumulated contaminants) and for the operation of the diesel engines. However, during this period the submarine is vulnerable to detection. Since the 1940s there have been various attempts to develop a power generation system that is independent of external air (AIP). To this end hydrogen peroxide was initially used and later liquid oxygen (LOX). Currently, most AIP submarines use fuel cell technology (LOX and hydrogen) to supplement the conventional diesel-electric system in order to extend the underwater endurance to 2-3 weeks. These propulsion engineering changes also reduce per

  5. Packard's Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Packard's Falling Body Apparatus, invented by John C. Packard, which is essentially an inclined plane combined with a simple and elegant method of measuring the relative time of descent of a steel ball. (JRH)

  6. Apparatus Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Includes five brief articles on: solar-heating demonstration equipment, mercury or sodium vapor lamp spectroscopy, an apparatus for simulating variable stars, a voltage-to-frequency converter, and an introductory absorption experiment for low-energy beta particles. (MLH)

  7. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a technique to produce samples for x-ray diffraction studies on the Tel-X-Ometer 80 x-ray apparatus from readily available crystalline powders and discusses observations of transverse modes of an optical resonator. (SK)

  8. Underwater Gliders: Recent Developments and Future Applications

    E-print Network

    Leonard, Naomi

    Underwater Gliders: Recent Developments and Future Applications (Invited Paper) R. Bachmayer, N underwater vehicles, and in particular au- tonomous underwater gliders, represent a rapidly maturing of an underwater glider system for propulsion, control, communication and sensing. A typical glider operation

  9. BREATHE to Understand©

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  10. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or pneumonia (say: "new-moan-yuh"). Less common causes of breathing problems are lung cancer, a blood clot in the lungs, air leakage around the lungs and scarring of the lung tissue. ... What tests will my doctor perform? Your doctor can help find the cause of your breathing problem by asking you questions ...

  11. Every Breath You Take

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    In an activity designed to help students develop number sense, each student estimates the number of times s/he breathes in one hour, and the class graphs the estimates, finds the mean and median of the estimates, and discusses outliers. Students then brainstorm how they could find out how many breaths a person actually takes in a day—and implement their strategies.

  12. From breathing to respiration.

    PubMed

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs. PMID:25532022

  13. Control apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derkacs, Thomas (Inventor); Fetheroff, Charles W. (Inventor); Matay, Istvan M. (Inventor); Toth, Istvan J. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Although the method and apparatus of the present invention can be utilized to apply either a uniform or a nonuniform covering of material over many different workpieces, the apparatus (20) is advantageously utilized to apply a thermal barrier covering (64) to an airfoil (22) which is used in a turbine engine. The airfoil is held by a gripper assembly (86) while a spray gun (24) is effective to apply the covering over the airfoil. When a portion of the covering has been applied, a sensor (28) is utilized to detect the thickness of the covering. A control apparatus (32) compares the thickness of the covering of material which has been applied with the desired thickness and is subsequently effective to regulate the operation of the spray gun to adaptively apply a covering of a desired thickness with an accuracy of at least plus or minus 0.0015 inches (1.5 mils) despite unanticipated process variations.

  14. Compressed air demand-type firefighter's breathing system, volume 1. [design analysis and performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The commercial availability of lightweight high pressure compressed air vessels has resulted in a lightweight firefighter's breathing apparatus. The improved apparatus, and details of its design and development are described. The apparatus includes a compact harness assembly, a backplate mounted pressure reducer assembly, a lightweight bubble-type facemask with a mask mounted demand breathing regulator. Incorporated in the breathing regulator is exhalation valve, a purge valve and a whistle-type low pressure warning that sounds only during inhalation. The pressure reducer assembly includes two pressure reducers, an automatic transfer valve and a signaling device for the low pressure warning. Twenty systems were fabricated, tested, refined through an alternating development and test sequence, and extensively examined in a field evaluation program. Photographs of the apparatus are included.

  15. Aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.

    1986-08-12

    An aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus is described which consists of: an aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator adapted to be located on the leading edge of an airframe of a hypersonic aircraft and being responsive to aerodynamic heating of water by a compression shock airstream to produce steam pressure; an expansion shock air-cooled condensor adapted to be located in the airframe rearward of and operatively coupled to the aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator to receive and condense the steam pressure; and an aerodynamic heated steam injector manifold adapted to distribute heated steam into the airstream flowing through an exterior generating channel of an air-breathing, ducted power plant.

  16. Underwater hydrophone location survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Jack B.

    1993-01-01

    The Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) is a U.S. Navy test range located on Andros Island, Bahamas, and a Division of the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Newport, RI. The Headquarters of AUTEC is located at a facility in West Palm Beach, FL. AUTEC's primary mission is to provide the U.S. Navy with a deep-water test and evaluation facility for making underwater acoustic measurements, testing and calibrating sonars, and providing accurate underwater, surface, and in-air tracking data on surface ships, submarines, aircraft, and weapon systems. Many of these programs are in support of Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW), undersea research and development programs, and Fleet assessment and operational readiness trials. Most tests conducted at AUTEC require precise underwater tracking (plus or minus 3 yards) of multiple acoustic signals emitted with the correct waveshape and repetition criteria from either a surface craft or underwater vehicle.

  17. Thermoforming apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Perryman, L.M.

    1984-07-31

    Thermoforming apparatus having a heating station and a forming station provided with upper and lower heaters for softening the thermoplastics sheet material. One of the heaters is movable between the heating and forming stations and is arranged to convey heated sheets from the heating station of the forming station.

  18. Sensor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-12-22

    A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

  19. Collecting apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus is disclosed for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical

  20. Collecting apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles P

    1983-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net

  1. 49 CFR 173.302 - Filling of cylinders with nonliquefied (permanent) compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...aluminum alloy 6351-T6 used in self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA), self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) or oxygen service. The cylinder filler should allow only those individuals essential to the filling process to be in the...

  2. Locating underwater objects. [technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grice, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    Underwater search operations are considered to be engineering and operational problems. A process for proper definition of the problem and selection of instrumentation and operational procedures is described. An outline of underwater search instrumentation and techniques is given.

  3. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with blood clots in the legs or pelvis (deep venous thrombosis), debilitating medical conditions, immobility, or inherited ... it hard for a person to take a deep breath, which usually results in retention of carbon ...

  4. Medical Issues: Breathing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not to Trach Article University of Utah Respiratory Management website Support & Care For Newly Diagnosed Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life Grief & Loss Community & Local Support For ...

  5. Shortness-of-Breath

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience ... helpful in cases of bacterial pneumonia, while anti-anxiety medications are used to treat patients with anxiety ...

  6. Stop, Breathe & Think app.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Natalie

    2014-07-15

    The Stop, Breathe & Think app is free, thanks to underwriting from Tools for Peace, the non-profit organisation that teaches people of all ages how to develop and apply kindness and compassion in their daily lives. PMID:25005405

  7. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePLUS

    ... More About Us Newsroom Departments & Divisions Locations & Directions Who We Are Connect With Us Contact Us More Breathing and ... Information Pediatric Conditions Healthy Lifestyle More About Us Who We Are Newsroom Network of Locations More eNewsletters and More © ...

  8. Bad Breath (Halitosis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your cheeks. When bacteria use these cells for food, they produce a foul odor. In addition, bad breath can be caused by the following: Poor dental hygiene — Infrequent or improper brushing and flossing, allows bits ...

  9. Method for the collection and assay of volatile organic compounds in breath.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M

    1997-05-01

    Breath testing for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) provides an intrinsically safe method for investigating human metabolism. An improved breath-collecting apparatus (BCA) is described which was acceptable to patients, simple to use, highly sensitive, and free from chemical contamination. VOCs in 10.0 L alveolar breath and 10.0 L room air were collected onto adsorptive traps. Using automated instrumentation, VOCs were thermally desorbed and assayed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Twenty normal volunteers were studied, and the alveolar gradient (concentration in breath minus concentration in air) was determined for the most abundant VOCs. A total of 1259 VOCs were observed and tentatively identified in the breath of normal subjects. The mean alveolar gradients were positive in 461 VOCs and negative in 798 VOCs. The method provided a sensitive and convenient assay for breath VOCs and permitted tentative determination of their origin from either inside or outside the body. PMID:9177688

  10. Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen

    E-print Network

    Wood, Stephen L.

    26 Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen Florida Institute of Technology United States and environmental data gathering capacities. Included in these types are autonomous underwater gliders that have four classes of underwater gliders: 1) those that use mechanical or electrical means of changing

  11. Solar apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    A solar steam generating apparatus for generating process steam in the temperature range of 100°C to 200°C is described comprising: (a) a solar collector comprised of tubular collectors (b) heat storage means, and first duct means communicating with the solar collector and with the heat storage means to permit the transfer of heat from the air heated by the solar

  12. Advanced underwater lift device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

  13. Carbon monoxide and water vapor contamination of compressed breathing air for firefighters and divers.

    PubMed

    Austin, C C; Ecobichon, D J; Dussault, G; Tirado, C

    1997-12-12

    Compressed breathing air, used in self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) by firefighters and other categories of workers as well as by recreational and commercial divers, is prepared with the aid of high-pressure compressors operating in the range of 5000 psig. There have been reports of unexplained deaths of SCUBA divers and anecdotal accounts of decreased time to exhaustion in firefighters using SCBAs. Compressed breathing air has been found to contain elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and water vapor that are consistent with carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) poisoning and freezing of the user's regulator on the breathing apparatus. The Coburn-Forster-Kane equation (CFK equation) was used to estimate COHb levels at rest and at maximum exercise when exposed to different levels of CO in contaminated breathing air. The results demonstrated that, at maximum exercise, the COHb ranged from 6.0 to 17% with the use of 1 to 4 SCBA cylinders contaminated by 250 ppm CO. Standard operating procedures have been developed at the Montreal Fire Department to minimize the risk of compressed breathing air contamination. Results of the quality analysis/quality control program indicate that implementation of these procedures has improved the quality of the compressed breathing air. Recommendations are made for improvement of the air testing procedures mandated by the Canadian CAN3 180.1-M85 Standard on Compressed Breathing Air and Systems. PMID:9388533

  14. Turbocharger apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Leavesley, M.G.

    1993-08-03

    Variable turbocharger apparatus is described comprising a compressor housing, a compressor mounted for rotation in the compressor housing, a turbine housing, a turbine mounted for rotation in the turbine housing, a first inlet for enabling air to be conducted to the compressor, an outlet for air from the compressor, a second inlet for enabling exhaust gases from an engine to be conducted to the turbine, a chamber which surrounds the turbine and which receives the exhaust gases from the second inlet before the exhaust gases are conducted to the turbine, a piston which is positioned between the turbine and the turbine housing and which is slidable backwards and forwards to form a movable wall separating the turbine from the chamber which surrounds the turbine, a bearing assembly for allowing the rotation of the compressor and the turbine, and a heat shield for shielding the bearing assembly from the exhaust gases, the piston having a plurality of vanes, the piston being such that in its closed position it terminates short of an adjacent part of the turbine housing so that there is always a gap between the end of the piston and the adjacent part of the turbine housing whereby exhaust gases from the chamber can always pass through the gap to act on the turbine, the piston being such that in its open position the gap is increased, and the piston being biased to its closed position against pressure from exhaust gases in the chamber during use of the variable turbocharger apparatus whereby the piston slides backwards and forwards to vary the gap in dependence upon engine operating conditions, and the variable turbocharger apparatus being such that the vanes on the piston enter into slots in the heat shield.

  15. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A. (Kennewick, WA); Alter, Paul (Richland, WA)

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  16. Ion-trap detection of volatile organic compounds in alveolar breath

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.; Greenberg, J. (Department of Medicine, St. Vincent's Medical Center of Richmond, Staten Island, NY (United States))

    1992-01-01

    We describe a method for the collection and microanalysis of the volatile organic compounds in human breath. A transportable apparatus supplies subjects with purified air and samples their alveolar breath; the volatile organic compounds are captured in an adsorptive trap containing activated carbon and molecular sieve. The sample is thermally desorbed from the trap in an automated microprocessor-controlled device, concentrated by two-stage cryofocusing, and assayed by gas chromatography with ion-trap detection. Compounds are identified by reference to a computer-based library of mass spectra with subtraction of the background components present in the inspired air. We used this device to study 10 normal subjects and determined the relative abundance of the volatile organic compounds in their alveolar breath. The breath-collecting apparatus was convenient to operate and was well tolerated by human volunteers.

  17. Instrument for underwater high-angular resolution volume scattering function measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Dueweke; Jay Bolstad; Donald A. Leonard; Harold E. Sweeney; Philip A. Boyer; Erik M. Winkler

    1997-01-01

    A prototype instrument for in situ measurements of the volume scattering function (VSF) and the beam attenuation of water has been built and tested in the EOO laboratory. The intended application of the instrument is the enhancement of Navy operational optical systems for finding and imaging underwater objects such as mines. A description of the apparatus that was built and

  18. Underwater glider motion control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Mahmoudian; Craig Woolsey

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an underwater glider motion control system intended to enhance locomotive efficiency by reducing the energy expended by vehicle guidance. In previous work, the authors derived an approximate analytical expression for steady turning motion by applying regular perturbation theory to a realistic vehicle model. The analysis results suggested the use of a well-known time-optimal path planning procedure developed

  19. Measurement Tools: Underwater Weighing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Media Contact List Request for Support Measurement Tools — Underwater Weighing What It Is The percent body fat is calculated from equations based on the density of the body. The density of the body is calculated by an equation that involves measuring a person suspended on a trapeze in the ...

  20. Transport apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, B.R.; Lowe, D.B.; Lowe, D.W.

    1983-07-12

    Transport apparatus is disclosed comprising a drive unit and a slave unit movable in unison along a predetermined path. The slave unit is disposed beneath the drive unit to move along a tunnel with work stations located at intervals along the tunnel. The drive unit carries electromagnets which when energized levitate the slave unit within the tunnel, controls being provided to maintain the slave unit at a desired position relative to the drive unit. The roof of the tunnel is formed from a magnetically transparent material, such as glass. The slave unit is thereby physically isolated from the drive unit. As a result the drive unit is shielded from any hostile environment within the tunnel and resulting, for example, from the transport of radioactive or toxic materials by the slave units. This simplifies repair and maintenance operations on the drive unit.

  1. Factors influencing breath ammonia determination.

    PubMed

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew; Spacek, Lisa A; Lewicki, Rafal; Tittel, Frank; Loccioni, Claudio; Russo, Adolfo; Risby, Terence H

    2013-09-01

    Amongst volatile compounds (VCs) present in exhaled breath, ammonia has held great promise and yet it has confounded researchers due to its inherent reactivity. Herein we have evaluated various factors in both breath instrumentation and the breath collection process in an effort to reduce variability. We found that the temperature of breath sampler and breath sensor, mouth rinse pH, and mode of breathing to be important factors. The influence of the rinses is heavily dependent upon the pH of the rinse. The basic rinse (pH 8.0) caused a mean increase of the ammonia concentration by 410 ± 221 ppb. The neutral rinse (pH 7.0), slightly acidic rinse (pH 5.8), and acidic rinse (pH 2.5) caused a mean decrease of the ammonia concentration by 498 ± 355 ppb, 527 ± 198 ppb, and 596 ± 385 ppb, respectively. Mode of breathing (mouth-open versus mouth-closed) demonstrated itself to have a large impact on the rate of recovery of breath ammonia after a water rinse. Within 30 min, breath ammonia returned to 98 ± 16% that of the baseline with mouth open breathing, while mouth closed breathing allowed breath ammonia to return to 53 ± 14% of baseline. These results contribute to a growing body of literature that will improve reproducibly in ammonia and other VCs. PMID:23774041

  2. Breathing sensor selection during movement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan Holtzman; Daphne Townsend; Rafik Goubran; Frank Knoefel

    2011-01-01

    A pressure sensor array placed below a mattress can be used to estimate the breathing effort signal unobtrusively. When multiple breathing effort sensor outputs are available, there is sometimes a need to choose the sensor with the best approximation of the actual breathing effort. Previous work with pressure sensor arrays placed on top of or under mattresses used for respiration

  3. Life and Breath

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Helen D.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a public education program combining the screening process and a follow-up program for teaching victims of emphysema and other respiratory diseases how to better their living condition through proper breathing, avoidance of air pollutants and cigarette smoking, and taking better care of themselves physically. (PD)

  4. INTERMITTENT POSITIVE PRESSURE BREATHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efficacy of long-term intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) treatment when used as an adjunct to the overall care of ambulatory outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evaluation compared the use of IPPB with use of a powered nebulizer....

  5. Metabolic breath analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Instrument measures metabolic breathing rate and dynamics of human beings in atmospheres ranging from normal air to 100 percent oxygen at ambient pressures from 14.7 to 3.0 psia. Measurements are made at rest or performing tasks up to maximum physical capacity under either zero or normal gravity.

  6. Critical Apparatus Talk 9: Critical Apparatus

    E-print Network

    Erjavec, TomaÂ?

    2; So, she is drownde: Q1. #12;Critical Apparatus Critical Apparatus: , , and lem> . (reading) contains a single reading within a textual variation. lem> (lemma) contains the lemma, or base text, of a textual variation. #12;Critical Apparatus Example of , and lem>

  7. Metabolic analyzer. [for measuring metabolic rate and breathing dynamics of human beings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.; Perry, C. L. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus is described for the measurement of metabolic rate and breathing dynamics in which inhaled and exhaled breath are sensed by sealed, piston-displacement type spirometers. These spirometers electrically measure the volume of inhaled and exhaled breath. A mass spectrometer analyzes simultaneously for oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water vapor. Computation circuits are responsive to the outputs of the spirometers, mass spectrometer, temperature, pressure and timing signals and compute oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, minute volume and respiratory exchange ratio. A selective indicator provides for read-out of these data at predetermined cyclic intervals.

  8. Television in Underwater Weapons Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan R. Metzler

    1961-01-01

    At the Naval Ordnance Test Station sea ranges at San Clemente Island, closed-circuit television is used both over and under water for certain phases of underwater weapons testing. The functions of this instrumentation are to provide: real-time data, engineering surveillance, monitoring, underwater launcher positioning, range surveillance, time-event data, trajectory data, and to assist in underwater search and recovery. At present,

  9. Underwater welding, cutting and inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.L. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Ohio Underwater Welding Center)

    1995-02-01

    Underwater welding, cutting and inspection of offshore, inland waterway and port facilities are becoming a requirement for both military and industrial communities, as maintenance and repair costs continue to escalate, and as many of the facilities are in operation well beyond their intended design life. In nuclear applications, underwater welding, cutting and inspection for repair and modification of irradiated nuclear power plant components are also a requirement. This article summarizes recent developments in this emerging underwater technology.

  10. Underwater Stud Welding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Masubuchi; H. Ozaki; J. Chiba

    1978-01-01

    Stud welding is a simple process which requires no skill of the operator. Experiments were conducted to determine whether underwater stud welding could be made. Most experiments were made with mild-steel studs 3\\/4 inch in diameter. Base plates used were mild steel and HY-80 steel, 1\\/2 and 1 inch (6.4 and 25.4 mm) thick. It was found that stud welding

  11. The autonomous underwater glider \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Sherman; Russ E. Davis; W. B. Owens; J. Valdes

    2001-01-01

    A small (50-kg, 2-m long) underwater vehicle with operating speeds of 20-30 cm\\/s and ranges up to 6000 km has been developed and field tested. The vehicle is essentially an autonomous profiling float that uses a buoyancy engine to cycle vertically and wings to glide horizontally while moving up and down. Operational control and data relay is provided by GPS

  12. Splashes from Underwater Explosions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kolsky; J. P. Lewis; M. T. Sampson; A. C. Shearman; C. I. Snow

    1949-01-01

    The splashes from the underwater explosions of 1 and 10 1b. charges of P.E. no. 2 and Nobel's Explosive '808' at various depths have been photographed with cine-cameras. The experiments were carried out in a sheltered pond which enabled the surface phenomena to be studied in greater detail than has been done hitherto, and a number of new phenomena have

  13. Underwater laser detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomaa, Walid; El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2015-02-01

    The conventional method used to detect an underwater target is by sending and receiving some form of acoustic energy. But the acoustic systems have limitations in the range resolution and accuracy; while, the potential benefits of a laserbased underwater target detection include high directionality, high response, and high range accuracy. Lasers operating in the blue-green region of the light spectrum(420 : 570nm)have a several applications in the area of detection and ranging of submersible targets due to minimum attenuation through water ( less than 0.1 m-1) and maximum laser reflection from estimated target (like mines or submarines) to provide a long range of detection. In this paper laser attenuation in water was measured experimentally by new simple method by using high resolution spectrometer. The laser echoes from different targets (metal, plastic, wood, and rubber) were detected using high resolution CCD camera; the position of detection camera was optimized to provide a high reflection laser from target and low backscattering noise from the water medium, digital image processing techniques were applied to detect and discriminate the echoes from the metal target and subtract the echoes from other objects. Extraction the image of target from the scattering noise is done by background subtraction and edge detection techniques. As a conclusion, we present a high response laser imaging system to detect and discriminate small size, like-mine underwater targets.

  14. Underwater laser range finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laux, Alan; Mullen, Linda; Perez, Paul; Zege, Eleonora

    2012-06-01

    The conventional method used to detect the range to an underwater object is by sending and receiving some form of acoustic energy. However, acoustic systems have limitations in the range resolution and accuracy they can provide under certain conditions. The potential benefits of a laser-based range finder include high-directionality and covertness, speed of response, and the potential for high-precision, range accuracy. These benefits have been exploited in the above-water environment where kilometer propagation ranges are achieved with sub-meter range precision. The challenge in using optical techniques in the underwater environment is overcoming the exponential loss due to scattering and absorption. While absorption extinguishes photons, scattering redistributes the light and produces a 'clutter' signal component from the surrounding water environment. Optical modulation techniques using compact laser diode sources are being investigated to help suppress this 'clutter' and provide accurate target range information in a wide range of underwater environments. To complement the experimental efforts, a theoretical model has been developed to help optimize the system parameters and test the performance of various configurations as a function of different water optical properties. Results from laboratory water tank experiments will be discussed and compared with model predictions.

