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1

Breathing Impedance of the Mark Viii and Mark Xi Semi-Closed Underwater Breathing Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A diver breathing with an underwater breathing apparatus will have his ventilatory capability degraded by an inherent breathing impedance in the equipment used. The impedance of both the equipment and the diver's respiratory system will increase as ambien...

M. E. Bradley P. J. Heckert J. Vorosmarti J. C. Kleckner J. Merz

1970-01-01

2

Development of Comprehensive Performance Standards for Underwater Breathing Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every type of underwater breathing apparatus (UBA) imposes loads on the diver's respiratory system. It is essential for the diver's safety and performance that the UBA adheres to appropriate performance standards. These external loads can be classified as...

C. E. Lundgren D. E. Warkander

2000-01-01

3

Current status of closed circuit underwater breathing apparatus.  

PubMed

Closed circuit diving systems are certainly not a new concept, but advanced technology is turning the concept into practical reality. For years the development of these systems has stagnated in their classified covert operations role, but a new group of sophisticated divers--scientists, photographers and technical divers--has emerged to spur the commercial development of closed circuit underwater breathing apparatus. The traditional silent and bubble-free capability is being augmented with such additions as microprocessor usage, dependable oxygen sensing, carbon dioxide sensing, and PC integration. PMID:11538559

Crosson, D; Youngblood, D

1996-01-01

4

Manned Certification Evaluation of the Innerspace Systems (registered trademark) Megalodon Underwater Breathing Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Megalodon underwater breathing apparatus (UBA) was used in completing 99 man-dives. The primary test objective was to determine whether the UBA could control oxygen sufficiently to satisfy performance specifications published by Naval Surface Warfare ...

B. M. Keuski D. J. Doolette

2010-01-01

5

Unmanned Evaluation of the U.S. Navy MK 16 First Article Closed-Circuit UBA (Underwater Breathing Apparatus).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy Experimental Diving Unit (NEDU) conducted unmanned performance testing on two first production article MK 16 underwater breathing apparatus (UBA) in October 1982. Breathing resistance/breathing work and oxygen (O2) set-point control studies were ...

J. R. Middleton

1983-01-01

6

Passive acoustic detection of closed-circuit underwater breathing apparatus in an operational port environment.  

PubMed

Divers constitute a potential threat to waterside infrastructures. Active diver detection sonars are available commercially but present some shortcomings, particularly in highly reverberant environments. This has led to research on passive sonar for diver detection. Passive detection of open-circuit UBA (underwater breathing apparatus) has been demonstrated. This letter reports on the detection of a diver wearing closed-circuit UBA (rebreather) in an operational harbor. Beamforming is applied to a passive array of 10 hydrophones in a pseudo-random linear arrangement. Experimental results are presented demonstrating detection of the rebreather at ranges up to 120 m and are validated by GPS ground truth. PMID:23039570

Fillinger, L; Hunter, A J; Zampolli, M; Clarijs, M C

2012-10-01

7

Evaluation of the KMS 48 Replacement Full Face Mask with the Emergency Breathing System for Use with MK 16 MOD 1 Underwater Breathing Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Navy Experimental Diving Unit (NEDU) was tasked by references (1) and (2) to test and evaluate the MK 16 MOD 1 underwater breathing apparatus (UBA) for use as an emergency breathing system (EBS) in conjunction with the KMS 48 full face mask (FFM). Testing...

C. S. Hedricks S. J. Stanek

2002-01-01

8

Evaluation of the KMS 48 Full Face Mask with the Viper Very Shallow Water Underwater Breathing Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Navy Experimental Diving Unit (NEDU) was tasked(1) to test and evaluate the KMS 48 full face mask (FFM) with the VIPER very shallow water (VSW) underwater breathing apparatus (UBA). Testing was designed to assess the abilities of the KMS 48 FFM to operate...

S. J. Stanek C. S. Hedricks

2003-01-01

9

Simulated Oxygen Breathing Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A filter replaces the oxygen canister of an oxygen breathing apparatus and the air flow path is modified to provide a realistic simulation for training Personnel. in the use of closed circuit breathing units. (Author)

E. Swiatosz W. V. Dykes

1979-01-01

10

Low-back problems in recreational self-contained underwater breathing apparatus divers: Prevalence and specific risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-back problems (LBP) are one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders in the general population, with reported lifetime prevalences of 50% to 80%. Also, certain sports participants (e.g. gymnasts, alpine skiers, runners) are at risk of LBP and its repercussions. This epidemiological study was undertaken to examine the lifetime and 1-year prevalence of LBP among recreational Flemish self-contained breathing apparatus

K. Knaepen; E. Cumps; E. Zinzen; R. Meeusen

2009-01-01

11

Emergency Response Breathing Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace Design & Development, Inc.'s (ADD's) SCAMP was developed under an SBIR contract through Kennedy Space Center. SCAMP stands for Supercritical Air Mobility Pack. The technology came from the life support fuel cell support systems used for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. It uses supercritical cryogenic air and is able to function in microgravity environments. SCAMP's self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA) systems are also ground-based and can provide twice as much air than traditional SCBA's due to its high-density capacity. The SCAMP system was designed for use in launch pad emergency rescues. ADD also developed a protective suit for use with SCAMP that is smaller and lighter system than the old ones. ADD's SCAMP allows for body cooling and breathing from the supercritical cryogenic air, requiring no extra systems. The improvement over the traditional SCBA allows for a reduction of injuries, such as heat stress, and makes it easier for rescuers to save lives.

2000-01-01

12

Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

Mills, Robert D.

1990-01-01

13

Trainability of underwater breath-holding time.  

PubMed

From diving practice we know that breath-holding time (BHT) can be increased by training. This examination was set up to illuminate whether BHT underwater can be trained decisively in a short period of time. The authors investigated whether physiologic or psychological aspects are the main constituents of the above-mentioned BHT phenomenon. BHT and the "onset point" of involuntary respiratory movements of 64 subjects were registered after deep inspiration and immersion in ca. 1 m. Two different tests were set up: (I) 2 breath-holds per day on 5 consecutive days, (II) 5 repeated breath-holds with pauses of 3 min in between. BHT of the first test was shorter underwater than in similar experiments in air; the increase of BHT underwater was distinctly higher (series II: 160%). Thirty percent of the subjects inequivocally showed respiratory movements (group 1), 31% did not reach the "onset point" (group 3). In group 1 BHT was considerably higher than in group 3. In group 1 the mean time span without respiratory movements rose by 14% in series I and by 233% in series II, whereas the time span with respiratory movements rose by 105% and 119%. These results confirm and quantify the good trainability of BHT underwater. Two processes cause this increase: the increase in time span without respiratory movements probably by unconscious hyperventilation and the increase in time span with respiratory movements through psychological adaptation by suffering the need to breathe. PMID:6511155

Hentsch, U; Ulmer, H V

1984-12-01

14

Underwater breathing: the mechanics of plastron respiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rough, hairy surfaces of many insects and spiders serve to render them water-repellent; consequently, when submerged, many are able to survive by virtue of a thin air layer trapped along their exteriors. The diffusion of dissolved oxygen from the ambient water may allow this layer to function as a respiratory bubble or , and so enable certain species to remain underwater indefinitely. Maintenance of the plastron requires that the curvature pressure balance the pressure difference between the plastron and ambient. Moreover, viable plastrons must be of sufficient area to accommodate the interfacial exchange of O2 and CO2 necessary to meet metabolic demands. By coupling the bubble mechanics, surface and gas-phase chemistry, we enumerate criteria for plastron viability and thereby deduce the range of environmental conditions and dive depths over which plastron breathers can survive. The influence of an external flow on plastron breathing is also examined. Dynamic pressure may become significant for respiration in fast-flowing, shallow and well-aerated streams. Moreover, flow effects are generally significant because they sharpen chemical gradients and so enhance mass transfer across the plastron interface. Modelling this process provides a rationale for the ventilation movements documented in the biology literature, whereby arthropods enhance plastron respiration by flapping their limbs or antennae. Biomimetic implications of our results are discussed.

Flynn, M. R.; Bush, John W. M.

15

Evaluation of Analytical Industries Inc. Model Number PSR-11-33-NM Oxygen Sensors for Use With the MK 16 MOD 1 Underwater Breathing Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to conduct unmanned and manned testing to evaluate the effectiveness of the Analytical Industries's; PSR-11 oxygen sensor (alone and in combination with approved Teledyne R-10DN oxygen sensors) with the MK 16 MOD 1 underwater...

S. J. Stanek C. S. Hedricks

2004-01-01

16

42 CFR 84.71 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components. 84...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.71 Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components....

2010-10-01

17

42 CFR 84.71 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components. 84...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.71 Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components....

2009-10-01

18

42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus; description. 84.70 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.70 Self-contained breathing apparatus; description. (a)...

2010-10-01

19

42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus; description. 84.70 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.70 Self-contained breathing apparatus; description. (a)...

2009-10-01

20

Remotely operated submersible underwater suction apparatus  

DOEpatents

A completely submersible, remotely operated underwater suction device for collection of irradiated materials in a nuclear pool is disclosed. The device includes a pump means for pumping water through the device, a filter means for capturing irradiated debris, remotely operated releasable connector means, a collection means and a means for remotely maneuvering the collection means. The components of the suction device may be changed and replaced underwater to take advantage of the excellent radiation shielding ability of water to thereby minimize exposure of personnel to radiation.

Kristan, Louis L. (2111 Brentwood Dr., Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

1990-01-01

21

46 CFR 108.635 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.635 Section 108.635 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.635...

2013-10-01

22

Breathing Apparatuses, Self-Contained Air/Oxygen Supply.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes test methods and techniques for evaluating the technical performance and characteristics of self-contained air/oxygen supply breathing apparatuses, and for determining the suitability of these items to undergo test for service use by ...

1969-01-01

23

Improved oxygen sources for breathing apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research is described which is directed toward the preparation of chemical oxygen sources which exhibited improved O2 storage and reaction characteristics when compared to potassium superoxide (KO2). The initial focus of the research was the preparation of calcium superoxide (Ca(O2)2) by the disproportionation of calcium peroxide diperoxyhydrate. the Ca(O2)2 was characterized by chemical, thermal, and x ray analyses. Several methods for scaling up the Ca(O2)2 syntheis process were studied. The reactivity of Ca(O2)2 toward humidified carbon dioxide (CO2) was evaluated and was compared to that of KO2 under flow test conditions approximating those existing in portable breathing apparatus. The reactivities of mixtures of KO2 and Ca(O2)2 or lithium peroxide towards humidified CO2 were also studied. Finally, an analysis of two commercial, KO2-based, self contained self rescuers was conducted to determine the potential weight and volume savings which would be possible if Ca(O2)2 or a mixture of KO2 and Ca(O2)2 were used as a replacement for KO2.

Wood, P. C.; Wydeven, T.

1983-01-01

24

Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-08-26

25

A chlorate candle/lithium hydroxide personal breathing apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A portable coal mine rescue and survival equipment is reported that consists of a chlorate candle with a lithium hydroxide carbon-dioxide absorbent for oxygen generation, a breathing bag and tubing to conduct breathing to and from the man. A plastic hood incorporating a mouth piece for communication provides also eye protection and prevents inhalation through the nose. Manned testing of a prototype system demonstrated the feasibility of this closed circuit no-maintenance breathing apparatus that provides for good voice communication.

Martin, F. E.

1972-01-01

26

Portable breathing apparatus for coal mines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of the art in portable oxygen breathing equipment is reported. Considered are self-containing as well as chemically generating oxygen sources and their effectiveness and limitations in mine rescue operations.

Vandolah, R. W.

1972-01-01

27

46 CFR 108.703 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...breathing apparatus described in 108.497(a) to use as protection against gas leaking from a refrigeration unit if it is equipped with any refrigeration unit using (1) Ammonia to refrigerate any space with a volume of more than 20...

2010-10-01

28

46 CFR 108.703 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...breathing apparatus described in 108.497(a) to use as protection against gas leaking from a refrigeration unit if it is equipped with any refrigeration unit using (1) Ammonia to refrigerate any space with a volume of more than 20...

2011-10-01

29

46 CFR 108.703 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...breathing apparatus described in § 108.497(a) to use as protection against gas leaking from a refrigeration unit if it is equipped with any refrigeration unit using (1) Ammonia to refrigerate any space with a volume of more than 20...

2013-10-01

30

Performance Characteristics and Basic Design Features of a Breathing Machine for Use to Depths of up to 3000 Feet of Sea Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breathing machines have been a central part of the equipment used to evaluate respiratory protective devices and underwater breathing apparatus for several years. The leading breathing machines in use today are surveyed. A set of specifications are propos...

S. D. Reimers

1973-01-01

31

78 FR 2618 - Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Remaining Service-Life Indicator Performance Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NIOSH-258] RIN 0920-AA38 Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Remaining Service-Life Indicator...current requirements for self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) remaining service-life...respirator to alert the user that the breathing air provided by the respirator is...

2013-01-14

32

Dead space in the breathing apparatus; interaction with ventilation.  

PubMed

Dead space in breathing apparatus may cause increased ventilation and/or CO2 retention. Interactions between ventilation and dead space were tested in the breathing apparatus of three divers: a full face mask with an oro-nasal cup (AGA), a full face mask without an oro-nasal cup (EXO-26) but designed to minimize dead space, and one mouthpiece. Experiments were performed at three depths; 0, 30 and 45 m seawater (msw). The breathing gas was air except at 30 msw where it was 36 O2 in N2. Five certified SCUBA divers were exercised at three levels (0, 50 and 100 W). Ventilation and gas exchange were measured. The dead space in the AGA mask was not influenced by either depth or exercise (mean 0.201). The mean dead space of the EXO-26 was 0.341, but it increased with exercise (p < 0.001) and decreased with depth (p < 0.03). Since the dead space can vary with ventilation levels it is not sufficient to test breathing apparatus only at rest as is required by the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. The mean ventilation with the EXO-26 was higher than with the AGA by 10% at 50 W (p < 0.05) and by 12% (p < 0.01) at 100 W. The same comparison for end-tidal CO2 showed mean increase by 0.30 kPa at the 100-W workload (P < 0.05); changes at other workloads were not statistically significant. Comparisons of the mean inspired PCO2 to the maximum values considered acceptable by various organizations showed that the mouthpiece was always acceptable, the AGA mask was marginally acceptable or better, while sometimes the EXO-26 was not acceptable. PMID:7671854

Warkander, D E; Lundgren, C E

1995-09-01

33

Oxygen Consumption Rate of Operational Underwater Swimmers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prior to evaluating an underwater breathing apparatus (UBA), diver performance must be determined. Previous studies determining the oxygen consumption of swimming and resting divers were done in the laboratory and were limited in scope. Criticisms of thos...

M. E. Knafelc

1989-01-01

34

Ultrasound lung comets induced by repeated breath-hold diving, a study in underwater fishermen.  

PubMed

Pulmonary edema has been reported in breath-hold divers during fish-catching diving activity. The present study was designed to detect possible increases in extravascular lung water (EVLW) in underwater fishermen after a competition. Thirty healthy subjects were studied. They participated in two different 5-h fish-catching diving competitions: one organized in the winter (10 subjects) and one organized in the autumn (20 subjects). A questionnaire was used to record underwater activity and note respiratory problems. An increase in EVLW was investigated from the detection of ultrasound lung comets (ULC) by chest ultrasonography. Complementary investigations included echocardiography and pulmonary function testing. An increase in EVLW was detected in three out of 30 underwater fishermen after the competition. No signs of cardiovascular dysfunction were found in the entire population and in divers with an increase in the ULC score. Two divers with raised ULC presented respiratory disorders such as cough or shortness of breath. Impairment in spirometric parameters was recorded in these subjects. An increase in EVLW could be observed after a fish-catching diving competition in three out of 30 underwater fishermen. In two subjects, it was related to respiratory disorders and impairment in pulmonary flow. PMID:21535186

Boussuges, A; Coulange, M; Bessereau, J; Gargne, O; Ayme, K; Gavarry, O; Fontanari, P; Joulia, F

2011-12-01

35

30 CFR 57.22315 - Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines). 57.22315 Section 57.22315 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2013-07-01

36

42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of: (i) Compressed oxygen; or (ii) Chemical oxygen; or (iii) Liquid-oxygen. (2) Open-circuit...includes a self-contained breathing apparatus; and (2) A Type...Type CE supplied air respirator, where...

2013-10-01

37

77 FR 37862 - Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Remaining Service-Life Indicator Performance...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NIOSH-258] Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Remaining Service-Life Indicator...requirement for open-circuit self-contained breathing apparatus (OC- SCBA) remaining service-life...respirator to alert the user that the breathing air provided by the respirator is...

2012-06-25

38

Assessment of Organism Efficiency While Working in Breathing Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following types of respiratory protective equipment were evaluated: (1) A mask type MA-1 fitted with a hydrogen cyanide absorber; (2) an apparatus type LA; and (3) a protective apparatus for sand blasting workers. Investigations carried out in industr...

T. Comte

1973-01-01

39

Protective Breathing Apparatus. Fire Service Certification Series. Unit FSCS-FF-6-80.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training unit on protective breathing apparatus is part of a 17-unit course package written to aid instructors in the development, teaching, and evaluation of fire fighters in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. The purpose stated for the 10-hour unit is to enable the fire fighter to perform routine fire fighting and rescue

Pribyl, Paul F.

40

46 CFR 28.205 - Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Vessels That Operate Beyond the Boundary Lines or With More Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.205 Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel that operates...

2013-10-01

41

Divers swimming efficiency as a function of buoyancy, swimming attitude, protective garments, breathing apparatus, swimming technique and fin type'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall purpose of this series of studies was to determine the energy cost of underwater swimming and the effects of: (1) buoyancy and body position (2) fin selection (3) Swimming time (4) body cooling (5) protective garments (6) breathing gear on the...

D. R. Pendergast

1993-01-01

42

Effects of the self-contained breathing apparatus and fire protective clothing on maximal oxygen uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the effects of firefighting personal protective ensemble (PPE) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) on exercise performance, 12 males completed two randomly ordered, graded exercise treadmill tests (GXTPPE and GXTPT). Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) during GXTPPE was 17.3% lower than the GXTPT in regular exercise clothing (43.05.7 vs. 52.48.5ml\\/kg per min, respectively). The lower VO2max during the PPE condition

Randy W. Dreger; Richard L. Jones; Stewart R. Petersen

2006-01-01

43

Health Equipment Information Number 150, December 1985. Health Hardware Addressed and Assessed. Evaluation of Breathing Attachments for Anaesthetic Apparatus to BS 3849: 1965.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1983 the Department has funded a test programe at Bath Institute of Medical Engineering Limited (BIME), to evaluate the breathing attachments for anaesthetic apparatus available in the UK, and to determine their conformity with BS 3849: 1965 'Breath...

1985-01-01

44

Selecting an adequate respiratory protective device: the choice between a respirator and breathing apparatus.  

PubMed

An adequate respiratory protective device should keep the concentration of the pollutant inside the facepiece below the appropriate occupational exposure limit. Filtering respirators will not provide adequate protection if the device fails in an atmosphere which is immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH). It has therefore been suggested that in contaminant concentrations above an IDLH level it is more appropriate to select breathing apparatus with an emergency breathing facility. In this paper IDLH levels published by the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health have been compared with UK occupational exposure limits. For some substances there was a relatively small difference between the IDLH level and the short-term occupational exposure limit (STEL). The median ratio of the IDLH level to the STEL was 10 for gases and vapours and 50 for aerosols. For almost half the substances with UK occupational exposure limits there is no IDLH value. It is concluded that the published IDLH concentrations are, on their own, an insufficient basis for selecting breathing apparatus over a filtering respirator. It is equally important to consider the likelihood that a filtering device may fail catastrophically since this determines the risk from wearing a respirator in an IDLH atmosphere. More emphasis should be placed on the control of potentially high exposure levels by means other than respiratory protection. PMID:9559569

Cherrie, J W

1998-02-01

45

Effect of wearing personal protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus on heart rate, temperature and oxygen consumption during stepping exercise and live fire training exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire fighter breathing apparatus instructors (BAIs) must possess the ability to respond to both the extrinsic stress of a high temperature environment and the intrinsic stress from wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), repeatedly and regularly, whilst training recruits in live fire training exercises (LFTEs). There are few previous investigations on BAIs in hot environments such

S. S. Bruce-Low; D. Cotterrell; G. E. Jones

2007-01-01

46

Improved self-contained breathing apparatus concept. Final report Oct 80-Jun 82  

SciTech Connect

Past operational experiences of USAF fire fighting and rescue teams have indicated the need for an improved self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). In October 1980, a contract was awarded to Electronic Data Systems, Panama City, Florida, to design and develop a prototype SCBA that would meet Air Force technical requirements. A prototype was designed, developed, and tested through a subcontract with Reimers Consultants, Falls Church, Virginia. This report describes the technical requirements, a detailed technical description of the unit, and the unmanned test procedures and results. The unmanned testing demonstrate that the prototype SCBA meets all performance requirements, except for weight. The fully charged prototype weights 34 pounds, the maximum acceptable weight is 30 pounds. With the other performance requirements either met or exceeded, manned testing of the SCBA can proceed.

White, L.; Walker, J.

1982-08-01

47

Estimated workplace protection factors for positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus.  

PubMed

An analytical model is presented that estimates the distribution of workplace protection factor (WPF) values for positive-pressure respirators. Input for the model is (1) the instantaneous facepiece pressure measured as a function of time and (2) the distribution of WPF values for a negative-pressure version of the respirator. As an example application, the model was applied to 57 measurements of facepiece pressure made in a previous National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health study called "Firesmoke." That study involved professional firefighters wearing positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). During Firesmoke, there were four donnings in which facepiece pressure momentarily went negative one or more times during use. The purpose of the effort described here was to assess the significance of these momentary, negative excursions in facepiece pressure. To that end, an analytical model was developed that estimates the ratio of the mass of contaminant that enters the facepiece during these negative excursions to that which would be expected to enter a negative-pressure respirator utilizing the same facepiece. Thus, the performance of a positive-pressure SCBA can be determined relative to the performance of a negative-pressure respirator with the same facepiece--either a negative-pressure SCBA or a negative pressure air-purifying respirator. The NIOSH-assigned protection factor (APF) for a negative-pressure full facepiece is 50; the APF for a positive-pressure SCBA is 10,000. The results of the application of this analytical model are consistent with the current NIOSH APF for a positive-pressure SCBA. PMID:8209837

Campbell, D L; Noonan, G P; Merinar, T R; Stobbe, J A

1994-04-01

48

Apparatus for the exploitation of underwater currents for the production of electrical energy  

SciTech Connect

A rotor having slidable blades is employed to efficiently produce electrical energy from underwater currents. The device includes a structure having four columns which rises from the seabed and supports a circular monorail system. A circular housing fits on top of the monorail. An interior and exterior gear rack on the monorail engage with motors within the circular housing. Four vertical rack structures are associated with the circular housing and may be driven up and down by another set of motors within the circular housing. Electrical generators are contained within a control house supported by the vertical rack structures. The rotor preferably comprises a housing having four slots which slidably receive four blades which reciprocate up and down as the rotor turns. An automatic control device can position the rotor vertically and horizontally so it impinges on the underwater current having the optimum velocity.

Tomassini, O.

1981-03-17

49

Effects of Carbon Dioxide and UBA-Like Breathing Resistance on Exercise Endurance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effects of inspired CO2 and of resistance on exercise endurance were tested dry at sea level. Resistance R was designed to mimic that of the MK 16 underwater breathing apparatus (UBA) at 50 feet of seawater. The MK 16 UBA has turbulent inspiratory and lam...

B. Shykoff D. Warkander D. Winters

2010-01-01

50

Human Performance Underwater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance of the underwater worker is affected by a number of variables: the principal ones are the environment, breathing mixture, equipment, training, diver condition, and type of work. Some of these variables may be objectively measured, such as ...

A. J. Bachrach G. H. Egstrom

1976-01-01

51

Breathing Like a Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,

Katsioloudis, Petros J.

2010-01-01

52

42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing...

2013-10-01

53

42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shall be permanently and legibly marked to identify their contents, e.g., compressed breathing air, compressed breathing oxygen, liquefied breathing air, or liquefied breathing oxygen. (c) Containers normally removed from apparatus...

2013-10-01

54

Underwater connection apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes, in a subsea system for the production of oil or gas from subsurface formations or the injection of liquids or gases into subsurface formations, a subsea system for landing and securing ocean floor flowlines to the system, comprising a flowline receiving structure having two slide plates which are space apart, a first circular hole in each side plate on a first centerline, and a circular projection on each side plate about the first centerline; a flowline end connection suitable for attaching directly to the flowlines before the flowlines are lowered into the water. It includes a first spring loaded pin on each side of the flowline end connection on a second centerline with the second centerline being at right angles to the centerline of the flowlines, a funnel shaped means with a cylindrical stop surface at the bottom of the funnel shaped area on each side of the flowline end connection with the cylindrical stop surface about the second centerline, and circular fixed pin members on each side of the flowline end connection for attachment of pulling tool means also about the second centerline; and a pulling tool means with a guidance nose means including attachment means for engaging the circular fixed pin members and a connection to a wire rope or the such like, a receptacle means for receiving and positioning the guidance nose means, and a wire rope means which can be tensioned to pull the guidance nose means toward and into the receptacle means.

Baugh, B.F.

1987-02-10

55

The use of superoxide mixtures as air-revitalization chemicals in hyperbaric, self-contained, closed-circuit breathing apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In portable breathing apparatus applications at 1 atm, potassium superoxide (KO2) has exhibited low-utilization efficiency of the available oxygen (O2) and diminished carbon dioxide-(CO2) scrubbing capacity caused by the formation of a fused, hydrated-hydroxide/carbonate product coating on the superoxide granules. In earlier work, it was discovered that granules fabricated from an intimate mixture of KO2 and calcium superoxide, Ca(O2)2, did not exhibit formation of a fused product coating and the utilization efficiency with respect to both O2 release and CO2 absorption was superior to KO2 granules when both types of granules were reacted with humidified CO2 under identified conditions. In the work described here, single pellets of KO2, KO2/Ca(O2), mixtures and commercially available KO2 tables and granules were reacted with a flow of humidified CO2 in helium at 1- and 10-atm total pressure and at an initial temperature of 40 C. In the 1-atm flow tests, the reaction rates and utilization efficiency of the KO2/Ca(O2)2 pellets were markedly superior to the KO2 pellets, tablets, and granules when the samples were reacted under identical conditions. However, at 10 atm, the rates of O2 release and CO2 absorption, as well as the utilization efficiencies of all the superoxide samples, were one-third to one-eighth of the values observed at 1 atm. The decrease in reaction performance at 10 atm compared to that at 1 atm has been attributed principally to the lower bulk diffusivity of the CO2 and H2O reactants in helium at the higher pressure and secondarily to the moderation of the reaction temperature caused by the higher heat capacity of the 10-atm helium.

Wood, P. C.; Wydeven, T.

1985-01-01

56

Respirator studies for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Evaluation and performance of escape-type self-contained breathing apparatus. Progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979  

SciTech Connect

The performance of escape type breathing apparatus was evaluated for weight, comfort, ease of use, and protection factor (calculated from facepiece leakage). All of the devices tested provided a self-contained air supply of 5- to 15-min duration. Five of them have the provision to connect an air line but allow the use of the self-contained supply for safe egress. The air supply was stored in cylinders, tubing, or disposable containers. Respiratory inlet coverings were half masks, full facepieces, hoods, and mouthpieces. An estimate is given for the ease of quick donning. Recommendations for conditions of use of the equipment are given. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Hack, A.; Trujillo, A.; Carter, K.; Bradley, O.D.

1980-07-01

57

42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. 84...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed...

2010-10-01

58

42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. 84...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed...

2009-10-01

59

Underwater manipulator  

DOEpatents

Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

1993-04-20

60

Underwater manipulator  

DOEpatents

Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer .+-.45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer .+-.10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

Schrum, Phillip B. (Clairton, PA); Cohen, George H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1993-01-01

61

42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a)...

2010-10-01

62

Development of an Automated Breathing and Metabolic Simulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines has been developing breathing and metabolic simulator technology since 1970. Breathing simulation has been widely achieved throughout the world and used in the testing of open-circuit breathing apparatus, but satisfactory metabolism st...

N. Kyriazi

1986-01-01

63

42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.79 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.79 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a)...

2009-10-01

64

42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90 Section 84.90 Public Health ...Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow...

2012-10-01

65

Breathing Retraining  

MedlinePLUS

... Dept. of Medicine View full profile COPD: Lifestyle Management Breathing Retraining Learning new breathing techniques will help ... these breathing techniques. NEXT: Avoiding Infections BACK: Lifestyle Management, Index More Breathing Retraining Information Back to Lifestyle ...

