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1

Passive acoustic detection of closed-circuit underwater breathing apparatus in an operational port environment.  

PubMed

Divers constitute a potential threat to waterside infrastructures. Active diver detection sonars are available commercially but present some shortcomings, particularly in highly reverberant environments. This has led to research on passive sonar for diver detection. Passive detection of open-circuit UBA (underwater breathing apparatus) has been demonstrated. This letter reports on the detection of a diver wearing closed-circuit UBA (rebreather) in an operational harbor. Beamforming is applied to a passive array of 10 hydrophones in a pseudo-random linear arrangement. Experimental results are presented demonstrating detection of the rebreather at ranges up to 120 m and are validated by GPS ground truth. PMID:23039570

Fillinger, L; Hunter, A J; Zampolli, M; Clarijs, M C

2012-10-01

2

Assessment of oxygen levels in alternative designs of semiclosed underwater breathing apparatus.  

PubMed

A method for predicting the circuit oxygen levels in semiclosed underwater breathing apparatus (UBAs) is presented. Oxygen levels are assessed for traditional circuit designs using sonic metering valves to inject a constant mass flow of fresh makeup as well as two alternative respiration-rate-coupled gas dosage designs using demand injection valves. The impact of variations in diver depth, activity level, gas injection rate, circuit volume, and makeup gas composition on these circuit oxygen levels is demonstrated. Respiration-coupled, demand gas delivery systems are shown to have significantly reduced circuit oxygen variations over a wide range of diver activity levels when compared to constant mass flow injection systems. Additionally, the respiration-coupled designs are shown to have potential reduced gas usage at low diver activity levels, resulting in longer mission duration capability, when compared to constant mass injection systems. PMID:11542685

Nuckols, M L; Clarke, J R; Marr, W J

1999-01-01

3

Emergency Response Breathing Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace Design & Development, Inc.'s (ADD's) SCAMP was developed under an SBIR contract through Kennedy Space Center. SCAMP stands for Supercritical Air Mobility Pack. The technology came from the life support fuel cell support systems used for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. It uses supercritical cryogenic air and is able to function in microgravity environments. SCAMP's self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA) systems are also ground-based and can provide twice as much air than traditional SCBA's due to its high-density capacity. The SCAMP system was designed for use in launch pad emergency rescues. ADD also developed a protective suit for use with SCAMP that is smaller and lighter system than the old ones. ADD's SCAMP allows for body cooling and breathing from the supercritical cryogenic air, requiring no extra systems. The improvement over the traditional SCBA allows for a reduction of injuries, such as heat stress, and makes it easier for rescuers to save lives.

2000-01-01

4

Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

Mills, Robert D.

1990-01-01

5

Modified closed circuit underwater breathing apparatus LAR VII and laryngeal mask airway as adjuncts for dive buddy artificial ventilation.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the feasibility of using the modified semi-closed circuit underwater rebreathing system (URS) LAR VII in connection with a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) as an expedient ventilatory adjunct in an operational setting. Fourteen combat swimmers, unfamiliar with this equipment, underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) mannequin training using these devices. Eighteen subjects, using a standard AMBU bag for ventilation, served as controls. Thirteen test persons were able to ventilate with the modified URS. Tidal volumes were significantly lower with the LAR VII/LMA than with the AMBU bag (medians, 350 vs. 800 mL). No significant difference was found in total time required for 10 CPR cycles (medians, 78 vs. 68.5 seconds). The median delay between recognition of cardiac arrest and first chest compression, however, was markedly increased with the LAR VII/LMA than with the AMBU bag (medians, 76.5 vs. 14.5 seconds). After proper training, divers might use a modified URS such as the LAR VII for CPR in connection with a LMA. Lower tidal volumes might prevent gastric inflation. Chest compression should be continued during LMA insertion. PMID:10414072

Mutzbauer, T S; Neubauer, B; Tetzlaff, K; Mueller, P H

1999-07-01

6

46 CFR 108.635 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.635 Section 108...Instructions § 108.635 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked: “SELF...

2014-10-01

7

46 CFR 108.635 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.635 Section 108...Instructions § 108.635 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked: “SELF...

2010-10-01

8

46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169...Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked...

2010-10-01

9

46 CFR 108.635 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.635 Section 108...Instructions § 108.635 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked: “SELF...

2012-10-01

10

46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169...Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked...

2014-10-01

11

46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169...Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked...

2013-10-01

12

46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169...Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked...

2012-10-01

13

46 CFR 108.703 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.703 Section... § 108.703 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each unit must be equipped with a self-contained breathing apparatus described in §...

2012-10-01

14

46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169...Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked...

2011-10-01

15

46 CFR 108.635 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.635 Section 108...Instructions § 108.635 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked: “SELF...

2011-10-01

16

46 CFR 108.635 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.635 Section 108...Instructions § 108.635 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked: “SELF...

2013-10-01

17

Apparatus for laying underwater pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater pipelines connected to at least one point on a coastline are constructed by means of a pipelaying vessel associated with an independent underwater vehicle mounted on caterpillar-tracks and capable of traveling along the sea bed. From within the vehicle, pipe sections can be assembled and rejected as the vehicle moves forward. The pipe sections pass through a wall of

Valantin

1982-01-01

18

Apparatus for laying underwater pipelines  

SciTech Connect

Underwater pipelines connected to at least one point on a coastline are constructed by means of a pipelaying vessel associated with an independent underwater vehicle mounted on caterpillar-tracks and capable of traveling along the sea bed. From within the vehicle, pipe sections can be assembled and rejected as the vehicle moves forward. The pipe sections pass through a wall of the vehicle and into the sea, through a port which is provided with a plurality of inflatable annular sealing rings that selectively sealingly bear against the exterior of the pipeline. One of these sealing rings is associated with an annular piston, and a jack acts between this piston and the vehicle to provide the propulsive force for ejecting the pipe sections from the vehicle. Potential applications include mining operations, off-shore installations and intercontinental tunnels.

Valantin, A.

1982-08-24

19

46 CFR 28.205 - Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus. 28.205 Section 28...Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel that...equipped with at least two self-contained breathing apparatuses. (c) A fireman's...

2011-10-01

20

30 CFR 57.22315 - Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines). 57.22315...Equipment § 57.22315 Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines). Self-contained breathing apparatus of a duration to...

2014-07-01

21

46 CFR 96.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 96.30-15 Section... § 96.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection...

2010-10-01

22

46 CFR 97.37-20 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 97.37-20 Section... § 97.37-20 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked...

2013-10-01

23

46 CFR 28.205 - Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus. 28.205 Section 28...Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel that...equipped with at least two self-contained breathing apparatuses. (c) A fireman's...

2012-10-01

24

46 CFR 97.37-20 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 97.37-20 Section... § 97.37-20 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked...

2011-10-01

25

46 CFR 167.45-60 - Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps. ...Requirements § 167.45-60 Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps. ...pressure-demand, open circuit, self-contained breathing apparatus, approved by the...

2010-10-01

26

46 CFR 195.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 195.30-15 Section... § 195.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection...

2014-10-01

27

46 CFR 167.45-60 - Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps. ...Requirements § 167.45-60 Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps. ...pressure-demand, open circuit, self-contained breathing apparatus, approved by the...

2013-10-01

28

46 CFR 167.45-60 - Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps. ...Requirements § 167.45-60 Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps. ...pressure-demand, open circuit, self-contained breathing apparatus, approved by the...

2011-10-01

29

46 CFR 96.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 96.30-15 Section... § 96.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection...

2014-10-01

30

46 CFR 195.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 195.30-15 Section... § 195.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection...

2012-10-01

31

46 CFR 195.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 195.30-15 Section... § 195.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection...

2013-10-01

32

46 CFR 167.45-60 - Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps. ...Requirements § 167.45-60 Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps. ...pressure-demand, open circuit, self-contained breathing apparatus, approved by the...

2014-10-01

33

46 CFR 96.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 96.30-15 Section... § 96.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection...

2012-10-01

34

46 CFR 28.205 - Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus. 28.205 Section 28...Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel that...equipped with at least two self-contained breathing apparatuses. (c) A fireman's...

2014-10-01

35

46 CFR 78.47-27 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 78.47-27 Section... § 78.47-27 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked...

2012-10-01

36

46 CFR 78.47-27 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 78.47-27 Section... § 78.47-27 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked...

2011-10-01

37

46 CFR 167.45-60 - Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps. ...Requirements § 167.45-60 Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps. ...pressure-demand, open circuit, self-contained breathing apparatus, approved by the...

2012-10-01

38

46 CFR 96.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 96.30-15 Section... § 96.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection...

2013-10-01

39

42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus; description. 84.70 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.70 Self-contained breathing apparatus; description. (a)...

2012-10-01

40

46 CFR 96.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 96.30-15 Section... § 96.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection...

2011-10-01

41

46 CFR 28.205 - Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus. 28.205 Section 28...Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel that...equipped with at least two self-contained breathing apparatuses. (c) A fireman's...

2013-10-01

42

30 CFR 57.22315 - Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines). 57.22315...Equipment § 57.22315 Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines). Self-contained breathing apparatus of a duration to...

2013-07-01

43

46 CFR 78.47-27 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 78.47-27 Section... § 78.47-27 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked...

2014-10-01

44

46 CFR 78.47-27 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 78.47-27 Section... § 78.47-27 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked...

2010-10-01

45

46 CFR 97.37-20 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 97.37-20 Section... § 97.37-20 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked...

2010-10-01

46

46 CFR 97.37-20 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 97.37-20 Section... § 97.37-20 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked...

2012-10-01

47

42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus; description. 84.70 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.70 Self-contained breathing apparatus; description. (a)...

2010-10-01

48

46 CFR 195.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 195.30-15 Section... § 195.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection...

2011-10-01

49

30 CFR 57.22315 - Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines). 57.22315...Equipment § 57.22315 Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines). Self-contained breathing apparatus of a duration to...

2011-07-01

50

46 CFR 78.47-27 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 78.47-27 Section... § 78.47-27 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked...

2013-10-01

51

42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus; description. 84.70 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.70 Self-contained breathing apparatus; description. (a)...

2014-10-01

52

42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus; description. 84.70 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.70 Self-contained breathing apparatus; description. (a)...

2011-10-01

53

46 CFR 97.37-20 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 97.37-20 Section... § 97.37-20 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked...

2014-10-01

54

30 CFR 57.22315 - Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines). 57.22315...Equipment § 57.22315 Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines). Self-contained breathing apparatus of a duration to...

2012-07-01

55

42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus; description. 84.70 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.70 Self-contained breathing apparatus; description. (a)...

2013-10-01

56

46 CFR 195.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 195.30-15 Section... § 195.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection...

2010-10-01

57

8/25/08 8:13 AMLung provides breathing room underwater -The Boston Globe Page 1 of 1http://www.boston.com/news/science/articles/2008/08/25/lung_provides_breathing_room_underwater?mode=PF  

E-print Network

8/25/08 8:13 AMLung provides breathing room underwater - The Boston Globe Page 1 of 1http://www.boston.com/news/science/articles/2008/08/25/lung_provides_breathing_room_underwater?mode=PF THIS STORY HAS BEEN FORMATTED FOR EASY PRINTING Lung provides breathing room underwater By Michelle Sipics, Globe Correspondent | August 25, 2008

Flynn, Morris R.

58

Improved oxygen sources for breathing apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research is described which is directed toward the preparation of chemical oxygen sources which exhibited improved O2 storage and reaction characteristics when compared to potassium superoxide (KO2). The initial focus of the research was the preparation of calcium superoxide (Ca(O2)2) by the disproportionation of calcium peroxide diperoxyhydrate. the Ca(O2)2 was characterized by chemical, thermal, and x ray analyses. Several methods for scaling up the Ca(O2)2 syntheis process were studied. The reactivity of Ca(O2)2 toward humidified carbon dioxide (CO2) was evaluated and was compared to that of KO2 under flow test conditions approximating those existing in portable breathing apparatus. The reactivities of mixtures of KO2 and Ca(O2)2 or lithium peroxide towards humidified CO2 were also studied. Finally, an analysis of two commercial, KO2-based, self contained self rescuers was conducted to determine the potential weight and volume savings which would be possible if Ca(O2)2 or a mixture of KO2 and Ca(O2)2 were used as a replacement for KO2.

Wood, P. C.; Wydeven, T.

1983-01-01

59

Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-08-26

60

A chlorate candle/lithium hydroxide personal breathing apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A portable coal mine rescue and survival equipment is reported that consists of a chlorate candle with a lithium hydroxide carbon-dioxide absorbent for oxygen generation, a breathing bag and tubing to conduct breathing to and from the man. A plastic hood incorporating a mouth piece for communication provides also eye protection and prevents inhalation through the nose. Manned testing of a prototype system demonstrated the feasibility of this closed circuit no-maintenance breathing apparatus that provides for good voice communication.

Martin, F. E.

1972-01-01

61

Remotely operated submersible underwater suction apparatus  

DOEpatents

A completely submersible, remotely operated underwater suction device for collection of irradiated materials in a nuclear pool is disclosed. The device includes a pump means for pumping water through the device, a filter means for capturing irradiated debris, remotely operated releasable connector means, a collection means and a means for remotely maneuvering the collection means. The components of the suction device may be changed and replaced underwater to take advantage of the excellent radiation shielding ability of water to thereby minimize exposure of personnel to radiation.

Kristan, Louis L. (2111 Brentwood Dr., Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

1990-01-01

62

46 CFR 108.703 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...breathing apparatus described in § 108.497(a) to use as protection against gas leaking from a refrigeration unit if it is equipped with any refrigeration unit using— (1) Ammonia to refrigerate any space with a volume of more than 20...

2013-10-01

63

46 CFR 108.703 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...breathing apparatus described in § 108.497(a) to use as protection against gas leaking from a refrigeration unit if it is equipped with any refrigeration unit using— (1) Ammonia to refrigerate any space with a volume of more than 20...

2011-10-01

64

46 CFR 108.703 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...breathing apparatus described in § 108.497(a) to use as protection against gas leaking from a refrigeration unit if it is equipped with any refrigeration unit using— (1) Ammonia to refrigerate any space with a volume of more than 20...

2014-10-01

65

42 CFR 84.71 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus...Breathing bag; (9) Safety relief valve or safety relief system; and (10) Harness. (b) The components of each...

2013-10-01

66

42 CFR 84.71 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus...Breathing bag; (9) Safety relief valve or safety relief system; and (10) Harness. (b) The components of each...

2012-10-01

67

42 CFR 84.71 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus...Breathing bag; (9) Safety relief valve or safety relief system; and (10) Harness. (b) The components of each...

2014-10-01

68

42 CFR 84.71 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus...Breathing bag; (9) Safety relief valve or safety relief system; and (10) Harness. (b) The components of each...

2011-10-01

69

42 CFR 84.71 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus...Breathing bag; (9) Safety relief valve or safety relief system; and (10) Harness. (b) The components of each...

2010-10-01

70

Ultrasound lung comets induced by repeated breath-hold diving, a study in underwater fishermen.  

PubMed

Pulmonary edema has been reported in breath-hold divers during fish-catching diving activity. The present study was designed to detect possible increases in extravascular lung water (EVLW) in underwater fishermen after a competition. Thirty healthy subjects were studied. They participated in two different 5-h fish-catching diving competitions: one organized in the winter (10 subjects) and one organized in the autumn (20 subjects). A questionnaire was used to record underwater activity and note respiratory problems. An increase in EVLW was investigated from the detection of ultrasound lung comets (ULC) by chest ultrasonography. Complementary investigations included echocardiography and pulmonary function testing. An increase in EVLW was detected in three out of 30 underwater fishermen after the competition. No signs of cardiovascular dysfunction were found in the entire population and in divers with an increase in the ULC score. Two divers with raised ULC presented respiratory disorders such as cough or shortness of breath. Impairment in spirometric parameters was recorded in these subjects. An increase in EVLW could be observed after a fish-catching diving competition in three out of 30 underwater fishermen. In two subjects, it was related to respiratory disorders and impairment in pulmonary flow. PMID:21535186

Boussuges, A; Coulange, M; Bessereau, J; Gargne, O; Ayme, K; Gavarry, O; Fontanari, P; Joulia, F

2011-12-01

71

SELF CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS (SCBA) WEEKLY AND MONTHLY CHECKLIST Weekly Inspection Date: Comments Yes No (if No, remove from service) Inspected by  

E-print Network

Appendix F SELF CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS (SCBA) WEEKLY AND MONTHLY CHECKLIST Weekly Inspection: Cylinder Pressure OK? Monthly Inspection Requirements: Regulator OK? Facepiece & Breathing Tube OK Requirements: Regulator OK? Facepiece & Breathing Tube OK? Cleaned and Sanitized? Entire Apparatus OK

Slatton, Clint

72

Method and apparatus for remote control of an underwater valve  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for remotely controlling operation of a subsea valve in a fluid transmission pipeline with an acoustic signal transmitted from the surface to the subsea valve, the valve including a valve stem rotatable for controlling the flow of fluid through the valve body and thus the transmission line. The apparatus consists of a control housing fixedly connected to the valve body; a valve actuator housing fixedly connected to the control housing; an actuator shaft rotatably mounted within the valve actuator housing; means for applying a preselected torque to the actuator shaft; a control means rotatably mounted within the control housing; and disconnecting means adjacent the subsea valve for automatically deactivating the mechanical connector means in response to the acoustic signal, such that deactivation of the mechanical connector means automatically operates the valve in response to the preselected torque of the biasing means.

Carman, R.J.; Fitzgibbons, M.R.; Sweety, J.A.

1989-02-21

73

Protective Breathing Apparatus. Fire Service Certification Series. Unit FSCS-FF-6-80.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training unit on protective breathing apparatus is part of a 17-unit course package written to aid instructors in the development, teaching, and evaluation of fire fighters in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. The purpose stated for the 10-hour unit is to enable the fire fighter to perform routine fire fighting and rescue…

Pribyl, Paul F.

74

Factories: The Breathing Apparatus, Etc. (Report on Examination) Order, 1961   

E-print Network

This Order prescribes the particulars to be contained in the report on an examination of any apparatus, belts or ropes for the purposes of subsection (6) of section 27 of the Factories Act, 1937, as re-enacted by section 6 of the Factories Act, 1959...

Hare, John

1961-01-01

75

Psychophysiological responses in experienced firefighters undertaking repeated self-contained breathing apparatus tasks.  

PubMed

In order to safely and effectively extinguish fires and rescue life, firefighters are required to routinely wear self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), yet little is known about the specific physiological and psychological demands associated with repeated exposure to tasks that require SCBA. A total of 12 experienced firefighters took part in a series of commonly encountered SCBA activities: free search, guideline search and live firefighting tasks under room temperature (?20°C) and extreme heat (?180°C) conditions to assess changes in heart rate, blood pressure, mood, perceived workload and air usage. Findings demonstrate that live firefighting is associated with greater perceived exhaustion than free search or guideline exercises; however, all tasks lead to high cardiovascular demand regardless of the presence of heat. No significant impact of task upon mood and no significant differences between the perceived demands of guideline, free search and live firefighting exercises were found. PMID:25363022

Young, Paul M; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Partington, Elizabeth; Partington, Sarah; Wetherell, Mark A

2014-12-01

76

An Atypical Case of Taravana Syndrome in a Breath-Hold Underwater Fishing Champion: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Dysbaric accidents are usually referred to compressed air-supplied diving. Nonetheless, some cases of decompression illness are known to have occurred among breath-hold (BH) divers also, and they are reported in the medical literature. A male BH diver (57 years old), underwater fishing champion, presented neurological disorders as dizziness, sensory numbness, blurred vision, and left frontoparietal pain after many dives to a 30–35 meters sea water depth with short surface intervals. Symptoms spontaneously regressed and the patient came back home. The following morning, pain and neurological impairment occurred again and the diver went by himself to the hospital where he had a generalized tonic-clonic seizure and lost consciousness. A magnetic resonance imaging of the brain disclofsed a cortical T1-weighted hypointense area in the temporal region corresponding to infarction with partial hemorrhage. An early hyperbaric oxygen therapy led to prompt resolution of neurological findings. All clinical and imaging characteristics were referable to the Taravana diving syndrome, induced by repetitive prolonged deep BH dives. The reappearance of neurological signs after an uncommon 21-hour symptom-free interval may suggest an atypical case of Taravana syndrome. PMID:23970902

Foresta, Grazia; Strano, Giustino; Strano, Maria Teresa; Montalto, Francesca; Garbo, Domenico

2013-01-01

77

[Acoustical estimation of impact of single dive in closed-type breathing apparatus on human ventilatory lung function].  

PubMed

Diving renders negative influence on human respiratory system especially when oxygen breathing apparatus is used. Spirometry indexes, traditionally used to estimate ventilator lung function, have poor sensitivity to toxic effect of hyperbaric hyperoxia. The objective is to study possibility of revealing minimum impairments of lung ventilator function in oxygen divers by analysis of forced expiratory tracheal noise duration. 48 divers were studied before and after single shallow water dive in oxygen closed-type breathing apparatus. A significant drop of FVC, FEV1 over the group as a whole was found after dive however being in the limits of norm. The significant increase of individual forced expiratory tracheal noise duration, exceeding the natural variability limit (19.6%, p < 0.05), was found in 10 subjects (20.8%). Three of them during dive had respiratory symptoms characteristic for initial manifestations of pulmonary oxygen poisoning. The asymptomatic reversible increase of forced expiratory tracheal noise duration in the rest 7 divers was interpreted as a sign of hidden phase of hyperbaric hyperoxia effect. PMID:21780683

Pochekutova, I A; Korenbaum, V I

2011-01-01

78

Method and apparatus for installing anodes at underwater locations on offshore platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Method and apparatus whereby an anode may be mounted on a subsea propulsion vehicle, transported to a selected portion of a platform substructure and then remotely and operatively connected to the substructure as by explosively-actuated bolts.

1984-01-01

79

42 CFR 84.74 - Apparatus containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.74 Apparatus containers...carrying or storing self-contained breathing apparatus will be inspected, examined...c) Containers for self-contained breathing apparatus shall be designed and...

2014-10-01

80

42 CFR 84.74 - Apparatus containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.74 Apparatus containers...carrying or storing self-contained breathing apparatus will be inspected, examined...c) Containers for self-contained breathing apparatus shall be designed and...

2011-10-01

81

42 CFR 84.74 - Apparatus containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.74 Apparatus containers...carrying or storing self-contained breathing apparatus will be inspected, examined...c) Containers for self-contained breathing apparatus shall be designed and...