  15. Underwater laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushina, Mark E.; Heberle, Geoff; Hope, Michael; Crittenden, Ryan M.; Bethel, Michael

    2002-03-01

    We have developed a solid-state laser operating at 532nm for underwater topographic investigations. The laser system is integrated into a torpedo-like 'towed-body', with the military designation of AQS-20. This laser, along with other sophisticated receiver opto-electronic systems enables detailed underwater bathymetry. CEO designed and manufactured the laser portion of this system. The laser sub-system is comprised of two separate parts: the LTU (Laser Transmitter Unit) and the LEU (Laser Electronics Unit). The LTU and LEU where put through Mil-standard testing for vibration, shock and temperature storage and operation extremes as well as Mil-461C EMI/EMC testing. The Nd:YAG laser operates at a 400 Hz pulse repetition frequency and is controlled remotely, tethered to the system controller in a ship or helicopter. Power monitor circuits allow real time laser health monitoring, which enables input parameter adjustments for consistent laser behavior. The towed body moves forward at a constant rate of speed while this underwater LIDAR system gathers data. All heat generated must be conducted into the outer hull of the towed-body and then, to the surrounding ambient ocean water. The water temperature may vary from 0-35 degrees C.

  16. Method and apparatus for collecting oil from an underwater leak

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madej

    1972-01-01

    A method is described of collecting oil from a leak in the floor of a body of water. The method consists of the following steps: (1) locating the leak; (2) completely submerging a heavy or weighted inverted collector shell under the surface of the water to a position in close proximity to the source of the leak and directly over

  17. Locking screw apparatus and method for underwater remote replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Balog, L.J.

    1987-07-28

    A method is described for locking in place a screw which secures together first and second structures in the internal region of a nuclear reactor core. The first structure has a screw bore with a counterbore portion formed in an outer surface. The method comprises the steps of: forming a lateral recess in the counterbore portion and spaced from the outer surface, providing an elongated screw having an enlarged shoulder flange and an angular drive head with a lateral width substantially less than that of the counterbore portion, disposing the screw through the screw bore in threaded engagement with the second structure and with the shoulder rotatably seated in the counterbore portion. This provides a locking member having an angular opening and disposing it in the counterbore portion against the flange with the drive head received in the opening for engagement with the locking member to prevent rotation. This deforms a portion of the locking member into the recess for engagement to prevent movement of the locking member with respect to the first structure.

  18. Attachment Apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Edward F.

    1998-08-18

    The present invention includes an attachment apparatus comprising a rotation limiting member adapted to be threaded onto a threaded member; and a preload nut adapted to be threaded onto the threaded member. The rotation limiting member comprises a plurality of pins; and the preload nut comprises plurality of slots, preferably wherein the plurality of pins and the plurality of slots are the same in number, which is preferably three. The plurality of pins of the rotation limiting member are filled into a corresponding plurality of slots of the preload nut to form a rotatable unit adapted to be threaded onto the threaded member. In use, the rotatable unit is threaded onto the threaded member. The present invention thus provides a unitized removable device for holes, including holes other than circular in shape, which have an established depth before an end of, or before an enlargement of the hole. The configuration of some exposed part of the device, or the head, is shaped and formed for its intended purpose, such as clamping, anchor points, eye bolts, stud anchor, and the like. The device allows for the installation, preloading and removal of all components of the device, as a unit, without damage to the member for which attachment is required by simple rotations of some exposed part of the device.

  19. The Air We Breathe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This picture book is designed to introduce children to the Earth's atmosphere and its importance to life on Earth. It also introduces how the addition of new gases (e.g., ozone) contributes to changing the quality of air we breathe. With an understanding of how our atmosphere works, we can begin to understand how our activities may be contributing to some of those changes in air quality.

  20. Cardiovascular Biomarkers In Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    Cikach, Frank S.; Dweik, Raed A.

    2014-01-01

    With each breath we exhale, thousands of molecules are expelled in our breath giving individuals a “breath-print” that can tell a lot about them and their state of health. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as the new frontier in medical testing. The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century have arguably witnessed a revolution in our understanding of the constituents of exhaled breath and the development of the field of breath analysis and testing. Thanks to major breakthroughs in new technologies (infrared, electrochemical, chemiluminescence, and others) and the availability of mass spectrometers, the field of breath analysis has made considerable advances in the 21st century. Several methods are now in clinical use or nearly ready to enter that arena. Breath analysis has the potential to offer relatively inexpensive, rapid, noninvasive methods for detecting and/or monitoring a variety of diseases. Breath analysis also has applications in fields beyond medicine, including environmental monitoring, security and others. This review will focus on exhaled breath as a potential source of biomarkers for medical applications with specific attention to applications (and potential applications) in cardiovascular disease. PMID:22824108

  1. Underwater welding, cutting and inspection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsai

    1995-01-01

    Underwater welding, cutting and inspection of offshore, inland waterway and port facilities are becoming a requirement for both military and industrial communities, as maintenance and repair costs continue to escalate, and as many of the facilities are in operation well beyond their intended design life. In nuclear applications, underwater welding, cutting and inspection for repair and modification of irradiated nuclear

  2. International regulation of underwater sound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena M. McCarthy

    2000-01-01

    Underwater sound is created by myriad activities worldwide and there is general agreement that manmade noise in the ocean is increasing. This rise in anthropogenic sound in the ocean has generated concern that it is affecting marine mammal behavior and could affect humans as well. Controversy over underwater sound and its effects on marine mammals has generated much discussion within

  3. Underwater acoustics and magnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjaerdman, A.; Ivansson, S.; Schyberg, M. L.

    1993-12-01

    This is the first volume in a planned series of progress reports from the Division of Hydroacoustics and Seismology of the National Defence Research Establishment, describing the research in the hydroacoustic field during the fiscal year 1992/93. The mission of the division is to conduct research in hydroacoustics and magnetics for shallow water applications with the aim to enhance the operational capability of the Swedish Navy and to give expert scientific and technological advice to the Navy in the area of ASW (Anti-Submarine Warfare) specifically regarding detection, localization and classification of underwater objects.

  4. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, Markus K.; Reisecker, Michael; Hohenau, Andreas; Ditlbacher, Harald; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Krenn, Joachim R.

    2014-10-01

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  5. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, Markus K., E-mail: markus.krug@uni-graz.at; Reisecker, Michael; Hohenau, Andreas; Ditlbacher, Harald; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Krenn, Joachim R. [Institute of Physics, Karl-Franzens-University, Universitätsplatz 5, 8010 Graz (Austria)

    2014-10-27

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200?nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  6. The Air We Breathe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This picture book is designed to introduce children to the Earth's atmosphere and its importance to life on Earth. It also introduces how the addition of new gases (e.g., ozone) contributes to changing the quality of air we breathe. With an understanding of how our atmosphere works, we can begin to understand how our activities may be contributing to some of those changes in air quality. The back cover includes a short demo/activity called Making a Gas You Can’t See (Carbon Dioxide).

  7. Metallurgical Photomicrographic Apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conrad Beck

    1927-01-01

    THE article on Metallurgical Photomicrographic Apparatus which appeared in NATURE of Oct. 8 can scarcely be considered satisfactory to those who desire to know the essential requisites of such an apparatus.

  8. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis M. Bramble; David R. Carrier

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in

  9. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim D Pleil; Armin Hansel

    2012-01-01

    ForewordThe International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of

  10. Clinical applications of breath testing

    PubMed Central

    Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam

    2010-01-01

    Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years. PMID:21173863

  11. Fiber ringdown breathing rate sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhihao Chen; Huiqing Yim; Ju Teng Teo; Soon Huat Ng

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new sensor for patient's breathing measurement by using fiber loop ringdown spectroscopy. The sensing system consists of a typical single mode fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy and a sensor mat which is used to introduce breathing related optical loss. The sensor mat could be put in the chair or embedded in the bed. It is non invasive measurement. The

  12. 49 CFR 180.205 - General requirements for requalification of specification cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 and used in self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA), self-contained breathing...of paragraph (f) of this section. (ii) The cylinder leaks through its wall. (iii) Evidence of cracking exists...

  13. 49 CFR 180.205 - General requirements for requalification of specification cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 and used in self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA), self-contained breathing...of paragraph (f) of this section. (ii) The cylinder leaks through its wall. (iii) Evidence of cracking exists...

  14. 49 CFR 180.205 - General requirements for requalification of specification cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 and used in self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA), self-contained breathing...of paragraph (f) of this section. (ii) The cylinder leaks through its wall. (iii) Evidence of cracking exists...

  15. Underwater wet welding of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, S. [Amoco Corporation Research, Naperville, IL (United States); Liu, S.; Olson, D.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Underwater wet welding is conducted directly in water with the shielded metal arc (SMA) and flux cored arc (FCA) welding processes. Underwater wet welding has been demonstrated as an acceptable repair technique down to 100 meters (325 ft.) in depth, but wet welds have been attempted on carbon steel structures down to 200 meters (650 ft.). The primary purpose of this interpretive report is to document and evaluate current understanding of metallurgical behavior of underwater wet welds so that new welding consumables can be designed and new welding practices can be developed for fabrication and repair of high strength steel structures at greater depths. First the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy behaviors of underwater weldments are discussed. Second, modifications of the welding consumables and processes are suggested to enhance the ability to apply wet welding techniques.

  16. Fundamental underwater cutting method experiment as a dismantling tool for a commercial atomic reactor vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Hamasaki, M.; Murao, Y.; Tateiwa, F.

    1982-10-01

    A new underwater cutting technique applying underwater dismantling to commercial atomic reactor vessels has been developed. This technique involves gas cutting the mild steel underwater after removing the stainless steel cladding by arc gouging. The arc gouging is achieved by blowing out metal--which is melted by an arc between a mild steel electrode wire and the stainless steel--by jetting water from a rear water nozzle. The fuel gas employed for preheating for the gas cutting was a mixed gas of propane and 30% methylacetylene. The test piece used was made of 300-mm-thick mild steel with 8-mm-thick stainless steel cladding. The fundamental cutting experiment was carried out successfully under a cutting speed condition of 15 cm/min at a water depth of 20 cm. This apparatus is easy to handle, compact, and cheap.

  17. A baited underwater video technique to assess shallow-water Mediterranean fish assemblages: Methodological evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Stobart; José A. García-Charton; Carolina Espejo; Elisabeth Rochel; Raquel Goñi; Olga Reñones; Aarón Herrero; Romain Crec'hriou; Sandrine Polti; Concepción Marcos; Serge Planes; Angel Pérez-Ruzafa

    2007-01-01

    A baited underwater video (BUV) system for the study of reef-associated fish populations on shallow (10–20 m) rocky habitats in the western Mediterranean was assessed at four locations in Spain and two in France. We describe the apparatus and optimal deployment times for video sampling. Different species had different response times to the bait, with four response groups identified. Examination of

  18. Highly maneuverable spherical robots for underwater applications

    E-print Network

    Fittery, Aaron (Aaron M.)

    2013-01-01

    The direct video inspection of complex underwater systems, like those inside nuclear reactors, is a difficult task to accomplish. Alternatives to underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV) inspection are very laborious, ...

  19. Path planning methods for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Yi?it, Konuralp

    2011-01-01

    From naval operations to ocean science missions, the importance of autonomous vehicles is increasing with the advances in underwater robotics technology. Due to the dynamic and intermittent underwater environment and the ...

  20. Feature recognition for underwater weld images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Suyi; Zhang Hua; Jia Jianping; Li Bing

    2010-01-01

    Real-time sensing and detecting of underwater weld position is a key technique. Laser vision sensing is a good-prospect detecting method. Therein welding image processing and feature recognition are important parts. Noise features of underwater weld image in different water conditions are described. Underwater V-groove weld image pre-processing is discussed. Mean Shift algorithm application to underwater weld image segmentation is studied,

  1. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  2. Underwater gliders: recent developments and future applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bachmayer; N. Ehrich Leonard; J. Graver; E. Fiorelli; P. Bhatta; D. Paley

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles, and in particular autonomous underwater gliders, represent a rapidly maturing technology with a large cost-saving potential over current ocean sampling technologies for sustained (month at a time) real-time measurements. We give an overview of the main building blocks of an underwater glider system for propulsion, control, communication and sensing. A typical glider operation, consisting of deployment, planning,

  3. Multi-frame underwater image restoration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Kanaev; W. Hou; S. Woods

    2011-01-01

    Ability to image underwater is highly desired for scientific and military applications, including optical communications, submarine awareness, diver visibility, and mine detection. Underwater imaging is severely impaired by scattering and optical turbulence associated with refraction index fluctuations. This work introduces novel approach to restoration of degraded underwater imagery based on multi-frame correction technique developed for atmospheric distortions. The method represents

  4. Laser Plasmas for Underwater Shock Hydrodynamics Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. G. Jones; J. Grun; R. Burris; C. K. Manka

    1998-01-01

    A new facility, the Laser Laboratory for Underwater Hydrodynamics, is being built to produce and study underwater shocks using the Pharos laser at NRL. High energy density conditions are achieved by bringing a part of the laser energy, up 250 J in 5 ns, to a small focal volume. Hydrodyamics problems to be studied include underwater shock propagation and interaction

  5. Linear optoacoustic underwater communication.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, Fletcher; Estes, Lee; Fain, Gilbert

    2005-06-20

    The linear mechanism for optical-to-acoustic energy conversion is explored for optoacoustic communication from an in-air platform or surface vessel to a submerged vessel such as a submarine or unmanned undersea vehicle. The communication range that can be achieved is addressed. A number of conventional signals used in underwater acoustic telemetry applications are shown to be capable of being generated experimentally through the linear optoacoustic regime conversion process. These results are in agreement with simulation based on current theoretical models. A number of practical issues concerning linear optoacoustic communication are addressed that lead to a formulation of a linear-regime optoacoustic communication scheme. The use of oblique laser beam incidence at the air-water interface to obtain considerable in-air range from the laser source to the in-water receiver is addressed. Also, the effect of oblique incidence on in-water range is examined. Next, the optimum and suboptimum linear optoacoustic sound-generation techniques for selecting the optical wavelength and signaling frequency for optimizing in-water range are addressed and discussed. Optoacoustic communication techniques employing M-ary frequency shift keying and multifrequency shift keying are then compared with regard to communication parameters such as bandwidth, data rate, range coverage, and number of lasers employed. PMID:15989059

  6. Covert underwater acoustic communications.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jun; He, Hao; Li, Jian; Roberts, William; Stoica, Petre

    2010-11-01

    Low probability of detection (LPD) communications are conducted at a low received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to deter eavesdroppers to sense the presence of the transmitted signal. Successful detection at intended receiver heavily relies on the processing gain achieved by employing the direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) technique. For scenarios that lack a sufficiently low SNR to maintain LPD, another metric, referred to as low probability of interception (LPI), is of interest to protect the privacy of the transmitted information. If covert communications take place in underwater acoustic (UWA) environments, then additional challenges are present. The time-varying nature of the UWA channel prevents the employment of a long spreading waveform. Furthermore, UWA environments are frequency-selective channels with long memory, which imposes challenges to the design of the spreading waveform. In this paper, a covert UWA communication system that adopts the DSSS technique and a coherent RAKE receiver is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the design of a spreading waveform that not only accounts for the transceiver structure and frequency-selective nature of the UWA channel, but also possesses a superior LPI. The proposed techniques are evaluated using both simulated and SPACE'08 in-water experimental data. PMID:21110585

  7. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  8. i ??? m ??? Breath : The Effect of Multimedia Biofeedback on Learning Abdominal Breath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng-Chieh Yu; Jin-Shing Chen; King-Jen Chang; Su-Chu Hsu; Ming-Sui Lee; Yi-Ping Hung

    \\u000a Breathing is a natural and important exercise for human beings, and the right breath method can make people healthier and\\u000a even happier.i-m-Breath was developed to assist users in learning of abdominal breath, which used Respiration Girth Sensors (RGS) to measure user’s\\u000a breath pattern and provided visual feedback to assist in learning abdominal breath. In this paper, we tried to study

  9. Release of erythropoietin and neuron-specific enolase after breath holding in competing free divers.

    PubMed

    Kjeld, T; Jattu, T; Nielsen, H B; Goetze, J P; Secher, N H; Olsen, N V

    2015-06-01

    Free diving is associated with extreme hypoxia. This study evaluated the combined effect of maximal static breath holding and underwater swimming on plasma biomarkers of tissue hypoxemia: erythropoietin, neuron-specific enolase and S100B, C-reactive protein, pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, and troponin T. Venous blood samples were obtained from 17 competing free divers before and 3?h after sessions of static apnea and underwater swimming. The heart was evaluated by echocardiography. Static apnea for 293?±?78?s (mean?±?SD) and subsequent 88?±?21?m underwater swimming increased plasma erythropoietin from 10.6?±?3.4 to 12.4?±?4.1?mIU/L (P?=?0.013) and neuron-specific enolase from 14.5?±?5.3 to 24.6?±?6.4?ng/mL (P?=?0.017); C-reactive protein decreased from 0.84?±?1.0 to 0.71?±?0.67?mmol/L (P?=?0.013). In contrast, plasma concentrations of S100B (P?=?0.394), pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (P?=?0.549), and troponin T (P?=?0.125) remained unchanged and, as assessed by echocardiography, the heart was not affected. In competitive free divers, bouts of static and dynamic apnea increase plasma erythropoietin and neuron-specific enolase, suggesting that renal and neural tissue, rather than the heart, is affected by the hypoxia developed during apnea and underwater swimming. PMID:25142912

  10. UNDERWATER COATINGS FOR CONTAMINATION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-02-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) deactivated several aging nuclear fuel storage basins. Planners for this effort were greatly concerned that radioactive contamination present on the basin walls could become airborne as the sides of the basins became exposed during deactivation and allowed to dry after water removal. One way to control this airborne contamination was to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls were still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market for marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives were easily applied and adhered well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INL fuel pools. Lab-scale experiments were conducted by applying fourteen different commercial underwater coatings to four substrate materials representative of the storage basin construction materials, and evaluating their performance. The coupons included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The evaluation criteria included ease of application, adherence to the four surfaces of interest, no change on water clarity or chemistry, non-hazardous in final applied form and be proven in underwater applications. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected from the underwater coatings tested for application to all four pools. Divers scrubbed loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuumed up the sludge. The divers then applied the coating using a special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pools with no detectable airborne contamination releases.

  11. Speckle-Suppression Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taback, Israel

    1989-01-01

    Technique and apparatus developed to reduce speckle in unmodulated laser pulses, using reduced number of optical fibers. Expected to decrease costs of bundles of optical fibers used to transmit unmodulated laser pulses. New apparatus reduces speckle in optically transmitted, unmodulated laser input pulse by introducing number of independent delays into pulse.

  12. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  13. Dust removal apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eisenbarth

    1981-01-01

    Compact pollution control and\\/or dust removal apparatus is provided for removing entrained dust particles and\\/or other dry pollutants from an air or gas flow. The apparatus provides for a single pollutant particle discharge in a first or initial removal housing with a plurality of secondary removal housings mounted in spaced fashion circumferentially around the initial removal housing. The construction is

  14. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1993-12-28

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

  15. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  16. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)

  17. To breathe free

    SciTech Connect

    DeBardeleben, J.

    1991-01-01

    This book was organized by the Center's East European program and supported primarily by a grant from the Rockefeller Brothers' Fund. This book reports on the new political forces that swept Communist regimes from power throughout the region in 1989 and are now struggling to set up post-Communist governments and institutions. Nor need they do so. This volume does not attempt to be a current account of the state of environmental policy and official institutions in Eastern Europe. New institutions are only slowly taking shape. In the meantime, much of the old apparatus remains in place. The new leaders and parties have found it difficult to cover the economic cost or accept the political risk of imposing expensive environmental controls on the large industrial enterprises that are the principal polluters. In Poland and Hungary we see the real threat of a political backlash from workers facing unemployment when such enterprises lose even part of their state budget subsidy, let alone face new charges for pollution control or penalties for its absence. The separate environmental movement that played a prominent part in the overthrow of Communist power has not, moreover, survived as a powerful separate political party anywhere in Eastern Europe. Its chances appeared greatest in East Germany and Czechoslovakia but in neither place has the Green political organization expanded or even maintained its pre-1989 leverage.

  18. DYNAMICS & CONTROL OF UNDERWATER GLIDERS I: STEADY MOTIONS

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    DYNAMICS & CONTROL OF UNDERWATER GLIDERS I: STEADY MOTIONS N. Mahmoudian, J. Geisbert, & C. Woolsey;Summary This paper describes analysis of steady motions for underwater gliders, a type of highly efficient underwater vehicle which uses gravity for propulsion. Underwater gliders are winged underwater vehicles which

  19. Underwater acoustic \\/ optical imaging system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haisen Li; Jian Xu; Tian Zhou; Pingxuan Dou

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces an underwater acoustic \\/ optical integrated imaging system, which individual uses the DSP core and ARM core of the OMAP3530 processor to realize the multi-subarray amplitude-phase united detection algorithm and optical camera image collection for getting the estimating the depth of the sea and the optical information of the focus area uses the ARM core to receive

  20. Underwater cold tap machine tested

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    Tests are complete on a strategic cold tap machine for underwater lines. The system was designed around Total's Norway-UK Frigg gas line. It provides a permanent, easily mobilized, mechanical insurance against damage to the Frigg line but also provides a proven, workable principle for the repair or modification of other lines. The design of the system is discussed.

