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1

Passive acoustic detection of closed-circuit underwater breathing apparatus in an operational port environment.  

PubMed

Divers constitute a potential threat to waterside infrastructures. Active diver detection sonars are available commercially but present some shortcomings, particularly in highly reverberant environments. This has led to research on passive sonar for diver detection. Passive detection of open-circuit UBA (underwater breathing apparatus) has been demonstrated. This letter reports on the detection of a diver wearing closed-circuit UBA (rebreather) in an operational harbor. Beamforming is applied to a passive array of 10 hydrophones in a pseudo-random linear arrangement. Experimental results are presented demonstrating detection of the rebreather at ranges up to 120 m and are validated by GPS ground truth. PMID:23039570

Fillinger, L; Hunter, A J; Zampolli, M; Clarijs, M C

2012-10-01

2

Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-08-26

3

46 CFR 167.45-60 - Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps. 167.45-60 Section...45-60 Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps. Each nautical-school...Charge, Marine Inspection. (b) One flame safety lamp approved by the Coast...

2010-10-01

4

42 CFR 84.71 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.71 Self-contained breathing apparatus; required...

2013-10-01

5

Modification of the closed circuit underwater breathing apparatus LAR V makes it suitable for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) 1 Presented in part at the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society Annual Scientific Meeting, Cancun, Mexico, 15–22 June, 1997. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study was carried out in order to determine whether or not a modified closed circuit underwater oxygen rebreathing device could serve as an adjunct for ventilation during CPR in remote locations. As a control a common self-inflating bag valve ventilation device was used. Methods: A total of 20 combat divers were enrolled, of whom 18 met the criteria

Till S. Mutzbauer; Birger Neubauer; Peter H. J. Mueller; Kay Tetzlaff

1998-01-01

6

8/25/08 8:13 AMLung provides breathing room underwater -The Boston Globe Page 1 of 1http://www.boston.com/news/science/articles/2008/08/25/lung_provides_breathing_room_underwater?mode=PF  

E-print Network

://www.boston.com/news/science/articles/2008/08/25/lung_provides_breathing_room_underwater?mode=PF THIS STORY HAS BEEN FORMATTED FOR EASY PRINTING Lung provides breathing room underwater By Michelle Sipics, Globe Correspondent | August 25, 2008 bucket. "I accidentally caught a backswimmer while I was lunging for a water strider," recalled

Flynn, Morris R.

7

46 CFR 196.37-20 - Self-contained breathing apparatus and gas masks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus and gas masks. 196.37-20 Section 196.37-20 Shipping COAST...196.37-20 Self-contained breathing apparatus and gas masks. (a) Lockers or spaces containing self-contained...

2010-10-01

8

46 CFR 196.37-20 - Self-contained breathing apparatus and gas masks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus and gas masks. 196.37-20 Section 196.37-20 Shipping COAST...196.37-20 Self-contained breathing apparatus and gas masks. (a) Lockers or spaces containing self-contained...

2011-10-01

9

A comparison of the physiological responses to underwater arm cranking and breath holding between synchronized swimmers and breath holding untrained women.  

PubMed

Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 × 10s, 2 × 20s and 2 × 25s) with 2 minutes of normal breathing in between, in either an ascending or descending order while performing arm crank exercise. The intensity of arm crank exercise was set below the individual ventilatory threshold. Both synchronized swimmers and controls were matched on sitting height and then randomly divided into 2 groups: one group started breath holding with the longest (25s) breath holding periods while the other group began breath holding with the shortest (10s) breath holding periods. The synchronized swimmers experienced a significant decrease in heart rate while breath holding for 20 and 25s but the changes in heart rate for the control group was not consistent between subgroups. Full recovery from breath holding was identified for minute ventilation after 25s of recovery from breath holding for all groups. Results suggest synchronized swimmers exhibited a better adaptation to breath holding while exercising underwater. PMID:23487567

Alentejano, Teresa C; Bell, Gordon J; Marshall, Dru

2012-05-01

10

30 CFR 57.22315 - Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22315 Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines)....

2010-07-01

11

42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus...portable, self-contained devices designed for use as respiratory protection during entry into and escape from or escape...

2010-10-01

12

42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus...portable, self-contained devices designed for use as respiratory protection during entry into and escape from or escape...

2012-10-01

13

42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus...portable, self-contained devices designed for use as respiratory protection during entry into and escape from or escape...

2011-10-01

14

42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus...portable, self-contained devices designed for use as respiratory protection during entry into and escape from or escape...

2014-10-01

15

42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus...portable, self-contained devices designed for use as respiratory protection during entry into and escape from or escape...

2013-10-01

16

30 CFR 57.22315 - Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines). 57.22315 Section 57.22315 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2014-07-01

17

30 CFR 57.22315 - Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines). 57.22315 Section 57.22315 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2013-07-01

18

30 CFR 57.22315 - Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines). 57.22315 Section 57.22315 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2011-07-01

19

30 CFR 57.22315 - Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Self-contained breathing apparatus (V-A mines). 57.22315 Section 57.22315 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2012-07-01

20

46 CFR 108.635 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...108.635 Section 108.635 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.635 Self-contained breathing...

2013-10-01

21

Air-breathing marine animals that find their food underwater must divide their time between periods spent underwater to  

E-print Network

for determining rates of air flow during breathing. During periods of higher gas exchange requirement, Humboldt high, then decreased to a low before rising again to a maximum just before diving. Based on known acquisition, animals can increase their efficiency by minimizing the time spent at the surface (Le Boeuf et al

Fahlman, Andreas

22

Effect of wearing personal protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus on heart rate, temperature and oxygen consumption during stepping exercise and live fire training exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire fighter breathing apparatus instructors (BAIs) must possess the ability to respond to both the extrinsic stress of a high temperature environment and the intrinsic stress from wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), repeatedly and regularly, whilst training recruits in live fire training exercises (LFTEs). There are few previous investigations on BAIs in hot environments such

S. S. Bruce-Low; D. Cotterrell; G. E. Jones

2007-01-01

23

Quantitatively Measuring In situ Flows using a Self-Contained Underwater Velocimetry Apparatus (SCUVA)  

PubMed Central

The ability to directly measure velocity fields in a fluid environment is necessary to provide empirical data for studies in fields as diverse as oceanography, ecology, biology, and fluid mechanics. Field measurements introduce practical challenges such as environmental conditions, animal availability, and the need for field-compatible measurement techniques. To avoid these challenges, scientists typically use controlled laboratory environments to study animal-fluid interactions. However, it is reasonable to question whether one can extrapolate natural behavior (i.e., that which occurs in the field) from laboratory measurements. Therefore, in situ quantitative flow measurements are needed to accurately describe animal swimming in their natural environment. We designed a self-contained, portable device that operates independent of any connection to the surface, and can provide quantitative measurements of the flow field surrounding an animal. This apparatus, a self-contained underwater velocimetry apparatus (SCUVA), can be operated by a single scuba diver in depths up to 40 m. Due to the added complexity inherent of field conditions, additional considerations and preparation are required when compared to laboratory measurements. These considerations include, but are not limited to, operator motion, predicting position of swimming targets, available natural suspended particulate, and orientation of SCUVA relative to the flow of interest. The following protocol is intended to address these common field challenges and to maximize measurement success. PMID:22064442

Katija, Kakani; Colin, Sean P.; Costello, John H.; Dabiri, John O.

2011-01-01

24

Psychophysiological responses in experienced firefighters undertaking repeated self-contained breathing apparatus tasks.  

PubMed

In order to safely and effectively extinguish fires and rescue life, firefighters are required to routinely wear self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), yet little is known about the specific physiological and psychological demands associated with repeated exposure to tasks that require SCBA. A total of 12 experienced firefighters took part in a series of commonly encountered SCBA activities: free search, guideline search and live firefighting tasks under room temperature (?20°C) and extreme heat (?180°C) conditions to assess changes in heart rate, blood pressure, mood, perceived workload and air usage. Findings demonstrate that live firefighting is associated with greater perceived exhaustion than free search or guideline exercises; however, all tasks lead to high cardiovascular demand regardless of the presence of heat. No significant impact of task upon mood and no significant differences between the perceived demands of guideline, free search and live firefighting exercises were found. PMID:25363022

Young, Paul M; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Partington, Elizabeth; Partington, Sarah; Wetherell, Mark A

2014-12-01

25

Portable breathing system. [a breathing apparatus using a rebreathing system of heat exchangers for carbon dioxide removal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A semiclosed-loop rebreathing system is discussed for use in a hostile environment. A packed bed regenerative heat exchanger providing two distinct temperature humidity zones of breathing gas with one zone providing cool, relatively dry air and the second zone providing hot, moist air is described.

Lovell, J. S. (inventor)

1979-01-01

26

Breathing Like a Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

Katsioloudis, Petros J.

2010-01-01

27

The use of superoxide mixtures as air-revitalization chemicals in hyperbaric, self-contained, closed-circuit breathing apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In portable breathing apparatus applications at 1 atm, potassium superoxide (KO2) has exhibited low-utilization efficiency of the available oxygen (O2) and diminished carbon dioxide-(CO2) scrubbing capacity caused by the formation of a fused, hydrated-hydroxide/carbonate product coating on the superoxide granules. In earlier work, it was discovered that granules fabricated from an intimate mixture of KO2 and calcium superoxide, Ca(O2)2, did not exhibit formation of a fused product coating and the utilization efficiency with respect to both O2 release and CO2 absorption was superior to KO2 granules when both types of granules were reacted with humidified CO2 under identified conditions. In the work described here, single pellets of KO2, KO2/Ca(O2), mixtures and commercially available KO2 tables and granules were reacted with a flow of humidified CO2 in helium at 1- and 10-atm total pressure and at an initial temperature of 40 C. In the 1-atm flow tests, the reaction rates and utilization efficiency of the KO2/Ca(O2)2 pellets were markedly superior to the KO2 pellets, tablets, and granules when the samples were reacted under identical conditions. However, at 10 atm, the rates of O2 release and CO2 absorption, as well as the utilization efficiencies of all the superoxide samples, were one-third to one-eighth of the values observed at 1 atm. The decrease in reaction performance at 10 atm compared to that at 1 atm has been attributed principally to the lower bulk diffusivity of the CO2 and H2O reactants in helium at the higher pressure and secondarily to the moderation of the reaction temperature caused by the higher heat capacity of the 10-atm helium.

Wood, P. C.; Wydeven, T.

1985-01-01

28

Apparatus for use in placing a submarine structure on the sea bed alongside an underwater well and method of drilling a plurality of closely spaced underwater wells  

SciTech Connect

A template for spacing a submarine structure such as an anchor block or a guide base for a second underwater well alongside an existing underwater well comprises a beam attached at one end, by means of a hinge, to a lowering guide which can be threaded over and be lowered along two guide wires of the first well, and at the other end by a remote-controlled release mechanism to the submarine structure such as the anchor block itself or a guide base for a second well. The beam, with such a submarine structure attached, is lowered down the guide wires while held in a vertical configuration, and is then swung into a generally horizontal configuration at the sea bed.

Shotbolt, K.

1982-03-02

29

Underwater connection apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes, in a subsea system for the production of oil or gas from subsurface formations or the injection of liquids or gases into subsurface formations, a subsea system for landing and securing ocean floor flowlines to the system, comprising a flowline receiving structure having two slide plates which are space apart, a first circular hole in each side plate on a first centerline, and a circular projection on each side plate about the first centerline; a flowline end connection suitable for attaching directly to the flowlines before the flowlines are lowered into the water. It includes a first spring loaded pin on each side of the flowline end connection on a second centerline with the second centerline being at right angles to the centerline of the flowlines, a funnel shaped means with a cylindrical stop surface at the bottom of the funnel shaped area on each side of the flowline end connection with the cylindrical stop surface about the second centerline, and circular fixed pin members on each side of the flowline end connection for attachment of pulling tool means also about the second centerline; and a pulling tool means with a guidance nose means including attachment means for engaging the circular fixed pin members and a connection to a wire rope or the such like, a receptacle means for receiving and positioning the guidance nose means, and a wire rope means which can be tensioned to pull the guidance nose means toward and into the receptacle means.

Baugh, B.F.

1987-02-10

30

Underwater manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred

P. B. Schrum; G. H. Cohen

1993-01-01

31

Underwater manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is comprised of a self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls

P. B. Schrum; G. H. Cohen

1992-01-01

32

Underwater manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred

Phillip B. Schrum; George H. Cohen

1993-01-01

33

Respirator studies for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Evaluation and performance of escape-type self-contained breathing apparatus. Progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979  

SciTech Connect

The performance of escape type breathing apparatus was evaluated for weight, comfort, ease of use, and protection factor (calculated from facepiece leakage). All of the devices tested provided a self-contained air supply of 5- to 15-min duration. Five of them have the provision to connect an air line but allow the use of the self-contained supply for safe egress. The air supply was stored in cylinders, tubing, or disposable containers. Respiratory inlet coverings were half masks, full facepieces, hoods, and mouthpieces. An estimate is given for the ease of quick donning. Recommendations for conditions of use of the equipment are given. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Hack, A.; Trujillo, A.; Carter, K.; Bradley, O.D.

1980-07-01

34

42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have sufficient volume to prevent...

2014-10-01

35

42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have sufficient volume to prevent...

2011-10-01

36

42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have sufficient volume to prevent...

2013-10-01

37

42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have sufficient volume to prevent...

2012-10-01

38

42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have sufficient volume to prevent...

2010-10-01

39

Breathing-metabolic simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Breathing-metabolic simulator was developed to be used for evaluation of life support equipment. Apparatus simulates human breathing rate and controls temperature and humidity of exhaled air as well as its chemical composition. All functions are designed to correspond to various degrees of human response.

Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

1972-01-01

40

Underwater manipulator  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer {plus_minus} 45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer {plus_minus} 10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

1992-12-31

41

Underwater manipulator  

DOEpatents

Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

1993-04-20

42

Breathing zone air sampler  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

1989-01-01

43

42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health...Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere...

2014-10-01

44

42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health...Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere...

2011-10-01

45

42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health...Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere...

2012-10-01

46

42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health...Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere...

2010-10-01

47

42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health...Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere...

2013-10-01

48

42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation....

2012-10-01

49

42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements....

2012-10-01

50

42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements....

2014-10-01

51

46 CFR 197.450 - Breathing gas tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements of § 197.340; and (2) Noxious or offensive odor and oxygen percentage; (c) Each breathing supply system...apparatus connection point for the diver, for noxious or offensive odor and presence of oil mist; and (d) Each breathing...

2010-10-01

52

Underwater Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Web site comes the Underwater Exploration educational pages. The cool science link tells about decompression, underwater archaeology, student aquanaut research, and more. Other pages include diving, which has information on types of diving and diving hand signals, experiments, quizzes, an underwater exploration timeline, and a tools and gear link that describes such things as scuba gear and diving bells.

2001-01-01

53

Bad Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... breath? Maybe you shouldn't have put extra onions on your hamburger at lunch. What's a kid ... bad breath: foods and drinks, such as garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene ( ...

54

Vision Underwater.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information regarding underwater vision. Includes a discussion of optically important interfaces, increased eye size of organisms at greater depths, visual peculiarities regarding the habitat of the coastal environment, and various pigment visual systems. (CS)

Levine, Joseph S.

1980-01-01

55

Computer simulation of breathing systems for divers  

SciTech Connect

A powerful new tool for the analysis and design of underwater breathing gas systems is being developed. A versatile computer simulator is described which makes possible the modular ''construction'' of any conceivable breathing gas system from computer memory-resident components. The analysis of a typical breathing gas system is demonstrated using this simulation technique, and the effects of system modifications on performance of the breathing system are shown. This modeling technique will ultimately serve as the foundation for a proposed breathing system simulator under development by the Navy. The marriage of this computer modeling technique with an interactive graphics system will provide the designer with an efficient, cost-effective tool for the development of new and improved diving systems.

Sexton, P.G.; Nuckols, M.L.

1983-02-01

56

Bad Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... for lunch. But certain strong-smelling foods like onions and garlic can cause bad breath. So can ... leave behind strong smells, like cabbage, garlic, raw onions, and coffee. If you’re trying to lose ...

57

Bad Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... mouth and between your teeth produce the bad odor. Other problems in your mouth, such as gum ... and medicines are associated with a specific breath odor. Having good dental habits, like brushing and flossing ...

58

Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration of chemical change, the presenter blows breath into a methylene blue solution releasing carbon dioxide which acidifies the water and changes it from a bright blue color to green.

2009-08-16

59

Underwater Fireworks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate diffusion by creating underwater "fireworks" using food coloring, oil and water. Learners create the appearance of fireworks by adding drops of red, blue, and yellow food coloring to a cup of oil. Learners add this solution to a soda bottle nearly full with water and observe the bottle closely to witness diffusion in action.

Cosi

1999-01-01

60

Underwater Rays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Light beams in wavy unclear water, also called underwater rays, and caustic networks of light formed at the bottom of shallow water are two faces of a single phenomenon. Derivation of the caustic using only simple geometry, Snell's law and simple derivatives accounts for observations such as the existence of the caustic network on vertical walls,…

Cepic, Mojca

2008-01-01

61

Breathing Room  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this health activity, learners explore breathing, lungs and asthma. Learners test their lung capacity by blowing air into balloons. Learners are also encouraged to determine how the amount of air in a balloon changes as you vary the size of the hole you blow through. Safety note: Check for latex allergies before purchasing balloons. Learners with respiratory problems should not breathe through the straws or blow up the balloons, but they can help record measurements and collect data.

Television, Twin C.

2010-01-01

62

Underwater Archaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to commonly held perceptions, the study of underwater cultural heritage in Australia is not restricted to historic\\u000a shipwreck sites. Across the breadth of the country, there is a rich heritage of submerged archaeological sites that represent\\u000a a range of human interaction with the sea, inland rivers and lakes. These sites vary in age from recent history to those of

David Nutley

63

Construction of a Junction Box for Use with an Inexpensive, Commercially Available Underwater Video Camera Suitable for Aquatic Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater video camera apparatus is an important fisheries research tool. Such cameras, developed and marketed for recreational anglers, provide an opportunity for researchers to easily obtain cost-effective and waterproof video apparatus for fisheries research. We detail a series of modifications to an inexpensive, commercially available underwater video camera (about US$125) that provide flexibility for deploying the equipment in the laboratory

Steven J. Cooke; Christopher M. Bunt

2004-01-01

64

Underwater Plume  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment uses inexpensive and easy-to-find items to demonstrate how hot water behaves in a body of cold water. Working in groups of four, students can complete the experiment in a single class period. The printable handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about how cold and hot air and water interact, detailed experiment directions, and a worksheet that helps students use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of how knowledge of what creates underwater geysers can be used to detect deep sea vents.

65

Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners test exhaled breath for carbon dioxide and learn how to use an indicator as a simple way to measure pH. Learners also explore what happens when an acid (lemon) is mixed with the indicator. This activity can be related to the topic of global climate change. This activity can also be used to discuss atmospheric warming, which is occurring due to increased amounts of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane in the atmosphere.

Mission Science Workshop

2013-01-01

66

Underwater Plume  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment uses inexpensive and easy-to-find items to demonstrate how hot water behaves in a body of cold water. Working in groups of four, students can complete the experiment in a single class period. The printable six-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about how cold and hot air and water interact, detailed experiment directions, and a worksheet that helps them use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of how knowledge of what creates underwater geysers can be used to detect deep sea vents. Students will observe how water at high temperatures behaves within water at low temperatures, the relationship of temperature to density, and the relationship between density and buoyancy.

67

42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...apparatus. (a) Service time will be measured with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88...according to the length of time it supplies air or oxygen to the breathing machine. (c) The service time obtained on this test...

2014-10-01

68

42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...apparatus. (a) Service time will be measured with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88...according to the length of time it supplies air or oxygen to the breathing machine. (c) The service time obtained on this test...

2012-10-01

69

42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...apparatus. (a) Service time will be measured with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88...according to the length of time it supplies air or oxygen to the breathing machine. (c) The service time obtained on this test...

2013-10-01

70

42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...apparatus. (a) Service time will be measured with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88...according to the length of time it supplies air or oxygen to the breathing machine. (c) The service time obtained on this test...

2010-10-01

71

42 CFR 84.95 - Service time test; open-circuit apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...apparatus. (a) Service time will be measured with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88...according to the length of time it supplies air or oxygen to the breathing machine. (c) The service time obtained on this test...

2011-10-01

72

Breathing and Calling: Neuronal Networks in the Xenopus laevis  

E-print Network

Breathing and Calling: Neuronal Networks in the Xenopus laevis Hindbrain ERIK ZORNIK* AND DARCY B; hindbrain The frog Xenopus laevis relies on underwater vocal sig- naling to coordinate courtship and male. KELLEY Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 ABSTRACT Xenopus

Kelley, Darcy B.

73

What Causes Bad Breath?  

MedlinePLUS

... bad breath that are not true: Myth #1: Mouthwash will make bad breath go away. Mouthwash only gets rid of bad breath temporarily. If you do use mouthwash, look for an antiseptic (kills the germs that ...

74

Deep breathing after surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated and ... your or nurse told you. Do these deep-breathing exercises as directed by your doctor or nurse.

75

Breathing Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visual simulation and representation programs and applications have been popping up online in greater numbers, and this recent find is one that will pique the interest of scientists, policy makers, and others who are concerned about carbon dioxide emission rates across the Earth. The Breathing Earth site was created by David Bleja, and he draws on a number of resources (such as the World Factbook and the United Nations) for the data that is utilized to create this site. Visitors can scroll over different countries to learn about their population, their emissions, and their birth and death rate. This interactive map and educational resource also contains a legend in the right-hand corner which explains the various symbols in use here.

Bleja, David

76

Precision autonomous underwater navigation  

E-print Network

Deep-sea archaeology, an emerging application of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) technology, requires precise navigation and guidance. As science requirements and engineering capabilities converge, navigating in the ...

Bingham, Brian S. (Brian Steven), 1973-

2003-01-01

77

Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.  

PubMed

Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events. PMID:22574634

Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

2012-06-01

78

Managing Shortness of Breath  

MedlinePLUS

PATIENT / FAMILY TEACHING SHEET Managing Shortness of Breath What is shortness of breath (dyspnea)? ? A personal experience for each individual ? An ... rev. 08 09, rev 07 13 Other HPNA Teaching Sheets on are available at www.HPNA.org. ...

79

Rapid shallow breathing  

MedlinePLUS

Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... your oxygen level is too low and nebulized respiratory treatments if you are having an asthma attack.

80

What Controls Your Breathing?  

MedlinePLUS

... Contact Us FAQs You are here Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » How the Lungs Work » What Controls Your Breathing? Explore How the Lungs Work What Are... The Respiratory System What Happens When You Breathe What Controls Your ...

81

Breath-Holding Spells  

MedlinePLUS

... toddlers who hold their breath until they turn blue in the face. These might sound like amusing " ... happen when a child stops breathing and turns blue in the face. These spells are often triggered ...

82

Underwater seismic source. [for petroleum exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus for generating a substantially oscillation-free seismic signal for use in underwater petroleum exploration, including a bag with walls that are flexible but substantially inelastic, and a pressured gas supply for rapidly expanding the bag to its fully expanded condition is described. The inelasticity of the bag permits the application of high pressure gas to rapidly expand it to full size, without requiring a venting mechanism to decrease the pressure as the bag approaches a predetermined size to avoid breaking of the bag.

Yang, L. C. (inventor)

1979-01-01

83

Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.  