2010-10-01

82

42 CFR 84.74 - Apparatus containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.74 Apparatus containers...carrying or storing self-contained breathing apparatus will be inspected, examined...c) Containers for self-contained breathing apparatus shall be designed and...

2013-10-01

83

42 CFR 84.74 - Apparatus containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.74 Apparatus containers...carrying or storing self-contained breathing apparatus will be inspected, examined...c) Containers for self-contained breathing apparatus shall be designed and...

2012-10-01

84

Large body size allows air-breathing vertebrates to increase their oxygen stores and thus prolong underwater foraging  

E-print Network

-breathing vertebrates are the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) and the fin whale (B. physalus). Adult blue whales marine mammals, including the blue whale, glide during a dive, a behavior that appears to reduce oxygen, usually on the basis of body mass (Kooyman, 1989; Boyd, 1997). The TADLs of blue and fin whales are 31

Acevedo, Alejandro

85

Acoustic estimation of the impact of a single dive using a closed-type breathing apparatus on the ventilatory function of the human lungs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diving negatively affects the human respiratory system, especially if an oxygen breathing apparatus is used. The spirometry\\u000a indices generally used to estimate the ventilatory function of the lung have a poor sensitivity to the toxic effect of hyperbaric\\u000a hyperoxia. The goal of this study was to estimate the possibilities of using the forced expiratory (FE) tracheal noise duration.\\u000a The study

I. A. Pochekutova; V. I. Korenbaum

2011-01-01

86

Moving in extreme environments: inert gas narcosis and underwater activities.  

PubMed

Exposure to the underwater environment for pleasure or work poses many challenges on the human body including thermal stress, barotraumas, decompression sickness as well as the acute effects of breathing gases under pressure. With the popularity of recreational self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving on the increase and deep inland dive sites becoming more accessible, it is important that we understand the effects of breathing pressurised gas at depth can have on the body. One of the common consequences of hyperbaric gas is the narcotic effect of inert gas. Nitrogen (a major component of air) under pressure can impede mental function and physical performance at depths of as little as 10 m underwater. With increased depth, symptoms can worsen to include confusion, disturbed coordination, lack of concentration, hallucinations and unconsciousness. Narcosis has been shown to contribute directly to up to 6% of deaths in divers and is likely to be indirectly associated with other diving incidents at depth. This article explores inert gas narcosis, the effect on divers' movement and function underwater and the proposed physiological mechanisms. Also discussed are some of the factors that affect the susceptibility of divers to the condition. In conclusion, understanding the cause of this potentially debilitating problem is important to ensure that safe diving practices continue. PMID:25713701

Clark, James E

2015-01-01

87

Breathing Like a Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

Katsioloudis, Petros J.

2010-01-01

88

Microcontroller-based underwater acoustic ECG telemetry system.  

PubMed

This paper presents a microcontroller-based underwater acoustic telemetry system for digital transmission of the electrocardiogram (ECG). The system is designed for the real time, through-water transmission of data representing any parameter, and it was used initially for transmitting in multiplexed format the heart rate, breathing rate and depth of a diver using self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA). Here, it is used to monitor cardiovascular reflexes during diving and swimming. The programmable capability of the system provides an effective solution to the problem of transmitting data in the presence of multipath interference. An important feature of the paper is a comparative performance analysis of two encoding methods, Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) and Pulse Position Modulation (PPM). PMID:11020817

Istepanian, R S; Woodward, B

1997-06-01

89

Apparatus for use in placing a submarine structure on the sea bed alongside an underwater well and method of drilling a plurality of closely spaced underwater wells  

SciTech Connect

A template for spacing a submarine structure such as an anchor block or a guide base for a second underwater well alongside an existing underwater well comprises a beam attached at one end, by means of a hinge, to a lowering guide which can be threaded over and be lowered along two guide wires of the first well, and at the other end by a remote-controlled release mechanism to the submarine structure such as the anchor block itself or a guide base for a second well. The beam, with such a submarine structure attached, is lowered down the guide wires while held in a vertical configuration, and is then swung into a generally horizontal configuration at the sea bed.

Shotbolt, K.

1982-03-02

90

The use of superoxide mixtures as air-revitalization chemicals in hyperbaric, self-contained, closed-circuit breathing apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In portable breathing apparatus applications at 1 atm, potassium superoxide (KO2) has exhibited low-utilization efficiency of the available oxygen (O2) and diminished carbon dioxide-(CO2) scrubbing capacity caused by the formation of a fused, hydrated-hydroxide/carbonate product coating on the superoxide granules. In earlier work, it was discovered that granules fabricated from an intimate mixture of KO2 and calcium superoxide, Ca(O2)2, did not exhibit formation of a fused product coating and the utilization efficiency with respect to both O2 release and CO2 absorption was superior to KO2 granules when both types of granules were reacted with humidified CO2 under identified conditions. In the work described here, single pellets of KO2, KO2/Ca(O2), mixtures and commercially available KO2 tables and granules were reacted with a flow of humidified CO2 in helium at 1- and 10-atm total pressure and at an initial temperature of 40 C. In the 1-atm flow tests, the reaction rates and utilization efficiency of the KO2/Ca(O2)2 pellets were markedly superior to the KO2 pellets, tablets, and granules when the samples were reacted under identical conditions. However, at 10 atm, the rates of O2 release and CO2 absorption, as well as the utilization efficiencies of all the superoxide samples, were one-third to one-eighth of the values observed at 1 atm. The decrease in reaction performance at 10 atm compared to that at 1 atm has been attributed principally to the lower bulk diffusivity of the CO2 and H2O reactants in helium at the higher pressure and secondarily to the moderation of the reaction temperature caused by the higher heat capacity of the 10-atm helium.

Wood, P. C.; Wydeven, T.

1985-01-01

91

77 FR 37862 - Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Remaining Service-Life Indicator Performance...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...indicators), which are devices built into a respirator to alert the user that the breathing air provided by the respirator is...indicator or warning device,'' \\1\\ which is intended to alert users when the breathing air supply has been depleted to a...

2012-06-25

92

Do fire-fighters develop specific ventilatory responses in order to cope with exercise whilst wearing self-contained breathing apparatus?  

PubMed

In the present study we compared the ventilatory performance whilst wearing self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during exercise, of a group of male fire-fighters (FF, n = 8), with a matched group of male civilians (CV, n = 7). The mean (SEM) physiological characteristics of the subjects (FF vs CV) were: age 31 (2) years vs 32 (4) years; height 179 (2) cm vs 183 (3) cm, P < 0.05; mass 80 (2) kg vs 84 (3) kg; maximum oxygen uptake 4.52 (0.14) 1 x min(-1) vs 4.39 (0.27) 1 x min(-1). Volunteers performed a 23-minute fire-fighting simulation (Firetest), without and with SCBA (Fire-fighter II, Siebe-Gorman/North Safety, Cheshire, UK). During SCBA wear, the FF group used significantly less air and rated their breathlessness significantly lower than the CV group. The mean tidal volume (V(T)) of the FF group remained constant between non-SCBA and SCBA wear conditions, but the CV group increased their mean V(T) by 18%, (P < 0.01). There were no significant between-group differences during the Firetest in total breath duration, inspiratory or expiratory duration, breathing frequency (fb), or heart rate. These data suggest that the respiratory responses of firefighters while wearing SCBA, which are characterised by increases in (fb) but not V(T), may help to reduce their breathlessness during exercise while wearing SCBA. PMID:10408320

Donovan, K J; McConnell, A K

1999-07-01

93

42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus...Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter provided with each apparatus shall be equipped...

2012-10-01

94

42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus...Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter provided with each apparatus shall be equipped...

2013-10-01

95

42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus...Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter provided with each apparatus shall be equipped...

2010-10-01

96

42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus...Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter provided with each apparatus shall be equipped...

2014-10-01

97

42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus...Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter provided with each apparatus shall be equipped...

2011-10-01

98

Breathing-metabolic simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Breathing-metabolic simulator was developed to be used for evaluation of life support equipment. Apparatus simulates human breathing rate and controls temperature and humidity of exhaled air as well as its chemical composition. All functions are designed to correspond to various degrees of human response.

Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

1972-01-01

99

42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a)...

2010-10-01

100

42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible...

2011-10-01

101

42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a)...

2014-10-01

102

42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a)...

2010-10-01

103

42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a)...

2014-10-01

104

42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a)...

2011-10-01

105

42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a)...

2011-10-01

106

42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a)...

2011-10-01

107

42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible...

2010-10-01

108

42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a)...

2012-10-01

109

42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a)...

2013-10-01

110

42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a)...

2012-10-01

111

42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible...

2013-10-01

112

42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible...

2014-10-01

113

42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a)...

2013-10-01

114

42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a)...

2014-10-01

115

42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible...

2012-10-01

116

42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a)...

2012-10-01

117

42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a)...

2010-10-01

118

42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90 Section...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a)...

2013-10-01

119

Underwater manipulator  

SciTech Connect

Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer .+-.45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer .+-.10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

Schrum, Phillip B. (Clairton, PA); Cohen, George H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1993-01-01

120

Underwater manipulator  

DOEpatents

Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

1993-04-20

121

Breath odor  

MedlinePLUS

Breath odor is the scent of the air you breathe out of your mouth. Unpleasant breath odor is commonly called bad breath. ... Some disorders will produce distinct breath odors. Bad breath related ... by release of sulphur compounds by bacteria in the mouth. ...

122

Absolute vs. Weight-Related Maximum Oxygen Uptake in Firefighters: Fitness Evaluation with and without Protective Clothing and Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus among Age Group.  

PubMed

During fire emergencies, firefighters wear personal protective devices (PC) and a self-contained breathing apparatus (S.C.B.A.) to be protected from injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of aerobic level in 197 firefighters (age: 34±7 yr; BMI: 24.4±2.3 kg.m-2), evaluated by a Queen's College Step field Test (QCST), performed with and without fire protective garments, and to analyze the differences among age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr, 31-35 yr, 36-40 yr and >40 yr). Variance analysis was applied to assess differences (p < 0.05) between tests and age groups observed in absolute and weight-related values, while a correlation was examined between QCST with and without PC+S.C.B.A. The results have shown that a 13% of firefighters failed to complete the test with PC+S.C.B.A. and significant differences between QCST performed with and without PC+S.C.B.A. in absolute (F(1,169) = 42.6, p < 0.0001) and weight-related (F(1,169) = 339.9, p < 0.0001) terms. A better correlation has been found in L•min-1 (r=0.67) than in ml•kg-1•min-1 (r=0.54). Moreover, we found significant differences among age groups both in absolute and weight-related values. The assessment of maximum oxygen uptake of firefighters in absolute term can be a useful tool to evaluate the firefighters' cardiovascular strain. PMID:25764201

Perroni, Fabrizio; Guidetti, Laura; Cignitti, Lamberto; Baldari, Carlo

2015-01-01

123

Absolute vs. Weight-Related Maximum Oxygen Uptake in Firefighters: Fitness Evaluation with and without Protective Clothing and Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus among Age Group  

PubMed Central

During fire emergencies, firefighters wear personal protective devices (PC) and a self-contained breathing apparatus (S.C.B.A.) to be protected from injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of aerobic level in 197 firefighters (age: 34±7 yr; BMI: 24.4±2.3 kg.m-2), evaluated by a Queen’s College Step field Test (QCST), performed with and without fire protective garments, and to analyze the differences among age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr, 31-35 yr, 36-40 yr and >40 yr). Variance analysis was applied to assess differences (p < 0.05) between tests and age groups observed in absolute and weight-related values, while a correlation was examined between QCST with and without PC+S.C.B.A. The results have shown that a 13% of firefighters failed to complete the test with PC+S.C.B.A. and significant differences between QCST performed with and without PC+S.C.B.A. in absolute (F(1,169) = 42.6, p < 0.0001) and weight-related (F(1,169) = 339.9, p < 0.0001) terms. A better correlation has been found in L•min-1 (r=0.67) than in ml•kg-1•min-1 (r=0.54). Moreover, we found significant differences among age groups both in absolute and weight-related values. The assessment of maximum oxygen uptake of firefighters in absolute term can be a useful tool to evaluate the firefighters' cardiovascular strain. PMID:25764201

Perroni, Fabrizio; Guidetti, Laura; Cignitti, Lamberto; Baldari, Carlo

2015-01-01

124

42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus...the facepiece. (d) Where apparatus with compressed-breathing-gas containers are tested, the flow test shall also...

2012-10-01

125

42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus...the facepiece. (d) Where apparatus with compressed-breathing-gas containers are tested, the flow test shall also...

2011-10-01

126

42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus...the facepiece. (d) Where apparatus with compressed-breathing-gas containers are tested, the flow test shall also...

2014-10-01

127

42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus...the facepiece. (d) Where apparatus with compressed-breathing-gas containers are tested, the flow test shall also...

2013-10-01

128

Firefighter's Breathing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

1976-01-01

129

Breathing difficulty  

MedlinePLUS

Shortness of breath; Breathlessness; Difficulty breathing; Dyspnea ... No standard definition exists for difficulty breathing. Some people may feel breathless with only mild exercise (for example, climbing stairs), even though they do not have a medical condition. ...

130

Breathing zone air sampler  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

1989-01-01

131

Underwater Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Web site comes the Underwater Exploration educational pages. The cool science link tells about decompression, underwater archaeology, student aquanaut research, and more. Other pages include diving, which has information on types of diving and diving hand signals, experiments, quizzes, an underwater exploration timeline, and a tools and gear link that describes such things as scuba gear and diving bells.

132

42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health...Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere...

2010-10-01

133

46 CFR 197.450 - Breathing gas tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements of § 197.340; and (2) Noxious or offensive odor and oxygen percentage; (c) Each breathing supply system...apparatus connection point for the diver, for noxious or offensive odor and presence of oil mist; and (d) Each breathing...

2010-10-01

134

Breathing Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... you're not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard ... conditions such as asthma, emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or ...

135

Bad Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... breath? Maybe you shouldn't have put extra onions on your hamburger at lunch. What's a kid ... bad breath: foods and drinks, such as garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene ( ...

136

NASA firefighters breathing system program report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.

Wood, W. B.

1977-01-01

137

Underwater Rays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Light beams in wavy unclear water, also called underwater rays, and caustic networks of light formed at the bottom of shallow water are two faces of a single phenomenon. Derivation of the caustic using only simple geometry, Snell's law and simple derivatives accounts for observations such as the existence of the caustic network on vertical walls,…

Cepic, Mojca

2008-01-01

138

Underwater Fireworks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate diffusion by creating underwater "fireworks" using food coloring, oil and water. Learners create the appearance of fireworks by adding drops of red, blue, and yellow food coloring to a cup of oil. Learners add this solution to a soda bottle nearly full with water and observe the bottle closely to witness diffusion in action.

2012-06-26

139

Underwater Archaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to commonly held perceptions, the study of underwater cultural heritage in Australia is not restricted to historic\\u000a shipwreck sites. Across the breadth of the country, there is a rich heritage of submerged archaeological sites that represent\\u000a a range of human interaction with the sea, inland rivers and lakes. These sites vary in age from recent history to those of

David Nutley

140

Underwater ROV  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online Flash game, learners will explore a coral reef using an underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Faced with concerns that environments around the world might be undergoing rapid change in the face of global warming, learners are assigned to use their ROV to investigate the tropical reef and snap photos of the fish species living in its various regions. There are three levels of play (easy, moderate, hard) that learners can master.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

141

21 CFR 868.5430 - Gas-scavenging apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...apparatus. (a) Identification. A gas-scavenging apparatus is a device...anesthetic, analgesic, or trace gases or vapors from a patient's breathing...pump-oxygenator, and to conduct these gases out of the area by means of an exhaust...

2010-04-01

142

Breathing Difficulties  

MedlinePLUS

... or much later. Weakness in the muscles of respiration (breathing) can lead to a variety of symptoms. ... in and out of your lungs is called “ventilation.” When you exercise, the muscles in the body ...

143

Bad Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... mouth and between your teeth produce the bad odor. Other problems in your mouth, such as gum ... and medicines are associated with a specific breath odor. Having good dental habits, like brushing and flossing ...

144

Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration of chemical change, the presenter blows breath into a methylene blue solution releasing carbon dioxide which acidifies the water and changes it from a bright blue color to green.

WOSU

2009-08-20

145

Breath sounds  

MedlinePLUS

The lung sounds are best heard with a stethoscope. This is called auscultation. Normal lung sounds occur ... the bottom of the rib cage. Using a stethoscope, the doctor may hear normal breathing sounds, decreased ...

146

Bad Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... for lunch. But certain strong-smelling foods like onions and garlic can cause bad breath. So can ... leave behind strong smells, like cabbage, garlic, raw onions, and coffee. If you’re trying to lose ...

147

Breathing Room  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this health activity, learners explore breathing, lungs and asthma. Learners test their lung capacity by blowing air into balloons. Learners are also encouraged to determine how the amount of air in a balloon changes as you vary the size of the hole you blow through.

Safety note: Check for latex allergies before purchasing balloons. Learners with respiratory problems should not breathe through the straws or blow up the balloons, but they can help record measurements and collect data.

Twin Cities Public Television

2010-01-01

148

Breathing and Holding Your Breath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students begin with interactive activities to develop a basic understanding of why cells need oxygen and need to get rid of carbon dioxide, how the circulatory and respiratory systems cooperate to bring oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from cells all over the body, and how the nervous system regulates breathing. Then, students carry out an experiment to test whether changing levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide influence how long they can hold their breath.

Ingrid Waldron

149

Breath malodor.  

PubMed

Breath odor research has recently received increasing attention from periodontologists. Because a large portion of the adult population suffers from gingivitis and eventually periodontitis, the etiologic factor in all cases at risk must be considered. The first patient visit should, therefore, systematically include examination of the paranasal cavities and throat to avoid unnecessary time loss and frustration. Metabolic diseases and imaginary malodor should also be considered. Not only the mere presence of a chairside volatile sulfide monitor but also of that of an ear, nose, and throat specialist and eventually a psychiatrist or psychologist who determines whether a breath odor clinic merits its denomination. Volatile sulfur components are an important cause of breath malodor but they are not the sole cause. This explains why organoleptic and gas chromatographic diagnosis scores better than a portable sulfide monitor. Other than etiologic therapy, masking can be achieved for a number of hours by toothpastes containing a combination of triclosan and zinc chloride. PMID:9655033

van Steenberghe, D

1997-01-01

150

Traveling with breathing problems  

MedlinePLUS

If you have breathing problems and you: Are short of breath most of the time Get short of breath when you walk 150 ... or less Have been in the hospital for breathing problems recently Use oxygen at home, even if ...

151

Underwater Plume  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment uses inexpensive and easy-to-find items to demonstrate how hot water behaves in a body of cold water. Working in groups of four, students can complete the experiment in a single class period. The printable six-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about how cold and hot air and water interact, detailed experiment directions, and a worksheet that helps them use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of how knowledge of what creates underwater geysers can be used to detect deep sea vents. Students will observe how water at high temperatures behaves within water at low temperatures, the relationship of temperature to density, and the relationship between density and buoyancy.

152

Breathing Yeasties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Does yeast breathe? Find out by watching how plastic bags filled with yeast, warm water and different amounts of sugar change over time. Demonstrate the interaction of microorganisms and the carbon cycle with yeast, sugar and water, and discover how organisms are dependent on water and energy flow.

2012-06-26

153

42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...shall be the rated time of the apparatus). (b) The bag will be operated during this test by a breathing machine with 24 respirations per minute and a minute-volume of 40 liters. (c) A breathing machine cam with a work rate of 622...

2011-10-01

154

42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shall be the rated time of the apparatus). (b) The bag will be operated during this test by a breathing machine with 24 respirations per minute and a minute-volume of 40 liters. (c) A breathing machine cam with a work rate of 622...

2013-10-01

155

42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...shall be the rated time of the apparatus). (b) The bag will be operated during this test by a breathing machine with 24 respirations per minute and a minute-volume of 40 liters. (c) A breathing machine cam with a work rate of 622...

2012-10-01

156

42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...shall be the rated time of the apparatus). (b) The bag will be operated during this test by a breathing machine with 24 respirations per minute and a minute-volume of 40 liters. (c) A breathing machine cam with a work rate of 622...

2014-10-01

157

Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners test exhaled breath for carbon dioxide and learn how to use an indicator as a simple way to measure pH. Learners also explore what happens when an acid (lemon) is mixed with the indicator. This activity can be related to the topic of global climate change. This activity can also be used to discuss atmospheric warming, which is occurring due to increased amounts of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane in the atmosphere.

Mission Science Workshop

2013-01-01

158

Medical Issues: Breathing  

MedlinePLUS

... recovery from surgery. Breathing support, also called ventilation Ventilation The choice of breathing support can be invasive ... be a complicated and difficult decision. Non-invasive ventilation is breathing support delivered through a mask over ...

159

Pursed lip breathing (image)  

MedlinePLUS

How to do pursed lip breathing: 1. Breath in (inhale) slowly through your nose for 2 counts. 2. Feel your belly get larger as you breathe in. 3. Pucker your lips, as if you were going to whistle or ...

160

Deep breathing after surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... One way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated and healthy ... be uncomfortable. But if you do not practice deep breathing after surgery, you may develop lung problems, ...

161

Breath alcohol test  

MedlinePLUS

Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

162

Rapid shallow breathing  

MedlinePLUS

Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

163

Breathing difficulty - lying down  

MedlinePLUS

... short of breath; Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... Heart failure Obesity (does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often aggravates other conditions ...

164

How to breathe when you are short of breath  

MedlinePLUS

Pursed lip breathing ... Pursed lip breathing helps you use less energy to breathe. It can help you relax. When you are short ... you feel less short of breath. Use pursed lip breathing when you do things that make you ...

165

42 CFR 84.94 - Gas flow test; closed-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.94 Gas flow test; closed-circuit apparatus. (a) Where oxygen is supplied by a...

2013-10-01

166

42 CFR 84.94 - Gas flow test; closed-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.94 Gas flow test; closed-circuit apparatus. (a) Where oxygen is supplied by a...

2014-10-01

167

42 CFR 84.94 - Gas flow test; closed-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.94 Gas flow test; closed-circuit apparatus. (a) Where oxygen is supplied by a...

2012-10-01

168

42 CFR 84.94 - Gas flow test; closed-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.94 Gas flow test; closed-circuit apparatus. (a) Where oxygen is supplied by a...

2011-10-01

169

Breathing Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visual simulation and representation programs and applications have been popping up online in greater numbers, and this recent find is one that will pique the interest of scientists, policy makers, and others who are concerned about carbon dioxide emission rates across the Earth. The Breathing Earth site was created by David Bleja, and he draws on a number of resources (such as the World Factbook and the United Nations) for the data that is utilized to create this site. Visitors can scroll over different countries to learn about their population, their emissions, and their birth and death rate. This interactive map and educational resource also contains a legend in the right-hand corner which explains the various symbols in use here.