  1. Remote Underwater Laser Acoustic Source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. G. Jones; A. Ting; I. Alexeev; E. Briscoe; J. Penano; P. Sprangle

    2004-01-01

    Through the use of nonlinear optical effects, an appropriately tailored laser pulse can propagate relatively long distances underwater at moderate intensity (up to distances on the order of the attenuation length, approximately 10 meters in sea water), then quickly converge to an intense focus within a few centimeters at a controlled location. Optical breakdown can then generate an acoustic pulse

  2. Underwater Inspection Of Naval Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Berger; R. Brackett; J. Mittleman

    1983-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) performed underwater is one of the major maintenance methods to assure the efficient operation of naval structures such as piers, navigational aids, etc. Methods used for NDT of naval structures include general methods such as visual testing, ultrasonics and radiography. Visual testing, supplemented by instruments such as TV cameras and stereo-photography, offers good capability for surface inspection

  3. Optimizing ODMRP for underwater networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Bauer; Nils Aschenbruck; Raphael Ernst; Elmar Gerhards-Padilla; Peter Martini

    2010-01-01

    Underwater networks have attracted significant attention over the last few years. They can be used in scenarios like environmental monitoring and mine countermeasure but may also be part of modern marine warfare. A prominent example is Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) with multistatic sonars. These networks may be sparse with potentially long distances between single nodes such that direct communication is

  4. Active control of underwater installation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svein I. Sagatun

    2002-01-01

    An augmented impedance control scheme is proposed together with passive heave compensation to achieve higher operability on offshore underwater installation. The dynamics of the controller, the crane, the water surface in the moonpool, and a detailed mathematical model of the hydrodynamic loads and load effects on the object hitting the water surface and proceeding through the splash zone are included.

  5. Air launched underwater acoustic systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Wapner; J. McCann

    1985-01-01

    Expenditures associated with underwater acoustic systems are sometimes prohibitive owing to ships operating costs to install, maintain and utilize these systems. Launching, maintenance and use of precision long baseline navigation systems from the air are inherently cost effective for specific mission applications. Air launch technology also provides for rapid development of acoustic systems which, in many instances, is mandated. This

  6. Team formation and steering algorithms for underwater gliders using acoustic communications q,qq

    E-print Network

    Pompili, Dario

    Team formation and steering algorithms for underwater gliders using acoustic communications q Keywords: Underwater acoustic sensor networks Autonomous underwater vehicles Underwater gliders Team the undersampled vast ocean, it is necessary to employ multiple autonomous underwater vehicles, such as gliders

  7. Effects of an SCBA on breathing pattern, gas exchange, and heart rate during exercise.

    PubMed

    Louhevaara, V; Smolander, J; Tuomi, T; Korhonen, O; Jaakkola, J

    1985-03-01

    The effects of a pressure demand-type self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) (total weight, 15.5 kg) on breathing pattern, gas exchange, and heart rate were studied in 13 firemen. The subjects performed sequential progressive exercise tests on a treadmill both without and with an SCBA. The use of an SCBA consistently limited tidal volume. During submaximal exercise oxygen consumption and heart rate increased remarkably more with the SCBA than without it. Four subjects reached their maximal heart rate with the SCBA. Their mean ventilation rate was 68% and oxygen consumption was 83% of the maximal values attained without the SCBA. The shoulder harness of the heavy SCBA prevented free motion of the thorax, affecting the regulation of breathing, and thus seriously disturbed ventilation and gas exchange, particularly at heavier exercise levels. PMID:3981278

  8. Exhaled breath condensate: an overview.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael D; Montpetit, Alison; Hunt, John

    2012-08-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a promising source of biomarkers of lung disease. EBC may be thought of either as a body fluid or as a condensate of exhaled gas. There are 3 principal contributors to EBC: variable-sized particles or droplets that are aerosolized from the airway lining fluid, distilled water that condenses from gas phase out of the nearly water-saturated exhalate, and water-soluble volatiles that are exhaled and absorbed into the condensing breath. The nonvolatile constituents and the water-soluble volatile constituents are of particular interest. Several key issues are discussed in this article. PMID:22877615

  9. Managing Asthma: Learning to Breathe Easier

    MedlinePLUS

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Managing Asthma Learn To Breathe Easier Most people have little ... simple activities can be tough for someone with asthma. Although there’s no cure, you can breathe easier ...

  10. Pipe crawler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hovis, Gregory L. (North Augusta, SC); Erickson, Scott A. (Augusta, GA); Blackmon, Bruce L. (Aiken, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A pipe crawler apparatus particularly useful for 3-inch and 4-inch diameter pipes is provided. The pipe crawler apparatus uses a gripping apparatus in which a free end of a piston rod is modified with a bearing retaining groove. Bearings, placed within the groove, are directed against a camming surface of three respective pivoting support members. The non-pivoting ends of the support members carry a foot-like gripping member that, upon pivoting of the support member, engages the interior wall of the pipe.

  11. Conduit grinding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY); Korytkowski, Alfred S. (Scotia, NY)

    1991-01-01

    A grinding apparatus for grinding the interior portion of a valve stem receiving area of a valve. The apparatus comprises a faceplate, a plurality of cams mounted to an interior face of the faceplate, a locking bolt to lock the faceplate at a predetermined position on the valve, a movable grinder and a guide tube for positioning an optical viewer proximate the area to be grinded. The apparatus can either be rotated about the valve for grinding an area of the inner diameter of a valve stem receiving area or locked at a predetermined position to grind a specific point in the receiving area.

  12. Cleaning method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1981-02-27

    A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

  13. Automated Coordinator Synthesis for Mission Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    Automated Coordinator Synthesis for Mission Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles S autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) programs to meet evolving requirements and capabilities. The hierarchical architecture for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) that facilitates graphical design and code generation

  14. Acoustic Propagation Considerations for Underwater Acoustic Communications Network Development

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Shengli

    Acoustic Propagation Considerations for Underwater Acoustic Communications Network Development Woods Hole, MA 02543 jpreisig@whoi.edu ABSTRACT Underwater acoustic communications systems are challenged by the characteristics of acoustic propagation through the underwater environment

  15. Current measurements from underwater gliders Current Measurements from

    E-print Network

    Griffiths, Gwyn

    Current measurements from underwater gliders Current Measurements from Autonomous Underwater Gliders L.M. Merckelbach National Oceanography Centre Southampton, UK R.D. Briggs Memorial University St Technology, Charleston, March 2008. #12;Current measurements from underwater gliders Scientific Motivation

  16. Persistent Ocean Monitoring with Underwater Gliders: Adapting Sampling Resolution

    E-print Network

    Smith, Ryan N.

    Persistent Ocean Monitoring with Underwater Gliders: Adapting Sampling Resolution algorithm for underwater gliders, which together give informative trajectories for the glider currents. Speed is controlled along the planned path by adjusting the pitch angle of the underwater glider

  17. Breath tester: Inside Metabolomx's device, breath is pumped over arrays of 120

    E-print Network

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    -Cancer Breathalyzer Researchers are developing a cheap sensor array that distinguishes the breath of patientsBreath tester: Inside Metabolomx's device, breath is pumped over arrays of 120 chemical reactants that change color in response to volatile breath biomarkers. Technology Review TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 14, 2012

  18. Drive mechanism for production of simulated human breath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Lambert, J. W.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Simulated breath drive mechanism was developed as subsystem to breathing metabolic simulator. Mechanism reproduces complete range of human breath rate, breath depth, and breath waveform, as well as independently controlled functional residual capacity. Mechanism was found capable of simulating various individual human breathing characteristics without any changes of parts.

  19. Functional Analysis and Intervention for Breath Holding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Lee; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A functional analysis of breath-holding episodes in a 7-year-old girl with severe mental retardation and Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome indicated that breath holding served an operant function, primarily to gain access to attention. Use of extinction, scheduled attention, and a picture card communication system decreased breath holding. (Author/SW)

  20. Automatic breathing segmentation from wearable respiration sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Lopez-Meyer; Edward Sazonov

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography (RIP) allows studying the physiology of the breathing process and provides ability to characterize it in an automated manner. An efficient and robust automatic breath segmentation technique that can be applied to sensor signals acquired in free living conditions is of interest due to the significant variability in the breathing patterns of different activities. The gold standard

  1. Breath Ammonia Analysis: Clinical Application and Measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troy Hibbard; Anthony J. Killard

    2011-01-01

    This review covers in detail the complexity of human breath, how the body metabolizes ammonia, clinical conditions which are directly related to the regulation of ammonia concentration, and analysis of current techniques that are capable of detecting breath ammonia. Focusing on these areas provides the information needed to develop a breath ammonia sensor for monitoring dysfunction of the human body.

  2. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  3. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John Joseph; Wessell, Brian J.; Liang, George

    2013-03-05

    A sealing apparatus in a gas turbine. The sealing apparatus includes a seal housing apparatus coupled to a disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable therewith during operation of the gas turbine. The seal housing apparatus comprises a base member, a first leg portion, a second leg portion, and spanning structure. The base member extends generally axially between forward and aft rows of rotatable blades and is positioned adjacent to a row of stationary vanes. The first leg portion extends radially inwardly from the base member and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The second leg portion is axially spaced from the first leg portion, extends radially inwardly from the base member, and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The spanning structure extends between and is rigidly coupled to each of the base member, the first leg portion, and the second leg portion.

  4. Emission Tube Apparatus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Charles Ward

    This is an image of an emission tube apparatus with tube in place. When plugged in and turned on the gas in the tube will become excited and emit a specific color of light depending upon the type of gas.

  5. Apparatus for Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes apparatus utilized to demonstrate physics principle. Equipment described includes a low pressure chamber, a 360 degree loop ramp, a tilted table demonstrating motion principles, and a method for casting a three dimensional display of magnetic lines of force. (SL)

  6. Data Muling over Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Dunbabin; Peter I. Corke; Iuliu Vasilescu; Daniela Rus

    2006-01-01

    We present algorithms, systems, and experimental results for underwater data muling. In data muling a mobile agent interacts with static agents to upload, download, or transport data to a different physical location. We consider a system comprising an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and many static underwater sensor nodes (USN) networked together optically and acoustically. The AUV can locate the static

  7. www.postersession.com Autonomous Underwater Vehicles of the Underwater Technology Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Wood, Stephen L.

    printed by www.postersession.com Autonomous Underwater Vehicles of the Underwater Technology developed a unique Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The purpose of this AUV is to perform automated.E. The development of an inexpensive autonomous oceanographic data acquisition system that is capable of operating

  8. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1983-08-08

    A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

  9. Battery formation charging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.L.

    1987-08-04

    An apparatus is describe for charging electric storage batteries, the apparatus comprising: (a) a host computer for providing charging information to and receiving status information from at least one slave computer by means of a data link; and (b) at least one control module coupled to the slave computer for applying charging current to at least one electric storage battery in response to instructions received from the slave computer, and for providing feedback and status information to the slave computer.

  10. Spin coating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  11. Neural mechanisms underlying breathing complexity.

    PubMed

    Hess, Agathe; Yu, Lianchun; Klein, Isabelle; De Mazancourt, Marine; Jebrak, Gilles; Mal, Hervé; Brugière, Olivier; Fournier, Michel; Courbage, Maurice; Dauriat, Gaelle; Schouman-Clayes, Elisabeth; Clerici, Christine; Mangin, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Breathing is maintained and controlled by a network of automatic neurons in the brainstem that generate respiratory rhythm and receive regulatory inputs. Breathing complexity therefore arises from respiratory central pattern generators modulated by peripheral and supra-spinal inputs. Very little is known on the brainstem neural substrates underlying breathing complexity in humans. We used both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher these mechanisms in healthy humans and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is the most frequent chronic lung disease in the general population mainly due to tobacco smoke. In patients, airflow obstruction associated with hyperinflation and respiratory muscles weakness are key factors contributing to load-capacity imbalance and hence increased respiratory drive. Unexpectedly, we found that the patients breathed with a higher level of complexity during inspiration and expiration than controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we scanned the brain of the participants to analyze the activity of two small regions involved in respiratory rhythmogenesis, the rostral ventro-lateral (VL) medulla (pre-Bötzinger complex) and the caudal VL pons (parafacial group). fMRI revealed in controls higher activity of the VL medulla suggesting active inspiration, while in patients higher activity of the VL pons suggesting active expiration. COPD patients reactivate the parafacial to sustain ventilation. These findings may be involved in the onset of respiratory failure when the neural network becomes overwhelmed by respiratory overload We show that central neural activity correlates with airflow complexity in healthy subjects and COPD patients, at rest and during inspiratory loading. We finally used a theoretical approach of respiratory rhythmogenesis that reproduces the kernel activity of neurons involved in the automatic breathing. The model reveals how a chaotic activity in neurons can contribute to chaos in airflow and reproduces key experimental fMRI findings. PMID:24098396

  12. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Breathing Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Agathe; Yu, Lianchun; Klein, Isabelle; De Mazancourt, Marine; Jebrak, Gilles; Mal, Hervé; Brugière, Olivier; Fournier, Michel; Courbage, Maurice; Dauriat, Gaelle; Schouman-Clayes, Elisabeth; Clerici, Christine; Mangin, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Breathing is maintained and controlled by a network of automatic neurons in the brainstem that generate respiratory rhythm and receive regulatory inputs. Breathing complexity therefore arises from respiratory central pattern generators modulated by peripheral and supra-spinal inputs. Very little is known on the brainstem neural substrates underlying breathing complexity in humans. We used both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher these mechanisms in healthy humans and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is the most frequent chronic lung disease in the general population mainly due to tobacco smoke. In patients, airflow obstruction associated with hyperinflation and respiratory muscles weakness are key factors contributing to load-capacity imbalance and hence increased respiratory drive. Unexpectedly, we found that the patients breathed with a higher level of complexity during inspiration and expiration than controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we scanned the brain of the participants to analyze the activity of two small regions involved in respiratory rhythmogenesis, the rostral ventro-lateral (VL) medulla (pre-Bötzinger complex) and the caudal VL pons (parafacial group). fMRI revealed in controls higher activity of the VL medulla suggesting active inspiration, while in patients higher activity of the VL pons suggesting active expiration. COPD patients reactivate the parafacial to sustain ventilation. These findings may be involved in the onset of respiratory failure when the neural network becomes overwhelmed by respiratory overload We show that central neural activity correlates with airflow complexity in healthy subjects and COPD patients, at rest and during inspiratory loading. We finally used a theoretical approach of respiratory rhythmogenesis that reproduces the kernel activity of neurons involved in the automatic breathing. The model reveals how a chaotic activity in neurons can contribute to chaos in airflow and reproduces key experimental fMRI findings. PMID:24098396

  13. High bandwidth underwater optical communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Hanson; Stojan Radic

    2008-01-01

    We report error-free underwater optical transmission measurements at 1 Gbit\\/s (109 bits\\/s) over a 2 m path in a laboratory water pipe with up to 36 dB of extinction. The source at 532 nm was derived from a 1064 nm continuous-wave laser diode that was intensity modulated, amplified, and frequency doubled in periodically poled lithium niobate. Measurements were made over

  14. Solidification of underwater wet welds

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, A.M.; Medeiros, R.C. de; Liu, S. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Center for Welding and Joining Research

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that the shape of a weld pool can influence the microstructure and segregation pattern of the final solidified weld metal. Mechanical properties and susceptibility to defects are consequently affected by the solidification mode of the weld. In this work the solidification behavior of weld beads deposited in air and underwater wet welding using rutile electrodes were compared. The welds were deposited by gravity feed, on low carbon, manganese steel plates using similar welding conditions. Macroscopic observation of the weld craters showed that welds deposited in air presented an elliptical weld pool. The underwater wet welds, on the other hand, solidified with a tear drop shape. Although the welds differed in shape, their lengths were approximately the same. Microscopic examinations carried out on transverse, normal and longitudinal sections revealed a coarser columnar grain structure in the underwater welds. These results suggest that the tear-drop shaped pool induced solidification in a preferred orientation with segregation more likely in welds deposited under wet conditions. This change in weld pool geometry can be explained by the surface heat loss conditions that occur in a wet weld: slower when covered by the steam bubble and faster in the region in contact with water behind the pool.

  15. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogus?aw; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  16. Laser 3-D measuring system and real-time visual feedback for teaching and correcting breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povši?, Klemen; Fležar, Matjaž; Možina, Janez; Jezeršek, Matija

    2012-03-01

    We present a novel method for real-time 3-D body-shape measurement during breathing based on the laser multiple-line triangulation principle. The laser projector illuminates the measured surface with a pattern of 33 equally inclined light planes. Simultaneously, the camera records the distorted light pattern from a different viewpoint. The acquired images are transferred to a personal computer, where the 3-D surface reconstruction, shape analysis, and display are performed in real time. The measured surface displacements are displayed with a color palette, which enables visual feedback to the patient while breathing is being taught. The measuring range is approximately 400×600×500 mm in width, height, and depth, respectively, and the accuracy of the calibrated apparatus is +/-0.7 mm. The system was evaluated by means of its capability to distinguish between different breathing patterns. The accuracy of the measured volumes of chest-wall deformation during breathing was verified using standard methods of volume measurements. The results show that the presented 3-D measuring system with visual feedback has great potential as a diagnostic and training assistance tool when monitoring and evaluating the breathing pattern, because it offers a simple and effective method of graphical communication with the patient.

  17. Underwater Coatings for Contamination Control

    SciTech Connect

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann-Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included 1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; 2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; 3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and 4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55oF to 80oF dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature. The following criteria were used during this evaluation. The underwater coating must: · Be easy to apply · Adhere well to the four surfaces of interest · Not change or have a negative impact on water chemistry or clarity · Not be hazardous in final applied form · Be proven in other underwater applications. In addition, it is desirable for the coating to have a high pigment or high cross-link density to prevent radiation from penetrating. This paper will detail the testing completed and the test results. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected to be applied by divers after scrubbing loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuuming up the sludge. A special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pool with no airborne contamination problems.

  18. Polarization Imaging Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zou, Yingyin K.; Chen, Qiushui

    2010-01-01

    A polarization imaging apparatus has shown promise as a prototype of instruments for medical imaging with contrast greater than that achievable by use of non-polarized light. The underlying principles of design and operation are derived from observations that light interacts with tissue ultrastructures that affect reflectance, scattering, absorption, and polarization of light. The apparatus utilizes high-speed electro-optical components for generating light properties and acquiring polarization images through aligned polarizers. These components include phase retarders made of OptoCeramic (registered TradeMark) material - a ceramic that has a high electro-optical coefficient. The apparatus includes a computer running a program that implements a novel algorithm for controlling the phase retarders, capturing image data, and computing the Stokes polarization images. Potential applications include imaging of superficial cancers and other skin lesions, early detection of diseased cells, and microscopic analysis of tissues. The high imaging speed of this apparatus could be beneficial for observing live cells or tissues, and could enable rapid identification of moving targets in astronomy and national defense. The apparatus could also be used as an analysis tool in material research and industrial processing.

  19. The possible influence of breathing patterns on the measurements of breathing frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, A.; Beck-Bornholdt, H.P. [Univ. of Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-02-01

    The breathing frequency is a common parameter to assess the radiation response of the lungs of laboratory rodents. Rats of the strain WAG/Rij which were bred in Hamburg show different breathing patterns which consist of short regular and long irregular breaths. Depending on the breathing pattern, the breathing frequency of untreated animals varies by a factor of three. Although this phenomenon might be strain-specific, it seems noteworthy because it might influence the results obtained after irradiation significantly, especially if breathing frequency is automatically converted into a numerical value. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Control architectures for autonomous underwater vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimon P. Valavanis; Denis Gracanin; Maja Matijasevic; Ramesh Kolluru; Georgios A. Demetriou

    1997-01-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) share common control problems with other air, land, and water unmanned vehicles. In addition to requiring high-dimensional and computationally intensive sensory data for real-time mission execution, power and communication limitations in an underwater environment make it more difficult to develop a control architecture for an AUV. In this article, the four types of control architectures being

  1. Nonlinear tracking control of autonomous underwater vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiko Nakamura; Shrikant Savant

    1992-01-01

    Discusses 3D motion of underwater vehicles. The authors describe kinematics of an underwater vehicle by six state variables and four inputs, and use a Lyapunov-like function to develop a nonlinear tracking control scheme. The control method effectively makes use of the nonholonomic nature of the system. Simulation results agreed with the theoretical predictions and confirmed the usefulness of the proposed

  2. Power Management for Acoustic Underwater Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iyad Tumar; Anuj Sehgal; J. Schonwalder

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the large area to be monitored in most underwater sensor network applications, many acoustic networks have a sparse topology. The underwater acoustic channel characteristics can cause power consumption of nodes to be quite high. This paper presents information on a work in progress to design a power management scheme for asynchronous node communication to maximize the

  3. Design for Underwater Aplanatic Straubel Acoustic Mirror

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Sato; Koichi Mizutani; Naoto Wakatsuki; Toshiaki Nakamura

    2011-01-01

    An aplanatic Fresnel lens was developed in a previous study to reduce the thickness of underwater acoustic lenses. Showing better convergence properties than aplanatic biconvex and hyperbolic Fresnel lenses, the aplanatic Fresnel lens had limitations in terms of frequency and number of waves owing to its shape. An underwater aplanatic Straubel acoustic mirror, the concept o which is based on

  4. Verification and validation of underwater models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Gledhill; J. D. Illgen

    1997-01-01

    As computational power increases and the price of software and hardware decrease, the ability to simulate the effects of oceanic currents on the performance of electronic and electroacoustic systems becomes more achievable. While the modeling of underwater effects will always be orders of magnitude more complex than atmospheric modeling, the increase in technology is causing more underwater models and simulations

  5. ZF OFDM Receiver for Underwater Communications

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Abstract--In this paper, we propose a new scheme of transmis- sion and reception of OFDM ( Orthogonal of simulations. Index Terms--Underwater acoustic communications, OFDM, Doppler distorsion, Hankel matrix-vehicle co-ordination schemes and de- velopment of efficient underwater acoustic communication protocols

  6. Collaborative tracking in mobile underwater networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diba Mirza; Curt Schurgers

    2009-01-01

    A key requirement of underwater sensing systems is to track the position of devices while submerged. Traditionally, such tracking has relied on inertial navigation units and acoustic range measurements with surface beacons to estimate node positions over time. While effective for small clusters of instruments, these approaches do not scale well when underwater systems become truly networked. Instead, networked instruments

  7. Mechanized underwater welding and cutting for VLFS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoji OGAWA

    2002-01-01

    Mechanized underwater welding and cutting techniques are very important for actual usage of very large floating structures (VLFS). On-site welding plays a major part in the construction process. The total weld line is very long and a half part is submerged under water. The water curtain type wet underwater welding technique had shown its excellent ability for the construction of