66

Chemical defense collective protection technology. Volume 12. A procedure for recharging self-contained breathing apparatus air bottles in the presence of simulated chemical warfare agents. Final report, 6-11 September 1990  

SciTech Connect

A procedure was developed and tested for recharging Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) cylinders in an atmosphere contaminated with chemical agent simulant at concentrations which would produce casualties if actual agent were used. With the exception of a rack for storing the cylinders before and after recharging, all items used are currently available commercially or through off-the-shelf DOD supply sources. Cylinders were successfully recharged without contamination in the presence of chemical agent simulant in the compressor area as well as in the cylinder filling area. Inexperienced personnel easily learned and successfully followed the recharging procedures even though they were burdened by protective clothing and equipment. Chemical agents, SCBA, Firefighting, Self-contained breathing apparatus.

Conkle, J.P.; Tucker, D.M.; Moore, G.

1993-05-01

67

Chemical defense collective protection technology. Volume 12. A procedure for recharging self-contained breathing apparatus air bottles in the presence of simulated chemical warfare agents. Final report, 6-11 September 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure was developed and tested for recharging Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) cylinders in an atmosphere contaminated with chemical agent simulant at concentrations which would produce casualties if actual agent were used. With the exception of a rack for storing the cylinders before and after recharging, all items used are currently available commercially or through off-the-shelf DOD supply sources. Cylinders

J. P. Conkle; D. M. Tucker; G. Moore

1993-01-01

68

Google underwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first underwater panoramic images were added to Google Maps, the company announced on 25 September. This first underwater Street View collection, launched in partnership with the Caitlin Seaview Survey, provides people with the opportunity to become the next virtual Jacques Cousteau. For more information, see: maps.google.com/ocean.

Showstack, Randy

2012-10-01

69

Breathing difficulty  

MedlinePLUS

Shortness of breath; Breathlessness; Difficulty breathing; Dyspnea ... No standard definition exists for difficulty breathing. Some people may feel breathless with only mild exercise (for example, climbing stairs), even though they do not have a medical condition. ...

70

Firefighter's Breathing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

1976-01-01

71

Breath Sampler (II).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to methods and devices for measuring and analyzing contents of gas samples, and more particularly to a method and apparatus for sampling volumetric quantities of human exhaled breath, and then either performing on-site analyses for m...

R. Glaser

1990-01-01

72

Underwater Acoustics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the history of underwater acoustics and describes related research studies and teaching activities at the University of Birmingham (England). Also includes research studies on transducer design and mathematical techniques. (SK)

Creasey, D. J.

1981-01-01

73

Vision Underwater.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information regarding underwater vision. Includes a discussion of optically important interfaces, increased eye size of organisms at greater depths, visual peculiarities regarding the habitat of the coastal environment, and various pigment visual systems. (CS)

Levine, Joseph S.

1980-01-01

74

Breathing zone air sampler  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

1989-01-01

75

United States Coast Guard Emergency Underwater Escape Rebreather Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Coast Guard (USCG) Emergency Underwater Escape Rebreather (UER) was evaluated at the Navy Experimental Diving Unit. Physiologic testing in the dry laboratory, monitoring breath-to-breath O2 and CO2 levels, delineated the factors used in ...

C. G. Gray E. O. Thalmann R. Syklawer

1981-01-01

76

42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing apparatus shall be designed and constructed to prevent: (a) Restriction of free head movement; (b) Disturbance of the fit of facepieces and mouthpieces; (c) Interference with the wearer's...

2012-10-01

77

Breathing Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... you're not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard ... conditions such as asthma, emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or ...

78

Breathing Difficulties  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources > Our Publications and Videos > Factsheets Share Print Breathing Difficulties ALS varies greatly from person to person and symptoms related to your breathing can start early or much later. Weakness in ...

79

Underwater breathing: the mechanics of plastron respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rough, hairy surfaces of many insects and spiders serve to render them water- repellent; consequently, when submerged, many are able to survive by virtue of a thin air layer trapped along their exteriors. The diusion of dissolved oxygen from the am- bient water may allow this layer to function as a respiratory bubble or 'plastron', and so enable certain

M. R. FLYNN; JOHN W. M. BUSH

2008-01-01

80

Underwater Concreting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The placing of underwater concrete by tremie, by skip and the special process of grouted aggregate were reviewed. It was noted that problems with broken seals and coverage of large areas by the tremie affect its usefulness when compared with the skip. Als...

1971-01-01

81

Underwater ROV  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online Flash game, learners will explore a coral reef using an underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Faced with concerns that environments around the world might be undergoing rapid change in the face of global warming, learners are assigned to use their ROV to investigate the tropical reef and snap photos of the fish species living in its various regions. There are three levels of play (easy, moderate, hard) that learners can master.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

82

Computer simulation of breathing systems for divers  

SciTech Connect

A powerful new tool for the analysis and design of underwater breathing gas systems is being developed. A versatile computer simulator is described which makes possible the modular ''construction'' of any conceivable breathing gas system from computer memory-resident components. The analysis of a typical breathing gas system is demonstrated using this simulation technique, and the effects of system modifications on performance of the breathing system are shown. This modeling technique will ultimately serve as the foundation for a proposed breathing system simulator under development by the Navy. The marriage of this computer modeling technique with an interactive graphics system will provide the designer with an efficient, cost-effective tool for the development of new and improved diving systems.

Sexton, P.G.; Nuckols, M.L.

1983-02-01

83

Underwater television equipment described  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An underwater television system for general observational purposes was developed on the basis of an industrial television camera for remote observation. Such an underwater television system is required for underwater work, inspection, research, salvage, and search. The mechanical and electrical structures of the underwater camera are discussed. Circuit diagrams are provided and the filter section and plug connections are mentioned.

Borgelt, D.; Kiekbusch, A.; Lippman, L.; Schwuchow, V.

1984-08-01

84

Underwater Plume  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment uses inexpensive and easy-to-find items to demonstrate how hot water behaves in a body of cold water. Working in groups of four, students can complete the experiment in a single class period. The printable handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about how cold and hot air and water interact, detailed experiment directions, and a worksheet that helps students use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of how knowledge of what creates underwater geysers can be used to detect deep sea vents.

85

Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration of chemical change, the presenter blows breath into a methylene blue solution releasing carbon dioxide which acidifies the water and changes it from a bright blue color to green.

Wosu

2009-08-20

86

Breathing (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Breathing consists of two phases. The first phase is the inspiration phase. Inspiration allows air to flow into the lungs. The second phase is expiration. Expiration involves gases leaving the lungs. During inspiration, the diaphragm and ...

87

Breath odor  

MedlinePLUS

... through the breathing. This is a sign of ketoacidosis , which may occur in diabetes. It is a ... ammonia ) Diabetes (fruity or sweet chemical smell with ketoacidosis) Esophageal cancer Gastric carcinoma Gastrojejunocolic fistula (fruity-smelling ...

88

Underwater Plume  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment uses inexpensive and easy-to-find items to demonstrate how hot water behaves in a body of cold water. Working in groups of four, students can complete the experiment in a single class period. The printable six-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about how cold and hot air and water interact, detailed experiment directions, and a worksheet that helps them use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of how knowledge of what creates underwater geysers can be used to detect deep sea vents. Students will observe how water at high temperatures behaves within water at low temperatures, the relationship of temperature to density, and the relationship between density and buoyancy.

89

Breathing Room  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this health activity, learners explore breathing, lungs and asthma. Learners test their lung capacity by blowing air into balloons. Learners are also encouraged to determine how the amount of air in a balloon changes as you vary the size of the hole you blow through. Safety note: Check for latex allergies before purchasing balloons. Learners with respiratory problems should not breathe through the straws or blow up the balloons, but they can help record measurements and collect data.

Television, Twin C.

2010-01-01

90

Breathing and Holding Your Breath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students begin with interactive activities to develop a basic understanding of why cells need oxygen and need to get rid of carbon dioxide, how the circulatory and respiratory systems cooperate to bring oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from cells all over the body, and how the nervous system regulates breathing. Then, students carry out an experiment to test whether changing levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide influence how long they can hold their breath.

Waldron, Ingrid; Doherty, Jennifer

91

Underwater Inspection Aid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application describes an underwater inspection aid designed to facilitate underwater inspection and instrumentation or measuring device reading in very murky water where visibility is low. The device consists of a sealed acrylic cylinder with b...

J. Mittleman F. B. Barrett

1975-01-01

92

Traveling with breathing problems  

MedlinePLUS

If you have breathing problems and you: Are short of breath most of the time Get short of breath when you walk 150 ... or less Have been in the hospital for breathing problems recently Use oxygen at home, even if ...

93

Breathing Yeasties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Does yeast breathe? Find out by watching how plastic bags filled with yeast, warm water and different amounts of sugar change over time. Demonstrate the interaction of microorganisms and the carbon cycle with yeast, sugar and water, and discover how organisms are dependent on water and energy flow.

Columbia River Exhibition of History, Science and Technology (CREHST)

1999-01-01

94

Exercise carbon dioxide (CO2) retention with inhaled CO2 and breathing resistance.  

PubMed

Combined effects on respiratory minute ventilation (VE)--and thus, on end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (P(ET)CO2)--of breathing resistance and elevated inspired carbon dioxide (CO2) had not been determined during heavy exercise. In this Institutional Review Board-approved, dry, sea-level study, 12 subjects in each of three phases exercised to exhaustion at 85% peak oxygen uptake while V(E) and P(ET)CO2 were measured. Participants inhaled 0%, 1%, 2% or 3% CO2 in air, or 0% or 2% CO2 in oxygen, with or without breathing resistance, mimicking the U.S. Navy's MK 16 rebreather underwater breathing apparatus (UBA). Compared to air baseline (0% inspired CO2 in air without resistance): (1) Oxygen decreased baseline V(E) (p < 0.01); (2) Inspired CO2 increased V(E) and P(ET)CO2 (p < 0.01); (3) Resistance decreased V(E) (p < 0.01); (4) Inspired CO2 with resistance elevated P(ET)CO2 (p < 0.01). In air, V(E) did not change from that with resistance alone. In oxygen, V(E) returned to oxygen baseline. End-exercise P(ET)CO2 exceeded 60 Torr (8.0 kPa) in three tests. Subjects identified hypercapnia poorly. Results support dual optimization of arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure and respiratory effort. Because elevated CO2 may not increase V(E) if breathing resistance and VE are high, rebreather UBA safety requires very low inspired CO2. PMID:22908838

Shykoff, Barbara E; Warkander, Dan E

2012-01-01

95

Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners test exhaled breath for carbon dioxide and learn how to use an indicator as a simple way to measure pH. Learners also explore what happens when an acid (lemon) is mixed with the indicator. This activity can be related to the topic of global climate change. This activity can also be used to discuss atmospheric warming, which is occurring due to increased amounts of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane in the atmosphere.

Workshop, Mission S.

2013-01-01

96

Breathing difficulties - first aid  

MedlinePLUS

Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency (other than feeling slightly winded from normal activity such ...

97

Breathing difficulty - lying down  

MedlinePLUS

... short of breath; Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... Heart failure Obesity (does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often aggravates other conditions ...

98

Deep breathing after surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated and healthy while ... uncomfortable. But if you do not practice deep breathing after surgery, you may develop lung problems, like ...

99

Neuromuscular Diseases and Breathing  

MedlinePLUS

... Help MDA Search form Search Neuromuscular Diseases and Breathing Breathing is accomplished with the effort of respiratory muscles. ... as air leaves the lungs. The process of breathing in and out, taking in oxygen and exhaling ...

100

Rapid shallow breathing  

MedlinePLUS

Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

101

Breathing and Relaxation  

MedlinePLUS

... here: Health Information > Healthy Lifestyle > Breathing and Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Relaxation is the absence of tension ... level is often dependent on his or her breathing pattern. Therefore, people with chronic lung conditions may ...

102

Breath alcohol test  

MedlinePLUS

Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

103

Multiple position underwater birthing stool  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A birthing stool is disclosed comprising a series of closed walls constructed from a non porous rigid material, molded into compound curves. The stool facilitates a range of physiologically effective positioning for labor and delivery and can be used submerged underwater during waterbirth. The stool ergonomically supports the body while also achieving structural integrity through a simple organic form that can be produced inexpensively using minimal material. All elements of the stool, including a seat portion that accommodates a laboring woman and her birthing partner, as well as handles and grips for carrying are integrated into a single part design, facilitating effective cleansing and disinfection of the apparatus. The invention includes the method of production of the stool, and describes method of using device.

2013-04-02

104

Clear Underwater Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater imaging is important for scientific research and technology, as well as for popular activities. We present a computer vision approach which easily removes degradation effects in underwater vision. We analyze the physical effects of visibility degradation. We show that the main degradation effects can be associated with partial polarization of light. We therefore present an algorithm which inverts the

Yoav Y. Schechner; Nir Karpel

2004-01-01

105

Colorful Underwater Sea Creatures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes a project wherein students created colorful underwater sea creatures. This project began with a discussion about underwater sea creatures and how they live. The first step was making the multi-colored tissue paper that would become sea creatures and seaweed. Once students had the shapes of their sea creatures

McCutcheon, Heather

2011-01-01

106

Underwater Scene Composition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes an underwater scene composition for elementary-education majors. This project deals with watercolor with crayon or oil-pastel resist (medium); the beauty of nature represented by fish in the underwater scene (theme); texture and pattern (design elements); drawing simple forms (drawing skill); and composition

Kim, Nanyoung

2009-01-01

107

Work of Breathing Limits for Heliox Breathing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the present report was to determine physiologically acceptable limits for work of breathing with heliox mixtures. The basis for the development was the limits for air breathing that Navy Experimental Diving Unit (NEDU) implemented in 2008. ...

D. Warkander

2010-01-01

108

42 CFR 84.96 - Service time test; closed-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service time test; closed-circuit apparatus. 84...Breathing Apparatus § 84.96 Service time test; closed-circuit apparatus. ...be classified according to the length of time it supplies adequate breathing gas...

2012-10-01

109

42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service time test; open-circuit apparatus. 84.95...Breathing Apparatus § 84.95 Service time test; open-circuit apparatus. (a) Service time will be measured with a breathing machine...

2012-10-01

110

Quantitative photomosaicking of underwater imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looks at some of the justification behind photomosaicking for underwater imaging. One of the primary reasons for employing photomosaicking underwater is to obtain a better global perspective in the underwater environment. Due to physical constraints underwater, it is virtually impossible to frame large objects of interest within a single picture frame. Thus there has been considerable interest over the years

Hanumant Singh; Jonathan Howland; Dana Yoerger; Louis Whitcomb

1998-01-01

111

Breathing Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visual simulation and representation programs and applications have been popping up online in greater numbers, and this recent find is one that will pique the interest of scientists, policy makers, and others who are concerned about carbon dioxide emission rates across the Earth. The Breathing Earth site was created by David Bleja, and he draws on a number of resources (such as the World Factbook and the United Nations) for the data that is utilized to create this site. Visitors can scroll over different countries to learn about their population, their emissions, and their birth and death rate. This interactive map and educational resource also contains a legend in the right-hand corner which explains the various symbols in use here.

Bleja, David

112

What Happens When You Breathe?  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. What Happens When You Breathe? Breathing In (Inhalation) When you breathe in, or inhale, ... the Health Topics How the Heart Works article.) Breathing Out (Exhalation) When you breathe out, or exhale, ...

113

Flextensional Underwater Acoustics Transducer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic principles of the flextensional underwater acoustic transducer are investigated by developing a mathematical model representation for this type of transducer system, and then establishing the effects that the various geometrical parameters have ...

L. H. Royster

1969-01-01

114

Smelling and Tasting Underwater.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses differences between smell and taste, comparing these senses in organisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Describes the chemical environment underwater and in air, differences in chemoreceptors to receive stimuli, and the organs, brain, and behavior involved in chemoreception. (CS)

Atema, Jelle

1980-01-01

115

Underwater hydrophone location survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) is a U.S. Navy test range located on Andros Island, Bahamas, and a Division of the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Newport, RI. The Headquarters of AUTEC is located at a facility in West Palm Beach, FL. AUTEC's primary mission is to provide the U.S. Navy with a deep-water test and evaluation facility for making underwater acoustic measurements, testing and calibrating sonars, and providing accurate underwater, surface, and in-air tracking data on surface ships, submarines, aircraft, and weapon systems. Many of these programs are in support of Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW), undersea research and development programs, and Fleet assessment and operational readiness trials. Most tests conducted at AUTEC require precise underwater tracking (plus or minus 3 yards) of multiple acoustic signals emitted with the correct waveshape and repetition criteria from either a surface craft or underwater vehicle.

Cecil, Jack B.

1993-01-01

116

Directional acoustic underwater thruster  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper described a novel directional underwater thruster which could change thrust directions without any moving parts. When the underwater thruster moved along a non-vertical angle, it could produce straight backward thrust of 2.3mN and lateral thrust of 0.6mN in parallel on the device surface, with the total thrust\\/weight ration of 2:1. Water jet was streamed out by high intensity

Z. Wang; J. Zhu; X. Qiu; R. Tang; C. Yu; J. Oiler; E. Kim; H. Yu

2011-01-01

117

Underwater seismic source. [for petroleum exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus for generating a substantially oscillation-free seismic signal for use in underwater petroleum exploration, including a bag with walls that are flexible but substantially inelastic, and a pressured gas supply for rapidly expanding the bag to its fully expanded condition is described. The inelasticity of the bag permits the application of high pressure gas to rapidly expand it to full size, without requiring a venting mechanism to decrease the pressure as the bag approaches a predetermined size to avoid breaking of the bag.

Yang, L. C. (inventor)

1979-01-01

118

Sound Propagation around Underwater Seamounts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the ocean, low frequency acoustic waves propagate with low attenuation and cylindrical spreading loss over long-ranges, making them an effective tool for underwater source localization, tomography, and communications. Underwater mountains, or seamounts...

I. J. Sikora

2009-01-01

119

Locating underwater objects. [technology transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Underwater search operations are considered to be engineering and operational problems. A process for proper definition of the problem and selection of instrumentation and operational procedures is described. An outline of underwater search instrumentation and techniques is given.

Grice, C. F.

1974-01-01

120

Protective Paint for Application Underwater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application concerns a two component epoxy paint for application to an underwater surface. The paint displaces the water on the underwater surface and bonds tightly and permanently to it, sealing concrete surfaces and protecting steel surfaces...

R. W. Drisko

1976-01-01

121

Minimizing Shortness of Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... postures and exposure to environmental irritants. Pursed-Lip Breathing One focus of occupational therapy is to teach ... the accessory muscles and manage respiratory symptoms. Monitor Breathing During an activity, it is important to pause ...

122

Breath-Holding Spells  

MedlinePLUS

... toddlers who hold their breath until they turn blue in the face. These might sound like amusing " ... happen when a child stops breathing and turns blue in the face. These spells are often triggered ...

123

Do Pressure-Demand Breathing Systems Safeguard Against Inward Leakage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rescue operations conducted in toxic atmospheres require respiratory protective equipment capable of providing a very high degree of protection. A slight positive pressure in the facepiece throughout the breathing cycle is used in the pressure-demand, compressed-air breathing apparatus to eliminate any inward leakage. In the present work an inward leakage test with sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) was used to measure facepiece

GUNNAR O. DAHLBCK; LUBOS NOVAK

1983-01-01

124

Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.  

PubMed

Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another important concern is a suite of products from chemical reactions among oxidizing compounds with biological chemicals such as amines, thiols and carbonyls. SAMAP Meeting We (Armin and Joachim) attended the 2011 SAMAP conference in Taranto, Italy (10-14 October), which occurred just a few weeks after the IABR meeting in Parma, Italy (11-15 September 2011). It was held at the Officers' Club of the Taranto Naval Base under the patronage of the Italian navy; the local host was Lucio Ricciardi of the University of Insubria, Varese, Italy. At the 2011 SAMAP meeting, the theme was air-independent propulsion (AIP), meaning the capability of recharging the main batteries of the submarine without the need to surface. Only a few navies (e.g. US, UK, France, Russia, China) have historically had this capability using nuclear-powered submarines that can function underwater for extended periods of time (months). Most navies operate submarines with conventional diesel-electric propulsion, wherein diesel-powered generators charge battery banks which then drive an electric motor connected to the propeller. The batteries are charged while the boat is on the surface or during snorkelling, when the boat is submerged a few meters below the surface and a snorkel tube is extended to the surface. The period between battery charges can vary from several hours to one or two days depending on the power requirements and the nature of the mission. The process is necessary for breathing air revitalization (flushing out accumulated contaminants) and for the operation of the diesel engines. However, during this period the submarine is vulnerable to detection. Since the 1940s there have been various attempts to develop a power generation system that is independent of external air (AIP). To this end hydrogen peroxide was initially used and later liquid oxygen (LOX). Currently, most AIP submarines use fuel cell technology (LOX and hydrogen) to supplement the conventional diesel-electric system in order to extend the underwater endurance to 2-3 weeks. These propulsion engineering changes also reduce per

Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

2012-03-01

125

Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the vehicle navigation problem for an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) with six degrees of freedom. We approach this problem using an error state formulation of the Kalman filter. Integration of the vehicle's high-rate inertial measurement unit's (IMU's) accelerometers and gyros allow time propagation while other sensors provide measurement corrections. The low-rate aiding sensors include a Doppler velocity

Paul A. Miller; Jay A. Farrell; Yuanyuan Zhao; Vladimir Djapic

2010-01-01

126

The Literary Underwater World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between humans and the sea, discusses two types of underwater folk creatures--selchies and merfolk--that populate children's books, and indicates how well a number of stories about these creatures work both within their own literary contexts and within the larger folklore-as-metaphysics context. (ET)

Yolen, Jane

1980-01-01

127

Fabricating Underwater Electroacoustic Transducers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Use of retainer ring instead of adhesives simplifies assembly and disassembly. Underwater electroacoustical transducer assembly uses precast silicone rubber compressed between ceramic crystal and metal container. Removable retainer ring holds assembly in place. Method provides proper stress loading, speed and ease of assembly, and way of removing transducer without damaging crystal.

Ferguson, R. L.; Lovelady, R. W.

1985-01-01

128

Living with Dyspnea -- How to Breathe Easier  

MedlinePLUS

... breathing, positioning, paced breathing, and desensitization. Pursed-lip breathing This may seem awkward at first, but it ... them until you find the best one. Paced breathing Paced breathing prevents or decreases shortness of breath ...

129

42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.95 Service...time will be measured with a breathing machine as described in § 84...the length of time it supplies air or oxygen to the breathing machine. (c) The...

2013-10-01

130

Ion-trap detection of volatile organic compounds in alveolar breath  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for the collection and microanalysis of the volatile organic compounds in human breath. A transportable apparatus supplies subjects with purified air and samples their alveolar breath; the volatile organic compounds are captured in an adsorptive trap containing activated carbon and molecular sieve. The sample is thermally desorbed from the trap in an automated microprocessor-controlled device, concentrated

M. Phillips; J. Greenberg

1992-01-01

131

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three pieces of scientific apparatus and their demonstrational use: a high temperature apparatus for positron annihilation studies, a digitally synthesized classroom variable star, and a demonstration of plasma laser-beam focusing using paint stripper flames. (GA)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1978-01-01

132

Underwater welding, cutting and inspection  

SciTech Connect

Underwater welding, cutting and inspection of offshore, inland waterway and port facilities are becoming a requirement for both military and industrial communities, as maintenance and repair costs continue to escalate, and as many of the facilities are in operation well beyond their intended design life. In nuclear applications, underwater welding, cutting and inspection for repair and modification of irradiated nuclear power plant components are also a requirement. This article summarizes recent developments in this emerging underwater technology.

Tsai, C.L. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Ohio Underwater Welding Center)

1995-02-01

133

Directional acoustic underwater thruster.  

PubMed

This study describes a tested prototype for a controllable directional underwater thruster with no moving parts. During operation, a high-intensity acoustic wave creates directional water jets and the device moves itself in the opposite direction. When the underwater thruster moves along a non-vertical angle, it can produce straight backward thrust of 2.3 mN and lateral thrust of 0.6 mN in parallel with the device surface, with a total thrust-to-weight ratio of 2:1. To enhance the acoustic streaming effect, a self-focusing acoustic transducer (SFAT) with air reflectors is used to focus the acoustic wave. PMID:21693390

Wang, Ziyu; Qiu, Xiaotun; Zhu, Jie; Oiler, Jon; Chen, Shih-Jui; Shi, Jing; Kim, Eun; Yu, Hongyu

2011-06-01

134

Natural Underwater Adhesives  

PubMed Central

The general topic of this review is protein-based underwater adhesives produced by aquatic organisms. The focus is on mechanisms of interfacial adhesion to native surfaces and controlled underwater solidification of natural water-borne adhesives. Four genera that exemplify the broad range of function, general mechanistic features, and unique adaptations are discussed in detail: blue mussels, acorn barnacles, sandcastle worms, and freshwater caddisfly larva. Aquatic surfaces in nature are charged and in equilibrium with their environment, populated by an electrical double layer of ions as well as adsorbed natural polyelectrolytes and microbial biofilms. Surface adsorption of underwater bioadhesives likely occurs by exchange of surface bound ligands by amino acid sidechains, driven primarily by relative affinities and effective concentrations of polymeric functional groups. Most aquatic organisms exploit modified amino acid sidechains, in particular phosphorylated serines and hydroxylated tyrosines (dopa), with high-surface affinity that form coordinative surface complexes. After delivery to the surfaces as a fluid, permanent natural adhesives solidify to bear sustained loads. Mussel plaques are assembled in a manner superficially reminiscent of in vitro layer-by-layer strategies, with sequentially delivered layers associated through Fe(dopa)3 coordination bonds. The adhesives of sandcastle worms, caddisfly larva, and barnacles may be delivered in a form somewhat similar to in vitro complex coacervation. Marine adhesives are secreted, or excreted, into seawater that has a significantly higher pH and ionic strength than the internal environment. Empirical evidence suggests these environment triggers could provide minimalistic, fail-safe timing mechanisms to prevent premature solidification (insolubilization) of the glue within the secretory system, yet allow rapid solidification after secretion. Underwater bioadhesives are further strengthened by secondary covalent curing.

Stewart, Russell J.; Ransom, Todd C.; Hlady, Vladimir

2011-01-01

135

Underwater laser system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a solid-state laser operating at 532nm for underwater topographic investigations. The laser system is integrated into a torpedo-like 'towed-body', with the military designation of AQS-20. This laser, along with other sophisticated receiver opto-electronic systems enables detailed underwater bathymetry. CEO designed and manufactured the laser portion of this system. The laser sub-system is comprised of two separate parts: the LTU (Laser Transmitter Unit) and the LEU (Laser Electronics Unit). The LTU and LEU where put through Mil-standard testing for vibration, shock and temperature storage and operation extremes as well as Mil-461C EMI/EMC testing. The Nd:YAG laser operates at a 400 Hz pulse repetition frequency and is controlled remotely, tethered to the system controller in a ship or helicopter. Power monitor circuits allow real time laser health monitoring, which enables input parameter adjustments for consistent laser behavior. The towed body moves forward at a constant rate of speed while this underwater LIDAR system gathers data. All heat generated must be conducted into the outer hull of the towed-body and then, to the surrounding ambient ocean water. The water temperature may vary from 0-35 degrees C.

Kushina, Mark E.; Heberle, Geoff; Hope, Michael; Crittenden, Ryan M.; Bethel, Michael

2002-03-01

136

Eldercare at Home: Breathing Problems  

MedlinePLUS

Eldercare at Home: Breathing Problems Caregiving How Tos Understanding the Problem As people age, certain activities, such as going up a flight of ... However, aging sometimes brings on other more serious breathing problems including incapacitating shortness of breath, chest discomfort, ...

137

Vision based autonomous underwater vehicle navigation: underwater cable tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a vision based autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) navigation system is proposed and its performance is demonstrated by an autonomous underwater cable tracking (AUCT) mission at Lake Biwa using the test bed AUV Twin-Burger available at the University of Tokyo. The proposed system for the AUCT consist of three levels of controllers; namely, the higher level controller, the

B. A. A. P. Balasuriya; M. Takai; W. C. Lam; T. Ura; Y. Kuroda

1997-01-01

138

Design Specifications for Respiratory Breathing Devices for Firefighters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The desired protective factor for self-contained breathing apparatus used in the fire service is proposed at 100 based on a series of tests with a personal air sampler which revealed maximum air concentrations of carbon monoxide of approximately 20,000 PP...

W. A. Burgess R. Sidor N. Peterson P. Buchanan E. Clougherty

1975-01-01

139

Biophysics of underwater hearing in anuran amphibians.  