PubMed

Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another important concern is a suite of products from chemical reactions among oxidizing compounds with biological chemicals such as amines, thiols and carbonyls. SAMAP Meeting We (Armin and Joachim) attended the 2011 SAMAP conference in Taranto, Italy (10-14 October), which occurred just a few weeks after the IABR meeting in Parma, Italy (11-15 September 2011). It was held at the Officers' Club of the Taranto Naval Base under the patronage of the Italian navy; the local host was Lucio Ricciardi of the University of Insubria, Varese, Italy. At the 2011 SAMAP meeting, the theme was air-independent propulsion (AIP), meaning the capability of recharging the main batteries of the submarine without the need to surface. Only a few navies (e.g. US, UK, France, Russia, China) have historically had this capability using nuclear-powered submarines that can function underwater for extended periods of time (months). Most navies operate submarines with conventional diesel-electric propulsion, wherein diesel-powered generators charge battery banks which then drive an electric motor connected to the propeller. The batteries are charged while the boat is on the surface or during snorkelling, when the boat is submerged a few meters below the surface and a snorkel tube is extended to the surface. The period between battery charges can vary from several hours to one or two days depending on the power requirements and the nature of the mission. The process is necessary for breathing air revitalization (flushing out accumulated contaminants) and for the operation of the diesel engines. However, during this period the submarine is vulnerable to detection. Since the 1940s there have been various attempts to develop a power generation system that is independent of external air (AIP). To this end hydrogen peroxide was initially used and later liquid oxygen (LOX). Currently, most AIP submarines use fuel cell technology (LOX and hydrogen) to supplement the conventional diesel-electric system in order to extend the underwater endurance to 2-3 weeks. These propulsion engineering changes also reduce per

Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

2012-03-01

84

Smelling and Tasting Underwater.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses differences between smell and taste, comparing these senses in organisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Describes the chemical environment underwater and in air, differences in chemoreceptors to receive stimuli, and the organs, brain, and behavior involved in chemoreception. (CS)

Atema, Jelle

1980-01-01

85

Underwater acoustic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advances in acoustic modem technology that enabled high-rate reliable communications, current research focuses on communication between various remote instruments within a network environment. Underwater acoustic (UWA) networks are generally formed by acoustically connected ocean-bottom sensors, autonomous underwater vehicles, and a surface station, which provides a link to an on-shore control center. While many applications require long-term monitoring of

Ethem M. Sozer; Milica Stojanovic; John G. Proakis

2000-01-01

86

Shortness of Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... em-fa-see-ma"), which is a lung disease that is most often caused by smoking Heart failure Panic attacks If you are short of breath with a cough and/or fever, you may have a chest infection or pneumonia (say: "new-moan-yuh"). Less common causes of breathing problems are lung cancer, a blood ...

87

Every Breath You Take  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an activity designed to help students develop number sense, each student estimates the number of times s/he breathes in one hour, and the class graphs the estimates, finds the mean and median of the estimates, and discusses outliers. Students then brainstorm how they could find out how many breaths a person actually takes in a day—and implement their strategies.

2008-01-01

88

Locating underwater objects. [technology transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Underwater search operations are considered to be engineering and operational problems. A process for proper definition of the problem and selection of instrumentation and operational procedures is described. An outline of underwater search instrumentation and techniques is given.

Grice, C. F.

1974-01-01

89

Packard's Apparatus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Packard's Falling Body Apparatus, invented by John C. Packard, which is essentially an inclined plane combined with a simple and elegant method of measuring the relative time of descent of a steel ball. (JRH)

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1996-01-01

90

Thermalite Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermalite is portable apparatus that nondestructively determines thermal-diffusion properties of specimen. Based on heat-pulse method; it applies pulse of heat to specimen, then computes relevant thermal properties of specimen from time-resolved measurements of thermal response of specimen to heat pulse. Apparatus is self-contained and calibrated and tested with stored thermal pattern as standard. Used to assess flaw in specimen.

Heyman, Joseph S.; Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Zalemeda, Joseph N.

1994-01-01

91

Underwater robots for cable following  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensor fusion technique is proposed for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to track underwater cables. The focus of this paper is to solve the two practical problems encountered in optical vision based systems in underwater environments: (1) navigation of AUV when cable is invisible in the image; and (2) selection of the correct cable when there are many similar features

Arjuna Balasuriya; Tarnab Ura

2001-01-01

92

Fast Clear Single Underwater Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

In underwater situations, clarify of images are degraded by light absorption and scattering. In order to restore the original clarity of the images underwater, we analyze the physical effects of visibility degradation, and present an algorithm which inverts the image formation process. In this paper, we consider the visibility restoration from a single underwater image as a particular filtering problem

Yan Wang; Bo Wu

2010-01-01

93

UNDERWATER SOUND RECORDING OF ANIMALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater sound recording of animals uses specialized techniques to obtain faithful copies of sounds produced by animals during their normal activities underwater. Techniques have to be unobtrusive as well as nondisturbing to avoid changing the animal behaviors. The first scientific recording of underwater sounds from a marine mammal at sea was by William E. Schevill and Barbara Lawrence in 1948.

WILLIAM A. WATKINS; MARY ANN DAHER

1992-01-01

94

Advanced underwater lift device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

1993-01-01

95

Stop, Breathe & Think app.  

PubMed

The Stop, Breathe & Think app is free, thanks to underwriting from Tools for Peace, the non-profit organisation that teaches people of all ages how to develop and apply kindness and compassion in their daily lives. PMID:25005405

Shaw, Natalie

2014-07-15

96

Shortness of Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... of Breath: Patient Education. http://www.onebreath. org/document.doc?id=113. Accessed March 25, 2014. • Dyspnea, mechanisms, assess- ment, and management: a consensus statement by American Thoracic Society. Am ...

97

Bad Breath (Halitosis)  

MedlinePLUS

... mouth. Poor oral hygiene eventually will lead to periodontal (gum) disease, which also can cause bad breath. ... either a cavity in a tooth or by periodontal (gum) disease. Respiratory tract infections — Throat, sinus or ...

98

Positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

1983-07-07

99

Aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus is described which consists of: an aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator adapted to be located on the leading edge of an airframe of a hypersonic aircraft and being responsive to aerodynamic heating of water by a compression shock airstream to produce steam pressure; an expansion shock air-cooled condensor adapted to be located in the airframe rearward of and operatively coupled to the aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator to receive and condense the steam pressure; and an aerodynamic heated steam injector manifold adapted to distribute heated steam into the airstream flowing through an exterior generating channel of an air-breathing, ducted power plant.

Kim, K.

1986-08-12

100

Diversity in underwater inspection  

SciTech Connect

Underwater nondestructive testing (NDT) of deepwater structures provides a diverse, hostile, and challenging means to implement NDT. Given a warm, shallow water with good visibility, working underwater approaches the category of ``I get paid for this.`` This environment allows for identical reliability as ``topside`` NDT. Underwater visual, magnetic particle, and ultrasonic testing have been in place since the early 1980s, with equipment modified for submergence and closely resembling topside NDT tools. However, deepwater structures represent the most unique of NDT considerations. In the Gulf of Mexico, there are approximately 15 fixed structures installed at a depth of 243--400 m. This article describes safety, technical, and commercial issues relating to inspecting deepwater structures and focuses especially on a comparison of remote operated vehicles (ROVs) and atmospheric diving suits (ADSs). Deepwater structures have excellent records of structural integrity with an extremely low incidence of corrosion or fatigue cracking problems. The primary reason for developing deepwater NDT capabilities is contingency for damage during installation impact damage from dropped objects. There are three means used for underwater NDT: diving, atmospheric diving suits (ADSs), and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs).

Goldberg, L. [Sea Test Services, Merritt Island, FL (United States)

1996-03-01

101

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews apparatus design and instructional uses for Fume Cupboard Monitor, Plant Tissue Culture Kit, various equipment for electronic systems course, Welwyn Microprocessor-Tutor, Sweep Function Generator SFG 606, and Harris manufacturers materials--Regulated Power Supply Units, Electronic Current and Voltage Meters, Gas Preparation Kit, and…

School Science Review, 1981

1981-01-01

102

Prehensile apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized.

Smith, Christopher M. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01

103

Prehensile apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized. 8 figures.

Smith, C.M.

1993-10-12

104

Apparatus Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents four short articles on: a power supply for the measurement of the charge-to-mass ratio of the electron; a modified centripetal force apparatus; a black box electronic unknown for the scientific instruments laboratory; and a simple scaling model for biological systems. (MLH)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1977-01-01

105

Sensor apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-12-22

106

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of notes describes (1) an optoelectronic apparatus for classroom demonstrations of mechanical laws, (2) a more efficient method for demonstrated nuclear chain reactions using electrically energized "traps" and ping-pong balls, and (3) an inexpensive demonstration for qualitative analysis of temperature-dependent resistance. (CS)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1980-01-01

107

Exercise apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

108

A miniature optical breathing sensor  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate a novel miniature optical breathing sensor based on an Agarose infiltrated photonic crystal fiber interferometer. The sensor detects the variation in relative humidity that occurs between inhaled and exhaled breath. The sensor interrogation system can determine the breathing pattern in real time and can also predict the breathing rate and the breathing status during respiration. The sensor is suitable for monitoring patients during a magnetic resonance imaging scan where use of sedatives and anesthetics necessitates breathing monitoring; electronic sensors are not suitable in such an environment and a visual observation of the patient's respiratory efforts is often difficult. PMID:23243581

Mathew, Jinesh; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

2012-01-01

109

Underwater welding, cutting and inspection  

SciTech Connect

Underwater welding, cutting and inspection of offshore, inland waterway and port facilities are becoming a requirement for both military and industrial communities, as maintenance and repair costs continue to escalate, and as many of the facilities are in operation well beyond their intended design life. In nuclear applications, underwater welding, cutting and inspection for repair and modification of irradiated nuclear power plant components are also a requirement. This article summarizes recent developments in this emerging underwater technology.

Tsai, C.L. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Ohio Underwater Welding Center)

1995-02-01

110

Sampling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface.

Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); King, Lloyd L. (Benton, WA); Jackson, Peter O. (Richland, WA); Zulich, Alan W. (Bel Air, MD)

1989-01-01

111

Hyperthermia apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A hyperthermia apparatus, suitable for transurethral application, has an energy radiating element comprising a leaky-wave antenna. The leaky wave antenna radiation pattern is characterized by a surface wave which propagates along an aperture formed by openings (small in comparison to a wavelength) in the outer conductor of a transmission line. Appropriate design of the leaky wave antenna produces a uniform, broadside pattern of temperature elevation that uniformly heats all or part of the periurethral tissues.

Larsen, L.E.

2000-04-18

112

Natural Underwater Adhesives  

PubMed Central

The general topic of this review is protein-based underwater adhesives produced by aquatic organisms. The focus is on mechanisms of interfacial adhesion to native surfaces and controlled underwater solidification of natural water-borne adhesives. Four genera that exemplify the broad range of function, general mechanistic features, and unique adaptations are discussed in detail: blue mussels, acorn barnacles, sandcastle worms, and freshwater caddisfly larva. Aquatic surfaces in nature are charged and in equilibrium with their environment, populated by an electrical double layer of ions as well as adsorbed natural polyelectrolytes and microbial biofilms. Surface adsorption of underwater bioadhesives likely occurs by exchange of surface bound ligands by amino acid sidechains, driven primarily by relative affinities and effective concentrations of polymeric functional groups. Most aquatic organisms exploit modified amino acid sidechains, in particular phosphorylated serines and hydroxylated tyrosines (dopa), with high-surface affinity that form coordinative surface complexes. After delivery to the surfaces as a fluid, permanent natural adhesives solidify to bear sustained loads. Mussel plaques are assembled in a manner superficially reminiscent of in vitro layer-by-layer strategies, with sequentially delivered layers associated through Fe(dopa)3 coordination bonds. The adhesives of sandcastle worms, caddisfly larva, and barnacles may be delivered in a form somewhat similar to in vitro complex coacervation. Marine adhesives are secreted, or excreted, into seawater that has a significantly higher pH and ionic strength than the internal environment. Empirical evidence suggests these environment triggers could provide minimalistic, fail-safe timing mechanisms to prevent premature solidification (insolubilization) of the glue within the secretory system, yet allow rapid solidification after secretion. Underwater bioadhesives are further strengthened by secondary covalent curing. PMID:21643511

Stewart, Russell J.; Ransom, Todd C.; Hlady, Vladimir

2011-01-01

113

Biophysics of underwater hearing in anuran amphibians.  

PubMed

A standing wave tube apparatus was used to determine the biophysical basis of underwater hearing sensitivity in 3 species of Rana and in Xenopus laevis. A speaker inside the base of a vertical, water-filled 3 m steel pipe produced standing waves. Pressure and particle motion were measured with a hydrophone and geophone respectively and were spatially 90 degrees out of phase along the length of the tube. Microphonic responses were recorded from the inner ear of frogs lowered through pressure and particle motion maxima and minima. The air-filled lungs of whole frogs produced distortions of the sound field. Preparations of heads with only an air-filled middle ear produced little distortion and showed clear pressure tracking at sound intensities 10-20 dB above hearing thresholds from 200-3000 Hz. Filling the middle ear with water decreased or abolished microphonic responses. Severing the stapes reduced responses except at certain frequencies below about 1000 Hz which varied with body size and likely represent resonant frequencies of the middle ear cavity. We conclude that the frog species examined respond to underwater sound pressure from about 200-3000 Hz with the middle ear cavity responsible for pressure transduction. PMID:6980964

Hetherington, T E; Lombard, R E

1982-06-01

114

Life and Breath  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a public education program combining the screening process and a follow-up program for teaching victims of emphysema and other respiratory diseases how to better their living condition through proper breathing, avoidance of air pollutants and cigarette smoking, and taking better care of themselves physically. (PD)

Ellis, Helen D.

1974-01-01

115

INTERMITTENT POSITIVE PRESSURE BREATHING  

EPA Science Inventory

Efficacy of long-term intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) treatment when used as an adjunct to the overall care of ambulatory outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evaluation compared the use of IPPB with use of a powered nebulizer....

116

Positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

Vogel, Max A. (Kennewick, WA); Alter, Paul (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01

117

Submersibles: Submersed in Underwater Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This data tip from Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center archive, focuses on underwater exploration technology such as submersibles, scuba diving, and underwater research habitat. It includes links to a variety of educational sites, and a data activity that uses coral mortality data collected by students as part of the JASON XI expedition project at Conch Reef near Key Largo, Florida.

118

Multisensor visualization for underwater archaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems particular to underwater archaeology are discussed. The underwater archaeology study of three sunken ships is then described. They are the USS Monitor, Hamilton and Scourge. Future prospects with respect to improved technology are indicated. From depths prohibitive to human divers, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) send back acoustic and optical data to archaeologists safe and comfortable aboard ship. Sonars

W. K. Stewart

1991-01-01

119

Underwater wet welding of steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater wet welding is conducted directly in water with the shielded metal arc (SMA) and flux cored arc (FCA) welding processes. Underwater wet welding has been demonstrated as an acceptable repair technique down to 100 meters (325 ft.) in depth, but wet welds have been attempted on carbon steel structures down to 200 meters (650 ft.). The primary purpose of

S. Ibarra; S. Liu; D. L. Olson

1995-01-01

120

Expiration: breathing's other face.  

PubMed

The evolution of the aspiration pump seen in tetrapod vertebrates from the buccal-pharyngeal force pump seen in air breathing fish and amphibians appears to have first involved the production of active expiration. Active inspiration arose later. This appears to have involved reconfiguration of a parafacial oscillator (now the parafacial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus (pFRG/RTN)) to produce active expiration, followed by reconfiguration of a paravagal oscillator (now the preBötC) to produce active inspiration. In the ancestral breathing cycle, inspiration follows expiration, which is in turn followed by glottal closure and breath holding. When both rhythms are expressed, as they are in reptiles and birds, and mammals under conditions of elevated respiratory drive, the pFRG/RTN appears to initiate the respiratory cycle. We propose that the coordinated output of this system is a ventilation cycle characterized by four phases. In reptiles, these consist of active inspiration (I), glottal closure (E1), a pause (an apnea or breath hold) (E2), and an active expiration (E3) that initiates the next cycle. In mammals under resting conditions, active expiration (E3) is suppressed and inspiration (I) is followed by airway constriction and diaphragmatic braking (E1) (rather than glottal closure) and a short pause at end-expiration (E2). As respiratory drive increases in mammals, expiratory muscle activity appears. Frequently, it first appears immediately preceding inspiration (E3) just as it does in reptiles. It can also appear in E1, however, and it is not yet clear what mechanisms underlie when and where in the cycle it appears. This may reflect whether the active expiration is recruited to enhance tidal volume, increase breathing frequency, or both. PMID:25194197

Jenkin, Sarah E M; Milsom, William K

2014-01-01

121

Nonlinear granular breathing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical study of the problem of driven horizontal alignments of solid, elastic spheres that are placed between two rigid walls is presented. The studies are confined to cases where the initial loading between the spheres is zero. The driving force is applied on the left outer sphere and directed into the chain. The spheres are considered to interact via the repulsive and strongly nonlinear Hertz potential. Three systems are analyzed, the monodispersed chain, the tapered chain and the decorated chain. A Hertzian chain over-compressed will respond via a dilation phase leading the system to a pulsatory mode which we call nonlinear breathing. Exhaustive studies show that the dynamics of monodispersed and tapered granular chains acted upon by a constant/time dependent force presents surprising features such as the breathing period (frequency) and the anomalous nonlinear resonance frequency. The breathing period characterizes the response of the system which is dependent upon the external force and is strongly influenced by the geometry of chain. Approximate relations for the breathing period and the anomalous nonlinear resonance frequency as functions of the magnitude of the driving force and of the chain's parameters are developed. Then the ratios of the analyzed quantities are compared to ratios obtained from simulations. Inertial mismatches introduced in granular chains enrich the dynamics of monodispersed chains leading to the discussion of continuing our work beyond this dissertation. Converting the ocean wave's energy and of small scale wind energy via granular chains into mechanical and electrical energies is discussed as possible application of the breathing phenomenon.

Simion, Robert Paul

122

Experiment of robofish aided underwater archaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bionic propulsive mechanism is a hot research topic in robotics field. Robofish, as an ultimate carrier of the research results, should exhibit its advantages in practice. First, the requirements of underwater archaeology to underwater vehicles are briefly analyzed. Then the feasibility of SPC-II robofish to perform underwater task is explained in velocity, maneuverability, comparison with UUV (unmanned underwater vehicle), etc.

Jian Hong Liang; Tian Miao Wang; Song Wang; Dan Zou; Jian Sun

2005-01-01

123

Underwater gas tornado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first experimental observation of a new hydrodynamic phenomenon, the underwater tornado. Simple measurements show that the tornado forms a vortex of the Rankine type, i.e. the rising gas rotates as a solid body and the liquid rotates with a velocity decreasing hyperbolically with the radius. We obtain the dependence of the tornado radius a on the gas stream value j theoretically: a ? j2/5. Processing of a set of experiments yielded the value 0.36 for the exponent in this expression. We also report the initial stages of the theoretical study of this phenomenon.

Byalko, Alexey V.

2013-07-01

124

Collecting apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

Duncan, Charles P. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1983-01-01

125

Fractal Noise in Breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of respiration derives from applications of a variety of physical and life science disciplines, methods,\\u000a and models to a critical physiological process: exchange and balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide. We know that breathing\\u000a at rest arises from a diversity of interrelated and interactive physical and chemical mechanisms involving molecular and cellular\\u000a processes in the brainstem which include-among

Bernard Hoop; Melvin D. Burton; Homayoun Kazemi

126

The Air We Breathe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This picture book is designed to introduce children to the Earth's atmosphere and its importance to life on Earth. It also introduces how the addition of new gases (e.g., ozone) contributes to changing the quality of air we breathe. With an understanding of how our atmosphere works, we can begin to understand how our activities may be contributing to some of those changes in air quality.

127

Reaction time following yoga bellows-type breathing and breath awareness.  

PubMed

The reaction time (RT) was assessed in two groups of healthy males, yoga group (M age = 29.0 yr.) and non-yoga or control group (M age = 29.0 yr.), with 35 participants each. The yoga group had an average experience of 6 months, while the control group was yoga-naïve. The yoga group was assessed in two sessions, (i) bhastrika pranayama or bellows breathing and (ii) breath awareness, while the control group had a single control session. The two experimental sessions, one with each type of breathing, and the control session consisted of pre- (5 min.), during (18 min.), and post-session epochs (5 min.). Assessments were made in the pre- and post-session epochs using a Multi-Operational Apparatus for Reaction Time. Following 18 min. of bhastrika pranayama there was a statistically significant reduction in number of anticipatory responses compared to before the practice. This suggests that the immediate effect of bhastrika pranayama is to inhibit unnecessary responding to stimuli. PMID:24422341

Telles, Shirley; Yadav, Arti; Gupta, Ram Kumar; Balkrishna, Acharya

2013-08-01

128

Underwater Robotics: Science, Design & Fabrication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes information on the textbook Underwater Robotics: Science, Design & Fabrication by Steven W. Moore, Harry Bohm and Vickie Jensen. The site includes information about the content of the book as well as sample material.

2011-09-20

129

Laser apparatus  

DOEpatents

Laser apparatus is described wherein an active laser element, such as the disc of a face-pumped laser, is mounted in a housing such that the weight of the element is supported by glass spheres which fill a chamber defined in the housing between the walls of the housing and the edges of the laser element. The uniform support provided by the spheres enable the chamber and the pump side of the laser element to be sealed without affecting the alignment or other optical properties of the laser element. Cooling fluid may be circulated through the sealed region by way of the interstices between the spheres. The spheres, and if desired also the cooling fluid may contain material which absorbs radiation at the wavelength of parasitic emissions from the laser element. These parasitic emissions enter the spheres through the interface along the edge surface of the laser element and it is desirable that the index of refraction of the spheres and cooling fluid be near the index of refraction of the laser element. Thus support, cooling, and parasitic suppression functions are all accomplished through the use of the arrangement.

Lewis, Owen (Fairport, NY); Stogran, Edmund M. (North Syracuse, NY)

1980-01-01

130

Windmill apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A windmill apparatus is described comprising: a frame body structure adapted to be positioned on a flat top surface of a construction such as a building; a main shaft vertically fixed in a middle position of the frame body structure; a first main-shaft sleeve rotatably coupled with a lower portion of the main shaft for being driven to rotate around the main shaft; a belt pulley fixedly connected at a lower end of the first main-shaft sleeve for providing a driving force along with the first main-shaft sleeve; a rotating means having a revolving arrangement vertically disposed therein rotatably installed around the first main-shaft sleeve within a lower open portion of the frame body structure for being driven to rotate by wind along with the first main-shaft sleeve; a second main-shaft sleeve with a first gear fixed at a lower end thereof movably connected at an upper portion of the main shaft for providing gear transmission therefrom; a direction control means installed within an upper closed portion of the frame body structure and rotatably connected to the rotating means through the second main-shaft sleeve for automatically adjusting the revolving arrangement according to wind direction; and a wind direction indicating means horizontally disposed on top of the frame body structure and rotatably connected to the direction control means so as to relay wind direction change whereby, wind force can be effectively utilized with a simplified structure.

Chen, M.J.; Hwang, L.M.

1987-11-17

131

The Air We Breathe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This picture book is designed to introduce children to the Earth's atmosphere and its importance to life on Earth. It also introduces how the addition of new gases (e.g., ozone) contributes to changing the quality of air we breathe. With an understanding of how our atmosphere works, we can begin to understand how our activities may be contributing to some of those changes in air quality. The back cover includes a short demo/activity called Making a Gas You Can’t See (Carbon Dioxide).

132

Methanol in human breath.  

PubMed

Using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry for trace gas analysis of the human breath, the concentrations of methanol and ethanol have been measured for various test persons consuming alcoholic beverages and various amounts of fruits, respectively. The methanol concentrations increased from a natural (physiological) level of approximately 0.4 ppm up to approximately 2 ppm a few hours after eating about 1/2 kg of fruits, and about the same concentration was reached after drinking of 100 ml brandy containing 24% volume of ethanol and 0.19% volume of methanol. PMID:8561283

Taucher, J; Lagg, A; Hansel, A; Vogel, W; Lindinger, W

1995-10-01

133

Mechanisms of underwater hearing in larval and adult tiger salamanders Ambystoma tigrinum.  