  8. NEW METHODS OF UNDERWATER SHIP NOISE CLASSIFICATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EUGENIUSZ KOZACZKA

    The detection, classification, identification and recognition ships noise features have been of the highest importance for scientific and also defense interest. A big effort is made in the passive sonar technologies that allow applying underwater noise for practical purpose. Results are presented which demonstrate the ability of the network to classify man made sources as are underwater ships noise. The

  9. Underwater Glider Model Parameter IdentiÞcation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua G. Graver; Ralf Bachmayer; Naomi Ehrich; David M. Fratantoni

    2003-01-01

    An underwater glider is a buoyancy-propelled, Þxed- wing vehicle with attitude controlled completely, or in part, by means of internal mass redistribution. We have developed a physics-based nonlinear model of the dynamics of an underwater glider and adapted it to model the SLOCUM glider's geometry, rudder, ballast pump and internal movable mass. In this paper we identify the model parameters

  10. Development of tether mooring type underwater robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya-wen Huang; Koji Ueda; Kazuhiro Itoh; Edwardo F. Fukushima; Shigeo Hirose

    2009-01-01

    For the purpose of detecting CO2 leaks during ocean CO2 sequestration, there is a need for independent underwater robots that can make observations while maintaining their position over the seabed against the current for long periods of time. In order to achieve this objective, a novel tether mooring type underwater robot was proposed. The robot is moored and its position

  11. An eigenpath underwater acoustic communication channel model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xueyi Geng; Adam Zielinski

    1995-01-01

    Ocean exploration can require high data rate transmission over an underwater acoustic channel. The properties of underwater acoustic channels are thus very important in the design of high data rate acoustic telemetry systems. The authors review the essential properties of such channels. Based on some experimental results and analytical considerations they point out the limitations of the Rayleigh fading model

  12. Impacts of optical turbulence on underwater imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weilin Hou; S. Woods; W. Goode; E. Jarosz; A. Weidemann

    2011-01-01

    Optical signal transmission underwater is of vital interests to both civilian and military applications. The range and signal to noise during the transmission, as a function of system and water optical properties determines the effectiveness of EO technology. These applications include diver visibility, search and rescue, mine detection and identification, and optical communications. The impact of optical turbulence on underwater

  13. Seeking Teachers for Underwater Robotics PD Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Beth; Sayres, Jason

    2012-01-01

    With funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), ITEEA members will contribute to the development of a hybrid professional development program designed to facilitate the scale-up of an innovative underwater robotics curriculum. WaterBotics[TM] is an underwater robotics curriculum that targets students in middle and high school classrooms…

  14. Moving mass control for underwater vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Woolsey; N. E. Leonard

    2002-01-01

    We present two reduced-dimensional, noncanonical Hamiltonian models for a neutrally buoyant underwater vehicle coupled to an internal moving mass. It is expected that these models will be useful in designing nonlinear control laws for underwater gliders as well as for spacecraft, atmospheric re-entry vehicles, and other vehicles which use internal moving mass actuators. To illustrate, we investigate stability of a

  15. An Architecture for Underwater Networks Mandar Chitre

    E-print Network

    Stojanovic, Milica

    for wired and wireless radio networks. As the sound waves are much slower than the electromagnetic waves University of Singapore Abstract ­ As electromagnetic waves do not propagate well underwater, acoustics plays of electromagnetic and acoustic channels, networking protocols for underwater systems differ from those developed

  16. Biosensor UUV payload for underwater detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne W. Kusterbeck; Paul T. Charles; Brian J. Melde; Scott A. Trammell; André A. Adams; Jeffrey R. Deschamps

    2010-01-01

    Increased emphasis on maritime domain awareness and port security has led to the development of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) capable of extended missions. These systems rely most frequently on well-developed side scan sonar and acoustic methods to locate potential targets. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is developing biosensors for underwater explosives detection that complement acoustic sensors and can be used

  17. Biological particle identification apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Gregg, Charles T. (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, W. Kevin (Los Alamos, NM); Hiebert, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making multiparameter light scattering measurements from suspensions of biological particles is described. Fourteen of the sixteen Mueller matrix elements describing the particles under investigation can be substantially individually determined as a function of scattering angle and probing radiations wavelength, eight elements simultaneously for each of two apparatus configurations using an apparatus which incluees, in its simplest form, two polarization modulators each operating at a chosen frequency, one polarizer, a source of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, a detector sensitive to the wavelength of radiation employed, eight phase-sensitive detectors, and appropriate electronics. A database of known biological particle suspensions can be assembled, and unknown samples can be quickly identified once measurements are performed on it according to the teachings of the subject invention, and a comparison is made with the database.

  18. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  19. Restoration of turbulence degraded underwater images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaev, Andrey V.; Hou, Weilin; Woods, Sarah; Smith, Leslie N.

    2012-05-01

    The ability to image underwater is highly desired for scientific and military applications, including optical communications, submarine awareness, diver visibility, and mine detection. Underwater imaging is severely impaired by scattering and optical turbulence associated with refractive index fluctuations. This work introduces a novel approach to restoration of degraded underwater imagery based on a multi-frame correction technique developed for atmospheric distortions. The method represents synthesis of ``lucky-region'' fusion with nonlinear gain and optical flow-based image warping. The developed multiframe image restoration algorithm is tested on underwater imagery collected in a laboratory tank and in a field exercise. Reliance of image restoration on accuracy of the optical flow algorithm is revealed. The developed algorithm demonstrates significant resolution improvement of the restored image in comparison to any single frame or the mean of the underwater image sequence.

  20. Expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    McCoy, Kim O. (Carmel, CA); Downing, Jr., John P. (Port Townsand, WA); DeRoos, Bradley G. (Worthington, OH); Riches, Michael R. (Silver Spring, MD)

    1993-01-01

    An expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus is deployed from an airplane or a ship to make oceanographic observations in a profile of the surface-to-ocean floor, while deployed on the floor, and then a second profile when returning to the ocean surface. The device then records surface conditions until on-board batteries fail. All data collected is stored and then transmitted from the surface to either a satellite or other receiving station. The apparatus is provided with an anchor that causes descent to the ocean floor and then permits ascent when the anchor is released. Anchor release is predetermined by the occurrence of a pre-programmed event.

  1. Current measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Umans, Stephen D. (Belmont, MA)

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  2. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L. (Santa Fe, NM); Lundin, Ralph L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  3. Fuel injection apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.; Kuroda, Y.; Ogata, K.

    1988-07-12

    A fuel injection apparatus is described for injecting fuel responsive to a rotary speed of an engine by utilizing the pressure of compressed air, the apparatus comprising means for regulating the supplying time of the compressed air responsive to at least one of the rotary speed of the engine and the load of the engine, and the regulating means including means for supplying the compressed air for a longer time at least one of low rotary speed and low load of the engine than at least one of high rotary speed and high load of the engine.

  4. Fissile solution measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Crane, T.W.; Collinsworth, P.R.

    1984-06-11

    An apparatus for determining the content of a fissile material within a solution by detecting delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material after it is temporarily irradiated by a neutron source. The apparatus comprises a container holding the solution and having a portion defining a neutron source cavity centrally disposed within the container. The neutron source cavity temporarily receives the neutron source. The container has portions defining a plurality of neutron detector ports that form an annular pattern and surround the neutron source cavity. A plurality of neutron detectors count delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material. Each neutron detector is located in a separate one of the neutron detector ports.

  5. UNDERWATER GLIDERS: DYNAMICS, CONTROL AND DESIGN Joshua Grady Graver

    E-print Network

    Leonard, Naomi

    UNDERWATER GLIDERS: DYNAMICS, CONTROL AND DESIGN Joshua Grady Graver A DISSERTATION PRESENTED of underwater gliders and application of the model to analysis of glider dynamics, control, navigation, and design. Underwater gliders are a novel type of autonomous underwater vehicle that glide by controlling

  6. Limit Cycle Model Of Apneic Breathing In Neonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Krawciw; G. Drzewiecki; B. Ostfeld; S. Burke; T. Hegyi; M. Hiatt

    1990-01-01

    The breathing patterns of premature infants are known to change with state. A common pattern is cycling or periodic breathing where regular breathing is interspersed with apneic episodes. Preterm infants are monitored noninvasively using a pneumoimpedance technique to obtain data records of apneic breathing. A mathematical model of breathing is developed that employs a limit cycle nonlinear oscillator. Random drive

  7. Noise From Shallow Underwater Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloway, Alexander G.

    Naval activities such as ordnance disposal, demolition and requisite training, can involve detonation of small explosive charges in shallow water that have the potential to harm nearby marine life. Measurements of the underwater sound generated by sub-surface explosions were collected as part of a naval training exercise. In this thesis the noise levels from these explosions will be investigated using peak pressure, sound exposure level and energy spectral density. Measurements of very-low frequency Scholte interface waves will also be presented and used to investigate elastic parameters in the sediment.

  8. Internal combustion engine apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, T.; Inaga, H.

    1986-12-23

    An internal combustion engine apparatus is described comprising, in combination, an internal combustion engine having an ignition system capable of step advance when a predetermined engine speed is reached between low and high ranges of engine speed; and a centrifugal clutch connected to an output shaft of the internal combustion engine, the centrifugal clutch being engaged and disengaged at substantially the predetermined engine speed.

  9. Scanning radiographic apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. N. Hounsfield; P. G. Langstone

    1978-01-01

    A scanning radiographic apparatus is described in which the object of the scanning is to project the radiation through a substantially planar region of a body along many linear paths. The progress of the scanning is monitored by timing signals. The timing signals are used to determine, at least in part, the widths of the beams and a characteristic, for

  10. Solar heating apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trihey

    1976-01-01

    Solar heating apparatus is presented for heating a heat transfer medium comprising a support structure, a light absorbing surface arranged to transmit heat to a heat transfer medium, focusing means mounted on said support structure for focusing solar energy upon the light absorbing surface, and tracking means for tracking movement of the sun and moving the focusing means relative to

  11. Hydrogen-Detection Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. Richard; Bourgeois, Chris M.

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus continuously monitors concentration of hydrogen, at level ranging from few parts per million to several percent, in mixture of gases. Simple and fast, providing high sensitivity and linear response. Used to alert technicians to potentially explosive concentrations of residual hydrogen.

  12. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presents two experimental set-ups. The first demonstrates the law of Malus using a pair of Polaroid polarizers and a monochromatic light source with an interference filter. The second describes a modification of Hilton's apparatus to demonstrate the effects of the magnetic hysteresis on an overhead projector. (CS)

  13. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1997-03-25

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

  14. Plastic molding apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mozer, L.P.; Morgan, B.T.

    1985-01-29

    A die ring for use in a blow molding apparatus is provided with depressions at the downstream end of the land to provide the parison with a longitudinally thickened rib and depressions at the upstream end of the land to counteract parison deformation caused by the downstream depressions.

  15. Micromachine friction test apparatus

    DOEpatents

    deBoer, Maarten P. (Albuquerque, NM); Redmond, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry A. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

  16. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnix, Richard B., Ed.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Standing transverse waves in homogeneous strings have been demonstrated in lectures and used in experiments (called Melde's experiment). A variation to this experiment is discussed. Also discusses the use of the speed-of-sound resonance-tube apparatus to clean mercury. (Author/JN)

  17. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Describes: (1) the construction of a variable-volume resonator and Raleigh-disk resonance detector from simple materials; and (2) a learning aid for performing 60 experiments in basic electricity and electronics (consisting of a circuit board, components, and mask sheets). Illustrative experiments are included for both apparatus. (DH)

  18. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1985-06-19

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  19. Improved collecting apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1981-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net

  20. Submicron particle sampler apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don D. Gay; William G. McMillan

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus and method steps for collecting sub-micron sized particles include a collection chamber and cryogenic cooling. The cooling is accomplished by coil tubing carrying nitrogen in liquid form, with the liquid nitrogen changing to the gas phase before exiting from the collection chamber in the tubing. Standard filters are used to filter out particles of diameter greater than or equal

  1. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Explains: (1) use of piezoelectric film (connected to power supply and oscilloscope) to reveal force-versus-time curves of bouncing balls; (2) use of bound wood splints or meter sticks to illustrate tree or tower stability; and (3) apparatus of co-axial discs with connected linking rods and suspended bobs to simulate waves. (DH)

  2. Well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, E.D.

    1981-12-15

    A pumping apparatus that may be used with a well in which a sucker rod is connected with the well so as to remain in axial alignment with the same during shifting of the well and the sucker rod is supported clear of the well and the structure for operating the same.

  3. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Describes some laboratory apparatus and demonstrations; describes an electronic device to illustrate an octave synthesizer; shows how to get negative changes from an electrophorous; explains a body levers device to clarify the principles of moments and levers; and finally shows how to demonstrate acceleration in simple harmonic motion. (GA)

  4. Ice making apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    An ice-making apparatus is described including a housing defining a substantially cylindrical freezing chamber, refrigeration means adjacent the freezing chamber, means for supplying ice make-up water to the freezing chamber, an axially extending auger rotatably mounted in the freezing chamber. The improvement includes a central body portion, at least one flight portion extending in a generally spiral path along at

  5. Holographic Animation Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sean F.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple apparatus for producing strip holograms with a number of slit-shaped exposures displaced along the vertical direction. The hologram maintains full horizontal parallax, but the slit aperture reduces the vertical viewing angle of the animated object. (Author/GA)

  6. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  7. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  8. Instrumentation and Sensors for Human Breath Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melinda G. Simon; Cristina E. Davis

    Exhaled breath contains a vast milieu of compounds, both volatile and non-volatile, that appear to correlate with physiological\\u000a processes on-going in the body. These breath biomarkers hold enormous diagnostic potential when they are adequately measured\\u000a and monitored. Thus, instrumentation geared towards breath analysis applications has expanded rapidly in the last decade,\\u000a although challenges for future research still exist. This chapter

  9. A survey of practical issues in underwater networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W. Partan; Brian Neil Levine; James F. Kurose

    2006-01-01

    Underwater sensor networks are attracting increasing in-terest from researchers in terrestrial radio-based sensor net-works. There are important physical, technological, and eco-nomic di erences between terrestrial and underwater sensor networks. Previous surveys have provided thorough back-ground material in underwater communications, and an in-troduction to underwater networks. This has included detail on the physical characteristics of the channel [1], on under-water acoustic

  10. Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danielle R. D. Campanizzi; Brenda Mason; Christine K. F. Hermann

    1999-01-01

    A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container.

  11. Calculating rhythmicity of infant breathing using wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macey, Katherine E.; Page, Wyatt H.; Harper, Ronald M.; Macey, Paul M.; Ford, Rodney P. K.

    2000-12-01

    Breathing signals are one set of physiological data that may provide information regarding the mechanisms that cause SIDS. Isolated breathing pauses have been implicated in fatal events. Other features of interest include slow amplitude modulation of the breathing signal, a phenomenon whose origin is unclear, and periodic breathing. The latter describes a repetitive series of apnea, and may be considered an extreme manifestation of amplitude modulation with successive cessations of breathing. Rhythmicity is defined to assess the impact of amplitude modulation on breathing signals and describes the extent to which frequency components remain constant for the duration of the signal. The wavelet transform was used to identify sections of constant frequency components within signals. Rhythmicity can be evaluated for all the frequency components in a signal, for individual frequencies. The rhythmicity of eight breathing epochs from sleeping infants at high and low risk for SIDS was calculated. Initial results show breathing from infants at high risk for SIDS exhibits greater rhythmicity of modulating frequencies than breathing from low risk infants.

  12. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  13. Model based image restoration for underwater images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Thomas; Frühberger, Peter; Werling, Stefan; Heizmann, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The inspection of offshore parks, dam walls and other infrastructure under water is expensive and time consuming, because such constructions must be inspected manually by divers. Underwater buildings have to be examined visually to find small cracks, spallings or other deficiencies. Automation of underwater inspection depends on established water-proved imaging systems. Most underwater imaging systems are based on acoustic sensors (sonar). The disadvantage of such an acoustic system is the loss of the complete visual impression. All information embedded in texture and surface reflectance gets lost. Therefore acoustic sensors are mostly insufficient for these kind of visual inspection tasks. Imaging systems based on optical sensors feature an enormous potential for underwater applications. The bandwidth from visual imaging systems reach from inspection of underwater buildings via marine biological applications through to exploration of the seafloor. The reason for the lack of established optical systems for underwater inspection tasks lies in technical difficulties of underwater image acquisition and processing. Lightening, highly degraded images make a computational postprocessing absolutely essential.

  14. Fish kill from underwater explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, David J.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has used 23 different shotpoints during two seasons of field work in our seismic study of crustal structure in western United States. Without exception, it has been found that under-water shotpoints result in a more efficient conversion of explosive energy into seismic energy than do drilled-hole shotpoints. This experience, together with elimination of drilling costs, has led to the use of underwater shotpoints wherever possible. Three of the 23 shotpoints were in the Pacific Ocean, and for these we have no detailed information on the fish kill. Another six shotpoints were located in inland bodies of water. These are: * Soda Lake near Fallon, Nevada * Mono Lake near Lee Vining, California * Lake Mead near Boulder City, Nevada * Shasta Lake near Redding, California * C.J. Strike Reservoir near Bruneau, Idaho * Lucky Peak Reservoir near Boise, Idaho The 22 high-explosive charges, weighing a total of 95,100 pounds, that were fired in lakes containing fish life resulted in the known death of 2,413 game fish with a total weight of 759 pounds. The average mortality was 110 game fish or 34.5 pounds of game fish killed per average shot of 4,325 pounds of high-explosives.

  15. Polarimetric imaging of underwater targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilerson, Alex; Carrizo, Carlos; Tonizzo, Alberto; Ibrahim, Amir; El-Habashi, Ahmed; Foster, Robert; Ahmed, Samir

    2013-06-01

    Underwater imaging is challenging because of the significant attenuation of light due to absorption and scattering of light in water. Using polarization properties of light is one of the options for improving image quality. We present results of imaging of a polarized target in open ocean (Curacao) and coastal (NY Bight) waters. The target in the shape of a square is divided into several smaller squares, each of which is covered with a polarizing film with different polarization orientations or transmission coefficients was placed on a mirror and imaged under water by a green-band full-Stokes polarimetric video camera at the full range of azimuth angles against the Sun. The values of the Stokes vector components from the images are compared with the modeled image of the target using radiative transfer code for the atmosphere-ocean system combined with the simple imaging model. It is shown that even in clear water the impact of the water body on the polarized underwater image is very significant and retrieval of target polarization characteristics from the image is extremely challenging.

  16. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.115 Section...DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with gas masks shall...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5280 - Breathing tube support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breathing tube support. 868.5280 Section 868.5280...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5280 Breathing tube support. (a) Identification. A breathing tube support is a device that is intended to...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5280 - Breathing tube support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breathing tube support. 868.5280 Section 868.5280...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5280 Breathing tube support. (a) Identification. A breathing tube support is a device that is intended to...

  19. 42 CFR 84.172 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.172 Section...Particulate Respirators § 84.172 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators...

  20. 42 CFR 84.172 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.172 Section...Particulate Respirators § 84.172 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators...

  1. 42 CFR 84.195 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.195 Section...Cartridge Respirators § 84.195 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators...

  2. 42 CFR 84.195 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.195 Section...Cartridge Respirators § 84.195 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators...

  3. 42 CFR 84.1132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.1132 Section...Combination Gas Masks § 84.1132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. (a) Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators...

  4. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.115 Section...DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with gas masks shall...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5280 - Breathing tube support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breathing tube support. 868.5280 Section 868.5280...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5280 Breathing tube support. (a) Identification. A breathing tube support is a device that is intended to...

  6. 42 CFR 84.1132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.1132 Section...Combination Gas Masks § 84.1132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. (a) Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5280 - Breathing tube support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breathing tube support. 868.5280 Section 868.5280...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5280 Breathing tube support. (a) Identification. A breathing tube support is a device that is intended to...

  8. 42 CFR 84.172 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.172 Section...Particulate Respirators § 84.172 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators...

  9. 42 CFR 84.132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.132 Section...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with supplied-air...

  10. 42 CFR 84.132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.132 Section...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with supplied-air...

  11. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.115 Section...DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with gas masks shall...

  12. 42 CFR 84.172 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.172 Section...Particulate Respirators § 84.172 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.1132 Section...Combination Gas Masks § 84.1132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. (a) Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators...

  14. 42 CFR 84.132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.132 Section...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with supplied-air...

  15. 42 CFR 84.132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.132 Section...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with supplied-air...

  16. 42 CFR 84.195 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.195 Section...Cartridge Respirators § 84.195 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.1132 Section...Combination Gas Masks § 84.1132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. (a) Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators...

  18. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.115 Section...DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with gas masks shall...

  19. 42 CFR 84.195 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.195 Section...Cartridge Respirators § 84.195 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852...GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The...that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air breathing equipment at least...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852...GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The...that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air breathing equipment at least...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852...GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The...that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air breathing equipment at least...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852...GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The...that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air breathing equipment at least...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852...GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The...that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air breathing equipment at least...

  5. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.115 Section...DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with gas masks shall...

  6. 42 CFR 84.132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.132 Section...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with supplied-air...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5280 - Breathing tube support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing tube support. 868.5280 Section 868.5280...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5280 Breathing tube support. (a) Identification. A breathing tube support is a device that is intended to...

  8. 42 CFR 84.172 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.172 Section...Particulate Respirators § 84.172 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit circulator is a turbine device that is attached to a closed breathing circuit and that is intended to circulate anesthetic...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit circulator is a turbine device that is attached to a closed breathing circuit and that is intended to circulate anesthetic...