Bleja, David

170

Robotic Electrolocation: Active Underwater Target Localization with Electric Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the capabilities of a robot designed to locate objects underwater through active movement of an electric field emitter and sensor apparatus. The robot is inspired by the biological phenomenon of active electrolocation, a sensing strategy found in two groups of freshwater fishes known to emit weak electric fields for target localization and communication. We characterize the performance of

James R. Solberg; Kevin M. Lynch; Malcolm A. Maciver

2007-01-01

171

Precision autonomous underwater navigation  

E-print Network

Deep-sea archaeology, an emerging application of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) technology, requires precise navigation and guidance. As science requirements and engineering capabilities converge, navigating in the ...

Bingham, Brian S. (Brian Steven), 1973-

2003-01-01

172

"Breathing" vesicles.  

PubMed

A vesicle system is described that possesses a pH-induced "breathing" feature and consists of a three-layered wall structure. The "breathing" feature consists of a highly reversible vesicle volume change by a factor of ca. 7, accompanied by diffusion of species into and out of the vesicles with a relaxation time of ca. 1 min. The triblock copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)(45)-block-polystyrene(130)-block-poly(2-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate)(120) (PEO(45)-b-PS(130)-b-PDEA(120)) was synthesized via ATRP. Self-assembly into vesicles was carried out at a pH of ca.10.4. The vesicle wall was shown by cryo-TEM to consist of a sandwich of two external ca. 4 nm thick continuous PS layers and one ca. 17 nm thick PDEA layer in the middle. As the pH decreases, both the vesicle size and the thickness of all three layers increase. The increase of the thickness of the intermediate PDEA layer arises from the protonation and hydration, but the swelling is constrained by the PS layers. The increase of the thickness of the two PS layers is a result of an increasing incompatibility and an accompanying sharpening of the interface between the PS layers and the PDEA layer. Starting at a pH slightly below 6, progressive swelling of the PDEA layer with decreasing pH induces a cracking of the two PS layers and also a sharp increase of the vesicle size and the wall thickness. By pH 3.4, the vesicle size has increased by a factor of approximately 1.9 and the wall shows a cracked surface. These changes between pH 10.4 and 3.4 are highly reversible with the relaxation time of ca. 1 min and can be performed repeatedly. The change in the wall structure not only increases dramatically the wall permeability to water but also greatly expands the rate of proton diffusion from practically zero to extremely rapid. PMID:19722630

Yu, Shaoyong; Azzam, Tony; Rouiller, Isabelle; Eisenberg, Adi

2009-08-01

173

Underwater Scene Composition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes an underwater scene composition for elementary-education majors. This project deals with watercolor with crayon or oil-pastel resist (medium); the beauty of nature represented by fish in the underwater scene (theme); texture and pattern (design elements); drawing simple forms (drawing skill); and composition…

Kim, Nanyoung

2009-01-01

174

Colorful Underwater Sea Creatures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes a project wherein students created colorful underwater sea creatures. This project began with a discussion about underwater sea creatures and how they live. The first step was making the multi-colored tissue paper that would become sea creatures and seaweed. Once students had the shapes of their sea creatures…

McCutcheon, Heather

2011-01-01

175

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three pieces of scientific apparatus and their demonstrational use: a high temperature apparatus for positron annihilation studies, a digitally synthesized classroom variable star, and a demonstration of plasma laser-beam focusing using paint stripper flames. (GA)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1978-01-01

176

42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.95 Service time...Service time will be measured with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88...time it supplies air or oxygen to the breathing machine. (c) The service time...

2012-10-01

177

42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.95 Service time...Service time will be measured with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88...time it supplies air or oxygen to the breathing machine. (c) The service time...

2011-10-01

178

42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.95 Service time...Service time will be measured with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88...time it supplies air or oxygen to the breathing machine. (c) The service time...

2013-10-01

179

42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.95 Service time...Service time will be measured with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88...time it supplies air or oxygen to the breathing machine. (c) The service time...

2010-10-01

180

42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.95 Service time...Service time will be measured with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88...time it supplies air or oxygen to the breathing machine. (c) The service time...

2014-10-01

181

Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.  

PubMed

Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events. PMID:22574634

Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

2012-06-01

182

Breath holding spell  

MedlinePLUS

... like movements) Normal breathing starts again after a brief period of unconsciousness. The child's color improves with the first breath. This may occur several times per day, or only on rare occasions.

183

Breath-Holding Spells  

MedlinePLUS

... toddlers who hold their breath until they turn blue in the face. These might sound like amusing " ... happen when a child stops breathing and turns blue in the face. These spells are often triggered ...

184

Minimizing Shortness of Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... postures and exposure to environmental irritants. Pursed-Lip Breathing One focus of occupational therapy is to teach ... the accessory muscles and manage respiratory symptoms. Monitor Breathing During an activity, it is important to pause ...

185

Underwater seismic source. [for petroleum exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus for generating a substantially oscillation-free seismic signal for use in underwater petroleum exploration, including a bag with walls that are flexible but substantially inelastic, and a pressured gas supply for rapidly expanding the bag to its fully expanded condition is described. The inelasticity of the bag permits the application of high pressure gas to rapidly expand it to full size, without requiring a venting mechanism to decrease the pressure as the bag approaches a predetermined size to avoid breaking of the bag.

Yang, L. C. (inventor)

1979-01-01

186

Fundamentals of breath malodour.  

PubMed

Breath malodour is a condition that has health and social implications. The origin of breath malodour problems are related to both systemic and oral conditions. The advice of dental professionals for treatment of this condition occurs with regularity since 90% of breath odor problems emanate from the oral cavity. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the etiology of breath odor, its prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment strategies for the condition. PMID:12167916

Sanz, M; Roldán, S; Herrera, D

2001-11-15

187

What Causes Bad Breath?  

MedlinePLUS

... can often be prevented with some simple steps. Bad breath is caused by odor-producing bacteria that grow in the mouth. When you don' ... your teeth. The sulfur compounds released by these bacteria make your breath ... can contribute to bad breath because the oils are carried to your lungs ...

188

Smelling and Tasting Underwater.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses differences between smell and taste, comparing these senses in organisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Describes the chemical environment underwater and in air, differences in chemoreceptors to receive stimuli, and the organs, brain, and behavior involved in chemoreception. (CS)

Atema, Jelle

1980-01-01

189

Underwater hydrophone location survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) is a U.S. Navy test range located on Andros Island, Bahamas, and a Division of the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Newport, RI. The Headquarters of AUTEC is located at a facility in West Palm Beach, FL. AUTEC's primary mission is to provide the U.S. Navy with a deep-water test and evaluation facility for making underwater acoustic measurements, testing and calibrating sonars, and providing accurate underwater, surface, and in-air tracking data on surface ships, submarines, aircraft, and weapon systems. Many of these programs are in support of Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW), undersea research and development programs, and Fleet assessment and operational readiness trials. Most tests conducted at AUTEC require precise underwater tracking (plus or minus 3 yards) of multiple acoustic signals emitted with the correct waveshape and repetition criteria from either a surface craft or underwater vehicle.

Cecil, Jack B.

1993-01-01

190

Underwater acoustic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advances in acoustic modem technology that enabled high-rate reliable communications, current research focuses on communication between various remote instruments within a network environment. Underwater acoustic (UWA) networks are generally formed by acoustically connected ocean-bottom sensors, autonomous underwater vehicles, and a surface station, which provides a link to an on-shore control center. While many applications require long-term monitoring of

Ethem M. Sozer; Milica Stojanovic; John G. Proakis

2000-01-01

191

Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.  

PubMed

Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another important concern is a suite of products from chemical reactions among oxidizing compounds with biological chemicals such as amines, thiols and carbonyls. SAMAP Meeting We (Armin and Joachim) attended the 2011 SAMAP conference in Taranto, Italy (10-14 October), which occurred just a few weeks after the IABR meeting in Parma, Italy (11-15 September 2011). It was held at the Officers' Club of the Taranto Naval Base under the patronage of the Italian navy; the local host was Lucio Ricciardi of the University of Insubria, Varese, Italy. At the 2011 SAMAP meeting, the theme was air-independent propulsion (AIP), meaning the capability of recharging the main batteries of the submarine without the need to surface. Only a few navies (e.g. US, UK, France, Russia, China) have historically had this capability using nuclear-powered submarines that can function underwater for extended periods of time (months). Most navies operate submarines with conventional diesel-electric propulsion, wherein diesel-powered generators charge battery banks which then drive an electric motor connected to the propeller. The batteries are charged while the boat is on the surface or during snorkelling, when the boat is submerged a few meters below the surface and a snorkel tube is extended to the surface. The period between battery charges can vary from several hours to one or two days depending on the power requirements and the nature of the mission. The process is necessary for breathing air revitalization (flushing out accumulated contaminants) and for the operation of the diesel engines. However, during this period the submarine is vulnerable to detection. Since the 1940s there have been various attempts to develop a power generation system that is independent of external air (AIP). To this end hydrogen peroxide was initially used and later liquid oxygen (LOX). Currently, most AIP submarines use fuel cell technology (LOX and hydrogen) to supplement the conventional diesel-electric system in order to extend the underwater endurance to 2-3 weeks. These propulsion engineering changes also reduce per

Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

2012-03-01

192

UNDERWATER SOUND RECORDING OF ANIMALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater sound recording of animals uses specialized techniques to obtain faithful copies of sounds produced by animals during their normal activities underwater. Techniques have to be unobtrusive as well as nondisturbing to avoid changing the animal behaviors. The first scientific recording of underwater sounds from a marine mammal at sea was by William E. Schevill and Barbara Lawrence in 1948.

WILLIAM A. WATKINS; MARY ANN DAHER

1992-01-01

193

Advanced underwater lift device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

1993-01-01

194

Breathing - slowed or stopped  

MedlinePLUS

Respiration slowed or stopped; Not breathing; Respiratory arrest; Apnea ... inflammation and infection of the tissue lining the brain and ... Irregular heartbeat Metabolic (body chemical, mineral, and acid- ...

195

[Measuring breath alcohol levels].  

PubMed

The authors review the breath alcohol measurement method based on infrared absorptiometry and its literature. In a comparative study a person's breath alcohol content was measured by either Siemens Alcomat or Seres Ethylometer instrument in routine road-blocks controls and in experiments and was compared to his/her blood alcohol level. Using the conversion factor of 2100:1 there was a high correlation between the breath and blood alcohol levels using either instrument. Despite using a single method either Siemens Alcomat or Seres Ethylometer 679-TH instrument can be recommended for evidential breath alcohol testing of driving under the influence of alcohol in routine road-blocks controls. PMID:9312693

Varga, M; Buris, L; Fodor, M; Posta, J

1997-08-24

196

Inspection methods for underwater cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underwater cables serve many purposes, both military and commercial. The most common use of underwater cables is for telecommunications, where voice is transformed into either electrical current or pulses of laser light which are transmitted across the world's oceans via underwater cables. The military uses underwater cables in several ways in support of national defense. Hydrophone arrays deployed from underwater cables form an extensive integrated undersea surveillance system (RYSS) which is used to monitor the activities of submannes. The military also uses underwater cables for training, testing, and evaluation ranges in the ocean. These ranges use transponder units to track air, surface, and submerged targets for purposes such as measuring surface ship radiated noise or evaluating weapons systems accuracy. The underwater cables provide the means to transmit communications and data to control facilities.

Noyes, Robin Y.

1994-12-01

197

Bad Breath (Halitosis)  

MedlinePLUS

... Bad breath is breath that has an unpleasant odor. It's also known as halitosis. This odor can occur from time to time, or it ... the day, saliva washes away decaying food and odors. The body makes less saliva at night. Your ...

198

From breathing to respiration.  

PubMed

The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25532022

Fitting, Jean-William

2015-01-01

199

Every Breath You Take  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an activity designed to help students develop number sense, each student estimates the number of times s/he breathes in one hour, and the class graphs the estimates, finds the mean and median of the estimates, and discusses outliers. Students then brainstorm how they could find out how many breaths a person actually takes in a day—and implement their strategies.

2008-01-01

200

Breathing Time Warp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time Warp and Breathing Time Buckets are two general-purpose optimistic synchronization strategies for supporting parallel discrete-event simulations. However, each one of these approaches has potential fatal shortcomings. Time Warp may exhibit rollback explosions that can cause an avalance of antimessages. Breathing Time Buckets, on the other hand, may not be able to process enough events per synchronization cycle to remain

Jeff S. Steinrnan

1993-01-01

201

Shortness of Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... fever. If you are experiencing any of these problems, tell your doctor. Causes & Risk Factors What could be causing my shortness of breath? Shortness of breath can be caused by many things, including the following: Asthma Other lung diseases, including emphysema (say: "em-fa- ...

202

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a technique to produce samples for x-ray diffraction studies on the Tel-X-Ometer 80 x-ray apparatus from readily available crystalline powders and discusses observations of transverse modes of an optical resonator. (SK)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1982-01-01

203

Apparatus Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes five brief articles on: solar-heating demonstration equipment, mercury or sodium vapor lamp spectroscopy, an apparatus for simulating variable stars, a voltage-to-frequency converter, and an introductory absorption experiment for low-energy beta particles. (MLH)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1976-01-01

204

Translating Cuttlefish: Underwater Lifewritings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In underwater life-writing, poetry, marine biology, and memoir meet like ocean currents. Both biography—the subject is the sea—and autobiography—the subject is the writer—the genre's practitioners explore metaphor and metamorphosis in sea life and in themselves. In attempting to \\

Clare Brant

2009-01-01

205

Diversity in underwater inspection  

SciTech Connect

Underwater nondestructive testing (NDT) of deepwater structures provides a diverse, hostile, and challenging means to implement NDT. Given a warm, shallow water with good visibility, working underwater approaches the category of ``I get paid for this.`` This environment allows for identical reliability as ``topside`` NDT. Underwater visual, magnetic particle, and ultrasonic testing have been in place since the early 1980s, with equipment modified for submergence and closely resembling topside NDT tools. However, deepwater structures represent the most unique of NDT considerations. In the Gulf of Mexico, there are approximately 15 fixed structures installed at a depth of 243--400 m. This article describes safety, technical, and commercial issues relating to inspecting deepwater structures and focuses especially on a comparison of remote operated vehicles (ROVs) and atmospheric diving suits (ADSs). Deepwater structures have excellent records of structural integrity with an extremely low incidence of corrosion or fatigue cracking problems. The primary reason for developing deepwater NDT capabilities is contingency for damage during installation impact damage from dropped objects. There are three means used for underwater NDT: diving, atmospheric diving suits (ADSs), and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs).

Goldberg, L. [Sea Test Services, Merritt Island, FL (United States)

1996-03-01

206

Carburetion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carburetion apparatus is described for a combustion engine including carburetor means for creating a fuel-air mixture, and an intake manifold for receiving the fuel-air mixture, the carburetion apparatus comprising a body having a central passage therethrough, baffles across the central passage, one end of the body receiving the carburetor means and defining an entrance for passage of the fuel-air

Greene

1986-01-01

207

Compressed air demand-type firefighter's breathing system, volume 1. [design analysis and performance tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The commercial availability of lightweight high pressure compressed air vessels has resulted in a lightweight firefighter's breathing apparatus. The improved apparatus, and details of its design and development are described. The apparatus includes a compact harness assembly, a backplate mounted pressure reducer assembly, a lightweight bubble-type facemask with a mask mounted demand breathing regulator. Incorporated in the breathing regulator is exhalation valve, a purge valve and a whistle-type low pressure warning that sounds only during inhalation. The pressure reducer assembly includes two pressure reducers, an automatic transfer valve and a signaling device for the low pressure warning. Twenty systems were fabricated, tested, refined through an alternating development and test sequence, and extensively examined in a field evaluation program. Photographs of the apparatus are included.

Sullivan, J. L.

1975-01-01

208

Analytical Methods for Breath Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breath analysis is a non-invasive, painless and attractive diagnostic method without risk to the patients. It has been recommended as a convenient and complementary method for blood and urine analysis. Despite the advantages, breath analysis has not been introduced to medical diagnosis. Only few specific breath tests are available: ethanol in breath after alcohol ingestion, detection of CO2 for diagnosis

Tomasz Ligor

2009-01-01

209

Control apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the method and apparatus of the present invention can be utilized to apply either a uniform or a nonuniform covering of material over many different workpieces, the apparatus (20) is advantageously utilized to apply a thermal barrier covering (64) to an airfoil (22) which is used in a turbine engine. The airfoil is held by a gripper assembly (86) while a spray gun (24) is effective to apply the covering over the airfoil. When a portion of the covering has been applied, a sensor (28) is utilized to detect the thickness of the covering. A control apparatus (32) compares the thickness of the covering of material which has been applied with the desired thickness and is subsequently effective to regulate the operation of the spray gun to adaptively apply a covering of a desired thickness with an accuracy of at least plus or minus 0.0015 inches (1.5 mils) despite unanticipated process variations.

Derkacs, Thomas (Inventor); Fetheroff, Charles W. (Inventor); Matay, Istvan M. (Inventor); Toth, Istvan J. (Inventor)

1982-01-01

210

Natural Underwater Adhesives  

PubMed Central

The general topic of this review is protein-based underwater adhesives produced by aquatic organisms. The focus is on mechanisms of interfacial adhesion to native surfaces and controlled underwater solidification of natural water-borne adhesives. Four genera that exemplify the broad range of function, general mechanistic features, and unique adaptations are discussed in detail: blue mussels, acorn barnacles, sandcastle worms, and freshwater caddisfly larva. Aquatic surfaces in nature are charged and in equilibrium with their environment, populated by an electrical double layer of ions as well as adsorbed natural polyelectrolytes and microbial biofilms. Surface adsorption of underwater bioadhesives likely occurs by exchange of surface bound ligands by amino acid sidechains, driven primarily by relative affinities and effective concentrations of polymeric functional groups. Most aquatic organisms exploit modified amino acid sidechains, in particular phosphorylated serines and hydroxylated tyrosines (dopa), with high-surface affinity that form coordinative surface complexes. After delivery to the surfaces as a fluid, permanent natural adhesives solidify to bear sustained loads. Mussel plaques are assembled in a manner superficially reminiscent of in vitro layer-by-layer strategies, with sequentially delivered layers associated through Fe(dopa)3 coordination bonds. The adhesives of sandcastle worms, caddisfly larva, and barnacles may be delivered in a form somewhat similar to in vitro complex coacervation. Marine adhesives are secreted, or excreted, into seawater that has a significantly higher pH and ionic strength than the internal environment. Empirical evidence suggests these environment triggers could provide minimalistic, fail-safe timing mechanisms to prevent premature solidification (insolubilization) of the glue within the secretory system, yet allow rapid solidification after secretion. Underwater bioadhesives are further strengthened by secondary covalent curing. PMID:21643511

Stewart, Russell J.; Ransom, Todd C.; Hlady, Vladimir

2011-01-01

211

Positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

1983-07-07

212

Underwater laser system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a solid-state laser operating at 532nm for underwater topographic investigations. The laser system is integrated into a torpedo-like 'towed-body', with the military designation of AQS-20. This laser, along with other sophisticated receiver opto-electronic systems enables detailed underwater bathymetry. CEO designed and manufactured the laser portion of this system. The laser sub-system is comprised of two separate parts: the LTU (Laser Transmitter Unit) and the LEU (Laser Electronics Unit). The LTU and LEU where put through Mil-standard testing for vibration, shock and temperature storage and operation extremes as well as Mil-461C EMI/EMC testing. The Nd:YAG laser operates at a 400 Hz pulse repetition frequency and is controlled remotely, tethered to the system controller in a ship or helicopter. Power monitor circuits allow real time laser health monitoring, which enables input parameter adjustments for consistent laser behavior. The towed body moves forward at a constant rate of speed while this underwater LIDAR system gathers data. All heat generated must be conducted into the outer hull of the towed-body and then, to the surrounding ambient ocean water. The water temperature may vary from 0-35 degrees C.

Kushina, Mark E.; Heberle, Geoff; Hope, Michael; Crittenden, Ryan M.; Bethel, Michael

2002-03-01

213

Biophysics of underwater hearing in anuran amphibians.  

PubMed

A standing wave tube apparatus was used to determine the biophysical basis of underwater hearing sensitivity in 3 species of Rana and in Xenopus laevis. A speaker inside the base of a vertical, water-filled 3 m steel pipe produced standing waves. Pressure and particle motion were measured with a hydrophone and geophone respectively and were spatially 90 degrees out of phase along the length of the tube. Microphonic responses were recorded from the inner ear of frogs lowered through pressure and particle motion maxima and minima. The air-filled lungs of whole frogs produced distortions of the sound field. Preparations of heads with only an air-filled middle ear produced little distortion and showed clear pressure tracking at sound intensities 10-20 dB above hearing thresholds from 200-3000 Hz. Filling the middle ear with water decreased or abolished microphonic responses. Severing the stapes reduced responses except at certain frequencies below about 1000 Hz which varied with body size and likely represent resonant frequencies of the middle ear cavity. We conclude that the frog species examined respond to underwater sound pressure from about 200-3000 Hz with the middle ear cavity responsible for pressure transduction. PMID:6980964

Hetherington, T E; Lombard, R E

1982-06-01

214

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews apparatus design and instructional uses for Fume Cupboard Monitor, Plant Tissue Culture Kit, various equipment for electronic systems course, Welwyn Microprocessor-Tutor, Sweep Function Generator SFG 606, and Harris manufacturers materials--Regulated Power Supply Units, Electronic Current and Voltage Meters, Gas Preparation Kit, and…

School Science Review, 1981

1981-01-01

215

Sensor apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-12-22

216

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some science apparatus: included are a gene kit to demonstrate aspects of population genetics and selection, an electronic thermometer for use in the field of environmental studies, an astrobrella to use in astronomy classes, and crystal display models of different substances for chemistry classes. (GA)

School Science Review, 1978

1978-01-01

217

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are reviews of science equipment/apparatus. Items reviewed include: Harris Micro-ecology tubes; Harris chromosome investigation kit; Harris trycult slides; a pressure cooker with thermometer; digital pH meter; digital scaler timer; electrical compensation calorimeter; and Mains alternating current ammeter. (JN)

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

218

42 CFR 84.96 - Service time test; closed-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.96 Service time test; closed-circuit...classified according to the length of time it supplies adequate breathing gas to the wearer during man test No. 4 described in...

2012-10-01

219

42 CFR 84.96 - Service time test; closed-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.96 Service time test; closed-circuit...classified according to the length of time it supplies adequate breathing gas to the wearer during man test No. 4 described in...