PubMed

1. A standing wave tube apparatus was used to determine the biophysical basis of underwater hearing in Ambystoma tigrinum. 2. A. tigrinum responds to the pressure component of underwater sound, and the mouth cavity appears responsible for transduction of sound pressure. 3. Near-field displacements produced by pulsations of the air-filled mouth cavity apparently stimulate the inner ear. 4. Salamander head preparations with no air-filled mouth cavity respond to the particle motion component of underwater sound, but only at sound pressure levels 40 dB or more above levels producing clear pressure sensitivity in intact salamanders or head preparations including an air-filled mouth cavity. PMID:6132703

Hetherington, T E; Lombard, R E

1983-01-01

134

Clinical applications of breath testing  

PubMed Central

Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years. PMID:21173863

Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam

2010-01-01

135

Underwater Sensor Nodes and Networks  

PubMed Central

Sensor technology has matured enough to be used in any type of environment. The appearance of new physical sensors has increased the range of environmental parameters for gathering data. Because of the huge amount of unexploited resources in the ocean environment, there is a need of new research in the field of sensors and sensor networks. This special issue is focused on collecting recent advances on underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks in order to measure, monitor, surveillance of and control of underwater environments. On the one hand, from the sensor node perspective, we will see works related with the deployment of physical sensors, development of sensor nodes and transceivers for sensor nodes, sensor measurement analysis and several issues such as layer 1 and 2 protocols for underwater communication and sensor localization and positioning systems. On the other hand, from the sensor network perspective, we will see several architectures and protocols for underwater environments and analysis concerning sensor network measurements. Both sides will provide us a complete view of last scientific advances in this research field. PMID:24013489

Lloret, Jaime

2013-01-01

136

Underwater sensor nodes and networks.  

PubMed

Sensor technology has matured enough to be used in any type of environment. The appearance of new physical sensors has increased the range of environmental parameters for gathering data. Because of the huge amount of unexploited resources in the ocean environment, there is a need of new research in the field of sensors and sensor networks. This special issue is focused on collecting recent advances on underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks in order to measure, monitor, surveillance of and control of underwater environments. On the one hand, from the sensor node perspective, we will see works related with the deployment of physical sensors, development of sensor nodes and transceivers for sensor nodes, sensor measurement analysis and several issues such as layer 1 and 2 protocols for underwater communication and sensor localization and positioning systems. On the other hand, from the sensor network perspective, we will see several architectures and protocols for underwater environments and analysis concerning sensor network measurements. Both sides will provide us a complete view of last scientific advances in this research field. PMID:24013489

Lloret, Jaime

2013-01-01

137

Laser Plasmas for Underwater Shock Hydrodynamics Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new facility, the Laser Laboratory for Underwater Hydrodynamics, is being built to produce and study underwater shocks using the Pharos laser at NRL. High energy density conditions are achieved by bringing a part of the laser energy, up 250 J in 5 ns, to a small focal volume. Hydrodyamics problems to be studied include underwater shock propagation and interaction

T. G. Jones; J. Grun; R. Burris; C. K. Manka

1998-01-01

138

Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater sensor nodes will find applications in oceanographic data collection, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration, disaster prevention, assisted navigation and tactical surveillance applications. Moreover, unmanned or autonomous underwater vehicles (UUVs, AUVs), equipped with sensors, will enable the exploration of natural under- sea resources and gathering of scientific data in collaborative monitoring missions. Underwater acoustic networking is the enabling technology for these

Ian F. Akyildiz; Dario Pompili; Tommaso Melodia

2005-01-01

139

UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND XML BASED DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM  

E-print Network

KEYWORDS: Archaeology, GIS, Underwater Photogrammetry, Internet, Multimedia, Updating, Visualization with experts of the investigated domain (here underwater archaeology) in order to build a relevant data modelUNDERWATER PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND XML BASED DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM: The case of the 'Grand Ribaud F

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

140

Social relations and breath odour.  

PubMed

In this retrospective qualitative study, the researcher reviewed 55 client records of The Breath Odour Clinic. The purpose was to determine if individuals attended a clinic specialised in treating oral malodour for medical or social reasons. The study focused on the psychosocial and breath odour history. Clients had agreed to the use of information for research purposes. Society uses odour as a means to define and interact with the world. The olfactory, smelling experience is intimate, emotionally charged and connects us with the world. It follows that the smell from mouth breath odour can connect or disconnect a person from their social environment and intimate relationships. How one experiences one's own body is very personal and private but also very public. Breath odour is public as it occurs within a social and cultural context and personal as it affects one's body image and self-confidence. Body image, self-image and social relations mesh, interact and impact upon each other. Breath odour is a dynamic and interactive aspect of the self-image. In addition, breath odour may be value-coded as 'bad'. In 75% of the cases reviewed, decreased self-confidence and insecurity in social and intimate relations led clients to seek treatment at the specialised breath odour clinic. Their doctor, dental hygienist or dentist had treated medical and oral conditions but not resolved their breath odour problem. When a person perceives a constant bad breath problem, she/he uses defence techniques, and may avoid social situations and social relations. This affects a person's well-being. PMID:16451502

McKeown, L

2003-11-01

141

Decompression sickness following seawater hunting using underwater scooters.  

PubMed

Since the 1960s there have been several reports of divers suffering from decompression sickness (DCS) after repetitive breath-hold (BH) diving. In the period from 1995 to 2000 John Batle observed apparent DCS in 30 free divers competing with underwater scooters in the sea around Mallorca. The cases were treated successfully with recompression therapy. Two of the typical diving profiles, described by Batle, have been submitted to calculations with a modified Haldane model: a perfusion limited, symmetrical multitissue/multilevel model. The model predicts that the two dive profiles will lead to DCS as recorded. A third profile, confirmed by reports to avoid DCS, also were accurately predicted. In order to protect free divers, John Batle developed a dive table for repeated BH diving. According to our calculations the Batle table does not prevent DCS during prolonged exposures. A alternative range of tables is developed and presented. PMID:17987510

Thorsen, Hans-Christian M; Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo; Paulev, Poul-Erik

2007-01-01

142

Breathing air from protein foam.  

PubMed

Protein foams can be used to extinguish fires. If foams are to be used to extinguish fires where people are present, such as in high-rise buildings or ships, then a method for allowing people to breathe in a foam-filled environment is needed. It is proposed that the air, used to create the foam be used for breathing. A canister that will break incoming air-filled foam has been designed for attachment to a standard gas mask, in order to provide breathable air to a trapped person. Preliminary results for the modified mask indicate feasibility of breathing air from air-filled protein foam. PMID:12721445

Ackermann, Douglas; Jewell, David N; Stedman, Matthew L; Burapatana, Vorakan; Atukorale, Prabhani V; Pinson, Michelle L; Wardle, Alison E; Zhu, Wenyan; Tanner, Robert D

2003-01-01

143

Living with Dyspnea -- How to Breathe Easier  

MedlinePLUS

Living with Dyspnea–How to breathe easier Dyspnea (pronounced disp–NEE–uh) is a medical term for difficult or labored breathing. Having dyspnea can ... breathe in. Patient Education 1 Living with Dyspnea–How to breathe easier 2. Walk a few steps and ...

144

EDITORIAL: Bad breath and exhaled breath analysis---common fields with common denominators Bad breath and exhaled breath analysis---common fields with common denominators  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 20th century, bad breath and analysis of breath for medical diagnosis evolved as two separate fields. Papers on bad breath were published almost exclusively in dental journals, whereas papers on exhaled breath analysis were more commonly found in medical and chemical analysis journals. When Daniel van Steenberghe and Mel Rosenberg first discussed setting up an international society for

Mel Rosenberg; Anton Amann

2008-01-01

145

[Techniques of underwater intervention: means, methods, research and outlook].  

PubMed

In France, diving activities are practised by a large number of people, included recreational or sport divers, commercial and military divers. Different diving technics are used, depending on depth and duration of underwater interventions: human intervention under pressure (diving), one atmosphere submarine, remotely operated vehicle (ROV). The diver used specific equipment and procedures with air, heliox (oxygen -helium), hydrox (oxygen-hydrogen) or hydreliox (oxygen-hydrogen-helium) breathing gas mixtures; and for decompression, specific tables adapted to gas mixtures and underwater time exposures. In 1988, six Comex and French Navy divers worked at a record depth of 534 msw with hydreliox and in 1992 a world record onshore dive at 701 msw was performed by Comex in Marseille. These dives showed the efficiency of hydrogen diving at very deep depth. Among a lot of submarines built for undersea works, the latest in the range of Comex's innovative submarines, the "Remora 2000" combines the functions and instrumentation of an oceanographic subsea vessel with eye catching design of a recreational submarine. Now, ROV's replace more and more the diver on oil subsea offshore fields. PMID:8963715

Gardette, B; Delauze, H G

1996-05-01

146

Human factors in underwater systems.  

PubMed

Applications of human factors to undersea engineering and the relationship to aerospace science are explored. Cooperative ventures include the TEKTITE underwater habitat and development of better procedures to prevent decompression sickness. Other research involved the use of alternate gases in diving systems, remote-operation vehicles, and diving system tests. PMID:11541030

Crosson, D

1993-10-01

147

Thermotropic Liquid Crystal Film Underwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermotropic liquid crystal film was produced in distilled water successfully. A lecithin suspension was utilized to make the film. Polarizing microscopic observations were carried out. The molecular arrangement was seemed to be homeotoropic. An expected electrooptic response of the film underwater was confirmed.

Uto, Sadahito; Nakanishi, Yuuji; Matsumoto, Takahumi

2005-05-01

148

Release of erythropoietin and neuron-specific enolase after breath holding in competing free divers.  

PubMed

Free diving is associated with extreme hypoxia. This study evaluated the combined effect of maximal static breath holding and underwater swimming on plasma biomarkers of tissue hypoxemia: erythropoietin, neuron-specific enolase and S100B, C-reactive protein, pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, and troponin T. Venous blood samples were obtained from 17 competing free divers before and 3?h after sessions of static apnea and underwater swimming. The heart was evaluated by echocardiography. Static apnea for 293?±?78?s (mean?±?SD) and subsequent 88?±?21?m underwater swimming increased plasma erythropoietin from 10.6?±?3.4 to 12.4?±?4.1?mIU/L (P?=?0.013) and neuron-specific enolase from 14.5?±?5.3 to 24.6?±?6.4?ng/mL (P?=?0.017); C-reactive protein decreased from 0.84?±?1.0 to 0.71?±?0.67?mmol/L (P?=?0.013). In contrast, plasma concentrations of S100B (P?=?0.394), pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (P?=?0.549), and troponin T (P?=?0.125) remained unchanged and, as assessed by echocardiography, the heart was not affected. In competitive free divers, bouts of static and dynamic apnea increase plasma erythropoietin and neuron-specific enolase, suggesting that renal and neural tissue, rather than the heart, is affected by the hypoxia developed during apnea and underwater swimming. PMID:25142912

Kjeld, T; Jattu, T; Nielsen, H B; Goetze, J P; Secher, N H; Olsen, N V

2014-08-20

149

Portable containment sleever apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

Rea, M.J.; Brown, R.A.

2000-04-25

150

Using optical communication for remote underwater robot operation  

E-print Network

Underwater vehicles are typically operated using a tether or a slow acoustic link. We present an underwater optical communication system that enables a high-throughput and low-latency link to an underwater robot. The optical ...

Doniec, Marek Wojciech

151

Acoustic Propagation Considerations for Underwater Acoustic Communications Network Development  

E-print Network

Acoustic Propagation Considerations for Underwater Acoustic Communications Network Development Woods Hole, MA 02543 jpreisig@whoi.edu ABSTRACT Underwater acoustic communications systems are challenged by the characteristics of acoustic propagation through the underwater environment

Zhou, Shengli

152

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1995-01-01

153

High resolution underwater acoustic imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high resolution underwater imaging system using sparse array technology has been developed and tested in turbid waters around Australia. High resolution 3D imaging implies many voxels. The present system can image 103×103×4×10 3 voxels although faster images can be obtained by zooming to a smaller volume of interest. With 3D images, precise dimensions of complex shapes such as pipe

I. S. F. Jones

1999-01-01

154

Underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS)  

SciTech Connect

Practical limitations of underwater imaging systems are reached when the noise in the back scattered radiation generated in the water between the imaging system and the target obscures the spatial contrast and the resolution necessary for target discovery and identification. The advent of high power lasers operating in the oceanic transmission window of the visible spectrum (blue-green portion) has led to improved experimental illumination systems for underwater imaging The properties of laser bearm in range-gated and synchronously scanned devices take advantage of the unique temporal and spatial coherence effect of common volume back scatter to reduce or eliminate noise, increase signal to noise levels. Synchronously scanned systems rely on the highly collimated nature of the laser beam for spatial rejection of common volume back scatter. A synchronous, raster-scanning underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS) has been developed at Lawrence liver-more National Laboratory. The present UWLIS system differs from earlier synchronous scanners in its ability to scan in two dimensions at conventional video frame rate (30 Hz). The imaging performance of the present UWLIS was measured at distances of up to 6.3 AL (at a physical distance of 15.2 meters) during an in-water tank test and 4.5 to 5.0 AL (at a physical distance of 30 meters) during open water oceanic testing. The test results indicate that the UWLIS system is already capable of extending the underwater imaging range beyond that of conventional floodlight illuminated SIT cameras. The real or near real time frame rates of the UWLIS make possible operations in a mode in which the platform speed is randomly varied. This is typical of the operational environment in which the platform is often maneuvered above and around rugged seafloor terrain`s and obstacles.

DeLong, M.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kulp, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1995-03-10

155

The Museum of Underwater Archaeology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the goals of the University of Rhode Island's Museum of Underwater Archaeology (MUA) is to help "underwater archaeologists present their research to the general public by creating web based museum style exhibits as well as announce their latest projects." Exploring the website "by map" allows visitors to see the locations of projects. Visitors can then click on an anchor, which will give a brief description of the project, and this also provides a link to see the corresponding journal, or just to read more about the project. The featured exhibit, under "Exhibits" on the homepage, is "ECU's [East Carolina University] Shipwrecks in Bermuda The 2008 Field School". The students can be seen in a photo slideshow on the introductory page of the exhibit. In the "Findings" section of the exhibit is a link to "Underwater Jigsaw Puzzle", which sounds like a game, but is the outline of all the debris at a ship breaking site. When more than one ship is found at a ship breaking site, the site plan helps maritime archaeologists decipher which pieces belong to which ship. It can be confusing and challenging, and is not always successful.

156

Herbert Spencer's Electrical Apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT may be of interest to record the fact that the electrical apparatus formerly owned by Herbert Spencer, consisting of a cylinder machine, three Leyden jars, an insulated stand and plates, with other accessories, which include an electrical pistol, is still in existence. One of the smaller pieces of apparatus bears the name G. Adams, London, who was presumably the

Fredk. W. Shurlock

1927-01-01

157

Structure of Golgi apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Golgi apparatus (GA) of eukaryotic cells consist of one or more stacks of flattened saccules (cisternae) and an array of fenestrae and tubules continuous with the peripheral edges of the saccules. Golgi apparatus also are characterized by zones of exclusion that surround each stack and by an assortment of vesicles (or vesicle buds) associated with both the stacks and

H. H. Mollenhauer; D. J. Morré

1994-01-01

158

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01

159

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

1984-03-20

160

Duff's Acceleration Apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some years ago I wrote a note about Packard's apparatus to honor an early physics teacher who designed apparatus. In this note I honor Dr. A. Wilmer Duff of Worchester Polytechnic Institute in Worchester, Mass., for his development of a simple and inexpensive method of studying uniformly accelerated motion.

Greenslade, Thomas B.

2003-03-01

161

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry.

E. L. Duran; R. L. Lundin

1989-01-01

162

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry.

E. L. Duran; R. L. Lundin

1988-01-01

163

Emission control apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improved emission control apparatus for use with an internal combustion engine. It comprises: the apparatus having an enclosed cylindrical housing with an inlet at one end thereof for connection with the exhaust of the engine and an outlet at the opposite end thereof; converter means being mounted in the housing for reducing noxious gases emitted from

1991-01-01

164

Paced breathing controller using LabView  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paced breathing devices are designed and used for exactly that paced breathing. Often when a researcher is conducting an experiment that requires biological signals to be analyzed, the number of variables are reduced by keeping all of the subject's rate of breaths per minute (BPM) the same. Presently there exists both software and hardware that serves the purpose for this

L. Hendrickson; P. Engler

1997-01-01

165

Critical issues for breath analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current resurgence of interest in breath analysis follows directly from the ingenuity and foresight of the researchers in the area of nitric oxide, the gas that was named molecule of the year in 1992 [1]. Pioneering studies have defined the physiologic role of nitric oxide including its involvement in reactive airways. Understanding this role in relation to the mechanism

Terence H Risby

2008-01-01

166

Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath  

EPA Science Inventory

The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

167

Drive mechanism for production of simulated human breath  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulated breath drive mechanism was developed as subsystem to breathing metabolic simulator. Mechanism reproduces complete range of human breath rate, breath depth, and breath waveform, as well as independently controlled functional residual capacity. Mechanism was found capable of simulating various individual human breathing characteristics without any changes of parts.

Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Lambert, J. W.; Morison, W. B.

1972-01-01

168

Recent advances in underwater acoustic communications & networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past three decades have seen a growing interest in underwater acoustic communications. Continued research over the years has resulted in improved performance and robustness as compared to the initial communication systems. Research has expanded from point-to-point communications to include underwater networks as well. A series of review papers provide an excellent history of the development of the field until

Mandar Chitre; Shiraz Shahabudeen; Lee Freitag; Milica Stojanovic

2008-01-01

169

Conservation of Cultural Materials from Underwater Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater archaeology is the only branch of field archaeology that is dependent upon the conservation laboratory for its ultimate success. In fact, in underwater archaeology the activities of the conservation laboratory are considered to be a continuation of the field excavations with the recording of basic data along with the stabilization, preservation, and study of the recovered material being major

Donny L. Hamilton

1999-01-01

170

UNDERWATER PAINT MARKING OF PORPOISES1  

E-print Network

UNDERWATER PAINT MARKING OF PORPOISES1 Identification of individual animals has always been would be a boon. Paint seemed an answer (Schevill 1966). Materials and Methods Several standard paint underwater. Applica- tion of these paints was easiest by pressurized spray. We experimented with spray

171

Internal Actuation for Intelligent Underwater Vehicle Control  

E-print Network

Internal Actuation for Intelligent Underwater Vehicle Control Naomi Ehrich Leonard 1 and Craig A In this paper we describe underwater vehicle control using internal actuation. Used alone, internal actua­ tors actuators do not increase the total vehicle drag. Depending on the vehicle and the performance re

Leonard, Naomi

172

Lagrangian modeling of the Underwater Wave Glider  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a control-oriented modeling approach for a hybrid autonomous underwa- ter vehicle: the Underwater Wave Glider. Thanks to a non-conventional design, the vehicle can accomplish both surface and underwater tasks, by changing its shape. The vehicle can operate as a wave glider at the sea surface, where the potential energy of the waves and the solar radiation can

Andrea Caiti; Vincenzo Calabro; Sergio Grammatico; Andrea Munafo; Mirko Stifani

2011-01-01

173

Underwater Laser Filamentation and Electrical Discharge Guiding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques to trigger and guide underwater electrical discharges using a laser are currently being developed at NRL. This work may be useful for a variety of applications, including advanced micromachining. As part of this development we are studying underwater optical filaments. Optical filamentation is the extended propagation of a small diameter high-power laser beam, thought to result from a balance between Kerr self-focusing and ionization-induced defocusing, and typically includes a coincident plasma column. Laser heating and hydrodynamic expansion can also result in subsequent vapor channel formation. Both the plasma column and vapor channel can be useful structures for guiding electrical discharges. Our group has for the first time demonstrated and characterized ns underwater filaments. Using a 60 mJ, 5 ns, 532 nm laser, we measured filament diameters of ˜100 ?m and propagation > 30 Rayleigh lengths. Underwater optical filament measurements, as well as results from ongoing laser-guided underwater discharge experiments, will be presented.

Jones, T. G.; Helle, M. H.; Kaganovich, D.; Gordon, D.; Ting, A.

2011-11-01

174

Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogus?aw; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

2014-06-01

175

The Dynamics of Underwater Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two principal phenomena associated with an underwater explosion are bubble motion and shock wave propagation. In this thesis both are investigated. The study of bubble dynamics proceeds by assuming irrotational flow in an incompressible and inviscid fluid. A technique is developed for the derivation of equations of motion for a spherical bubble in flow domains of simple geometry. The concept of the Kelvin impulse is exploited in this endeavour. The spherical model is used to infer the behaviour of bubbles that deform from spherical shape. The boundary integral method is then employed to compute the motion of underwater explosion bubbles. The pressure within the bubble is assumed to be a function of the bubble volume and it is demonstrated that under some circumstances the increasing bubble pressure upon collapse will cause the non-spherical bubble to rebound. In these cases the high speed liquid jets characteristic of bubble collapse are shown to grow during the rebound phase of the motion. Data for the behaviour of bubbles described by a wide range of the physical parameters governing the motion is presented. The jet that forms upon collapse or rebound threads the bubble and ultimately impacts upon the far side of the bubble. To date, boundary integral methods have been unable to compute the motion beyond this time. Thus the impact is considered and a boundary integral method is developed to compute the motion of the toroidal bubble that is created by this jet penetration. The dynamics of toroidal bubbles is then investigated. The theory of geometrical shock dynamics is considered in the context of the propagation of an underwater blast wave. The significant feature of such a wave is the non -uniform flow field behind the shock. In order to account for this flow the propagation of a shock down a tube of slowly varying cross section is reconsidered. The solution of this problem is the basis for the theory of geometrical shock dynamics. It is found that the propagation is described by an infinite sequence of ordinary differential equations that can be closed by a process of truncation. Truncation at higher equations allows higher order derivatives of flow quantities evaluated at the shock to be included in the description of the shock motion. In this manner account may be taken of non-uniform flow conditions behind the shock. These equations are implemented in the numerical scheme of geometrical shock dynamics and the diffraction of an underwater blast wave is considered.

Best, John Philip

176

Air modulation apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An air modulation apparatus, such as for use in modulating cooling air to the turbine section of a gas turbine engine is described. The apparatus includes valve means disposed around an annular conduit, such as a nozzle, in the engine cooling air circuit. The valve means, when in a closed position, blocks a portion of the conduit, and thus reduces the amount and increases the velocity of cooling air flowing through the nozzle. The apparatus also includes actuation means, which can operate in response to predetermined engine conditions, for enabling opening and closing of the valve means.

Lenahan, D. T.; Corsmeier, R. J.; Sterman, A. P. (inventors)

1983-01-01

177

Cleaning method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A new automatable cleaning apparatus which makes use of a method of very thoroughly and quickly cleaning a gauze electrode used in chemical analyses is given. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg. plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml. of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

Jackson, Darryl D. (Los Alamos, NM); Hollen, Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-01-01

178

Cleaning method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

1981-02-27

179

Conduit grinding apparatus  

DOEpatents

A grinding apparatus for grinding the interior portion of a valve stem receiving area of a valve. The apparatus comprises a faceplate, a plurality of cams mounted to an interior face of the faceplate, a locking bolt to lock the faceplate at a predetermined position on the valve, a movable grinder and a guide tube for positioning an optical viewer proximate the area to be grinded. The apparatus can either be rotated about the valve for grinding an area of the inner diameter of a valve stem receiving area or locked at a predetermined position to grind a specific point in the receiving area.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY); Korytkowski, Alfred S. (Scotia, NY)

1991-01-01

180

Uncovering deep mysteries: The underwater life of an amphibious louse.  