PubMed

A standing wave tube apparatus was used to determine the biophysical basis of underwater hearing sensitivity in 3 species of Rana and in Xenopus laevis. A speaker inside the base of a vertical, water-filled 3 m steel pipe produced standing waves. Pressure and particle motion were measured with a hydrophone and geophone respectively and were spatially 90 degrees out of phase along the length of the tube. Microphonic responses were recorded from the inner ear of frogs lowered through pressure and particle motion maxima and minima. The air-filled lungs of whole frogs produced distortions of the sound field. Preparations of heads with only an air-filled middle ear produced little distortion and showed clear pressure tracking at sound intensities 10-20 dB above hearing thresholds from 200-3000 Hz. Filling the middle ear with water decreased or abolished microphonic responses. Severing the stapes reduced responses except at certain frequencies below about 1000 Hz which varied with body size and likely represent resonant frequencies of the middle ear cavity. We conclude that the frog species examined respond to underwater sound pressure from about 200-3000 Hz with the middle ear cavity responsible for pressure transduction. PMID:6980964

Hetherington, T E; Lombard, R E

1982-06-01

140

An Apparatus for Controlled Artificial Positive-Pressure Pulmonary Ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the mechanisms of the voluntary regulation of breathing movements, we used controlled artificial positive-pressure pulmonary ventilation of the lungs [1]. Described here is an apparatus that can be used for detecting similarities and dissimilarities in regulatory mechanisms of the respiratory and nonrespiratory muscles during lung ventilation. To operate the earlier version of the apparatus, the subject had to

M. A. Pogodin; S. P. Romanov; G. N. Mikhailov

2001-01-01

141

Tactical underwater navigation system (TUNS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of underwater navigation for an individual diver is particularly challenging. GPS navigation is unsuitable for most underwater operations and particularly covert operations use because the GPS RF signal is attenuated below usable levels as it penetrates the water column. Dead reckoning methods, which rely on magnetic compass and approximate distance measurements, are susceptible to magnetic interference, inaccurate distance

R. Hartman; W. Hawkinson; K. Sweeney

2008-01-01

142

Underwater vehicle navigation: recent advances and new challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper surveys recent advances in underwater vehicle navigation and identi?es future research challenges. Improvements in underwater navigation sensor technology and underwater navigation algorithms are enabling novel underwater vehicles and novel underwater vehicle missions. This paper ?rst reviews advances in underwater navigation sensor technology. Second, advances in deterministic and stochastic underwater navigation methodologies and algorithms are reviewed. Finally, future challenges

James C. Kinsey; Ryan M. Eustice; Louis L. Whitcomb

2006-01-01

143

Underwater gas tornado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first experimental observation of a new hydrodynamic phenomenon, the underwater tornado. Simple measurements show that the tornado forms a vortex of the Rankine type, i.e. the rising gas rotates as a solid body and the liquid rotates with a velocity decreasing hyperbolically with the radius. We obtain the dependence of the tornado radius a on the gas stream value j theoretically: a ? j2/5. Processing of a set of experiments yielded the value 0.36 for the exponent in this expression. We also report the initial stages of the theoretical study of this phenomenon.

Byalko, Alexey V.

2013-07-01

144

42 CFR 84.94 - Gas flow test; closed-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gas flow test; closed-circuit apparatus. 84.94 Section 84.94 ...Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.94 Gas flow test; closed-circuit apparatus. (a) Where oxygen is...

2012-10-01

145

Breath holding spell  

MedlinePLUS

... spells are not thought to be a willful act of defiance, even though they often occur with temper tantrums. Symptoms can include: Blue or pale skin Crying, then no breathing Fainting or loss of alertness ( ...

146

Bad Breath (Halitosis)  

MedlinePLUS

... Dry mouth ( xerostomia ) This can be caused by salivary gland problems, medicines or "mouth breathing." A large number ... dentist will examine your teeth, gums, mouth and salivary glands. He or she also will feel your head ...

147

Astronauts Practice Station Spacewalk Underwater  

NASA Video Gallery

Astronauts Robert Satcher Jr. and Rick Sturckow conduct an underwater practice spacewalk session at Johnson Space Center?s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. The session was used to help International Sp...

148

Remote Underwater Laser Acoustic Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the use of nonlinear optical effects, an appropriately tailored laser pulse can propagate relatively long distances underwater at moderate intensity (up to distances on the order of the attenuation length, approximately 10 meters in sea water), then quickly converge to an intense focus within a few centimeters at a controlled location. Optical breakdown can then generate an acoustic pulse at this location. An array of laser-generated acoustic sources could comprise a large acoustic aperture sonar imaging system for locating mines, mapping sea floor topography, or identifying underwater structures. Previous experiments at NRL indicate that approx. 1 mJ of coupled laser energy will produce a 200 dB, microsecond-timescale acoustic pulse, a source level more than adequate for high resolution acoustic imaging applications. A combined experimental and theoretical research program at NRL aims to investigate intense underwater laser propagation and to develop techniques for a remote underwater laser acoustic source. Initial results will be presented.

Jones, T. G.; Ting, A.; Alexeev, I.; Briscoe, E.; Penano, J.; Sprangle, P.

2004-11-01

149

Underwater Robotics: Science, Design & Fabrication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes information on the textbook Underwater Robotics: Science, Design & Fabrication by Steven W. Moore, Harry Bohm and Vickie Jensen. The site includes information about the content of the book as well as sample material.

2011-09-20

150

Underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Practical limitations of underwater imaging systems are reached when the noise in the back scattered radiation generated in the water between the imaging system and the target obscures the spatial contrast and the resolution necessary for target discovery...

M. L. DeLong T. J. Kulp

1995-01-01

151

[Sleep disordered breathing].  

PubMed

Sleep apnea is a breathing disorder characterized by cessation of breathing during sleep, oxygen desaturation and awakenings during night. There are several types of breathing disorders during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is also characterized by snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness. Central sleep apnea (CSA) is less common and characterized by reduced respiratory drive from the central nervous system. Upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, absence ofapneas, hypopneas and lack of significant oxygen desaturation. The consequences of the abnormal breathing during sleep include excessive daytime sleepiness, development of arterial hypertension, ischemic cardiac disease, neurocognitive dysfunction, glaucomic optico-neuropathy, metabolic dysfunction. The early diagnosis requires detailed anamnestic data, standardized questionnaires for detection of sleep disordered breathing and whole-night polysomnography in the sleep laboratory. Obstructive sleep apnea can be treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), oral appliances, and surgery (e.g., uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, UPPP). Early diagnosis of OSA enables early treatment, improvement of its symptoms and eventually reduces development of co-morbidities. PMID:18592964

Dogas, Zoran; Vali?, Maja; Pecoti?, Renata; Pupi?, Marija Cavar; Carev, Mladen; Boji?, Lovre; Raci?, Goran

2008-01-01

152

A miniature optical breathing sensor  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate a novel miniature optical breathing sensor based on an Agarose infiltrated photonic crystal fiber interferometer. The sensor detects the variation in relative humidity that occurs between inhaled and exhaled breath. The sensor interrogation system can determine the breathing pattern in real time and can also predict the breathing rate and the breathing status during respiration. The sensor is suitable for monitoring patients during a magnetic resonance imaging scan where use of sedatives and anesthetics necessitates breathing monitoring; electronic sensors are not suitable in such an environment and a visual observation of the patient's respiratory efforts is often difficult.

Mathew, Jinesh; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

2012-01-01

153

Centrifuge Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and apparatus for operating a continuous flow blood separation centrifuge are provided. The hematocrit of the entrant whole blood is continuously maintained at an optimum constant value by the addition of plasma to the entrant blood. The hematocr...

W. K. Sartory J. W. Eveleigh

1976-01-01

154

Fiber ringdown breathing rate sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new sensor for patient's breathing measurement by using fiber loop ringdown spectroscopy. The sensing system consists of a typical single mode fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy and a sensor mat which is used to introduce breathing related optical loss. The sensor mat could be put in the chair or embedded in the bed. It is non invasive measurement. The breathing rate sensor is demonstrated with an accuracy of +/-2 breaths per minute and stable sensor output.

Chen, Zhihao; Yim, Huiqing; Teo, Ju Teng; Ng, Soon Huat

2011-05-01

155

Full-Duplex Underwater Networking Using CDMA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Establishing a full-duplex underwater network, researching and applying a CDMA protocol to the network, providing a recommendation for a full- duplex underwater network and providing recommendations for using CDMA to increase the efficiency of this networ...

K. Bektas

2004-01-01

156

Directional Underwater Noise Estimates - the Dunes Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The modelling of the directionality of underwater noise due to wind-generated noise sources and shipping is presented. The formulations are incorporated in the Directional Underwater Noise Estimates - DUNES model. It provides estimates of omnidirectional,...

A. S. Burgess, D. J. Kewley, R. W. Bannister

1989-01-01

157

Miniature underwater bore hole inspection apparatus. [visual inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A miniature submergible inspection device is provided for the visual inspection and survey of the strata of dry or water-filled bore holes providing data for video display or recording at the earth's surface and controllable therefrom. Adapted for reversing azimuth scan of the bore hole surface, the raster scan generates a display presented to the operator that does not rotate

B. J. Askowith; M. C. Ellis; R. H. Oberlies; F. A. Peterson; P. Prasad

1976-01-01

158

Factors influencing breath ammonia determination.  

PubMed

Amongst volatile compounds (VCs) present in exhaled breath, ammonia has held great promise and yet it has confounded researchers due to its inherent reactivity. Herein we have evaluated various factors in both breath instrumentation and the breath collection process in an effort to reduce variability. We found that the temperature of breath sampler and breath sensor, mouth rinse pH, and mode of breathing to be important factors. The influence of the rinses is heavily dependent upon the pH of the rinse. The basic rinse (pH 8.0) caused a mean increase of the ammonia concentration by 410 221 ppb. The neutral rinse (pH 7.0), slightly acidic rinse (pH 5.8), and acidic rinse (pH 2.5) caused a mean decrease of the ammonia concentration by 498 355 ppb, 527 198 ppb, and 596 385 ppb, respectively. Mode of breathing (mouth-open versus mouth-closed) demonstrated itself to have a large impact on the rate of recovery of breath ammonia after a water rinse. Within 30min, breath ammonia returned to 98 16% that of the baseline with mouth open breathing, while mouth closed breathing allowed breath ammonia to return to 53 14% of baseline. These results contribute to a growing body of literature that will improve reproducibly in ammonia and other VCs. PMID:23774041

Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew; Spacek, Lisa A; Lewicki, Rafal; Tittel, Frank; Loccioni, Claudio; Russo, Adolfo; Risby, Terence H

2013-09-01

159

Cellular Respiration and Breathing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The questions in this minds-on discussion/worksheet activity help students understand the relationship between cellular respiration, O2, CO2, and breathing. To maximize student participation and learning, I recommend that you have your students complete the questions individually or in pairs and then have a whole class discussion.

Waldron, Ingrid; Spindler, Lori

160

Dont Breathe the Moondust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA site describes how an Apollo caught "lunar dust hay fever and how breathing lunar dust poses a serious health risk. The site contains several images of lunar dust. In addition, the even more serious hazard of dust on Mars is presented.

2008-04-25

161

INTERMITTENT POSITIVE PRESSURE BREATHING  

EPA Science Inventory

Efficacy of long-term intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) treatment when used as an adjunct to the overall care of ambulatory outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evaluation compared the use of IPPB with use of a powered nebulizer....

162

Temperature of the Breath  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE interesting observation made by Dr. Dudgeon (NATURE, vol. xxii. p. 241, and vol. xxiii. p, 10) to the effect that breathing on the bulb of a thermometer through several folds of flannel or silk raises the temperature of the instrument several degrees above that of the mouth and body, is easily verified. There is no doubt about the accuracy

Wm. Roberts

1880-01-01

163

Underwater Sensor Nodes and Networks  

PubMed Central

Sensor technology has matured enough to be used in any type of environment. The appearance of new physical sensors has increased the range of environmental parameters for gathering data. Because of the huge amount of unexploited resources in the ocean environment, there is a need of new research in the field of sensors and sensor networks. This special issue is focused on collecting recent advances on underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks in order to measure, monitor, surveillance of and control of underwater environments. On the one hand, from the sensor node perspective, we will see works related with the deployment of physical sensors, development of sensor nodes and transceivers for sensor nodes, sensor measurement analysis and several issues such as layer 1 and 2 protocols for underwater communication and sensor localization and positioning systems. On the other hand, from the sensor network perspective, we will see several architectures and protocols for underwater environments and analysis concerning sensor network measurements. Both sides will provide us a complete view of last scientific advances in this research field.

Lloret, Jaime

2013-01-01

164

Energy source possibilities in underwater technics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underwater energy source possibilities are treated. The power demand of underwater vehicles is restricted to approximately 0.5 MW. Besides well known primary and secondary batteries as well as conventional diesel engines and closed cycle diesels, fuel cells, radio nuclear isotopes and small nuclear reactors have already been installed or tested in conditions representative of underwater.

Farin, Juho

1991-04-01

165

Protocol design issues in underwater acoustic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss issues related to the design of underwater acoustic network protocols which are tailored around, and leverage on, the differences between underwater acoustics and terrestrial radio. These differences span physical propagation and energy consumption, and influence the design of medium access control, routing and topology management.By first reviewing a simple model for underwater sound propagation and

Paolo Casari; Michele Zorzi

2011-01-01

166

Kinematical Analysis of Underwater Walking and Running  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine kinematical characteristics of underwater locomotion and to compare them with those of land locomotion. Six male subjects performed walking and running on both conventional and underwater treadmills. Both treadmill speeds increased incrementally starting from 0.56 m s 1 to 3.33 m s 1, the maximum speed of the underwater treadmill. The motion

Takeru Kato; Shohei Onishi; Kaoru Kitagawa

2001-01-01

167

29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underwater blasting. 1926.912 Section 1926...the Use of Explosives § 1926.912 Underwater blasting. (a) A blaster shall...of explosives aboard vessels used in underwater blasting operations shall be...

2013-07-01

168

Multi-frame underwater image restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ability to image underwater is highly desired for scientific and military applications, including optical communications, submarine awareness, diver visibility, and mine detection. Underwater imaging is severely impaired by scattering and optical turbulence associated with refraction index fluctuations. This work introduces novel approach to restoration of degraded underwater imagery based on multi-frame correction technique developed for atmospheric distortions. The method represents

A. V. Kanaev; W. Hou; S. Woods

2011-01-01

169

Control apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the method and apparatus of the present invention can be utilized to apply either a uniform or a nonuniform covering of material over many different workpieces, the apparatus (20) is advantageously utilized to apply a thermal barrier covering (64) to an airfoil (22) which is used in a turbine engine. The airfoil is held by a gripper assembly (86) while a spray gun (24) is effective to apply the covering over the airfoil. When a portion of the covering has been applied, a sensor (28) is utilized to detect the thickness of the covering. A control apparatus (32) compares the thickness of the covering of material which has been applied with the desired thickness and is subsequently effective to regulate the operation of the spray gun to adaptively apply a covering of a desired thickness with an accuracy of at least plus or minus 0.0015 inches (1.5 mils) despite unanticipated process variations.

Derkacs, Thomas (Inventor); Fetheroff, Charles W. (Inventor); Matay, Istvan M. (Inventor); Toth, Istvan J. (Inventor)

1982-01-01

170

Tolerance to external breathing resistance with particular reference to high inspiratory resistance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of men to exercise while breathing through graded inspiratory resistances was studied in order to define acceptable respiratory mouthpiece assembly standards. Experimental results with subjects wearing breathing masks and walking for 30 min on treadmills were used to calculate expiratory work rates. It is concluded that the airflow must be appropriate to the upper limit of minute ventilation likely to be encountered in the men wearing the apparatus.

Bentley, R. A.; Griffin, O. G.; Love, R. G.; Muir, D. C. F.; Sweetland, K. F.

1972-01-01

171

Positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

1983-07-07

172

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of notes describes (1) an optoelectronic apparatus for classroom demonstrations of mechanical laws, (2) a more efficient method for demonstrated nuclear chain reactions using electrically energized "traps" and ping-pong balls, and (3) an inexpensive demonstration for qualitative analysis of temperature-dependent resistance. (CS)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1980-01-01

173

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are reviews of science equipment/apparatus. Items reviewed include: Harris Micro-ecology tubes; Harris chromosome investigation kit; Harris trycult slides; a pressure cooker with thermometer; digital pH meter; digital scaler timer; electrical compensation calorimeter; and Mains alternating current ammeter. (JN)

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

174

Exercise apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

175

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments and apparatus to: (1) allow astronomy students to test resolution limit of their eyes at several wavelengths; (2) analyze laser mode phases by interferometry; (3) demonstrate a Cartesian diver with an overhead projector; and (4) generate conical beams of light for smoke-chamber demonstrations. (JN)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1981-01-01

176

Doctoring Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is related to a multiple-bladed doctor apparatus for doctoring a product from a rotating drum or a moving belt. In order to be economically feasible, a vacuum belt drying process for producing milk powder must be operated continuously for ma...

W. K. Heiland

1973-01-01

177

Thermoforming apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Thermoforming apparatus having a heating station and a forming station provided with upper and lower heaters for softening the thermoplastics sheet material. One of the heaters is movable between the heating and forming stations and is arranged to convey heated sheets from the heating station of the forming station.

Perryman, L.M.

1984-07-31

178

Sensor apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-12-22

179

Prehensile apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized.

Smith, Christopher M. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01

180

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews apparatus design and instructional uses for Fume Cupboard Monitor, Plant Tissue Culture Kit, various equipment for electronic systems course, Welwyn Microprocessor-Tutor, Sweep Function Generator SFG 606, and Harris manufacturers materials--Regulated Power Supply Units, Electronic Current and Voltage Meters, Gas Preparation Kit, and

School Science Review, 1981

1981-01-01

181

Apparatus Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents four short articles on: a power supply for the measurement of the charge-to-mass ratio of the electron; a modified centripetal force apparatus; a black box electronic unknown for the scientific instruments laboratory; and a simple scaling model for biological systems. (MLH)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1977-01-01

182

Compressive line sensing underwater imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compressive sensing (CS) theory has drawn great interest and led to new imaging techniques in many different fields. Over the last few years, the authors have conducted extensive research on CS-based active electro-optical imaging in a scattering medium, such as the underwater environment. This paper proposes a compressive line sensing underwater imaging system that is more compatible with conventional underwater survey operations. This new imaging system builds on our frame-based CS underwater laser imager concept, which is more advantageous for hover capable platforms. We contrast features of CS underwater imaging with those of traditional underwater electro-optical imaging and highlight some advantages of the CS approach. Simulation and initial underwater validation test results are also presented.

Ouyang, Bing; Dalgleish, Fraser R.; Caimi, Frank M.; Giddings, Thomas E.; Britton, Walter; Vuorenkoski, Anni K.; Nootz, Gero

2014-05-01

183

Underwater radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A detector apparatus for differentiating between gamma and neutron radiation is provided. The detector includes a pair of differentially shielded Geiger-Mueller tubes. The first tube is wrapped in silver foil and the second tube is wrapped in lead foil. Both the silver and lead foils allow the passage of gamma rays at a constant rate in a gamma ray only field. When neutrons are present, however, the silver activates and emits beta radiation that is also detected by the silver wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube while the radiation detected by the lead wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube remains constant. The amount of radiation impinging on the separate Geiger-Mueller tubes is then correlated in order to distinguish between the neutron and gamma radiations.

Kruse, Lyle W. (Albuquerque, NM); McKnight, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01

184

Underwater adhesion: The barnacle way  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barnacle cement is an underwater adhesive insoluble protein complex. Marine proteins secreted by the invertebrates such as barnacles and mussels have potential application as powerful adhesives as they insolubilize and adhere to variety of substrates in aqueous environment. The adhesive properties of the barnacle adhesive proteins have been utilized for various dental and medical purposes. These polyphenolic proteins are currently

Lidita Khandeparker; Arga Chandrashekhar Anil

2007-01-01

185

Active Underwater Acoustic Attenuation Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of sound reflection from a terminated boundary is an important problem in underwater acoustics. A new method for addressing this problem is with an actively controlled deformable surface. This problem is initially addressed in a conceptual experiment featuring externally mounted hydrophones in front of a tonpiltz transducer. The results of this investigation are advanced to consideration of large

Thomas Robert Howarth

1991-01-01

186

Bayesian Surface and Underwater Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common framework for maritime surface and underwater (UW) map-aided navigation is proposed as a supplement to satellite navigation based on the global positioning system (GPS). The proposed Bayesian navigation method is based on information from a distance measuring equipment (DME) which is compared with the information obtained from various databases. As a solution to the recursive Bayesian navigation problem,

Rickard Karlsson; Fredrik Gustafsson

2006-01-01

187

Thermotropic Liquid Crystal Film Underwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermotropic liquid crystal film was produced in distilled water successfully. A lecithin suspension was utilized to make the film. Polarizing microscopic observations were carried out. The molecular arrangement was seemed to be homeotoropic. An expected electrooptic response of the film underwater was confirmed.

Uto, Sadahito; Nakanishi, Yuuji; Matsumoto, Takahumi

2005-05-01

188

A novel multifunctional underwater microrobot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomimetic microrobots with multi DOF have powerful applications in the field of underwater monitoring for applications such as pollution detection and video mapping. Most robots focus on complex structure of multi-joint legs to attain the multifunction and flexibility, while others have poor flexibility for miniaturization. To attain a microrobot with compact structure, multifunction, and flexible locomotion, we designed a novel

Liwei Shi; Shuxiang Guo; Kinji Asaka

2010-01-01

189

Stress Physiology and Behavior Underwater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this chapter we consider an important biomedical area-that of stress underwater-beginning with a discussion of the general nature of stress; factors that contribute toward stress problems in diving; the effects of variables such as cold, exercise, and ...

A. J. Bachrach

1984-01-01

190

The Phoenix Autonomous Underwater Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Phoenix autonomous underwater collaboration with other scientists interested in either vehicle (AUV) is a robot for student research in r obot or virtual world. Repeated validation of shallow-water sensing and control (Figure 1). Phoenix simulation extensions through real-world testing is neutrally buoyant at 387 pounds (176 kg) with a hull remains essential. Details are provided on process length of

Don Brutzman; Tony Healey; Dave Marco; Bob McGhee

1997-01-01

191

Bacterial contamination of anesthesia machines' internal breathing-circuit-systems  

PubMed Central

Background: Bacterial contamination of anesthesia breathing machines and their potential hazard for pulmonary infection and cross-infection among anesthetized patients has been an infection control issue since the 1950s. Disposable equipment and bacterial filters have been introduced to minimize this risk. However, the machines internal breathing-circuit-system has been considered to be free of micro-organisms without providing adequate data supporting this view. The aim of the study was to investigate if any micro-organisms can be yielded from used internal machines breathing-circuit-system. Based on such results objective reprocessing intervals could be defined. Methods: The internal parts of 40 anesthesia machines breathing-circuit-system were investigated. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed. An on-site process observation of the re-processing sequence was conducted. Results: Bacterial growth was found in 17 of 40 machines (43%). No significant difference was ascertained between the contamination and the processing intervals. The most common contaminants retrieved were coagulase negative Staphylococci, aerobe spore forming bacteria and Micrococcus species. In one breathing-circuit-system, Escherichia coli, and in one further Staphylococcus aureus were yielded. Conclusion: Considering the availability of bacterial filters installed on the outlet of the breathing-circuit-systems, the type of bacteria retrieved and the on-site process observation, we conclude that the contamination found is best explained by a lack of adherence to hygienic measures during and after re-processing of the internal breathing-circuit-system. These results support an extension of the re-processing interval of the anesthesia apparatus longer than the manufacturers recommendation of one week. However, the importance of adherence to standard hygienic measures during re-processing needs to be emphasized.

Spertini, Verena; Borsoi, Livia; Berger, Jutta; Blacky, Alexander; Dieb-Elschahawi, Magda; Assadian, Ojan

2011-01-01

192

Reaction time following yoga bellows-type breathing and breath awareness.  

PubMed

The reaction time (RT) was assessed in two groups of healthy males, yoga group (M age = 29.0 yr.) and non-yoga or control group (M age = 29.0 yr.), with 35 participants each. The yoga group had an average experience of 6 months, while the control group was yoga-nave. The yoga group was assessed in two sessions, (i) bhastrika pranayama or bellows breathing and (ii) breath awareness, while the control group had a single control session. The two experimental sessions, one with each type of breathing, and the control session consisted of pre- (5 min.), during (18 min.), and post-session epochs (5 min.). Assessments were made in the pre- and post-session epochs using a Multi-Operational Apparatus for Reaction Time. Following 18 min. of bhastrika pranayama there was a statistically significant reduction in number of anticipatory responses compared to before the practice. This suggests that the immediate effect of bhastrika pranayama is to inhibit unnecessary responding to stimuli. PMID:24422341

Telles, Shirley; Yadav, Arti; Gupta, Ram Kumar; Balkrishna, Acharya

2013-08-01

193

Breath-by-breath measurement of particle deposition in the lung of spontaneously breathing rats.  

PubMed

A number of deposition models for humans, as well as experimental animals, have been described. However, no breath-by-breath deposition measurement in rats has been reported to date. The objective of this study is to determine lung deposition of micrometer-sized particles as a function of breathing parameters in the adult rat lung. A new aerosol photometry system was designed to measure deposition of nonhygroscopic, 2-mum sebacate particles in anesthetized, intubated, and spontaneously breathing 90-day-old Wistar-Kyoto rats placed in a size-adjusted body plethysmograph box. Instrumental dead space of the system was minimized down to 310 microl (i.e., approximately 20% of respiratory dead space). The system allows continuous monitoring of particle concentration in the respired volume. Breathing parameters, such as respiratory rate (f), tidal volume (Vt), as well as inspiration/expiration times, were also monitored at different levels of anesthesia. The results showed that Vt typically varied between 1.5 and 4.0 ml for regular breathing and between 4.0 and 10.0 ml for single-sigh breaths; f ranged from 40 to 200 breaths/min. Corresponding deposition values varied between 5 and 50%, depending on breath-by-breath breathing patterns. The best fit of deposition (D) was achieved by a bilinear function of Vt and f and found to be D = 11.0 - 0.09.f + 3.75.Vt. We conclude that our approach provides more realistic conditions for the measurement of deposition than conventional models using ventilated animals and allows us to analyze the correlation between breath-specific deposition and spontaneous breathing patterns. PMID:19644034

Karrasch, S; Eder, G; Bolle, I; Tsuda, A; Schulz, H

2009-10-01

194

Sampling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface. 15 figs.

Gordon, N.R.; King, L.L.; Jackson, P.O.; Zulich, A.W.

1989-07-18

195

Hyperthermia apparatus  

DOEpatents

A hyperthermia apparatus, suitable for transurethral application, has an energy radiating element comprising a leaky-wave antenna. The leaky wave antenna radiation pattern is characterized by a surface wave which propagates along an aperture formed by openings (small in comparison to a wavelength) in the outer conductor of a transmission line. Appropriate design of the leaky wave antenna produces a uniform, broadside pattern of temperature elevation that uniformly heats all or part of the periurethral tissues.

Larsen, Lawrence E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

196

75 FR 61386 - Emergency Escape Breathing Apparatus Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1997-2006, the average for annual train-miles was 734.6 million...1 death per 3.67 billion train-miles. Over the same period...2006,'' AAR, Bureau of Explosives, Report BOE 06-1, October...Pacific Railroad (UP) freight train traveling on the same...

2010-10-05

197

42 CFR 84.94 - Gas flow test; closed-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas flow test; closed-circuit...Breathing Apparatus 84.94 Gas flow test; closed-circuit apparatus. (a) Where oxygen is supplied by a constant-flow...provide at least 30 liters of oxygen per minute when in the...

2010-10-01

198

Sleep disordered breathing.  

PubMed

Cause and effect relationships between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and illness, poorer quality of life, and public health have been largely overlooked and undertreated by healthcare providers. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), central sleep apnea, upper airway resistance syndrome, and obesity hypoventilation are the primary syndromes that fall under the rubric of SDB. Each of these syndromes is defined; however, OSA is the most common form of SDB, and is the focus of this article. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, behavioral manifestations, cardiovascular comorbidity, clinical evaluation, and treatment for OSA are the main topics covered. The article concludes with the role of the nurse in SDB. PMID:12587365

Baldwin, Carol M; Quan, Stuart F

2002-12-01

199

The Air We Breathe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This picture book is designed to introduce children to the Earth's atmosphere and its importance to life on Earth. It also introduces how the addition of new gases (e.g., ozone) contributes to changing the quality of air we breathe. With an understanding of how our atmosphere works, we can begin to understand how our activities may be contributing to some of those changes in air quality. The back cover includes a short demo/activity called Making a Gas You Cant See (Carbon Dioxide).