2014-10-01

220

42 CFR 84.96 - Service time test; closed-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.96 Service time test; closed-circuit...classified according to the length of time it supplies adequate breathing gas to the wearer during man test No. 4 described in...

2013-10-01

221

42 CFR 84.96 - Service time test; closed-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.96 Service time test; closed-circuit...classified according to the length of time it supplies adequate breathing gas to the wearer during man test No. 4 described in...

2011-10-01

222

42 CFR 84.96 - Service time test; closed-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.96 Service time test; closed-circuit...classified according to the length of time it supplies adequate breathing gas to the wearer during man test No. 4 described in...

2010-10-01

223

Multichannel Detection for Wideband Underwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct-sequence CDMA is considered for future wideband mobile underwater acoustic networks, where a typical configuration may include several autonomous underwater vehicles operating within a few kilometers of a central receiver. Two receivers that utilize multichannel (array) processing of asynchronous multiuser signals are proposed: the symbol decision feedback (SDF) receiver and the chip hypothesis feedback (CHF) receiver. Both receivers use a

Acoustic CDMA Communications; Milica Stojanovic; Lee Freitag

224

Submersibles: Submersed in Underwater Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This data tip from Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center archive, focuses on underwater exploration technology such as submersibles, scuba diving, and underwater research habitat. It includes links to a variety of educational sites, and a data activity that uses coral mortality data collected by students as part of the JASON XI expedition project at Conch Reef near Key Largo, Florida.

225

Multisensor visualization for underwater archaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems particular to underwater archaeology are discussed. The underwater archaeology study of three sunken ships is then described. They are the USS Monitor, Hamilton and Scourge. Future prospects with respect to improved technology are indicated. From depths prohibitive to human divers, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) send back acoustic and optical data to archaeologists safe and comfortable aboard ship. Sonars

W. K. Stewart

1991-01-01

226

Experiment of robofish aided underwater archaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bionic propulsive mechanism is a hot research topic in robotics field. Robofish, as an ultimate carrier of the research results, should exhibit its advantages in practice. First, the requirements of underwater archaeology to underwater vehicles are briefly analyzed. Then the feasibility of SPC-II robofish to perform underwater task is explained in velocity, maneuverability, comparison with UUV (unmanned underwater vehicle), etc.

Jian Hong Liang; Tian Miao Wang; Song Wang; Dan Zou; Jian Sun

2005-01-01

227

A miniature optical breathing sensor  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate a novel miniature optical breathing sensor based on an Agarose infiltrated photonic crystal fiber interferometer. The sensor detects the variation in relative humidity that occurs between inhaled and exhaled breath. The sensor interrogation system can determine the breathing pattern in real time and can also predict the breathing rate and the breathing status during respiration. The sensor is suitable for monitoring patients during a magnetic resonance imaging scan where use of sedatives and anesthetics necessitates breathing monitoring; electronic sensors are not suitable in such an environment and a visual observation of the patient's respiratory efforts is often difficult. PMID:23243581

Mathew, Jinesh; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

2012-01-01

228

Sampling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface.

Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); King, Lloyd L. (Benton, WA); Jackson, Peter O. (Richland, WA); Zulich, Alan W. (Bel Air, MD)

1989-01-01

229

Sampling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface. 15 figs.

Gordon, N.R.; King, L.L.; Jackson, P.O.; Zulich, A.W.

1989-07-18

230

Underwater acoustic omnidirectional absorber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gradient index media, which are designed by varying local element properties in given geometry, have been utilized to manipulate acoustic waves for a variety of devices. This study presents a cylindrical, two-dimensional acoustic "black hole" design that functions as an omnidirectional absorber for underwater applications. The design features a metamaterial shell that focuses acoustic energy into the shell's core. Multiple scattering theory was used to design layers of rubber cylinders with varying filling fractions to produce a linearly graded sound speed profile through the structure. Measured pressure intensity agreed with predicted results over a range of frequencies within the homogenization limit.

Naify, Christina J.; Martin, Theodore P.; Layman, Christopher N.; Nicholas, Michael; Thangawng, Abel L.; Calvo, David C.; Orris, Gregory J.

2014-02-01

231

Well apparatus  

SciTech Connect

There are disclosed two embodiments of well apparatus each including a well tool adapted to be lowered into and locked within a landing nipple of a well string, together with a running tool adapted to be connected to the well tool for lowering it into locking position and then causing it to be so locked within the nipple, following which the running tool is released from the well tool for retrieval from the well string.

Akkerman, N. H.

1985-06-11

232

Incinerator apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an incinerator apparatus. It comprises: a primary incinerator chamber; a secondary incinerator chamber coupled to the primary incinerator chamber by a passageway; a primary air input into the incinerator chamber; a secondary air input into the secondary incinerator chamber; a plurality of flame detector ports opening into the secondary incinerator chamber and each flame detector port being spaced in a predetermined relationship to each other; and a plurality of ultraviolet flame detectors.

Crawford, J.P.

1992-10-06

233

Hyperthermia apparatus  

DOEpatents

A hyperthermia apparatus, suitable for transurethral application, has an energy radiating element comprising a leaky-wave antenna. The leaky wave antenna radiation pattern is characterized by a surface wave which propagates along an aperture formed by openings (small in comparison to a wavelength) in the outer conductor of a transmission line. Appropriate design of the leaky wave antenna produces a uniform, broadside pattern of temperature elevation that uniformly heats all or part of the periurethral tissues.

Larsen, Lawrence E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

234

Breathing: rhythmicity, plasticity, chemosensitivity.  

PubMed

Breathing is a vital behavior that is particularly amenable to experimental investigation. We review recent progress on three problems of broad interest. (i) Where and how is respiratory rhythm generated? The preBötzinger Complex is a critical site, whereas pacemaker neurons may not be essential. The possibility that coupled oscillators are involved is considered. (ii) What are the mechanisms that underlie the plasticity necessary for adaptive changes in breathing? Serotonin-dependent long-term facilitation following intermittent hypoxia is an important example of such plasticity, and a model that can account for this adaptive behavior is discussed. (iii) Where and how are the regulated variables CO2 and pH sensed? These sensors are essential if breathing is to be appropriate for metabolism. Neurons with appropriate chemosensitivity are spread throughout the brainstem; their individual properties and collective role are just beginning to be understood. PMID:12598679

Feldman, Jack L; Mitchell, Gordon S; Nattie, Eugene E

2003-01-01

235

Ion-trap detection of volatile organic compounds in alveolar breath  

SciTech Connect

We describe a method for the collection and microanalysis of the volatile organic compounds in human breath. A transportable apparatus supplies subjects with purified air and samples their alveolar breath; the volatile organic compounds are captured in an adsorptive trap containing activated carbon and molecular sieve. The sample is thermally desorbed from the trap in an automated microprocessor-controlled device, concentrated by two-stage cryofocusing, and assayed by gas chromatography with ion-trap detection. Compounds are identified by reference to a computer-based library of mass spectra with subtraction of the background components present in the inspired air. We used this device to study 10 normal subjects and determined the relative abundance of the volatile organic compounds in their alveolar breath. The breath-collecting apparatus was convenient to operate and was well tolerated by human volunteers.

Phillips, M.; Greenberg, J. (Department of Medicine, St. Vincent's Medical Center of Richmond, Staten Island, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

236

Evidential breath ethanol analyzers, accuracy and sensitivity to breath acetone.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study included the examination of the relative accuracy of a number of evidential breath analyzers available in the United States, the sensitivity of ethanol breath analyzers to simulated breath acetone and the generation and subsequent interference created by endogenous acetone. This study used both laboratory simulation and human ethanol testing as well as a systematic examination of the sensitivity of various ethanol breath test instruments to both endogenous and simulated breath acetone. The results suggest that when evidential breath ethanol testers are administered in a uniform fashion, consistent and reliable results occur. Further, endogenous and simulated breath acetone can effect infrared ethanol breath testers but at levels in the case of endogenous acetone, in a non-significant fashion. Simulated breath acetone, consistent with other research produced selective interference on evaluation of breath instruments. The instruments utilizing wavelength 3.4 microns infrared bands were affected the greatest. Endogenous breath and blood acetone was demonstrated in a non-diabetic. The resulting breath acetone levels did produce mimicked ethanol levels on all single wavelength (3.4 microns range) instruments. Nine micron IR range instruments and the Breathalyzer 900 which utilizes a wet chemical procedure were unaffected by endogenous acetone. Those instruments equipped with acetone detectors, found in certain instruments, did not identify endogenously produced acetone. PMID:2917060

Sutton, L R

1989-01-01

237

Underwater green laser vibrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a laser vibrometer based on an monolithic single-frequency green laser operating at 532 nm. This wavelength can be particularly useful in the case of underwater vibrometry, especially with regard to the minimum of water absorption for this wavelength range (blue-green window). Using polarizing optics, we proposed a configuration that allows the elimination of parasitic reflections at the air-glass-water boundary. A measurement of heterodyne signals as a mixing result of scattered and reference beams has been performed. The study was conducted in aqueous medium for the scattering waterproof paper and retro-reflective surface. In both configurations we have obtained signals with a relatively high S/N ratio > 20 dB (for scattering surface) and > 31 dB (for retro-reflective tape) with the Resolution Bandwidth RBW 10 kHz for a vibrometer output power of 5 mW and the distance to the moving object 1.2 m (including 0.3 m in air). In our opinion, laser Doppler vibrometry LDV based on high-performance single frequency solid-state lasers with a wavelength range corresponding to the blue-green window allows effective measurement of vibration in the underwater environment.

Anto?czak, Arkadiusz J.; Kozio?, Pawe?; W??, Adam T.; Sotor, Jaros?aw Z.; Dudzik, Grzegorz; Kaczmarek, Pawe? R.; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

2012-06-01

238

New Polish occupational health and safety regulations for underwater works.  

PubMed

In Poland, the new regulation of the Ministry of Health on Occupational Health for Underwater Works (dated 2007) pursuant to the Act on Underwater Works (dated 2003) has just been published. It is dedicated for commercial, non-military purposes. It defines health requirements for commercial divers and candidates for divers, medical assessment guide with a list of specific medical tests done on initial and periodical medical examination in order for a diver or a candidate for diver to be recognised fit for work, health surveillance during diving operations, compression and decompression procedures, list of content for medical equipment to be present at any diving place, formal qualifications for physicians conducting medical assessment of divers, requirements for certifications confirming the medical status of divers and candidates for divers. Decompression tables cover divings up to 120 meters of depth using compressed air, oxygen, nitrox and heliox as breathing mixtures. There are also decompression tables for repetitive diving, altitude diving and diving in the high-density waters (mud diving). It this paper, general description of health requirements for divers, as well as decompression tables that are included in the new Regulation on Occupational Health for Underwater Works are presented. PMID:18350984

Kot, Jacek; Si?ko, Zdzis?aw

2007-01-01

239

Fiber ringdown breathing rate sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new sensor for patient's breathing measurement by using fiber loop ringdown spectroscopy. The sensing system consists of a typical single mode fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy and a sensor mat which is used to introduce breathing related optical loss. The sensor mat could be put in the chair or embedded in the bed. It is non invasive measurement. The breathing rate sensor is demonstrated with an accuracy of +/-2 breaths per minute and stable sensor output.

Chen, Zhihao; Yim, Huiqing; Teo, Ju Teng; Ng, Soon Huat

2011-05-01

240

INTERMITTENT POSITIVE PRESSURE BREATHING  

EPA Science Inventory

Efficacy of long-term intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) treatment when used as an adjunct to the overall care of ambulatory outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evaluation compared the use of IPPB with use of a powered nebulizer....

241

The Air We Breathe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

Davila, Dina

2010-01-01

242

Life and Breath  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a public education program combining the screening process and a follow-up program for teaching victims of emphysema and other respiratory diseases how to better their living condition through proper breathing, avoidance of air pollutants and cigarette smoking, and taking better care of themselves physically. (PD)

Ellis, Helen D.

1974-01-01

243

Fastener apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fastening apparatus is adapted to be inserted and removed from one side of a work piece having an opposite side which is substantially inaccessible to a worker. A first, externally threaded member is threadingly engaged with a receiving structure, and a second member is inserted within corresponding seats or grooves for interlocking the two members. In the preferred embodiment diverting seats are provided for forming the second member into locking engagement between the receiving structure and the first member. In one embodiment, seat structures are provided for engaging frangible panels or the like for high temperature applications.

While, Donald M. (Inventor); Matza, Edward C. (Inventor)

1987-01-01

244

Positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

Vogel, Max A. (Kennewick, WA); Alter, Paul (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01

245

Expiration: breathing's other face.  

PubMed

The evolution of the aspiration pump seen in tetrapod vertebrates from the buccal-pharyngeal force pump seen in air breathing fish and amphibians appears to have first involved the production of active expiration. Active inspiration arose later. This appears to have involved reconfiguration of a parafacial oscillator (now the parafacial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus (pFRG/RTN)) to produce active expiration, followed by reconfiguration of a paravagal oscillator (now the preBötC) to produce active inspiration. In the ancestral breathing cycle, inspiration follows expiration, which is in turn followed by glottal closure and breath holding. When both rhythms are expressed, as they are in reptiles and birds, and mammals under conditions of elevated respiratory drive, the pFRG/RTN appears to initiate the respiratory cycle. We propose that the coordinated output of this system is a ventilation cycle characterized by four phases. In reptiles, these consist of active inspiration (I), glottal closure (E1), a pause (an apnea or breath hold) (E2), and an active expiration (E3) that initiates the next cycle. In mammals under resting conditions, active expiration (E3) is suppressed and inspiration (I) is followed by airway constriction and diaphragmatic braking (E1) (rather than glottal closure) and a short pause at end-expiration (E2). As respiratory drive increases in mammals, expiratory muscle activity appears. Frequently, it first appears immediately preceding inspiration (E3) just as it does in reptiles. It can also appear in E1, however, and it is not yet clear what mechanisms underlie when and where in the cycle it appears. This may reflect whether the active expiration is recruited to enhance tidal volume, increase breathing frequency, or both. PMID:25194197

Jenkin, Sarah E M; Milsom, William K

2014-01-01

246

Underwater Robotics: Science, Design & Fabrication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes information on the textbook Underwater Robotics: Science, Design & Fabrication by Steven W. Moore, Harry Bohm and Vickie Jensen. The site includes information about the content of the book as well as sample material.

247

75 FR 61386 - Emergency Escape Breathing Apparatus Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...activities, such as moving a locomotive coupled to a car or group of cars containing...Freight train means one or more locomotives coupled with one or more freight cars, except...moving a locomotive or group of locomotives coupled to a car or group of cars...

2010-10-05

248

Collecting apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

Duncan, Charles P. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1983-01-01

249

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1100.degree. to 1900.degree. C., while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products.

Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

1981-01-01

250

A Space to Breathe  

E-print Network

impactful are my Grandfather’s experiences during the Holocaust, particularly those revolving around hunger. This historical trauma inspired the work in my thesis, A Space to Breathe, which addresses my memories of these stories from an emotional context... together tells a larger narrative. When focusing on the marks during the creation of these works, specific emotional states were referenced. All of the pieces displayed together show the trauma of my Grandfather’s physical experiences during the Holocaust...

Erwin, Jennifer Rachel

2012-05-31

251

The Air We Breathe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This picture book is designed to introduce children to the Earth's atmosphere and its importance to life on Earth. It also introduces how the addition of new gases (e.g., ozone) contributes to changing the quality of air we breathe. With an understanding of how our atmosphere works, we can begin to understand how our activities may be contributing to some of those changes in air quality.

2012-08-03

252

BREATHING: Rhythmicity, Plasticity, Chemosensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Breathing is a vital behavior,that is particularly amenable,to experi- mental investigation. We review recent progress on three problems,of broad interest. (i) Where and how,is respiratory rhythm,generated? The preB¨ otzinger Complex,is a critical site, whereas pacemaker neurons may not be essential. The possibility that cou- pled oscillators are involved is considered. ( ii) What are the mechanisms,that underlie the

Jack L. Feldman; Gordon S. Mitchell; Eugene E. Nattie

2003-01-01

253

The Baby's First Breath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of Hyperphysics, from Georgia State University, uses elasticity to explain why a baby needs help--like a smack on the bottom--to take its first breath and also why people with emphysema have so much difficulty exhaling. Another section explains why capillaries can be extremely thin, whereas large arteries must have strong, thick walls. A third section describes the physics of the aneurysm, a bulge in the walls of a larger artery.

Nave, Rod

254

Reaction time following yoga bellows-type breathing and breath awareness.  

PubMed

The reaction time (RT) was assessed in two groups of healthy males, yoga group (M age = 29.0 yr.) and non-yoga or control group (M age = 29.0 yr.), with 35 participants each. The yoga group had an average experience of 6 months, while the control group was yoga-naïve. The yoga group was assessed in two sessions, (i) bhastrika pranayama or bellows breathing and (ii) breath awareness, while the control group had a single control session. The two experimental sessions, one with each type of breathing, and the control session consisted of pre- (5 min.), during (18 min.), and post-session epochs (5 min.). Assessments were made in the pre- and post-session epochs using a Multi-Operational Apparatus for Reaction Time. Following 18 min. of bhastrika pranayama there was a statistically significant reduction in number of anticipatory responses compared to before the practice. This suggests that the immediate effect of bhastrika pranayama is to inhibit unnecessary responding to stimuli. PMID:24422341

Telles, Shirley; Yadav, Arti; Gupta, Ram Kumar; Balkrishna, Acharya

2013-08-01

255

Cardiovascular Biomarkers In Exhaled Breath  

PubMed Central

With each breath we exhale, thousands of molecules are expelled in our breath giving individuals a “breath-print” that can tell a lot about them and their state of health. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as the new frontier in medical testing. The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century have arguably witnessed a revolution in our understanding of the constituents of exhaled breath and the development of the field of breath analysis and testing. Thanks to major breakthroughs in new technologies (infrared, electrochemical, chemiluminescence, and others) and the availability of mass spectrometers, the field of breath analysis has made considerable advances in the 21st century. Several methods are now in clinical use or nearly ready to enter that arena. Breath analysis has the potential to offer relatively inexpensive, rapid, noninvasive methods for detecting and/or monitoring a variety of diseases. Breath analysis also has applications in fields beyond medicine, including environmental monitoring, security and others. This review will focus on exhaled breath as a potential source of biomarkers for medical applications with specific attention to applications (and potential applications) in cardiovascular disease. PMID:22824108

Cikach, Frank S.; Dweik, Raed A.

2014-01-01

256

Reliability in underwater inter-vehicle communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Underwater networks are envisioned to enable several applications for oceanographic data collection, environmental monitoring, nav- igation, and tactical surveillance. Underwater acoustic networking is the enabling technology for these applications. Most of these applications make,use of underwater,vehicles and rely on inter- vehicle communication,capabilities for information exchange,and coordination purposes. Reliable data delivery, especially in the case of mobile underwater vehicles, is

Amrita A. Nimbalkar; Dario Pompili

2008-01-01

257

Breath-by-breath measurement of particle deposition in the lung of spontaneously breathing rats.  

PubMed

A number of deposition models for humans, as well as experimental animals, have been described. However, no breath-by-breath deposition measurement in rats has been reported to date. The objective of this study is to determine lung deposition of micrometer-sized particles as a function of breathing parameters in the adult rat lung. A new aerosol photometry system was designed to measure deposition of nonhygroscopic, 2-mum sebacate particles in anesthetized, intubated, and spontaneously breathing 90-day-old Wistar-Kyoto rats placed in a size-adjusted body plethysmograph box. Instrumental dead space of the system was minimized down to 310 microl (i.e., approximately 20% of respiratory dead space). The system allows continuous monitoring of particle concentration in the respired volume. Breathing parameters, such as respiratory rate (f), tidal volume (Vt), as well as inspiration/expiration times, were also monitored at different levels of anesthesia. The results showed that Vt typically varied between 1.5 and 4.0 ml for regular breathing and between 4.0 and 10.0 ml for single-sigh breaths; f ranged from 40 to 200 breaths/min. Corresponding deposition values varied between 5 and 50%, depending on breath-by-breath breathing patterns. The best fit of deposition (D) was achieved by a bilinear function of Vt and f and found to be D = 11.0 - 0.09.f + 3.75.Vt. We conclude that our approach provides more realistic conditions for the measurement of deposition than conventional models using ventilated animals and allows us to analyze the correlation between breath-specific deposition and spontaneous breathing patterns. PMID:19644034

Karrasch, S; Eder, G; Bolle, I; Tsuda, A; Schulz, H

2009-10-01

258

Underwater Sensor Nodes and Networks  

PubMed Central

Sensor technology has matured enough to be used in any type of environment. The appearance of new physical sensors has increased the range of environmental parameters for gathering data. Because of the huge amount of unexploited resources in the ocean environment, there is a need of new research in the field of sensors and sensor networks. This special issue is focused on collecting recent advances on underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks in order to measure, monitor, surveillance of and control of underwater environments. On the one hand, from the sensor node perspective, we will see works related with the deployment of physical sensors, development of sensor nodes and transceivers for sensor nodes, sensor measurement analysis and several issues such as layer 1 and 2 protocols for underwater communication and sensor localization and positioning systems. On the other hand, from the sensor network perspective, we will see several architectures and protocols for underwater environments and analysis concerning sensor network measurements. Both sides will provide us a complete view of last scientific advances in this research field. PMID:24013489

Lloret, Jaime

2013-01-01

259

Underwater image transmission and blurred image restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because light is scattered and absorbed by seawater, the images obtained underwater are always blurry after transmitted through a certain distance. The point spread function (PSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF) are important properties of seawater to predict underwater light propagation and underwater image quality. We describe the laboratory facilities to measure the PSF and MTF of water body by

Zhishen Liu; Yifan Yu; Kailin Zhang; Hailong Huang

2001-01-01

260

Path loss analysis of underwater communication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

spreads. In underwater scenario, this task becomes more complicated due to the channel that is offered by underwater environment. The first reason is that the speed of sound is very low in water i.e. approximately 1,500 meters per second, and the second reason is fanning out of the sound waves underwater which reach the receiver after the main signal has

D. Eswara Chaitanya; Ch. Vasavi Sridevi; G. Sasi Bhushana Rao

2011-01-01

261

Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater sensor nodes will find applications in oceanographic data collection, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration, disaster prevention, assisted navigation and tactical surveillance applications. Moreover, unmanned or autonomous underwater vehicles (UUVs, AUVs), equipped with sensors, will enable the exploration of natural under- sea resources and gathering of scientific data in collaborative monitoring missions. Underwater acoustic networking is the enabling technology for these

Ian F. Akyildiz; Dario Pompili; Tommaso Melodia

2005-01-01

262

A Hybrid Propulsion Method for Underwater Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, Underwater Vehicles are widely used in ocean environment monitoring, ocean resources exploration and military areas. Therefore, it is required for Underwater Vehicles to have longer work time, wider work space, and what's more, it is also required for Underwater Vehicles to have the ability to move agilely and locate accurately. Aiming at those problems, the paper proposes a new

Kunshan Zheng; Zhixiong Zhang; Jianzhong Shang; Zirong Luo; Zhen Tian

2010-01-01

263

Inductive Power System for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater inductive coupling is used to recharge a lithium-ion battery pack for an underwater mooring profiler operating on a cabled deep-ocean mooring sensor network. The mooring profiler is a motor driven autonomous underwater vehicle that is attached to a vertical mooring cable suspended between the seafloor at 900 m and subsurface float structure at a depth of 160 m (to

T. McGinnis; C. P. Henze; K. Conroy

2007-01-01

264

UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND XML BASED DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM  

E-print Network

KEYWORDS: Archaeology, GIS, Underwater Photogrammetry, Internet, Multimedia, Updating, Visualization with experts of the investigated domain (here underwater archaeology) in order to build a relevant data modelUNDERWATER PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND XML BASED DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM: The case of the 'Grand Ribaud F

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

265

Virtual Blowgun System for Breathing Movement Exercise  

E-print Network

Virtual Blowgun System for Breathing Movement Exercise Peichao Yu, Kazuhito Shiratori and Jun@esys.tsukuba.ac.jp Abstract. Breathing is the most basic requirement for having good health. However, unhealthy breathing like breathing movement exercise system - Virtual Blowgun System (VBS), offering an easy way of breathing

Boyer, Edmond

266

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

Friedman, J.; Oberg, C. L.; Russell, L. H.