PubMed

Despite the incredible success of insects in colonizing almost every habitat, they remain virtually absent in one major environment - the open sea. A variety of hypotheses have been raised to explain why just a few insect species are present in the ocean, but none of them appears to be fully explanatory. Lice belonging to the family Echinophthiriidae are ectoparasites on different species of pinnipeds and river otters, i.e. they have amphibious hosts, who regularly perform long excursions into the open sea reaching depths of hundreds of meters (thousands of feets). Consequently, lice must be able to support not only changes in their surrounding media, but also extreme variations in hydrostatic pressure as well as breathing in a low oxygen atmosphere. In order to shed some light on the way lice can survive during the diving excursions of their hosts, we have performed a series of experiments to test the survival capability of different instars of Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) from South American sea lions Otaria flavescens, when submerged into seawater. These experiments were aimed at analyzing: (a) immersion tolerance along the louse life; (b) lice's ability to obtain oxygen from seawater; (c) physiological responses and mechanisms involved in survival underwater. Our experiments showed that the forms present in non-diving pups - i.e. eggs and first-instar nymphs - were unable to tolerate immersion in water, while following instars and adults, all usually found in diving hosts, supported it very well. Furthermore, as long as the level of oxygen dissolved in water was higher, the lice survival capability underwater increased, and the recovery period after returning to air declined. These results are discussed in relation to host ecology, host exploitation and lice functional morphology. PMID:25449903

Leonardi, Maria Soledad; Lazzari, Claudio R

2014-12-01

181

Apparatus for growing crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved apparatus and method for growing crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.

Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)

1986-01-01

182

NMR logging apparatus  

DOEpatents

Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

2014-05-27

183

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

Kaun, T.D.

1995-03-14

184

Emission Tube Apparatus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an image of an emission tube apparatus with tube in place. When plugged in and turned on the gas in the tube will become excited and emit a specific color of light depending upon the type of gas.

Ward, Charles

2003-01-16

185

Polarimetric imaging of underwater targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underwater imaging is challenging because of the significant attenuation of light due to absorption and scattering of light in water. Using polarization properties of light is one of the options for improving image quality. We present results of imaging of a polarized target in open ocean (Curacao) and coastal (NY Bight) waters. The target in the shape of a square is divided into several smaller squares, each of which is covered with a polarizing film with different polarization orientations or transmission coefficients was placed on a mirror and imaged under water by a green-band full-Stokes polarimetric video camera at the full range of azimuth angles against the Sun. The values of the Stokes vector components from the images are compared with the modeled image of the target using radiative transfer code for the atmosphere-ocean system combined with the simple imaging model. It is shown that even in clear water the impact of the water body on the polarized underwater image is very significant and retrieval of target polarization characteristics from the image is extremely challenging.

Gilerson, Alex; Carrizo, Carlos; Tonizzo, Alberto; Ibrahim, Amir; El-Habashi, Ahmed; Foster, Robert; Ahmed, Samir

2013-06-01

186

Fiber pulling apparatus modification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced gravity fiber pulling apparatus (FPA) was constructed in order to study the effects of gravity on glass fiber formation. The apparatus was specifically designed and built for use on NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Four flights have been completed to date during which E-glass fiber was successfully produced in simulated zero, high, and lunar gravity environments. In addition simulated lunar soil samples were tested for their fiber producing properties using the FPA.

Smith, Guy A.; Workman, Gary L.

1992-01-01

187

Electric arc saw apparatus  

DOEpatents

A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

Deichelbohrer, P.R.

1983-08-08

188

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

1985-02-26

189

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

1985-02-26

190

Vacuum pump apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved cryopumping apparatus which comprises a cryopumping space which may be alternately opened and closed from the surrounding area by moveable panels, trubular cryopanels within said cryopumping space through which a coolant such as liquid helium may be passed, and an apparatus for spraying liquid argon onto said cylindrical cryopanels in order to enhance the cryogenic entrapment of such low-z ions, atoms, and molecules as hydrogen and helium.

Batzer, Thomas H. (Livermore, CA); Call, Wayne R. (Tracy, CA)

1985-01-01

191

News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.  

PubMed

This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath analysis is now used to diagnose and monitor asthma, check for transplant organ rejection, detect lung cancer and test for Helicobacter pyloriinfection-and the list is growing. A major milestone in the scientific study of breath was marked in the 1970s when Linus Pauling demonstrated that there is more to exhaled breath than the classic gases of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour-a lot more. Based on the gas-liquid partition chromatography analysis, Pauling reported the presence of 250 substances in exhaled breath. We now have the technology to test for any and all of these components. The field of breath analysis has made considerable advances in the 21st century and the utility of breath analysis in health care is advancing quickly. The science is rapidly expanding, the technology is improving and several new applications have been developed or are under commercial development. Breath analysis may rely on both direct (on line) and indirect (off line) reading methods: in the on-line method, breath analysis is immediately available, whereas the use of indirect methods generally involves collecting and trapping the breath sample and subsequently transferring it to an analytical instrument for analysis. Various kinds of breath samples have been used in biological monitoring, including mixed expired air and end expired air: end exhaled air represents the alveolar air concentration and mixed exhaled air represents the gas mixture coming from the dead space of the bronchial tree and the alveolar gas-exchange space. Exhaled breath analysis is an area where the modern day advances in technology and engineering meet the ever expanding need in medicine for more sensitive, specific and non-invasive tests which makes this area a major front in the interface between medicine and engineering. A major breakthrough over the past decade has been the increase in breath-based tests approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Devices measuring common breath gases (oxygen, nitrogen, water vapour and CO(2)) in patient respiratory monitoring have served as

Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

2012-05-23

192

Air-Breathing Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

1998-01-01

193

New Scientific Underwater Cable System Tokai-SCANNER for Underwater Geophysical Monitoring Utilizing a Decommissioned Optical Underwater Telecommunication Cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new cost-effective scientific underwater cable system named Tokai Submarine Cabled Network Observatory for Nowcast of Earthquake Recurrences (Tokai-SCANNER) using a decommissioned optical underwater telecommunication cable. We have used this cable in two ways simultaneously: (1) to construct an ocean-bottom observatory at the end of the cable, and (2) to use the cable as a long emitting

Kenichi Asakawa; Takashi Yokobiki; Tada-nori Goto; Eiichiro Araki; Takafumi Kasaya; Masataka Kinoshita; Junichi Kojima

2009-01-01

194

The measurand problem in breath alcohol testing.  

PubMed

Proper interpretation of forensic measurements can be critical to the administration of justice. Breath alcohol testing is commonly relied upon to measure the concentration of alcohol in breath or, indirectly, in blood. The concentration sought constitutes the "quantity intended to be measured," referred to as the measurand. Although breath tests always probe the same physical quantity, their measurand is dictated by statute and varies between jurisdictions. Thus, identical numerical values obtained from tests in disparate jurisdictions may refer to different quantities and may not indicate the relevant statutory measurand. This can lead to misinterpretation of results, referred to as the "measurand problem." We first illustrate the concept of the measurand. Thereafter, the measurand problem is illustrated through application of Hlastala's breath test paradigm and Gullberg's work on breath test uncertainty. It is shown that where the measurand is not properly accounted for, conclusions based upon breath test evidence are undermined. PMID:24502457

Vosk, Ted; Forrest, A Robert W; Emery, Ashley; McLane, Lauren D

2014-05-01

195

Biologically inspired underwater propulsion and adhesion mechanisms  

E-print Network

The ultimate objective of this research is to develop an innovative underwater pipe inspection robot with both swimming and crawling capabilities as opposed to conventional in-pipe robots with wheeled designs or driven by ...

Pan, Yichao

2014-01-01

196

Cooperative localization for autonomous underwater vehicles  

E-print Network

Self-localization of an underwater vehicle is particularly challenging due to the absence of Global Positioning System (GPS) reception or features at known positions that could otherwise have been used for position ...

Bahr, Alexander

2009-01-01

197

Complete SE3 Underwater Robot Control  

E-print Network

the error vector. We verify the controller with experiments using our au- tonomous underwater robot AMOUR have developed a small, highly maneuverable, under- water autonomous vehicle called AMOUR [1]. AMOUR

Farritor, Shane

198

Contributions to automated realtime underwater navigation  

E-print Network

This dissertation presents three separate-but related-contributions to the art of underwater navigation. These methods may be used in postprocessing with a human in the loop, but the overarching goal is to enhance vehicle ...

Stanway, Michael Jordan

2012-01-01

199

XAUV : modular high maneuverability autonomous underwater vehicle  

E-print Network

The design and construction of a modular test bed autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is analyzed. Although a relatively common stacked-hull design is used, the state of the art is advanced through an aggressive power ...

Walker, Daniel G. (Daniel George)

2009-01-01

200

Piezoelectric materials used in underwater acoustic transducers  

SciTech Connect

Piezoelectric materials have been used in underwater acoustic transducers for nearly a century. In this paper, we reviewed four different types of piezoelectric materials: piezoelectric ceramics, single crystals, composites, and polymers, which are widely used in underwater acoustic transducers nowadays. Piezoelectric ceramics are the most dominant material type and are used as a single-phase material or one of the end members in composites. Piezoelectric single crystals offer outstanding electromechanical response but are limited by their manufacturing cost. Piezoelectric polymers provide excellent acoustic impedance matching and transducer fabrication flexibility although their piezoelectric properties are not as good as ceramics and single crystals. Composites combined the merits of ceramics and polymers and are receiving increased attention. The typical structure and electromechanical properties of each type of materials are introduced and discussed with respect to underwater acoustic transducer applications. Their advantages and disadvantages are summarized. Some of the critical design considerations when developing underwater acoustic transducers with these materials are also touched upon.

Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

2012-07-07

201

Using Underwater Robotics in the Engineering Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Underwater robotics projects offer an excellent medium for discovery based engineering and science learning. The challenge of building underwater robotic vehicles and manipulators engages and stimulates students while encompassing a broad spectrum of engineering disciplines and scientific concepts. This paper describes an ongoing effort, at Stevens Institute of Technology, to incorporate such projects into the engineering curriculum. We report the successful design and implementation of student projects, building wire guided remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) with motorized grabbers. We also describe ongoing work to extend these projects to include computer control and sensory feedback, allowing students to develop autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The effectiveness of these modules for teaching fundamental engineering skills will be independently assessed in accordance with established educational theory. Target Audience: High School Faculty/Administrators, 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

Hotaling, Liesl; Sheryll, Richard; Stolkin, Rustam

2009-11-20

202

Reliability of underwater hearing thresholds in pinnipeds  

E-print Network

Reliability of underwater hearing thresholds in pinnipeds Brandon L. Southall Long Marine Laboratory, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, 100 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, California 95060 and Ocean Acoustics Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National

Reichmuth, Colleen

203

Sensor Network Architectures for Monitoring Underwater Pipelines  

PubMed Central

This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (Radio Frequency) wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and integrated wired/RF wireless sensor networks. The paper also discusses the reliability challenges and enhancement approaches for these network architectures. The reliability evaluation, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages among these architectures are discussed and compared. Three reliability factors are used for the discussion and comparison: the network connectivity, the continuity of power supply for the network, and the physical network security. In addition, the paper also develops and evaluates a hierarchical sensor network framework for underwater pipeline monitoring. PMID:22346669

Mohamed, Nader; Jawhar, Imad; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Zhang, Liren

2011-01-01

204

Instrumentation and Sensors for Human Breath Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaled breath contains a vast milieu of compounds, both volatile and non-volatile, that appear to correlate with physiological\\u000a processes on-going in the body. These breath biomarkers hold enormous diagnostic potential when they are adequately measured\\u000a and monitored. Thus, instrumentation geared towards breath analysis applications has expanded rapidly in the last decade,\\u000a although challenges for future research still exist. This chapter

Melinda G. Simon; Cristina E. Davis

205

Underwater probing with laser radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent advances in laser and electro optics technology have greatly enhanced the feasibility of active optical probing techniques aimed at the remote sensing of water parameters. This paper describes a LIDAR (laser radar) that has been designed and constructed for underwater probing. The influence of the optical properties of water on the general design parameters of a LIDAR system is considered. Discussion of the specific details in the choice of the constructed LIDAR is given. This system utilizes a cavity dumped argon ion laser transmitter capable of 50 watt peak powers, 10 nanosecond pulses and megahertz pulse repetition rates at 10 different wavelengths in the blue green region of the spectrum. The performance of the system, in proving various types of water, is demonstrated by summarizing the results of initial laboratory and field experiments.

Carswell, A. I.; Sizgoric, S.

1975-01-01

206

Career Opportunities Outdoors and Underwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ATETV project delivers web-based videos to connect students to careers in advanced technology. In this episode of ATETV, marine technology and environmental technology are discussed. A student competition of remotely operated underwater vehicle technology is shown in the video. Employees with training and experience in this technology are in high demand in the workforce, and industry is using such competitions as scouting opportunities. In technological programs like the ones shown here, students gain hands-on experience that prepares them for the workplace. The episode can be watched in full or through the two segments: âÂÂDiving into A Marine-Based Career,â and âÂÂEnvironmental Technology Takes to the Great Outdoors.â Running time for the full episode of this streaming video is 7:01.

2010-07-27

207

Tsunami Features of Solid Block Underwater Landslides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-field and far-field wave features generated by solid block underwater landslides are described qualitatively and quantitatively. The characteristic time of landslide motion and maximum near-field wave am- plitude suffice to scale many of these water wave features. Criteria are provided to determine if water waves generated by underwater landslides propagate as deepwater or shallow water waves. Estimates of the dominant

Philip Watts

2000-01-01

208

How Long Can You Hold Your Breath?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 142 of the PDF), learners will compare breathing rates before and after hyperventilation to explore how reduced carbon dioxide levels in the blood lower the need to breathe. This activity also includes information about how microgravity conditions in space affect sleep and breathing rates of astronauts. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Astronaut's Sleep" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource guide includes background information and sample evaluation questions. Note: learners with respiratory ailments, such as asthma or allergies, should not participate in the breath-holding part of this activity.

Macleish, Marlene Y.; Mclean, Bernice R.

2013-05-15

209

Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) ... incitatif - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (??????) Incentive Spirometer ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual ...

210

Calculating rhythmicity of infant breathing using wavelets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breathing signals are one set of physiological data that may provide information regarding the mechanisms that cause SIDS. Isolated breathing pauses have been implicated in fatal events. Other features of interest include slow amplitude modulation of the breathing signal, a phenomenon whose origin is unclear, and periodic breathing. The latter describes a repetitive series of apnea, and may be considered an extreme manifestation of amplitude modulation with successive cessations of breathing. Rhythmicity is defined to assess the impact of amplitude modulation on breathing signals and describes the extent to which frequency components remain constant for the duration of the signal. The wavelet transform was used to identify sections of constant frequency components within signals. Rhythmicity can be evaluated for all the frequency components in a signal, for individual frequencies. The rhythmicity of eight breathing epochs from sleeping infants at high and low risk for SIDS was calculated. Initial results show breathing from infants at high risk for SIDS exhibits greater rhythmicity of modulating frequencies than breathing from low risk infants.

Macey, Katherine E.; Page, Wyatt H.; Harper, Ronald M.; Macey, Paul M.; Ford, Rodney P. K.

2000-12-01

211

Episodic Breathing in Frogs: Converging Hypotheses on Neural Control of Respiration in Air Breathing Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. The episodic, or intermittent, breathing of frogs and many ecto- thermic vertebrates results in important fluctuations of arterial blood gases. This pattern of breathing differs from the rhythmic and continuous alterna- tion of inspiration observed in most homeotherms, which maintain O2 and CO2 levels within narrow ranges. These differences in pattern of breathing indicate that the respiratory control systems

RICHARD KINKEAD

1997-01-01

212

Biological particle identification apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for making multiparameter light scattering measurements from suspensions of biological particles is described. Fourteen of the sixteen Mueller matrix elements describing the particles under investigation can be substantially individually determined as a function of scattering angle and probing radiations wavelength, eight elements simultaneously for each of two apparatus configurations using an apparatus which incluees, in its simplest form, two polarization modulators each operating at a chosen frequency, one polarizer, a source of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, a detector sensitive to the wavelength of radiation employed, eight phase-sensitive detectors, and appropriate electronics. A database of known biological particle suspensions can be assembled, and unknown samples can be quickly identified once measurements are performed on it according to the teachings of the subject invention, and a comparison is made with the database.

Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Gregg, Charles T. (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, W. Kevin (Los Alamos, NM); Hiebert, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

213

Robot arm apparatus  

DOEpatents

A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1992-01-01

214

Passive orientation apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus that can return a payload to a known orientation after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and orientation after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known orientation by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known orientation after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

215

Apparatus for processing coal  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for processing coal to prevent the creation of extreme fines and to extract pyrites from the principal coal fractions in which there are two air circulating circuits having processing components which cooperate in their respective circuits to result initially in substantial extraction of fines in the first circuit while releasing principal granulated coal fractions and pyrites to the second circuit where specific gravity separation of the pyrites and principal coal fractions occur. The apparatus includes a source of drying heat added to the air moving in the circuits and delivered at the places where surface moisture drying is most effective. Furthermore, the apparatus is operated so as to reduce coal to a desired size without creating an excessive volume of extreme fines, to separate pyrites and hard to grind components by specific gravity in a region where fines are not present, and to use the extreme fines as a source of fuel to generate drying heat.

Williams, R.M.

1985-02-12

216

The chemical neuroanatomy of breathing  

PubMed Central

The chemical neuroanatomy of breathing must ultimately encompass all the various neuronal elements physiologically identified in brainstem respiratory circuits and their apparent aggregation into “compartments” within the medulla and pons. These functionally defined respiratory compartments in the brainstem provide the major source of input to cranial motoneurons controlling the airways, and to spinal motoneurons activating inspiratory and expiratory pump muscles. This review provides an overview of the neuroanatomy of the major compartments comprising brainstem respiratory circuits, and a synopsis of the transmitters used by their constituent respiratory neurons. PMID:18706532

Alheid, George F.; McCrimmon, Donald R.

2008-01-01

217

Fissile solution measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for determining the content of a fissile material within a solution by detecting delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material after it is temporarily irradiated by a neutron source. The apparatus comprises a container holding the solution and having a portion defining a neutron source cavity centrally disposed within the container. The neutron source cavity temporarily receives the neutron source. The container has portions defining a plurality of neutron detector ports that form an annular pattern and surround the neutron source cavity. A plurality of neutron detectors count delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material. Each neutron detector is located in a separate one of the neutron detector ports.

Crane, T.W.; Collinsworth, P.R.

1984-06-11

218

Current measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

Umans, Stephen D. (Belmont, MA)

2008-11-11

219

Microelectromechanical ratcheting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) ratcheting apparatus is disclosed which includes an electrostatic or thermal actuator that drives a moveable member in the form of a ring gear, stage, or rack. Motion is effected by one or more reciprocating pawls driven by the actuator in a direction that is parallel to, in line with, or tangential to the path. The reciprocating pawls engage indexing elements (e.g. teeth or pins) on the moveable member to incrementally move the member along a curved or straight path with the ability to precisely control and determine the position of the moveable member. The MEM apparatus can be formed on a silicon substrate by conventional surface micromachining methods.

Barnes, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Samuel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Jensen, Brian D. (Albuquerque, NM); Rodgers, M. Steven (Albuquerque, NM); Burg, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

220

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

1988-06-20

221

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

1989-05-09

222

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

Duran, Edward L. (Santa Fe, NM); Lundin, Ralph L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

223

Breathing  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

The two lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system. Other components of the respiratory system conduct air to the lungs, such as the trachea (windpipe) which branches into smaller structures called ...

224

21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5260 Breathing circuit bacterial filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a device that...

2013-04-01

225

21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5260 Breathing circuit bacterial filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a device that...

2014-04-01

226

21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit circulator is a turbine device that...

2011-04-01

227

21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit circulator is a turbine device that...

2014-04-01

228

21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit circulator is a turbine device that...

2012-04-01

229

21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit circulator is a turbine device that...

2010-04-01

230

21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit circulator is a turbine device that...

2013-04-01

231

21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device...

2012-04-01

232

21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device...

2014-04-01

233

21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device...

2011-04-01

234

21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device...

2010-04-01

235

21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device...

2013-04-01

236

42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...apparatus. The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in...section, the concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas at...inhalation portion of the breathing cycle shall not exceed the following...allowable average concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired air...

2013-10-01

237

42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...apparatus. The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in...section, the concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas at...inhalation portion of the breathing cycle shall not exceed the following...allowable average concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired air...

2014-10-01

238

42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...apparatus. The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in...section, the concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas at...inhalation portion of the breathing cycle shall not exceed the following...allowable average concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired air...

2010-10-01

239

42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...apparatus. The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in...section, the concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas at...inhalation portion of the breathing cycle shall not exceed the following...allowable average concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired air...

2012-10-01

240

42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...apparatus. The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in...section, the concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas at...inhalation portion of the breathing cycle shall not exceed the following...allowable average concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired air...

2011-10-01

241

Protective supplied breathing air garment  

DOEpatents

A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

Childers, Edward L. (Lakewood, CO); von Hortenau, Erik F. (Golden, CO)

1984-07-10

242

Protective supplied breathing air garment  

DOEpatents

A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

1984-07-10

243

[Stahl, Leibniz, Hoffmann and breathing].  

PubMed

At the beginning of the XVIII th century, Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz and Friedrich Hoffmann criticize Georg Ernst Stahl's medical theory. They differenciate between unsound and true reasonings. Namely, they validate Stahl's definition of breath but extracting it from its animist basis and placing it in an epistemology obeying to the principle of sufficient reason and to the mechanical model. The stahlian discovery consists in understanding breath as a calorific ventilation against the ancient conception; the iatromechanists recognize its accuracy, but they try then to transpose it to a mechanical model of ventilation. Using it in a different epistemological context implies that they analyze the idea of discovery "true" in its contents, but "wrong" in its hypothesis. It impels to examine the epistemology of medical knowledge, as science and therapeutics, and in its links with the other scientific theories. Thus, if Leibniz as philosopher and Hoffmann as doctor consider Stahl's animism so important, it is because its discoveries question the fundamental principles of medicine. PMID:17153053

Carvallo, Sarah

2006-01-01

244

Touchless monitoring of breathing function.  

PubMed

We have developed a novel method for noncontact measurement of breathing function. The method is based on statistical modeling of dynamic thermal data captured through an infrared imaging system. The expired air has higher temperature than the typical background of indoor environments (e.g., walls). Therefore, the particles of the expired air emit at a higher power than the background, a phenomenon which is captured as a distinct thermal signature in the infrared imagery. There is significant technical difficulty in computing this signature, however, because the phenomenon is of very low intensity and transient nature. We use an advanced statistical algorithm based on the method of moments and the Jeffrey's divergence measure to address the problem. So far, we were able to compute correctly the breathing waveforms for ten (10) subjects at distances ranging from 6-8 feet. The results were checked against concomitant ground-truth data collected with a traditional contact sensor. The technology is expected to find applications in the next generation of touchless polygraphy and in preventive health care. PMID:17271901

Murthy, Ramya; Pavlidis, Ioannis; Tsiamyrtzis, Panagiotis

2004-01-01

245

Retrotrapezoid nucleus, respiratory chemosensitivity and breathing automaticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breathing automaticity and CO2 regulation are inseparable neural processes. The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a group of glutamatergic neurons that express the transcription factor Phox2b, may be a crucial nodal point through which breathing automaticity is regulated to maintain CO2 constant. This review updates the analysis presented in prior publications. Additional evidence that RTN neurons have central respiratory chemoreceptor properties is

Patrice G. Guyenet; Douglas A. Bayliss; Ruth L. Stornetta; Michal G. Fortuna; Stephen B. G. Abbott; Seth D. DePuy

2009-01-01

246

Measuring Your Breathing Frequency at Rest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about the brain and sleep (on page 138 of the PDF), learners measure their resting breathing rates. Learners will discover that breathing frequencies vary amongst individuals. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Astronaut's Sleep" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource guide includes background information and sample evaluation questions.