  12. Breathing exercises: influence on breathing patterns and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Danielle S. R.; Mendes, Liliane P. S.; Elmiro, Nathália S.; Velloso, Marcelo; Britto, Raquel R.; Parreira, Verônica F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying breathing exercises have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of four on breathing exercises (diaphragmatic breathing, inspiratory sighs, sustained maximal inspiration and intercostal exercise) the on breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects. METHOD: Fifteen subjects of both sexes, aged 23±1.5 years old and with normal pulmonary function tests, participated in the study. The subjects were evaluated using the optoelectronic plethysmography system in a supine position with a trunk inclination of 45° during quiet breathing and the breathing exercises. The order of the breathing exercises was randomized. Statistical analysis was performed by the Friedman test and an ANOVA for repeated measures with one factor (breathing exercises), followed by preplanned contrasts and Bonferroni correction. A p<0.005 value was considered significant. RESULTS: All breathing exercises significantly increased the tidal volume of the chest wall (Vcw) and reduced the respiratory rate (RR) in comparison to quiet breathing. The diaphragmatic breathing exercise was responsible for the lowest Vcw, the lowest contribution of the rib cage, and the highest contribution of the abdomen. The sustained maximal inspiration exercise promoted greater reduction in RR compared to the diaphragmatic and intercostal exercises. Inspiratory sighs and intercostal exercises were responsible for the highest values of minute ventilation. Thoracoabdominal asynchrony variables increased significantly during diaphragmatic breathing. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the breathing exercises investigated in this study produced modifications in the breathing pattern (e.g., increase in tidal volume and decrease in RR) as well as in thoracoabdominal motion (e.g., increase in abdominal contribution during diaphragmatic breathing), among others. PMID:25590447

  13. AURP: An AUV-Aided Underwater Routing Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seokhoon; Azad, Abul K.; Oh, Hoon; Kim, Sunghwan

    2012-01-01

    Deploying a multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) in a large area brings about new challenges in reliable data transmissions and survivability of network due to the limited underwater communication range/bandwidth and the limited energy of underwater sensor nodes. In order to address those challenges and achieve the objectives of maximization of data delivery ratio and minimization of energy consumption of underwater sensor nodes, this paper proposes a new underwater routing scheme, namely AURP (AUV-aided underwater routing protocol), which uses not only heterogeneous acoustic communication channels but also controlled mobility of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In AURP, the total data transmissions are minimized by using AUVs as relay nodes, which collect sensed data from gateway nodes and then forward to the sink. Moreover, controlled mobility of AUVs makes it possible to apply a short-range high data rate underwater channel for transmissions of a large amount of data. To the best to our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to employ multiple AUVs as relay nodes in a multi-hop UASN to improve the network performance in terms of data delivery ratio and energy consumption. Simulations, which are incorporated with a realistic underwater acoustic communication channel model, are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, and the results indicate that a high delivery ratio and low energy consumption can be achieved. PMID:22438740

  14. AURP: an AUV-aided underwater routing protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seokhoon; Azad, Abul K; Oh, Hoon; Kim, Sunghwan

    2012-01-01

    Deploying a multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) in a large area brings about new challenges in reliable data transmissions and survivability of network due to the limited underwater communication range/bandwidth and the limited energy of underwater sensor nodes. In order to address those challenges and achieve the objectives of maximization of data delivery ratio and minimization of energy consumption of underwater sensor nodes, this paper proposes a new underwater routing scheme, namely AURP (AUV-aided underwater routing protocol), which uses not only heterogeneous acoustic communication channels but also controlled mobility of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In AURP, the total data transmissions are minimized by using AUVs as relay nodes, which collect sensed data from gateway nodes and then forward to the sink. Moreover, controlled mobility of AUVs makes it possible to apply a short-range high data rate underwater channel for transmissions of a large amount of data. To the best to our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to employ multiple AUVs as relay nodes in a multi-hop UASN to improve the network performance in terms of data delivery ratio and energy consumption. Simulations, which are incorporated with a realistic underwater acoustic communication channel model, are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, and the results indicate that a high delivery ratio and low energy consumption can be achieved. PMID:22438740

  15. New Scientific Underwater Cable System Tokai-SCANNER for Underwater Geophysical Monitoring Utilizing a Decommissioned Optical Underwater Telecommunication Cable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenichi Asakawa; Takashi Yokobiki; Tada-nori Goto; Eiichiro Araki; Takafumi Kasaya; Masataka Kinoshita; Junichi Kojima

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a new cost-effective scientific underwater cable system named Tokai Submarine Cabled Network Observatory for Nowcast of Earthquake Recurrences (Tokai-SCANNER) using a decommissioned optical underwater telecommunication cable. We have used this cable in two ways simultaneously: (1) to construct an ocean-bottom observatory at the end of the cable, and (2) to use the cable as a long emitting

  16. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

    2013-02-19

    A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

  17. Portable shower apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenier, Francis E. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A multipurpose, collapsible, shower apparatus for use almost anywhere but especially adapted for use in places somewhat remote from civilization such as recreational vehicles, campers, the outdoors, space vehicles and the like where there may be a limited amount of water or other liquid. The collapsible shower apparatus includes a curtain assembly having an inner wall, an outer wall and a porous element for separating the inner and outer walls; a series of spaced hollow hoops connected by one or more sets of hollow tubes (manifolds); one or more nozzles connected to and in communication with at least one of the hollow hoops; a source of fluid under pressure in communication with at least one of the hollow hoops; and a suction pump for withdrawing fluid from the interior of the curtain assembly.

  18. Gas laser apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Hishii, M.; Nagai, H.; Sato, Y.

    1984-12-11

    A gas laser apparatus having an anode and a cathode for imparting a glow discharge to a stream of laser gas in response to a high d.c. voltage, also includes a dielectric electrode positioned within said stream of laser gas between the anode and cathode for exciting a pulsed silent discharge of the laser gas in response to an a.c. high voltage power source that supplies a pulsed high a.c. voltage to said dielectric electrode. A pulsed large-current glow discharge is produced between the anode and cathode to thereby emit a large, pulsed laser output. The apparatus may also include controls for controlling the power of the silent discharge excited by the dielectric electrode to thereby control the laser output.

  19. Microscope collision protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    DeNure, Charles R. (Pocatello, ID)

    2001-10-23

    A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

  20. Throttle valve controlling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ejiri, Y.; Kamifuji, H.

    1986-07-22

    An apparatus is described for controlling an open degree of a throttle valve fixed to a throttle valve shaft for swing movement around an axis of the throttle valve shaft so as to control an air-fuel mixture flow to be supplied to an engine. The apparatus consists of: a motor including a rotor portion which is associated with the throttle valve shaft to swing the throttle valve; means for detecting an amount of swing movement of the throttle valve and for producing a signal corresponding to the opening degree of the throttle valve; a control unit for receiving and judging the signal from the detecting means and for outputting a command to the motor so as to swing the throttle valve in a desired opening degree; a one piece throttle valve shaft on which the throttle valve and the rotor portion of the motor are separately disposed; and wherein the rotor portion and the one piece shaft are molded together.

  1. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, D.

    1984-06-05

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  2. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, Edward L. (Lakewood, CO); von Hortenau, Erik F. (Golden, CO)

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  3. Sleep disordered breathing in spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Mellies, Uwe; Dohna-Schwake, Christian; Stehling, Florian; Voit, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing is a common but under-diagnosed complication causing sleep disturbance and daytime symptoms in children with spinal muscular atrophy. Non-invasive (positive pressure) ventilation is an established treatment of respiratory failure; its role in treatment of sleep disordered breathing though remains controversial. Aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that nocturnal non-invasive ventilation has beneficial impact on breathing during sleep, sleep quality and daytime complaints in children with spinal muscular atrophy. Twelve children with spinal muscular atrophy type I or II (7.8+/-1.9 years) underwent polysomnography and were asked to fill out a symptom questionnaire. Seven patients (six with spinal muscular atrophy I and one with spinal muscular atrophy II) had sleep disordered breathing and received non-invasive ventilation during sleep. Five less severely affected patients (one with spinal muscular atrophy I and four with spinal muscular atrophy II) had no sleep disordered breathing and served as reference group. Patients were restudied after 6-12 months. In patients with sleep disordered breathing both sleep architecture and disease related symptoms were significantly worse than in the reference-group. Non-invasive ventilation during sleep completely eliminated disordered breathing, normalized sleep architecture and improved symptoms (P<0.05 for all). In children with spinal muscular atrophy sleep disordered breathing may cause relevant impairment of sleep and well-being. Both can be highly improved by nocturnal non-invasive ventilation. PMID:15564035

  4. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  5. EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

  6. Sleep disordered breathing concomitant with fibromyalgia syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dienaro Germanowicz; MAGALI SANTOS LUMERTZ; Denis Martinez; Ane F. Margarites

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify fibromyalgia syndrome in patients with sleep disordered breathing. Method: We studied 50 patients seeking treatment at a sleep disorder clinic for snoring, apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. Sleep disordered breathing was diagnosed through the use of polysomnography. To diagnose fibromyalgia syndrome, patients were evaluated in accordance with the criteria established by the American College of Rheumatology. Results:

  7. BREATHING PATTERN DISORDERS AND FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Dr. Esformes, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Study Design: Experimental design Background: Normal breathing mechanics play a key role in posture and spinal stabilization. Breathing Pattern Disorders (BPD) have been shown to contribute to pain and motor control deficits, which can result in dysfunctional movement patterns. The Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) has been shown to accurately predict injury in individuals who demonstrate poor movement patterns. The role BPD play on functional movement is not well established. Furthermore, there is currently no single test to clinically diagnose BPD. A variety of methods are used, but correlations between them are poor. Purpose: To examine the relationship between BPD and functional movement and identify correlations between different measures of BPD. Methods: Breathing was assessed in 34 healthy individuals using a multi?dimensional approach that included biomechanical, biochemical, breathing related symptoms, and breathing functionality measures. Movement was assessed using the FMS™. Analysis, involving independent t?tests and Pearson correlation were performed to identify associations between measures. Results: Individuals who exhibited biochemical and biomechanical signs of BPD were significantly more likely to score poorly on the FMS™. These studied measures of BPD correlated highly with each other. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the importance of diaphragmatic breathing on functional movement. Inefficient breathing could result in muscular imbalance, motor control alterations, and physiological adaptations that are capable of modifying movement. These findings provide evidence for improved breathing evaluations by clinicians. Level of Evidence: 2B PMID:24567853

  8. Breathing Signal Fusion in Pressure Sensor Arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Holtzman; A. Arcelus; R. Goubran; F. Knoefel

    2008-01-01

    Pressure sensors can be used to unobtrusively obtain breathing signals from a person in bed. Obtaining a single representation of the breathing signal from an array of such sensors requires data-level fusion. We propose a decision directed adaptive linear estimator to perform this fusion online. The proposed method was compared with three other online fusion methods and two offline methods

  9. Non-invasive human breath sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Roopa; K. Rajanna; M. M. Nayak

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the design and development of a novel low-cost, non-invasive type sensor suitable for human breath sensing is reported. It can be used to detect respiratory disorders like bronchial asthma by analyzing the recorded breathing pattern. Though there are devices like spirometer to diagnose asthma, they are very inconvenient for patient's use because patients are made to exhale

  10. Breathing Feedback System with Wearable Textile Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edmond Mitchell; Shirley Coyle; N. E. O'Connor; D. Diamond; T. Ward

    2010-01-01

    Breathing exercises form an essential part of the treatment for respiratory illnesses such as cystic fibrosis. Ideally these exercises should be performed on a daily basis. This paper presents an interactive system using a wearable textile sensor to monitor breathing patterns. A graphical user interface provides visual real-time feedback to patients. The aim of the system is to encourage the

  11. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

    1987-12-22

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

  12. Submergible pumping apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Bookout; J. W. Jacobs; B. A. Pearson

    1985-01-01

    Submergible pumping apparatus for use in an oil or other well comprises, in a self-contained downhole unit, a double-acting reciprocating positive displacement pump for pumping well fluid, a reservoir containing power fluid for operating the double-acting pump, a rotary motor-driven positive displacement pump for supplying power fluid under pressure from the reservoir to operate the reciprocating pump, and a control

  13. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); Galvin, James (2 Commodore #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

    1987-01-01

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam.

  14. Hollow cathode apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hollow cathode apparatus is described, which can be rapidly and reliably started. An ignitor positioned upstream from the hollow cathode, generates a puff of plasma that flows with the primary gas to be ionized through the cathode. The plasma puff creates a high voltage breakdown between the downstream end of the cathode and a keeper electrode, to heat the cathode to an electron-emitting temperature.

  15. Pruning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Dellinger, R.D.

    1997-12-09

    The present invention is an automated pruning apparatus that requires little or no follow-up hand pruning and requires no sensors to avoid supportive trunks or posts. The present invention uses at least one pair of flat, close angled toothed, counter rotating blades. Woody branches are directed to the counter rotating blades first with a lifting arm and secondly by a quilled drum. 16 figs.

  16. Method and apparatus for non-invasive evaluation of diaphragmatic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (inventor); Wait, Juliette L. (inventor); Nahormek, Patricia A. (inventor); Cantrell, John H. (inventor); Hanna-Hawver, Pamela D. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method for non-invasive evaluation of diaphragmatic function in humans measures the thickness of the diaphragm in real time with an ultrasonic device, and displays the variations of diaphragm thickness versus time. Formulae are given for calculating a quantitative value for the reserve fatigue capacity of a patient's diaphragm from data obtained by measuring the time limits for maintaining a constant breathing pattern on the display at two different pressure differentials in series with the patient's airways. An apparatus for displaying the diaphragm thickness in real time is also described. The method can be used both on healthy patients and on patients with so severe breathing dysfunctions that they require breathing support from respirators.

  17. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.912 Underwater blasting. (a) A blaster shall conduct all blasting operations, and no shot shall be fired without his approval. (b) Loading tubes and...

  18. Contributions to automated realtime underwater navigation

    E-print Network

    Stanway, Michael Jordan

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents three separate-but related-contributions to the art of underwater navigation. These methods may be used in postprocessing with a human in the loop, but the overarching goal is to enhance vehicle ...

  19. XAUV : modular high maneuverability autonomous underwater vehicle

    E-print Network

    Walker, Daniel G. (Daniel George)

    2009-01-01

    The design and construction of a modular test bed autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is analyzed. Although a relatively common stacked-hull design is used, the state of the art is advanced through an aggressive power ...

  20. Robust planning for unmanned underwater vehicles

    E-print Network

    Frost, Emily Anne

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, I design and implement a novel method of schedule and path selection between predetermined waypoints for unmanned underwater vehicles under uncertainty. The problem is first formulated as a mixed-integer ...

  1. MECHANICS AND NONLINEAR CONTROL: MAKING UNDERWATER VEHICLES

    E-print Network

    Leonard, Naomi

    MECHANICS AND NONLINEAR CONTROL: MAKING UNDERWATER VEHICLES RIDE AND GLIDE Naomi Ehrich Leonard \\Lambda \\Lambda Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 naomi@princeton.edu Abstract: Methods from geometric mechanics and dynamical systems theory make

  2. Discriminating between Nasal and Mouth Breathing

    E-print Network

    Curran, Kevin; Coyle, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing. Our findings show that the breath pattern can be discriminated in certain places of the body both by visual spectrum analysis and with a Back Propagation neural network classifier. The sound file recoded from the sensor placed on the hollow in the neck shows the most promising accuracy which is as high as 90%.

  3. Stabilization and coordination of underwater gliders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradeep Bhatta; Naomi Ehrich Leonard

    2002-01-01

    An underwater glider is a buoyancy-driven, fixed-wing underwater vehicle that redistributes internal mass to control attitude. We examine the dynamics of a glider restricted to the vertical plane and derive a feedback law that stabilizes steady glide paths. The control law is physically motivated and with the appropriate choice of output can be interpreted as providing input-output feedback linearization. With

  4. Tsunami Features of Solid Block Underwater Landslides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Watts

    2000-01-01

    Near-field and far-field wave features generated by solid block underwater landslides are described qualitatively and quantitatively. The characteristic time of landslide motion and maximum near-field wave am- plitude suffice to scale many of these water wave features. Criteria are provided to determine if water waves generated by underwater landslides propagate as deepwater or shallow water waves. Estimates of the dominant

  5. Detecting elliptical structures in underwater images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gian L. Foresti

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of detecting particular underwater structures, e.g., anodes used to join together separated sections of a pipeline, from visual images is addressed. Images are acquired by an autonomous underwater vehicle during sea-bottom surveys for pipeline inspection. Anodes with different characteristics, e.g., material, size, color, etc., can be found on the same pipeline but all are characterized

  6. Investigation of underwater welding of steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Shannon; J. Watson; W. F. Deans

    1994-01-01

    The preliminary underwater welding study described forms part of a European funded research program (EUREKA EU194) which involves a feasibility study into laser welding applications in the offshore oil industry. An investigation was undertaken using a 1.2 KW carbon dioxide laser for underwater butt welding of BS 4360 43A and 50D steel, in order to assess the quality of the

  7. The Nautilus-Sub Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Eaton; Maurice Bobbitt; Melissa Reid; Garret Jarvis; Scott Frame; John Dowling; Mark Bloechl; Melody Mentzer; Rachid Manseur

    The Nautilus-Sub (NautaSub) Autonomous Underwater Vehicle is designed and developed by a group of undergraduate engineering students at the University of West Florida for the 5th International Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Competition organized and sponsored by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Office of Naval Research (ONR). The autonomous submarine has the ability to navigate in three

  8. Underwater probing with laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, A. I.; Sizgoric, S.

    1975-01-01

    Recent advances in laser and electro optics technology have greatly enhanced the feasibility of active optical probing techniques aimed at the remote sensing of water parameters. This paper describes a LIDAR (laser radar) that has been designed and constructed for underwater probing. The influence of the optical properties of water on the general design parameters of a LIDAR system is considered. Discussion of the specific details in the choice of the constructed LIDAR is given. This system utilizes a cavity dumped argon ion laser transmitter capable of 50 watt peak powers, 10 nanosecond pulses and megahertz pulse repetition rates at 10 different wavelengths in the blue green region of the spectrum. The performance of the system, in proving various types of water, is demonstrated by summarizing the results of initial laboratory and field experiments.

  9. Laser remote sensing of underwater objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtanowski, J.; Mierczyk, Z.; Zygmunt, M.

    2008-10-01

    Theoretical and practical aspects of laser application in the field of underwater remote sensing have been presented. A multi-level analysis and computational results dealing with 0.532 ?m laser wavelength were performed to determine the expected capabilities of underwater laser penetration with regard to the Lidar system developed in Optoelectronics Institute of Military University of Technology in Warsaw. Since the device is to perform underwater measurements from above the water level, the influence of the water-atmosphere interface had to be included in the analysis. Sea water characteristics concerning electromagnetic radiation propagation have been widely considered covering the mechanisms of absorption, scattering and the effective attenuation typical for representative types of sea waters. Software application developed in Mathcad environment enabled to model the impact of both absorption and scattering coefficients of different types of sea water on geometrical and energetic parameters of laser beam propagating in the underwater environment. The impact of reflectance properties of the remotely sensed underwater object on the reflected signal level has been investigated as well. Analytical approach covered both "echo" signal reflected from an underwater object and background noise signal level generated mainly by the sunlight and diffuse atmospheric illumination.

  10. Development of Underwater Laser Cladding and Underwater Laser Seal Welding Techniques for Reactor Components (II)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masataka Tamura; Shohei Kawano; Wataru Kouno; Yasushi Kanazawa

    2006-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is one of the major reasons to reduce the reliability of aged reactor components. Toshiba has been developing underwater laser welding onto surface of the aged components as maintenance and repair techniques. Because most of the reactor internal components to apply this underwater laser welding technique have 3-dimensional shape, effect of welding positions and welded shapes

  11. Breathing synchronization in interconnected networks

    PubMed Central

    Louzada, V. H. P.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Global synchronization in a complex network of oscillators emerges from the interplay between its topology and the dynamics of the pairwise interactions among its numerous components. When oscillators are spatially separated, however, a time delay appears in the interaction which might obstruct synchronization. Here we study the synchronization properties of interconnected networks of oscillators with a time delay between networks and analyze the dynamics as a function of the couplings and communication lag. We discover a new breathing synchronization regime, where two groups appear in each network synchronized at different frequencies. Each group has a counterpart in the opposite network, one group is in phase and the other in anti-phase with their counterpart. For strong couplings, instead, networks are internally synchronized but a phase shift between them might occur. The implications of our findings on several socio-technical and biological systems are discussed. PMID:24256765

  12. Immediate effects of breath holding maneuvers onto composition of exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Sukul, Pritam; Trefz, Phillip; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2014-09-01

    Rapid concentration changes due to physiological or pathophysiological effects rather than appearance of unique disease biomarkers are important for clinical application of breath research. Simple maneuvers such as breath holding may significantly affect breath biomarker concentrations. In this study, exhaled volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were assessed in real time before and after different breath holding maneuvers. Continuous breath-resolved measurements (PTR-ToF-MS-8000) were performed in 31 healthy human subjects in a side-stream sampling mode. After 1 min of tidal breathing participants held their breath for 10, 20, 40, 60 s and as long as possible. Afterwards they continued to breathe normally for another minute. VOC profiles could be monitored in real time by assigning online PTR-ToF-MS data to alveolar or inspired phases of breath. Sudden and profound changes of exhaled VOC concentrations were recorded after different breath holding maneuvers. VOC concentrations returned to base line levels 10-20 s after breath holding. Breath holding induced concentration changes depended on physico-chemical properties of the substances. When substance concentrations were normalized onto end-tidal CO2 content, variation of acetone concentrations decreased, whereas variations of isoprene concentrations were not affected. As the effects of breathing patterns on exhaled substance concentrations depend on individual substance properties, sampling procedures have to be validated for each compound by means of appropriate real-time analysis. Normalization of exhaled concentrations onto exhaled CO2 is only valid for substances having similar physico-chemical properties as CO2. PMID:25189647

  13. 50 CFR 32.72 - Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...latro ) on the refuge. 5. We prohibit use of Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) to take fish or invertebrates. 6. We prohibit anchoring boats on the refuge. 7. We prohibit sailboards or motorized personal watercraft on...

  14. 50 CFR 32.72 - Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...latro ) on the refuge. 5. We prohibit use of Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) to take fish or invertebrates. 6. We prohibit anchoring boats on the refuge. 7. We prohibit sailboards or motorized personal watercraft on...