1981-06-23

267

Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically  

SciTech Connect

The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200?nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

Krug, Markus K., E-mail: markus.krug@uni-graz.at; Reisecker, Michael; Hohenau, Andreas; Ditlbacher, Harald; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Krenn, Joachim R. [Institute of Physics, Karl-Franzens-University, Universitätsplatz 5, 8010 Graz (Austria)

2014-10-27

268

Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposure of firefighters during suppression of structural burns  

EPA Science Inventory

Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposure...

269

The Air We Breathe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This picture book is designed to introduce children to the Earth's atmosphere and its importance to life on Earth. It also introduces how the addition of new gases (e.g., ozone) contributes to changing the quality of air we breathe. With an understanding of how our atmosphere works, we can begin to understand how our activities may be contributing to some of those changes in air quality. The back cover includes a short demo/activity called Making a Gas You Can’t See (Carbon Dioxide).

270

UNDERWATER COATINGS FOR CONTAMINATION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) deactivated several aging nuclear fuel storage basins. Planners for this effort were greatly concerned that radioactive contamination present on the basin walls could become airborne as the sides of the basins became exposed during deactivation and allowed to dry after water removal. One way to control this airborne contamination was to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls were still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market for marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives were easily applied and adhered well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INL fuel pools. Lab-scale experiments were conducted by applying fourteen different commercial underwater coatings to four substrate materials representative of the storage basin construction materials, and evaluating their performance. The coupons included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The evaluation criteria included ease of application, adherence to the four surfaces of interest, no change on water clarity or chemistry, non-hazardous in final applied form and be proven in underwater applications. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected from the underwater coatings tested for application to all four pools. Divers scrubbed loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuumed up the sludge. The divers then applied the coating using a special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pools with no detectable airborne contamination releases.

Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

2004-02-01

271

Operational experience in underwater photogrammetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underwater photogrammetry has become established as a cost-effective technique for inspection and maintenance of platforms and pipelines for the offshore oil industry. A commercial service based in Scotland operates in the North Sea, USA, Brazil, West Africa and Australia. 70 mm cameras and flash units are built for the purpose and analytical plotters and computer graphics systems are used for photogrammetric measurement and analysis of damage, corrosion, weld failures and redesign of underwater structures. Users are seeking simple, low-cost systems for photogrammetric analysis which their engineers can use themselves.

Leatherdale, John D.; John Turner, D.

272

Underwater radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A detector apparatus for differentiating between gamma and neutron radiation is provided. The detector includes a pair of differentially shielded Geiger-Mueller tubes. The first tube is wrapped in silver foil and the second tube is wrapped in lead foil. Both the silver and lead foils allow the passage of gamma rays at a constant rate in a gamma ray only field. When neutrons are present, however, the silver activates and emits beta radiation that is also detected by the silver wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube while the radiation detected by the lead wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube remains constant. The amount of radiation impinging on the separate Geiger-Mueller tubes is then correlated in order to distinguish between the neutron and gamma radiations.

Kruse, Lyle W. (Albuquerque, NM); McKnight, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01

273

Sleep-Disordered Breathing  

PubMed Central

Sleep disorders are becoming more prevalent. There is an overlap of symptoms related to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and many psychiatric conditions. Complaints of excessive sleepiness, insomnia, cognitive dysfunction, and depressive symptoms can be related to both disease states. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive disruption of sleep by cessation of breathing and was first described in the 19th century by bedside observation during sleep. Physicians observed this cessation of breathing while the patient slept and postulated that these episodes were responsible for subsequent complaints of sleepiness. OSAS can coexist with major depressive disorder, exacerbate depressive symptoms, or be responsible for a large part of the symptom complex of depression. Additionally, in schizophrenia, sleep apnea may develop as a result of chronic neuroleptic treatment and its effect on gains in body weight, a major risk factor for the development of OSAS. It is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of sleep apnea, namely excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, and witnessed apneas. Recognition of the existence of sleep apnea, prompt referral to a sleep specialist, and ultimately treatment of an underlying sleep disorder, such as OSAS, can ameliorate symptoms of psychiatric disease. PMID:20975818

Markov, Dimitri; Doghramji, Karl

2006-01-01

274

Compressive line sensing underwater imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compressive sensing (CS) theory has drawn great interest and led to new imaging techniques in many different fields. Over the last few years, the authors have conducted extensive research on CS-based active electro-optical imaging in a scattering medium, such as the underwater environment. This paper proposes a compressive line sensing underwater imaging system that is more compatible with conventional underwater survey operations. This new imaging system builds on our frame-based CS underwater laser imager concept, which is more advantageous for hover capable platforms. We contrast features of CS underwater imaging with those of traditional underwater electro-optical imaging and highlight some advantages of the CS approach. Simulation and initial underwater validation test results are also presented.

Ouyang, Bing; Dalgleish, Fraser R.; Caimi, Frank M.; Giddings, Thomas E.; Britton, Walter; Vuorenkoski, Anni K.; Nootz, Gero

2014-05-01

275

Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen  

E-print Network

chemicals. Thus, dangerous substances in the sea can be detected earlier and their harmful effects can26 Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen Florida Institute of Technology United States to make complex studies on topics such as the effect of metals, pesticides and nutrients on fish abundance

Wood, Stephen L.

276

Underwater Acoustic Simulator for Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In terms of acoustics, the underwater environment is very chaotic. For example, in shallow region of water, sound waves will experience a high level of reverberation due to waves,reflecting off the surface and,seabed. The time of day can also affect the temperature of the water surface, which will then cause propagating sound waves to refract differently. These are just

Steven Kah; Hien Wong

2005-01-01

277

Human factors in underwater systems.  

PubMed

Applications of human factors to undersea engineering and the relationship to aerospace science are explored. Cooperative ventures include the TEKTITE underwater habitat and development of better procedures to prevent decompression sickness. Other research involved the use of alternate gases in diving systems, remote-operation vehicles, and diving system tests. PMID:11541030

Crosson, D

1993-10-01

278

Thermotropic Liquid Crystal Film Underwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermotropic liquid crystal film was produced in distilled water successfully. A lecithin suspension was utilized to make the film. Polarizing microscopic observations were carried out. The molecular arrangement was seemed to be homeotoropic. An expected electrooptic response of the film underwater was confirmed.

Uto, Sadahito; Nakanishi, Yuuji; Matsumoto, Takahumi

2005-05-01

279

Mirror plasma apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mirror plasma apparatus is described which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is

Moir

1978-01-01

280

Mirror plasma apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with

Moir; Ralph W

1981-01-01

281

Using optical communication for remote underwater robot operation  

E-print Network

Underwater vehicles are typically operated using a tether or a slow acoustic link. We present an underwater optical communication system that enables a high-throughput and low-latency link to an underwater robot. The optical ...

Doniec, Marek Wojciech

282

Acoustic Propagation Considerations for Underwater Acoustic Communications Network Development  

E-print Network

Acoustic Propagation Considerations for Underwater Acoustic Communications Network Development Woods Hole, MA 02543 jpreisig@whoi.edu ABSTRACT Underwater acoustic communications systems are challenged by the characteristics of acoustic propagation through the underwater environment

Zhou, Shengli

283

Compressive line sensing underwater imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compressive sensing (CS) theory has drawn great interest and led to new imaging techniques in many different fields. In recent years, the FAU/HBOI OVOL has conducted extensive research to study the CS based active electro-optical imaging system in the scattering medium such as the underwater environment. The unique features of such system in comparison with the traditional underwater electro-optical imaging system are discussed. Building upon the knowledge from the previous work on a frame based CS underwater laser imager concept, more advantageous for hover-capable platforms such as the Hovering Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (HAUV), a compressive line sensing underwater imaging (CLSUI) system that is more compatible with the conventional underwater platforms where images are formed in whiskbroom fashion, is proposed in this paper. Simulation results are discussed.

Ouyang, B.; Dalgleish, F. R.; Vuorenkoski, A. K.; Caimi, F. M.; Britton, W.

2013-05-01

284

Visual servoing for underwater docking of an autonomous underwater vehicle with one camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Docking systems are required to increase the capability of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to recharge the batteries and to transmit data in real time in underwater. This paper presents a docking system for an AUV to dock into an underwater station with one camera installed at the nose center of the AUV. To make a visual servo controller, this paper

Pan-Mook Lee; Bong-Hwan Jeon; Sea-Moon Kim

2003-01-01

285

Compressed breathing air - the potential for evil from within.  

PubMed

Human underwater activities rely on an adequate supply of breathable compressed gas, usually air, free from contaminants that could cause incapacitation underwater or post-dive or longer-term health effects. Potentially fatal but well-known hazards are hypoxia secondary to steel cylinder corrosion and carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning due to contaminated intake air. Another phenomenon may be behind some previously unexplained episodes of underwater incapacitation and perhaps death: low-level CO poisoning and/or the effects of gaseous contaminants generated within the compressor, including toluene and other volatile compounds. Many low molecular weight volatile contaminants are anaesthetic and will be potentiated by pressure and nitrogen narcosis. In sub-anaesthetic doses, impaired judgement, lowered seizure threshold and sensitisation of the heart to arrhythmias may occur. Toxic compounds can be volatilised from some compressor oils, especially mineral oils, in overheated compressors, or be created de novo under certain combinations of temperature, humidity and pressure, perhaps catalysed by metal traces from compressor wear and tear. Most volatiles can be removed by activated carbon filtration but many filters are undersized and may overload in hot, moist conditions and with short dwell times. A compressor that passes normal testing could contaminate one or more cylinders after heating up and then return to producing clean air as the filters dry and the systems cool. The scope of this problem is very unclear as air quality is tested infrequently and often inadequately, even after fatalities. More research is needed as well as better education regarding the safe operation and limitations of high-pressure breathing air compressors. PMID:22692708

Millar, Ian L; Mouldey, Peter G

2008-06-01

286

Energy Storage for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy storage is one of the key technology for underwater vehicles. Many kind of batteries have been developed for underwater systems. An ocean-going autonomous underwater vehicle powered by a polymer electrode membrane fuel cell system was completed by Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology. The fuel cell system generates 4 kW of electric power for the control electronics and

S. Tsukioka; T. Hyakudome; H. Yoshida; S. Ishibashi; T. Aoki; T. Sawa; I. Yamamoto; A. Ishikawa

2006-01-01

287

Implementation of a wireless underwater video link  

E-print Network

Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are increasingly being considered for remotely supervised missions, primarily for routine subsea inspection tasks currently performed by tethered remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). ...

Morash, James Paul

2008-01-01

288

The Museum of Underwater Archaeology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the goals of the University of Rhode Island's Museum of Underwater Archaeology (MUA) is to help "underwater archaeologists present their research to the general public by creating web based museum style exhibits as well as announce their latest projects." Exploring the website "by map" allows visitors to see the locations of projects. Visitors can then click on an anchor, which will give a brief description of the project, and this also provides a link to see the corresponding journal, or just to read more about the project. The featured exhibit, under "Exhibits" on the homepage, is "ECU's [East Carolina University] Shipwrecks in Bermuda The 2008 Field School". The students can be seen in a photo slideshow on the introductory page of the exhibit. In the "Findings" section of the exhibit is a link to "Underwater Jigsaw Puzzle", which sounds like a game, but is the outline of all the debris at a ship breaking site. When more than one ship is found at a ship breaking site, the site plan helps maritime archaeologists decipher which pieces belong to which ship. It can be confusing and challenging, and is not always successful.

289

Underwater Coatings for Contamination Control  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included 1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; 2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; 3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and 4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55oF to 80oF dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature. The following criteria were used during this evaluation. The underwater coating must: · Be easy to apply · Adhere well to the four surfaces of interest · Not change or have a negative impact on water chemistry or clarity · Not be hazardous in final applied form · Be proven in other underwater applications. In addition, it is desirable for the coating to have a high pigment or high cross-link density to prevent radiation from penetrating. This paper will detail the testing completed and the test results. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected to be applied by divers after scrubbing loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuuming up the sludge. A special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pool with no airborne contamination problems.

Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann-Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

2004-02-01

290

Portable containment sleever apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

Rea, Michael J. (North Augusta, SC); Brown, Roger A. (North Augusta, SC)

2000-01-01

291

Apparatus for transporting hazardous materials  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and method are provided for selectively receiving, transporting, and releasing one or more radioactive samples for analysis on a differential thermal analysis (DTA) apparatus. The apparatus includes a portable sample transporting apparatus for storing and transporting the samples and includes a support assembly for supporting the transporting apparatus when a sample is transferred to the DTA apparatus. The transporting apparatus includes a storage member which includes a plurality of storage chambers arrayed circumferentially with respect to a central axis.

Osterman, R.A.; Cox, R.

1991-01-22

292

Seeking Teachers for Underwater Robotics PD Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), ITEEA members will contribute to the development of a hybrid professional development program designed to facilitate the scale-up of an innovative underwater robotics curriculum. WaterBotics[TM] is an underwater robotics curriculum that targets students in middle and high school classrooms…

McGrath, Beth; Sayres, Jason

2012-01-01

293

ATMOSPHERIC AND UNDERWATER PROPAGATION OF BULLFROG VOCALIZATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male bullfrogs vocalize while partially submerged in shallow freshwater ponds. This imposes two potential propagation pathways, atmospheric and underwater, on transmission of their communication sounds. Propagation of pure tones, amplitude modulated (AM) broadband noise and natural calls was measured in air and underwater at three bullfrog breeding sites. In air, propagation losses were consistent with spherical spreading. No excess attenuation

SETH S. BOATRIGHT-HOROWITZ; CHERYL A. CHENEY; ANDREA MEGELA SIMMONS

1999-01-01

294

Status of underwater technology in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan is bounded by the Taiwan Strait, South China Sea, East China Sea and Pacific Ocean. It has been well developed for research in the field of marine science and technology for decades. However, the research of underwater technology is a new subject for challenge recently in Taiwan. In this paper, the status of current research related underwater technology in

Y. N. Chen

2004-01-01

295

Multipurpose ROV system for underwater monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents achievements of the Underwater Team at the Faculty of Maritime Technology of the Szczecin Technical University in the field of designing the equipment destined for the underwater monitoring. The multipurpose remotely operated vehicle system is described. Technical specification, some laboratory tank test results, research techniques, operational range, experience and development trends have been discussed.

Graczyk, T. [Technical Univ. of Szczecin (Poland)

1995-12-31

296

Lagrangian modeling of the Underwater Wave Glider  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a control-oriented modeling approach for a hybrid autonomous underwa- ter vehicle: the Underwater Wave Glider. Thanks to a non-conventional design, the vehicle can accomplish both surface and underwater tasks, by changing its shape. The vehicle can operate as a wave glider at the sea surface, where the potential energy of the waves and the solar radiation can

Andrea Caiti; Vincenzo Calabro; Sergio Grammatico; Andrea Munafo; Mirko Stifani

2011-01-01

297

A REMOTE CONTROLLED UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHIC SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM  

E-print Network

A REMOTE CONTROLLED UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHIC SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM by Paul J. Kruse, Jr. MarineKernan, Director A Remote Controlled Underwater Photographic Surveillance System by Paul J. Kruse, Jr. United Basic camera modifications 1 Film nnagazines and modifications , 1 Film takeup drive 3 Camera power

298

UNDERWATER PAINT MARKING OF PORPOISES1  

E-print Network

UNDERWATER PAINT MARKING OF PORPOISES1 Identification of individual animals has always been would be a boon. Paint seemed an answer (Schevill 1966). Materials and Methods Several standard paint underwater. Applica- tion of these paints was easiest by pressurized spray. We experimented with spray

299

Recent advances in underwater acoustic communications & networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past three decades have seen a growing interest in underwater acoustic communications. Continued research over the years has resulted in improved performance and robustness as compared to the initial communication systems. Research has expanded from point-to-point communications to include underwater networks as well. A series of review papers provide an excellent history of the development of the field until

Mandar Chitre; Shiraz Shahabudeen; Lee Freitag; Milica Stojanovic

2008-01-01

300

Conservation of Cultural Materials from Underwater Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater archaeology is the only branch of field archaeology that is dependent upon the conservation laboratory for its ultimate success. In fact, in underwater archaeology the activities of the conservation laboratory are considered to be a continuation of the field excavations with the recording of basic data along with the stabilization, preservation, and study of the recovered material being major

Donny L. Hamilton

1999-01-01

301

Nonlinear tracking control of autonomous underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses 3D motion of underwater vehicles. The authors describe kinematics of an underwater vehicle by six state variables and four inputs, and use a Lyapunov-like function to develop a nonlinear tracking control scheme. The control method effectively makes use of the nonholonomic nature of the system. Simulation results agreed with the theoretical predictions and confirmed the usefulness of the proposed

Yoshihiko Nakamura; Shrikant Savant

1992-01-01

302

Restoration of turbulence degraded underwater images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to image underwater is highly desired for scientific and military applications, including optical communications, submarine awareness, diver visibility, and mine detection. Underwater imaging is severely impaired by scattering and optical turbulence associated with refractive index fluctuations. This work introduces a novel approach to restoration of degraded underwater imagery based on a multi-frame correction technique developed for atmospheric distortions. The method represents synthesis of ``lucky-region'' fusion with nonlinear gain and optical flow-based image warping. The developed multiframe image restoration algorithm is tested on underwater imagery collected in a laboratory tank and in a field exercise. Reliance of image restoration on accuracy of the optical flow algorithm is revealed. The developed algorithm demonstrates significant resolution improvement of the restored image in comparison to any single frame or the mean of the underwater image sequence.

Kanaev, Andrey V.; Hou, Weilin; Woods, Sarah; Smith, Leslie N.

2012-05-01

303

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1995-01-01

304

A docking and control system for an autonomous underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous underwater vehicles are unmanned underwater vessels to investigate sea environments, oceanography and deep-sea resources autonomously. Docking systems are required to increase the capability of the AUVs to recharge the batteries and to transmit data in real time underwater. This paper presents a docking system for an AUV to dock into underwater station with a camera. To make a visual

Pan-Mook Lee; Bong-Hwan Jeon; Chong-Moo Lee

2002-01-01

305

Operation of bad breath clinics.  

PubMed

The diagnosis and management of bad breath can be easily incorporated in routine dental care by attending dentists. This article outlines the information necessary to establish a differential diagnosis of oral malodor. This includes evaluation of medical, dental, and halitosis history. It also includes the examination of extraoral and intraoral tissues and a thorough periodontal examination. The presence of bad breath is established with organoleptic and hydrogen sulfide-monitor (Halimeter) measurements. The treatment of malodor resulting from oral overgrowth of anaerobic organisms in the oral cavity consists of mechanical and chemical reduction of the microbial flora by methods that are supported by scientific evidence. PMID:10635282

Neiders, M; Ramos, B

1999-05-01

306

Features of glossopharyngeal breathing in breath-hold divers.  

PubMed

One technique employed by competitive breath-hold divers to increase diving depth is to hyperinflate the lungs with glossopharyngeal breathing (GPB). Our aim was to assess the relationship between measured volume and pressure changes due to GPB. Seven healthy male breath-hold divers, age 33 (8) [mean (SD)] years were recruited. Subjects performed baseline body plethysmography (TLC(PRE)). Plethysmography and mouth relaxation pressure were recorded immediately following a maximal GPB maneuver at total lung capacity (TLC) (TLC(GPB)) and within 5 min after the final GPB maneuver (TLC(POST)). Mean TLC increased from TLC(PRE) to TLC(GPB) by 1.95 (0.66) liters and vital capacity (VC) by 1.92 (0.56) liters (P < 0.0001), with no change in residual volume. There was an increase in TLC(POST) compared with TLC(PRE) of 0.16 liters (0.14) (P < 0.02). Mean mouth relaxation pressure at TLC(GPB) was 65 (19) cmH(2)O and was highly correlated with the percent increase in TLC (R = 0.96). Breath-hold divers achieve substantial increases in measured lung volumes using GPB primarily from increasing VC. Approximately one-third of the additional air was accommodated by air compression. PMID:16690794

Seccombe, Leigh M; Rogers, Peter G; Mai, Nghi; Wong, Chris K; Kritharides, Leonard; Jenkins, Christine R

2006-09-01

307

Uncovering deep mysteries: the underwater life of an amphibious louse.  