2004-03-01

200

Sleep-Disordered Breathing  

PubMed Central

Sleep disorders are becoming more prevalent. There is an overlap of symptoms related to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and many psychiatric conditions. Complaints of excessive sleepiness, insomnia, cognitive dysfunction, and depressive symptoms can be related to both disease states. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive disruption of sleep by cessation of breathing and was first described in the 19th century by bedside observation during sleep. Physicians observed this cessation of breathing while the patient slept and postulated that these episodes were responsible for subsequent complaints of sleepiness. OSAS can coexist with major depressive disorder, exacerbate depressive symptoms, or be responsible for a large part of the symptom complex of depression. Additionally, in schizophrenia, sleep apnea may develop as a result of chronic neuroleptic treatment and its effect on gains in body weight, a major risk factor for the development of OSAS. It is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of sleep apnea, namely excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, and witnessed apneas. Recognition of the existence of sleep apnea, prompt referral to a sleep specialist, and ultimately treatment of an underlying sleep disorder, such as OSAS, can ameliorate symptoms of psychiatric disease.

Markov, Dimitri; Doghramji, Karl

2006-01-01

201

ODIN - an underwater warfare simulation environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the capability, design and application of the generic underwater warfare simulation environment called ODIN. The model was developed by QinetiQ, previously known as DERA (Defence Evaluation and Research Agency), to model the detailed underwater interaction between surface ship\\/submarine\\/UUV (unmanned underwater vehicle) platforms, torpedoes and countermeasures. It was originally developed out of a need to model the effectiveness

T. Robinson

2001-01-01

202

Effects of Long Hose Breathing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need for aircrew members to use long breathing hoses between regulator and mask arises in the design of new transport aircraft and in several cargo operations requiring an open rear door. In this study, induced work of breathing through long hoses, th...

R. M. Olson J. P. Cooke

1977-01-01

203

Patient's breath controls comfort devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

1972-01-01

204

Clinical applications of breath testing  

PubMed Central

Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years.

Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam

2010-01-01

205

Bathymetric Mapping: Making Underwater Profile Charts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on mapping activities designed to provide simulated experiences that help students understand the techniques used to measure and represent underwater terrain without making direct visual observations. (DDR)

Pettus, Alvin M.

1998-01-01

206

Positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

Vogel, Max A. (Kennewick, WA); Alter, Paul (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01

207

Underwater Laser Imaging System (UWLIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Practical limitations of underwater imaging systems are reached when the noise in the back scattered radiation generated in the water between the imaging system and the target obscures the spatial contrast and the resolution necessary for target discovery and identification. The advent of high power lasers operating in the oceanic transmission window of the visible spectrum (blue-green portion) has led to improved experimental illumination systems for underwater imaging. The properties of laser beams in range-gated and synchronously scanned devices take advantage of the unique temporal and spatial coherence effect of common volume back scatter to reduce or eliminate noise, increase signal to noise levels. Synchronously scanned systems rely on the highly collimated nature of the laser beam for spatial rejection of common volume back scatter. A synchronous, raster-scanning underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS) has been developed at Lawrence liver-more National Laboratory. The present UWLIS system differs from earlier synchronous scanners in its ability to scan in two dimensions at conventional video frame rate (30 Hz). The imaging performance of the present UWLIS was measured at distances of up to 6.3 AL (at a physical distance of 15.2 meters) during an in-water tank test and 4.5 to 5.0 AL (at a physical distance of 30 meters) during open water oceanic testing. The test results indicate that the UWLIS system is already capable of extending the underwater imaging range beyond that of conventional floodlight illuminated SIT cameras. The real or near real time frame rates of the UWLIS make possible operations in a mode in which the platform speed is randomly varied. This is typical of the operational environment in which the platform is often maneuvered above and around rugged seafloor terrain's and obstacles.

Delong, Mike L.; Kulp, Tom J.

1995-03-01

208

The Museum of Underwater Archaeology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the goals of the University of Rhode Island's Museum of Underwater Archaeology (MUA) is to help "underwater archaeologists present their research to the general public by creating web based museum style exhibits as well as announce their latest projects." Exploring the website "by map" allows visitors to see the locations of projects. Visitors can then click on an anchor, which will give a brief description of the project, and this also provides a link to see the corresponding journal, or just to read more about the project. The featured exhibit, under "Exhibits" on the homepage, is "ECU's [East Carolina University] Shipwrecks in Bermuda The 2008 Field School". The students can be seen in a photo slideshow on the introductory page of the exhibit. In the "Findings" section of the exhibit is a link to "Underwater Jigsaw Puzzle", which sounds like a game, but is the outline of all the debris at a ship breaking site. When more than one ship is found at a ship breaking site, the site plan helps maritime archaeologists decipher which pieces belong to which ship. It can be confusing and challenging, and is not always successful.

209

The underwater environment: cardiopulmonary, thermal, and energetic demands.  

PubMed

Water covers over 75% of the earth, has a wide variety of depths and temperatures, and holds a great deal of the earth's resources. The challenges of the underwater environment are underappreciated and more short term compared with those of space travel. Immersion in water alters the cardio-endocrine-renal axis as there is an immediate translocation of blood to the heart and a slower autotransfusion of fluid from the cells to the vascular compartment. Both of these changes result in an increase in stroke volume and cardiac output. The stretch of the atrium and transient increase in blood pressure cause both endocrine and autonomic changes, which in the short term return plasma volume to control levels and decrease total peripheral resistance and thus regulate blood pressure. The reduced sympathetic nerve activity has effects on arteriolar resistance, resulting in hyperperfusion of some tissues, which for specific tissues is time dependent. The increased central blood volume results in increased pulmonary artery pressure and a decline in vital capacity. The effect of increased hydrostatic pressure due to the depth of submersion does not affect stroke volume; however, a bradycardia results in decreased cardiac output, which is further reduced during breath holding. Hydrostatic compression, however, leads to elastic loading of the chest wall and negative pressure breathing. The depth-dependent increased work of breathing leads to augmented respiratory muscle blood flow. The blood flow is increased to all lung zones with some improvement in the ventilation-perfusion relationship. The cardiac-renal responses are time dependent; however, the increased stroke volume and cardiac output are, during head-out immersion, sustained for at least hours. Changes in water temperature do not affect resting cardiac output; however, maximal cardiac output is reduced, as is peripheral blood flow, which results in reduced maximal exercise performance. In the cold, maximal cardiac output is reduced and skin and muscle are vasoconstricted, resulting in a further reduction in exercise capacity. PMID:19036887

Pendergast, D R; Lundgren, C E G

2009-01-01

210

Monitoring apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for monitoring the temperature inside a refrigeration unit that experiences periodic defrost cycles of a known duration, the apparatus including a temperature sensor located within the refrigeration unit for providing an electrical output signal indicative of the temperature level inside the unit, a comparator means for comparing the sensor output signal level with a preset signal level and providing a first output signal when the sensed temperature level is above the preset level and a second output signal when the sensed temperature level is below the preset level, a timer means connected to the output of the comparator means which is enabled when the comparator means produces the first output signal whereby the timer means generates a continuous chain of timing pulses and is disabled when the comparator means produces the second output signal, counter means being coupled to the timer means for counting the number of pulses generated by the timer means and producing a counter output signal when a preset count is reached. The duration of the counter means cycle is greater than the duration of the defrost cycle, and an audio means coupled to the output of both the timer means and the counter means. An audio transducer means provides a first audible alert signal any time the timer means is enabled and a second audible alarm signal when the counter means reaches the preset count.

Adams, W.H.

1986-12-23

211

Teachers' Domain: Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 3-minute video demonstrates chemical reaction as a presenter exhales into "bromothymol blue", a chemical indicator for acids and bases. His breath releases carbon dioxide, which acidifies the solution and changes it from a bright blue color to yellow-green. Resource also includes teacher's guide and assessment. Editor's Note: In a chemical reaction, properties of the original substances change as new substances with different properties are formed. The molecular structure of the substances is altered irreversibly. This video is part of "Lessons in Matter and Energy" by WOSU Public Media. See related materials for a link to the full collection, also available for iTunes viewing. Teachers' Domain is a growing collection of more than 1,000 free educational resources compiled by researchers and experienced teachers to promote the use of digital resources in the classroom.

2011-06-23

212

Time to breathe.  

PubMed

As health care providers, we become all too familiar with suppressing our emotions, putting on a brave face, and going through the necessary motions at the bedside. We power through these emotionally charged scenarios day after day, patient after patient. We try to remain serene, to appear calm, and to exude confidence, competence, and professionalism. We deliver life-altering news to devastated families; we sit at dying patients' bedsides and hold their hands as their hearts stop; we deplete ourselves physically and emotionally when a healthy patient takes a turn for the worse. We skillfully manage the natural process of another person's body decompensating while we hold back our tears, sadness, or sense of defeat. And then we take a deep breath and walk into the next room to see the next patient. We betray our inner turmoil by putting on a smiling face, by focusing on facts, by completing necessary tasks. PMID:24821244

Milliken, Aimee

2014-05-01

213

Transport apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Transport apparatus is disclosed comprising a drive unit and a slave unit movable in unison along a predetermined path. The slave unit is disposed beneath the drive unit to move along a tunnel with work stations located at intervals along the tunnel. The drive unit carries electromagnets which when energized levitate the slave unit within the tunnel, controls being provided to maintain the slave unit at a desired position relative to the drive unit. The roof of the tunnel is formed from a magnetically transparent material, such as glass. The slave unit is thereby physically isolated from the drive unit. As a result the drive unit is shielded from any hostile environment within the tunnel and resulting, for example, from the transport of radioactive or toxic materials by the slave units. This simplifies repair and maintenance operations on the drive unit.

Moody, B.R.; Lowe, D.B.; Lowe, D.W.

1983-07-12

214

Gameboard apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A gameboard apparatus picturing an advanced, economic, technological civilization throughout the solar system and beyond, a path of spaceships containing many contingency circumstances interspersed between man-made, unpurchaseable property containing many contingency circumstance, and eleven major types of purchaseable man-made properties containing many contingency circumstances. The indicia on color-coded leases describes the internal, external, vertical and horizontal development of real estate in over thirty ways, four decks of cards, Speed of Light Years Utility Service Card and Speed of Light Years Ticket Tokens color coded to work in conjunction with the path of spaceships which are path of the continuous open route with a starting point from Earth, the entire game being described by a set of rules.

1990-08-07

215

Collecting apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

Duncan, Charles P. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1983-01-01

216

Air layer on superhydrophobic surface underwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustaining an air layer on superhydrophobic surface is known necessary for the applications of the air layer effect underwater on basis of previous literatures. However, the air layer becomes unstable when put underwater and even disappears when the hydraulic pressure increases. Thus much attention has been focused on the sustainability of an air layer on a superhydrophobic surface. This article

Xianliang Sheng; Jihua Zhang

2011-01-01

217

Spatial Modulation in the Underwater Acoustic Channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-input \\/ multiple-output (MIMO) communication channels are an active area of research for terrestrial wireless applications. The natural bandwidth limitations of the underwater acoustic channel (UAC) combined with the potential for a rich spatial propagation structure suggests the ocean is another useful application area for MIMO techniques. An underwater acoustic communications experiment was conducted in the waters surrounding Elba, Italy,

Daniel Kilfoyle; Lee Freitag

2004-01-01

218

Piezoelectric materials used in underwater acoustic transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric materials have been used in underwater acoustic transducers for nearly a century. In this paper, we reviewed four different types of piezoelectric materials: piezoelectric ceramics, single crystals, composites, and polymers, which are widely used in underwater acoustic transducers nowadays. Piezoelectric ceramics are the most dominant material type and are used as a single-phase material or one of the end

Huidong Li; Zhiqun Deng; Thomas J. Carlson

2012-01-01

219

Cymbal piezoelectric composite underwater acoustic transducer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The working principle of Cymbal piezoelectric composite underwater acoustic transducer was studied in this paper. PZT-5A piezoelectric ceramic disk was used as piezoelectric phase and brass foil was used as end cap electrode of the Cymbal transducer. The silicon rubber was used as the insulated proof layer of the underwater acoustic transducer. The properties of this transducer used as hydrophone,

Denghua Li; Min Wu; Peixi Oyang; Xiaofei Xu

2006-01-01

220

Vehicle for Automation Research and Underwater Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle for Automation Research and Underwater Navigation, VARUN is an autonomous underwater vehicle designed and developed by undergraduate students of Delhi Technological University, New Delhi. It is designed with a focus on shallow water applications in defense such as mine countermeasures, surveillance and reconnaissance and civilian applications at ports, in ship maintenance and in marine research. The development of the

Ravindra Kumar Sinha; Sabir Ahmed; Mayank Tutwani; Puneet Bahuguna; Rohit Kumra; Vineet Agarwal; Vidush Saxena; Vinay Mittal; Prateek Gupta

2011-01-01

221

Computer simulation of underwater nuclear effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated underwater nuclear effects by computer simulations. First, we computed a long distance wave propagation in water by the 1-D LASNEX code by modeling the energy source and the underwater environment. The pressure-distance data were calculated for two quite different yields; pressures range from 300 GPa to 15 MPa. They were found to be in good agreement with Snay's

Kamegai

1987-01-01

222

Recent advances in underwater acoustic communications & networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past three decades have seen a growing interest in underwater acoustic communications. Continued research over the years has resulted in improved performance and robustness as compared to the initial communication systems. Research has expanded from point-to-point communications to include underwater networks as well. A series of review papers provide an excellent history of the development of the field until

Mandar Chitre; Shiraz Shahabudeen; Lee Freitag; Milica Stojanovic

2008-01-01

223

Development of Underwater Microrobot using ICPF Actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is our purpose to develop an underwater microrobot that has the characteristics of flexibility, driven by a low voltage, good response and safety in body. In this paper, we propose a new prototype model of an underwater microrobot utilizing ionic conducting polymer film (ICPF) actuator as the servo actuator. The fish-like propulsion using ICPF actuator as a propulsion tail

Shuxiang Guo; Toshio Fukuda; Norihiko Kato; Keisuke Oguro

1998-01-01

224

Learning control for underwater robotic vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater robotic vehicles have become an important tool for various underwater tasks because they have greater speed, endurance, and depth capability, as well as a higher factor of safety, than human divers. However, most vehicle control system designs have been based on a simplified vehicle model, which has often resulted in poor performance because the nonlinear and time-varying vehicle dynamics

J. Yuh

1994-01-01

225

Image processing of underwater multispectral imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capturing in situ fluorescence images of marine organisms presents many technical challenges. The effects of the medium, as well as the particles and organisms within it, are intermixed with the desired signal. Methods for extracting and preparing the imagery for analysis are discussed in reference to a novel underwater imaging system called the low-light-level underwater multispectral imaging system (LUMIS). The

David G. Zawada

2003-01-01

226

Advances in large-area photomosaicking underwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propagation of visible light underwater suffers rapid attenuation and extreme scattering. This, in combination with the limited camera-to-light separation available on most imaging platforms, places severe limitations on our ability to optically image large areas of the sea floor at high resolution. We present a general framework for mosaicking large areas underwater with a specific emphasis on the issues

Hanumant Singh; Jonathan Howland; Oscar Pizarro

2004-01-01

227

Seeking Teachers for Underwater Robotics PD Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), ITEEA members will contribute to the development of a hybrid professional development program designed to facilitate the scale-up of an innovative underwater robotics curriculum. WaterBotics[TM] is an underwater robotics curriculum that targets students in middle and high school classrooms

McGrath, Beth; Sayres, Jason

2012-01-01

228

Development of a cDNA microarray of zebra mussel ( Dreissena polymorpha) foot and its use in understanding the early stage of underwater adhesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underwater adhesion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) to substrates is a complex process that is controlled by a delicate apparatus, the byssus. As a critical activity of the byssus glands embedded in the zebra mussel feet, byssogenesis is highly active to produce numerous byssal threads from the settled juvenile stage through the adult stage in its life cycle.

Wei Xu; Mohamed Faisal

2009-01-01

229

Study on underwater navigation system based on geomagnetic match technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater vehicle navigation technique is one of the important issues to the development and application of the long-range underwater vehicle technology. In order to meet the concealment of underwater navigation, we present a kind of independent underwater navigation system based on geomagnetic match technique in this paper. Firstly, we introduce the composition of the system, the work principles and functions

Jianhu Zhao; Shengping Wang; Aixue Wang

2009-01-01

230

Sleep breathing disorders in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome, sleep apnea syndrome and obesity hypoventilation syndrome are all defined as sleep-disordered breathing. Many changes occur in the respiratory system and sleep physiology during pregnancy due to physical and hormonal causes. Functional residual capacity, total sleep time, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and stage 3-4 non-REM sleep are reduced during the third trimester of pregnancy. Snoring is more prevalent in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Snoring during pregnancy may be associated with pregnancy induced hypertension, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation and low APGAR scores in infant. The prevalence of sleep apnea syndrome during pregnancy is unknown. All pregnant women, especially obese and preeclamptic were asked to possibility of sleep disordered breathing. In this review we summarized, first normal physiological changes of respiratory system and sleep during pregnancy, second maternal and fetal outcome of sleep disordered breathing and finally treatment of sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy. PMID:19714519

Ursava?, Ahmet; Karada?, Mehmet

2009-01-01

231

Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

2013-02-01

232

Windmill apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A windmill apparatus is described comprising: a frame body structure adapted to be positioned on a flat top surface of a construction such as a building; a main shaft vertically fixed in a middle position of the frame body structure; a first main-shaft sleeve rotatably coupled with a lower portion of the main shaft for being driven to rotate around the main shaft; a belt pulley fixedly connected at a lower end of the first main-shaft sleeve for providing a driving force along with the first main-shaft sleeve; a rotating means having a revolving arrangement vertically disposed therein rotatably installed around the first main-shaft sleeve within a lower open portion of the frame body structure for being driven to rotate by wind along with the first main-shaft sleeve; a second main-shaft sleeve with a first gear fixed at a lower end thereof movably connected at an upper portion of the main shaft for providing gear transmission therefrom; a direction control means installed within an upper closed portion of the frame body structure and rotatably connected to the rotating means through the second main-shaft sleeve for automatically adjusting the revolving arrangement according to wind direction; and a wind direction indicating means horizontally disposed on top of the frame body structure and rotatably connected to the direction control means so as to relay wind direction change whereby, wind force can be effectively utilized with a simplified structure.

Chen, M.J.; Hwang, L.M.

1987-11-17

233

A survey of practical issues in underwater networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater sensor networks are attracting increasing in-terest from researchers in terrestrial radio-based sensor net-works. There are important physical, technological, and eco-nomic di erences between terrestrial and underwater sensor networks. Previous surveys have provided thorough back-ground material in underwater communications, and an in-troduction to underwater networks. This has included detail on the physical characteristics of the channel [1], on under-water acoustic

James W. Partan; Brian Neil Levine; James F. Kurose

2006-01-01

234

AURP: an AUV-aided underwater routing protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks.  

PubMed

Deploying a multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) in a large area brings about new challenges in reliable data transmissions and survivability of network due to the limited underwater communication range/bandwidth and the limited energy of underwater sensor nodes. In order to address those challenges and achieve the objectives of maximization of data delivery ratio and minimization of energy consumption of underwater sensor nodes, this paper proposes a new underwater routing scheme, namely AURP (AUV-aided underwater routing protocol), which uses not only heterogeneous acoustic communication channels but also controlled mobility of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In AURP, the total data transmissions are minimized by using AUVs as relay nodes, which collect sensed data from gateway nodes and then forward to the sink. Moreover, controlled mobility of AUVs makes it possible to apply a short-range high data rate underwater channel for transmissions of a large amount of data. To the best to our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to employ multiple AUVs as relay nodes in a multi-hop UASN to improve the network performance in terms of data delivery ratio and energy consumption. Simulations, which are incorporated with a realistic underwater acoustic communication channel model, are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, and the results indicate that a high delivery ratio and low energy consumption can be achieved. PMID:22438740

Yoon, Seokhoon; Azad, Abul K; Oh, Hoon; Kim, Sunghwan

2012-01-01

235

Simulated high altitude diving experiment for the underwater construction operation.  

PubMed

The simulated dive experiments were conducted at the high altitude of 4500 meters and 5000 meters, for the requirement of diving operation in the lakes at the altitude of 4442 meters for the construction of large-scale hydroelectric power station. The high & low pressure chamber-complex was used, and 15 professional divers participated in the experiment. The divers were stayed at the altitude of 4500 and 5000 meters for 7-9 days. Totally 85 persons-times of dives to the depths of 30-50 meters were operated; they stayed under the water for 30-90 minutes while processing physical activities. During the experiment, we studied the pressurization procedure, decompression table, and physiological functions of the divers. The results indicate that, although the relative pressure differences between the surface and underwater was larger at high altitude than at sea level, the appropriate prolongation of the compression time was able to prevent the difficulty in pressure regulation for the divers to avoid the injury of middle ear. Four tables of the decompression A, B, C and D was calculated with Haldane's theory, and the speed of decompression increased in the order from A to D. The safest procedure was C, and there was no decompression sickness and bubbles in body of the divers. The methods of decompression included underwater stage decompression, surface decompression, oxygen-breathing decompression, and repetitive diving decompression. The surface decompression was the most suitable method for the high altitude, as it could greatly decrease the time in the cold water for the divers. The power spectrum analysis of EEG (electroencephalogram) indicated that, when the divers were exposed to the altitude of 5000 meters, the delta activity in EEG increased, alpha and beta activity decreased. And the delta activity decreased, the alpha and beta activity increased while diving during a dry condition. According to the diving and decompression procedure studied under simulated conditions, 272 person-times of diving training and underwater operations were processed in a high altitude hydroelectric power station at the altitude of 4442 meters, including photographing, video-recording, measuring, and drilling. There were no signs and symptoms of decompression sickness and bubbles. PMID:14519911

Zhong-Yuan, Shi; Xi-Wei, Tang; Yan-Meng, Zhang

2003-09-01

236

Underwater Work Performance and Work Tolerance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents findings of the research efforts for 1971 in the study of underwater work performance and work tolerance conducted at the University of California, Los Angeles. The studies were directed towards the development of performance decrement...

G. H. Egstrom G. Weltman A. D. Baddeley W. J. Cuccaro M. A. Willis

1972-01-01

237

Implementation of a Wireless Underwater Video Link.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are increasingly being considered for remotely supervised missions, primarily for routine subsea inspection tasks currently performed by tethered remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). This project is a step in the develo...

J. P. Morash

2008-01-01

238

Lateral Force Device for Underwater Towed Array.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A lateral force device for displacing a towed underwater acoustic cable providing displacement in the horizontal and vertical directions having a spool and a rotationally mounted winged fuselage. The hollow spool is mounted on a cable with cable elements ...

N. Owsley J. F. Law R. Vanasse S. Ebner R. Knutson

1993-01-01

239

Spatial Modulation in the Underwater Acoustic Channel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication channels are an active area of research for terrestrial wireless applications. The natural bandwidth limitations of the underwater acoustic channel (UAC) combined with the potential for a rich spatial pr...

D. Kilfoyle L. Freitag

2004-01-01

240

Using Underwater Robotics in the Engineering Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Underwater robotics projects offer an excellent medium for discovery based engineering and science learning. The challenge of building underwater robotic vehicles and manipulators engages and stimulates students while encompassing a broad spectrum of engineering disciplines and scientific concepts. This paper describes an ongoing effort, at Stevens Institute of Technology, to incorporate such projects into the engineering curriculum. We report the successful design and implementation of student projects, building wire guided remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) with motorized grabbers. We also describe ongoing work to extend these projects to include computer control and sensory feedback, allowing students to develop autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The effectiveness of these modules for teaching fundamental engineering skills will be independently assessed in accordance with established educational theory. Target Audience: High School Faculty/Administrators, 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

Hotaling, Liesl; Sheryll, Richard; Stolkin, Rustam

2009-11-20

241

Response of Surface Ships to Underwater Explosions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a summary of technical information gathered by the author during an attachment to the Underwater Explosions Research Department (UERD) of the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) Carderock Division from April 1993 to July 1994. The report co...

W. D. Reid

1996-01-01

242

Building Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educators with an interest in hands-on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines will receive introductory instructions on how to design, engineer and build a fully functional underwater ROV.

Woodall, Debra

243

Underwater Viewing System Using Sound Holography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A feasibility study and prototype system development for an underwater viewing system based on acoustic holographic principles was initiated. The objective was to study various receiving array configurations and construct a modular prototype system to eva...

P. N. Keating R. Koppelmann R. F. Steinberg

1972-01-01

244

Remote Repair Grinding of Cracks Underwater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a new approach for remote grinding of cracks underwater. The approach uses Controlled Material Removal Rate (CMRR) grinding strategy, which is based on a force controlled manipulator for handling the grinding machine. The CMRR-strategy...

T. Thomessen T. K. Lien K. Johnsen

1994-01-01

245

An underwater photomosaic technique using Adobe Photoshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple technique for taking systematic runs of vertical underwater photographs is described. Computer-based procedures for rectifying, matching, and assembling the photographs into mosaics using Adobe Photoshop software are then explained.

Colin J. M. Martin; Edward A. Martin

2002-01-01

246

Southeast Alaska Cruise Ship Underwater Acoustic Noise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Between September 2000 and June 2001, the underwater radiated noise levels for six Southeast Alaska cruise ships were measured at the U.S. Navy's Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility near Ketchikan, Alaska. The primary objective of this project ...

B. Kipple

2002-01-01

247

Power Saving Techniques for Underwater Communication Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis proposes three techniques to reduce the power consumption in underwater acoustic networks with randomly placed fixed and mobile nodes. The transmission range is optimized so as to minimize the power consumption and/or to maximize the throughpu...

A. P. Dole

2007-01-01

248

High bandwidth underwater optical communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report error-free underwater optical transmission measurements at 1 Gbit/s (109 bits/s) over a 2 m path in a laboratory water pipe with up to 36 dB of extinction. The source at 532 nm was derived from a 1064 nm continuous-wave laser diode that was intensity modulated, amplified, and frequency doubled in periodically poled lithium niobate. Measurements were made over a range of extinction by the addition of a Mg(OH)2 and Al(OH)3 suspension to the water path, and we were not able to observe any evidence of temporal pulse broadening. Results of Monte Carlo simulations over ocean water paths of several tens of meters indicate that optical communication data rates >1 Gbit/s can be supported and are compatible with high-capacity data transfer applications that require no physical contact.

Hanson, Frank; Radic, Stojan

2008-01-01

249

Underwater probing with laser radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent advances in laser and electro optics technology have greatly enhanced the feasibility of active optical probing techniques aimed at the remote sensing of water parameters. This paper describes a LIDAR (laser radar) that has been designed and constructed for underwater probing. The influence of the optical properties of water on the general design parameters of a LIDAR system is considered. Discussion of the specific details in the choice of the constructed LIDAR is given. This system utilizes a cavity dumped argon ion laser transmitter capable of 50 watt peak powers, 10 nanosecond pulses and megahertz pulse repetition rates at 10 different wavelengths in the blue green region of the spectrum. The performance of the system, in proving various types of water, is demonstrated by summarizing the results of initial laboratory and field experiments.

Carswell, A. I.; Sizgoric, S.

1975-01-01

250

Comments on computational underwater acoustics  

SciTech Connect

Two fundamental facts control the choice of computational methods in underwater acoustics. One is that over most of the ocean the sound speed varies much more rapidly with depth than in the horizontal directions. The other is that upon going down from the surface, the sound speed usually decreases to a minimum and then increases from there to the bottom. These properties of the medium imply that the ocean often acts as a waveguide, with energy trapped in a depth-band about the sound-speed minimum. One consequence of these facts is that approximation by normal modes is valid over large regions of the ocean, particularly if correction is made for the slow variation of the modes caused by variation in bottom depth and horizontal variation in sound speed. In portions of the ocean where approximation by normal modes is not valid, we may still often use a paraxial approximation. Paraxial approximations may be used when the wave motion is primarily in a single direction, with slow variation of the signal in directions tangent to the wave front. They are often called parabolic'' equations in ocean acoustics, but the term paraxial'' is standard in other branches of physics, inducting optics and seismology. Finite-difference approximations are also sometimes used in underwater acoustics, but they are much more computationally intensive than normal modes or paraxial approximations. Finite differences are therefore ordinarily used only where these other methods are not valid, such as in shallow water with rapidly varying depth. One could also use finite elements in these instances, but for acoustics problems finite elements are a special class of finite-difference methods. We discuss finite differences only briefly in this report, because they are not generally used in long-range acoustics.

Hedstrom, G.