  15. 50 CFR 32.72 - Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...latro ) on the refuge. 5. We prohibit use of Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) to take fish or invertebrates. 6. We prohibit anchoring boats on the refuge. 7. We prohibit sailboards or motorized personal watercraft on...

  16. 50 CFR 32.72 - Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...latro ) on the refuge. 5. We prohibit use of Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) to take fish or invertebrates. 6. We prohibit anchoring boats on the refuge. 7. We prohibit sailboards or motorized personal watercraft on...

  17. 50 CFR 32.72 - Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...latro ) on the refuge. 5. We prohibit use of Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) to take fish or invertebrates. 6. We prohibit anchoring boats on the refuge. 7. We prohibit sailboards or motorized personal watercraft on...

  18. Optoelectronic Apparatus Measures Glucose Noninvasively

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Rovati, Luigi L.

    2003-01-01

    An optoelectronic apparatus has been invented as a noninvasive means of measuring the concentration of glucose in the human body. The apparatus performs polarimetric and interferometric measurements of the human eye to acquire data from which the concentration of glucose in the aqueous humor can be computed. Because of the importance of the concentration of glucose in human health, there could be a large potential market for instruments based on this apparatus.

  19. Complete liquefaction methods and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2013-10-15

    A method and apparatus are described to provide complete gas utilization in the liquefaction operation from a source of gas without return of natural gas to the source thereof from the process and apparatus. The mass flow rate of gas input into the system and apparatus may be substantially equal to the mass flow rate of liquefied product output from the system, such as for storage or use.

  20. Affective brain areas and sleep disordered breathing

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Ogren, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The neural damage accompanying the hypoxia, reduced perfusion, and other consequences of sleep-disordered breathing found in obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure (HF), and congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), appears in areas that serve multiple functions, including emotional drives to breathe, and involve systems that serve affective, cardiovascular, and breathing roles. The damage, assessed with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures, shows tissue loss or water content and diffusion changes indicative of injury, and impaired axonal integrity between structures; damage is preferentially unilateral. Functional MRI responses in affected areas also are time- or amplitude- distorted to ventilatory or autonomic challenges. Among the structures injured are the insular, cingulate, and ventral medial prefrontal cortices, as well as cerebellar deep nuclei and cortex, anterior hypothalamus, raphé, ventrolateral medulla, basal ganglia and, in CCHS, the locus coeruleus. Raphé and locus coeruleus injury may modify serotonergic and adrenergic modulation of upper airway and arousal characteristics. Since both axons and gray matter show injury, the consequences to function, especially to autonomic, cognitive, and mood regulation, are major. Several affected rostral sites, including the insular and cingulate cortices and hippocampus, mediate aspects of dyspnea, especially in CCHS, while others, including the anterior cingulate and thalamus, participate in initiation of inspiration after central breathing pauses, and the medullary injury can impair baroreflex and breathing control. The ancillary injury associated with sleep-disordered breathing to central structures can elicit multiple other distortions in cardiovascular, cognitive, and emotional functions in addition to effects on breathing regulation. PMID:24746053

  1. Sleep and breathing in neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Bourke, S C; Gibson, G J

    2002-06-01

    Respiratory muscle weakness in neuromuscular disease causes significant morbidity and mortality. The published data on respiratory muscle activity and breathing during sleep in normal subjects, the impact of respiratory muscle weakness on sleep and breathing and the relations to daytime respiratory function in neuromuscular disease are reviewed here. In normal subjects during sleep upper airway resistance increases, chemosensitivity is reduced and the wakefulness drive to breathe is lost, resulting in a fall in ventilation. During rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, ribcage and accessory breathing muscles are suppressed, particularly during bursts of eye movements, and breathing is more irregular, rapid and shallow, with a further fall in ventilation. In subjects with respiratory muscle weakness sleep is fragmented, with shorter total sleep time, frequent arousals, an increase in stage 1 sleep and a reduction in, or complete suppression of, REM sleep. Sleep-disordered breathing and nocturnal desaturation are common and most severe during REM sleep. Correlations between daytime respiratory function and nocturnal desaturation are moderate or weak, but daytime respiratory function has greater prognostic value than nocturnal measurements. Noninvasive ventilation improves sleep quality and breathing in subjects with respiratory muscle weakness. However, the optimal criteria for initiation of ventilation and its role in rapidly progressive neuromuscular diseases are unclear. PMID:12108875

  2. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Arlotto, Philippe; Grimaldi, Michel; Naeck, Roomila; Ginoux, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569). PMID:25140632

  3. An ultrasonic contactless sensor for breathing monitoring.

    PubMed

    Arlotto, Philippe; Grimaldi, Michel; Naeck, Roomila; Ginoux, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569). PMID:25140632

  4. Pellet inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wilks, Robert S. (Plum Borough, PA); Taleff, Alexander (Churchill Borough, PA); Sturges, Jr., Robert H. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers each associated with a successive pair of the stations are reciprocable together to pick up a pellet at the upstream station of each pair and to deposit the pellet at the corresponding downstream station. The gripper jaws are opened selectively depending on the state of the pellets at the stations and the particular cycle in which the apparatus is operating. Inspection for diameter, flaws and length is effected in each case by a laser beam projected on the pellets by a precise optical system while each pellet is rotated by rollers. Each laser and its optical system are mounted in a container which is free standing on a precise surface and is provided with locating buttons which engage locating holes in the surface so that each laser and its optical system is precisely set. The roller stands are likewise free standing and are similarly precisely positioned. The diameter optical system projects a thin beam of light which scans across the top of each pellet and is projected on a diode array. The fl GOVERNMENT CONTRACT CLAUSE The invention herein described was made in the course of or under a contract or subcontract thereunder with the Department of Energy bearing No. EY-67-14-C-2170.

  5. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  6. Apparatus for chemical synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herring, J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-05-10

    A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

  7. Perforation apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Brieger, E.F.

    1988-07-12

    A perforating apparatus is described for perforating earth formations traversed by a casing which is cemented in a well bore comprising: (a) an elongated tubular housing having a closed interior bore which is open at one end and adapted for coupling and for fluid communication with a string of tubing when disposed in a casing adjacent to earth formations, (b) a set of first and second shaped charge perforating devices disposed in the closed interior bore and aligned relative to one another so as to produce, when detonated, first and second perforation openings in the tubular housing.

  8. Thermal stir welding apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A welding method and apparatus are provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  9. Planar oscillatory stirring apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Martin F. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus (11) for applying planar oscillations to a container (13). Pressurized air (99) is supplied to a moveable slide plate (27) which employs arms (19) having an air bearing vent structure (29, 31) which allows the slide plate to float and to translate. The container (13) to be oscillated is secured to the upper surface of the slide plate (27). A motor (39) driven rotating eccentric shaft (59) loosely extends into a center hole bearing (37) of the slide plate (27) to cause the oscillations.

  10. Foil changing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Crist, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ives, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Leifeste, Gordon T. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Robert B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A self-contained hermetically sealed foil changer for advancing a portion of foil web into a position normal to the path of a high energy particle beam. The path of the beam is defined generally by an aperture plate and cooperating axially movable barrel such that the barrel can be advanced toward the plate thereby positioning a portion of the foil across the beam path and sealing the foil between the barrel and the plate to form a membrane across said beam path. A spooling apparatus contained in the foil changer permits selectively advancing a fresh supply of foil across the beam path without breaking the foil changer seal.

  11. Toroidal coupled telemetry apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H. C.

    1985-06-25

    A logging telemetering system comprising a toroidal coupled telemetry apparatus including a primary winding carrying bore hole data, wrapped around at least one torroid core mounted within a drill collar. The toroid core is further wrapped with at least one secondary turn which is connected to the drill collar for enhancing the efficiency of inducing a current carrying the borehole data in the drill string for transmission to the surface. One half turn of the secondary winding is provided by an insulated portion of the drill collar, and the balance of the secondary winding is composed of an electrically conductive strap wound around the toroid core.

  12. Nitrogen fixation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Hao-Lin (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

  13. Development of a low-cost underwater manipulator

    E-print Network

    Cooney, Lauren Alise

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the design, modeling, manufacture, and testing of a low cost, multiple degree-of-freedom underwater manipulator. Current underwater robotic arm technologies are often expensive or limited in functionality. ...

  14. STABILITY OF A BOTTOMHEAVY UNDERWATER VEHICLE NAOMI EHRICH LEONARD \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Leonard, Naomi

    : September 7, 1996 Abstract In this paper we study stability of underwater vehicle dynamics for a six degree­Poisson structure for the underwater vehicle dynamics with non­ coincident centers of gravity and buoyancy. Using

  15. Dynamic positioning of beacon vehicles for cooperative underwater navigation

    E-print Network

    Bahr, Alexander

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are used for an ever increasing range of applications due to the maturing of the technology. Due to the absence of the GPS signal underwater, the correct estimation of its position is ...

  16. Active planning for underwater inspection and the benefit of adaptivity

    E-print Network

    Hollinger, Geoffrey A.

    We discuss the problem of inspecting an underwater structure, such as a submerged ship hull, with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Unlike a large body of prior work, we focus on planning the views of the AUV to ...

  17. Uncertainty-driven view planning for underwater inspection

    E-print Network

    Hollinger, Geoffrey A.

    We discuss the problem of inspecting an underwater structure, such as a submerged ship hull, with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). In such scenarios, the goal is to construct an accurate 3D model of the structure ...

  18. Spatiotemporal processing and time-reversal for underwater acoustic communications

    E-print Network

    Wang, Daniel Y

    2005-01-01

    High-rate underwater acoustic communication can be achieved using transmitter/receiver arrays. Underwater acoustic channels can be characterized as rapidly time-varying systems that suffer severe Inter Symbol Interferences ...

  19. Advanced Concepts for Underwater Acoustic Channel Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etter, P. C.; Haas, C. H.; Ramani, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines nearshore underwater-acoustic channel modeling concepts and compares channel-state information requirements against existing modeling capabilities. This process defines a subset of candidate acoustic models suitable for simulating signal propagation in underwater communications. Underwater-acoustic communications find many practical applications in coastal oceanography, and networking is the enabling technology for these applications. Such networks can be formed by establishing two-way acoustic links between autonomous underwater vehicles and moored oceanographic sensors. These networks can be connected to a surface unit for further data transfer to ships, satellites, or shore stations via a radio-frequency link. This configuration establishes an interactive environment in which researchers can extract real-time data from multiple, but distant, underwater instruments. After evaluating the obtained data, control messages can be sent back to individual instruments to adapt the networks to changing situations. Underwater networks can also be used to increase the operating ranges of autonomous underwater vehicles by hopping the control and data messages through networks that cover large areas. A model of the ocean medium between acoustic sources and receivers is called a channel model. In an oceanic channel, characteristics of the acoustic signals change as they travel from transmitters to receivers. These characteristics depend upon the acoustic frequency, the distances between sources and receivers, the paths followed by the signals, and the prevailing ocean environment in the vicinity of the paths. Properties of the received signals can be derived from those of the transmitted signals using these channel models. This study concludes that ray-theory models are best suited to the simulation of acoustic signal propagation in oceanic channels and identifies 33 such models that are eligible candidates.

  20. Breathing pattern and cost of ventilation in the american alligator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Wang; Stephen J. Warburton

    1995-01-01

    The energetic cost of pulmonary ventilation is termed the “cost of breathing” and is commonly determined from the change in oxygen uptake with altered ventilation. Previous analyses of lung mechanics predicts increased tidal volume would be more expensive than increased breathing frequency. Existing studies on the oxidative cost of breathing have, however, not addressed breathing pattern. We stimulated ventilation in

  1. Nanotube-based sensor arrays for clinical breath analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gelperin; A. T. C. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Instrumentation for clinical breath analysis is being developed using a variety of sensor technologies and information processing strategies. One type of instrumentation for clinical breath analysis uses an array of sensors for detection of volatile analytes in breath and pattern recognition and categorization algorithms able to learn and store information about the constant and variable components of human breath samples.

  2. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Klem, Jr., Michael J. (Richland, WA); Cash, Robert J. (Richland, WA)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  3. Downhole pressure attenuation apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ricles, T.D.; Barton, J.A.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes a process for preventing damage to tool strings and other downhole equipment in a well caused by pressures produced during detonation of one or more downhole explosive devices. It comprises adding to a tool string at least one pressure attenuating apparatus for attenuating the peak pressure wave and quasi-static pressure pulse produced by the explosive devices, the pressure attenuating apparatus including an initially closed relief vent including tubing means supporting a plurality of charge port assemblies each including an explosive filled shaped charge and a prestressed disc, the shaped charges interconnected by a detonating cord, the amount of explosive in each shaped charge being sufficient to rupture its associated disc without damaging surrounding tubular bodies in the well, and a vent chamber defined by the tubing means and providing a liquid free volume, and opening the relief vent substantially contemporaneously with downhole explosive device detonation by detonating the shaped charges to rupture the discs of the charge port assemblies.

  4. Percussive arc welding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hollar, Jr., Donald L. (Overland Park, KS)

    2002-01-01

    A percussive arc welding apparatus includes a generally cylindrical actuator body having front and rear end portions and defining an internal recess. The front end of the body includes an opening. A solenoid assembly is provided in the rear end portion in the internal recess of the body, and an actuator shaft assembly is provided in the front end portion in the internal recess of the actuator body. The actuator shaft assembly includes a generally cylindrical actuator block having first and second end portions, and an actuator shaft having a front end extending through the opening in the actuator body, and the rear end connected to the first end portion of the actuator block. The second end portion of the actuator block is in operational engagement with the solenoid shaft by a non-rigid connection to reduce the adverse rebound effects of the actuator shaft. A generally transversely extending pin is rigidly secured to the rear end of the shaft. One end of the pin is received in a slot in the nose housing sleeve to prevent rotation of the actuator shaft during operation of the apparatus.

  5. Hydraulic well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.P.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a hydraulic powered well pumping apparatus for operation of a sucker rod well pump in a well borehole, the apparatus comprising: (a) an elongate polished rod having upper and lower ends, the rod being aligned above and adapted to connect to a string of sucker rods in a well borehole therebelow; (b) an adjustably positioned sleeve means aligned above and enclosing a portion of the polished rod and having a shorter length than the polished rod to enable the polished rod to extend above the sleeve means and below the sleeve means for connection to the string of sucker rods in the well borehole; (c) an axially hollow upstanding cylinder slideably receiving the sleeve means therethrough and enclosing a piston therein, the piston being: (1) moved on admitting hydraulic oil to the cylinder, and (2) joined to the sleeve means for moving the sleeve means and thereby moving the polished rod; (d) means for mounting the upstanding cylinder directly aligned with and above a casing at the top of a well adapted to have a sucker rod string positioned therein; (e) means for adjusting the stroke length imparted to the sucker rod string between minimum and maximum stroke lengths; and (f) means for adjusting the location of the sleeve means relative to the polished rod to vary the relative length of polished rod below the sleeve means and wherein a portion of the polished rod extends above the sleeve means dependent on the relative respective portions thereof.

  6. Oil spill recovery apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, R.A.

    1989-06-20

    This patent describes an apparatus for removing oleaginous substances such as an crude oil or refined petroleum products from entrapment in coarse bottom sediments such as submerged sand beds covered by bodies of water or forming the bottom of a holding pond. The apparatus consists of tractor means for traversing the sand bed in a pattern which will substantially cover the area in which the substances are entrapped, the tractor means including a movable boom for supporting pump means for withdrawing water from the body of water; motor driven pump means supported by the boom spaced from the tractor means for intake of water from the body of water; means mounted on the tractor means for mechanically plowing the sand bed to a depth sufficient to overturn the sand bed which has been saturated with the substances; and hydraulic jet nozzle means in communication with the pump means for discharging a high velocity flow stream of water adjacent to the means for plowing to agitate the overturned to free the substances from the grains of sediment for flotation of the substances to the surface of the body of water.

  7. Surfacers change their dive tactics depending on the aim of the dive: evidence from simultaneous measurements of breaths and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Junichi; Tabata, Runa; Nakajima, Kana; Arai, Nobuaki; Kobayashi, Masato; Kagawa, Shiro

    2014-11-22

    Air-breathing divers are assumed to have evolved to apportion their time between surface and underwater periods to maximize the benefit gained from diving activities. However, whether they change their time allocation depending on the aim of the dive is still unknown. This may be particularly crucial for 'surfacers' because they dive for various purposes in addition to foraging. In this study, we counted breath events at the surface and estimated oxygen consumption during resting, foraging and other dives in 11 green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the wild. Breath events were counted by a head-mounted acceleration logger or direct observation based on an animal-borne video logger, and oxygen consumption was estimated by measuring overall dynamic body acceleration. Our results indicate that green turtles maximized their submerged time, following this with five to seven breaths to replenish oxygen for resting dives. However, they changed their dive tactic during foraging and other dives; they surfaced without depleting their estimated stores of oxygen, followed by only a few breaths for effective foraging and locomotion. These dichotomous surfacing tactics would be the result of behavioural modifications by turtles depending on the aim of each dive. PMID:25297856

  8. Modeling the underwater acoustic channel in ns2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert F. Harris III; Michele Zorzi

    2007-01-01

    Underwater acoustic networks have the potential to support a large variety of applications, such as mining equipment and environmental monitoring. Although underwater acoustics has been studied for decades, underwater networking and protocol design is just beginning as a research field. One critical tool used for the design and testing of new protocols is a network simulator. For simulators to be

  9. Batoid Fishes: Inspiration for the Next Generation of Underwater Robots

    E-print Network

    Fish, Frank

    batoid fishes an ideal platform to emulate in the design of a bio-inspired autonomous underwater vehicle in the next generation of bio-inspired underwater vehicles. Keywords: biomimicry, bioinspired, autonomous into biological form and function and (2) develop bioinspired autonomous underwater vehicles (BAUVs) to im- prove

  10. The analysis of fish body for Automatic Underwater Vehicle movement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huanyin Zhou; Jinsheng Liu; Gangyong Lin; Xiong Wei

    2009-01-01

    Automatic underwater vehicles (AUV) admires fish skilled movement in underwater because fish has a fin-based propulsion system and perfect nervous system which can perform well for both high-speed cruising and ingenious responses. The motions of AUV are perplexed to engineers for AUV can not compare to fish in underwater environments. This paper analyzes fish body such as fins, muscles and

  11. Nonmetric Camera Calibration for Underwater Laser Scanning System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Chau-Chang; Cheng Min-Shine

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an underwater camera system with a laser line source to measure seafloor features at millimeter scales. The quality of underwater photography is limited by the visibility of the water column. In real underwater environments, there are always suspended particles in the water column and light is scattered by these particles. As a result, photographic

  12. Reevaluation of RF electromagnetic communication in underwater sensor networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianhui Che; Ian Wells; Gordon Dickers; Paul Kear; Xiaochun Gong

    2010-01-01

    Most underwater wireless networks use acoustic waves as the transmission medium nowadays, but the chances of getting much more out of acoustic modems are quite remote. Optical links are impractical for many underwater applications. Given modern operational requirements and digital communications technology, the time is now ripe for re-evaluating the role of electromagnetic signals in underwater environments. The research presented

  13. Overview of channel models for underwater wireless communication networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mari Carmen Domingo

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic communication in Underwater Wireless Communication Networks (UWCNs) has several challenges due to the presence of fading, multipath and refractive properties of the sound channel which necessitate the development of precise underwater channel models. Some existing channel models are simplified and do not consider multipath or multipath fading. In this paper, a detailed survey on ray-theory-based multipath Rayleigh underwater channel

  14. "Busy Terminal Problem" and Implications in Underwater Acoustic Networks

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Shengli

    . Definition 1. In underwater acoustic networks, a node cannot interrupt the current packet reception"Busy Terminal Problem" and Implications in Underwater Acoustic Networks Yibo Zhu, Zhong Zhou, jcui}@engr.uconn.edu 1. INTRODUCTION Underwater acoustic networks have become a very active research

  15. Study on underwater wet arc welding training with haptic device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yizhong Wang; Yonghua Chen; Wenjie Zhang; Dingcheng Liu; Huafang Huang

    2009-01-01

    Underwater wet arc welding is hard and sometime involves risks to welder divers. To help welder divers gain their underwater wet arc welding skills, a new underwater wet arc welding training method is proposed in this paper based on haptic device. In this method, self-consuming technique is focused on, and fillet welding in different positions is mainly discussed. The haptic

  16. Efficient Data Delivery with Packet Cloning for Underwater Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Sun; W. K. G. Seah; P. W. Q. Lee

    2007-01-01

    Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) promises new opportunities for exploration of the oceans which cover more than 70% of the earth's surface. Researchers envision the deployment of dense networks of untethered sensors underwater for data acquisition to better understand the underwater environment, while military and security forces see the great potential of using this technology for mine reconnaissance, intrusion detection and

  17. An Underwater Augmented Reality system for commercial diving operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Morales; P. Keitler; P. Maier; G. Klinker

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a novel prototypical underwater augmented reality (UWAR) system that provides visual aids to increase commercial divers' capability to detect, perceive, and understand elements in underwater environments. During underwater operations, a great amount of stress is imposed on divers by environmental and working conditions such as pressure, visibility, weightlessness, current, etc. Those factors cause a

  18. A Survey of Practical Issues in Underwater Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Kurosea; Brian Neil Levine

    2007-01-01

    Underwater sensor networks are attracting increasing interest from researchers in terres- trial radio-based sensor networks. There are important physical, technological, and eco- nomic differences between terrestrial and underwater sensor networks. In this survey, we highlight a number of important practical issues that have not been emphasized in recent surveys of underwater networks, with an intended audience of researchers who are

  19. Underwater Localization in Sparse 3D Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Cheng; Amin Y. Teymorian; Liran Ma; Xiuzhen Cheng; Xicheng Lu; Zexin Lu

    2008-01-01

    We study the localization problem in sparse 3D underwater sensor networks. Considering the fact that depth information is typically available for underwater sensors, we transform the 3D underwater positioning problem into its two- dimensional counterpart via a projection technique and prove that a non-degenerative projection preserves network localiz- ability. We further prove that given a network and a constant k,

  20. AUV Control and Communication using Underwater Acoustic Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. B. Marques; J. Pinto; S. Kragelund; P. S. Dias; L. Madureira; A. Sousa; M. Correia; H. Ferreira; R. Goncalves; R. Martins; D. P. Horner; A. J. Healey; G. M. Goncalves; J. B. Sousa

    2007-01-01

    Underwater acoustic networks can be quite effective to establish communication links between autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and other vehicles or control units, enabling complex vehicle applications and control scenarios. A communications and control framework to support the use of underwater acoustic networks and sample application scenarios are described for single and multi-AUV operation.