PubMed

Despite the incredible success of insects in colonizing almost every habitat, they remain virtually absent in one major environment--the open sea. A variety of hypotheses have been raised to explain why just a few insect species are present in the ocean, but none of them appears to be fully explanatory. Lice belonging to the family Echinophthiriidae are ectoparasites on different species of pinnipeds and river otters, i.e. they have amphibious hosts, who regularly perform long excursions into the open sea reaching depths of hundreds of meters (thousands of feets). Consequently, lice must be able to support not only changes in their surrounding media, but also extreme variations in hydrostatic pressure as well as breathing in a low oxygen atmosphere. In order to shed some light on the way lice can survive during the diving excursions of their hosts, we have performed a series of experiments to test the survival capability of different instars of Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) from South American sea lions Otaria flavescens, when submerged into seawater. These experiments were aimed at analyzing: (a) immersion tolerance along the louse life; (b) lice's ability to obtain oxygen from seawater; (c) physiological responses and mechanisms involved in survival underwater. Our experiments showed that the forms present in non-diving pups--i.e. eggs and first-instar nymphs--were unable to tolerate immersion in water, while following instars and adults, all usually found in diving hosts, supported it very well. Furthermore, as long as the level of oxygen dissolved in water was higher, the lice survival capability underwater increased, and the recovery period after returning to air declined. These results are discussed in relation to host ecology, host exploitation and lice functional morphology. PMID:25449903

Leonardi, Maria Soledad; Lazzari, Claudio R

2014-12-01

308

Managing Asthma: Learning to Breathe Easier  

MedlinePLUS

... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Managing Asthma Learn To Breathe Easier Most people have little ... simple activities can be tough for someone with asthma. Although there’s no cure, you can breathe easier ...

309

A survey of practical issues in underwater networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater sensor networks are attracting increasing in-terest from researchers in terrestrial radio-based sensor net-works. There are important physical, technological, and eco-nomic di erences between terrestrial and underwater sensor networks. Previous surveys have provided thorough back-ground material in underwater communications, and an in-troduction to underwater networks. This has included detail on the physical characteristics of the channel [1], on under-water acoustic

James W. Partan; Brian Neil Levine; James F. Kurose

2006-01-01

310

Pellet inspection apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is disclosed for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers

R. H. Sturges; A. Taleff; R. S. Wilks

1982-01-01

311

Pellet inspection apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers each associated with

Robert S. Wilks; Alexander Taleff; Sturges Jr. Robert H

1982-01-01

312

Herbert Spencer's Electrical Apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT may be of interest to record the fact that the electrical apparatus formerly owned by Herbert Spencer, consisting of a cylinder machine, three Leyden jars, an insulated stand and plates, with other accessories, which include an electrical pistol, is still in existence. One of the smaller pieces of apparatus bears the name G. Adams, London, who was presumably the

Fredk. W. Shurlock

1927-01-01

313

Rotatory apparatus in Bdelloids  

Microsoft Academic Search

All Bdelloid Rotifers have the same body plan: elongated body, ciliated apical region (rotatory apparatus or corona), telescopically retractable foot and head with pseudosegments, paired gonads, single dorsal antenna, apical rostrum, ramate mastax. Bdelloids use the rotatory apparatus for both locomotion and collecting food and therefore the shape of the corona and arrangement of the cilia, both related to the

Giulio Melone; Claudia Ricci

1995-01-01

314

Apparatus for forming boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling apparatus is disclosed adapted for drilling upwardly a deviated hole from a carriage assembly disposed in a cased vertical hole below a target zone of a hydrocarbon bearing formation. The drilling apparatus includes a drill motor assembly having a drill bit driven by a shaft of a drill bit mud pressure driven motor. A weight on bit assembly is

1985-01-01

315

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

1993-12-28

316

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

1994-01-01

317

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus is described. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 7 figures.

Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

1994-02-15

318

Well tubing handling apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well tubing handling apparatus is described useful for running and pulling tubing in a well bore and drilling a well bore including a main frame assembly, a pulling and snubbing assembly, a ladder assembly, and a work platform assembly. The apparatus is quickly assembled and torn down. The main frame assembly includes a base, telescoping non-load bearing guide tubes, a

P. S. Sizer

1981-01-01

319

Apparatus for treating garbage  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for treating garbage is described. The apparatus has a conveyor, a continuous incinerator receiving garbage from the conveyor, a device for cooling ash carried out of the continuous incinerator, a device for filtering the ash, a pipe for inducing exhaust from the continuous incinerator to a water tank for removing particles and water-soluble components from the exhaust. 1 fig.

Chen, C.L.; Chen, K.; Hsien, K.

1994-01-11

320

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

1984-03-20

321

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01

322

Solar energy collecting apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specification and drawings disclose an apparatus for collecting incident solar radiation and using it to heat a fluid such as air. The disclosed apparatus comprises a housing having a generally triangular cross-section which defines an upwardly facing chamber having its open upper end closed by a sheet of solar transmissive plastic material. Positioned within the chamber, generally at the

1978-01-01

323

Looking for Inspiration We breathe no matter what. Breathing movements in mammals start  

E-print Network

Looking for Inspiration We breathe no matter what. Breathing movements in mammals start and intensely investigated since 1990 plays a well-documented essential role in breathing in mammals of all ages of breathing, respectively, and are normally coupled. Since expiratory movements are ordinarily passive the pre

Swaddle, John

324

Polarimetric imaging of underwater targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underwater imaging is challenging because of the significant attenuation of light due to absorption and scattering of light in water. Using polarization properties of light is one of the options for improving image quality. We present results of imaging of a polarized target in open ocean (Curacao) and coastal (NY Bight) waters. The target in the shape of a square is divided into several smaller squares, each of which is covered with a polarizing film with different polarization orientations or transmission coefficients was placed on a mirror and imaged under water by a green-band full-Stokes polarimetric video camera at the full range of azimuth angles against the Sun. The values of the Stokes vector components from the images are compared with the modeled image of the target using radiative transfer code for the atmosphere-ocean system combined with the simple imaging model. It is shown that even in clear water the impact of the water body on the polarized underwater image is very significant and retrieval of target polarization characteristics from the image is extremely challenging.

Gilerson, Alex; Carrizo, Carlos; Tonizzo, Alberto; Ibrahim, Amir; El-Habashi, Ahmed; Foster, Robert; Ahmed, Samir

2013-06-01

325

Spatiotemporal Reconstruction of the Breathing Function  

E-print Network

Spatiotemporal Reconstruction of the Breathing Function D. Duong1 , D. Shastri2 , P. Tsiamyrtzis3@cs.uh.edu, shastrid@uhd.edu, pt@aueb.gr, ipavlidis@uh.edu Abstract. Breathing waveform extracted via nasal thermistor profile for the breathing function via thermal imaging of the nostrils. The method models nasal airflow

326

BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS INCREASE BREATHING SYNCHRONY IN RESPONSE  

E-print Network

BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS INCREASE BREATHING SYNCHRONY IN RESPONSE TO BOAT TRAFFIC GORDON D. HASTIE descriptions are rare. This study begins by quantifying synchronous breathing patterns of bottlenose dolphins by dolphins affects their breathing synchrony. Although the majority of dolphin schools observed showed random

Aberdeen, University of

327

Breathing Problems: An Individualized Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized physical education programs for children (prekindergarten through high school) with breathing problems. An introductory…

Vodola, Thomas M.

328

Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath  

EPA Science Inventory

The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

329

AURP: An AUV-Aided Underwater Routing Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Deploying a multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) in a large area brings about new challenges in reliable data transmissions and survivability of network due to the limited underwater communication range/bandwidth and the limited energy of underwater sensor nodes. In order to address those challenges and achieve the objectives of maximization of data delivery ratio and minimization of energy consumption of underwater sensor nodes, this paper proposes a new underwater routing scheme, namely AURP (AUV-aided underwater routing protocol), which uses not only heterogeneous acoustic communication channels but also controlled mobility of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In AURP, the total data transmissions are minimized by using AUVs as relay nodes, which collect sensed data from gateway nodes and then forward to the sink. Moreover, controlled mobility of AUVs makes it possible to apply a short-range high data rate underwater channel for transmissions of a large amount of data. To the best to our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to employ multiple AUVs as relay nodes in a multi-hop UASN to improve the network performance in terms of data delivery ratio and energy consumption. Simulations, which are incorporated with a realistic underwater acoustic communication channel model, are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, and the results indicate that a high delivery ratio and low energy consumption can be achieved. PMID:22438740

Yoon, Seokhoon; Azad, Abul K.; Oh, Hoon; Kim, Sunghwan

2012-01-01

330

AURP: an AUV-aided underwater routing protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks.  

PubMed

Deploying a multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) in a large area brings about new challenges in reliable data transmissions and survivability of network due to the limited underwater communication range/bandwidth and the limited energy of underwater sensor nodes. In order to address those challenges and achieve the objectives of maximization of data delivery ratio and minimization of energy consumption of underwater sensor nodes, this paper proposes a new underwater routing scheme, namely AURP (AUV-aided underwater routing protocol), which uses not only heterogeneous acoustic communication channels but also controlled mobility of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In AURP, the total data transmissions are minimized by using AUVs as relay nodes, which collect sensed data from gateway nodes and then forward to the sink. Moreover, controlled mobility of AUVs makes it possible to apply a short-range high data rate underwater channel for transmissions of a large amount of data. To the best to our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to employ multiple AUVs as relay nodes in a multi-hop UASN to improve the network performance in terms of data delivery ratio and energy consumption. Simulations, which are incorporated with a realistic underwater acoustic communication channel model, are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, and the results indicate that a high delivery ratio and low energy consumption can be achieved. PMID:22438740

Yoon, Seokhoon; Azad, Abul K; Oh, Hoon; Kim, Sunghwan

2012-01-01

331

Neural Mechanisms Underlying Breathing Complexity  

PubMed Central

Breathing is maintained and controlled by a network of automatic neurons in the brainstem that generate respiratory rhythm and receive regulatory inputs. Breathing complexity therefore arises from respiratory central pattern generators modulated by peripheral and supra-spinal inputs. Very little is known on the brainstem neural substrates underlying breathing complexity in humans. We used both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher these mechanisms in healthy humans and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is the most frequent chronic lung disease in the general population mainly due to tobacco smoke. In patients, airflow obstruction associated with hyperinflation and respiratory muscles weakness are key factors contributing to load-capacity imbalance and hence increased respiratory drive. Unexpectedly, we found that the patients breathed with a higher level of complexity during inspiration and expiration than controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we scanned the brain of the participants to analyze the activity of two small regions involved in respiratory rhythmogenesis, the rostral ventro-lateral (VL) medulla (pre-Bötzinger complex) and the caudal VL pons (parafacial group). fMRI revealed in controls higher activity of the VL medulla suggesting active inspiration, while in patients higher activity of the VL pons suggesting active expiration. COPD patients reactivate the parafacial to sustain ventilation. These findings may be involved in the onset of respiratory failure when the neural network becomes overwhelmed by respiratory overload We show that central neural activity correlates with airflow complexity in healthy subjects and COPD patients, at rest and during inspiratory loading. We finally used a theoretical approach of respiratory rhythmogenesis that reproduces the kernel activity of neurons involved in the automatic breathing. The model reveals how a chaotic activity in neurons can contribute to chaos in airflow and reproduces key experimental fMRI findings. PMID:24098396

Hess, Agathe; Yu, Lianchun; Klein, Isabelle; De Mazancourt, Marine; Jebrak, Gilles; Mal, Hervé; Brugière, Olivier; Fournier, Michel; Courbage, Maurice; Dauriat, Gaelle; Schouman-Clayes, Elisabeth; Clerici, Christine; Mangin, Laurence

2013-01-01

332

Conduit grinding apparatus  

DOEpatents

A grinding apparatus for grinding the interior portion of a valve stem receiving area of a valve. The apparatus comprises a faceplate, a plurality of cams mounted to an interior face of the faceplate, a locking bolt to lock the faceplate at a predetermined position on the valve, a movable grinder and a guide tube for positioning an optical viewer proximate the area to be grinded. The apparatus can either be rotated about the valve for grinding an area of the inner diameter of a valve stem receiving area or locked at a predetermined position to grind a specific point in the receiving area.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY); Korytkowski, Alfred S. (Scotia, NY)

1991-01-01

333

Air modulation apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An air modulation apparatus, such as for use in modulating cooling air to the turbine section of a gas turbine engine is described. The apparatus includes valve means disposed around an annular conduit, such as a nozzle, in the engine cooling air circuit. The valve means, when in a closed position, blocks a portion of the conduit, and thus reduces the amount and increases the velocity of cooling air flowing through the nozzle. The apparatus also includes actuation means, which can operate in response to predetermined engine conditions, for enabling opening and closing of the valve means.

Lenahan, D. T.; Corsmeier, R. J.; Sterman, A. P. (inventors)

1983-01-01

334

Pipe crawler apparatus  

DOEpatents

A pipe crawler apparatus particularly useful for 3-inch and 4-inch diameter pipes is provided. The pipe crawler apparatus uses a gripping apparatus in which a free end of a piston rod is modified with a bearing retaining groove. Bearings, placed within the groove, are directed against a camming surface of three respective pivoting support members. The non-pivoting ends of the support members carry a foot-like gripping member that, upon pivoting of the support member, engages the interior wall of the pipe.

Hovis, Gregory L. (North Augusta, SC); Erickson, Scott A. (Augusta, GA); Blackmon, Bruce L. (Aiken, SC)

2002-01-01

335

Mirror plasma apparatus  

DOEpatents

A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma.

Moir, Ralph W. (Livermore, CA)

1981-01-01

336

Cleaning method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A new automatable cleaning apparatus which makes use of a method of very thoroughly and quickly cleaning a gauze electrode used in chemical analyses is given. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg. plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml. of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

Jackson, Darryl D. (Los Alamos, NM); Hollen, Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-01-01

337

Cleaning method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

1981-02-27

338

XAUV : modular high maneuverability autonomous underwater vehicle  

E-print Network

The design and construction of a modular test bed autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is analyzed. Although a relatively common stacked-hull design is used, the state of the art is advanced through an aggressive power ...

Walker, Daniel G. (Daniel George)

2009-01-01

339

Sensor Network Architectures for Monitoring Underwater Pipelines  

PubMed Central

This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (Radio Frequency) wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and integrated wired/RF wireless sensor networks. The paper also discusses the reliability challenges and enhancement approaches for these network architectures. The reliability evaluation, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages among these architectures are discussed and compared. Three reliability factors are used for the discussion and comparison: the network connectivity, the continuity of power supply for the network, and the physical network security. In addition, the paper also develops and evaluates a hierarchical sensor network framework for underwater pipeline monitoring. PMID:22346669

Mohamed, Nader; Jawhar, Imad; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Zhang, Liren

2011-01-01

340

Building Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educators with an interest in hands-on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines will receive introductory instructions on how to design, engineer and build a fully functional underwater ROV.

Debra Woodall

341

Using Underwater Robotics in the Engineering Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Underwater robotics projects offer an excellent medium for discovery based engineering and science learning. The challenge of building underwater robotic vehicles and manipulators engages and stimulates students while encompassing a broad spectrum of engineering disciplines and scientific concepts. This paper describes an ongoing effort, at Stevens Institute of Technology, to incorporate such projects into the engineering curriculum. We report the successful design and implementation of student projects, building wire guided remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) with motorized grabbers. We also describe ongoing work to extend these projects to include computer control and sensory feedback, allowing students to develop autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The effectiveness of these modules for teaching fundamental engineering skills will be independently assessed in accordance with established educational theory. Target Audience: High School Faculty/Administrators, 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

Hotaling, Liesl

342

Analytic and numerical study of underwater implosion  

E-print Network

Underwater implosion, the rapid collapse of a structure caused by external pressure, generates a pressure pulse in the surrounding water that is potentially damaging to adjacent structures or personnel. Understanding the ...

Gish, Lynn Andrew

2013-01-01

343

Underwater communication via compact mechanical sound generation  

E-print Network

Effective communication with underwater remotely operated vehicles (UROV) can be difficult to accomplish. In water, simple radio communication is quickly dissipated at higher frequencies and lower frequencies require a ...

Ubellacker, Wyatt

2013-01-01

344

Piezoelectric materials used in underwater acoustic transducers  

SciTech Connect

Piezoelectric materials have been used in underwater acoustic transducers for nearly a century. In this paper, we reviewed four different types of piezoelectric materials: piezoelectric ceramics, single crystals, composites, and polymers, which are widely used in underwater acoustic transducers nowadays. Piezoelectric ceramics are the most dominant material type and are used as a single-phase material or one of the end members in composites. Piezoelectric single crystals offer outstanding electromechanical response but are limited by their manufacturing cost. Piezoelectric polymers provide excellent acoustic impedance matching and transducer fabrication flexibility although their piezoelectric properties are not as good as ceramics and single crystals. Composites combined the merits of ceramics and polymers and are receiving increased attention. The typical structure and electromechanical properties of each type of materials are introduced and discussed with respect to underwater acoustic transducer applications. Their advantages and disadvantages are summarized. Some of the critical design considerations when developing underwater acoustic transducers with these materials are also touched upon.

Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

2012-07-07

345

Underwater geomagnetic navigation based on ICP algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trend of ocean exploitation puts forward higher requirements for automatic vehicles, while navigation module has been the development constraint for underwater robots. NATURE reported that some sea-turtles recur to geomagnetic \\

Yi Lin; Lei Yan; Qingxi Tong

2007-01-01

346

Contributions to automated realtime underwater navigation  

E-print Network

This dissertation presents three separate-but related-contributions to the art of underwater navigation. These methods may be used in postprocessing with a human in the loop, but the overarching goal is to enhance vehicle ...

Stanway, Michael Jordan

2012-01-01

347

Underwater Wireless Communications: Challenges and Progress  

E-print Network

spread at Tx and Rx Temporal selectivity ­ Doppler spread Frequency selectivity ­ Multipath delay spread Underwater Wireless? Water covers >70% of Earth Surface ... but how much do we know about oceans? Ocean Radio Frequency (RF) Waves Sound Propagation: Short range (

Zheng, Yahong Rosa

348

Cooperative localization for autonomous underwater vehicles  

E-print Network

Self-localization of an underwater vehicle is particularly challenging due to the absence of Global Positioning System (GPS) reception or features at known positions that could otherwise have been used for position ...

Bahr, Alexander

2009-01-01

349

Design considerations for engineering Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

E-print Network

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) have been established as a viable tool for Oceanographic Sciences. Being untethered and independent, AUVs fill the gap in Ocean Exploration left by the existing manned submersible and ...

Shah, Vikrant P. (Vikrant Pankaj)

2007-01-01

350

Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogus?aw; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

2014-06-01

351

Tsunami Features of Solid Block Underwater Landslides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-field and far-field wave features generated by solid block underwater landslides are described qualitatively and quantitatively. The characteristic time of landslide motion and maximum near-field wave am- plitude suffice to scale many of these water wave features. Criteria are provided to determine if water waves generated by underwater landslides propagate as deepwater or shallow water waves. Estimates of the dominant

Philip Watts

2000-01-01

352

Affordable underwater wireless optical communication using LEDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the need for high data rate underwater wireless communication (WC) has increased. Nowadays, the conventional technology for underwater communication is acoustic. However, the maximum data rate that acoustic technology can provide is a few kilobits per second. On the other hand, emerging applications such as underwater imaging, networks of sensors and swarms of underwater vehicles require much faster data rates. As a result, underwater optical WC, which can provide much higher data rates, has been proposed as an alternative means of communication. In addition to high data rates, affordable communication systems become an important feature in the development requirements. The outcome of these requirements is a new system design based on off-the-shelf components such as blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs). This is due to the fact that LEDs offer solutions characterized by low cost, high efficiency, reliability and compactness. However, there are some challenges to be met when incorporating LEDs as part of the optical transmitter, such as low modulation rates and non linearity. In this paper, we review the main challenges facing the incorporation of LEDs as an integral part of underwater WC systems and propose some techniques to mitigate the LED limitations in order to achieve high data rate communication

Pilipenko, Vladimir; Arnon, Shlomi

2013-09-01

353

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a demonstration to initiate discussion about electrostatic effects. Also describes and evaluates a Magnetic Bubble Apparatus, a device which exhibits several phenomena related to magnetic domain formation. Includes manufacturer's response to the evaluation. (JN)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1982-01-01

354

Apparatus for forming boreholes  

SciTech Connect

Drilling apparatus is disclosed adapted for drilling upwardly a deviated hole from a carriage assembly disposed in a cased vertical hole below a target zone of a hydrocarbon bearing formation. The drilling apparatus includes a drill motor assembly having a drill bit driven by a shaft of a drill bit mud pressure driven motor. A weight on bit assembly is provided below the drill bit motor for imparting ''weight-on-bit'' drilling force to the drilling bit against the face of the borehole. The weight on bit assembly includes an anti-rotation assembly for preventing rotation of the drill bit motor with respect to the borehole and an axial drive assembly for applying axial force to the drill bit. Apparatus is provided to reverse the direction of the axial force generated by the weight on bit assembly. Apparatus is also provided to limit the axial force applied to the drill bit to a predetermined level.

Burton, J. A.

1985-11-26

355

Emission Tube Apparatus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an image of an emission tube apparatus with tube in place. When plugged in and turned on the gas in the tube will become excited and emit a specific color of light depending upon the type of gas.

Dr. Charles Ward

356

Apparatus for growing crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved apparatus and method for growing crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.

Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)

1986-01-01

357

Apparatus for Teaching Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes apparatus utilized to demonstrate physics principle. Equipment described includes a low pressure chamber, a 360 degree loop ramp, a tilted table demonstrating motion principles, and a method for casting a three dimensional display of magnetic lines of force. (SL)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1977-01-01

358

NMR logging apparatus  

DOEpatents

Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

2014-05-27

359

Riser position indication apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a Riser Position Indication Apparatus for disposition between an offshore vessel and a riser, the riser being moveable with respect to the offshore vessel. The riser position indication apparatus comprises: vessel connection means operatively engaged with the vessel to secure the riser position indication apparatus to the vessel, riser connection means operatively engaged with the riser to secure the riser position indication apparatus to the riser, flexible weight means having one end connected to one of the connection means and the other end operatively engaged with the other of the connection means, weight signal transmitter means associated with at least one end of the flexible weight means and operative to produce a continuous output signal which varies as a function of the weight of the weight means suspended from one end of the connection means.

Moore, B.B.

1986-09-23

360

Gas turbine sealing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sealing apparatus in a gas turbine. The sealing apparatus includes a seal housing apparatus coupled to a disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable therewith during operation of the gas turbine. The seal housing apparatus comprises a base member, a first leg portion, a second leg portion, and spanning structure. The base member extends generally axially between forward and aft rows of rotatable blades and is positioned adjacent to a row of stationary vanes. The first leg portion extends radially inwardly from the base member and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The second leg portion is axially spaced from the first leg portion, extends radially inwardly from the base member, and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The spanning structure extends between and is rigidly coupled to each of the base member, the first leg portion, and the second leg portion.