Macleish, Marlene Y.; Mclean, Bernice R.

2013-05-15

247

How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

2010-01-01

248

BREATHING PATTERN DISORDERS AND FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT  

PubMed Central

Study Design: Experimental design Background: Normal breathing mechanics play a key role in posture and spinal stabilization. Breathing Pattern Disorders (BPD) have been shown to contribute to pain and motor control deficits, which can result in dysfunctional movement patterns. The Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) has been shown to accurately predict injury in individuals who demonstrate poor movement patterns. The role BPD play on functional movement is not well established. Furthermore, there is currently no single test to clinically diagnose BPD. A variety of methods are used, but correlations between them are poor. Purpose: To examine the relationship between BPD and functional movement and identify correlations between different measures of BPD. Methods: Breathing was assessed in 34 healthy individuals using a multi?dimensional approach that included biomechanical, biochemical, breathing related symptoms, and breathing functionality measures. Movement was assessed using the FMS™. Analysis, involving independent t?tests and Pearson correlation were performed to identify associations between measures. Results: Individuals who exhibited biochemical and biomechanical signs of BPD were significantly more likely to score poorly on the FMS™. These studied measures of BPD correlated highly with each other. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the importance of diaphragmatic breathing on functional movement. Inefficient breathing could result in muscular imbalance, motor control alterations, and physiological adaptations that are capable of modifying movement. These findings provide evidence for improved breathing evaluations by clinicians. Level of Evidence: 2B PMID:24567853

Dr. Esformes, Joseph

2014-01-01

249

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an apparatus which demonstrates the stability of equilibrium of multidimensional objects and helps students to understand the concept of a lever arm. Also describes an alternative to the standard black, mercury "student cell" used as a reference voltage for calibrating a slide-wire potentiometer. (JN)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1984-01-01

250

Pump apparatus including deconsolidator  

SciTech Connect

A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

2014-10-07

251

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes four body-lever models (biceps, triceps, back lever when lifting, foot lever and Achilles tendon muscle) used in noncalculus physics courses. Instructions for constructing the wooden models are provided. Also describes an improvement on a centripetal-force apparatus so that it is easier to operate. (JN)

Minnix, Richard B., Ed.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Ed.

1983-01-01

252

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

Hayward, Milton L. (2305 Greenbrook Blvd., Richland, WA 99352); Harper, William H. (1454 Amon Dr., Richland, WA 99352)

1987-01-01

253

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a low-cost apparatus for measuring moment of inertia utilizing an interval timer, induction coil, battery eliminator, and ball bearing mounted disk. Also provides a method for demonstrating vectors using a cardboard box and a piece of string. (JM)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1984-01-01

254

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

1987-06-30

255

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a "no-cost" apparatus designed to demonstrate rotational inertia. Also describes and evaluates a microprocessor-based instrument (Versatile Laboratory Aid) that performs a large variety of timing and data acquisition tasks encountered in introductory and advanced physics laboratories. (JN)

Minnix, Richard B., Ed.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Ed.

1984-01-01

256

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1993-03-23

257

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two experimental set-ups. The first demonstrates the law of Malus using a pair of Polaroid polarizers and a monochromatic light source with an interference filter. The second describes a modification of Hilton's apparatus to demonstrate the effects of the magnetic hysteresis on an overhead projector. (CS)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1980-01-01

258

Pruning apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an automated pruning apparatus that requires little or no follow-up hand pruning and requires no sensors to avoid supportive trunks or posts. The present invention uses at least one pair of flat, close angled toothed, counter rotating blades. Woody branches are directed to the counter rotating blades first with a lifting arm and secondly by a quilled drum.

Dellinger, Roger D. (Prosser, WA)

1997-01-01

259

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

1985-06-19

260

Apparatus for Teaching Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes: how to measure index of refraction by the thickness method; how to teach the concept of torque using a torque wrench; how to produce a real image with a concave mirror; how to eliminate the interface effects of a Pyrex containers; and an apparatus to illustrate Bernoulli's Principle. (MLH)

Gottlieb, Herbert H.

1977-01-01

261

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

1997-01-01

262

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple apparatus and provides instructions to do relative index of refraction measurements/calculations and to show mathematical relationships betwen indices when light travels from one liquid to another. A listing of a computer program (in BASIC) which will analyze data is available from the author. (JM)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1983-01-01

263

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1997-03-25

264

Mobile lighting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

2013-05-14

265

Sound attenuation apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is disclosed for reducing acoustic transmission from mechanical or acoustic sources by means of a double wall partition, within which an acoustic pressure field is generated by at least one secondary acoustic source. The secondary acoustic source is advantageously placed within the partition, around its edges, or it may be an integral part of a wall of the partition.

Shepherd, Kevin P. (inventor); Grosveld, Ferdinand M. W. A. (inventor)

1991-01-01

266

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a few apparatuses and demonstrations for teaching physics under the headings: demonstrating resonance of the inner ear, constructing a potential well-hill for overhead projectors, rubber tube vacuum pump, improvement on the simple homemade motor, air track to demonstrate sailing into the wind, and center of gravity and stability. (GA)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1978-01-01

267

Ultrasonic measurement apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes borehole measurement apparatus. It comprises a tool adapted for connection in a drill string in the borehole through earth formations, first and second ultra-sonic transmitter means disposed diametrically opposed from each other in the cylindrical body, first and second ultra-sonic transducer means disposed in the cylindrical body, and logic means, processing means, and memory means.

Orban, J.; Mayes, J.C.

1992-07-14

268

Final reduction gear apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A final reduction gear apparatus is described comprising: a differential carrier which houses a gear assembly; an oil seal attached to a side gear shaft opening in the differential carrier, the oil seal having a main lip which may contact a periphery of a side gear shaft; and a guide member located outside of the oil seal at the side

Y. Yasui; H. Hori

1987-01-01

269

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six different pieces of physics apparatus are described: Telsa Coil for instant ignition of sodium arc lamps, Timekube, Magnetic Maps of the United States, a slinky with vertical mounting, a wave generator power supply, and a long-period timer power switch. Price and supplier are included. (BT)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1979-01-01

270

Hydrogen-Detection Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus continuously monitors concentration of hydrogen, at level ranging from few parts per million to several percent, in mixture of gases. Simple and fast, providing high sensitivity and linear response. Used to alert technicians to potentially explosive concentrations of residual hydrogen.

Ross, H. Richard; Bourgeois, Chris M.

1995-01-01

271

Vehicle suspension apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vehicle suspension apparatus is described comprising: suspension units each provided for each wheel and each having an air spring chamber; a reservoir tank for storing compressed air to be supplied through an air supply valve to the air spring chambers of the suspension units; exhausting means for exhausting compressed air from the air spring chambers of the suspension units

M. Tatemoto; N. Kumagai; H. Abe; S. Takizawa; T. Tanaka; S. Chikamori; M. Harara; Y. Taniguchi; M. Suzumura

1987-01-01

272

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This section presents new ideas with regard to apparatus for teaching physics. The following four ideas are presented: (1) measuring speed of light (2) a poor man's barometer, (3) center of mass of a rotating object, and (4) minimizing glass breakage. (HM)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1980-01-01

273

Changes in P300 following alternate nostril yoga breathing and breath awareness  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the effect of alternate nostril yoga breathing (nadisuddhi pranayama) on P300 auditory evoked potentials compared to a session of breath awareness of equal duration, in 20 male adult volunteers who had an experience of yoga breathing practices for more than three months. Peak amplitudes and peak latencies of the P300 were assessed before and after the respective sessions. There was a significant increase in the P300 peak amplitudes at Fz, Cz, and Pz and a significant decrease in the peak latency at Fz alone following alternate nostril yoga breathing. Following breath awareness there was a significant increase in the peak amplitude of P300 at Cz. This suggests that alternate nostril yoga breathing positively influences cognitive processes which are required for sustained attention at different scalp sites (frontal, vertex and parietal), whereas breath awareness brings about changes at the vertex alone. PMID:23721252

2013-01-01

274

Design of small, low-cost, underwater fin manipulator  

E-print Network

This thesis details the development of a small, low cost, underwater manipulator for use on the XAUV. At this time, there are no cheap underwater servos commercially available. The design involves modifying a commercially ...

Roberts, Megan Johnson

2008-01-01

275

Automatic Fish Classification for Underwater Species Behavior Understanding  

E-print Network

Automatic Fish Classification for Underwater Species Behavior Understanding Concetto Spampinato an automatic fish classi- fication system that operates in the natural underwater en- vironment to assist marine biologists in understanding fish behavior. Fish classification is performed by combining two types

Fisher, Bob

276

Development of a low-cost underwater manipulator  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the design, modeling, manufacture, and testing of a low cost, multiple degree-of-freedom underwater manipulator. Current underwater robotic arm technologies are often expensive or limited in functionality. ...

Cooney, Lauren Alise

2006-01-01

277

Radioactive waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

1985-08-30

278

Feature Matching In Underwater Environments Using Sparse Linear Combinations  

E-print Network

works well for clean, out-of- water images; however, when imaging underwater, even an image of the same point on an object may be completely different be- tween the clean and underwater images, and between dif- ferent underwater images taken under varying imaging con- ditions. This makes feature matching

Wang, Song

279

REINFORCEMENT LEARNING FOR A VISUALLY-GUIDED AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reinforcement learning uses a scalar reward signal and much interaction with the environment to form a policy of correct behavior. We have applied this technique to the problem of developing a controller for an autonomous underwater vehicle and have achieved reliable off-line development of stable controllers. Many important underwater tasks rely upon on visual observation of underwater features. We have

David Wettergreen; Chris Gaskett; Alex Zelinsky

280

GE underwater test facility studies in zero G simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The underwater test facility (UTF) is described as an indoor controlled environment test facility designed specifically for zero G simulation, hydrospace manned and unmanned equipment development, and personnel training for both space and underwater exploration. Programs conducted in the UTF include: human engineering criteria for maintenance and repairs of space stations, astronaut performance, helmet distortion, underwater telemetry, and blood transfusion.

Fry, R. H.

1972-01-01

281

Imaging Sonar-Aided Navigation for Autonomous Underwater Harbor Surveillance  

E-print Network

applications like underwater archaeology [6] and ship hull inspection [7]. But in our This work is supportedImaging Sonar-Aided Navigation for Autonomous Underwater Harbor Surveillance Hordur Johannsson of drift- free navigation for underwater vehicles performing harbor surveillance and ship hull inspection

Kaess, Michael

282

ORTHOPHOTO IMAGING AND GIS FOR SEABED VISUALIZATION AND UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGY  

E-print Network

ORTHOPHOTO IMAGING AND GIS FOR SEABED VISUALIZATION AND UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGY J. Seinturier 1 , P and archaeological data management. In the framework of a phd project we develop a set of tools from underwater data capture to 3D underwater GIS for archaeological excavation. The phd project, managed by Julien Seinturier

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

283

Estimating Surface Reflectance Spectra for Underwater Color Vision  

E-print Network

biology [7] and archaeology [9] frequently employ vision techniques. Underwater images collectedEstimating Surface Reflectance Spectra for Underwater Color Vision S. Skaff, J. J. Clark, and I underwater environments using uncali- brated color cameras. The approach derives surface spectral estimates

Kim, Tae-Kyun

284

Proc. MTS/IEEE OCEANS`10 (2010) Underwater Stereo Using  

E-print Network

underwater imaging is also applied to archaeological docu- mentation [7] and observation of wildlife [8], [9Proc. MTS/IEEE OCEANS`10 (2010) Underwater Stereo Using Natural Flickering Illumination Yohay@miami.edu Abstract--Computer vision is challenged by the underwater environment. Poor visibility, geometrical

Schechner, Yoav Yosef

285

MACAU: A Media Access Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike terrestrial wireless communication which uses radio waves, underwater communication relies on acoustic waves. The long latency and limited bandwidth pose great challenges in underwater Media Access Control (MAC) protocol design. As a result, terrestrial MAC protocols perform inefficiently when deployed directly in an underwater environment. In this paper, we examine how an existing asynchronous handshaking based protocol called Multiple

Hai-Heng Ng; Wee-Seng Soh; Mehul Motani

2008-01-01

286

Radio controlled release apparatus for animal data acquisition devices  

DOEpatents

A novel apparatus for reliably and selectively releasing a data acquisition package from an animal for recovery. The data package comprises two parts: 1) an animal data acquisition device and 2) a co-located release apparatus. One embodiment, which is useful for land animals, the release apparatus includes two major components: 1) an electronics package, comprising a receiver; a decoder comparator, having at plurality of individually selectable codes; and an actuator circuit and 2) a release device, which can be a mechanical device, which acts to release the data package from the animal. To release a data package from a particular animal, a radio transmitter sends a coded signal which is decoded to determine if the code is valid for that animal data package. Having received a valid code, the release device is activated to release the data package from the animal for subsequent recovery. A second embodiment includes floatation means and is useful for releasing animal data acquisition devices attached to sea animals. This embodiment further provides for releasing a data package underwater by employing an acoustic signal.

Stamps, James Frederick (5252 Norma Way, Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

2000-01-01

287

Immediate effects of breath holding maneuvers onto composition of exhaled breath.  

PubMed

Rapid concentration changes due to physiological or pathophysiological effects rather than appearance of unique disease biomarkers are important for clinical application of breath research. Simple maneuvers such as breath holding may significantly affect breath biomarker concentrations. In this study, exhaled volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were assessed in real time before and after different breath holding maneuvers. Continuous breath-resolved measurements (PTR-ToF-MS-8000) were performed in 31 healthy human subjects in a side-stream sampling mode. After 1 min of tidal breathing participants held their breath for 10, 20, 40, 60 s and as long as possible. Afterwards they continued to breathe normally for another minute. VOC profiles could be monitored in real time by assigning online PTR-ToF-MS data to alveolar or inspired phases of breath. Sudden and profound changes of exhaled VOC concentrations were recorded after different breath holding maneuvers. VOC concentrations returned to base line levels 10-20 s after breath holding. Breath holding induced concentration changes depended on physico-chemical properties of the substances. When substance concentrations were normalized onto end-tidal CO2 content, variation of acetone concentrations decreased, whereas variations of isoprene concentrations were not affected. As the effects of breathing patterns on exhaled substance concentrations depend on individual substance properties, sampling procedures have to be validated for each compound by means of appropriate real-time analysis. Normalization of exhaled concentrations onto exhaled CO2 is only valid for substances having similar physico-chemical properties as CO2. PMID:25189647

Sukul, Pritam; Trefz, Phillip; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

2014-09-01

288

Affective brain areas and sleep disordered breathing  

PubMed Central

The neural damage accompanying the hypoxia, reduced perfusion, and other consequences of sleep-disordered breathing found in obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure (HF), and congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), appears in areas that serve multiple functions, including emotional drives to breathe, and involve systems that serve affective, cardiovascular, and breathing roles. The damage, assessed with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures, shows tissue loss or water content and diffusion changes indicative of injury, and impaired axonal integrity between structures; damage is preferentially unilateral. Functional MRI responses in affected areas also are time- or amplitude- distorted to ventilatory or autonomic challenges. Among the structures injured are the insular, cingulate, and ventral medial prefrontal cortices, as well as cerebellar deep nuclei and cortex, anterior hypothalamus, raphé, ventrolateral medulla, basal ganglia and, in CCHS, the locus coeruleus. Raphé and locus coeruleus injury may modify serotonergic and adrenergic modulation of upper airway and arousal characteristics. Since both axons and gray matter show injury, the consequences to function, especially to autonomic, cognitive, and mood regulation, are major. Several affected rostral sites, including the insular and cingulate cortices and hippocampus, mediate aspects of dyspnea, especially in CCHS, while others, including the anterior cingulate and thalamus, participate in initiation of inspiration after central breathing pauses, and the medullary injury can impair baroreflex and breathing control. The ancillary injury associated with sleep-disordered breathing to central structures can elicit multiple other distortions in cardiovascular, cognitive, and emotional functions in addition to effects on breathing regulation. PMID:24746053

Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Ogren, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

289

Special Issue "Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks" A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220)  

E-print Network

Special Issue "Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks" A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220) Website: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/sensors/special_issues/underwater_sens Journal applications exist such as fish and mussels grow observation, deep-sea archaeology, seismic and volcanic

Chen, Min

290

Underwater photogrammetric theoretical equations and technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to have a high level of accuracy of measurement in underwater close-range photogrammetry, this article deals with a study of three varieties of model equations according to the way of imaging upon the water. First, the paper makes a careful analysis for the two varieties of theoretical equations and finds out that there are some serious limitations in practical application and has an in-depth study for the third model equation. Second, one special project for this measurement has designed correspondingly. Finally, one rigid antenna has been tested by underwater photogrammetry. The experimental results show that the precision of 3D coordinates measurement is 0.94mm, which validates the availability and operability in practical application with this third equation. It can satisfy the measurement requirements of refraction correction, improving levels of accuracy of underwater close-range photogrammetry, as well as strong antijamming and stabilization.

Fan, Ya-bing; Huang, Guiping; Qin, Gui-qin; Chen, Zheng

2011-12-01

291

Fast shutter apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for protecting diagnostic equipment from blast damage by rapidly interposing a shutter between the equipment and the blast area. The apparatus comprises a sensor for sensing a trigger signal associated with the blast and for converting it into a voltage pulse. The voltage pulse is received by the first end of a firing pin. A pressure chamber holds a gas under pressure. The second end of the firing pin is located inside the pressure chamber and is located above a foil member covering an orifice. When the voltage pulse reaches the second end, a point-to-plane discharge ruptures the foil, allowing the gas to enter a drive housing and quickly move a drive piston away from the foil. A drive rod connects the drive piston to a shutter and as the drive piston is moved down, the shutter moves into a closed position, protecting the equipment from debris.

Zimmermann, Eugene L. (Santa Fe, NM); Kania, Don R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

292

Fast shutter apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for protecting diagnostic equipment from blast damage by rapidly interposing a shutter between the equipment and the blast area. The apparatus comprises a sensor for sensing a trigger signal associated with the blast and for converting it into a voltage pulse. The voltage pulse is received by the first end of a firing pin. A pressure chamber holds a gas under pressure. The second end of the firing pin is located inside the pressure chamber and is located above a foil member covering an orifice. When the voltage pulse reaches the second end, a point-to-plane discharge ruptures the foil, allowing the gas to enter a drive housing and quickly move a drive piston away from the foil. A drive rod connects the drive piston to a shutter and as the drive piston is moved down, the shutter moves into a closed position, protecting the equipment from debris.

Zimmermann, E.L.; Kania, D.R.

1984-06-27

293

Compressor stall recovery apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A compressor stall recovery apparatus for a gas turbine engine is described having a combustor downstream of the compressor, the combustor having a plurality of nozzles fed with fuel from respective fuel lines, the fuel nozzles being disposed in an annular array around an axis of the gas turbine engine, the apparatus comprising: means for detecting a compressor stall condition; a plurality of valves disposed in the fuel lines of some of the fuel nozzles, each valve having a closed position and an open position, the plurality of valves being normally in the open position; and control means, connected to the plurality of valves, for actuating the valves to move to the closed position when the detecting means detects a compressor stall condition, and to move back to the open position when the compressor stall condition has abated.

Ng, T.V.

1993-07-13

294

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is disclosed for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area. 3 figs.

Brandt, D.

1985-12-31

295

Wet atmospheric generation apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention described relates to an apparatus for providing a selectively humidified gas to a camera canister containing cameras and film used in space. A source of pressurized gas (leak test gas or motive gas) is selected by a valve, regulated to a desired pressure by a regulator, and routed through an ejector (venturi device). A regulated source of water vapor in the form of steam from a heated reservoir is coupled to a low pressure region of the ejector which mixes with high velocity gas flow through the ejector. This mixture is sampled by a dew point sensor to obtain dew point thereof (ratio of water vapor to gas) and the apparatus adjusted by varying gas pressure or water vapor to provide a mixture at a connector having selected humidity content.

Hamner, Richard M. (inventor); Allen, Janice K. (inventor)

1990-01-01

296

Microscope collision protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

DeNure, Charles R. (Pocatello, ID)

2001-10-23

297

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

Brandt, Daniel (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

298

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

Brandt, D.

1984-06-05

299

Demand illumination control apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar illuminating compensating apparatus is disclosed whereby the interior of a building is illuminated to a substantially constant, predetermined level of light intensity by a combination of natural illumination from the sun and artificial illumination from electricity wherein the intensity of said artificial illumination is controlled by fully electronic means which increases the level of artificial illumination when the natural illumination is inadequate and vice versa.

Warren, Carl (Inventor); Arline, Jimmie (Inventor); LaPalme, Julius (Inventor)

1981-01-01

300

Micro coring apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A micro-coring apparatus for lunar exploration applications, that is compatible with the other components of the Walking Mobile Platform, was designed. The primary purpose of core sampling is to gain an understanding of the geological composition and properties of the prescribed environment. This procedure has been used extensively for Earth studies and in limited applications during lunar explorations. The corer is described and analyzed for effectiveness.

Collins, David; Brooks, Marshall; Chen, Paul; Dwelle, Paul; Fischer, Ben

1989-01-01

301

Hollow cathode apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hollow cathode apparatus is described, which can be rapidly and reliably started. An ignitor positioned upstream from the hollow cathode, generates a puff of plasma that flows with the primary gas to be ionized through the cathode. The plasma puff creates a high voltage breakdown between the downstream end of the cathode and a keeper electrode, to heat the cathode to an electron-emitting temperature.

Aston, G. (inventor)

1984-01-01

302

Apparatus Circulates Sterilizing Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus circulates sterilizing gas containing ethylene oxide and chlorofluorocarbon through laboratory or medical equipment. Confines sterilizing gas, circulating it only through parts to be treated. Consists of two units. One delivers ethylene oxide/chlorofluorocarbon gas mixture and removes gas after treatment. Other warms, humidifies, and circulates gas through equipment to be treated. Process provides reliable sterilization with negligible residual toxicity from ethylene oxide. Particularly suitable for sterilization of interiors of bioreactors, heart/lung machines, dialyzers, or other equipment including complicated tubing.

Cross, John H.; Schwarz, Ray P.

1991-01-01

303

Portable cutting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

Gilmore, Richard F. (Kennewick, WA)

1986-01-01

304

Polarized internal target apparatus  

DOEpatents

A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms.

Holt, Roy J. (Downers Grove, IL)

1986-01-01

305

Fire suppressing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubes depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, Kenneth E. (Northridge, CA)

1982-11-02

306

Pruning apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an automated pruning apparatus that requires little or no follow-up hand pruning and requires no sensors to avoid supportive trunks or posts. The present invention uses at least one pair of flat, close angled toothed, counter rotating blades. Woody branches are directed to the counter rotating blades first with a lifting arm and secondly by a quilled drum. 16 figs.

Dellinger, R.D.

1997-12-09

307

Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

Chaplin, James E. (66 Overlook Rd., Bloomingdale, NJ 07403)

1985-01-01

308

Polarized internal target apparatus  

DOEpatents

A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density (achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms) is described.

Holt, R.J.

1984-10-10

309

Portable cutting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

Gilmore, R.F.

1984-07-17

310

Radioactive waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

Nelson, Robert E. (Lombard, IL); Ziegler, Anton A. (Darien, IL); Serino, David F. (Maplewood, MN); Basnar, Paul J. (Western Springs, IL)

1987-01-01

311

Method and apparatus for non-invasive evaluation of diaphragmatic function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for non-invasive evaluation of diaphragmatic function in humans measures the thickness of the diaphragm in real time with an ultrasonic device, and displays the variations of diaphragm thickness versus time. Formulae are given for calculating a quantitative value for the reserve fatigue capacity of a patient's diaphragm from data obtained by measuring the time limits for maintaining a constant breathing pattern on the display at two different pressure differentials in series with the patient's airways. An apparatus for displaying the diaphragm thickness in real time is also described. The method can be used both on healthy patients and on patients with so severe breathing dysfunctions that they require breathing support from respirators.