  1. Olfaction: Underwater 'sniffing' by semi-aquatic mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth C. Catania

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial species that forage underwater face challenges because their body parts and senses are adapted for land - for example, it is widely held that mammals cannot use olfaction underwater because it is impossible for them to inspire air (sniff) to convey odorants to the olfactory epithelium. Here I describe a mechanism for underwater sniffing used by the semi-aquatic star-nosed

  2. Breath-holding spells in infants

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Question I have children in my clinic who experience seizurelike episodes in which they cry and hold their breath to the point of cyanosis and loss of consciousness. Their examination or investigation findings are normal and referral to a pediatric specialist results in no further investigation. Are breath-holding spells common, and what type of investigation is needed? Answer A breath-holding spell is a benign paroxysmal nonepileptic disorder occurring in healthy children 6 to 48 months of age. The episodes start with a provocation such as emotional upset or minor injury, and might progress to breath holding, cyanosis, and syncope. The episodes are extremely frightening to watch but have benign consequences. Once a clinical diagnosis is made, it is recommended to conduct an electrocardiogram and to rule out anemia, but no further investigation or referral is warranted. PMID:25676645

  3. Just Breathe Green: Measuring Transpiration Rates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Through multi-trial experiments, students are able to see and measure something that is otherwise invisible to them—seeing plants breathe. Student groups are given two small plants of native species and materials to enclose them after watering with colored water. After being enclosed for 5, 10 and 15 minutes, teams collect and measure the condensed water from the plants' "breathing," and then calculate the rates at which the plants breathe. A plant's breath is known as transpiration, which is the flow of water from the ground where it is taken up by roots (plant uptake) and then lost through the leaves. Students plot volume/time data for three different native plant species, determine and compare their transpiration rates to see which had the highest reaction rate and consider how a plant's unique characteristics (leaf surface area, transpiration rate) might figure into engineers' designs for neighborhood stormwater management plans.

  4. Ring Wing for an underwater missile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    August, Henry; Carapezza, Edward

    Hughes Aircraft has performed exploratory wind tunnel studies of compressed carriage missile designs having extendable Ring Wing and wrap-around tail control surfaces. These force and moment data indicate that significant improvements in a missile's lift and aerodynamic efficiency can be realized. Low speed test results of these data were used to estimate potential underwater improved hydrodynamic characteristics that a Ring Wing and wrap-around tails can bring to an advanced torpedo design. Estimates of improved underwater flight performance of a heavyweight torpedo (4000 lbs.) having an extendable Ring Wing and wrap-around tails were made. The compressed volume design of this underwater missile is consistent with tube-launch constraints and techniques. Study results of this novel Ring Wing torpedo design include extended flight performance in range and endurance due to lowered speeds capable of sustaining underwater level flight. Correspondingly, reduced radiated noise for enhanced stealth qualities is projected. At high speeds, greater maneuverability and aimpoint selection can be realized by a Ring Wing underwater missile.

  5. Omnidirectional Underwater Camera Design and Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Josep; Gracias, Nuno; Ridao, Pere; Ribas, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an underwater omnidirectional multi-camera system (OMS) based on a commercially available six-camera system, originally designed for land applications. A full calibration method is presented for the estimation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, which is able to cope with wide-angle lenses and non-overlapping cameras simultaneously. This method is valid for any OMS in both land or water applications. For underwater use, a customized housing is required, which often leads to strong image distortion due to refraction among the different media. This phenomena makes the basic pinhole camera model invalid for underwater cameras, especially when using wide-angle lenses, and requires the explicit modeling of the individual optical rays. To address this problem, a ray tracing approach has been adopted to create a field-of-view (FOV) simulator for underwater cameras. The simulator allows for the testing of different housing geometries and optics for the cameras to ensure a complete hemisphere coverage in underwater operation. This paper describes the design and testing of a compact custom housing for a commercial off-the-shelf OMS camera (Ladybug 3) and presents the first results of its use. A proposed three-stage calibration process allows for the estimation of all of the relevant camera parameters. Experimental results are presented, which illustrate the performance of the calibration method and validate the approach. PMID:25774707

  6. Omnidirectional underwater camera design and calibration.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Josep; Gracias, Nuno; Ridao, Pere; Ribas, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an underwater omnidirectional multi-camera system (OMS) based on a commercially available six-camera system, originally designed for land applications. A full calibration method is presented for the estimation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, which is able to cope with wide-angle lenses and non-overlapping cameras simultaneously. This method is valid for any OMS in both land or water applications. For underwater use, a customized housing is required, which often leads to strong image distortion due to refraction among the different media. This phenomena makes the basic pinhole camera model invalid for underwater cameras, especially when using wide-angle lenses, and requires the explicit modeling of the individual optical rays. To address this problem, a ray tracing approach has been adopted to create a field-of-view (FOV) simulator for underwater cameras. The simulator allows for the testing of different housing geometries and optics for the cameras to ensure a complete hemisphere coverage in underwater operation. This paper describes the design and testing of a compact custom housing for a commercial off-the-shelf OMS camera (Ladybug 3) and presents the first results of its use. A proposed three-stage calibration process allows for the estimation of all of the relevant camera parameters. Experimental results are presented, which illustrate the performance of the calibration method and validate the approach. PMID:25774707

  7. An Inexpensive, Foolproof Apparatus for Flash Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Wayne J.; Hanson, Bryan A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a new, modified "flash chromatography" apparatus which overcomes difficulties found in conventional apparatus. For example, an expensive teflon pressure valve is not necessary in the modified version. The apparatus is suitable as an instructional tool in undergraduate courses. (JN)

  8. Well perforating apparatus and method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for perforating a well casing and surrounding formation are disclosed. The perforating apparatus includes a laser source for projecting a high intensity laser beam transversely through the well bore and surrounding formation and a nozzle assembly for injecting exothermically reactive gas along the path of the laser beam. The gas stream shields the output lens of

  9. An elutriation apparatus for macroinvertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worswick, Joseph M., Jr.; Barbour, Michael T.

    1974-01-01

    An inexpensive hydropneumatic apparatus screens macroinvertebrates from bottom samples containing silt, mud, or clay. The elutriator, an acrylic cylinder with screened windows, cemented on an upright plastic funnel, retains benthic fauna while the sediment is washed away. The apparatus yields clean samples and has reduced the time required to sort benthos samples by more than 80%.

  10. Low energy ice making apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandrow

    1982-01-01

    A low energy ice making apparatus employing a low volume Carnot cycle refrigeration system is disclosed. Ice is progressively formed on a plurality of improved evaporator plates and harvested by a secondary condenser grid heated by the warm liquid refrigerant discharged by a primary water cooled condenser. The apparatus incorporates an improved water manifold and secondary condenser grid construction.

  11. Tank gauging apparatus and method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian G. Morris

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus for gauging the amount of liquid in a container of liquid and gas under flow or zero gravity net conditions includes an accumulator and appropriate connector apparatus for communicating gas between the accumulator and the container. In one form of the invention, gas is removed from the container and compressed into the accumulator. The pressure and temperature of the

  12. Tank gauging apparatus and method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian G. Morris

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for gauging the amount of liquid in a container of liquid and gas under low or zero gravity net conditions includes an accumulator and appropriate connector apparatus for communicating gas between the accumulator and the container. In one form of the invention, gas is removed from the container and compressed into the accumulator. The pressure and temperature of

  13. Breathing costs, lifejacket inflation and parachute harnesses

    E-print Network

    Jordan, Raymond Alan

    1974-01-01

    1974 Major Subject: Industrial Enqineerinq BREATHING COSTS~ LIFEJACKET INFLATION PARACHVTE HARNESSES A Thesis by RAIMOND ALAN JORDAN Approved as to style and content by: Put' ~ Chairman of Committee) Head of Depa tment (Member) (Member... inflation Each subject was his own statistical control Energy cost was measured by oxygen consumption Subsequent analysis of the oxygen consumption data found a signifi- cant increase in the energy cost of breathing with a lifejacket in- flated beneath a...

  14. Compact mid-IR Breath Analysis System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Pushkarsky; Miles Weida; Timothy Day; David Arnone; Russ Pritchett

    2007-01-01

    Daylight Solutions is developing broadly tunable, external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs) for gas sensing instrumentation for numerous markets including medical breath analysis. Progress in two specific areas of development will be discussed: (i) miniaturization of a fast tunable, moderate resolution, pulsed EC-QCL and (ii) demonstration of a EC-QCL acetone sensor capable of breath acetone detection at the required low

  15. Spectral properties of Holstein and breathing polarons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cyrill Slezak; Alexandru Macridin; George Sawatzky; Mark Jarrell; Thomas A Maier

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the spectral properties of the one-dimensional Holstein and breathing polarons using the self-consistent Born approximation. The Holstein model electron-phonon coupling is momentum independent while the breathing coupling increases monotonically with the phonon momentum. We find that for a linear or tight binding electron dispersion: (i) for the same value of the dimensionless coupling the quasiparticle renormalization at small

  16. Breathing hospital air can make you sick.

    PubMed

    Brownson, K

    1999-12-01

    Indoor air quality has deteriorated so much since the 1970s oil shortage and subsequent energy-efficient construction of buildings that people are becoming seriously ill by just breathing the indoor air. This is a problem with all industrial buildings and hospital staff are at particular risk. There are various things that hospital managers from different departments can do to make the air safe for staff and patients to breathe. PMID:10787631

  17. Hot topics in underwater acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, John S.

    2003-04-01

    Underwater acoustics is a ``big tent'' discipline that draws from, and makes contributions to, many diverse fields such as wave propagation, physical oceanography, signal processing and ocean engineering. In recent years, concern for the environmental effects on marine life has spawned research into both the effects of man-made noise, and the use of active and passive acoustics to monitor biological activity. Special Sessions at this meeting reflect this diversity. This paper will draw on these Special Sessions to present some exciting examples of current research: (1) Parabolic equation methods for wave propagation, (2) robust passive sonar techniques, (3) inverse methods for determining geoacoustic parameters, (4) high-frequency acoustic interaction with the sea floor, and (5) bioacoustic resonance. In signal processing, one of the most active areas is the exploitation of the concept of time-reversal. In ocean engineering, there has been a tremendous increase in the applications for autonomous undersea vehicles. A brief overview of developments in these areas will be included. [Work supported by ONR.

  18. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  19. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, Charles F. (Aiken, SC); Howard, Boyd D. (Augusta, GA)

    1998-01-01

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

  20. Hydraulic oil well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    McDuffie, T.F.

    1983-09-27

    The preferred embodiment is directed to an oil well pumping apparatus incorporating a walking beam having a horsehead at one end which connects to the sucker rods in the oil well. The opposite end of the walking beam is supported on a fixed pivot. A hydraulic and pneumatic combination unit connects from a supporting platform to a central point on the beam to raise and lower the beam. The improved apparatus utilizes air pressure to balance the static load on the apparatus and dynamically strokes the sucker rod string by imparting a reciprocating motion through hydraulic power applied at a specified rate to raise and lower the walking beam. A pump and motor system for a closed hydraulic loop is included. Alternate preferred embodiments are disclosed. In one form, a lubricating system is incorporated. First and second alternate forms of pickoff apparatus which powers the pneumatically balanced pumping apparatus is also included.

  1. Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

    1999-08-01

    A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

  2. A free-breathing lung motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tianyu

    Lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer deaths for decades in the United States. Although radiotherapy is one of the most effective treatments, side effects from error in delivery of radiation due to organ motion during breathing remain a significant issue. To compensate the breathing motion during the treatment, a free breathing lung motion model, x= x0+?v+betaf, was developed and discussed, where x is the position of a piece of tissue located at reference position x0. ? is a parameter which characterizes the motion due to local air filling (motion as a function of tidal volume) and beta is the parameter that accounts for the motion due to the imbalance of dynamical stress distributions during inspiration and exhalation which cause lung motion hysteresis (motion as a function of airflow). The parameters ? and beta together provide a quantitative characterization of breathing motion that inherently includes the complex hysteresis interplay. The theoretical foundation of the model was built by investigating the stress distribution inside of a lung and the biomechanical properties of the lung tissues. Accuracy of the model was investigated by using 49 free-breathing patient data sets. Applications of the model in localizing lung cancer, monitoring radiation damage and suppressing artifacts in free-breathing PET images were also discussed. This work supported in part by NIHR01CA096679 and NIHR01CA116712.

  3. Hydrogen breath tests in gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen breath tests are widely used to explore pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and carbohydrate malabsorption are disorders detected by these tests that have been proposed to be of great importance for symptoms of GI diseases. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for diagnosis of SIBO whereas lactose and fructose hydrogen breath tests are used for detection of lactose and fructose maldigestion respectively. Lactulose hydrogen breath test is also used widely to measure the orocecal transit time for GI motility. These methods are noninvasive and inexpensive. Many patients with functional gut disorders are unaware of the relationship between diet and GI symptoms they present. In particular, patients with chronic symptoms may regard their condition as normal and may not be aware that their symptoms can be effectively managed following a proper diagnosis. Patients with symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and altered bowel movements (diarrhea and constipation), or with a medical diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome or celiac disease, may have undiagnosed carbohydrate malabsorption or SIBO. Hydrogen breath tests are specific and sensitive diagnostic tests that can be used to either confirm or eliminate the possibility of carbohydrate malabsorption or SIBO in such patients. Breath tests, though valuable tools, are underutilized in evaluating dyspepsia and functional bloating and diarrhea as well as suspected malabsorption. However, because of their simplicity, reproducibility and safety of procedure they are now being substituted to more uncomfortable and expensive techniques that were traditionally used in gastroenterology. PMID:25298621

  4. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 ?m. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  5. Elimination rates of breath alcohol.

    PubMed

    Pavlic, Marion; Grubwieser, Petra; Libiseller, Kathrin; Rabl, Walter

    2007-08-24

    Legal driving limits are set coequally with 0.5 g/L blood alcohol concentration (BAC) or 0.25 mg/L breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) in Austria as well as in other European countries. As mostly some time elapses between BrAC measurement and driving offence, a back calculation of alcohol concentrations is often required. The calculation of hourly BrAC elimination rates can thereby help to avoid unnecessary variances. A study with 59 participants was performed under social conditions. BrAC was determined with the legally accredited Alcotest 7110 MK III A every 30 min, and concomitantly venous blood samples were drawn. Five hundred and four BrAC/BAC value pairs were evaluated. The overall mean peak BrAC was calculated with 0.456 mg/L (+/-0.119 mg/L standard deviation). The mean hourly BrAC elimination rate was overall determined with 0.082 mg/L per h (0.050-0.114, 95% range). Mean rate of females (0.087 mg/L h(-1)) and the according 95% limits were statistically significantly higher than of males (mean rate 0.078 mg/L h(-1), p<0.04). Our results confirm the possibility to implement hourly BrAC elimination rates, provided that adequate statistical ranges and basic forensic scientific rules that have been set up for alcohol back calculations are observed. PMID:17064864

  6. Vehicle suspension apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Suzumura, M.; Tatemoto, M.; Kumagai, N.; Abe, H.; Tanaka, T.; Chikamori, S.; Harara, M.; Takeuchi, S.; Taniguchi, Y.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a suspension apparatus comprising: suspension units mounted on respective wheels and having fluid spring chambers; fluid supply means for supplying a fluid to the fluid spring chambers of the suspension units through control valves; fluid exhaust means for exhausting the fluid from the fluid spring chambers through exhaust valves; acceleration detecting means for detecting acceleration acting on a vehicle body in a longitudinal direction thereof; and nose dive preventing means, for preventing a nose dive, in which front wheel fluid supply solenoid valves are opened for a control time T to supply the fluid to corresponding fluid spring chambers. Also, rear wheel fluid exhaust solenoid valves are opened for the control time T to exhaust the fluid from corresponding fluid spring chambers when a negative acceleration detected by the acceleration detecting means exceeds a reference negative acceleration.

  7. Apparatus for dispensing material

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Peter Werner (Beach, NY); Sutter, Eli Anguelova (Beach, NY)

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus capable of dispensing drops of material with volumes on the order of zeptoliters is described. In some embodiments of the inventive pipette the size of the droplets so dispensed is determined by the size of a hole, or channel, through a carbon shell encapsulating a reservoir that contains material to be dispensed. The channel may be formed by irradiation with an electron beam or other high-energy beam capable of focusing to a spot size less than about 5 nanometers. In some embodiments, the dispensed droplet remains attached to the pipette by a small thread of material, an atomic scale meniscus, forming a virtually free-standing droplet. In some embodiments the droplet may wet the pipette tip and take on attributes of supported drops. Methods for fabricating and using the pipette are also described.

  8. Fluid pumping apparatus

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  9. Spine immobilization apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (inventors)

    1981-01-01

    The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

  10. Cryogenic cooler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

  11. Power generating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Vukovic, M.

    1981-02-10

    Power generating apparatus comprising a float mounted on a support which is pivotally mounted to a base the support being secured to a beam extending rearwardly of the base to a vertically extending elongated structure carrying a pair of vertically moveable gear racks in guideways. Each rack is engaged by a gear wheel driven by movement of the racks and one-way drive means connects each gear wheel to an output shaft. Driving weights are secured to each rack to drive the racks in opposite directions under the action of gravity forces acting on the weights, the driving motion causing the output shaft to rotate in a given direction. The free end of the beam is connected to a cross-arm vertically moveable on a guide on the elongate structure, the cross-arm having motion transmitting means to raise each of the weights during vertical movement of the crossarm resulting from movement of the float.

  12. Heat Treating Apparatus

    DOEpatents

    De Saro, Robert (Annandale, NJ); Bateman, Willis (Sutton Colfield, GB)

    2002-09-10

    Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

  13. Image forming apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Satoh, Hisao (Hachioji, JP); Haneda, Satoshi (Hachioji, JP); Ikeda, Tadayoshi (Hachioji, JP); Morita, Shizuo (Hachioji, JP); Fukuchi, Masakazu (Hachioji, JP)

    1996-01-01

    In an image forming apparatus having a detachable process cartridge in which an image carrier on which an electrostatic latent image is formed, and a developing unit which develops the electrostatic latent image so that a toner image can be formed, both integrally formed into one unit. There is provided a developer container including a discharge section which can be inserted into a supply opening of the developing unit, and a container in which a predetermined amount of developer is contained, wherein the developer container is provided to the toner supply opening of the developing unit and the developer is supplied into the developing unit housing when a toner stirring screw of the developing unit is rotated.

  14. Improved collecting apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C.P.

    1981-03-05

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air following therethrough.

  15. Laser Plasmas for Underwater Shock Hydrodynamics Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T. G.; Grun, J.; Burris, R.; Manka, C. K.

    1998-11-01

    A new facility, the Laser Laboratory for Underwater Hydrodynamics, is being built to produce and study underwater shocks using the Pharos laser at NRL. High energy density conditions are achieved by bringing a part of the laser energy, up 250 J in 5 ns, to a small focal volume. Hydrodyamics problems to be studied include underwater shock propagation and interaction with solid surfaces, bubble formation and interaction with solid surfaces, and shock propagation through sand, air, and water mixtures. Laser plasma-generated shocks will be studied with a combination of diagnostics including laser schlieren imaging, visible framing and ccd cameras, and optical, piezoelectric, and piezoresistive pressure diagnostics. Laser plasma properties and laser-shock energy coupling will also be studied.

  16. Underwater photogrammetric theoretical equations and technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ya-bing; Huang, Guiping; Qin, Gui-qin; Chen, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    In order to have a high level of accuracy of measurement in underwater close-range photogrammetry, this article deals with a study of three varieties of model equations according to the way of imaging upon the water. First, the paper makes a careful analysis for the two varieties of theoretical equations and finds out that there are some serious limitations in practical application and has an in-depth study for the third model equation. Second, one special project for this measurement has designed correspondingly. Finally, one rigid antenna has been tested by underwater photogrammetry. The experimental results show that the precision of 3D coordinates measurement is 0.94mm, which validates the availability and operability in practical application with this third equation. It can satisfy the measurement requirements of refraction correction, improving levels of accuracy of underwater close-range photogrammetry, as well as strong antijamming and stabilization.

  17. Simplified model of underwater electrical discharge.

    PubMed

    Gurovich, V Ts; Grinenko, A; Krasik, Ya E; Felsteiner, J

    2004-03-01

    A model of the underwater discharge with initiating wire is presented. The model reveals the nature of similarity parameters which have been phenomenologically introduced in earlier experimental research in order to predict behavior of different discharges. It is shown that these parameters naturally appear as a result of the normalization of differential equations, which determines the process of underwater wire initiated discharge. In these equations the energy conservation law for wire material evaporation and the dependence of plasma conductivity on the energy dissipated in the discharge are implied to calculate the time varying resistance of the discharge gap. The comparison of calculations with the experimental results shows that good agreement is achieved when modification of these parameters is introduced. These new similarity parameters are functions of the original similarity parameters, hence the law of the similarity of underwater electrical discharge is preserved. PMID:15089410

  18. Olfaction: underwater 'sniffing' by semi-aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2006-12-21

    Terrestrial species that forage underwater face challenges because their body parts and senses are adapted for land--for example, it is widely held that mammals cannot use olfaction underwater because it is impossible for them to inspire air (sniff) to convey odorants to the olfactory epithelium. Here I describe a mechanism for underwater sniffing used by the semi-aquatic star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata) and water shrew (Sorex palustris). While underwater, both species exhale air bubbles onto objects or scent trails and then re-inspire the bubbles to carry the smell back through the nose. This newly described behaviour provides a mechanism for mammalian olfaction underwater. PMID:17183311

  19. Underwater noise from offshore oil production vessels.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; McCauley, Robert; McPherson, Craig; Gavrilov, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Underwater acoustic recordings of six Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessels moored off Western Australia are presented. Monopole source spectra were computed for use in environmental impact assessments of underwater noise. Given that operations on the FPSOs varied over the period of recording, and were sometimes unknown, the authors present a statistical approach to noise level estimation. No significant or consistent aspect dependence was found for the six FPSOs. Noise levels did not scale with FPSO size or power. The 5th, 50th (median), and 95th percentile source levels (broadband, 20 to 2500 Hz) were 188, 181, and 173 dB re 1 ?Pa @ 1 m, respectively. PMID:23742441

  20. Chemical sensors for breath gas analysis: the latest developments at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013.