Marra, John Joseph; Wessell, Brian J.; Liang, George

2013-03-05

361

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and evaluates the Tel-X-Ometer, its performance, and its accessories. The apparatus, with its low intensity x-ray beam, is specifically designed to make x-ray experiments safe, practical, and affordable for the students. (GA)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1979-01-01

362

An Economical Electrophoresis Apparatus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the production of an electrophoresis apparatus from commonly discarded articles. Outlines paper and gel electrophoresis and its application to the separation of amino acids and intestinal enzymes. (GS)

Andrews, I. M.

1975-01-01

363

Fiber pulling apparatus modification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced gravity fiber pulling apparatus (FPA) was constructed in order to study the effects of gravity on glass fiber formation. The apparatus was specifically designed and built for use on NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Four flights have been completed to date during which E-glass fiber was successfully produced in simulated zero, high, and lunar gravity environments. In addition simulated lunar soil samples were tested for their fiber producing properties using the FPA.

Smith, Guy A.; Workman, Gary L.

1992-01-01

364

Vacuum pump apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved cryopumping apparatus which comprises a cryopumping space which may be alternately opened and closed from the surrounding area by moveable panels, trubular cryopanels within said cryopumping space through which a coolant such as liquid helium may be passed, and an apparatus for spraying liquid argon onto said cylindrical cryopanels in order to enhance the cryogenic entrapment of such low-z ions, atoms, and molecules as hydrogen and helium.

Batzer, Thomas H. (Livermore, CA); Call, Wayne R. (Tracy, CA)

1985-01-01

365

Spin coating apparatus  

DOEpatents

A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

366

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

1985-02-26

367

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

1985-02-26

368

Breathing patterns in nonlinear relaxation  

E-print Network

In numerical experiments involving nonlinear solitary waves propagating through nonhomogeneous media one observes "breathing" in the sense of the amplitude of the wave going up and down on a much faster scale than the motion of the wave. In this paper we investigate this phenomenon in the simplest case of stationary waves in which the evolution corresponds to relaxation to a nonlinear ground state. The particular model is the popular $ \\delta_0 $ impurity in the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation on the line. We give asymptotics of the amplitude on a finite but relevant time interval and show their remarkable agreement with numerical experiments. We stress the nonlinear origin of the "breathing patterns" caused by the selection of the ground state depending on the initial data, and by the non-normality of the linearized operator.

Justin Holmer; Maciej Zworski

2008-09-10

369

News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.  

PubMed

This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath analysis is now used to diagnose and monitor asthma, check for transplant organ rejection, detect lung cancer and test for Helicobacter pyloriinfection-and the list is growing. A major milestone in the scientific study of breath was marked in the 1970s when Linus Pauling demonstrated that there is more to exhaled breath than the classic gases of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour-a lot more. Based on the gas-liquid partition chromatography analysis, Pauling reported the presence of 250 substances in exhaled breath. We now have the technology to test for any and all of these components. The field of breath analysis has made considerable advances in the 21st century and the utility of breath analysis in health care is advancing quickly. The science is rapidly expanding, the technology is improving and several new applications have been developed or are under commercial development. Breath analysis may rely on both direct (on line) and indirect (off line) reading methods: in the on-line method, breath analysis is immediately available, whereas the use of indirect methods generally involves collecting and trapping the breath sample and subsequently transferring it to an analytical instrument for analysis. Various kinds of breath samples have been used in biological monitoring, including mixed expired air and end expired air: end exhaled air represents the alveolar air concentration and mixed exhaled air represents the gas mixture coming from the dead space of the bronchial tree and the alveolar gas-exchange space. Exhaled breath analysis is an area where the modern day advances in technology and engineering meet the ever expanding need in medicine for more sensitive, specific and non-invasive tests which makes this area a major front in the interface between medicine and engineering. A major breakthrough over the past decade has been the increase in breath-based tests approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Devices measuring common breath gases (oxygen, nitrogen, water vapour and CO(2)) in patient respiratory monitoring have served as

Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

2012-05-23

370

The possible influence of breathing patterns on the measurements of breathing frequency  

SciTech Connect

The breathing frequency is a common parameter to assess the radiation response of the lungs of laboratory rodents. Rats of the strain WAG/Rij which were bred in Hamburg show different breathing patterns which consist of short regular and long irregular breaths. Depending on the breathing pattern, the breathing frequency of untreated animals varies by a factor of three. Although this phenomenon might be strain-specific, it seems noteworthy because it might influence the results obtained after irradiation significantly, especially if breathing frequency is automatically converted into a numerical value. 5 refs., 1 fig.

Raabe, A.; Beck-Bornholdt, H.P. [Univ. of Hamburg (Germany)

1996-02-01

371

Breathing dynamics in heteropolymer DNA  

E-print Network

While the statistical mechanical description of DNA has a long tradition, renewed interest in DNA melting from a physics perspective is nourished by measurements of the fluctuation dynamics of local denaturation bubbles by single molecule spectroscopy. The dynamical opening of DNA bubbles (DNA breathing) is supposedly crucial for biological functioning during, for instance, transcription initiation and DNA's interaction with selectively single-stranded DNA binding proteins. Motivated by this, we consider the bubble breathing dynamics in a heteropolymer DNA based on a (2+1)-variable master equation and complementary stochastic Gillespie simulations, providing the bubble size and the position of the bubble along the sequence as a function of time. We utilize new experimental data that independently obtain stacking and hydrogen bonding contributions to DNA stability. We calculate the spectrum of relaxation times and the experimentally measurable autocorrelation function of a fluorophore-quencher tagged base-pair, and demonstrate good agreement with fluorescence correlation experiments. A significant dependence of opening probability and waiting time between bubble events on the local DNA sequence is revealed and quantified for a promoter sequence of the T7 phage. The strong dependence on sequence, temperature and salt concentration for the breathing dynamics of DNA found here points at a good potential for nanosensing applications by utilizing short fluorophore-quencher dressed DNA constructs.

Tobias Ambjornsson; Suman K. Banik; Oleg Krichevsky; Ralf Metzler

2006-11-28

372

Air-Breathing Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

1998-01-01

373

Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney.

Stam, Mette K.; van Vulpen, Marco; Barendrecht, Maurits M.; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Intven, Martijn; Crijns, Sjoerd P. M.; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Raaymakers, Bas W.

2013-04-01

374

The Physics of Diving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underwater world, and in particular our oceans, represent a final frontier of exploration. In the past, studying the underwater fauna and flora used to be a dangerous undertaking reserved to professional divers. Technological advances over the last 50 years have given sports divers the opportunity to explore this fascinating world using self-contained underwater breathing apparatuses (SCUBA). Despite these technological

Helmut Katzgraber

2007-01-01

375

Spatiotemporal processing and time-reversal for underwater acoustic communications  

E-print Network

High-rate underwater acoustic communication can be achieved using transmitter/receiver arrays. Underwater acoustic channels can be characterized as rapidly time-varying systems that suffer severe Inter Symbol Interferences ...

Wang, Daniel Y

2005-01-01

376

STABILITY OF A BOTTOMHEAVY UNDERWATER VEHICLE NAOMI EHRICH LEONARD \\Lambda  

E-print Network

: September 7, 1996 Abstract In this paper we study stability of underwater vehicle dynamics for a six degree­Poisson structure for the underwater vehicle dynamics with non­ coincident centers of gravity and buoyancy. Using

Leonard, Naomi

377

A SURVEY OF UNDERWATER VEHICLE NAVIGATION: RECENT ADVANCES AND  

E-print Network

A SURVEY OF UNDERWATER VEHICLE NAVIGATION: RECENT ADVANCES AND NEW CHALLENGES James C. Kinsey Ryan Preprint of: J. C. Kinsey, R. M. Eustice, and L. L. Whitcomb. A survey of underwater vehicle navigation

Whitcomb, Louis L.

378

VENUS, Virtual ExploratioN of Underwater Sites  

E-print Network

The VENUS project aims at providing scientific methodologies and technological tools for the virtual exploration of deep underwater archaeology sites. Underwater archaeological sites, for example shipwrecks, offer extraordinary opportunities for archaeologists due to factors such as darkness, low

M. Ioannides; D. Arnold; F. Niccolucci; K. Mania (editors; P. Chapman; G. Conte; P. Drap; P. Gambogi; F. Gauch; K. Hanke; L. Long; V. Loureiro; O. Papini; A. Pascoal; J. Richards; D. Roussel

379

Design of small, low-cost, underwater fin manipulator  

E-print Network

This thesis details the development of a small, low cost, underwater manipulator for use on the XAUV. At this time, there are no cheap underwater servos commercially available. The design involves modifying a commercially ...

Roberts, Megan Johnson

2008-01-01

380

Development of a low-cost underwater manipulator  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the design, modeling, manufacture, and testing of a low cost, multiple degree-of-freedom underwater manipulator. Current underwater robotic arm technologies are often expensive or limited in functionality. ...

Cooney, Lauren Alise

2006-01-01

381

Automatic Fish Classification for Underwater Species Behavior Understanding  

E-print Network

Automatic Fish Classification for Underwater Species Behavior Understanding Concetto Spampinato an automatic fish classi- fication system that operates in the natural underwater en- vironment to assist marine biologists in understanding fish behavior. Fish classification is performed by combining two types

Fisher, Bob

382

Downhole mobility and propulsion apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus which comprises an upper sub for connectable engagement with the wire line, a microprocessor component for directing the various functions of the overall apparatus down hole; a motor section having a plurality of thrust directional motors and ball screw assembly for movement of steering gates; a motor driven impellar means for providing thrust and flow through a portion of the apparatus and in combination with the flow gates providing steering in a certain direction; an electric transducer portion for providing ultrasonic vibrations around the circumference of the apparatus in discongealing molecular substrate adjacent the apparatus; a mechanical vibration coil assembly means on the lower end of the apparatus for discongealing larger areas of congealing in a substrate around the apparatus, and a lower sub for connectably engaging the electrical logging unit to be steered down hole. The apparatus may also comprise on either end a thrust explosive sub for explosively dislodging the apparatus in the event of lodging occuring down hole.

Traver, J. L.; Hughes, R.; Palmer, C. D.

1985-04-09

383

Instrumentation and Sensors for Human Breath Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaled breath contains a vast milieu of compounds, both volatile and non-volatile, that appear to correlate with physiological\\u000a processes on-going in the body. These breath biomarkers hold enormous diagnostic potential when they are adequately measured\\u000a and monitored. Thus, instrumentation geared towards breath analysis applications has expanded rapidly in the last decade,\\u000a although challenges for future research still exist. This chapter

Melinda G. Simon; Cristina E. Davis

384

Sleep and breathing in neuromuscular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Respiratory muscle weakness,in neuromuscular,disease causes significant morbidity,and,mortality. The published,data,on respiratory,muscle,activity and breathing during sleep in normal subjects, the impact of respiratory muscle weakness on sleep and breathing and the relations to daytime respiratory function in neuromuscular disease are reviewed,here. In normal,subjects during,sleep upper airway,resistance increases, chemosensitivity is reduced and the wakefulness drive to breathe is lost, resulting in a

S. C. Bourke; G. J. Gibson

2002-01-01

385

Polarization Imaging Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polarization imaging apparatus has shown promise as a prototype of instruments for medical imaging with contrast greater than that achievable by use of non-polarized light. The underlying principles of design and operation are derived from observations that light interacts with tissue ultrastructures that affect reflectance, scattering, absorption, and polarization of light. The apparatus utilizes high-speed electro-optical components for generating light properties and acquiring polarization images through aligned polarizers. These components include phase retarders made of OptoCeramic (registered TradeMark) material - a ceramic that has a high electro-optical coefficient. The apparatus includes a computer running a program that implements a novel algorithm for controlling the phase retarders, capturing image data, and computing the Stokes polarization images. Potential applications include imaging of superficial cancers and other skin lesions, early detection of diseased cells, and microscopic analysis of tissues. The high imaging speed of this apparatus could be beneficial for observing live cells or tissues, and could enable rapid identification of moving targets in astronomy and national defense. The apparatus could also be used as an analysis tool in material research and industrial processing.

Zou, Yingyin K.; Chen, Qiushui

2010-01-01

386

Analysis of breath-by-breath exercise data from field studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We describe a system useful for collecting and analyzing breath-by-breath exercise test data in the field. In studies of untrained\\u000a subjects, analysis of artifacts is particularly important. Our system uses pattern-recognition criteria to reject breaths\\u000a if the breathing valves do not operate satisfactorily or if deviations from the calibrating baseline occur.

Robert M. Winslow; Sarah S. McKneally

1986-01-01

387

Hot topics in underwater acoustics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underwater acoustics is a ``big tent'' discipline that draws from, and makes contributions to, many diverse fields such as wave propagation, physical oceanography, signal processing and ocean engineering. In recent years, concern for the environmental effects on marine life has spawned research into both the effects of man-made noise, and the use of active and passive acoustics to monitor biological activity. Special Sessions at this meeting reflect this diversity. This paper will draw on these Special Sessions to present some exciting examples of current research: (1) Parabolic equation methods for wave propagation, (2) robust passive sonar techniques, (3) inverse methods for determining geoacoustic parameters, (4) high-frequency acoustic interaction with the sea floor, and (5) bioacoustic resonance. In signal processing, one of the most active areas is the exploitation of the concept of time-reversal. In ocean engineering, there has been a tremendous increase in the applications for autonomous undersea vehicles. A brief overview of developments in these areas will be included. [Work supported by ONR.

Perkins, John S.

2003-04-01

388

How Long Can You Hold Your Breath?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 142 of the PDF), learners will compare breathing rates before and after hyperventilation to explore how reduced carbon dioxide levels in the blood lower the need to breathe. This activity also includes information about how microgravity conditions in space affect sleep and breathing rates of astronauts. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Astronaut's Sleep" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource guide includes background information and sample evaluation questions. Note: learners with respiratory ailments, such as asthma or allergies, should not participate in the breath-holding part of this activity.

2013-05-15

389

Omnidirectional underwater camera design and calibration.  

PubMed

This paper presents the development of an underwater omnidirectional multi-camera system (OMS) based on a commercially available six-camera system, originally designed for land applications. A full calibration method is presented for the estimation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, which is able to cope with wide-angle lenses and non-overlapping cameras simultaneously. This method is valid for any OMS in both land or water applications. For underwater use, a customized housing is required, which often leads to strong image distortion due to refraction among the different media. This phenomena makes the basic pinhole camera model invalid for underwater cameras, especially when using wide-angle lenses, and requires the explicit modeling of the individual optical rays. To address this problem, a ray tracing approach has been adopted to create a field-of-view (FOV) simulator for underwater cameras. The simulator allows for the testing of different housing geometries and optics for the cameras to ensure a complete hemisphere coverage in underwater operation. This paper describes the design and testing of a compact custom housing for a commercial off-the-shelf OMS camera (Ladybug 3) and presents the first results of its use. A proposed three-stage calibration process allows for the estimation of all of the relevant camera parameters. Experimental results are presented, which illustrate the performance of the calibration method and validate the approach. PMID:25774707

Bosch, Josep; Gracias, Nuno; Ridao, Pere; Ribas, David

2015-01-01

390

Ring Wing for an underwater missile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hughes Aircraft has performed exploratory wind tunnel studies of compressed carriage missile designs having extendable Ring Wing and wrap-around tail control surfaces. These force and moment data indicate that significant improvements in a missile's lift and aerodynamic efficiency can be realized. Low speed test results of these data were used to estimate potential underwater improved hydrodynamic characteristics that a Ring Wing and wrap-around tails can bring to an advanced torpedo design. Estimates of improved underwater flight performance of a heavyweight torpedo (4000 lbs.) having an extendable Ring Wing and wrap-around tails were made. The compressed volume design of this underwater missile is consistent with tube-launch constraints and techniques. Study results of this novel Ring Wing torpedo design include extended flight performance in range and endurance due to lowered speeds capable of sustaining underwater level flight. Correspondingly, reduced radiated noise for enhanced stealth qualities is projected. At high speeds, greater maneuverability and aimpoint selection can be realized by a Ring Wing underwater missile.

August, Henry; Carapezza, Edward

391

Olfaction: Underwater 'sniffing' by semi-aquatic mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial species that forage underwater face challenges because their body parts and senses are adapted for land - for example, it is widely held that mammals cannot use olfaction underwater because it is impossible for them to inspire air (sniff) to convey odorants to the olfactory epithelium. Here I describe a mechanism for underwater sniffing used by the semi-aquatic star-nosed

Kenneth C. Catania

2006-01-01

392

Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks: Target Size Detection and Performance Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation algorithm for underwater target size detection using underwater acoustic sensor networks. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that our underwater sensor network can tremendously reduce the variance of target size estimation. We show that our ML estimator is unbiased and the variance of parameter estimation matches the Cramer-Rao lower bound. Simulations further validate these

Qilian Liang; Xiuzhen Cheng

2008-01-01

393

ORTHOPHOTO IMAGING AND GIS FOR SEABED VISUALIZATION AND UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGY  

E-print Network

Abstract: We present here the first step of an interdisciplinary work dealing with underwater photogrammetry and archaeological data management. In the framework of a phd project we develop a set of tools from underwater data capture to 3D underwater GIS for archaeological excavation. The phd

J. Seinturier; P. Drap; A. Dur; F. Cibecchini; N. Vincent; O. Papini; P. Grussenmeyer

394

GE underwater test facility studies in zero G simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The underwater test facility (UTF) is described as an indoor controlled environment test facility designed specifically for zero G simulation, hydrospace manned and unmanned equipment development, and personnel training for both space and underwater exploration. Programs conducted in the UTF include: human engineering criteria for maintenance and repairs of space stations, astronaut performance, helmet distortion, underwater telemetry, and blood transfusion.

Fry, R. H.

1972-01-01

395

AUV docking system for existing underwater control panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle) the past years, has given a cost effective alternative solution in underwater research. These vehicles free from any tether can perform literally in any environments which make them the first choice in underwater exploration today. The main constrain is the life of their batteries. Docking stations and docking techniques are being developed

P. Sotiropoulos; D. Grosset; G. Giannopoulos; F. Casadei

2009-01-01

396

Field characterization of wave-induced underwater light field fluctuations  

E-print Network

Field characterization of wave-induced underwater light field fluctuations Pierre Gernez1 characterization of wave-induced underwater light field fluctuations, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C06025, doi:10 2009. [1] A field characterization of the amplitude and periods of the underwater light field

Antoine, David

397

Sensor Networks of Freely Drifting Autonomous Underwater Explorers  

E-print Network

heretofore-unknown oceanic processes has become available. However, no technologies currently exist ecosystems and our impact on them. In this paper, we will present the design of our underwater vehicle, which: Experimentation Keywords: Underwater sensor networking, autonomous vehicles. Underwater acoustic communication 1

Zhou, Shengli

398

Proc. MTS/IEEE OCEANS`10 (2010) Underwater Stereo Using  

E-print Network

underwater imaging is also applied to archaeological docu- mentation [7] and observation of wildlife [8], [9Proc. MTS/IEEE OCEANS`10 (2010) Underwater Stereo Using Natural Flickering Illumination Yohay@miami.edu Abstract--Computer vision is challenged by the underwater environment. Poor visibility, geometrical

Schechner, Yoav Yosef

399

ORTHOPHOTO IMAGING AND GIS FOR SEABED VISUALIZATION AND UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here the first step of an interdisciplinary work dealing with underwater photogrammetry and archaeological data management. In the framework of a phd project we develop a set of tools from underwater data capture to 3D underwater GIS for archaeological excavation. The phd project, managed by Julien Seinturier, is monitored by Odile Papini for the data fusion aspect and

J. Seinturier; P. Drap; A. Durand; F. Cibecchini; N. Vincent; O. Papini; P. Grussenmeyer

400

Estimating Surface Reflectance Spectra for Underwater Color Vision  

E-print Network

biology [7] and archaeology [9] frequently employ vision techniques. Underwater images collectedEstimating Surface Reflectance Spectra for Underwater Color Vision S. Skaff, J. J. Clark, and I underwater environments using uncali- brated color cameras. The approach derives surface spectral estimates

Kim, Tae-Kyun

401

Imaging Sonar-Aided Navigation for Autonomous Underwater Harbor Surveillance  

E-print Network

applications like underwater archaeology [6] and ship hull inspection [7]. But in our This work is supportedImaging Sonar-Aided Navigation for Autonomous Underwater Harbor Surveillance Hordur Johannsson of drift- free navigation for underwater vehicles performing harbor surveillance and ship hull inspection

Kaess, Michael

402

Robust Camera Calibration for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Matthew Bryant  

E-print Network

Robust Camera Calibration for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Matthew Bryant , David Wettergreen and inspection. One of our aims is to track the relative position of underwater targets. This has required the development of a camera calibration system that can overcome the difficulties of underwater vision to provide

403

Nonholonomic motion control of an autonomous underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A submersible can carry limited supply of fuel onboard. Use of control planes along with propeller for major part of its motion can conserve much energy; thus extending the duration of underwater missions. Such an underwater vehicle has nonholomic nature due to its nonlinear kinematic structure. The authors describe the kinematics of an underwater vehicle by six state variables and

Yoshihiko Nakamura; Shrikant Savant

1991-01-01

404

Robot arm apparatus  

DOEpatents

A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1992-01-01

405

Passive orientation apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus that can return a payload to a known orientation after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and orientation after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known orientation by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known orientation after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

406

Robot arm apparatus  

DOEpatents

A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

Nachbar, Henry D.

1992-12-01

407

Thermal energy test apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) designed and fabricated a thermal energy test apparatus to permit evaluation of the heat protection provided by crash crew firefighter's proximity clothing materials against radiant and convective heat loads, similar to those found outside the flame zone of aircraft fuel fires. The apparatus employs electrically operated quartz lamp radiant heaters and a hot air convective heater assembly to produce the heat load conditions the materials to be subjected to, and is equipped with heat flux sensors of different sensitivities to measure the incident heat flux on the sample material as well as the heat flux transmitted by the sample. Tests of the apparatus have shown that it can produce radiant heat flux levels equivalent to those estimated to be possible in close proximity to large aircraft fuel fires, and can produce convective heat fluxes equivalent to those measured in close proximity to aircraft fuel fires at upwind and sidewind locations. Work was performed in 1974.

Audet, N. F.

1991-10-01

408

Apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization  

DOEpatents

An improved apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization of liquid samples or suspensions in which the piezoelectric transducer is protected from chemical attack and erosion. The transducer is protected by being bonded to the inner surface of a glass plate which forms one end wall of a first hollow body provided with apparatus for circulating a fluid for cooling and stabilizing the transducer. The glass plate, which is one-half wavelength in thickness to provide an acoustically coupled outer nebulizing surface, seals an opening in a second hollow body which encloses an aerosol mixing chamber. The second body includes apparatus for delivering the sample solution to the nebulizing surface, a gas inlet for providing a flow of carrier gas for transporting the aerosol of the nebulized sample and an aerosol outlet.