Yost, William T. (inventor); Wait, Juliette L. (inventor); Nahormek, Patricia A. (inventor); Cantrell, John H. (inventor); Hanna-Hawver, Pamela D. (inventor)

1995-01-01

312

Underwater application of flame jet cutting method  

SciTech Connect

For drilling undersea rocks and for dismantling old structures or underwater concrete structures, the authors have been engaged in the development of the flame jet method, which is one of the thermal drilling and cutting methods. In this report the structure of a met burner, operation system of the flame jet cutting method and the following underwater (undersea) cutting results are reported: (1) cutting of undersea structures (double steel tube concrete piles); (2) dismantling of old bridge piers; (3) dismantling of old water supply pipes; (4) cutting of dam-screen for receiving dam water and sea water.

Shimada, Sohei [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Nakajima, Taiitsu [Sumitomo Construction Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1994-12-31

313

Underwater noise from offshore oil production vessels.  

PubMed

Underwater acoustic recordings of six Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessels moored off Western Australia are presented. Monopole source spectra were computed for use in environmental impact assessments of underwater noise. Given that operations on the FPSOs varied over the period of recording, and were sometimes unknown, the authors present a statistical approach to noise level estimation. No significant or consistent aspect dependence was found for the six FPSOs. Noise levels did not scale with FPSO size or power. The 5th, 50th (median), and 95th percentile source levels (broadband, 20 to 2500 Hz) were 188, 181, and 173 dB re 1 ?Pa @ 1 m, respectively. PMID:23742441

Erbe, Christine; McCauley, Robert; McPherson, Craig; Gavrilov, Alexander

2013-06-01

314

Autonomous underwater pipeline monitoring navigation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details the development of an autonomous motion-control and navigation algorithm for an underwater autonomous vehicle, the Ocean Server IVER3, to track long linear features such as underwater pipelines. As part of this work, the Nonlinear and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (NAS Lab) developed an algorithm that utilizes inputs from the vehicles state of the art sensor package, which includes digital imaging, digital 3-D Sidescan Sonar, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. The resulting algorithms should tolerate real-world waterway with episodic strong currents, low visibility, high sediment content, and a variety of small and large vessel traffic.

Mitchell, Byrel; Mahmoudian, Nina; Meadows, Guy

2014-06-01

315

Network for Underwater Archaeology, Ireland (NUA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the University of Ulster, this site provides information and networking opportunities in the field of underwater archaeology in Ireland. Included here are photographs and descriptions of recent and ongoing excavations of shipwrecks, submerged forests, and other interesting underwater archaeological sites. The information is presented with academic expertise but still provides fascinating reading for the casual visitor. The site also hosts a bulletin board, news about the upcoming conference at the University -- Towards An Understanding Of Maritime Archaeology In Ireland -- and annotated links to two dozen related Websites.

316

Breathing pattern and cost of ventilation in the american alligator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energetic cost of pulmonary ventilation is termed the “cost of breathing” and is commonly determined from the change in oxygen uptake with altered ventilation. Previous analyses of lung mechanics predicts increased tidal volume would be more expensive than increased breathing frequency. Existing studies on the oxidative cost of breathing have, however, not addressed breathing pattern. We stimulated ventilation in

Tobias Wang; Stephen J. Warburton

1995-01-01

317

GPS-based positioning for autonomous underwater vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GPS-based positioning for AUV is a field of active researches, which integrates DGPS, radio sonobuoy, DSP, high speed data transmission technology with underwater telecommunication technogy. Many problems remain to be solved for GPS application to AUV because of the peculiarity of underwater environment. Some subjects in a GPS-based positioning system for AUV are reviewed in the paper. The development of underwater positioning and underwater GPS technology is introduced first. Secondly, the methods of underwater positioning are analyzed, followed with GPS-based AUV positioning algorithms. Thirdly, the origin of GPS error and its countermeasures are tudied. Finally, a conclusion is drawn that the GPS-based positioning system can provide high precesion positioning for 3D AUV in real time. It is promising in underwater applications. Some key technologies in underwater positioning are presented for future work.

Huang, Wenling; Fang, Huajing; Chen, Yingchun; Yuan, Bingcheng; Zhou, Xuchang

2005-11-01

318

50 CFR 32.72 - Guam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...latro ) on the refuge. 5. We prohibit use of Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) to take fish or invertebrates. 6. We prohibit anchoring boats on the refuge. 7. We prohibit sailboards or motorized personal watercraft on...

2010-10-01

319

50 CFR 32.72 - Guam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...latro ) on the refuge. 5. We prohibit use of Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) to take fish or invertebrates. 6. We prohibit anchoring boats on the refuge. 7. We prohibit sailboards or motorized personal watercraft on...

2012-10-01

320

50 CFR 32.72 - Guam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...latro ) on the refuge. 5. We prohibit use of Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) to take fish or invertebrates. 6. We prohibit anchoring boats on the refuge. 7. We prohibit sailboards or motorized personal watercraft on...

2011-10-01

321

50 CFR 32.72 - Guam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...latro ) on the refuge. 5. We prohibit use of Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) to take fish or invertebrates. 6. We prohibit anchoring boats on the refuge. 7. We prohibit sailboards or motorized personal watercraft on...

2013-10-01

322

50 CFR 32.72 - Guam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...latro ) on the refuge. 5. We prohibit use of Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) to take fish or invertebrates. 6. We prohibit anchoring boats on the refuge. 7. We prohibit sailboards or motorized personal watercraft on...

2014-10-01

323

Breath-to-breath “noise” in the ventilatory and gas exchange responses of children to exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this investigation were to quantify the noise component of child breath-by-breath data, investigate the major\\u000a determinants of the breath-to-breath noise, and to characterise the noise statistically. Twenty-four healthy children (12\\u000a males and 12 females) of mean (SD) age 13.1 (0.3) years completed 25?min of steady-state cycle ergometry at an exercise intensity\\u000a of 50?W. Ventilatory and gas exchange

C. R. Potter; D. J. Childs; W. Houghton; N. Armstrong

1999-01-01

324

Development of Underwater Laser Cladding and Underwater Laser Seal Welding Techniques for Reactor Components (II)  

SciTech Connect

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is one of the major reasons to reduce the reliability of aged reactor components. Toshiba has been developing underwater laser welding onto surface of the aged components as maintenance and repair techniques. Because most of the reactor internal components to apply this underwater laser welding technique have 3-dimensional shape, effect of welding positions and welded shapes are examined and presented in this report. (authors)

Masataka Tamura; Shohei Kawano; Wataru Kouno; Yasushi Kanazawa [Toshiba Corporation (Japan)

2006-07-01

325

A portable device to assess underwater changes of cardio dynamic variables by impedance cardiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data concerning heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), and cardiac output (CO) during dynamic apnoea (DA) were collected from 10 healthy male, elite divers by means of an impedance cardiograph adapted to the underwater environment (C. O. Re., from 2C Technologies Inc, Italy). Three trials were performed by the divers in a 3-m-deep pool with a water temperature of 25°C: 3-minute head-out immersion during normal breathing (A), till exhaustion immersed at the surface (B) and at 3m depth (C). Both B and C conditions did not led to changes in HR, SV and CO compared to A. Data indicate that typical diving response consisting in a reduction of HR, SV and CO was not present during DA, probably due to sympathetic activation induced by exercise during DA, which partially obscured the effects of the diving response. Moreover, this study highlights the innovative role of our portable, impedance cardiography device, i.e. the C. O. Re., in easily assessing cardiodynamic changes in subjects engaged in exercise schedules including phases of underwater, dynamic apnoea.

Tocco, F.; Crisafulli, A.; Marongiu, E.; Milia, R.; Kalb, A.; Concu, A.

2012-12-01

326

Understanding Lung Problems: Make Each Breath Healthy  

MedlinePLUS

... disease Pneumonia Lung cancer Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD is a disease that makes it hard ... of COPD: emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Symptoms Of COPD Shortness of breath is one of the most ...

327

Coordination of Mastication, Swallowing and Breathing  

PubMed Central

Summary The pathways for air and food cross in the pharynx. In breathing, air may flow through either the nose or the mouth, it always flows through the pharynx. During swallowing, the pharynx changes from an airway to a food channel. The pharynx is isolated from the nasal cavity and lower airway by velopharyngeal and laryngeal closure during the pharyngeal swallow. During mastication, the food bolus accumulates in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation. The structures in the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx serve multiple functions in breathing, speaking, mastication and swallowing. Thus, the fine temporal coordination of feeding among breathing, mastication and swallowing is essential to provide proper food nutrition and to prevent pulmonary aspiration. This review paper will review the temporo-spatial coordination of the movements of oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal structures during mastication and swallowing, and temporal coordination between breathing, mastication, and swallowing. PMID:20161022

Matsuo, Koichiro; Palmer, Jeffrey B.

2009-01-01

328

Just Breathe Green: Measuring Transpiration Rates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through multi-trial experiments, students are able to see and measure something that is otherwise invisible to them—seeing plants breathe. Student groups are given two small plants of native species and materials to enclose them after watering with colored water. After being enclosed for 5, 10 and 15 minutes, teams collect and measure the condensed water from the plants' "breathing," and then calculate the rates at which the plants breathe. A plant's breath is known as transpiration, which is the flow of water from the ground where it is taken up by roots (plant uptake) and then lost through the leaves. Students plot volume/time data for three different native plant species, determine and compare their transpiration rates to see which had the highest reaction rate and consider how a plant's unique characteristics (leaf surface area, transpiration rate) might figure into engineers' designs for neighborhood stormwater management plans.

2014-09-18

329

Surfacers change their dive tactics depending on the aim of the dive: evidence from simultaneous measurements of breaths and energy expenditure.  

PubMed

Air-breathing divers are assumed to have evolved to apportion their time between surface and underwater periods to maximize the benefit gained from diving activities. However, whether they change their time allocation depending on the aim of the dive is still unknown. This may be particularly crucial for 'surfacers' because they dive for various purposes in addition to foraging. In this study, we counted breath events at the surface and estimated oxygen consumption during resting, foraging and other dives in 11 green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the wild. Breath events were counted by a head-mounted acceleration logger or direct observation based on an animal-borne video logger, and oxygen consumption was estimated by measuring overall dynamic body acceleration. Our results indicate that green turtles maximized their submerged time, following this with five to seven breaths to replenish oxygen for resting dives. However, they changed their dive tactic during foraging and other dives; they surfaced without depleting their estimated stores of oxygen, followed by only a few breaths for effective foraging and locomotion. These dichotomous surfacing tactics would be the result of behavioural modifications by turtles depending on the aim of each dive. PMID:25297856

Okuyama, Junichi; Tabata, Runa; Nakajima, Kana; Arai, Nobuaki; Kobayashi, Masato; Kagawa, Shiro

2014-11-22

330

Breath tests with (13)C substrates.  

PubMed

Labeled (stable and radio) isotope compounds ((2)H, (3)H, (14)C, (13)C, (15)N) have been widely used as diagnostic probes in research laboratories for over 30 years in the fields of gastroenterology, hepatology, oncology, and nutrition, as well as pharmacokinetic studies in the development of drugs. (13)C stable isotope diagnostic probes are now being expanded in their scope, to provide precise evaluations of the presence or absence of etiologically significant changes in metabolism due to a specific disease or the lack of a specific enzyme. The concept exploits the use of the (13)C- label that is incorporated at the appropriate site into a selected substrate specifically designed for the targeted enzyme in a discrete metabolic pathway. The enzyme-substrate interaction results in the release of (13)CO(2) in the expired breath. The subsequent quantification of (13)CO(2) allows for the indirect determination of pharmacokinetics and the evaluation of enzyme activity. Breath tests, although non-invasive, have not been integrated routinely in clinical practice due to most of them requiring multiple breath sample collection over an extended time period. The use of area-under-the-curve (AUC) and percent-dose-recovery (PDR) parameters of breath tests to differentiate between controls and patients has been a huge barrier to implementing them into routine clinical practice due to time constraints on clinical staff. In order to get breath tests accepted in clinical practice as in vivo diagnostic tools, the tests need to be accurate with high sensitivity and specificity with a single time point breath collection post ingestion of a (13)C substrate. It is now incumbent on diagnostic test companies to invest capital for the development of promising single time point breath tests and getting regulatory board approval (FDA, EMEA), CPT codes and reimbursement. Following regulatory approvals, the breath tests would also need to be marketed aggressively by making physicians, patients, and insurance companies aware of the medical benefits to patients and lowering of healthcare costs. The diagnostic breath tests will enable physicians and patients to benefit from rapid, novel and non-invasive ways to detect enzyme deficiencies, to monitor the progress of disease severity or medication efficacy, to trace acquired and/or congenital metabolic defects, to study in vivo the pharmacokinetics of xenobiotics, and to optimize individually tailored treatment regimens for drugs with narrow therapeutic windows. The primary reason for publishing this special section on (13)C breath tests is to highlight some of the recent advances in the field of breath tests as well as to review the literature. PMID:21386144

Modak, Anil

2009-12-01

331

STS-46 MS Hoffman and MS Chang-Diaz wear masks during pre-breathe on OV-104  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-46 Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jeffrey A. Hoffman and MS Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, wearing breathing apparatus masks, pose on the forward flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during pre-breathe session. With the possibility of an extravehicular activity (EVA) being added to the STS-46 agenda, the astronauts reported to this station and began the 'pre-breathe' process when problems developed during the extension of the Tethered Satellite System 1 (TSS-1). When the human body is exposed to a sudden decrease in atmospheric pressure (for instance, from the 10.2 ppsi in the crew cabin to the 4.5 ppsi of the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU)), nitrogen traces in the bloodstream will expand. This expansion can create tiny bubbles and potential for the 'bends'. In order to lessen the effect, an astronaut must 'pre-breathe' pure oxygen (the same pure oxygen he will breathe in the suit) to help 'purge' nitrogen from his bloodstream before exerting himself

1992-01-01

332

Breathing patterns during eccentric exercise.  

PubMed

Eccentric (ECC) work is interesting for rehabilitation purposes because it is more efficient than concentric (CON). This study assessed respiratory patterns and electromyographic activity (EMG) during ECC and CON cycling, both at similar power outputs and VO2 in eight healthy male subjects. Measurements include ventilation (VE), tidal volume (Vt), breathing frequency (Fb), arterial blood gases, and vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps brachii (BB) EMG. At the same mechanical power, VO2 and VE were fivefold lower in ECC as was VL EMG while BB EMG, Vd/Vt, PaO2 and PaCO2, were not different between modalities. At the same VO2, there was no difference in VE but Vt was lower and Fb higher in ECC. VL EMG was not different between modalities while BB EMG was higher in ECC. The latter observation suggests that ECC cycling may result in arm bracing and restricted chest expansion. Since hyperpnea is a known trigger of exaggerated dynamic hyperinflation, the prescription of ECC cycling for patient rehabilitation requires further assessment. PMID:25083913

Lechauve, J B; Perrault, H; Aguilaniu, B; Isner-Horobeti, M E; Martin, V; Coudeyre, E; Richard, R

2014-10-01

333

The retrotrapezoid nucleus and breathing.  

PubMed

The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is located in the rostral medulla oblongata close to the ventral surface and consists of a bilateral cluster of glutamatergic neurons that are non-aminergic and express homeodomain transcription factor Phox2b throughout life. These neurons respond vigorously to increases in local pCO(2) via cell-autonomous and paracrine (glial) mechanisms and receive additional chemosensory information from the carotid bodies. RTN neurons exclusively innervate the regions of the brainstem that contain the respiratory pattern generator (RPG). Lesion or inhibition of RTN neurons largely attenuates the respiratory chemoreflex of adult rats whereas their activation increases respiratory rate, inspiratory amplitude and active expiration. Phox2b mutations that cause congenital central hypoventilation syndrome in humans prevent the development of RTN neurons in mice. Selective deletion of the RTN Phox2b-VGLUT2 neurons by genetic means in mice eliminates the respiratory chemoreflex in neonates.In short, RTN Phox2b-VGLUT2 neurons are a major nodal point of the CNS network that regulates pCO(2) via breathing and these cells are probable central chemoreceptors. PMID:23080151

Guyenet, Patrice G; Stornetta, Ruth L; Abbott, Stephen B G; Depuy, Seth D; Kanbar, Roy

2012-01-01

334

Breath-based biomarkers for tuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the potential of breath analysis by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to discriminate between samples collected prospectively from patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB). Samples were obtained in a TB endemic setting in South Africa where 28% of the culture proven TB patients had a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) negative sputum smear. A training set of breath samples from 50 sputum culture proven TB patients and 50 culture negative non-TB patients was analyzed by GC-MS. A classification model with 7 compounds resulted in a training set with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 79% compared with culture. The classification model was validated with an independent set of breath samples from 21 TB and 50 non-TB patients. A sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 84% and accuracy of 77% was found. We conclude that the 7 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that discriminate breath samples from TB and non-TB patients in our study population are probably host-response related VOCs and are not derived from the VOCs secreted by M. tuberculosis. It is concluded that at present GC-MS breath analysis is able to differentiate between TB and non-TB breath samples even among patients with a negative ZN sputum smear but a positive culture for M. tuberculosis. Further research is required to improve the sensitivity and specificity before this method can be used in routine laboratories.

Kolk, Arend H. J.; van Berkel, Joep J. B. N.; Claassens, Mareli M.; Walters, Elisabeth; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Dallinga, Jan W.; van Schooten, Fredrik-Jan

2012-06-01

335

Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 ?m. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

2010-02-01

336

Exhaled breath analysis for lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis of lung cancer results in improved survival compared to diagnosis with more advanced disease. Early disease is not reliably indicated by symptoms. Because investigations such as bronchoscopy and needle biopsy have associated risks and substantial costs, they are not suitable for population screening. Hence new easily applicable tests, which can be used to screen individuals at risk, are required. Biomarker testing in exhaled breath samples is a simple, relatively inexpensive, non-invasive approach. Exhaled breath contains volatile and non-volatile organic compounds produced as end-products of metabolic processes and the composition of such compounds varies between healthy subjects and subjects with lung cancer. Many studies have analysed the patterns of these compounds in exhaled breath. In addition studies have also reported that the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can reveal gene mutations or DNA abnormalities in patients with lung cancer. This review has summarised the scientific evidence demonstrating that lung cancer has distinct chemical profiles in exhaled breath and characteristic genetic changes in EBC. It is not yet possible to accurately identify individuals with lung cancer in at risk populations by any of these techniques. However, analysis of both volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and of EBC have great potential to become clinically useful diagnostic and screening tools for early stage lung cancer detection. PMID:24163746

Sutedja, Tom G.; Zimmerman, Paul V.

2013-01-01

337

KE Basin underwater visual fuel survey  

SciTech Connect

Results of an underwater video fuel survey in KE Basin using a high resolution camera system are presented. Quantitative and qualitative information on fuel degradation are given, and estimates of the total fraction of ruptured fuel elements are provided. Representative photographic illustrations showing the range of fuel conditions observed in the survey are included.

Pitner, A.L.

1995-02-01

338

Underwater vehicle propulsion and power generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An underwater vehicle includes a shaft with a propeller disposed thereon; a generator/motor having a stator and a rotor, the rotor being operable to rotate with the propeller; at least one energy storage device connected to the generator/motor; and a controller for setting the generator/motor in a charge mode, a propulsion mode and an idle mode.

Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Chao, Yi (Inventor)

2008-01-01

339

Reconfigurable acoustic modem for underwater sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest for underwater sensor networks where long term monitoring of water masses around the world for scientific, environmental, commercial, and military reasons is desired. In this paper we will present the concept of a highly flexible acoustic modem called the Reconfigurable Modem (rModem) that can be used for rapid testing and development of such networks.

Ethem Mutlu Sözer; Milica Stojanovic

2006-01-01

340

Robust trajectory control of underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

underwater vehicles present difficult control-system design problems due to their nonlinear dynamics, uncertain models, and the presence of disturbances that are difficult to measure or estimate. In this paper, a recent extension of sliding mode control is shown to handle these problems effectively. The method deals directly with nonlinearities, is highly robust to imprecise models, explicitly accounts for the presence

DANA R. YOERGER; JEAN-JACQUES E. SLOTINE

1985-01-01

341

Hydrodynamic implications for submarine launched underwater gliders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater gliders are a type of long range unmanned vehicle that use bouyancy control and lifting surfaces to travel in a sawtooth trajectory through the water column. These vehicles are typically employed by oceanographers for environmental monitoring and also show promise as a sensor platform in military applications. This paper presents investigations of vehicle hydrodynamics relating to the deployment of

Joshua D. Rodgers; John M. Wharington

2010-01-01

342

Development of an autonomous underwater robot \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous underwater robot named “Twin-Burger” was developed as a versatile test bed to establish the techniques which realize intelligent robot behaviors. The robot was designed to have necessary functions for complex tasks including cooperative task execution with other robots and divers. The first robot “Twin-Burger I” was completed and launched in November 1992. This paper describes hardware and software

Teruo Fujii; Tamaki Ura

1996-01-01

343

ADAPTIVE FUZZY CONTROL FOR UNDERWATER HYDRAULIC MANIPULATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater hydraulic manipulators are usually systems hard to be modeled and present strong non-linearities in its dynamics behavior. These types of manipulators are operated, nowadays, in a master-slave configuration with simple control algorithms performing tasks in hazardous and unstructured environments. In such conditions only low accuracy simple tasks can be performed. This paper presents the application of a special fuzzy

Leonardo Bittencourt Testi; Bruno Cardozo dos Santos; Max Suell Dutra

2004-01-01

344

An integrated, underwater optical \\/acoustic communications system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication underwater is severely limited when compared to communications in air because water is essentially opaque to electromagnetic radiation except in the visible band. Even in the visible band, light penetrates only a few hundred meters in the clearest waters and much less in waters made turbid by suspended sediment or high concentrations of marine life. Consequently, acoustic techniques have

N. Farr; A. Bowen; J. Ware; C. Pontbriand; M. Tivey

2010-01-01

345

Underwater Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances, and Challenges  

E-print Network

and survey missions and study of marine life. Underwater wireless sensing systems are envisioned for stand related to acoustic propagation, and discuss how they affect the design and operation of communication systems and networking proto- cols at various layers. We also provide an overview of communications

Heidemann, John

346

Ballast barge concept for underwater structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ballast barge for underwater structure consists of a reinforced concrete structure partitioned into watertight compartments. The barge structure includes a 3-way venting valve, a compressed air manifold, a master valve for connecting the manifold to an air line, and an open port in each compartment for admitting and expelling sea water.

Payne, V. E.

1968-01-01

347

The Interaction of Two Underwater Explosion Bubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between two growing and collapsing underwater explosion bubbles is studied experimentally and numerically. In the experiments, the bubbles are generated by detonating small Lead Azide explosive charges submerged in a transparent water tank, and the resulting interactions are photographed using a high-speed camera. The parametric studies include simultaneous detonation of two charges of different sizes, and detonation of

Charles Milligan; James Duncan

1996-01-01

348

Pellet inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers each associated with a successive pair of the stations are reciprocable together to pick up a pellet at the upstream station of each pair and to deposit the pellet at the corresponding downstream station. The gripper jaws are opened selectively depending on the state of the pellets at the stations and the particular cycle in which the apparatus is operating. Inspection for diameter, flaws and length is effected in each case by a laser beam projected on the pellets by a precise optical system while each pellet is rotated by rollers. Each laser and its optical system are mounted in a container which is free standing on a precise surface and is provided with locating buttons which engage locating holes in the surface so that each laser and its optical system is precisely set. The roller stands are likewise free standing and are similarly precisely positioned. The diameter optical system projects a thin beam of light which scans across the top of each pellet and is projected on a diode array. The fl GOVERNMENT CONTRACT CLAUSE The invention herein described was made in the course of or under a contract or subcontract thereunder with the Department of Energy bearing No. EY-67-14-C-2170.