    PubMed

    Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

    2014-06-01

    Profiling the body chemistry by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath opens exciting new avenues in medical diagnostics. Gas sensors could provide ideal platforms for realizing portable, hand-held breath testing devices in the near future. This review summarizes the latest developments and applications in the field of chemical sensors for diagnostic breath testing that were presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013 in Wallerfangen, Germany. Considerable progress has been made towards clinically applicable breath testing devices, especially by utilizing chemo-sensitive nanomaterials. Examples of several specialized breath testing applications are presented that are either based on stand-alone nanomaterial-based sensors being highly sensitive and specific to individual breath compounds over others, or on combinations of several highly specific sensors, or on experimental nanomaterial-based sensors arrays. Other interesting approaches include the adaption of a commercially available MOx-based sensor array to indirect breath testing applications, using a sample pre-concentration method, and the development of compact integrated GC-sensor systems. The recent trend towards device integration has led to the development of fully integrated prototypes of point-of-care devices. We describe and compare the performance of several prototypes that are based on different sensing technologies and evaluate their potential as low-cost and readily available next-generation medical devices. PMID:24682160

  1. EDITORIAL: Special section on Breath Gas Analysis Special section on Breath Gas Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Röpcke; Mario Hannemann

    2011-01-01

    In Spring 2009 an idea was born to bring together the leading specialists from Germany and Austria working in the emerging field of breath gas research and its application for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring within an internationally open workshop. To bring this idea to fruition the first German-Austrian Workshop on Breath Gas Analysis was held in Greifswald, Germany, 7-9

  2. Apparatus for transporting hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Osterman, Robert A. (Canonsburg, PA); Cox, Robert (West Mifflin, PA)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for selectively receiving, transporting, and releasing one or more radioactive or other hazardous samples for analysis on a differential thermal analysis (DTA) apparatus. The apparatus includes a portable sample transporting apparatus for storing and transporting the samples and includes a support assembly for supporting the transporting apparatus when a sample is transferred to the DTA apparatus. The transporting apparatus includes a storage member which includes a plurality of storage chambers arrayed circumferentially with respect to a central axis. An adjustable top door is located on the top side of the storage member, and the top door includes a channel capable of being selectively placed in registration with the respective storage chambers thereby permitting the samples to selectively enter the respective storage chambers. The top door, when closed, isolates the respective samples within the storage chambers. A plurality of spring-biased bottom doors are located on the bottom sides of the respective storage chambers. The bottom doors isolate the samples in the respective storage chambers when the bottom doors are in the closed position. The bottom doors permit the samples to leave the respective storage chambers from the bottom side when the respective bottom doors are in respective open positions. The bottom doors permit the samples to be loaded into the respective storage chambers after the analysis for storage and transport to a permanent storage location.

  3. Spectral Properties of Holstein and Breathing Polarons

    SciTech Connect

    Slezak, Cyrill [University of Cincinnati; Macridin, Alexandru [University of Cincinnati; Sawatzky, George [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Jarrell, Mark [University of Cincinnati; Maier, Thomas A [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the spectral properties of the one-dimensional Holstein and breathing polarons using the self-consistent Born approximation. The Holstein model electron-phonon coupling is momentum independent while the breathing coupling increases monotonically with the phonon momentum. We find that for a linear or tight binding electron dispersion: i) for the same value of the dimensionless coupling the quasiparticle renormalization at small momentum in the breathing polaron is much smaller, ii) the quasiparticle renormalization at small momentum in the breathing polaron increases with phonon frequency unlike in the Holstein model where it decreases, iii) in the Holstein model the quasiparticle dispersion displays a kink and a small gap at an excitation energy equal to the phonon frequency $\\omega_0$ while in the breathing model it displays two gaps, one at excitation energy $\\omega_0$ and another one at $2\\omega_0$. These differences have two reasons: first, the momentum of the relevant scattered phonons increases with increasing polaron momentum and second, the breathing bare coupling is an increasing function of the phonon momentum. These result in an effective electron-phonon coupling for the breathing model which is an increasing function of the total polaron momentum, such that the small momentum polaron is in the weak coupling regime while the large momentum one is in the strong coupling regime. However the first reason does not hold if the free electron dispersion has low energy states separated by large momentum, as in a higher dimensional system for example, in which situation the difference between the two models becomes less significant.

  4. Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise.

    PubMed

    Lo, C W; Carter, E A; Walker, W A

    1982-01-01

    Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in physiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH, intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications. PMID:7180696

  5. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    DOEpatents

    Rader, D.J.; Castaneda, J.N.; Grasser, T.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1998-08-11

    An apparatus is described for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle`s size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle`s velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered. 11 figs.

  6. Beam connector apparatus and assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontiesenhausen, G. F. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and assembly for connecting beams and like structural members is disclosed which is particularly advantageous for connecting two members which are moved laterally into place. The connector apparatus requires no relative longitudinal movement between the ends of the beams or members being connected to make a connection joint. The apparatus includes a receptacle member and a connector housing carried by opposed ends of the structural member being connected. A spring-loaded connector member is carried by the connector housing which may be released for extension and engagement into the receptacle member.

  7. Site survey method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oldham, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Spencer, Charles R. (Boise, ID); Begley, Carl L. (Albuquerque, NM); Meyer, H. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-06-18

    The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment.

  8. Site survey method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oldham, J.G.; Spencer, C.R.; Begley, C.L.; Meyer, H.R.

    1991-06-18

    The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment. 19 figures.

  9. An underwater acoustic channel model using ray tracing in ns-2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Cnar; M. B. Orencik

    2009-01-01

    Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network (UASN) is the enabling technology for real-time underwater monitoring and data collection. The costly underwater trials and unknown underwater acoustic modem infrastructures increase the need and importance of a reliable network simulator for UASNs. The underwater acoustic propagation method used in the channel modeling is the one of the determining factors influences the reliability level of

  10. Automated Desalting Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Maegan K.; Liu, De-Ling; Kanik, Isik; Beegle, Luther

    2010-01-01

    Because salt and metals can mask the signature of a variety of organic molecules (like amino acids) in any given sample, an automated system to purify complex field samples has been created for the analytical techniques of electrospray ionization/ mass spectroscopy (ESI/MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and biological assays where unique identification requires at least some processing of complex samples. This development allows for automated sample preparation in the laboratory and analysis of complex samples in the field with multiple types of analytical instruments. Rather than using tedious, exacting protocols for desalting samples by hand, this innovation, called the Automated Sample Processing System (ASPS), takes analytes that have been extracted through high-temperature solvent extraction and introduces them into the desalting column. After 20 minutes, the eluent is produced. This clear liquid can then be directly analyzed by the techniques listed above. The current apparatus including the computer and power supplies is sturdy, has an approximate mass of 10 kg, and a volume of about 20 20 20 cm, and is undergoing further miniaturization. This system currently targets amino acids. For these molecules, a slurry of 1 g cation exchange resin in deionized water is packed into a column of the apparatus. Initial generation of the resin is done by flowing sequentially 2.3 bed volumes of 2N NaOH and 2N HCl (1 mL each) to rinse the resin, followed by .5 mL of deionized water. This makes the pH of the resin near neutral, and eliminates cross sample contamination. Afterward, 2.3 mL of extracted sample is then loaded into the column onto the top of the resin bed. Because the column is packed tightly, the sample can be applied without disturbing the resin bed. This is a vital step needed to ensure that the analytes adhere to the resin. After the sample is drained, oxalic acid (1 mL, pH 1.6-1.8, adjusted with NH4OH) is pumped into the column. Oxalic acid works as a chelating reagent to bring out metal ions, such as calcium and iron, which would otherwise interfere with amino acid analysis. After oxalic acid, 1 mL 0.01 N HCl and 1 mL deionized water is used to sequentially rinse the resin. Finally, the amino acids attached to the resin, and the analytes are eluted using 2.5 M NH4OH (1 mL), and the NH4OH eluent is collected in a vial for analysis.

  11. A breathing rate sensor with plastic optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Lipi; Kuang, Kevin S. C.

    2010-08-01

    A breathing rate sensor has been developed using plastic optical fiber and the test results are presented in this letter. The principle of coupling loss was used in designing this sensor to take advantage of the large core size of plastic optic fiber. The sensor was placed near the nostril to determine the rate of breathing as air was exhaled. The results demonstrated the ability to quantify the breathing rate and monitor different breathing patterns up to a resolution of 1 breath/s (1 Hz).

  12. Reliable operant apparatus for fish: audio stimulus generator, response button, and pellet-dispensing nipple.

    PubMed

    Chase, A R; Hill, W

    1999-08-01

    As part of ongoing research into the ability of koi to categorize complex auditory stimuli, we have had to develop novel apparatus. The stimulus generator presents sound from two CD drives under computer control through a new underwater speaker. The operant manipulandum is a horizontal button that eliminates spurious triggering by water turbulence and problematic response topographies. The button's design has also been adapted for use by tilapia in an aquacultural food-preference study. The feeder uses a nipple to dispense food pellets reliably under water. In this paper, the apparatus is described in detail. Also discussed are methodological issues related to its design, as well as its usage in a pilot study in which koi learned to discriminate music from silence by using a single manipulandum with food reinforcement. PMID:10502871

  13. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    PubMed Central

    Zope, Sameer A.; Zope, Rakesh A

    2013-01-01

    Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind–body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders. PMID:23440614

  14. Pulse Ejection Presentation System Synchronized with Breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadowaki, Ami; Sato, Junta; Ohtsu, Kaori; Bannai, Yuichi; Okada, Kenichi

    Trials on transmission of olfactory information together with audio/visual information are currently being conducted in the field of multimedia. However, continuous emission of scents in high concentration creates problems of human adaptation and remnant odors in air. To overcome such problems we developed an olfactory display in conjunction with Canon Inc. This display has high emission control in the ink-jet so that it can provide stable pulse emission of scents. Humans catch a scent when they breathe in and inhale smell molecules in air. Therefore, it is important that the timing of scent presentation is synchronized with human breathing. We also developed a breath sensor which detects human inspiration. In this study, we combined the olfactory display with the breath sensor to make a pulse ejection presentation system synchronized the breath. The experimental evaluation showed that the system had more than 90 percent of detection rate. Another evaluation was held at KEIO TECHNO-MALL 2007. From questionnaire results of the participants, we found that the system made the user feel continuous sense of smell avoiding adaptation. It is expected that our system enables olfactory information to be synchronized with audio/visual information in arbitrary duration at any time.

  15. Breath tests in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Cheepsattayakorn, Attapon; Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong

    2014-01-01

    Since the time of Hippocrates, physicians have known that the odour of human breath can provide clues to diagnosis. In the past, hydrogen peroxide which is a marker of inflammatory diseases and oxidative stress was the most studied substance in the exhaled breath which was detectable in the liquid that obtained by condensing or cooling. The advantages of breath analysis are that it is convenient, non-invasive, and could be performed with children as well as mechanically ventilated patients. Today, exhaled nitric oxide has been studied extensively, especially in relation to asthma. More than a thousand different volatile organic compounds have been observed in low concentrations in normal human breath. Alkanes and methylalkanes have been increasingly used by physicians as a novel method to diagnose many diseases without discomforts of invasive procedures. Although the limitations of measurement of exhaled nitric oxide in direct diagnosis of infectious pulmonary TB, it may have potential development as a cost-effective replacement of chest radiological examination in screening algorithms. None of the individual exhaled volatile organic compound alone is specific for disease. Exhaled breath analysis techniques may be available to diagnose and monitor the diseases in home setting when their sensitivity and specificity are expected to improve in the future. Here, we also discussed some patents related to the topic. PMID:25185981

  16. Liquid ventilation in dogs: an apparatus for normobaric and hyperbaric studies.

    PubMed

    Harris, D J; Coggin, R R; Roby, J; Feezor, M; Turner, G; Bennett, P B

    1983-04-01

    A liquid-breathing apparatus is described for remote surface studies and for use in experiments of near-hydraulic compression in dogs. It consists of a flexible tank sealed against chamber gas, containing a supply of clean warmed (38 degrees C) fluorocarbon (FC-80) equilibrated with 1 bar O2 and an electronically controlled means of delivering the liquid to the dog. Each breath (tidal volume 290 ml) was "weighed" into the animal by the signal from a force platform supporting the dog and a digital control unit that automatically actuated inspired-and expired-line solenoid valves. The apparatus was successfully used to remotely maintain liquid ventilation in awake dogs for 2 h during surface studies (5 dogs) and in dives to 1,000 m seawater (5 dogs). During liquid breathing, mean arterial O2 partial pressure was always adequate (congruent to 300 Torr) and mean arterial CO2 partial pressure was normal (less than or equal to 40 Torr). An uncompensated metabolic acidosis was indicated by low pH values and a decrease in arterial base excess to--4.5 meq x 1(-1). O2 uptake and CO2 output appeared to be significantly lower (42 and 35%, respectively) during liquid ventilation. PMID:6222021

  17. Ring Wing for an underwater missile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry August; Edward Carapezza

    1993-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft has performed exploratory wind tunnel studies of compressed carriage missile designs having extendable Ring Wing and wrap-around tail control surfaces. These force and moment data indicate that significant improvements in a missile's lift and aerodynamic efficiency can be realized. Low speed test results of these data were used to estimate potential underwater improved hydrodynamic characteristics that a Ring

  18. Path Planning for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clément Pêtrès; Yan Pailhas; Pedro Patrón; Yvan R. Petillot; Jonathan Evans

    2007-01-01

    Efficient path planning algorithms are a crucial issue for modern autonomous underwater vehicles. Classical path planning algorithms in artificial intelligence are not designed to deal with wide continuous environments prone to currents. We present a novel Fast Marching based approach to address the following issues. First, we develop an algorithm we call FM* to efficiently extract a continuous path from

  19. Cooperative control of autonomous underwater vehicles. 

    E-print Network

    Savage, Elizabeth

    2004-09-30

    The proposed project is the simulation of a system to search for air vehicles which have splashed-down in the ocean. The system comprises a group of 10+ autonomous underwater vehicles, which cooperate in order to locate the aircraft. The search...

  20. Robust trajectory control of underwater vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANA R. YOERGER; JEAN-JACQUES E. SLOTINE

    1985-01-01

    underwater vehicles present difficult control-system design problems due to their nonlinear dynamics, uncertain models, and the presence of disturbances that are difficult to measure or estimate. In this paper, a recent extension of sliding mode control is shown to handle these problems effectively. The method deals directly with nonlinearities, is highly robust to imprecise models, explicitly accounts for the presence

  1. Reconfigurable acoustic modem for underwater sensor networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethem Mutlu Sözer; Milica Stojanovic

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing interest for underwater sensor networks where long term monitoring of water masses around the world for scientific, environmental, commercial, and military reasons is desired. In this paper we will present the concept of a highly flexible acoustic modem called the Reconfigurable Modem (rModem) that can be used for rapid testing and development of such networks.

  2. Thermomechanical simulation of underwater welding processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ronda; O. Mahrenholtz; R. Hamann

    1992-01-01

    The underwater welding problem has been formulated for the thermoelastic body as the sequence of the thermal free-boundary problem and the thermomechanical contact problem. The thermal free-boundary problem is discussed due to accounting for phase transformations. The contact problem is considered to establish interactions between a weld and elements of weldment and residual stresses inside the weldment.

  3. Classification of Underwater Signals Using Neural Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chin-Hsing Chen; Jiann-Der Lee; Ming-Chi Lin

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, four kinds of neural network classifiers have been used for the classification of underwater passive sonar signals radiated by ships. Classification process can be divided into two stages. In the preprocessing and feature extraction stage, Two-Pass Split-Windows (TPSW) algorithm is used to extract tonal features from the average power spectral density (APSD) of the input data. In

  4. Quaternion feedback regulation of underwater vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ola-erik Fjellstad; Thor I. Fossen

    1994-01-01

    Position and attitude set-point regulation of autonomous underwater vehicles in 6 degrees of freedom is discussed. Euler parameters are used in the representation of global attitude. A class of nonlinear PD-control laws is derived by using a general Lyapunov function for the 6 degrees of freedom dynamic model of the vehicle

  5. Adaptive OFDMA for Downlink Underwater Acoustic Communications

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Shengli

    --Underwater acoustic communications, OFDMA, subcarrier allocation, power and bit loading I. INTRODUCTION Multicarrier is presented to jointly assign the data subcarriers to different users and allocate the power and bits on each. There are extensive investigations of multiuser OFDM in broadband terrestrial communication systems, e.g., [4

  6. Autonomous buoyancy-driven underwater gliders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russ E. Davis; Charles C. Eriksen; Clayton P. Jones

    2002-01-01

    A class of small (50 kg, 2 m length), reusable autonomous underwater vehicles capable of operating at speeds of 20-30 cm\\/s with ranges several thousand kilometers and durations of months has been developed and tested. The vehicles, essentially autonomous profiling floats with wings, execute sawtooth patterns between the surface, where they are located and communicate to shore, and depths of

  7. The Morpheus ultramodular autonomous underwater vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel M. Smith; P. Edgar An; Ken Holappa; James Whitney; Aaron Burns; Kevin Nelson; Eric Heatzig; Olaf Kempfe; David Kronen; Tom Pantelakis; Ed Henderson; Richard Dunn; Stanley E. Dunn

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Marine Systems Lab at Florida Atlantic University has developed a new ultramodular plastic mini autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), called the Morpheus, for littoral military and coastal oceanographic sampling, survey, and mapping. The name Morpheus was chosen because the Greek god Morpheus could change shape or \\

  8. Heterogeneous system framework for underwater networking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Berni; Diego Merani; John Potter; Robert Been

    2011-01-01

    The integration of Radio Frequency (RF) Command and Control (C2) networks with underwater (UW) networks that are based on acoustic communications requires comprehensive solutions to address several technical challenges and interoperability issues. A major constraint arises from the large capability gap between acoustic and RF communications, the former being characterized by very low data rates and a propagation speed over

  9. Electrically actuated thrusters for autonomous underwater vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Ishak; N. A. A. Manap; M. S. Ahmad; M. R. Arshad

    2010-01-01

    This paper is to present the design, development and prototyping of an electrically actuated thruster as a direct drive propulsion system based on a 3-phase permanent magnet brushless machine for an autonomous underwater vehicle. The non-linear design and analysis of the permanent magnet brushless motor are entirely performed in 2-d finite element method. The motor is then coupled directly to

  10. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  11. Silent Positioning in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiuzhen Cheng; Haining Shu; Qilian Liang; David Hung-Chang Du

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a silent positioning scheme termed UPS for underwater acoustic sensor networks. UPS relies on the time difference of arrivals locally measured at a sensor to detect range differences from the sensor to four anchor nodes. These range differences are averaged over multiple beacon intervals before they are combined to estimate the 3-D sensor location through

  12. Underwater vehicle propulsion and power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Chao, Yi (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An underwater vehicle includes a shaft with a propeller disposed thereon; a generator/motor having a stator and a rotor, the rotor being operable to rotate with the propeller; at least one energy storage device connected to the generator/motor; and a controller for setting the generator/motor in a charge mode, a propulsion mode and an idle mode.

  13. An integrated, underwater optical \\/acoustic communications system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Farr; A. Bowen; J. Ware; C. Pontbriand; M. Tivey

    2010-01-01

    Communication underwater is severely limited when compared to communications in air because water is essentially opaque to electromagnetic radiation except in the visible band. Even in the visible band, light penetrates only a few hundred meters in the clearest waters and much less in waters made turbid by suspended sediment or high concentrations of marine life. Consequently, acoustic techniques have

  14. Complete SE3 Underwater Robot Control

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    configuration. The algorithm can handle arbitrary thruster configurations. It maintains the robot's desired how depth can be maintained while performing 360 degree rolls. Further, we demonstrate an input device monitoring, performing visual and acoustic ship-hull inspection, and docking with other underwater vehicles

  15. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  16. Apparatus for photon excited catalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saffren, M. M. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus is described for increasing the yield of photonically excited gas phase reactions by extracting excess energy from unstable, excited species by contacting the species with the surface of a finely divided solid.

  17. Bi-stem gripping apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Fred G. (inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to devices which grip cylindrical structures and more particularly to a device which has three arcuate gripping members having frictional surfaces for gripping and compressing a bi-stem. The bi-stem gripping apparatus is constructed having a pair of side gripping members, and an intermediate gripping member disposed between them. Sheets of a gum stock silicone rubber with frictional gripping surfaces are bonded to the inner region of the gripping members and provide frictional engagement between the bi-stem and the apparatus. A latch secures the gripping apparatus to a bi-stem, and removable handles are attached, allowing an astronaut to pull the bi-stem from its cassette. A tethering ring on the outside of the gripping apparatus provides a convenient point to which a lanyard may be attached.

  18. Membrane Apparatus for Analogic Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Schneider; Ali B. Cambel

    1953-01-01

    This paper describes a membrane apparatus which has been used successfully in obtaining analogic soap-film solutions to boundary-value field problems in which either the Poisson or the Laplace partial-differential equation must be satisfied.

  19. The apparatus URAT-I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abramiam

    1970-01-01

    Crushing of bladder stones by electrohydraulic impulses has many advantages over the conventional mechanical methods. The results of tests made with URAT-I, an apparatus working on the electrohydralic principle, are described.

  20. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Peaslee, Kent D. (Rolla, MO); Peter, Jorg J. (McMinnville, OR); Robertson, David G. C. (Rolla, MO); Thomas, Brian G. (Champaign, IL); Zhang, Lifeng (Trondheim, NO)

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.