Olson, Kenneth W. (Ames, IA); Haas, Jr., William J. (Ames, IA); Fassel, Velmer A. (Ames, IA)

1978-08-29

409

Apparatus for processing coal  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for processing coal to prevent the creation of extreme fines and to extract pyrites from the principal coal fractions in which there are two air circulating circuits having processing components which cooperate in their respective circuits to result initially in substantial extraction of fines in the first circuit while releasing principal granulated coal fractions and pyrites to the second circuit where specific gravity separation of the pyrites and principal coal fractions occur. The apparatus includes a source of drying heat added to the air moving in the circuits and delivered at the places where surface moisture drying is most effective. Furthermore, the apparatus is operated so as to reduce coal to a desired size without creating an excessive volume of extreme fines, to separate pyrites and hard to grind components by specific gravity in a region where fines are not present, and to use the extreme fines as a source of fuel to generate drying heat.

Williams, R.M.

1985-02-12

410

Incompleteness of measurement apparatuses  

E-print Network

A complete apparatus is defined as reacting to every state of the measured system. Standard quantum mechanics of indistinguishable particles is shown to imply that apparatuses must be incomplete or else they would be drowned out by noise. Each quantum observable is then an abstract representation of many measurement apparatuses. Moreover, the measured systems must be prepared in a state that is sufficiently different from the states of particles in the environment. This is the main purpose of preparations. A system so prepared was said to have a "separation status". A new, more satisfactory definition of separations status is given than that proposed in previous papers. Conditions are specified under which the particles in the environment may be ignored as is usually done in the theory of measurement.

Petr Hajicek

2014-11-20

411

Expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus  

DOEpatents

An expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus is deployed from an airplane or a ship to make oceanographic observations in a profile of the surface-to-ocean floor, while deployed on the floor, and then a second profile when returning to the ocean surface. The device then records surface conditions until on-board batteries fail. All data collected is stored and then transmitted from the surface to either a satellite or other receiving station. The apparatus is provided with an anchor that causes descent to the ocean floor and then permits ascent when the anchor is released. Anchor release is predetermined by the occurrence of a pre-programmed event.

McCoy, Kim O. (Carmel, CA); Downing, Jr., John P. (Port Townsand, WA); DeRoos, Bradley G. (Worthington, OH); Riches, Michael R. (Silver Spring, MD)

1993-01-01

412

Microelectromechanical ratcheting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) ratcheting apparatus is disclosed which includes an electrostatic or thermal actuator that drives a moveable member in the form of a ring gear, stage, or rack. Motion is effected by one or more reciprocating pawls driven by the actuator in a direction that is parallel to, in line with, or tangential to the path. The reciprocating pawls engage indexing elements (e.g. teeth or pins) on the moveable member to incrementally move the member along a curved or straight path with the ability to precisely control and determine the position of the moveable member. The MEM apparatus can be formed on a silicon substrate by conventional surface micromachining methods.

Barnes, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Samuel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Jensen, Brian D. (Albuquerque, NM); Rodgers, M. Steven (Albuquerque, NM); Burg, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

413

Image-intensifier apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An image intensifier apparatus which comprises an image intensifier for converting incoming radiation into light rays on an input fluorescent screen, further converting said light rays into electron beams on a photocathode, focusing said light rays by an electron lens system and converting said focused light rays into the visible form by an output screen; and a housing which receives the image intensifier and whose inner side wall is fitted with a radiation leakage-preventing layer and first magnetism shielding layer, and wherein second magnetism-shielding layer having a high radiation permeability is formed on any of those portions of the image intensifier apparatus into which radiation is carried.

Harao, N.

1981-01-13

414

Fissile solution measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for determining the content of a fissile material within a solution by detecting delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material after it is temporarily irradiated by a neutron source. The apparatus comprises a container holding the solution and having a portion defining a neutron source cavity centrally disposed within the container. The neutron source cavity temporarily receives the neutron source. The container has portions defining a plurality of neutron detector ports that form an annular pattern and surround the neutron source cavity. A plurality of neutron detectors count delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material. Each neutron detector is located in a separate one of the neutron detector ports.

Crane, T.W.; Collinsworth, P.R.

1984-06-11

415

Underwater photogrammetric theoretical equations and technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to have a high level of accuracy of measurement in underwater close-range photogrammetry, this article deals with a study of three varieties of model equations according to the way of imaging upon the water. First, the paper makes a careful analysis for the two varieties of theoretical equations and finds out that there are some serious limitations in practical application and has an in-depth study for the third model equation. Second, one special project for this measurement has designed correspondingly. Finally, one rigid antenna has been tested by underwater photogrammetry. The experimental results show that the precision of 3D coordinates measurement is 0.94mm, which validates the availability and operability in practical application with this third equation. It can satisfy the measurement requirements of refraction correction, improving levels of accuracy of underwater close-range photogrammetry, as well as strong antijamming and stabilization.

Fan, Ya-bing; Huang, Guiping; Qin, Gui-qin; Chen, Zheng

2011-12-01

416

Porous metal absorbers for underwater sound.  

PubMed

Rubber has traditionally been used for underwater sound absorption. Porous metal is a relatively lightweight material and also has higher strength than rubber. However, exactly how porous metals can be used as effective underwater sound absorbers remains unclear. This paper shows how to use porous metal absorbers so that they work well under water, even under fairly constrained conditions. A method of nondimensional analysis is proposed that allows identification of vital characteristics. This means that such characteristics can be varied and the absorbers themselves filled with different types of viscous fluids. Such analysis suggests that the sound absorption coefficient of porous metals does not always increase when there are either increases in porosity or decreases in average pore size. The same method of analysis can show how, by choice of the right characteristics to choose a suitable viscous fluid, a porous metal absorber can be built that takes up little space but still effectively absorbs underwater sounds at low frequencies. PMID:18189554

Wang, Xiaolin

2007-11-01

417

Multi-frame underwater image restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ability to image underwater is highly desired for scientific and military applications, including optical communications, submarine awareness, diver visibility, and mine detection. Underwater imaging is severely impaired by scattering and optical turbulence associated with refraction index fluctuations. This work introduces novel approach to restoration of degraded underwater imagery based on multi-frame correction technique developed for atmospheric distortions. The method represents synthesis of "lucky-region" fusion and optical flow based image warping. Developed multi-frame image restoration algorithm is applied to sets of images collected in laboratory under controlled conditions as well as field test data. Reliance of image restoration on sophistication of the optical flow algorithm is shown. Variable degrees of image degradation mitigation which manifest themselves as high spatial frequency content recovery are demonstrated depending on imaging conditions and ratio of typical image spatial frequency scale to typical degradation spatial frequency scale.

Kanaev, A. V.; Hou, W.; Woods, S.

2011-11-01

418

Special Issue "Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks" A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220)  

E-print Network

Special Issue "Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks" A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220) Website: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/sensors/special_issues/underwater_sens Journal applications exist such as fish and mussels grow observation, deep-sea archaeology, seismic and volcanic

Chen, Min

419

Breathing exercises: influence on breathing patterns and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying breathing exercises have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of four on breathing exercises (diaphragmatic breathing, inspiratory sighs, sustained maximal inspiration and intercostal exercise) the on breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects. METHOD: Fifteen subjects of both sexes, aged 23±1.5 years old and with normal pulmonary function tests, participated in the study. The subjects were evaluated using the optoelectronic plethysmography system in a supine position with a trunk inclination of 45° during quiet breathing and the breathing exercises. The order of the breathing exercises was randomized. Statistical analysis was performed by the Friedman test and an ANOVA for repeated measures with one factor (breathing exercises), followed by preplanned contrasts and Bonferroni correction. A p<0.005 value was considered significant. RESULTS: All breathing exercises significantly increased the tidal volume of the chest wall (Vcw) and reduced the respiratory rate (RR) in comparison to quiet breathing. The diaphragmatic breathing exercise was responsible for the lowest Vcw, the lowest contribution of the rib cage, and the highest contribution of the abdomen. The sustained maximal inspiration exercise promoted greater reduction in RR compared to the diaphragmatic and intercostal exercises. Inspiratory sighs and intercostal exercises were responsible for the highest values of minute ventilation. Thoracoabdominal asynchrony variables increased significantly during diaphragmatic breathing. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the breathing exercises investigated in this study produced modifications in the breathing pattern (e.g., increase in tidal volume and decrease in RR) as well as in thoracoabdominal motion (e.g., increase in abdominal contribution during diaphragmatic breathing), among others. PMID:25590447

Vieira, Danielle S. R.; Mendes, Liliane P. S.; Elmiro, Nathália S.; Velloso, Marcelo; Britto, Raquel R.; Parreira, Verônica F.

2014-01-01

420

21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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2011-04-01

421

21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device...

2012-04-01

422

21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device...

2013-04-01

423

21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device...

2014-04-01

424

21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device...

2010-04-01

425

21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification...breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath....

2012-04-01

426

21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification...breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath....

2014-04-01

427

21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification...breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath....

2011-04-01

428

21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification...breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath....

2013-04-01

429

46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section...Diving Equipment § 197.456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving...shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure...

2011-10-01

430

42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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2013-10-01

431

14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 121.337 Section...Requirements § 121.337 Protective breathing equipment. (a) The certificate...shall furnish approved protective breathing equipment (PBE) meeting the...

2012-01-01

432

46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section...Diving Equipment § 197.456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving...shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure...

2010-10-01

433

42 CFR 84.172 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.172...Particulate Respirators § 84.172 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

2011-10-01

434

21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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2013-04-01

435

46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section...Diving Equipment § 197.456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving...shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure...

2012-10-01

436

42 CFR 84.172 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.172...Particulate Respirators § 84.172 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

2013-10-01

437

42 CFR 84.195 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.195...Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.195 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

2012-10-01

438

42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. ...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. ...respirators shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type...

2014-10-01

439

42 CFR 84.172 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.172...Particulate Respirators § 84.172 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

2014-10-01

440

42 CFR 84.132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.132...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

2011-10-01

441

46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section...Diving Equipment § 197.456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving...shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure...

2013-10-01

442

21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit circulator is a turbine...

2010-04-01

443

42 CFR 84.195 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.195...Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.195 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

2010-10-01

444

21 CFR 868.5280 - Breathing tube support.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breathing tube support. 868.5280 Section 868... Therapeutic Devices § 868.5280 Breathing tube support. (a) Identification. A breathing tube support is a device that is...

2011-04-01

445

21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is...

2010-04-01

446

21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit circulator is a turbine...

2014-04-01

447

42 CFR 84.195 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.195...Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.195 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

2013-10-01

448

42 CFR 84.132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.132...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

2010-10-01

449

42 CFR 84.172 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.172...Particulate Respirators § 84.172 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

2012-10-01

450

42 CFR 84.132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.132...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

2014-10-01

451

21 CFR 868.5280 - Breathing tube support.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breathing tube support. 868.5280 Section 868... Therapeutic Devices § 868.5280 Breathing tube support. (a) Identification. A breathing tube support is a device that is...

2012-04-01

452

42 CFR 84.132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.132...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

2013-10-01

453

21 CFR 868.5280 - Breathing tube support.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breathing tube support. 868.5280 Section 868... Therapeutic Devices § 868.5280 Breathing tube support. (a) Identification. A breathing tube support is a device that is...

2013-04-01

454

42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. ...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. ...respirators shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type...

2011-10-01

455

21 CFR 868.5280 - Breathing tube support.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing tube support. 868.5280 Section 868... Therapeutic Devices § 868.5280 Breathing tube support. (a) Identification. A breathing tube support is a device that is...

2010-04-01

456

21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is...

2011-04-01

457

42 CFR 84.195 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.195...Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.195 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

2014-10-01

458

42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. ...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. ...respirators shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type...

2010-10-01

459

21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5260 Breathing circuit bacterial filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a...

2010-04-01

460

14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 121.337 Section...Requirements § 121.337 Protective breathing equipment. (a) The certificate...shall furnish approved protective breathing equipment (PBE) meeting the...

2014-01-01

461

14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 121.337 Section...Requirements § 121.337 Protective breathing equipment. (a) The certificate...shall furnish approved protective breathing equipment (PBE) meeting the...

2013-01-01

462

21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit circulator is a turbine...

2012-04-01

463

21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5260 Breathing circuit bacterial filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a...

2011-04-01

464

46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section...Diving Equipment § 197.456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving...shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure...

2014-10-01

465

21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5260 Breathing circuit bacterial filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a...

2013-04-01

466

21 CFR 868.5280 - Breathing tube support.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breathing tube support. 868.5280 Section 868... Therapeutic Devices § 868.5280 Breathing tube support. (a) Identification. A breathing tube support is a device that is...

2014-04-01

467

21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is...

2013-04-01

468

21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit circulator is a turbine...

2011-04-01

469

42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. ...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. ...respirators shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type...

2012-10-01

470

42 CFR 84.195 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.195...Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.195 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

2011-10-01

471

21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5260 Breathing circuit bacterial filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a...

2012-04-01

472

21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is...

2012-04-01

473

14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 121.337 Section...Requirements § 121.337 Protective breathing equipment. (a) The certificate...shall furnish approved protective breathing equipment (PBE) meeting the...

2011-01-01

474

21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5260 Breathing circuit bacterial filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a...

2014-04-01

475

42 CFR 84.172 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.172...Particulate Respirators § 84.172 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

2010-10-01

476

42 CFR 84.132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.132...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

2012-10-01

477

21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is...

2014-04-01

478

Breathing  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... size of the thoracic cavity and decreases the pressure inside. As a result, air rushes in and ... volume of the thoracic cavity decreases, while the pressure within it increases. As a result, the lungs ...

479

Autonomous underwater pipeline monitoring navigation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details the development of an autonomous motion-control and navigation algorithm for an underwater autonomous vehicle, the Ocean Server IVER3, to track long linear features such as underwater pipelines. As part of this work, the Nonlinear and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (NAS Lab) developed an algorithm that utilizes inputs from the vehicles state of the art sensor package, which includes digital imaging, digital 3-D Sidescan Sonar, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. The resulting algorithms should tolerate real-world waterway with episodic strong currents, low visibility, high sediment content, and a variety of small and large vessel traffic.

Mitchell, Byrel; Mahmoudian, Nina; Meadows, Guy

2014-06-01

480

Underwater noise from offshore oil production vessels.  

PubMed

Underwater acoustic recordings of six Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessels moored off Western Australia are presented. Monopole source spectra were computed for use in environmental impact assessments of underwater noise. Given that operations on the FPSOs varied over the period of recording, and were sometimes unknown, the authors present a statistical approach to noise level estimation. No significant or consistent aspect dependence was found for the six FPSOs. Noise levels did not scale with FPSO size or power. The 5th, 50th (median), and 95th percentile source levels (broadband, 20 to 2500 Hz) were 188, 181, and 173 dB re 1 ?Pa @ 1 m, respectively. PMID:23742441

Erbe, Christine; McCauley, Robert; McPherson, Craig; Gavrilov, Alexander

2013-06-01

481

Controllable underwater anisotropic oil-wetting  

SciTech Connect

This Letter demonstrates a simple method to achieve underwater anisotropic oil-wetting using silicon surfaces with a microgroove array produced by femtosecond laser ablation. The oil contact angles along the direction perpendicular to the grooves are consistently larger than those parallel to the microgroove arrays in water because the oil droplet is restricted by the energy barrier that exists between the non-irradiated domain and the trapped water in the laser-ablated microgrooves. This underwater anisotropic oil-wetting is able to be controlled, and the anisotropy can be tuned from 0° to ?20° by adjusting the period of the microgroove arrays.

Yong, Jiale; Chen, Feng, E-mail: chenfeng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Yang, Qing; Farooq, Umar; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Hou, Xun [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing System Engineering and Key Laboratory of Photonics Technology for Information of Shaanxi Province, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2014-08-18

482

Network for Underwater Archaeology, Ireland (NUA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the University of Ulster, this site provides information and networking opportunities in the field of underwater archaeology in Ireland. Included here are photographs and descriptions of recent and ongoing excavations of shipwrecks, submerged forests, and other interesting underwater archaeological sites. The information is presented with academic expertise but still provides fascinating reading for the casual visitor. The site also hosts a bulletin board, news about the upcoming conference at the University -- Towards An Understanding Of Maritime Archaeology In Ireland -- and annotated links to two dozen related Websites.

483

Thyroid cartilage movements during breathing.  

PubMed

We measured lateral (outward) thyroid cartilage displacement (TCD) of the larynx in six supine anesthetized (intravenous chloralose) dogs. Combined left and right TCDs were measured with linear transducers attached by a thread to the thyroid alae. During tidal breathing via a tracheostomy, phasic inspiratory TCD occurred in all dogs [0.66 +/- 0.2 mm (mean +/- SE)] together with phasic inspiratory electromyographic activity in the cricothyroid (CT) and posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscles. During brief tracheal occlusions, TCD increased significantly to 1.27 +/- 0.2 mm (P = 0.001), accompanied by an increase of 95-115% in the peak CT and PCA electromyograms. Bilateral supramaximal electrical stimulation of the external branches of the superior laryngeal nerve (ExSLN) produced a TCD of 9.9 +/- 0.8 mm; however, similar stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) produced a TCD of only 1.33 +/- 0.1 mm (P = 0.0001). Furthermore, bilateral section of the ExSLN in five dogs significantly reduced tidal TCD by 48.7 +/- 24.4% (P < 0.05), and bilateral section of both the ExSLN and RLN resulted in slight phasic inward TCD (-0.06 +/- 0.05 mm). Thus, it appears that the activities of both the CT and RLN-innervated muscles (probably the PCA muscle) contribute to tidal breathing TCD. These findings suggest that inspiratory dilation of the hypopharynx is mediated by contractions of CT and PCA muscles. PMID:7759411

Amis, T C; Brancatisano, A; Tully, A

1995-02-01

484

Protective supplied breathing air garment  

DOEpatents

A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

Childers, Edward L. (Lakewood, CO); von Hortenau, Erik F. (Golden, CO)

1984-07-10

485

Protective supplied breathing air garment  

DOEpatents

A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

1984-07-10

486

[Stahl, Leibniz, Hoffmann and breathing].  

PubMed

At the beginning of the XVIII th century, Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz and Friedrich Hoffmann criticize Georg Ernst Stahl's medical theory. They differenciate between unsound and true reasonings. Namely, they validate Stahl's definition of breath but extracting it from its animist basis and placing it in an epistemology obeying to the principle of sufficient reason and to the mechanical model. The stahlian discovery consists in understanding breath as a calorific ventilation against the ancient conception; the iatromechanists recognize its accuracy, but they try then to transpose it to a mechanical model of ventilation. Using it in a different epistemological context implies that they analyze the idea of discovery "true" in its contents, but "wrong" in its hypothesis. It impels to examine the epistemology of medical knowledge, as science and therapeutics, and in its links with the other scientific theories. Thus, if Leibniz as philosopher and Hoffmann as doctor consider Stahl's animism so important, it is because its discoveries question the fundamental principles of medicine. PMID:17153053

Carvallo, Sarah

2006-01-01

487

Olfaction: underwater 'sniffing' by semi-aquatic mammals.  

PubMed

Terrestrial species that forage underwater face challenges because their body parts and senses are adapted for land--for example, it is widely held that mammals cannot use olfaction underwater because it is impossible for them to inspire air (sniff) to convey odorants to the olfactory epithelium. Here I describe a mechanism for underwater sniffing used by the semi-aquatic star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata) and water shrew (Sorex palustris). While underwater, both species exhale air bubbles onto objects or scent trails and then re-inspire the bubbles to carry the smell back through the nose. This newly described behaviour provides a mechanism for mammalian olfaction underwater. PMID:17183311

Catania, Kenneth C

2006-12-21

488

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a "no-cost" apparatus designed to demonstrate rotational inertia. Also describes and evaluates a microprocessor-based instrument (Versatile Laboratory Aid) that performs a large variety of timing and data acquisition tasks encountered in introductory and advanced physics laboratories. (JN)

Minnix, Richard B., Ed.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Ed.

1984-01-01

489

Floating layer recovery apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for recovery of a layer of a first underground liquid floating on a second underground liquid in a well. It comprises: first float means disposed in the well in the first liquid, the float means having an effective buoyancy such that it floats in the first liquid; second float means disposed in the well in

K. Newcomer; S. Richter

1991-01-01

490

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for processing municipal waste, the waste including ferrous materials, nonferrous noncombustible materials and combustible materials. It comprises: means for crushing most of the nonferrous noncombustible waste materials into noncombustible pieces which are smaller than a first size in which no dimension is greater than a selected length, and crushing most of the combustible materials into

Mayberry

1988-01-01

491

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks,

Mayberry

1988-01-01

492

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for processing municipal waste, the waste including ferrous materials, nonferrous noncombustible materials and combustible materials comprising: means for crushing most of the nonferrous noncombustible waste materials into noncombustible pieces which are smaller than a first size in which no dimension is greater than a selected length, and crushing most of the combustible materials into combustible

Mayberry

1988-01-01

493

Micromachine friction test apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

deBoer, Maarten P. (Albuquerque, NM); Redmond, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry A. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2002-01-01

494

Mud separator valve apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic cleaning system is provided for a mud separator apparatus. Water and mud inputs to a mud pump feeding the separator are respectively controlled by two butterfly valves ganged for cooperation, and operated by a single valve actuator motor. When the mud separator is shut off, a time delay relay is actuated which keeps the mud separator rotor motor

1981-01-01

495

Apparatus for Teaching Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes: how to measure index of refraction by the thickness method; how to teach the concept of torque using a torque wrench; how to produce a real image with a concave mirror; how to eliminate the interface effects of a Pyrex containers; and an apparatus to illustrate Bernoulli's Principle. (MLH)

Gottlieb, Herbert H.

1977-01-01

496

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes these tools for physics teaching: (1) stick with calibrations for measuring student reaction time; (2) compact high-pressure sodium lamps used to demonstrate spectra; (3) air pumps for fish tanks providing simple inexpensive motors; (4) a rotating manometer for measuring centripetal force; and (5) an apparatus for checking conservation…

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae

1985-01-01

497

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

1987-06-30

498

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

1985-06-19

499

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

Hayward, Milton L. (2305 Greenbrook Blvd., Richland, WA 99352); Harper, William H. (1454 Amon Dr., Richland, WA 99352)

1987-01-01

500

Mobile lighting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

2013-05-14