1993-04-01

251

Comments on computational underwater acoustics  

SciTech Connect

Two fundamental facts control the choice of computational methods in underwater acoustics. One is that over most of the ocean the sound speed varies much more rapidly with depth than in the horizontal directions. The other is that upon going down from the surface, the sound speed usually decreases to a minimum and then increases from there to the bottom. These properties of the medium imply that the ocean often acts as a waveguide, with energy trapped in a depth-band about the sound-speed minimum. One consequence of these facts is that approximation by normal modes is valid over large regions of the ocean, particularly if correction is made for the slow variation of the modes caused by variation in bottom depth and horizontal variation in sound speed. In portions of the ocean where approximation by normal modes is not valid, we may still often use a paraxial approximation. Paraxial approximations may be used when the wave motion is primarily in a single direction, with slow variation of the signal in directions tangent to the wave front. They are often called ``parabolic`` equations in ocean acoustics, but the term ``paraxial`` is standard in other branches of physics, inducting optics and seismology. Finite-difference approximations are also sometimes used in underwater acoustics, but they are much more computationally intensive than normal modes or paraxial approximations. Finite differences are therefore ordinarily used only where these other methods are not valid, such as in shallow water with rapidly varying depth. One could also use finite elements in these instances, but for acoustics problems finite elements are a special class of finite-difference methods. We discuss finite differences only briefly in this report, because they are not generally used in long-range acoustics.

Hedstrom, G.

1993-04-01

252

Underwater Explosion Phenomena and Shock Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a brief introduction to the basic fundamentals of underwater explosions, including discussion of the features\\u000a of explosive charge detonation, the formation and characterization of the associated shock wave, bulk cavitation effects,\\u000a gas bubble formation and dynamics, surface effects and shock wave refraction characteristics. Illustrations of each of these\\u000a fundamental aspects of underwater explosion (UNDEX) loadings are made

Frederick A. Costanzo; Naval Surface; MacArthur Boulevard

253

Redundancy resolution for underwater mobile manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new fault-tolerant redundancy resolution scheme is presented that allows a single six degree of freedom (DOF) command to be distributed over a small remotely operated underwater vehiclemanipulator (ROVM) system. ROVM systems are composed of a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) and serial manipulator. The combined system is often kinematically redundant for the six-DOF end-effector command, and such a ROVM

Serdar Soylu; Bradley J. Buckham; Ron P. Podhorodeski

2010-01-01

254

Fracture propagation in underwater gas pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two full-scale ductile fracture propagation experiments on segments of line pipe pressurized with nitrogen gas have been conducted underwater at a depth of 40 ft (12 m) to evaluate the ductile fracture phenomenon in underwater pipelines. The pipes were 22-in. (559-mm) diameter and 42-in. (1067-mm) diameter. Fracture velocities were measured and arrest conditions were observed. The overpressure in the water

Maxey

1986-01-01

255

The Underwater Sound Reference Division-a national resource for the underwater acoustics community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Underwater Sound Reference Division (USRD) is the only organization sanctioned by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to provide traceable underwater acoustic transducer and hydrophone calibrations for the U.S. Navy, industry, research, and education. Initially conceived as a result of the successful operation of German U-boats leading up to WWII, the USRD continues to maintain a principal

K. E. Jenne; A. Paolero

2003-01-01

256

Shortness of Breath in Infants and Children  

MedlinePLUS

... flu symptoms? Yes Small children are prone to BRONCHIOLITIS, a cough with shortness of breath. BRONCHITIS and ... symptoms along with shortness of breath? Yes Occasionally, VIRAL BRONCHITIS will cause bronchial constriction just like asthma ...

257

Timing Apparatuur (Timing Apparatus).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The apparatus required for bundle-synchronous timing is described. Bundle-synchronous timing signals are used along accelerators and in experimental stations. The apparatus consists of a trigger modulator, a trigger detector, a delayed pulse generator, an...

P. Timmer

1985-01-01

258

Speech Breathing in Children and Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 80 children, aged 7, 10, 13, and 16, found that gender was not an important variable in speech breathing, but age was. The youngest group exhibited such things as larger lung, rib cage, and abdominal volume initiations and terminations for breath groups and fewer syllables per breath group. (Author/JDD)

Hoit, Jeannette D.; And Others

1990-01-01

259

Critical issues for breath analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current resurgence of interest in breath analysis follows directly from the ingenuity and foresight of the researchers in the area of nitric oxide, the gas that was named molecule of the year in 1992 [1]. Pioneering studies have defined the physiologic role of nitric oxide including its involvement in reactive airways. Understanding this role in relation to the mechanism

Terence H Risby

2008-01-01

260

Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath  

EPA Science Inventory

The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

261

Apparatus for Teaching Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of articles from "The Physics Teacher" that deal with laboratory/demonstration apparatus and includes descriptions of new apparatus as well as discussions of innovative uses of standard, well-known equipment. Emphasis is on apparatus that is useful primarily in the introductory physics course.

2007-06-08

262

Apparatus for superheating steam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for superheating steam. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the apparatus is provided with two banks of inclined tubes extending upwardly from an outlet header to respective inlet headers. The banks of tubes are disposed in the flow path of main steam through the apparatus and provide a flow of vapor for adding superheat to the main

Schluderberg

1985-01-01

263

The Cylindrical Transducer at the Underwater Sound Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two major projects in the field of scanning sonar were initiated at the Harvard Underwater Sound Laboratory and completed at the New London Underwater Sound Laboratory, following transfer in July 1945. The first of these developments involved the exploita...

H. E. Nash

1980-01-01

264

Ring Wing for an underwater missile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hughes Aircraft has performed exploratory wind tunnel studies of compressed carriage missile designs having extendable Ring Wing and wrap-around tail control surfaces. These force and moment data indicate that significant improvements in a missile's lift and aerodynamic efficiency can be realized. Low speed test results of these data were used to estimate potential underwater improved hydrodynamic characteristics that a Ring Wing and wrap-around tails can bring to an advanced torpedo design. Estimates of improved underwater flight performance of a heavyweight torpedo (4000 lbs.) having an extendable Ring Wing and wrap-around tails were made. The compressed volume design of this underwater missile is consistent with tube-launch constraints and techniques. Study results of this novel Ring Wing torpedo design include extended flight performance in range and endurance due to lowered speeds capable of sustaining underwater level flight. Correspondingly, reduced radiated noise for enhanced stealth qualities is projected. At high speeds, greater maneuverability and aimpoint selection can be realized by a Ring Wing underwater missile.

August, Henry; Carapezza, Edward

265

An Underwater Augmented Reality system for commercial diving operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the implementation of a novel prototypical underwater augmented reality (UWAR) system that provides visual aids to increase commercial divers' capability to detect, perceive, and understand elements in underwater environments. During underwater operations, a great amount of stress is imposed on divers by environmental and working conditions such as pressure, visibility, weightlessness, current, etc. Those factors cause a

R. Morales; P. Keitler; P. Maier; G. Klinker

2009-01-01

266

The underwater camera calibration based on virtual camera lens distortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The machine view is becoming more and more popular in underwater. It is a challenge to calibrate the camera underwater because of the complicated light ray path in underwater and air environment. In this paper we firstly analyzed characteristic of the camera when light transported from air to water. Then we proposed a new method that takes the high-level camera

Dahui Qin; Ting Mao; Peng Cheng; Zhiliang Zhang

2011-01-01

267

Design of underwater robot controller based on CAN bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control system is an important part of autonomous underwater robot. The quality of control system directly affects the flexibility and stability of data transmission. At present, most of domestic autonomous underwater robot communicates by RS232. In this paper, an underwater robot distributed control system based on Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is presented. Compared with the traditional centralized control system,

He Li; Bo Yin; Shanshan Wang; Qingshu Yang

2011-01-01

268

Underwater Localization in Sparse 3D Acoustic Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the localization problem in sparse 3D underwater sensor networks. Considering the fact that depth information is typically available for underwater sensors, we transform the 3D underwater positioning problem into its two- dimensional counterpart via a projection technique and prove that a non-degenerative projection preserves network localiz- ability. We further prove that given a network and a constant k,

Wei Cheng; Amin Y. Teymorian; Liran Ma; Xiuzhen Cheng; Xicheng Lu; Zexin Lu

2008-01-01

269

Design of a Low-Cost Underwater Acoustic Modem  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an increasing interest in creating short-range, low data rate, underwater wireless sensor networks for scientific marine exploration and monitoring. However, the lack of an inexpensive, underwater acoustic modem is preventing the proliferation of these sensor networks. Thus, we are building an underwater acoustic modem starting with the most critical component from a cost perspective-the transducer. The design

Bridget Benson; Ying Li; Brian Faunce; Kenneth Domond; Don Kimball; Curt Schurgers; Ryan Kastner

2010-01-01

270

A vision-based system for autonomous underwater vehicle navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the work for the design and development of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The reference missions are sea bottom surveys and sealines inspections. A vision-based system for the automatic underwater vehicle is presented. The detection of underwater pipeline borders and its symmetry axis is performed. The method adopted for edge detection consists of two steps: 1) a

Gian Luca Foresti; Stefania Gentili; Massimo Zampato

1998-01-01

271

Challenges for efficient communication in underwater acoustic sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean bottom sensor nodes can be used for oceanographic data collection, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration and tactical surveillance applications. Moreover, Unmanned or Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (UUVs, AUVs), equipped with sensors, will find application in exploration of natural undersea resources and gathering of scientific data in collaborative monitoring missions. Underwater acoustic networking is the enabling technology for these applications. Underwater Networks

Ian F. Akyildiz; Dario Pompili; Tommaso Melodia

2004-01-01

272

Markovian approach to model Underwater Acoustic channel: Techniques comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years, Underwater Acoustic (UWA) sensor networks have exponentially grown in many scientific, industrial and research areas. Wireless underwater communications are required in many application fields, such as real time remote control of seabed and oil rigs, monitoring of underwater environments, collecting of scientific data recorded by stations on the seabed, conversation between divers, mapping of the seabed

F. Pignieri; F. De Rango; F. Veltri; S. Marano

2008-01-01

273

Development of a novel underwater microrobot with proximity sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of underwater monitoring for applications such as pollution detection and video mapping in limited space, underwater microrobots are urgently demanded. Compact structure, multi-functional ity, and flexibility are normally considered as incompatible characteristics for underwater micro robots. To implement these purposes, we have developed several types of microrobots with both compact structure and flexible locomotion. However, they just

Liwei Shi; Shuxiang Guo; Kinji Asaka

2011-01-01

274

SDRT: A reliable data transport protocol for underwater sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the reliable data transport problem in underwater sensor networks. Underwater sensor networks are significantly different from terrestrial sensor networks in two aspects: acoustic channels are used for communication and most sensor nodes are mobile due to water current. These distinctions feature underwater sensor networks with low available bandwidth, large propagation delay, highly dynamic topology, and

Peng Xie; Zhong Zhou; Zheng Peng; Jun-Hong Cui; Zhijie Shi

2010-01-01

275

Experimental investigation on underwater acoustic ranging for small robotic fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

GPS-free localization is essential for navigation and information tagging in small robotic fish-based aquatic mobile sensor networks. Constraints on size, weight, and onboard computing power, together with noisy underwater environment, have made underwater localization a particularly challenging problem. In this paper a comprehensive experimental study is presented on underwater acoustic ranging methods based on time difference of arrival (TDOA). Performances

Stephan Shatara; Xiaobo Tan; Ernest Mbemmo; Nathan Gingery; Stephan Henneberger

2008-01-01

276

A Survey of Practical Issues in Underwater Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater sensor networks are attracting increasing interest from researchers in terres- trial radio-based sensor networks. There are important physical, technological, and eco- nomic differences between terrestrial and underwater sensor networks. In this survey, we highlight a number of important practical issues that have not been emphasized in recent surveys of underwater networks, with an intended audience of researchers who are

Jim Kurosea; Brian Neil Levine

2007-01-01

277

Analysis of exhaled breath for disease detection.  

PubMed

Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways. PMID:25014347

Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogus?aw; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

2014-06-12

278

Porous metal absorbers for underwater sound.  

PubMed

Rubber has traditionally been used for underwater sound absorption. Porous metal is a relatively lightweight material and also has higher strength than rubber. However, exactly how porous metals can be used as effective underwater sound absorbers remains unclear. This paper shows how to use porous metal absorbers so that they work well under water, even under fairly constrained conditions. A method of nondimensional analysis is proposed that allows identification of vital characteristics. This means that such characteristics can be varied and the absorbers themselves filled with different types of viscous fluids. Such analysis suggests that the sound absorption coefficient of porous metals does not always increase when there are either increases in porosity or decreases in average pore size. The same method of analysis can show how, by choice of the right characteristics to choose a suitable viscous fluid, a porous metal absorber can be built that takes up little space but still effectively absorbs underwater sounds at low frequencies. PMID:18189554

Wang, Xiaolin

2007-11-01

279

Attenuation characteristics of underwater target lidar signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective attenuation coefficient of underwater target signals and that of backscattered signals are considered same in the present discuss. By the experiments and simulations of underwater target lidar signals, it is found that they are different. A new Monte Carlo method is introduced in the paper, the scattering phase function is approximately by a distorted Henyey-Greenstein (H-G) function, and the expression of the scattering angle (theta) is obtained from H-G function. The calculation efficiency of this method is improved five times than the traditional Monte Carlo method. Various sizes of the target are simulated in the paper. From the calculation results it is concluded that the effective attenuation coefficient of underwater target signals is larger than that of backscattered signals.

Lu, Yimin; Du, Zhufeng; Huang, Tiexia

1998-11-01

280

Magnetic gradiometer for underwater detection applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed and constructed a magnetic gradiometer for underwater mine detection, location and tracking. The United States Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC PC) in Panama City, FL has conducted sea tests of the system using an unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV). The Real-Time Tracking Gradiometer (RTG) measures the magnetic field gradients caused by the presence of a mine in the Earth's magnetic field. These magnetic gradients can then be used to detect and locate a target with the UUV in motion. Such a platform can also be used for other applications, including the detection and tracking of vessels and divers for homeland (e.g., port) security and the detection of underwater pipelines. Data acquired by the RTG in sea tests is presented in this paper.

Kumar, S.; Skvoretz, D. C.; Moeller, C. R.; Ebbert, M. J.; Perry, A. R.; Ostrom, R. K.; Tzouris, A.; Bennett, S. L.; Czipott, P. V.; Sulzberger, G.; Allen, G. I.; Bono, J.; Clem, T. R.

2006-06-01

281

Multi-frame underwater image restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ability to image underwater is highly desired for scientific and military applications, including optical communications, submarine awareness, diver visibility, and mine detection. Underwater imaging is severely impaired by scattering and optical turbulence associated with refraction index fluctuations. This work introduces novel approach to restoration of degraded underwater imagery based on multi-frame correction technique developed for atmospheric distortions. The method represents synthesis of "lucky-region" fusion and optical flow based image warping. Developed multi-frame image restoration algorithm is applied to sets of images collected in laboratory under controlled conditions as well as field test data. Reliance of image restoration on sophistication of the optical flow algorithm is shown. Variable degrees of image degradation mitigation which manifest themselves as high spatial frequency content recovery are demonstrated depending on imaging conditions and ratio of typical image spatial frequency scale to typical degradation spatial frequency scale.

Kanaev, A. V.; Hou, W.; Woods, S.

2011-10-01

282

Breath figure patterns made easy.  

PubMed

In this work, a simple breath figure method was proposed to directly fabricate large-area and ordered honeycomb structures on commercial PMMA substrates or PS Petri dishes without the use of an external polymer solution. The obtained honeycomb structure is indeed part of the substrate, providing the honeycomb layer with enough mechanical stability. The breath figure method in this work for the synthesis of honeycomb structure is extremely simple with scale-up capability to large-area production, which offers new insights into surface engineering with great potential in commercial technologies. For example, using the honeycomb-patterned Petri dishes prepared via this method, cells can be easily separated into divided aggregation, which favors understanding of naturally occurring networks in higher organisms and cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, and the therapeutic control of genetic circuits. PMID:24689785

Huang, Chuixiu; Kamra, Tripta; Chaudhary, Shilpi; Shen, Xiantao

2014-04-23

283

Portable containment sleever apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

Rea, M.J.; Brown, R.A.

2000-04-25

284

Portable containment sleever apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

Rea, Michael J. (North Augusta, SC); Brown, Roger A. (North Augusta, SC)

2000-01-01

285

Underwater noise from offshore oil production vessels.  

PubMed

Underwater acoustic recordings of six Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessels moored off Western Australia are presented. Monopole source spectra were computed for use in environmental impact assessments of underwater noise. Given that operations on the FPSOs varied over the period of recording, and were sometimes unknown, the authors present a statistical approach to noise level estimation. No significant or consistent aspect dependence was found for the six FPSOs. Noise levels did not scale with FPSO size or power. The 5th, 50th (median), and 95th percentile source levels (broadband, 20 to 2500 Hz) were 188, 181, and 173 dB re 1 ?Pa @ 1 m, respectively. PMID:23742441

Erbe, Christine; McCauley, Robert; McPherson, Craig; Gavrilov, Alexander

2013-06-01

286

Network for Underwater Archaeology, Ireland (NUA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the University of Ulster, this site provides information and networking opportunities in the field of underwater archaeology in Ireland. Included here are photographs and descriptions of recent and ongoing excavations of shipwrecks, submerged forests, and other interesting underwater archaeological sites. The information is presented with academic expertise but still provides fascinating reading for the casual visitor. The site also hosts a bulletin board, news about the upcoming conference at the University -- Towards An Understanding Of Maritime Archaeology In Ireland -- and annotated links to two dozen related Websites.

287

Air-Breathing Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

1998-01-01

288

News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.  

PubMed

This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath analysis is now used to diagnose and monitor asthma, check for transplant organ rejection, detect lung cancer and test for Helicobacter pyloriinfection-and the list is growing. A major milestone in the scientific study of breath was marked in the 1970s when Linus Pauling demonstrated that there is more to exhaled breath than the classic gases of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour-a lot more. Based on the gas-liquid partition chromatography analysis, Pauling reported the presence of 250 substances in exhaled breath. We now have the technology to test for any and all of these components. The field of breath analysis has made considerable advances in the 21st century and the utility of breath analysis in health care is advancing quickly. The science is rapidly expanding, the technology is improving and several new applications have been developed or are under commercial development. Breath analysis may rely on both direct (on line) and indirect (off line) reading methods: in the on-line method, breath analysis is immediately available, whereas the use of indirect methods generally involves collecting and trapping the breath sample and subsequently transferring it to an analytical instrument for analysis. Various kinds of breath samples have been used in biological monitoring, including mixed expired air and end expired air: end exhaled air represents the alveolar air concentration and mixed exhaled air represents the gas mixture coming from the dead space of the bronchial tree and the alveolar gas-exchange space. Exhaled breath analysis is an area where the modern day advances in technology and engineering meet the ever expanding need in medicine for more sensitive, specific and non-invasive tests which makes this area a major front in the interface between medicine and engineering. A major breakthrough over the past decade has been the increase in breath-based tests approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Devices measuring common breath gases (oxygen, nitrogen, water vapour and CO(2)) in patient respiratory monitoring have served as

Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

2012-05-23

289

Laser 3-D measuring system and real-time visual feedback for teaching and correcting breathing.  

PubMed

We present a novel method for real-time 3-D body-shape measurement during breathing based on the laser multiple-line triangulation principle. The laser projector illuminates the measured surface with a pattern of 33 equally inclined light planes. Simultaneously, the camera records the distorted light pattern from a different viewpoint. The acquired images are transferred to a personal computer, where the 3-D surface reconstruction, shape analysis, and display are performed in real time. The measured surface displacements are displayed with a color palette, which enables visual feedback to the patient while breathing is being taught. The measuring range is approximately 400600500 mm in width, height, and depth, respectively, and the accuracy of the calibrated apparatus is 0.7 mm. The system was evaluated by means of its capability to distinguish between different breathing patterns. The accuracy of the measured volumes of chest-wall deformation during breathing was verified using standard methods of volume measurements. The results show that the presented 3-D measuring system with visual feedback has great potential as a diagnostic and training assistance tool when monitoring and evaluating the breathing pattern, because it offers a simple and effective method of graphical communication with the patient. PMID:22502562

Povi?, Klemen; Flear, Matja; Moina, Janez; Jezerek, Matija

2012-03-01

290

GPS-based positioning for autonomous underwater vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GPS-based positioning for AUV is a field of active researches, which integrates DGPS, radio sonobuoy, DSP, high speed data transmission technology with underwater telecommunication technogy. Many problems remain to be solved for GPS application to AUV because of the peculiarity of underwater environment. Some subjects in a GPS-based positioning system for AUV are reviewed in the paper. The development of underwater positioning and underwater GPS technology is introduced first. Secondly, the methods of underwater positioning are analyzed, followed with GPS-based AUV positioning algorithms. Thirdly, the origin of GPS error and its countermeasures are tudied. Finally, a conclusion is drawn that the GPS-based positioning system can provide high precesion positioning for 3D AUV in real time. It is promising in underwater applications. Some key technologies in underwater positioning are presented for future work.

Huang, Wenling; Fang, Huajing; Chen, Yingchun; Yuan, Bingcheng; Zhou, Xuchang

2005-11-01

291

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1995-01-01

292

Medical applications of breath hydrogen measurements.  

PubMed

In this article, technical developments in breath analysis and its applications in the field of clinical diagnosis and the monitoring of various symptoms, particularly molecular hydrogen in breath, are introduced. First, a brief overview of the current uses of the hydrogen breath test is provided. The principles of the test and how hydrogen can be used as a biomarker for various symptoms, and monitoring microbial metabolism, are introduced. Ten case-study applications of breath hydrogen measurements for which hydrogen exhibits beneficial effects for diagnosis, including the contexts of oxidative stress, gastrointestinal disease, and metabolic disorders, are discussed. The technologies and problems involved in breath hydrogen testing, sampling, pretreatment, and detection in exhaled breath are discussed, and research including current analytical systems and new sensors is focused on in the context of hydrogen detection. PMID:24481621

Shin, Woosuck

2014-06-01

293

Scientists Use Seals as "Underwater Eyes"  

NSF Publications Database

... from their breathing holes through the water and their interactions with their prey. "This use of a ... silverfish migrate from deeper to shallower water using ambient light, even in the absence of a ...

294

Polarization effects of seawater and underwater targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In underwater optical imaging using pulsed laser radiation, the vector nature of the EM wave can be used to produce polarization contrast. Different polarimetric transformations of light pulses through seawater on immersed targets are analyzed, and optimum conditions for using polarization parameters are defined.

Jack Cariou; Bernard Le Jeune; Jean Lotrian; Yves Guern

1990-01-01

295

Navigation Technologies for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With recent advances in battery capacity and the development of hydrogen fuel cells, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are being used to undertake longer missions that were previously performed by manned or tethered vehicles. As a result, more advanced navigation systems are needed to maintain an accurate position over a larger operational area. The accuracy of the navigation system is critical

Luke Stutters; Honghai Liu; Carl Tiltman; David J. Brown

2008-01-01

296

Rainfall measurements using underwater ambient noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

is from an initial acoustic water hammer pulse. The magnitude of this pulse depends on drop size, shape, and impact velocity. The contribution to the underwater sound spectrum is white and is very large for large drops. The second contribution occurs because at impact the incompressible continuity equation is not satisfied. Once this equation is satisfied, the splash is no

Jeffrey A. Nystuen

1986-01-01

297

Visually augmented navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

As autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are becoming routinely used in an exploratory context for ocean science, the goal of visually augmented navigation (VAN) is to improve the near-seafloor navigation precision of such vehicles without imposing the burden of having to deploy additional infrastructure. This is in contrast to traditional acoustic long baseline navigation techniques, which require the deployment, calibration, and

Ryan M. Eustice; Oscar Pizarro; Hanumant Singh

2008-01-01

298

Advancements in remotely controlled underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological improvements during the past six years have increased several times the operational capabilities of Remotely Operated Vehicles in underwater work. These vehicles are used for inspection, debris removal, object retrieval, and structural cleaning. With this expanded use has come similar dramatic new technology for the vehicle systems. This extends the vehicle operational capabilities and gets more power into a

A. Billet

1985-01-01

299

Development of an autonomous underwater robot \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous underwater robot named Twin-Burger was developed as a versatile test bed to establish the techniques which realize intelligent robot behaviors. The robot was designed to have necessary functions for complex tasks including cooperative task execution with other robots and divers. The first robot Twin-Burger I was completed and launched in November 1992. This paper describes hardware and software

Teruo Fujii; Tamaki Ura

1996-01-01

300

Liquid-filled underwater camera lens system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel underwater camera lens design is presented which replaces all interstitial air spaces with a low refractive index liquid to allow pressure compensation of the system in a thinner, safer diving package. The optical design presented overcomes the loss of refractive power by the liquid in a high performance, all spherical, f\\/1.2 lens, which operates over a 20-degree field

John S. Laudo; Ken Wurm; Cliff Dodson

1998-01-01

301

Muzzle Brake for an Underwater Gun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A device for use as a muzzle brake for an underwater gun having a projectile conveying structure with concentric inner and outer cylinders. The inner cylinder has at least one longitudinal slot formed therein. A sealing means joins the projectile conveyin...

I. N. Kirschner G. R. Berlam

1997-01-01

302

Transient calibration of underwater acoustic transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-frequency limit normally imposed by a confined water tank in underwater acoustic transducers is prominently reduced by applying Prony's model to the sampled transient data. A new concept to improve the calibration accuracy of transducers with an uneven transmitting response is presented, i.e. that variation of transmitting characteristics of transducers with frequency can be compensated by using devised minimum

Jin Xiaofeng; Yuan Wenjun

1998-01-01

303

Underwater Acoustic Imaging by Diversity Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the underwater acoustic imaging is given by diversity techniques. The diversity techniques utilized in this study include the angular and the frequency diversity. The angular diversity means the scattered fields are collected under various angles with respect to the target. The frequency diversity means the scattered fields are collected under various frequencies. Both the angular diversity and

Kun-Chou Lee; Lan-Ting Wang; Jyun-Gu Ou

2007-01-01

304

Acoustic communication between two autonomous underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a project designed to investigate and demonstrate communication between two autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The basic concept of multiple cooperating AUVs implies that these systems must, of necessity be able to communicate with each other in some meaningful way. This paper presents the results of in-water field experiments in which two AUV systems were able to communicate

Steven G. Chappell; James C. Jalbert; P. Pietryka; J. Duchesney

1994-01-01

305

A solar-powered autonomous underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the rapidly expanding requirements for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), Falmouth Scientific, Inc. (FSI) is working in cooperation with the Autonomous Undersea Systems Institute (AUSI) and Technology Systems Inc. (TSI) to develop a vehicle capable of long-term deployment and station-keeping duties. It has long been considered that AUV platforms, in principle, could provide an effective solution for surveillance (security

J. Jalbert; J. Baker; J. Duchesney; P. Pietryka; W. Dalton; D. R. Blidberg; S. Chappell; R. Nitzel; K. Holappa

2003-01-01

306

Propeller Assembly for an Underwater Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an underwater device adapted to sink in water, the device having a propeller disposed in a tail cone portion thereof and operable to rotate in a first direction to move the device toward a surface of the water, an assembly for preventing the propeller ...

N. J. Dubois R. J. Obara

1998-01-01

307

Map Building and Localization for Underwater Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for underwater navigation by combining raw information from different sensors into a single scene description is presented. It is shown that features extracted from such a description are more robust than those extracted from an individual sensor. These descriptions are then combined from many consecutive scenes to form the basis of a new method of map building and

Somajyoti Majumder; Julio Rosenblatt; Steve Scheding; Hugh F. Durrant-whyte

2000-01-01

308

Terrain Modeling for Autonomous Underwater Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main task of perception for autonomous vehicles is to build a representation of the observed environment in order to carry out a mission. In particular, terrain modeling, that is modeling the geomeny of the environment observed by the vehicle's sensors, is crucial for autonomous underwater exploration. The purpose of this work is to analyze the components of the terrain

Martial Hebert

1989-01-01

309

Doppler sonar applied to precision underwater navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doppler sonars have been used for many years to aid underwater navigational systems, reducing their complexity and enhancing their accuracy. This paper describes recent improvements that significantly advance Doppler performance. A new, state-of-the-art, phased array transducer has been developed which offers a number of significant operational advantages. Among these improvements, the phased array eliminates speed of sound dependency, a principle

Kevin V. Jorgensen; Brian L. Grose; F. Anthony Crandall

1993-01-01

310

Particle filter for underwater terrain navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier contribution a particle filter for underwater (UW) navigation is proposed, and applied to an experimental trajectory. This paper focuses on performance improvements and analysis. First, the Cramer Rao lower bound (CRLB) along the experimental trajectory is computed, which is only slightly lower than the particle filter estimate after initial transients. Simple rule of thumbs for how performance

Rickard Karlsson; Fredrik Gustafsson

2003-01-01

311

Multisensor data fusion for underwater navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a generic framework for combining information from several physically different sensors into a single composite multi-dimensional scene description. It is shown that features extracted from such a description are more robust than those extracted from a single sensor. Experimental results from an underwater vehicle are presented.