Wilks, Robert S. (Plum Borough, PA); Taleff, Alexander (Churchill Borough, PA); Sturges, Jr., Robert H. (Plum Borough, PA)

1982-01-01

349

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA and VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham

2001-01-01

350

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham.

2001-01-01

351

Apparatus for chemical synthesis  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herring, J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-05-10

352

DNA Sequencing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An automated DNA sequencing apparatus having a reactor for providing at least two series of DNA products formed from a single primer and a DNA strand, each DNA product of a series differing in molecular weight and having a chain terminating agent at one end; separating means for separating the DNA products to form a series bands, the intensity of substantially all nearby bands in a different series being different, band reading means for determining the position an This invention was made with government support including a grant from the U.S. Public Health Service, contract number AI-06045. The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.

Tabor, Stanley (Cambridge, MA); Richardson, Charles C. (Chestnut Hill, MA)

1992-01-01

353

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

Mayberry, J.L.

1988-04-13

354

Thermal stir welding apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A welding method and apparatus are provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

2011-01-01

355

Foil changing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A self-contained hermetically sealed foil changer for advancing a portion of foil web into a position normal to the path of a high energy particle beam. The path of the beam is defined generally by an aperture plate and cooperating axially movable barrel such that the barrel can be advanced toward the plate thereby positioning a portion of the foil across the beam path and sealing the foil between the barrel and the plate to form a membrane across said beam path. A spooling apparatus contained in the foil changer permits selectively advancing a fresh supply of foil across the beam path without breaking the foil changer seal.

Crist, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ives, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Leifeste, Gordon T. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Robert B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01

356

Sonic levitation apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sonic levitation apparatus is disclosed which includes a sonic transducer which generates acoustical energy responsive to the level of an electrical amplifier. A duct communicates with an acoustical chamber to deliver an oscillatory motion of air to a plenum section which contains a collimated hole structure having a plurality of parallel orifices. The collimated hole structure converts the motion of the air to a pulsed. Unidirectional stream providing enough force to levitate a material specimen. Particular application to the production of microballoons in low gravity environment is discussed.

Dunn, S. A.; Pomplum, A. R.; Paquette, E. G.; Ethridge, E. C.; Johnson, J. L. (inventors)

1984-01-01

357

Stack sampling apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for obtaining samples from a structure includes a support member, at least one stabilizing member, and at least one moveable member. The stabilizing member has a first portion coupled to the support member and a second portion configured to engage with the structure to restrict relative movement between the support member and the structure. The stabilizing member is radially expandable from a first configuration where the second portion does not engage with a surface of the structure to a second configuration where the second portion engages with the surface of the structure.

Lind, Randall F; Lloyd, Peter D; Love, Lonnie J; Noakes, Mark W; Pin, Francois G; Richardson, Bradley S; Rowe, John C

2014-09-16

358

Belt conveyor apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A belt conveyor apparatus is described comprising: means defining a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley, an endless belt member adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys defining thereby an upper and lower reach, the endless belt member having a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects at a first location on the conveyance path and transport the objects to and then discharge the objects at a second location on the conveyance path; and motive means in communication with the means defining a conveyance path, for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path.

Oakley, D.J.; Bogart, R.L.

1987-05-05

359

Apparatus Would Stain Microscope Slides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed apparatus meters specific amounts of fluid out of containers at specific times to stain microscope slides. Intended specifically for semiautomated staining of microbiological and hematological samples in microgravity, leakproof apparatus used in other environments in which technicians have little time to allocate to staining procedures and/or exposure to toxic staining agents or to micro-organisms to be stained hazardous. Apparatus adapted to perform almost any staining procedure and accommodates multiple staining reagents, useful for small or remote clinical laboratories.

Breeding, James D.

1993-01-01

360

The Versatile Mirror Drawing Apparatus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mirror drawing apparatus (MDA) is a valuable experiential learning tool with specific applications in general psychology, educational psychology, and recruiting. Specific applications are described. (Author/RM)

Jacobs, E. W.

1985-01-01

361

Agitation apparatus. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

Agitation apparatus includes a tank with a cylindrical upper portion, a frustoconical intermediate portion, and a cylindrical lower portion, a lift tube extending from the upper portion of the tank to a point near an end cap attached to the lower portion of the tank, the lift tube being concentric with the lower portion of the tank to provide a flow passage there between, and a plurality of air supply conduits extending along the lift tube and spaced apart around its perimeter, these air supply conduits terminating adjacent the lower end of the lift tube. Air discharged from the lower ends of the air supply conduits causes liquid in the tank to flow upwardly through the lift tube and out of apertures in the upper portion thereof. Due to the unique properties of nuclear fuel dissolver solutions and the constraint placed on the amount of air that can be injected therein by conventional apparatus, there has been a need for a more effective means for agitating liquid in nuclear fuel digester tanks.

Beets, A.L.; Lewis, B.E. Jr.

1982-03-12

362

Fluidized bed calciner apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

Owen, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Klem, Jr., Michael J. (Richland, WA); Cash, Robert J. (Richland, WA)

1988-01-01

363

Polarization imaging apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set 11, a linear polarizer 14 with its optical axis 18, a first variable phase retarder 12 with its optical axis 16 aligned 22.5.degree. to axis 18, a second variable phase retarder 13 with its optical axis 17 aligned 45.degree. to axis 18, a imaging sensor 15 for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller 101 and a computer 102. Two variable phase retarders 12 and 13 were controlled independently by a computer 102 through a controller unit 101 which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13. A set of four intensity images, I.sub.0, I.sub.1, I.sub.2 and I.sub.3 of the sample were captured by imaging sensor 15 when the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13 were set at (0,0), (.pi.,0), (.pi.,.pi.) and (.pi./2,.pi.), respectively Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S.sub.0, S.sub.1, S.sub.2 and S.sub.3 were calculated using the four intensity images.

Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor); Zhao, Hongzhi (Inventor)

2010-01-01

364

Heat pump apparatus  

DOEpatents

A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

1983-01-01

365

Percussive arc welding apparatus  

DOEpatents

A percussive arc welding apparatus includes a generally cylindrical actuator body having front and rear end portions and defining an internal recess. The front end of the body includes an opening. A solenoid assembly is provided in the rear end portion in the internal recess of the body, and an actuator shaft assembly is provided in the front end portion in the internal recess of the actuator body. The actuator shaft assembly includes a generally cylindrical actuator block having first and second end portions, and an actuator shaft having a front end extending through the opening in the actuator body, and the rear end connected to the first end portion of the actuator block. The second end portion of the actuator block is in operational engagement with the solenoid shaft by a non-rigid connection to reduce the adverse rebound effects of the actuator shaft. A generally transversely extending pin is rigidly secured to the rear end of the shaft. One end of the pin is received in a slot in the nose housing sleeve to prevent rotation of the actuator shaft during operation of the apparatus.

Hollar, Jr., Donald L. (Overland Park, KS)

2002-01-01

366

Mechanics of breathing in goats.  

PubMed

Common pulmonary function tests used in man and domestic mammals were adapted to the goat. Requirements for intrathoracic pressure record and pulmonary function investigation were determined. The elastance of the mid-thoracic portion of the oesophagus was measured in 17 healthy goats. The calculated percentage error in identifying the endoesophageal intrathoracic pressure decreased with somatic growth, and was found to be smaller than 2 per cent for adult goats. The location of the oesophageal balloon catheter used to measure the intrathoracic pressure was standardised. The following regression equation calculated between the length of catheter (Lcat) and the thoracic circumference (TC) was found: Lcat (cm) = 6.19 +/- 0.7163 X TC (cm) (R2 = 0.96). The influence of the dead space of a face mask on respiration pattern and arterial blood gas were studied. There were no significant changes in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2), pHa, breathing frequency and intrathoracic pressures. The influence of head and neck position was investigated. Upper airway resistance (Ruaw), measured with the head in a normal position did not significantly differ from values obtained with the head in a horizontal position. Ruaw measured with the head in a vertical position was considerably increased. Arterial blood gas tension and pulmonary mechanics were measured to assess the reproducibility of pulmonary function measurements. Variability in blood gas tension, tidal volume and minute volume is small. The variability of peak to peak intrathoracic pressure change (max delta Plp), dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn), total pulmonary resistance (RL) and Rt were relatively large. PMID:3212281

Bakima, M; Gustin, P; Lekeux, P; Lomba, F

1988-11-01

367

Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise.  

PubMed

Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in physiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH, intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications. PMID:7180696

Lo, C W; Carter, E A; Walker, W A

1982-01-01

368

21 CFR 868.5965 - Positive end expiratory pressure breathing attachment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Positive end expiratory pressure breathing attachment. 868.5965...5965 Positive end expiratory pressure breathing attachment. (a) Identification. A positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) breathing attachment...

2014-04-01

369

Virtual long baseline (VLBL) autonomous underwater vehicle navigation using a single transponder  

E-print Network

(cont.) Therefore, accurate underwater navigation using a single location transponder would provide dramatic time and cost savings for underwater vehicle operations. This thesis presents a simulation of autonomous underwater ...

LaPointe, Cara Elizabeth Grupe

2006-01-01

370

Delphin2: an over actuated autonomous underwater vehicle for manoeuvring research  

E-print Network

Delphin2: an over actuated autonomous underwater vehicle for manoeuvring research Introduction The Delphin2 Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is a small ( the next generation of engineers to design and build an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) capable

Sóbester, András

371

An elutriation apparatus for macroinvertebrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An inexpensive hydropneumatic apparatus screens macroinvertebrates from bottom samples containing silt, mud, or clay. The elutriator, an acrylic cylinder with screened windows, cemented on an upright plastic funnel, retains benthic fauna while the sediment is washed away. The apparatus yields clean samples and has reduced the time required to sort benthos samples by more than 80%.

Worswick, Joseph M., Jr.; Barbour, Michael T.

1974-01-01

372

Solar cell coverslide extraction apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for extracting a coverslide from a solar cell in a solar cell module. The coverslide is adhered to the solar cell by a dissolvable layer of adhesive along a predetermined plane of attachment. The apparatus comprises: (a) a receptacle having a cavity defined therein; (b) a rack disposed in the cavity of the receptacle; (c)

1987-01-01

373

An Apparatus for Photochemical Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an apparatus developed for photochemical studies, particularly those involving the fluorescence of halogenated acetones. The apparatus is constructed from equipment normally found in a moderately sized physical chemical laboratory. Also provides background information on some aspects of the photophysics of halogenated propanones. (JN)

Winter, M. J.; Winter, P. V.

1984-01-01

374

Simple turbine balancing test apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple, inexpensive apparatus has been devised for testing dynamic balance of turbine rotors. No elaborate instrumentation is required and rotor is spun by directing jet of air against blades. Basic principle involved is that of the vibration of a mass on a spring. Apparatus can be used where conventional, expensive, balance facilities are not readily available.

Vavra, M. H.; Hammer, J. E.; Bell, L. E.

1972-01-01

375

Frequency components in breath holding experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy has been used to investigate changes in cerebral hemodynamics induced by hypercapnia challenges, such as carbon dioxide CO2 inhalation and breath holding. The aim of this study was to investigate CO2 pressure changes dependence of frequency spectrum of cerebral hemodynamic oscillations during breath holding task. Measurements of the relative changes in concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin ([Hb]) and oxyhemoglobin ([HbO2]) are performed on nine healthy subjects during three breath holdings of 30 seconds (s.) interleaved with 90 s. of normal breathing. Power spectra are computed by continuous wavelet transform and averaged for normal and hold episodes. The percent change values between hold and normal episodes are given for frequency peaks at (0.035 Hz), where a 17% higher increase was observed for PC of [Hb] on the right side compared to left side,while this value was at 64.8% for [HbO2] . Similarly, for a peak at 0.11 Hz these values were 54.5% and 9.5% for [Hb] and [HbO2] PCs, respectively. The smallest changes were observed for breathing freq. range (around 0.2 Hz) where the values are -72% and 55.8% for [Hb] and [HbO2], respectively.

Akin, Ata; Emir, Uzay E.; Kalsin, Serhan; Sayli, Omer

2005-04-01

376

Lung cancer biomarkers in exhaled breath.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Methods for early detection of lung cancer, such as computerized tomography scanning technology, often discover a large number of small lung nodules, posing a new problem to radiologists and chest physicians. The vast majority of these nodules will be benign, but there is currently no easy way to determine which nodules represent very early lung cancer. Adjuvant testing with PET imaging and nonsurgical biopsies has a low yield for these small indeterminate nodules, carries potential morbidity and is costly. Indeed, purely morphological criteria seem to be insufficient for distinguishing lung cancer from benign nodules at early stages with sufficient confidence, therefore false positives undergoing surgical resection frequently occur. A molecular approach to the diagnosis of lung cancer through the analysis of exhaled breath could greatly improve the specificity of imaging procedures. A biomarker-driven approach to signs or symptoms possibly due to lung cancer would represent a complementary tool aimed at ruling out (with known error probability) rather than diagnosing lung cancer. Volatile and nonvolatile components of the breath are being studied as biomarkers of lung cancer. Breath testing is noninvasive and potentially inexpensive. There is promise that an accurate lung cancer breath biomarker, capable of being applied clinically, will be developed in the near future. In this article, we summarize some of the rationale for breath biomarker development, review the published literature in this field and provide thoughts regarding future directions. PMID:21405971

Amann, Anton; Corradi, Massimo; Mazzone, Peter; Mutti, Antonio

2011-03-01

377

Breath tests in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Since the time of Hippocrates, physicians have known that the odour of human breath can provide clues to diagnosis. In the past, hydrogen peroxide which is a marker of inflammatory diseases and oxidative stress was the most studied substance in the exhaled breath which was detectable in the liquid that obtained by condensing or cooling. The advantages of breath analysis are that it is convenient, non-invasive, and could be performed with children as well as mechanically ventilated patients. Today, exhaled nitric oxide has been studied extensively, especially in relation to asthma. More than a thousand different volatile organic compounds have been observed in low concentrations in normal human breath. Alkanes and methylalkanes have been increasingly used by physicians as a novel method to diagnose many diseases without discomforts of invasive procedures. Although the limitations of measurement of exhaled nitric oxide in direct diagnosis of infectious pulmonary TB, it may have potential development as a cost-effective replacement of chest radiological examination in screening algorithms. None of the individual exhaled volatile organic compound alone is specific for disease. Exhaled breath analysis techniques may be available to diagnose and monitor the diseases in home setting when their sensitivity and specificity are expected to improve in the future. Here, we also discussed some patents related to the topic. PMID:25185981

Cheepsattayakorn, Attapon; Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong

2014-01-01

378

An Inexpensive, Foolproof Apparatus for Flash Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a new, modified "flash chromatography" apparatus which overcomes difficulties found in conventional apparatus. For example, an expensive teflon pressure valve is not necessary in the modified version. The apparatus is suitable as an instructional tool in undergraduate courses. (JN)

Thompson, Wayne J.; Hanson, Bryan A.

1984-01-01

379

Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2006-12-12

380

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

Jenkins, Charles F. (Aiken, SC); Howard, Boyd D. (Augusta, GA)

1998-01-01

381

Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

1999-08-01

382

Thermal synthesis apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-08-18

383

Isotope separation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Isotope separation apparatus consisting of a plurality of cells disposed adjacent to each other in an evacuated container. A common magnetic field is established extending through all of the cells. A source of energetic electrons at one end of the container generates electrons which pass through the cells along the magnetic field lines. Each cell includes an array of collector plates arranged in parallel or in tandem within a common magnetic field. Sets of collector plates are disposed adjacent to each other in each cell. Means are provided for differentially energizing ions of a desired isotope by applying energy at the cyclotron resonant frequency of the desired isotope. As a result, the energized desired ions are preferentially collected by the collector plates.

Arnush, Donald (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); MacKenzie, Kenneth R. (Pacific Palisades, CA); Wuerker, Ralph F. (Palos Verdes Estates, CA)

1980-01-01

384

Fluid pumping apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2006-01-17

385

Induction melter apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

Roach, Jay A [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID; Raivo, Brian D [Idaho Falls, ID; Soelberg, Nicholas R [Idaho Falls, ID

2008-06-17

386

Geodetic distance measuring apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A geodetic distance measuring apparatus which compensates for the refractive index of the atmosphere is discussed. A mode locked laser system with a laser device and its peripheral components is utilized to derive two mutually phase locked optical wavelength signals and one phase locked microwave CW signal which respectively traverse the same distance measurement path. The optical signals are comprised of pulse type signals. Phase comparison of the two optical wavelength pulse signals is used to provide the dry air density while phase comparison of one of the optical wavelength pulse signals and the microwave CW signal issued to provide wet or water vapor density of the air. The distance to be measured corrected for the atmospheric dry air and water vapor densities in the measurement path is computed from these measurements. A time interval unit is included for measuring transit time of individual optical pulses for resolving the phase ambiguity needed with the phase measurements to give the true target distance.

Abshire, J. B. (inventor)

1980-01-01

387

The Cancerous Translation Apparatus  

PubMed Central

Deregulations in translational control are critical features of cancer initiation and progression. Activation of key oncogenic pathways promote rapid and dramatic translational reprogramming, not simply by increasing overall protein synthesis, but also by modulating specific mRNA networks that promote cellular transformation. Additionally, ribosomopathies caused by mutations in ribosome components alter translational regulation leading to specific pathological features, including cancer susceptibility. Exciting advances in our understanding of translational control in cancer have illuminated a striking specificity innate to the translational apparatus. Characterizing this specificity will provide novel insights into how cells normally utilize translational control to modulate gene expression, how it is deregulated in cancer, and how these processes can be targeted to develop new cancer therapies. PMID:21543223

Stumpf, Craig R.; Ruggero, Davide

2012-01-01

388

Spine immobilization apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (inventors)

1981-01-01

389

Nuclear reactor control apparatus  

DOEpatents

Nuclear reactor safety rod release apparatus comprises a ring which carries detents normally positioned in an annular recess in outer side of the rod, the ring being held against the lower end of a drive shaft by magnetic force exerted by a solenoid carried by the drive shaft. When the solenoid is de-energized, the detent-carrying ring drops until the detents contact a cam surface associated with the lower end of the drive shaft, at which point the detents are cammed out of the recess in the safety rod to release the rod from the drive shaft. In preferred embodiments of the invention, an additional latch is provided to release a lower portion of a safety rod under conditions that may interfere with movement of the entire rod.

Sridhar, Bettadapur N. (Cupertino, CA)

1983-10-25

390

Multiparameter vision testing apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact vision testing apparatus is described for testing a large number of physiological characteristics of the eyes and visual system of a human subject. The head of the subject is inserted into a viewing port at one end of a light-tight housing containing various optical assemblies. Visual acuity and other refractive characteristics and ocular muscle balance characteristics of the eyes of the subject are tested by means of a retractable phoroptor assembly carried near the viewing port and a film cassette unit carried in the rearward portion of the housing (the latter selectively providing a variety of different visual targets which are viewed through the optical system of the phoroptor assembly). The visual dark adaptation characteristics and absolute brightness threshold of the subject are tested by means of a projector assembly which selectively projects one or both of a variable intensity fixation target and a variable intensity adaptation test field onto a viewing screen located near the top of the housing.

Hunt, S. R., Jr.; Homkes, R. J.; Poteate, W. B.; Sturgis, A. C. (inventors)

1975-01-01

391

Freeze drying apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

2001-01-01

392

Laser dividing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A laser beam dividing apparatus (10) having a first beam splitter (14) with an aperture (16) therein positioned in the path of a laser beam (12) such that a portion of the laser beam (12) passes through the aperture (16) onto a second beam splitter (20) and a portion of the laser beam (12) impinges upon the first beam splitter (14). Both the first beam splitter (14) and the second beam splitter (20) are, optionally, made from a dichroic material such that a green component (24) of the laser beam (12) is reflected therefrom and a yellow component (26) is refracted therethrough. The first beam splitter (14) and the second beam splitter (20) further each have a plurality of facets (22) such that the components (24, 26) are reflected and refracted in a number equaling the number of facets (22).

English, Jr., R. Edward (Tracy, CA); Johnson, Steve A. (Tracy, CA)

1995-01-01

393

Apparatus for dispensing material  

DOEpatents

An apparatus capable of dispensing drops of material with volumes on the order of zeptoliters is described. In some embodiments of the inventive pipette the size of the droplets so dispensed is determined by the size of a hole, or channel, through a carbon shell encapsulating a reservoir that contains material to be dispensed. The channel may be formed by irradiation with an electron beam or other high-energy beam capable of focusing to a spot size less than about 5 nanometers. In some embodiments, the dispensed droplet remains attached to the pipette by a small thread of material, an atomic scale meniscus, forming a virtually free-standing droplet. In some embodiments the droplet may wet the pipette tip and take on attributes of supported drops. Methods for fabricating and using the pipette are also described.

Sutter, Peter Werner (Beach, NY); Sutter, Eli Anguelova (Beach, NY)

2011-07-05

394

Energy conversion apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an energy conversion apparatus. It comprises a base housing, the base housing including a cooling fluid bath contained therewithin, the base housing including a top wall; a first heating conduit mounted to and projecting into the base housing through the top wall; a second cooling conduit mounted to the top wall projecting therethrough; a lower pulley rotatably mounted within the base housing, a platform spaced above the base housing, an upper pulley, an endless belt wound about the upper and lower pulleys directed through the first conduit and the second conduit; a plurality of equally spaced fluid filled balloons mounted upon the endless belt; heating means for effecting heating interiorly of the first conduit for effecting vaporizing of the fluid within the balloons when directed therethrough to effect ascent of the balloons through the first conduit and descent of the balloons through the second conduit.

Evanger, J.A.; Ellison, R.A.

1992-06-30

395

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOEpatents

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

1983-01-01

396

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOEpatents

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. [sup 4]He, [sup 3]He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3--4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel. 10 figs.

Wheatley, J.C.; Paulson, D.N.; Allen, P.C.

1983-01-04

397

Underwater disaster victim identification: the process and the problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An underwater disaster may involve a crime scene investigation which should be handled as if it were located above water and\\u000a include a detailed description and documentation of items, belongings and findings. The environment, however, creates special\\u000a circumstances, each with specific problems that are not encountered during land investigations. Risks associated with underwater\\u000a recovery cannot be overestimated and underwater disaster

Calle Winskog

398

Study of archaeological underwater finds: deterioration and conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is aimed at an assessment of the methodologies, instruments and new applications for underwater archaeology. Research\\u000a focused on study of the various kinds of degradation affecting underwater finds and stone materials aged in underwater environment,\\u000a efficiency evaluation of various surface cleaning methods and study and mixing of protective products with consolidating resins\\u000a and antimicrobial biocides to be applied

G. M. Crisci; M. F. La Russa; M. Macchione; M. Malagodi; A. M. Palermo; S. A. Ruffolo

2010-01-01

399

The thermal character of the underwater heat exhausting source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underwater heat exhausting source can cause the thermal difference of the surrounding and surface water. In this paper,\\u000a the thermal character caused by the underwater heat exhausting source is studied by numerical simulation and experiment. The\\u000a results show that the thermal floating distance is related with the sailing velocity of the underwater target. The higher\\u000a the velocity is, the

Shengtao Chen; Huanying Liu; Yi Qi

2010-01-01

400

Feasibility of underwater free space quantum key distribution  

E-print Network

We investigate the optical absorption and scattering properties of underwater media pertinent to our underwater free space quantum key distribution (QKD) channel model. With the vector radiative transfer theory and Monte Carlo method, we obtain the attenuation of photons, the fidelity of the scattered photons, the quantum bit error rate and the sifted key generation rate of underwater quantum communication. It can be observed from our simulations that the most secure single photon underwater free space QKD is feasible in the clearest ocean water.