Somajyoti Majumder; Steve Scheding; Hugh F. Durrant-whyte

2001-01-01

312

Feature tracking for underwater navigation using sonar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking sonar features in real time on an underwater robot is a challenging task. One reason is the low observability of the sonar in some directions. For example, using a blazed array sonar one observes range and the angle to the array axis with fair precision. The angle around the axis is poorly constrained. This situation is problematic for tracking

John Folkesson; John Leonard; Jacques Leederkerken; Rob Williams

2007-01-01

313

Depth Image Matching for Underwater Vehicle Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a map-based navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) that aims to enhance the localisation without external aid. Bathymetric profiles given by a multibeam echosounder are matched to a reference depth map (RDM). The RDM is an existing chart or is constructed from an AUV survey at high altitude. The echosounder data obtained close to the bottom are

Marc Sistiaga; Jan Opderbecke; Marie-jos Aldon

1999-01-01

314

Computer simulation of underwater nuclear events  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the computer simulation of two underwater nuclear explosions, Operation Wigwam and a modern hypothetical explosion of greater yield. The computer simulations were done in spherical geometry with the LASNEX computer code. Comparison of the LASNEX calculation with Snay's analytical results and the Wigwam measurements shows that agreement in the shock pressure versus range in water is better

Kamegai

1986-01-01

315

Distributed Communicative Exploration under underwater communication constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration by Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUV) is of interest in different application areas of Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics (SSRR) including infrastructure inspection after disasters, military reconnaissance, marine search and rescue, and mine hunting. A multi-robot system performing exploration can be highly beneficial for this purpose by distributing the work amongst the different robots. In this paper, we present a

Rathnam; Andreas Birk

2011-01-01

316

Electrically actuated thrusters for autonomous underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is to present the design, development and prototyping of an electrically actuated thruster as a direct drive propulsion system based on a 3-phase permanent magnet brushless machine for an autonomous underwater vehicle. The non-linear design and analysis of the permanent magnet brushless motor are entirely performed in 2-d finite element method. The motor is then coupled directly to

D. Ishak; N. A. A. Manap; M. S. Ahmad; M. R. Arshad

2010-01-01

317

Robust Motion Estimation Improves Underwater Sonar Accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater sonar system is currently the best solution to distinguish a hazardous target from the harmless objects or a flock of fish at a far distance in the water, subsequently protect the harbors' security. A good sonar system should have the ability to surveille a long range, in the meantime reserve a high accuracy. Noise is a crucial problem effecting

Lian Yu; Nicola Neretti; Nathan Intrator

2005-01-01

318

Robot motion estimation improves underwater sonar accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater sonar system is currently the best solution to distinguish a hazardous target from the harmless objects or a flock of fish at a far distance in the water, subsequently protect the harbors' security. A good sonar system should have the ability to survey a long range, in the meantime reserve a high accuracy. Noise is a crucial problem affecting

Lian Yu; N. Neretti; N. Intrator

2005-01-01

319

Modeling and control of underwater robotic vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increased utilization of remotely operated vehicles in subsea applications, the development of autonomous vehicles becomes highly desirable to enhance operator efficiency. The dynamic model of an untethered remotely operated underwater vehicle is presented, and an adaptive control strategy for such vehicles is described. The robustness of the control system with respect to nonlinear dynamic behavior and parameter uncertainties

J. Yuh; D. G. Morgenthaler; K. D. Gremban; M. Marra

1990-01-01

320

Underwater Video Mosaics as Visual Navigation Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a set of algorithms for the creation of underwa- ter mosaics and illustrates their use as visual maps for underwater vehicle navigation. First, we describe the automatic creation of video mosaics, which deals with the problem of image motion estimation in a robust and automatic way. The motion estimation is based on a initial matching of corresponding

Nuno R. Gracias; Jos Santos-victor

2000-01-01

321

Advances and Trends of Bionic Underwater Propulsors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent twenty years, tens of the bionic underwater prototype propulsors which imitate aquatic animals have been invented. The bionic principles hand classification of bionic propulsors were presented firstly. The main advance of the bionic propulsors in the world has been listed in table form. Then the bottlenecks which include low efficiency and massive mechanism, hard-shelled reverse control method and

Daibing Zhang; Haibin Xie; Lincheng Shen; K. H. Low

2009-01-01

322

Last Progress in Underwater Electrical Wire Explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the investigation of the underwater electrical wire explosions using a high power nanosecond timescale generator are reported. The spectroscopic analysis of the emitted radiation has unveiled no evidence for the formation of shunting plasma channel. The latter appears in vacuum and gas wire explosions and causes to the seizure of energy deposition into an exploding wire material.

Alon Grinenko; Arkady Sayapin; Sergey Efimov; Alexander Fedotov; Yakov E. Krasik

2008-01-01

323

Hybrid adaptive control of autonomous underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid adaptive control of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is investigated. Dynamics of AUV vary by change in operating conditions and even theoretically or experimentally driven dynamical coefficients reflect an approximate to the exact ones. Adaptive control technique is employed to handle the uncertainty problems in the system dynamics. In the applied hybrid adaptive control, the system is simulated in a

S. S. Tabaii; F. El-Hawary; M. El-Hawary

1994-01-01

324

Effects of Underwater Explosions on Elastic Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The elastic response of a submerged structure to an underwater explosion is analyzed mathematically as a problem in hydroelasticity. First the effective pressure field from the explosion is described in terms of the time variation of the volume of the exp...

G. Chertock

1964-01-01

325

Underwater Weapon System Having a Rotatable Gun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application discloses an underwater weapon system having a rotating gun system mounted in a vehicle housing. The gun system includes a gun and ammunition sealed within a waterproof housing with the gun muzzle protruding from the housing. The g...

T. J. Gieseke

2003-01-01

326

Contributions to Automated Realtime Underwater Navigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This dissertation presents three separate but related contributions to the art of underwater navigation. These methods may be used in postprocessing with a human in the loop, but the overarching goal is to enhance vehicle autonomy, so the emphasis is on a...

M. J. Stanway

2012-01-01

327

Dynamic positioning of remotely operated underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes an automatic dynamic positioning system for remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) using a mechanical passive arm for position measurement that is suitable for inspection and intervention tasks requiring precise positioning. Good dynamic performance in tracking was also attained, particularly with the variable structure model reference adaptive control strategy.

Liu Hsu; R. R. Costa; F. Lizarralde; J. P. V. S. Da Cunha

2000-01-01

328

Dynamic positioning of remotely operated underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes an automatic dynamic positioning system for remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) using a mechanical passive arm for position measurement that is suitable for inspection and intervention tasks requiring precise positioning. Good dynamic performance in tracking was also attained, particularly with the variable structure model reference adaptive control strategy

Liu Hsu; RAMON R. COSTA; FERNANDO LIZARRALDE; J. P. V. S. Da Cunha

2000-01-01

329

Enabling autonomous capabilities in underwater robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater operations present unique challenges and opportunities for robotic applications. These can be at- tributed in part to limited sensing capabilities, and to lo- comotion behaviours requiring control schemes adapted to specific tasks or changes in the environment. From enhancing teleoperation procedures, to providing high-level instruction, all the way to fully autonomous operations, enabling autonomous capabilities is fundamental for the

Junaed Sattar; Gregory Dudek; Olivia Chiu; Ioannis M. Rekleitis; Philippe Gigure; Alec Mills; Nicolas Plamondon; Chris Prahacs; Yogesh Girdhar; Meyer Nahon; John-paul Lobos

2008-01-01

330

Underwater vehicle propulsion and power generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An underwater vehicle includes a shaft with a propeller disposed thereon; a generator/motor having a stator and a rotor, the rotor being operable to rotate with the propeller; at least one energy storage device connected to the generator/motor; and a controller for setting the generator/motor in a charge mode, a propulsion mode and an idle mode.

Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Chao, Yi (Inventor)

2008-01-01

331

How Long Can You Hold Your Breath?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 142 of the PDF), learners will compare breathing rates before and after hyperventilation to explore how reduced carbon dioxide levels in the blood lower the need to breathe. This activity also includes information about how microgravity conditions in space affect sleep and breathing rates of astronauts. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Astronaut's Sleep" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource guide includes background information and sample evaluation questions. Note: learners with respiratory ailments, such as asthma or allergies, should not participate in the breath-holding part of this activity.

Macleish, Marlene Y.; Mclean, Bernice R.

2013-05-15

332

A portable device to assess underwater changes of cardio dynamic variables by impedance cardiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data concerning heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), and cardiac output (CO) during dynamic apnoea (DA) were collected from 10 healthy male, elite divers by means of an impedance cardiograph adapted to the underwater environment (C. O. Re., from 2C Technologies Inc, Italy). Three trials were performed by the divers in a 3-m-deep pool with a water temperature of 25C: 3-minute head-out immersion during normal breathing (A), till exhaustion immersed at the surface (B) and at 3m depth (C). Both B and C conditions did not led to changes in HR, SV and CO compared to A. Data indicate that typical diving response consisting in a reduction of HR, SV and CO was not present during DA, probably due to sympathetic activation induced by exercise during DA, which partially obscured the effects of the diving response. Moreover, this study highlights the innovative role of our portable, impedance cardiography device, i.e. the C. O. Re., in easily assessing cardiodynamic changes in subjects engaged in exercise schedules including phases of underwater, dynamic apnoea.

Tocco, F.; Crisafulli, A.; Marongiu, E.; Milia, R.; Kalb, A.; Concu, A.

2012-12-01

333

Efficacy of pressure support in compensating for apparatus work.  

PubMed

Breathing through an endotracheal tube, connector, and ventilator demand valve imposes an added load on the respiratory muscles. As respiratory muscle fatigue is thought to be a frequent cause of ventilator dependence, we sought to examine the efficacy of five different ventilators in reducing this imposed work through the application of pressure support ventilation. Using a model of spontaneous breathing, we examined the apparatus work imposed by the Servo 900-C, Puritan Bennett 7200a, Engstrom Erica, Drager EV-A or Hamilton Veolar ventilators, a size 7.0 and 8.0 mm endotracheal tube, and inspiratory flow rates of 40 and 60 l/min. Pressure support of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 cm H2O was tested at each experimental condition. Apparatus work was greater with increased inspiratory flow rate and decreased endotracheal tube size, and was lowest for the Servo 900-C and Puritan Bennett 7200a ventilators. Apparatus work fell in a curvilinear fashion when pressure support was applied, with no major difference noted between the five ventilators tested. At an inspiratory flow rate of 40 l/min, a pressure support of 5 and 8 cm H2O compensated for apparatus work through size 8.0 and 7.0 endotracheal tubes and the Servo 900-C and Puritan Bennett 7200a ventilators. However, the maximum negative pressure was greater for the Servo 900-C. The added work of breathing through endotracheal tubes and ventilator demand valves may be compensated for by the application of pressure support. The level of pressure support required depends on inspiratory flow rate, endotracheal tube size, and type of ventilator. PMID:8447610

Bersten, A D; Rutten, A J; Vedig, A E

1993-02-01

334

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1981-01-01

335

Apparatus for handling ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ash-handling apparatus is described comprising: a container having a substantially planar surface formed therein, the container being filled with liquid for receiving ash when the apparatus is in operative condition; an elongate paddle element for sweeping across the planar surface thereby collecting such ash along the front thereof, the paddle element being pivotally mounted on the planar surface; means

D. W. Pressnall; M. R. Keller; R. E. Schwartz

1989-01-01

336

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

1993-12-28

337

Bearing Lubrication Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent described apparatus for lubrication of anti-friction bearings which uses the oil bleeding characteristics of grease. The apparatus consists of a housing for attachment to a bearing and a grease reservoir wherein the grease is retained in a slop...

K. H. Warren

1970-01-01

338

Solar energy apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy apparatus for gathering and transmitting solar radiation to an energy storage area. Wide-angle lens apparatus is used to focus solar radiation on an end of an optical fiber bundle. The other end of the optical fiber bundle is placed in the energy storage area and has a radiating device attached thereto to more efficiently remove the solar

1977-01-01

339

Robot arm apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for co...

H. D. Nachbar

1990-01-01

340

Robot ARM Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for co...

H. D. Nachbar

1990-01-01

341

Apparatus for cleaning pipe  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for cleaning pipe having a pipe interior, the apparatus comprising: a rigid, longitudinally extending stem; a motor stationarily mounted on the stem; an outer body which surrounds the motor; drive means for connecting the motor to the outer body; a power coupling connected to the stem for supplying power to the motor.

Allison, A.; Tarsha, S.; McMillan, J.S.

1992-02-25

342

Breathing  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... system. Other components of the respiratory system conduct air to the lungs, such as the trachea (windpipe) ... and decreases the pressure inside. As a result, air rushes in and fills the lungs. During expiration, ...

343

21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260 Section 868... § 868.5260 Breathing circuit bacterial filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a device that is...

2009-04-01

344

21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260 Section 868... § 868.5260 Breathing circuit bacterial filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a device that is...

2010-04-01

345

Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breathing Easier Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents ... training, I started experiencing decreased exercise endurance, trouble breathing, and coughing. These symptoms affected my ability to ...

346

COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better  

MedlinePLUS

... do help people breathe easier." Spirometry: A Simple Breathing Test Everyone at risk for COPDespecially those ... should be tested for COPD with a simple breathing test. Spirometry is one of the best and ...

347

46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...g) Nitrogen used for breathing mixtures must ...h) Helium used for breathing mixtures must be grades... (i) Compressed air used for breathing mixtures must (1) Be 20 to 22 percent oxygen by volume; (2)...

2009-10-01

348

42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Breathing gas used to supply supplied-air respirators shall be respirable breathing air and contain no less than 19.5 volume-percent of oxygen. (b) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the applicable...

2010-10-01

349

42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Breathing gas used to supply supplied-air respirators shall be respirable breathing air and contain no less than 19.5 volume-percent of oxygen. (b) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the applicable...

2013-10-01

350

46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...g) Nitrogen used for breathing mixtures must ...h) Helium used for breathing mixtures must be grades... (i) Compressed air used for breathing mixtures must (1) Be 20 to 22 percent oxygen by volume; (2)...

2010-10-01

351

42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Breathing gas used to supply supplied-air respirators shall be respirable breathing air and contain no less than 19.5 volume-percent of oxygen. (b) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the applicable...

2009-10-01

352

42 CFR 84.132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.132 Section...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with supplied-air...

2013-10-01

353

42 CFR 84.172 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.172 Section...Particulate Respirators § 84.172 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators...

2013-10-01

354

42 CFR 84.195 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.195 Section...Cartridge Respirators § 84.195 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators...

2013-10-01

355

42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.115 Section...DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with gas masks shall...

2013-10-01

356

Protective supplied breathing air garment  

DOEpatents

A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

Childers, Edward L. (Lakewood, CO); von Hortenau, Erik F. (Golden, CO)

1984-07-10

357

Protective supplied breathing air garment  

DOEpatents

A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

1984-07-10

358

36 CFR 3.18 - May I snorkel or underwater dive in park waters?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false May I snorkel or underwater dive in park waters...18 May I snorkel or underwater dive in park waters? (a) Snorkeling and underwater diving is allowed in...that may be confused with navigation lights or aids to...

2009-07-01

359

36 CFR 3.18 - May I snorkel or underwater dive in park waters?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false May I snorkel or underwater dive in park waters...18 May I snorkel or underwater dive in park waters? (a) Snorkeling and underwater diving is allowed in...that may be confused with navigation lights or aids to...

2010-07-01

360

46 CFR 167.15-30 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals. 167.15-30...internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals. (a) Except...unless it has been approved to undergo an underwater survey (UWILD) under §...

2013-10-01

361

46 CFR 176.650 - Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. 176.650 Section 176.650 Shipping...Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. To complete the underwater survey portion of the AHE, you may use...

2009-10-01

362

46 CFR 115.650 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. 115.650 Section 115.650 Shipping...Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. To complete your underwater survey, you may use divers or an...

2009-10-01

363

46 CFR 176.650 - Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. 176.650 Section 176.650 Shipping...Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. To complete the underwater survey portion of the AHE, you may use...

2010-10-01

364

46 CFR 115.650 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. 115.650 Section 115.650 Shipping...Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. To complete your underwater survey, you may use divers or an...

2010-10-01

365

Report of a Survey of US Academic Programs in Ocean and Underwater Acoustics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Underwater acoustics remains the principal means to detect and locate submarines and other underwater objects. For this reason, the Office of Naval Research has sponsored a vigorous research program in underwater acoustics and related fields at both acade...

K. W. Lackle

1997-01-01

366

Current status of clinical breath analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical breath analysis remains in its infancy, despite the fact that its potential has been recognized for centuries and that blood, urine, and other bodily fluids and tissues are routinely analyzed to diagnose disease or to monitor therapy. This review discusses the present status of clinical breath analysis and suggests reasons why breath analysis has not received similar widespread clinical use. Currently, a number of marker molecules have been identified in breath that could be used to identify disease, disease progression, or to monitor therapeutic intervention and this list is expected increase dramatically since the analysis of breath is ideally suited for population-based studies in the developed and underdeveloped world. Recent advances in analytical instrumentation have suggested that the use of exhaled breath in medicine should now be re-examined. In particular, the availability of real-time, portable monitors will represent a breakthrough for clinical diagnosis. Progress in clinical breath analysis will require collaboration amongst device makers, experts in breath analysis, and clinicians.

Risby, T. H.; Solga, S. F.

2006-11-01

367

Measuring Your Breathing Frequency at Rest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about the brain and sleep (on page 138 of the PDF), learners measure their resting breathing rates. Learners will discover that breathing frequencies vary amongst individuals. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Astronaut's Sleep" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource guide includes background information and sample evaluation questions.

Macleish, Marlene Y.; Mclean, Bernice R.

2013-05-15

368

How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the

Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

2010-01-01

369

Sleep and Breathing at High Altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep at high altitude is characterized by poor subjective quality, increased awakenings, frequent brief arousals, marked nocturnal hypoxemia, and periodic breathing. A change in sleep architecture with an increase in light sleep and decreasing slow-wave and REM sleep have been demonstrated. Periodic breathing with central apnea is almost universally seen amongst sojourners to high altitude, although it is far less

Himanshu Wickramasinghe; James D. Anholm

1999-01-01

370

Nocturnal breathing in cyanotic congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSleep disordered breathing is frequently observed in patients with cardiovascular disease. Even in the absence of heart disease, acute and chronic hypoxia have been shown to promote sleep-related periodic breathing with central apnea characterized by a repetitive reduction or lack of respiratory activity. Cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) is associated with chronic hypoxia, regardless of whether an increase in pulmonary

Sylvie Legault; Paola Lanfranchi; Jacques Montplaisir; Tore Nielsen; Annie Dore; Paul Khairy; Franois Marcotte; Lise-Andre Mercier

2008-01-01

371

The effect of breath freshener strips on two types of breath alcohol testing instruments.  

PubMed

The potential for breath freshener strips to interfere with the accuracy of a breath alcohol test was studied. Twelve varieties of breath freshener strips from five manufacturers were examined. Breath tests were conducted using the infrared based BAC DataMaster or the fuel cell based Alco-Sensor IV-XL, 30 and 150 seconds after placing a breath strip on the tongue. No effect was observed using the Alco-Sensor system. Some of the strips gave a small reading at 30 seconds (less than or equal to 0.010 g/210 L apparent alcohol) using the DataMaster. Readings on the DataMaster returned to zero by the 150 second test. A proper pre-test observation and deprivation period should prevent any interference from breath freshener strips on breath alcohol testing. PMID:15317204

Moore, Ronald L; Guillen, Jennifer

2004-07-01

372

Cleaning method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

1981-02-27

373

Conduit grinding apparatus  

DOEpatents

A grinding apparatus for grinding the interior portion of a valve stem receiving area of a valve. The apparatus comprises a faceplate, a plurality of cams mounted to an interior face of the faceplate, a locking bolt to lock the faceplate at a predetermined position on the valve, a movable grinder and a guide tube for positioning an optical viewer proximate the area to be grinded. The apparatus can either be rotated about the valve for grinding an area of the inner diameter of a valve stem receiving area or locked at a predetermined position to grind a specific point in the receiving area.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY); Korytkowski, Alfred S. (Scotia, NY)

1991-01-01

374

Solar energy collecting apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collecting apparatus is described which is integrally incorporated into a conventional building structure so that it does not protrude from the normal contour of the building, and which utilizes components of the building structure as a part of the collecting apparatus to thereby minimize the cost thereof. The collecting apparatus includes a solar energy absorptive panel which is adapted to be mounted between the conventional support members in the wall or roof of a building, and which includes an outwardly facing dark collecting surface, and an opposite inner surface having fins integrally formed therein to facilitate transfer of heat to air passed therealong.

Mcarthur, W.H.

1980-01-22

375

Detecting underwater improvised explosive threats (DUIET)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have presented a major threat in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices are powerful homemade land mines that can be small and easily hidden near roadsides. They are then remotely detonated when Coalition Forces pass by either singly or in convoys. Their rapid detection, classification and destruction is key to the safety of troops in the area. These land based bombs will have an analogue in the underwater theater especially in ports, lakes, rivers and streams. These devices may be used against Americans on American soil as an element of the global war on terrorism (GWOT) Rapid detection and classification of underwater improvised explosive devices (UIED) is critical to protecting innocent lives and maintaining the day to day flow of commerce. This paper will discuss a strategy and tool set to deal with this potential threat.

Feeley, Terry

2010-04-01

376

Cymbal piezoelectric composite underwater acoustic transducer.  

PubMed

The working principle of Cymbal piezoelectric composite underwater acoustic transducer was studied in this paper. PZT-5A piezoelectric ceramic disk was used as piezoelectric phase and brass foil was used as end cap electrode of the Cymbal transducer. The silicon rubber was used as the insulated proof layer of the underwater acoustic transducer. The properties of this transducer used as hydrophone, such as operation frequency, free-field voltage receiving sensitivity and directivity, were investigated. Several kinds of prototype of this transducer were fabricated and the properties of this transducer used as hydrophone were tested. The results show that the properties of this transducer used as hydrophone depend on the dimensions of Cymbal transducer because the piezoelectric properties of this transducer are dependent on the dimensions of Cymbal transducer's end caps. The appropriate dimensions for getting higher free-field voltage receiving sensitivity with -184.7 dB were obtained. PMID:16793099

Li, Denghua; Wu, Min; Oyang, Peixi; Xu, Xiaofei

2006-12-22

377

Computer simulation of underwater nuclear effects  

SciTech Connect

We investigated underwater nuclear effects by computer simulations. First, we computed a long distance wave propagation in water by the 1-D LASNEX code by modeling the energy source and the underwater environment. The pressure-distance data were calculated for two quite different yields; pressures range from 300 GPa to 15 MPa. They were found to be in good agreement with Snay's theoretical points and the Wigwam measurements. The computed data also agree with the similarity solution at high pressures and the empirical equation at low pressures. After completion of the 1-D study, we investigated a free surface effect commonly referred to as irregular surface rarefaction by applying two hydrocodes (LASNEX and ALE), linked at the appropriate time. Using these codes, we simulated near-surface explosions for three depths of burst (3 m, 21 m and 66.5 m), which represent the strong, intermediate, and weak surface shocks, respectively.

Kamegai, M.

1987-01-30

378

Autonomous underwater systems for survey operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) that can be released at sea, find a harbor, perform a task, and return to a designated location is highly desirable. The military applications of such a system are obvious. Mine clearing and mine laying come to mind. Other applications could include oceanographic surveys, mineral exploration, fish population studies, and underwater equipment repair. In 1987, the Naval Surface Weapons Center (NSWC) posed the development of such a vehicle as a research problem, and asked the NOAA Office of Sea Grant to recommend several Sea Grant Institutions with expertise in AUVs to investigate. MIT Sea Grant was invited to submit a proposal and was one of three Sea Grant Programs awarded a one-year grant by NSWC. The study developed a vehicle concept and outlined a plan of research necessary for its development. The findings of the MIT research team are summarized here.

Doelling, Norman; Gowell, Elizabeth T.

1987-06-01

379

Shock Wave Propagation and Bubble Pulsation of TNT Underwater Explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock wave and bubbles are basic forms of energy spread and conversion processes for underwater explosion, which is also the fundamental energy for destructive effect on targets. In this paper, the flow-out boundary and variable step-size multi-material Euler algorithm were utilized to analyze numerically the whole process of shock wave generation and propagation, as well as the bubble formation and impulse of underwater explosion. The computed results present the energy output characteristics of underwater explosion by TNT charge, which provide an important scientific basis for formulation design of charge and improvement of damage effects on underwater target.

Liu, Y.; Ding, J.; Zhang, B. L.; Chen, W. H.; He, Z. Q.

2011-09-01

380

Optical cell monitoring system for underwater targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a cell based detection system that could be used for monitoring an underwater target volume and environment using a microfluidic chip and charge-coupled-device (CCD). This technique allows us to capture specific cells and enumerate these cells on a large area on a microchip. The microfluidic chip and a lens-less imaging platform were then merged to monitor cell populations

SangJun Moon; Fahim Manzur; Tariq Manzur; Utkan Demirci

2008-01-01

381

Underwater acoustic communications using time reversal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains theoretical and experimental results on the application of the time-reversal process to acoustic communications in order to improve data telemetry in the ocean. A coherent underwater acoustic communication system must deal with the inter-symbol interference caused by the time-varying, dispersive, shallow-water ocean environment. An approach is demonstrated that takes advantage of the focal properties of time reversal.

G. F. Edelmann; H. C. Song; S. Kim; W. S. Hodgkiss; W. A. Kuperman; T. Akal

2005-01-01

382

Results on underwater mosaic-based navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results on mosaic-based visual navigation of an underwater autonomous vehicle, navigating close to the sea floor. A high-quality video-mosaic is automatically built to be used as a representation of the environment. A visual servoing strategy is adopted to drive the vehicle along a specified trajectory (indicated by way-points) relative to the mosaic. The control errors are defined

Nuno Gracias; Sjoerd van der Zwaan; Alexandre Bernardino; Jose Santos-Victor

2002-01-01

383

Correlation-log-based underwater navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A navigation system for a launch-and-forget autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) that can be realized with commercially available components is described. The navigation system will be truly autonomous, requiring only a knowledge of the vehicle's initial position and attitude. The launch-and-forget requirement is shown to restrict navigation options to either an inertial navigation system or an arrangement using sonar-based two-axis speed-over-the-ground

Gary Campanella; Warwick Holt

1990-01-01

384

Signal Processing for Underwater Acoustic Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance and complexity of signal processing systems for underwater acoustic communications has dramatically increased over the last two decades. With its origins in non-coherent modulation and detection for communication at rates under 100 bits per second, phase-coherent digital communication systems employing multi- channel adaptive equalization with explicit symbol-timing and phase tracking are being deployed in commercial and military systems

Suleyman S. Kozat; Jill K. Nelson; Andrew C. Singer

385

Ejectable underwater sound source recovery assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An underwater sound source is described that may be ejectably mounted on any mobile device that travels over water, to facilitate in the location and recovery of the device when submerged. A length of flexible line maintains a connection between the mobile device and the sound source. During recovery, the sound source is located be particularly useful in the recovery of spent rocket motors that bury in the ocean floor upon impact.

Irick, S. C. (inventor)

1974-01-01

386

Computer simulation of underwater nuclear events  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the computer simulation of two underwater nuclear explosions, Operation Wigwam and a modern hypothetical explosion of greater yield. The computer simulations were done in spherical geometry with the LASNEX computer code. Comparison of the LASNEX calculation with Snay's analytical results and the Wigwam measurements shows that agreement in the shock pressure versus range in water is better than 5%. The results of the calculations are also consistent with the cube root scaling law for an underwater blast wave. The time constant of the wave front was determined from the wave profiles taken at several points. The LASNEX time-constant calculation and Snay's theoretical results agree to within 20%. A time-constant-versus-range relation empirically fitted by Snay is valid only within a limited range at low pressures, whereas a time-constant formula based on Sedov's similarity solution holds at very high pressures. This leaves the intermediate pressure range with neither an empirical nor a theoretical formula for the time constant. These one-dimensional simulations demonstrate applicability of the computer code to investigations of this nature, and justify the use of this technique for more complex two-dimensional problems, namely, surface effects on underwater nuclear explosions. 16 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Kamegai, M.

1986-09-01

387

The indoor air we breathe.  

PubMed Central

Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions. Images p398-a p399-a

Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

1998-01-01

388

Doubly Adaptive CFAR Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The doubly adaptive constant false alarm rate (CFAR) apparatus uses a doubly adaptive detector which is based upon the use of an auxiliary parallel adaptive detector in addition to the conventional main adaptive detector. The auxiliary adaptive detector h...

L. G. Cole

1979-01-01

389

Emission Tube Apparatus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an image of an emission tube apparatus with tube in place. When plugged in and turned on the gas in the tube will become excited and emit a specific color of light depending upon the type of gas.

Ward, Charles

2003-01-16

390

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a demonstration to initiate discussion about electrostatic effects. Also describes and evaluates a Magnetic Bubble Apparatus, a device which exhibits several phenomena related to magnetic domain formation. Includes manufacturer's response to the evaluation. (JN)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1982-01-01

391

Gas turbine sealing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sealing apparatus in a gas turbine. The sealing apparatus includes a seal housing apparatus coupled to a disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable therewith during operation of the gas turbine. The seal housing apparatus comprises a base member, a first leg portion, a second leg portion, and spanning structure. The base member extends generally axially between forward and aft rows of rotatable blades and is positioned adjacent to a row of stationary vanes. The first leg portion extends radially inwardly from the base member and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The second leg portion is axially spaced from the first leg portion, extends radially inwardly from the base member, and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The spanning structure extends between and is rigidly coupled to each of the base member, the first leg portion, and the second leg portion.

Marra, John Joseph; Wessell, Brian J.; Liang, George

2013-03-05

392

Glucose Determination Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent describes an electrochemical apparatus especially applicable for clinical use in determining glucose concentrations in solutions. The invention monitors the reaction of glucose oxidase on a buffered solution of glucose in the presence of a quin...

D. L. Williams

1971-01-01

393

Target Discrimination Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The target discrimination apparatus utilizes logic circuit which is positioned between the detection window and the clutter averaging cells of a conventional constant false alarm rate (CFAR) radar detector to provide better estimation of the clutter avera...

P. W. Chen

1979-01-01

394

An Economical Electrophoresis Apparatus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the production of an electrophoresis apparatus from commonly discarded articles. Outlines paper and gel electrophoresis and its application to the separation of amino acids and intestinal enzymes. (GS)

Andrews, I. M.

1975-01-01

395

Roller Infusion Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is an infusion apparatus consisting of a housing containing an electric motor, the housing having a channel-shaped chassis integrally connected thereto and laterally offset therefrom. A toothed drive roller is transversely journalled in the ...

C. F. G. Dore G. R. Chambers

1983-01-01

396

Apparatus for growing crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved apparatus and method for growing crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.

Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)

1986-01-01

397

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

Kaun, T.D.

1995-03-14

398

Sound Attenuation Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus is disclosed for reducing acoustic transmission from mechanical or acoustic sources by means of a double wall partition, within which an acoustic pressure field is generated by at least one secondary acoustic source. The secondary acoustic so...

K. P. Shepherd M. W. A. F. Grosveld

1989-01-01

399

Spin coating apparatus  

DOEpatents

A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

400

Electric arc saw apparatus  

DOEpatents

A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

Deichelbohrer, P.R.

1983-08-08

401

Mining apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

A mining apparatus and method for dislodging material from a mine face. The dislodged material is transported from the front to the rear of the mine for further handling. The apparatus has a lifting mechanism for raising cross beams to the roof of the mine wherein beam jacks are permitted to engage the cross beams to provide support to the mine roof. The temporary roof support permits advancement of miner as dislodged material is removed.

Hakes, G.A.; Mccracken, W.E.

1982-05-11

402

Battery formation charging apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is describe for charging electric storage batteries, the apparatus comprising: (a) a host computer for providing charging information to and receiving status information from at least one slave computer by means of a data link; and (b) at least one control module coupled to the slave computer for applying charging current to at least one electric storage battery in response to instructions received from the slave computer, and for providing feedback and status information to the slave computer.

Stewart, J.L.

1987-08-04

403

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

1985-02-26

404

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

1985-02-26

405

Active breathing control (ABC): Determination and reduction of breathing-induced organ motion in the chest  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Extensive radiotherapy volumes for tumors of the chest are partly caused by interfractional organ motion. We evaluated the feasibility of respiratory observation tools using the active breathing control (ABC) system and the effect on breathing cycle regularity and reproducibility. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with unresectable tumors of the chest were selected for evaluation of the ABC system. Computed tomography scans were performed at various respiratory phases starting at the same couch position without patient movement. Threshold levels were set at minimum and maximum volume during normal breathing cycles and at a volume defined as shallow breathing, reflecting the subjective maximal tolerable reduction of breath volume. To evaluate the extent of organ movement, 13 landmarks were considering using commercial software for image coregistration. In 4 patients, second examinations were performed during therapy. Results: Investigating the differences in a normal breathing cycle versus shallow breathing, a statistically significant reduction of respiratory motion in the upper, middle, and lower regions of the chest could be detected, representing potential movement reduction achieved through reduced breath volume. Evaluating interfraction reproducibility, the mean displacement ranged between 0.24 mm (chest wall/tracheal bifurcation) to 3.5 mm (diaphragm) for expiration and shallow breathing and 0.24 mm (chest wall) to 5.25 mm (diaphragm) for normal inspiration. Conclusions: By modifying regularity of the respiratory cycle through reduction of breath volume, a significant and reproducible reduction of chest and diaphragm motion is possible, enabling reduction of treatment planning margins.

Gagel, Bernd [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: BGagel@UKAachen.de; Demirel, Cengiz M.P. [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Kientopf, Aline [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Pinkawa, Michael [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Piroth, Marc [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Stanzel, Sven [Institute of Medical Statistics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Breuer, Christian [Department of Internal Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Asadpour, Branka [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Jansen, Thomas [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Holy, Richard [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Wildberger, Joachim E. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Eble, Michael J. [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

2007-03-01

406

Adaptive buffering of breath-by-breath variations of end-tidal CO2 of humans.  

PubMed

We have designed and implemented a computer-controlled system that uses an adaptive control algorithm (generalized minimum variance) to buffer the breath-by-breath variations of the end-tidal CO2 fraction (FETCO2) that occur spontaneously or are exaggerated in certain experimental protocols (e.g., induced hypoxia, any type of induced variations in the ventilatory pattern). Near the end of each breath, FETCO2 of the following breath is predicted and the inspired CO2 fraction (FICO2) of the upcoming breath is adjusted to minimize the difference between the predicted and desired FETCO2 of the next breath. The one-breath-ahead prediction of FETCO2 is based on an adaptive autoregressive with exogenous inputs (ARX) model: FETCO2 of a given breath is related to FICO2, FETCO2 of the previous breath, and inspiratory ventilation. Adequacy of the prediction is demonstrated using data from experiments in which FICO2 was varied pseudorandomly in wakefulness and sleep. The algorithm for optimally buffering changes in FETCO2 is based on the coefficients of the ARX model. We have determined experimentally the frequency of FETCO2 variations that can be buffered adequately by our controller, testing both spontaneous variations in FETCO2 and variations induced by hypoxia in young awake human subjects. The controller is most effective in buffering variations of FETCO2 in the frequency range of <0.1 cycle/breath. Some potential applications are discussed. PMID:8307853

Modarreszadeh, M; Kump, K S; Chizeck, H J; Hudgel, D W; Bruce, E N

1993-11-01

407

Does breathing disturb coordination in butterfly?  

PubMed

This study quantified the effects of breathing compared to non-breathing and "race pace" on arm to leg coordination in the butterfly stroke. Twelve elite male swimmers swam at four paces: 400 m, 200 m, 100 m and 50 m. The arm and leg stroke phases were identified by video analysis to calculate the total time gap (TTG), which is the sum of T1 (hands' entry in the water/high point of first kick), T2 (beginning of the hands' backward movement/low point of first kick), T3 (hands' arrival in a vertical plane to the shoulders/high point of second kick) and T4 (hands' release from the water/low point of second kick). Two strokes with breathing were compared to two strokes with breath-holding. The TTG was greater with breathing (23.3% VS. 19%), showing less propulsive continuity between arm and leg actions (p<0.05). This was due to the shorter downward leg kick and longer arm catch and upward leg kick that led to longer glide time. Conversely, breathing leads to greater coupling between the hand exit and the end of leg propulsion, which was due to a shorter arm push phase to facilitate the head exit to breathe. PMID:20166004

Seifert, L; Chollet, D; Sanders, R

2010-03-01

408

Delayed feedback applied to breathing in humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the response of healthy volunteers to the delayed feedback generated from the breathing signals. Namely, in the freely-breathing volunteers the breathing signal was recorded, delayed by ? seconds and fed back to the same volunteer in real time in the form of a visual and auditory stimulus of low intensity, i.e. the stimulus was crucially non-intrusive. In each case volunteers were instructed to breathe in the way which was most comfortable for them, and no explanation about the kind of applied stimulus was provided to them. Each volunteer experienced 10 different delay times ranging between 10% and 100% of the average breathing period without external stimulus. It was observed that in a significant proportion of subjects (11 out of 24) breathing was slowed down in the presence of delayed feedback with moderate delay. Also, in 6 objects out of 24 the delayed feedback was able to induce transition from nearly periodic to irregular breathing. These observations are consistent with the phenomena observed in numerical simulation of the models of periodic and chaotic self-oscillations with delays, and also in experiments with simpler self-oscillating systems.

Janson, N. B.; Pototsky, A.; Parkes, C.

2013-10-01

409

Unmanned Testing of a Modified US Divers Oxymix Semi-Closed UBA with Variable Exhaust Volume Ratios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analytical model has recently been developed for predicting the circuit oxygen levels in semi-closed underwater breathing apparatus at various mission depths and diver activity levels (Nuckols, Clarke, Marr, 1999). Unmanned testing in June 2000 with a ...

M. L. Nuckols W. A. Gavin W. S. Finlayson

2000-01-01

410

SCUBA Diving for Blind and Visually Impaired People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, a trained scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus) diver who is severely visually impaired provides an orientation to scuba diving as a leisure and career activity. (Author/SB)

Candela, Anthony R.

1982-01-01

411

Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 7, Edition 4, Fall 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FEATURE ARTICLES: An Unconscious Diver With Pulmonary Abnormalities: Problems Associated With Closed Circuit Underwater Breathing Apparatus by Dana E. Adkins, MD; Richard T. Mahon, MD; Steven Bennett, MD. What Every SOF Medic Should Know about Agroterrori...

2007-01-01

412

Applications of breath gas analysis in medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath gas provide valuable information about the subjects' physiological and pathophysiological condition. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) allows rapid and online measurements of these substances. We present results of three studies illustrating the potential of breath gas analysis by PTR-MS in various contexts: long-time online monitoring of VOCs in sleeping subjects suggests that VOC profiles are related to sleep stages. Analysis of VOC concentrations in the breath of carbohydrate malabsorbers emphasizes the role played by bacteria in the gut. Finally, we demonstrate the large intra- and intersubject concentration variability of VOCs by considering one particular mass.

Amann, Anton; Poupart, Guy; Telser, Stefan; Ledochowski, Maximilian; Schmid, Alex; Mechtcheriakov, Sergei

2004-12-01

413

Is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes? A historical review on breath acetone measurements.  

PubMed

Since the ancient discovery of the 'sweet odor' in human breath gas, pursuits of the breath analysis-based disease diagnostics have never stopped. Actually, the 'smell' of the breath, as one of three key disease diagnostic techniques, has been used in Eastern-Medicine for more than three thousand years. With advancement of measuring technologies in sensitivity and selectivity, more specific breath gas species have been identified and established as a biomarker of a particular disease. Acetone is one of the breath gases and its concentration in exhaled breath can now be determined with high accuracy using various techniques and methods. With the worldwide prevalence of diabetes that is typically diagnosed through blood testing, human desire to achieve non-blood based diabetic diagnostics and monitoring has never been quenched. Questions, such as is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes and how is the breath acetone related to the blood glucose (BG) level (the golden criterion currently used in clinic for diabetes diagnostic, monitoring, and management), remain to be answered. A majority of current research efforts in breath acetone measurements and its technology developments focus on addressing the first question. The effort to tackle the second question has begun recently. The earliest breath acetone measurement in clearly defined diabetic patients was reported more than 60years ago. For more than a half-century, as reviewed in this paper, there have been more than 41 independent studies of breath acetone using various techniques and methods, and more than 3211 human subjects, including 1581 healthy people, 242 Type 1 diabetic patients, 384 Type 2 diabetic patients, 174 unspecified diabetic patients, and 830 non-diabetic patients or healthy subjects who are under various physiological conditions, have been used in the studies. The results of the breath acetone measurements collected in this review support that many conditions might cause changes to breath acetone concentrations; however, the results from the six independent studies using clearly-defined Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients unanimously support that an elevated mean breath acetone concentration exists in Type 1 diabetes. Note that there is some overlap between the ranges of breath acetone concentration in individual T1D patients and healthy subjects; this reminds one to be careful when using an acetone breath test on T1D diagnostics. Comparatively, it is too early to draw a general conclusion on the relationship between a breath acetone level and a BG level from the very limited data in the literature. PMID:23959840

Wang, Zhennan; Wang, Chuji

2013-09-01

414

Design and identification of high performance steel alloys for structures subjected to underwater impulsive loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To characterize the performance of naval structures, underwater blast experiments have been developed. Martensitic and austenitic steel alloys were designed to optimize the performance of structures subjected to impulsive loads. The deformation and fracture characteristics of the designed steel alloys were investigated experimentally and computationally. The experiments were based on an instrumented fluid structure interaction apparatus, in which deflection profiles were recorded. The computational study was based on a modified Gurson damage model able to accurately describe ductile failure under various loading paths. The model was calibrated for two high performance martensitic steels (HSLA-100 and BA-160) and an austenitic steel (TRIP-120). The martensitic steel (BA-160) was designed to maximize strength and fracture toughness while the austenitic steel (TRIP-120) was designed to maximize uniform ductility. The combined experimental-computational approach provided insight into the relationships between material properties and blast resistance of structures.

Wei, Xiaoding; Latourte, Felix; Feinberg, Zack; Olson, Gregory; Espinosa, Horacio

2011-06-01

415

Battery Lifetime Estimation and Optimization for Underwater Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic technology has been established as the exclusive technology that provides robust underwater communications for military and civilian applications. One particular civilian application of interest is the deployment of underwater acoustic sensor networks. The main challenges of deploying such a network are the cost and the limited battery resources of individual sensor nodes. Here, we provide a method that addresses

Raja Jurdak; Cristina Videira Lopes; Pierre Baldi

2006-01-01

416

The Naval Sea Systems Command Underwater Acoustic Data Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) Underwater Acoustic Data Bank (NAVDAB) was initiated to provide an appropriate data base for development and validation of sonar perfomance prediction models. The main data bank was installed at the Naval Undersea Center with branches at the Naval Underwater Systems Center and the Naval Oceanographic Office. NAVDAB is administered, under NAVSEA direction, by a

L. Maples; S. Santaniello

1975-01-01

417

Multi-frame restoration of turbulence degraded underwater images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to image underwater is highly desired for scientific and military applications, including optical communications, situational awareness, diver visibility, and mine detection. However, underwater imaging is severely impaired by scattering and optical turbulence associated with refraction index fluctuations. Naturally, the approaches taken to solve the underwater image restoration problem have their origin in atmospheric turbulence compensation algorithms. There is certain similarity between the atmospheric and underwater image degradations but the difference in the scales of refraction index fluctuations in two media brings out the need for significant modifications of atmospheric techniques to be applicable to underwater imagery. Significantly stronger underwater image distortions resulting in large local shifts and warping of the image features require robust tracking using, for example optical flow estimation, even under relatively benign underwater conditions. Comparative performance of multi-frame nonlinear gain "lucky patch" algorithms with variable degree of optical flow technique sophistication is presented for underwater imagery collected in a laboratory tank and in a field exercise. Reliance of image restoration on accuracy of the optical flow algorithm is revealed and one approach to enhance restored image quality using confidence measures of optical flow estimation is proposed.

Kanaev, Andrey V.

2012-10-01

418

An underwater towed electromagnetic source for geophysical exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-frequency electromagnetic methods are used in geophysical exploration to detect the magnetic field distortion between a transmitter and receiver produced by locally conductive bodies. Both ground and airborne systems are in current use. It is possible to similarly conduct underwater geophysical exploration by using an underwater towed source of electromagnetic radiation and a receiving magnetic or electric field detector. The

BARRY E. TOSSMAN; DAVID L. THAYER; WILLIAM A. SWARTZ

1979-01-01

419

Energy analysis of routing protocols for underwater wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater wireless sensor networks consist of a certain number of sensors and vehicles that interact to collect data and perform collaborative tasks.Designing energy-efficient routing protocols for this type of networks is essential and challenging because sensor nodes are powered by batteries, which are difficult to replace or recharge, and because underwater communications are severely affected by network dynamics, large propagation

Mari Carmen Domingo; Rui Prior

2008-01-01

420

UUV mobility management for underwater acoustic sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater acoustic sensor networks typically comprised of sensor nodes that are deployed in sufficiently large numbers for data collection, monitoring and surveillance. Multi-hop relay transmission manner is used to deliver acquired data from sensor nodes to the sink node; nevertheless, hot spots around sink node will bring severe problems. In underwater sensor networks model of this paper, nodes are divided

Cai Wen-Yu; Liu Jing-Biao

2008-01-01

421

Airwaves generated by an underwater explosion: Implications for volcanic infrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shallow explosion in a fluid is one of the fundamental processes of airwave generation in volcanic eruptions. To better understand the mechanism of the airwave generation, underwater explosion experiments were conducted. Although the underwater explosions have been intensely studied over the last century, airwaves have received little attention. In this study, pressure waves were measured in air and under

M. Ichihara; M. Ripepe; A. Goto; H. Oshima; H. Aoyama; M. Iguchi; K. Tanaka; H. Taniguchi

2009-01-01

422

Time-domain modelling of turbo-coded underwater communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for prediction of the performance of underwater acoustic communication by simulations is presented 1 . The simulation technique, implemented in a software called COMLAB, is composed of three main modules for, respectively, describing the underwater environment, numerical modeling of the communication channel and the communication signal processing. The environment is modelled as a water layer above a fluid

Ilkka Karasalo

2011-01-01

423

Underwater Pressure Measurements at Mono Lake, California - 1969.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1969 Mono Lake experimental program was designed primarily to study the air blast from shallow underwater explosions of charges weighing five tons or more. This report documents the mapping of the underwater pressure field, which was done in support o...

J. B. Gaspin

1970-01-01

424

A PC based coherent sonar workstation for experimental underwater acoustics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from water, the most important component in an experimental underwater acoustics program is a versatile sonar system for transmitting, receiving, and recording acoustic waveforms. At the Underwater Research Lab (URL) at Simon Fraser University a simple yet fully coherent sonar workstation has been developed by making use of ZBM compatible personal computer (PC) technology, commercially available digital signal processing

P. Kraeutner; J. Bird

1993-01-01

425

Model-aided inertial navigation for underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the development and experimental evaluation of a complete model-aided inertial navigation system (INS) for underwater vehicles. The navigation system is novel in that accurate knowledge of the vehicle dynamics is utilized for aiding the INS, and the performance is evaluated using real data collected by an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Together with real-time sea current estimation, the

Oyvind Hegrenaes; Einar Berglund; Oddvar Hallingstad

2008-01-01

426

Seafloor map generation for autonomous underwater vehicle navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevation map generation is an essential component of any autonomous underwater vehicledesigned to navigate close to the seafloor because elevation maps are used for obstacle avoidance,path planning and self localization. We present an algorithm for the reconstruction of elevationmaps of the seafloor from side-scan sonar backscatter images and sparse bathymetric points coregisteredwithin the image. Given the trajectory for the underwater

Andrew Edie Johnson; Martial Hebert

1996-01-01

427

A local geopotential model for implementation of underwater passive navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A main aspect of underwater passive navigation is how to identify the vehicle location on an existing gravity map, and several matching algorithms as ICCP and SITAN are the most prevalent methods that many scholars are using. In this paper, a novel algorithm that is different from matching algorithms for passive navigation is developed. The algorithm implements underwater passive navigation

Zhigang Wang; Shaofeng Bian

2008-01-01

428

SIGMA POINT KALMAN FILTER FOR UNDERWATER TERRAIN-BASED NAVIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise underwater navigation is crucial in a number of marine applications. Navigation of most autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) is based on inertial navi- gation. Such navigation systems drift off with time and external fixes are needed. This paper concentrates on terrain-based navigation, where position fixes are found by com- paring measurements with a prior map. Nonlinear Bayesian methods like point

Kjetil Bergh nonsen; Oddvar Hallingstad

429

Autonomous underwater vehicle navigation scheme for cable following  

Microsoft Academic Search

A navigation scheme for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) following underwater cables is presented. The objective in following the cable is to capture a video of the cable for inspection purposes. Two main practical difficulties arising in using optical images for navigation are considered and a sensor fusion scheme is proposed to overcome these problems. The paper presents experimental results obtained

Arjuna Balasuriya; Tamaki Ura

2001-01-01

430

Localization of autonomous underwater vehicles by sonar image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major percentage of underwater operations takes place in structured environments. This article presents a low cost way for underwater vehicle positioning in places like pools, tanks, water towers etc. The developed application calculates a 2D position using only a simple scanning sonar and a digital compass. A user interface has also been designed for this purpose. Various modes of

Z. Eskinja; Z. Fabekovic; Z. Vukic

2007-01-01

431

Underwater transducer array testing system based on virtual instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an intelligent testing system for underwater transducer array by using virtual instrument technology. The testing system is used to test the identities between transducer and transducer of the underwater transducer array. The hardware and software architecture of the testing system are introduced. The system software is developed on the LabVIEW. LabVIEW, a graphical programming language, is used

Yang Han; Yun Zhu; Wei-Peng Ma

2010-01-01

432

Discrete hierarchical supervisory control for autonomous underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is an unmanned untethered underwater vehicle managed by its control architecture. If we want an AUV to undertake a user-specified mission without the presence of a human, the control system should have enough machine intelligence. The present paper, based on the RW supervisory control theory of Discrete Event Dynamic Systems (DEDS) developed by Ramadge and

Hongli Xu; Yu Zhang; Xisheng Feng

2004-01-01

433

Research on the Hierarchical Supervisory Control of Underwater Glider  

Microsoft Academic Search

An underwater glider is a buoyancy-propelled and fixed-wing vehicle with attitude controlled completely by means of internal mass redistribution. In order to independently accomplish complex missions in unstructured and unknown oceanic environment, intelligent control system is needed to provide the underwater glider with the ability of active autonomy. Based on the RW (Ramadge & Wonham) supervisory control theory of discrete

Yu Zhang; Jiaping Tian; Donghai Su; Shijie Wang

2006-01-01

434

Feasibility of Underwater Friction Stir Welding of Hardenable Alloy Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this thesis is to determine whether friction stir welding (FSW) is a feasible welding process for steels in an underwater environment. Specific benefits would be underwater weld repairs on steel alloy piping systems and/or structures, and...

N. E. Overfield

2010-01-01

435

Feasibility of Underwater Friction Stir Welding of HY-80 Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to determine the feasibility of underwater friction stir welding (FSW) of high-strength; quench and temper low carbon steels that are susceptible to hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC). The specific benefits of underwater FSW wo...

W. C. Stewart

2011-01-01

436

Underwater-transparent nanodendritic coatings for directly monitoring cancer cells.  

PubMed

Underwater-transparent nanodendritic coatings are easily fabricated by a three-step template process. After modification with anti-EpCAM, the coatings exhibit the capability for efficiently capturing rare number of cancer cells from whole blood. On the other hand, the unique underwater transparency enables the coatings to directly monitor captured cancer cells by optical imaging. PMID:23950103

Yang, Gao; Liu, Hongliang; Liu, Xueli; Zhang, Pengchao; Huang, Chao; Xu, Tailin; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Shutao

2014-03-01

437

UNDERWATER INSTRUMENT FOR DETERMINING BEARING CAPACITY OF SHALLOW MARINE SEDIMENTS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A small, portable, underwater instrument for measuring carbonate substrate bearing capacity in situ is described. The device was used in various shallow water carbonate reef environments. Criteria for design and operation were based on ability to deliver controlled levels of stress to bearing plates of various sizes, operability underwater by scuba divers, transportability, and cost.

Circe, Ronald, C.

1985-01-01

438

Adaptive sliding control of an experimental underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that adaptive extensions of sliding control are effective for precise control of underwater vehicles through experiments with an actual vehicle. Adaptive sliding control permits direct nonlinear control system design, including online parameter estimation. Experimental results are detailed which were obtained from a tethered underwater vehicle equipped with a precision broadband acoustic navigation system and three-degree-of-freedom attitude instrumentation

Dana R. Yoerger; Jean-Jacques E. Slotine

1991-01-01

439

Underwater Target Detection System for Electro-Optical Imagery Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of detecting underwater targets from Electro-optical (EO) images is considered in this paper. A blockbased log-likelihood ratio test has been developed for detection and segmentation of underwater mine-like objects in the EO images captured wi...

J. D. Tucker M. Kabatek M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi

2010-01-01

440

Development and experiments of a novel multifunctional underwater microrobot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compact structure, multifunction, and flexibility are normally considered as incompatible characteristics for legged microrobots. Most robots focused on complex structure of multi-joint legs to attain the multifunction and flexibility, while others had poor flexibility for miniaturization. In the field of underwater monitoring for applications such as pollution detection and video mapping in limited space, underwater microrobots are urgently demanded. To

Liwei Shi; Shuxiang Guo; Kinji Asaka; Shilian Mao

2010-01-01

441

Autonomous underwater vehicle networks as integrated acoustic observation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) are rapidly being transitioned into operational systems for national defense, offshore exploration, and ocean science. However, the use the robotic platforms as components of integrated acoustic sensing systems is still at an early stage. Thus, for example, with recent advances in underwater navigation and communication, and collaborative robotics, networks of AUVs may have significant potential as

Henrik Schmidt

2005-01-01

442

Distributed virtual environment collaborative simulator for underwater robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a distributed virtual environment collaborative simulator (DVECS) for testing of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) where both real and simulated vehicles-remotely operated vehicles (ROV) and autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV)-can interact and cooperate in a hybrid, synthetic, virtual environment containing various types of real and simulated vehicles, obstacles, conditions and disturbances. This virtual system can be used to determine

S. K. Choi; S. A. Menor; J. Yuh

2000-01-01

443

Development of an underwater target classifier using target specific features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Sonar, the detection and estimation functions are performed by signal processors, which involve the computation of various statistics, for enhancing the overall performance of the system. This also takes into account all the undesirable propagation effects caused by the underwater channel. Underwater targets can be classified by using certain target specific features such as target strength, target dynamics, and

M. H. Supriya; P. R. Saseendran Pillai

2003-01-01

444

A Camcorder for 3D Underwater Reconstruction of Archeological Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underwater cartography has made great progress in the last decade. In this paper, we discuss of the 3D underwater cartography problem and propose a multimodal fusion approach. The work presented in this paper is about the analyze and 3D reconstruction of archeological objects. Using an uncalibrated single camera, we propose to describe a method to firstly, calibrate this camera

Arnaud Meline; Jean Triboulet; textbfBruno Jouvencel

2010-01-01

445

Fetal Cardiac Autonomic Control during Breathing and Non-Breathing Epochs: The Effect of Maternal Exercise  

PubMed Central

We explored whether maternal exercise during pregnancy moderates the effect of fetal breathing movements on fetal cardiac autonomic control assessed by metrics of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). Thirty women were assigned to Exercise or Control group (n=15/group) based on the modifiable physical activity questionnaire (MPAQ). Magnetocardiograms (MCG) were recorded using a dedicated fetal biomagnetometer. Periods of fetal breathing activity and apnea were identified using the fetal diaphragmatic magnetomyogram (dMMG) as a marker. MCG R-waves were marked. Metrics of fetal HR and HRV were compared using 1 breathing and1 apneic epoch/fetus. The main effects of group (Exercise vs. Control) and condition (Apnea vs. Breathing) and their interactions were explored. Fetal breathing resulted in significantly lower fetal HR and higher vagally-mediated HRV. Maternal exercise resulted in significantly lower fetal HR, higher total HRV and vagally-mediated HRV with no difference in frequency band ratios. Significant interactions between maternal exercise and fetal breathing were found for metrics summarizing total HRV and a parasympathetic metric. Post hoc comparison showed no group difference during fetal apnea. Fetal breathing was associated with a loss of Total HRV in the Control group and no difference in the Exercise group. Both groups show enhanced vagal function during fetal breathing; greater in the Exercise group. During in utero breathing movements, the fetus of the exercising mother has enhanced cardiac autonomic function that may give the offspring an adaptive advantage.

Gustafson, Kathleen M.; May, Linda E.; Yeh, Hung-wen; Million, Stephanie K.; Allen, John J. B.

2013-01-01

446

Just Breathe Green: Measuring Transpiration Rates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through multi-trial experiments, students are able to see and measure something that is otherwise invisible to themseeing plants breathe. Student groups are given two small plants of native species and materials to enclose them after watering with colored water. After being enclosed for 5, 10 and 15 minutes, teams collect and measure the condensed water from the plants' "breathing," and then calculate the rates at which the plants breathe. A plant's breath is known as transpiration, which is the flow of water from the ground where it is taken up by roots (plant uptake) and then lost through the leaves. Students plot volume/time data for three different native plant species, determine and compare their transpiration rates to see which had the highest reaction rate and consider how a plant's unique characteristics (leaf surface area, transpiration rate) might figure into engineers' designs for neighborhood stormwater management plans.

Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET),

447

Air Can Be Cleaned (For Breathing).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Life support, during ventures away from earth's atmosphere, requires man-made system capability to provide clean air for breathing and to carry wastes (material and energy) to disposal. In this system, small fires and contaminant emitters must be controll...

W. R. Calvert

1968-01-01

448

Healthy Living: Helping Your Child Breathe Easier  

MedlinePLUS

... cough up. Colds and flu cause the nasal membranes to swell, narrowing air passages and making breathing ... and remove abnormal mucus. Air conditioners with special filters can cut down on the presence of some ...

449

Interruption of Denitrogenation by Air-Breathing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was designed to determine whether or not a proposed denitrogenation time, interrupted with a short air-breathing time and when matched with an additional denitrogenation time equal to the interruption, would protect from bends (decompression si...

J. P. Cooke

1975-01-01

450

Constructing a Dynamic Lung and Breathing Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes construction of a model that can demonstrate the activities of the human lungs. Among these are the effects of occluding the trachea and respiratory opening, the action of diaphragmatic and negative-pressure breathing and pressure changes. (SA)

Llewellyn, Gerald C.

1980-01-01

451

Polarization Imaging Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polarization imaging apparatus has shown promise as a prototype of instruments for medical imaging with contrast greater than that achievable by use of non-polarized light. The underlying principles of design and operation are derived from observations that light interacts with tissue ultrastructures that affect reflectance, scattering, absorption, and polarization of light. The apparatus utilizes high-speed electro-optical components for generating light properties and acquiring polarization images through aligned polarizers. These components include phase retarders made of OptoCeramic (registered TradeMark) material - a ceramic that has a high electro-optical coefficient. The apparatus includes a computer running a program that implements a novel algorithm for controlling the phase retarders, capturing image data, and computing the Stokes polarization images. Potential applications include imaging of superficial cancers and other skin lesions, early detection of diseased cells, and microscopic analysis of tissues. The high imaging speed of this apparatus could be beneficial for observing live cells or tissues, and could enable rapid identification of moving targets in astronomy and national defense. The apparatus could also be used as an analysis tool in material research and industrial processing.

Zou, Yingyin K.; Chen, Qiushui

2010-01-01

452

Improving fundamental factors among correlation matching algorithms in underwater TANS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TERCOM, ICP and TIEM algorithms, which mathematically all apply correlation matching mode, have been developed for positioning in underwater Terrain-aided Navigation System (TANS), but how to virtually improve their performance is still research puzzle now. Analyzing the characters of terrain reference data's distribution and vehicles prowling underwater, we find that grid spacing and accumulation sequence are two decisional elements of underwater TANS. Then the modified Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) estimation algorithm (M-MAP) from super-resolution images reconstruction is creatively explored for implementing interpolation to enhance the accuracy of non-surveyed points' deep-determination, and basic error mechanism model (EMM) based on Mean Absolute Difference (MAD) algorithm is deduced which can reflect the relationship of underwater TANS's inner factors. Simulation experiments indicate that adopting appropriate fundamental factors can effectively boost up underwater TANS's navigation competence based on the algorithms listed above.

Lin, Yi; Yan, Lei; Tong, Qingxi

2007-08-01

453

Breath stacking in children with neuromuscular disorders.  

PubMed

Respiratory muscle weakness in neuromuscular disorders (NMD) can lead to shallow breathing and respiratory insufficiency over time. Children with NMD often cannot perform maneuvers to recruit lung volume. In adults, breath stacking with a mask and one-way valve can achieve significantly increased lung volumes. To evaluate involuntary breath stacking (IBS) in NMD, we studied 23 children of whom 15 were cognitively aware and able to communicate verbally. For IBS, a one-way valve and pneumotachograph were attached to a face mask. Tidal volumes (Vt) and minute ventilation (VE ) were calculated from airflow over 30?sec before and after 15?sec of expiratory valve closure. Six cooperative male subjects with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) participated in a subsequent comparison of IBS with voluntary breath stacking (VBS) and supported breath stacking (SBS). The average Vt in those studied with IBS was 277?ml (range 29-598?ml). The average increase in volume by stacking was 599?ml (range -140 to 2,916?ml) above Vt . The average number of stacked breaths was 4.5 (range 0-17). VE increased on average by 18% after stacking (P?breath stack. Compared to IBS, VBS achieved similar volumes in the six subjects with DMD but SBS was more successful in those with greatest muscle weakness. IBS may achieve breath volumes of approximately three times Vt and may be particularly useful in non-cooperative subjects with milder degrees of respiratory muscle weakness. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2014; 49:544-553. 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23956183

Jenkins, H M; Stocki, A; Kriellaars, D; Pasterkamp, H

2014-06-01

454

Discriminating between Nasal and Mouth Breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose\\u000acan have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the\\u000aindividual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor\\u000aand intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to\\u000ainvestigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between\\u000anasal and mouth

Kevin Curran; Peng Yuan; Damian Coyle

2010-01-01

455

Elimination rates of breath alcohol.  

PubMed

Legal driving limits are set coequally with 0.5 g/L blood alcohol concentration (BAC) or 0.25 mg/L breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) in Austria as well as in other European countries. As mostly some time elapses between BrAC measurement and driving offence, a back calculation of alcohol concentrations is often required. The calculation of hourly BrAC elimination rates can thereby help to avoid unnecessary variances. A study with 59 participants was performed under social conditions. BrAC was determined with the legally accredited Alcotest 7110 MK III A every 30 min, and concomitantly venous blood samples were drawn. Five hundred and four BrAC/BAC value pairs were evaluated. The overall mean peak BrAC was calculated with 0.456 mg/L (+/-0.119 mg/L standard deviation). The mean hourly BrAC elimination rate was overall determined with 0.082 mg/L per h (0.050-0.114, 95% range). Mean rate of females (0.087 mg/L h(-1)) and the according 95% limits were statistically significantly higher than of males (mean rate 0.078 mg/L h(-1), p<0.04). Our results confirm the possibility to implement hourly BrAC elimination rates, provided that adequate statistical ranges and basic forensic scientific rules that have been set up for alcohol back calculations are observed. PMID:17064864

Pavlic, Marion; Grubwieser, Petra; Libiseller, Kathrin; Rabl, Walter

2007-08-24

456

Breath-based biomarkers for tuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the potential of breath analysis by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to discriminate between samples collected prospectively from patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB). Samples were obtained in a TB endemic setting in South Africa where 28% of the culture proven TB patients had a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) negative sputum smear. A training set of breath samples from 50 sputum culture proven TB patients and 50 culture negative non-TB patients was analyzed by GC-MS. A classification model with 7 compounds resulted in a training set with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 79% compared with culture. The classification model was validated with an independent set of breath samples from 21 TB and 50 non-TB patients. A sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 84% and accuracy of 77% was found. We conclude that the 7 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that discriminate breath samples from TB and non-TB patients in our study population are probably host-response related VOCs and are not derived from the VOCs secreted by M. tuberculosis. It is concluded that at present GC-MS breath analysis is able to differentiate between TB and non-TB breath samples even among patients with a negative ZN sputum smear but a positive culture for M. tuberculosis. Further research is required to improve the sensitivity and specificity before this method can be used in routine laboratories.

Kolk, Arend H. J.; van Berkel, Joep J. B. N.; Claassens, Mareli M.; Walters, Elisabeth; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Dallinga, Jan W.; van Schooten, Fredrik-Jan

2012-05-01

457

Cigarette smoking and fetal breathing movements.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking caused a reduction in the incidence of fetal breathing movements in normal and abnormal pregnancies. The size of the reduction varied, being greatest in small-for-dates pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by fetal distress in labour and least in pre-eclamptic pregnancies. The fall in the amount of fetal breathing movements was significantly related to the rise in maternal plasma nicotine after smoking but was unrelated to the rise in barboxyhaemoglobin. Smoking non-nicotine (herbal) cigarettes produced increases in carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations similar to those observed after smoking tobacco cigarettes, and was not associated with a fall in the incidence of fetal breathing movements. Chewing gum containing nicotine produced rises in plasma nicotine concentration similar to those observed after smoking tobacco cigarettes and was associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of fetal breathing movements. Hence nicotine appeared to be the factor in cigarette smoke responsible for the reduction in the incidence of fetal breathing movements. Nicotine was present in the cord blood of infants whose mothers smoked. The possible mechanism by which nicotine caused a reduction in the incidence of fetal breathing movements and its possible relevance to the detrimental effects of smoking on the fetus are considered. PMID:1268133

Manning, F A; Feyerabend, C

1976-04-01

458

Swimming in air-breathing fishes.  

PubMed

Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in swim flumes stimulated air-breathing behaviour, and there is evidence that surfacing frequency and oxygen uptake from air show an exponential increase with increasing swimming speed. In some species, this was associated with an increase in the proportion of aerobic metabolism met by aerial respiration, while in others the proportion remained relatively constant. The ecological significance of anaerobic swimming activities, such as sprinting and fast-start manoeuvres during predator-prey interactions, has been little studied in air-breathing fishes. Some species practise air breathing during recovery itself, while others prefer to increase aquatic respiration, possibly to promote branchial ion exchange to restore acid-base balance, and to remain quiescent and avoid being visible to predators. Overall, the diversity of air-breathing fishes is reflected in their swimming physiology as well, and further research is needed to increase the understanding of the differences and the mechanisms through which air breathing is controlled and used during exercise. PMID:24502687

Lefevre, S; Domenici, P; McKenzie, D J

2014-03-01

459

The breathing conundrum - interoceptive sensitivity and anxiety  

PubMed Central

Cognitive and affective processing has been the central focus of brain-related functions in psychology and psychiatry for many years. Much less attention has been paid to, what could be considered the primary function of the brain, to regulate the function of the body. Recent developments, which include the conceptualization of interoception as a process consisting of integrating the information coming from the inside of the body in the central nervous system (CNS) and the appreciation that complex emotional processes are fundamentally affected by the processing and regulation of somatic states, have profoundly changed the view of the function and dysfunction of the brain. This review focuses on the relationship between breathing and anxiety. Several anxiety disorders have been associated with altered breathing, perception of breathing and response to manipulations of breathing. Both clinical and experimental research studies are reviewed that relate breathing dysfunctions to anxiety. Altered breathing may be useful as a physiological marker of anxiety as well as a treatment target using interoceptive interventions.

Paulus, Martin P.

2013-01-01

460

Biological particle identification apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for making multiparameter light scattering measurements from suspensions of biological particles is described. Fourteen of the sixteen Mueller matrix elements describing the particles under investigation can be substantially individually determined as a function of scattering angle and probing radiations wavelength, eight elements simultaneously for each of two apparatus configurations using an apparatus which incluees, in its simplest form, two polarization modulators each operating at a chosen frequency, one polarizer, a source of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, a detector sensitive to the wavelength of radiation employed, eight phase-sensitive detectors, and appropriate electronics. A database of known biological particle suspensions can be assembled, and unknown samples can be quickly identified once measurements are performed on it according to the teachings of the subject invention, and a comparison is made with the database.

Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Gregg, Charles T. (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, W. Kevin (Los Alamos, NM); Hiebert, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

461

Gas compression apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus for transferring gas from a first container to a second container of higher pressure was devised. A free-piston compressor having a driving piston and cylinder, and a smaller diameter driven piston and cylinder, comprise the apparatus. A rod member connecting the driving and driven pistons functions for mutual reciprocation in the respective cylinders. A conduit may be provided for supplying gas to the driven cylinder from the first container. Also provided is apparatus for introducing gas to the driving piston, to compress gas by the driven piston for transfer to the second higher pressure container. The system is useful in transferring spacecraft cabin oxygen into higher pressure containers for use in extravehicular activities.

Terp, L. S. (inventor)

1977-01-01

462

Robot arm apparatus  

DOEpatents

A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1992-01-01

463

Apparatus for processing coal  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for processing coal to prevent the creation of extreme fines and to extract pyrites from the principal coal fractions in which there are two air circulating circuits having processing components which cooperate in their respective circuits to result initially in substantial extraction of fines in the first circuit while releasing principal granulated coal fractions and pyrites to the second circuit where specific gravity separation of the pyrites and principal coal fractions occur. The apparatus includes a source of drying heat added to the air moving in the circuits and delivered at the places where surface moisture drying is most effective. Furthermore, the apparatus is operated so as to reduce coal to a desired size without creating an excessive volume of extreme fines, to separate pyrites and hard to grind components by specific gravity in a region where fines are not present, and to use the extreme fines as a source of fuel to generate drying heat.

Williams, R.M.

1985-02-12

464

Passive orientation apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus that can return a payload to a known orientation after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and orientation after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known orientation by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known orientation after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

465

Fuel assembly locking apparatus  

SciTech Connect

The fuel assembly locking apparatus comprises a rotatable plate capable of simultaneously and positively engaging all four legs of the bottom nozzle of a fuel assembly for uniformly holding the fuel assembly while the spent fuel rods are pulled from the fuel assembly. The rotatable plate has four notched corners arranged to be rotated over a ledge on each leg of the bottom nozzle of the fuel assembly thereby preventing movement of the fuel assembly. The rotatable plate is also capable of being rotated 45/sup 0/ so that the four corners of the plate are rotated clear of the legs of the bottom nozzle of the fuel assembly thereby allowing the fuel assembly to be placed on or removed from the locking apparatus. The locking apparatus is also provided with a torque actuator for remotely rotating the plate.

Tolino, R. W.; Toler Sr., C. E.

1984-10-02

466

Study on Underwater Remotely Operated Welding System in Nuclear Power Stations Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater welding repair in nuclear power stations is usually carried out by diving welders, with features of great dangers and uncertainty of joint quality. An innovative automated underwater local dry MIG welding system is developed, and may be applied to take the place of underwater welders in nuclear power plants repair. Underwater welding test chamber is built to simulate 30

Zhou Canfeng; Jiao Xiangdong; Shen Qiuping; Yu Yan

2010-01-01

467

Numerical simulations of motion prediction and manoeuvring rules for underwater vehicles navigating near seabed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow field surrounding an underwater vehicle will change due to the influence from seabed terrains, when it navigates near seabed. The hydrodynamic coefficients of the underwater vehicle will change, and then produce a force and pitch moment, which could pull the underwater vehicle to the seabed. So it's very important for the safety of underwater vehicles while navigating near

Du Du; Siming Yuan

2010-01-01

468

Review of multisensor data fusion techniques and their application to autonomous underwater vehicle navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key problem with autonomous underwater vehicles is being able to navigate in a generally unknown environment. The available underwater sensor suites have a limited capability to cope with such a navigation problem. In practice, no single sensor in the underwater environment can provide the level of accuracy, reliability and the coverage of infomlation necessary to perfoml underwater navigation. Therefore

D Loebis; R Sutton; J Chudley

2002-01-01

469

Underwater communication using weakly dispersive modal pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the modal description of sound propagation, signal distortion is caused primarily by dispersion, which is largely controlled by the product I( m; f)?( m; f). Here m is mode number, f is acoustic frequency, I is the action and ? is the waveguide invariant. A modal pulse with fixed m and variable f that satisfies I? ? 0 over the entire frequency band is referred to in this letter as a weakly dispersive modal pulse. The manner by which weakly dispersive modal pulses can be exploited in underwater communications applications is described and illustrated. The connection between weakly dispersive modal pulses and weakly divergent beams is discussed.

Brown, Michael G.; Udovydchenkov, Ilya A.

2013-09-01

470

STS-46 MS Hoffman and MS Chang-Diaz wear masks during pre-breathe on OV-104  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-46 Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jeffrey A. Hoffman and MS Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, wearing breathing apparatus masks, pose on the forward flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during pre-breathe session. With the possibility of an extravehicular activity (EVA) being added to the STS-46 agenda, the astronauts reported to this station and began the 'pre-breathe' process when problems developed during the extension of the Tethered Satellite System 1 (TSS-1). When the human body is exposed to a sudden decrease in atmospheric pressure (for instance, from the 10.2 ppsi in the crew cabin to the 4.5 ppsi of the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU)), nitrogen traces in the bloodstream will expand. This expansion can create tiny bubbles and potential for the 'bends'. In order to lessen the effect, an astronaut must 'pre-breathe' pure oxygen (the same pure oxygen he will breathe in the suit) to help 'purge' nitrogen from his bloodstream before exerting himself

1992-01-01

471

Fissile solution measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for determining the content of a fissile material within a solution by detecting delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material after it is temporarily irradiated by a neutron source. The apparatus comprises a container holding the solution and having a portion defining a neutron source cavity centrally disposed within the container. The neutron source cavity temporarily receives the neutron source. The container has portions defining a plurality of neutron detector ports that form an annular pattern and surround the neutron source cavity. A plurality of neutron detectors count delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material. Each neutron detector is located in a separate one of the neutron detector ports.

Crane, T.W.; Collinsworth, P.R.

1984-06-11

472

Microelectromechanical ratcheting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) ratcheting apparatus is disclosed which includes an electrostatic or thermal actuator that drives a moveable member in the form of a ring gear, stage, or rack. Motion is effected by one or more reciprocating pawls driven by the actuator in a direction that is parallel to, in line with, or tangential to the path. The reciprocating pawls engage indexing elements (e.g. teeth or pins) on the moveable member to incrementally move the member along a curved or straight path with the ability to precisely control and determine the position of the moveable member. The MEM apparatus can be formed on a silicon substrate by conventional surface micromachining methods.

Barnes, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Samuel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Jensen, Brian D. (Albuquerque, NM); Rodgers, M. Steven (Albuquerque, NM); Burg, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

473

Current measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

Umans, Stephen D. (Belmont, MA)

2008-11-11

474

Thermally Activated Joining Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermally activated joining apparatus is provided for reversibly joining piping components of a fluid management system. The joining apparatus includes a thermally activated sealant layers for securing the components together in a leakage free manner. A thermal conductor includes a ring shaped contact portion disposed between the layers for transferring heat from one or more heating elements to the sealant layers. After the seal in place, the components can later be disconnected by supplying heat from the heating element or elements through the thermal conductor to the sealant layers to cause breaking of the seal and thereby enable separation of components.

Bryant, Melvin A., III (Inventor)

2002-01-01

475

Expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus  

DOEpatents

An expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus is deployed from an airplane or a ship to make oceanographic observations in a profile of the surface-to-ocean floor, while deployed on the floor, and then a second profile when returning to the ocean surface. The device then records surface conditions until on-board batteries fail. All data collected is stored and then transmitted from the surface to either a satellite or other receiving station. The apparatus is provided with an anchor that causes descent to the ocean floor and then permits ascent when the anchor is released. Anchor release is predetermined by the occurrence of a pre-programmed event.

McCoy, Kim O. (Carmel, CA); Downing, Jr., John P. (Port Townsand, WA); DeRoos, Bradley G. (Worthington, OH); Riches, Michael R. (Silver Spring, MD)

1993-01-01

476

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

1988-06-20

477

Radio controlled release apparatus for animal data acquisition devices  

DOEpatents

A novel apparatus for reliably and selectively releasing a data acquisition package from an animal for recovery. The data package comprises two parts: 1) an animal data acquisition device and 2) a co-located release apparatus. One embodiment, which is useful for land animals, the release apparatus includes two major components: 1) an electronics package, comprising a receiver; a decoder comparator, having at plurality of individually selectable codes; and an actuator circuit and 2) a release device, which can be a mechanical device, which acts to release the data package from the animal. To release a data package from a particular animal, a radio transmitter sends a coded signal which is decoded to determine if the code is valid for that animal data package. Having received a valid code, the release device is activated to release the data package from the animal for subsequent recovery. A second embodiment includes floatation means and is useful for releasing animal data acquisition devices attached to sea animals. This embodiment further provides for releasing a data package underwater by employing an acoustic signal.

Stamps, James Frederick (5252 Norma Way, Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

2000-01-01

478

Appropriate sample bags and syringes for preserving breath samples in breath odor research: a technical note  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. The VSCs hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are the major causes of bad breath in oral malodour whereas dimethyl sulfide is generally the major cause of bad breath in extra-oral halitosis. To

E G Winkel; A Tangerman

2008-01-01

479

Apparatus for Controlling Pressure Recovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus for controlling fluid pressure recovery includes an elongated housing having an opening at a first end thereof, an opening at a second end thereof, an inner peripheral surface, and a fluid flow passageway therethrough. The apparatus further i...

S. A. Jordan

2001-01-01

480

Low-Power Based Coherent Acoustic Modem for Emerging Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smart, small, inexpensive sensor nodes are used to construct underwater acoustic sensor networks. In addition, with the recent\\u000a increase in the importance of underwater applications, the need for underwater communication has become more important. Hence,\\u000a an acoustic modem capable of effective underwater communications has become more necessary for the sensor nodes to obtain\\u000a underwater data. To develop an acoustic modem

Heungwoo Nam; Sunshin An

2011-01-01

481

Breathing and sleep at high altitude.  

PubMed

We provide an updated review on the current understanding of breathing and sleep at high altitude in humans. We conclude that: (1) progressive changes in pH initiated by the respiratory alkalosis do not underlie early (<48 h) ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) because this still proceeds in the absence of such alkalosis; (2) for VAH of longer duration (>48 h), complex cellular and neurochemical re-organization occurs both in the peripheral chemoreceptors as well as within the central nervous system. The latter is likely influenced by central acid-base changes secondary to the extent of the initial respiratory responses to initial exposure to high altitude; (3) sleep at high altitude is disturbed by various factors, but principally by periodic breathing; (4) the extent of periodic breathing during sleep at altitude intensifies with duration and severity of exposure; (5) complex interactions between hypoxic-induced enhancement in peripheral and central chemoreflexes and cerebral blood flow--leading to higher loop gain and breathing instability--underpin this development of periodic breathing during sleep; (6) because periodic breathing may elevate rather than reduce mean SaO2 during sleep, this may represent an adaptive rather than maladaptive response; (7) although oral acetazolamide is an effective means to reduce periodic breathing by 50-80%, recent studies using positive airway pressure devices to increase dead space, hyponotics and theophylline are emerging but appear less practical and effective compared to acetazolamide. Finally, we suggest avenues for future research, and discuss implications for understanding sleep pathology. PMID:23722066

Ainslie, Philip N; Lucas, Samuel J E; Burgess, Keith R

2013-09-15

482

The fast exercise drive to breathe.  

PubMed

This paper presents a personal view of research into the exercise drive to breathe that can be observed to act immediately to increase breathing at the start of rhythmic exercise. It is based on a talk given at the Experimental Biology 2013 meeting in a session entitled 'Recent advances in understanding mechanisms regulating breathing during exercise'. This drive to breathe has its origin in a combination of central command, whereby voluntary motor commands to the exercising muscles produce a concurrent respiratory drive, and afferent feedback, whereby afferent information from the exercising muscles affects breathing. The drive at the start and end of rhythmic exercise is proportional to limb movement frequency, and its magnitude decays as exercise continues so that the immediate decrease of ventilation at the end of exercise is about 60% of the immediate increase at the start. With such evidence for the effect of this fast drive to breathe at the start and end of rhythmic exercise, its existence during exercise is hypothesised. Experiments to test this hypothesis have, however, provided debatable evidence. A fast drive to breathe during both ramp and sine wave changes in treadmill exercise speed and grade appears to be present in some individuals, but is not as evident in the general population. Recent sine-wave cycling experiments show that when cadence is varied sinusoidally the ventilation response lags by about 10 s, whereas when pedal loading is varied ventilation lags by about 30 s. It therefore appears that limb movement frequency is effective in influencing ventilation during exercise as well as at the start and end of exercise. PMID:23940383

Duffin, James

2014-02-01

483

Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise.  

PubMed

Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in physiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH, intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications. PMID:7180696

Lo, C W; Carter, E A; Walker, W A

1982-01-01

484

Impacts of optical turbulence on underwater imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical signal transmission underwater is of vital interests to both civilian and military applications. The range and signal to noise during the transmission, as a function of system and water optical properties determines the effectiveness of EO technology. These applications include diver visibility, search and rescue, mine detection and identification, and optical communications. The impact of optical turbulence on underwater imaging has been postulated and observed by many researchers. However, no quantative studies have been done until recently, in terms of both the environmental conditions, and impacts on image quality as a function of range and spatial frequencies. Image data collected from field measurements during SOTEX (Skaneateles Optical Turbulence Exercise, July 22-31, 2010) using the Image Measurement Assembly for Subsurface Turbulence (IMAST) are presented. Optical properties of the water column in the field were measured using WETLab's ac-9 and Laser In Situ Scattering and Transmissometer (LISST, Sequoia Scientific), in coordination with physical properties including CTD (Seabird), dissipation rate of kinetic energy and heat, using both the Vector velocimeter and CT combo (Nortek and PME), and shear probe based Vertical Microstructure Profiler (VMP, Rockland). The strong stratification structure in the water column provides great opportunity to observe various dissipation strengths throughout the water column, which corresponds directly with image quality as shown. Initial results demonstrate general agreement between data collected and model prediction, while discrepancies between measurements and model suggest higher spatial and temporal observations are needed in the future.

Hou, Weilin; Woods, S.; Goode, W.; Jarosz, E.; Weidemann, A.

2011-05-01

485

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a low-cost apparatus for measuring moment of inertia utilizing an interval timer, induction coil, battery eliminator, and ball bearing mounted disk. Also provides a method for demonstrating vectors using a cardboard box and a piece of string. (JM)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1984-01-01

486

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six different pieces of physics apparatus are described: Telsa Coil for instant ignition of sodium arc lamps, Timekube, Magnetic Maps of the United States, a slinky with vertical mounting, a wave generator power supply, and a long-period timer power switch. Price and supplier are included. (BT)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1979-01-01

487

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides the apparatus setup, experimental method, necessary formulas, and references for three measurement experiments: (1) "Determine the Magnetic Induction of a Coil with a Hall Element"; (2) "Measuring Magnetic Force and Magnetic Field of Small Permanent Magnets"; and (3) "Measurements of Sound Velocity by Means of PZT" (piezoelectric

Connolly, Walter, Ed.

1990-01-01

488

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple apparatus and provides instructions to do relative index of refraction measurements/calculations and to show mathematical relationships betwen indices when light travels from one liquid to another. A listing of a computer program (in BASIC) which will analyze data is available from the author. (JM)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1983-01-01

489

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

1987-06-30

490

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

Hayward, Milton L. (2305 Greenbrook Blvd., Richland, WA 99352); Harper, William H. (1454 Amon Dr., Richland, WA 99352)

1987-01-01

491

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1993-03-23

492

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (1739 Grandview #2, Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

1993-01-01

493

Doctoring Apparatus and System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application is concerned with an apparatus and system comprised of a plurality of doctoring units, each of which is a pivotally supported combination doctor blade and V-shaped member. In each unit the leading edge of the doctor blade is paralle...

J. F. Sullivan R. P. Konstance

1976-01-01

494

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an apparatus for plotting electric fields using burglar alarm window tape for electrodes and carbonized electronic stencil paper as sheet resistance. Also describes a simple pentode modulator circuit which will modulate a typical helium-neon gas laser, providing an audio channel for demonstration purposes. (SK)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1981-01-01

495

Fuel control apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel control apparatus for calculating the quantity of fuel required for operating an internal combustion engines is described based on an output of a hot-wire type intake air quantity sensor disposed in an air intake passage for the internal combustion engine. It supplies the optimum amount of the fuel to the engine by controlling a fuel control valve in

S. Shimomura; Y. Nishimura

1989-01-01

496

Fuel control apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a fuel control apparatus comprising: (a) a hot-wire type intake air quantity sensor disposed in an air intake passage for an internal combustion engine to detect the quantity of air passing therethrough; (b) a fuel control valve placed in the air intake passage to inject fuel into the air intake passage; (c) first means for actuating the

Shimomura

1988-01-01

497

Fuel control apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel control apparatus is described which comprises a fuel supplying means for supplying fuel to an internal combustion engine depending on the operation of a fuel control valve, a hot-wire type intake air quantity sensor disposed in an air-intake passage for the internal combustion engine to detect the quantity of air passing therethrough, means for heating a hot wire

S. Shimomura; Y. Tada

1988-01-01

498

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1997-03-25

499

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a few apparatuses and demonstrations for teaching physics under the headings: demonstrating resonance of the inner ear, constructing a potential well-hill for overhead projectors, rubber tube vacuum pump, improvement on the simple homemade motor, air track to demonstrate sailing into the wind, and center of gravity and stability. (GA)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1978-01-01

500

Improved Ultraviolet Microbeam Apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultraviolet microbeam apparatus utilizing the principle of incident ; illumination has been developed for the irradiation of small parts of living ; cells or other microscopic objects. A reflecting microscope objective is used ; simultaneously in a visible light viewing-aiming system and in a bombardment ; system to focus a spot of ultraviolet light (as small as one micron

Robert B. Uretz; Robert P. Perry

1957-01-01