Peng Shi; Shi-Cheng Zhao; Wen-Dong Li; Yong-Jian Gu

2014-04-04

401

Detecting underwater improvised explosive threats (DUIET)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have presented a major threat in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices are powerful homemade land mines that can be small and easily hidden near roadsides. They are then remotely detonated when Coalition Forces pass by either singly or in convoys. Their rapid detection, classification and destruction is key to the safety of troops in the area. These land based bombs will have an analogue in the underwater theater especially in ports, lakes, rivers and streams. These devices may be used against Americans on American soil as an element of the global war on terrorism (GWOT) Rapid detection and classification of underwater improvised explosive devices (UIED) is critical to protecting innocent lives and maintaining the day to day flow of commerce. This paper will discuss a strategy and tool set to deal with this potential threat.

Feeley, Terry

2010-04-01

402

Multipath correlations in underwater acoustic communication channels.  

PubMed

Uncorrelated scattering (US), which assumes that multipath arrivals undergo uncorrelated scattering and are thus uncorrelated, has been the standard model for digital communications including underwater acoustic communications. This paper examines the cross-correlation of multipath arrivals based on at-sea data with different temporal coherence time, assuming quasi-stationary statistics. It is found that multipath arrivals are highly cross-correlated when the channel is temporally coherent, and are uncorrelated when the channel is temporally incoherent. A theoretical model based on the path phase rates and relative-phase fluctuations is used to explain experimentally observed phenomena, assuming the path amplitudes vary slowly compared with the phases. The implications of correlated scattering for underwater acoustic communication channel tracking are discussed. PMID:23556587

Huang, S H; Yang, T C; Huang, Chen-Fen

2013-04-01

403

Episodic breathing in alligators: role of sensory feedback.  

PubMed

The episodic breathing pattern in many reptiles consists of two or more clustered breaths separated by variable non-ventilatory periods. This pattern is commonly postulated to result from oscillations in lung and/or blood PO2 or PCO2 via chemoreceptor feedback. We tested this hypothesis by monitoring breathing pattern in: (1) awake, undisturbed alligators and (2) sedated alligators (approx. 25 mg/kg pentobarbital, i.p.; 3 days prior to data collection). In sedated alligators, measurements were made: (1) before and after bilateral cervical vagotomy, a procedure that removes peripheral arterial chemoreceptors, CO2-sensitive intrapulmonary chemoreceptors and pulmonary stretch receptors (n = 6); and (2) during unidirectional ventilation (UDV) at high flow rates (greater than 2 L/min), thereby minimizing oscillations in lung and blood PO2 and PCO2 (n = 6). Measurements on sedated alligators were made at 30 and 20 degrees C in each of these conditions. In awake, undisturbed alligators, breathing was typically episodic with 2-7 breaths/cluster, although the pattern was easily altered (increased breaths/cluster) by even seemingly minor disturbances. In sedated alligators, episodic breathing was still evident after vagotomy, but only at increased inspired CO2; at 5% CO2 four of six alligators exhibited episodic breathing consisting of 2-3 breaths/cluster interspersed with occasional single breaths. An episodic breathing pattern was also evident during UDV; at low levels of CO2, 2-4 breaths/cluster interspersed with occasional single breaths were evident in four alligators, while two had 6-8 breaths/cluster. Increasing CO2 in the UDV gas stream generally increased the number of breaths/cluster. After vagotomy, all six alligators could manifest an episodic breathing pattern during UDV in at least one CO2 condition (greater than 2 breaths/cluster interspersed with occasional single breaths). The episodic breathing pattern was very labile, sometimes changing to single breaths without apparent cause. The results suggest: (1) episodic breathing requires neither feedback from vagal sensory receptors nor oscillations in respiratory gases; and (2) changes in arterial PCO2 modulate, but do not initiate episodic breathing. Episodic breathing in alligators may be due to complex interactions of higher brain structures with the central rhythm generator. PMID:1553450

Douse, M A; Mitchell, G S

1992-01-01

404

Electrospray ionization of volatiles in breath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work by Zenobi and colleagues [H. Chen, A. Wortmann, W. Zhang, R. Zenobi, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46 (2007) 580] reports that human breath charged by contact with an electrospray (ES) cloud yields many mass peaks of species such as urea, glucose, and other ions, some with molecular weights above 1000 Da. All these species are presumed to be involatile, and to originate from breath aerosols by so-called extractive electrospray ionization EESI [H. Chen, A. Venter, R.G. Cooks, Chem. Commun. (2006) 2042]. However, prior work by Fenn and colleagues [C.M. Whitehouse, F. Levin, C.K. Meng, J.B. Fenn, Proceedings of the 34th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, Denver, 1986 p. 507; S. Fuerstenau, P. Kiselev, J.B. Fenn, Proceedings of the 47th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry, 1999, Dallas, TX, 1999] and by Hill and colleagues [C. Wu, W.F. Siems, H.H. Hill Jr., Anal. Chem. 72 (2000) 396] have reported the ability of electrospray drops to ionize a variety of low vapor pressure substances directly from the gas phase, without an apparent need for the vapor to be brought into the charging ES in aerosol form. The Ph.D. Thesis of Martínez-Lozano [P. Martínez-Lozano Sinués, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Thermal and Fluid Engineering, University Carlos III of Madrid; April 5, 2006 (in Spanish); http://hdl.handle.net/10016/655] had also previously argued that the numerous human breath species observed via a similar ES ionization approach were in fact ionized directly from the vapor. Here, we observe that passage of the breath stream through a submicron filter does not eliminate the majority of the breath vapors seen in the absence of the filter. We conclude that direct vapor charging is the leading mechanism in breath ionization by electrospray drops, though aerosol ionization may also play a role.

Martínez-Lozano, P.; de La Mora, J. Fernández

2007-08-01

405

Overview of a hybrid underwater camera system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper provides an overview of a Hybrid Underwater Camera (HUC) system combining sonar with a range-gated laser camera system. The sonar is the BlueView P900-45, operating at 900kHz with a field of view of 45 degrees and ranging capability of 60m. The range-gated laser camera system is based on the third generation LUCIE (Laser Underwater Camera Image Enhancer) sensor originally developed by the Defence Research and Development Canada. LUCIE uses an eye-safe laser generating 1ns pulses at a wavelength of 532nm and at the rate of 25kHz. An intensified CCD camera operates with a gating mechanism synchronized with the laser pulse. The gate opens to let the camera capture photons from a given range of interest and can be set from a minimum delay of 5ns with increments of 200ps. The output of the sensor is a 30Hz video signal. Automatic ranging is achieved using a sonar altimeter. The BlueView sonar and LUCIE sensors are integrated with an underwater computer that controls the sensors parameters and displays the real-time data for the sonar and the laser camera. As an initial step for data integration, graphics overlays representing the laser camera field-of-view along with the gate position and width are overlaid on the sonar display. The HUC system can be manually handled by a diver and can also be controlled from a surface vessel through an umbilical cord. Recent test data obtained from the HUC system operated in a controlled underwater environment will be presented along with measured performance characteristics.

Church, Philip; Hou, Weilin; Fournier, Georges; Dalgleish, Fraser; Butler, Derek; Pari, Sergio; Jamieson, Michael; Pike, David

2014-05-01

406

Adaptive autonomous underwater vehicles for littoral surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) have gained more interest in recent years for military as well as civilian applications.\\u000a One potential application of AUVs is for the purpose of undersea surveillance. As research into undersea surveillance using\\u000a AUVs progresses, issues arise as to how an AUV acquires, acts on, and shares information about the undersea battle space.\\u000a These issues naturally touch

Stephanie Kemna; Michael J. Hamilton; David T. Hughes; Kevin D. LePage

407

Terrain Reconstruction for Ground and Underwater Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new image-processing algorithm for estimating both the egomotion of an outdoor robotic platform and the structure of the surrounding terrain. The algorithm is based on correlation, and is embedded in an iterative, multi-resolution framework. As such, it is suited to outdoor ground-based and underwater scenes. Both single-camera rigs and multiple-camera rigs can be accommodated. The use of

Robert Mandelbaum; Garbis Salgian; Harpreet S. Sawhney; Michael W. Hansen

2000-01-01

408

Coral World Ocean Park & Underwater Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Award-winning tourist attraction in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, focuses completely on Caribbean reef and island life. Aquarium exhibits include: Underwater Observatory built into the fringing reef; predators tank with sharks, barracuda, moray eels and tarpon; Caribbean Reef Encounter offering interpretive programs; tanks housing smaller reef fishes and invertebrates; as well as touch pool, shark shallows, stingray and turtle pools. Nature walks highlight native plant life and iguanas. Water sports available. Admission fees apply.

409

Ejectable underwater sound source recovery assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An underwater sound source is described that may be ejectably mounted on any mobile device that travels over water, to facilitate in the location and recovery of the device when submerged. A length of flexible line maintains a connection between the mobile device and the sound source. During recovery, the sound source is located be particularly useful in the recovery of spent rocket motors that bury in the ocean floor upon impact.

Irick, S. C. (inventor)

1974-01-01

410

Video tracking in the extreme: video analysis for nocturnal underwater animal movement.  

PubMed

Computer analysis of video footage is one option for recording locomotor behavior for a range of neurophysiological and behavioral studies. This technique is reasonably well established and accepted, but its use for some behavioral analyses remains a challenge. For example, filming through water can lead to reflection, and filming nocturnal activity can reduce resolution and clarity of filmed images. The aim of this study was to develop a noninvasive method for recording nocturnal activity in aquatic decapods and test the accuracy of analysis by video tracking software. We selected crayfish, Cherax destructor, because they are often active at night, they live underwater, and data on their locomotion is important for answering biological and physiological questions such as how they explore and navigate. We constructed recording arenas and filmed animals in infrared light. Wethen compared human observer data and software-acquired values. In this article, we outline important apparatus and software issues to obtain reliable computer tracking. PMID:18183891

Patullo, B W; Jolley-Rogers, G; Macmillan, D L

2007-11-01

411

Afocal viewport optics for underwater imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conventional camera can be adapted for underwater use by enclosing it in a sealed waterproof pressure housing with a viewport. The viewport, as an optical interface between water and air needs to consider both the camera and water optical characteristics while also providing a high pressure water seal. Limited hydrospace visibility drives a need for wide angle viewports. Practical optical interfaces between seawater and air vary from simple flat plate windows to complex water contact lenses. This paper first provides a brief overview of the physical and optical properties of the ocean environment along with suitable optical materials. This is followed by a discussion of the characteristics of various afocal underwater viewport types including flat windows, domes and the Ivanoff corrector lens, a derivative of a Galilean wide angle camera adapter. Several new and interesting optical designs derived from the Ivanoff corrector lens are presented including a pair of very compact afocal viewport lenses that are compatible with both in water and in air environments and an afocal underwater hyper-hemispherical fisheye lens.

Slater, Dan

2014-09-01

412

Correction methods for underwater turbulence degraded imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of remote sensing techniques such as adaptive optics and image restoration post processing to correct for aberrations in a wavefront of light propagating through turbulent environment has become customary for many areas including astronomy, medical imaging, and industrial applications. EO imaging underwater has been mainly concentrated on overcoming scattering effects rather than dealing with underwater turbulence. However, the effects of turbulence have crucial impact over long image-transmission ranges and under extreme turbulence conditions become important over path length of a few feet. Our group has developed a program that attempts to define under which circumstances application of atmospheric remote sensing techniques could be envisioned. In our experiments we employ the NRL Rayleigh-Bénard convection tank for simulated turbulence environment at Stennis Space Center, MS. A 5m long water tank is equipped with heating and cooling plates that generate a well measured thermal gradient that in turn produces various degrees of turbulence. The image or laser beam spot can be propagated along the tank's length where it is distorted by induced turbulence. In this work we report on the experimental and theoretical findings of the ongoing program. The paper will introduce the experimental setup, the techniques used, and the measurements made as well as describe novel methods for postprocessing and correction of images degraded by underwater turbulence.

Kanaev, A. V.; Hou, W.; Restaino, S. R.; Matt, S.; G?adysz, S.

2014-10-01

413

Biosensor UUV payload for underwater detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased emphasis on maritime domain awareness and port security has led to the development of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) capable of extended missions. These systems rely most frequently on well-developed side scan sonar and acoustic methods to locate potential targets. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is developing biosensors for underwater explosives detection that complement acoustic sensors and can be used as UUV payloads to monitor areas for port and harbor security or in detection of underwater unexploded ordnance (UXO) and biochemical threats. The prototype sensor has recently been demonstrated to detect explosives in seawater at trace levels when run in a continuous sampling mode. To overcome ongoing issues with sample preparation and facilitate rapid detection at trace levels in a marine environment, we have been developing new mesoporous materials for in-line preconcentration of explosives and other small molecules, engineering microfluidic components to improve the signal, and testing alternative signal transduction methods. Additional work is being done to optimize the optical components and sensor response time. Highlights of these current studies and our ongoing efforts to integrate the biosensor with existing detection technologies to reduce false positives are described. In addition, we present the results of field tests that demonstrate the prototype biosensor performance as a UUV payload.

Kusterbeck, Anne W.; Charles, Paul T.; Melde, Brian J.; Trammell, Scott A.; Adams, André A.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.

2010-04-01

414

Sleep-disordered breathing in neurologic conditions.  

PubMed

Sleep-related breathing disorder or sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) encompasses central sleep apnea (CSA), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and sleep-related hypoventilation or hypoxemic syndromes. SDB is common in neurologic conditions that affect the central and/or peripheral nervous systems. Patients with neurologic conditions are at risk for SDB due to a combination of factors such as muscular weakness, damage to areas of the brain that control respiration, use of sedating medications, and weight gain from limited physical activity. This article discusses recognition and treatment of SDB as important aspects of treating patients with neurologic disease. PMID:25156770

Deak, Maryann C; Kirsch, Douglas B

2014-09-01

415

Chemoresponsiveness and breath physiology in anosmia.  

PubMed

Anosmia is a model to study the interaction among chemoreception systems. In the head injury, the traumatic irreversible anosmia caused by damage to olfactory nerve fibers and brain regions is of enviable research interest. In this study, psychophysiological tests for a comprehensive assessment of olfactory function were utilized to investigate anosmia, together with a new technique based on the breath real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We applied the breath and VOCs analysis to investigate chemoresponsiveness in the long-term irreversible post-traumatic anosmia. PMID:25310952

Mazzatenta, Andrea; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Montinaro, Danilo; Di Giulio, Camillo

2015-01-01

416

Apparatus for transporting hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are provided for selectively receiving, transporting, and releasing one or more radioactive or other hazardous samples for analysis on a differential thermal analysis (DTA) apparatus. The apparatus includes a portable sample transporting apparatus for storing and transporting the samples and includes a support assembly for supporting the transporting apparatus when a sample is transferred to the DTA apparatus. The transporting apparatus includes a storage member which includes a plurality of storage chambers arrayed circumferentially with respect to a central axis. An adjustable top door is located on the top side of the storage member, and the top door includes a channel capable of being selectively placed in registration with the respective storage chambers thereby permitting the samples to selectively enter the respective storage chambers. The top door, when closed, isolates the respective samples within the storage chambers. A plurality of spring-biased bottom doors are located on the bottom sides of the respective storage chambers. The bottom doors isolate the samples in the respective storage chambers when the bottom doors are in the closed position. The bottom doors permit the samples to leave the respective storage chambers from the bottom side when the respective bottom doors are in respective open positions. The bottom doors permit the samples to be loaded into the respective storage chambers after the analysis for storage and transport to a permanent storage location.

Osterman, Robert A. (Canonsburg, PA); Cox, Robert (West Mifflin, PA)

1992-01-01

417

42 CFR 84.1132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. (a) Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

2011-10-01

418

42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with gas masks shall be designed and constructed to prevent: (a)...

2010-10-01

419

42 CFR 84.1132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. (a) Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

2010-10-01

420

42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with gas masks shall be designed and constructed to prevent: (a)...

2011-10-01

421

ALVEOLAR BREATH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined an alveolar breath collection ...

422

Meeting Reports for 2013: Recent Advances in Breath Biomarker Research  

EPA Science Inventory

This article reports the efforts of the breath research community affiliated with the International Association of Breath Research (IABR) in disseminating research results in high profile technical meetings in the United States (US). Specifically, we describe presentations at a ...

423

Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus  

DOEpatents

A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an "as-fabricated" position to a final position and locking of the shuttle in the final position. With the shuttle moved to the final position, the apparatus can perform one or more functions including completing an explosive train or an electrical switch closure, or allowing a light beam to be transmitted through the device.

Koehler, David R. (Placitas, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Weichman, Louis S. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Beggans, Michael H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-30

424

Site survey method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment. 19 figures.

Oldham, J.G.; Spencer, C.R.; Begley, C.L.; Meyer, H.R.

1991-06-18

425

Beam connector apparatus and assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and assembly for connecting beams and like structural members is disclosed which is particularly advantageous for connecting two members which are moved laterally into place. The connector apparatus requires no relative longitudinal movement between the ends of the beams or members being connected to make a connection joint. The apparatus includes a receptacle member and a connector housing carried by opposed ends of the structural member being connected. A spring-loaded connector member is carried by the connector housing which may be released for extension and engagement into the receptacle member.

Vontiesenhausen, G. F. (inventor)

1983-01-01

426

Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus  

DOEpatents

A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an "as-fabricated" position to a final position and locking of the shuttle in the final position. With the shuttle moved to the final position, the apparatus can perform one or more functions including completing an explosive train or an electrical switch closure, or allowing a light beam to be transmitted through the device.

Koehler, David R. (Sherwood, OR); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Weichman, Louis S. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Beggans, Michael H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-06-10

427

Site survey method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment.

Oldham, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Spencer, Charles R. (Boise, ID); Begley, Carl L. (Albuquerque, NM); Meyer, H. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-06-18

428

Apparatus for measuring particle properties  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle's size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle's velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered.

Rader, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM); Castaneda, Jaime N. (Albuquerque, NM); Grasser, Thomas W. (Albuquerque, NM); Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

429

Automated Desalting Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because salt and metals can mask the signature of a variety of organic molecules (like amino acids) in any given sample, an automated system to purify complex field samples has been created for the analytical techniques of electrospray ionization/ mass spectroscopy (ESI/MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and biological assays where unique identification requires at least some processing of complex samples. This development allows for automated sample preparation in the laboratory and analysis of complex samples in the field with multiple types of analytical instruments. Rather than using tedious, exacting protocols for desalting samples by hand, this innovation, called the Automated Sample Processing System (ASPS), takes analytes that have been extracted through high-temperature solvent extraction and introduces them into the desalting column. After 20 minutes, the eluent is produced. This clear liquid can then be directly analyzed by the techniques listed above. The current apparatus including the computer and power supplies is sturdy, has an approximate mass of 10 kg, and a volume of about 20 20 20 cm, and is undergoing further miniaturization. This system currently targets amino acids. For these molecules, a slurry of 1 g cation exchange resin in deionized water is packed into a column of the apparatus. Initial generation of the resin is done by flowing sequentially 2.3 bed volumes of 2N NaOH and 2N HCl (1 mL each) to rinse the resin, followed by .5 mL of deionized water. This makes the pH of the resin near neutral, and eliminates cross sample contamination. Afterward, 2.3 mL of extracted sample is then loaded into the column onto the top of the resin bed. Because the column is packed tightly, the sample can be applied without disturbing the resin bed. This is a vital step needed to ensure that the analytes adhere to the resin. After the sample is drained, oxalic acid (1 mL, pH 1.6-1.8, adjusted with NH4OH) is pumped into the column. Oxalic acid works as a chelating reagent to bring out metal ions, such as calcium and iron, which would otherwise interfere with amino acid analysis. After oxalic acid, 1 mL 0.01 N HCl and 1 mL deionized water is used to sequentially rinse the resin. Finally, the amino acids attached to the resin, and the analytes are eluted using 2.5 M NH4OH (1 mL), and the NH4OH eluent is collected in a vial for analysis.

Spencer, Maegan K.; Liu, De-Ling; Kanik, Isik; Beegle, Luther

2010-01-01

430

The preparation of calcium superoxide at subambient temperatures and pressures. [oxygen source for breathing apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of disproportionations at lower temperatures and also of a range of reaction chamber pressures on the preparation of calcium superoxide, Ca(O2)2, from calcium peroxide diperoxyhydrate were studied. About 60% purity of product was obtained by a disproportionation procedure. The significance of features of this procedure for a prospective scale-up of the mass prepared in a single experiment is considered. The optimum pressure for product purity was determined, and the use of a molecular sieve desiccant is described.

Ballou, E. V.; Wood, P. C.; Spitze, L. A.; Wydeven, T.; Stein, R.

1977-01-01

431

78 FR 2618 - Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Remaining Service-Life Indicator Performance Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), which sets standards for personal protective...the matter and recently decided to amend NFPA 1981: Standard on Open-Circuit Self...3\\ NFPA 1981: Standard on open-circuit...

2013-01-14

432

Determining spherical lens correction for astronaut training underwater  

PubMed Central

Purpose To develop a model that will accurately predict the distance spherical lens correction needed to be worn by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronauts while training underwater. The replica space suit’s helmet contains curved visors that induce refractive power when submersed in water. Methods Anterior surface powers and thicknesses were measured for the helmet’s protective and inside visors. The impact of each visor on the helmet’s refractive power in water was analyzed using thick lens calculations and Zemax optical design software. Using geometrical optics approximations, a model was developed to determine the optimal distance spherical power needed to be worn underwater based on the helmet’s total induced spherical power underwater and the astronaut’s manifest spectacle plane correction in air. The validity of the model was tested using data from both eyes of 10 astronauts who trained underwater. Results The helmet visors induced a total power of ?2.737 D when placed underwater. The required underwater spherical correction (FW) was linearly related to the spectacle plane spherical correction in air (FAir): FW = FAir + 2.356 D. The mean magnitude of the difference between the actual correction worn underwater and the calculated underwater correction was 0.20 ± 0.11 D. The actual and calculated values were highly correlated (R = 0.971) with 70% of eyes having a difference in magnitude of < 0.25 D between values. Conclusions We devised a model to calculate the spherical spectacle lens correction needed to be worn underwater by National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronauts. The model accurately predicts the actual values worn underwater and can be applied (more generally) to determine a suitable spectacle lens correction to be worn behind other types of masks when submerged underwater. PMID:21623249

Porter, Jason; Gibson, C. Robert; Strauss, Samuel

2013-01-01

433

Cardiovascular Variability Analysis under Gradually Guided Breathing Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slow and regular breathing can make beneficial effects on cardiovascular system and autonomic nerve system. Many researches studied the cardiovascular variabilities under paced breathing rate of 0.25 Hz and 0.1 Hz, but few quantitative data are available describing the relationships between the cardiovascular variables during the slow and regular breathing procedure, and mechanism of the beneficial effects behind the slow

Zhengbo Zhang; Weidong Wang; Buqing Wang; Hao Wu; Qing Ang; Hongyun Liu; Yukai Zhang

2009-01-01

434

Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

2003-01-01

435

Floating layer recovery apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for recovery of a layer of a first underground liquid floating on a second underground liquid in a well. It comprises: first float means disposed in the well in the first liquid, the float means having an effective buoyancy such that it floats in the first liquid; second float means disposed in the well in the first liquid, the float means having an effective buoyancy such that it floats near the bottom of the first liquid, the second float means having top, side and bottom surfaces; an inlet means disposed on the second float surface for permitting entry of the first liquid; conduit means coupled to the inlet means and extending below the second float means; third float means disposed in the second liquid and having an effective buoyancy such that the third float means will remain submerged in the second liquid, the conduit means being coupled to the third float; the guide means for slidably connecting the second float between the first and third float means.

Newcomer, K.; Richter, S.

1991-03-12

436

Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

Whitehead, J.C.

1997-04-01

437

Apparatus for coating powders  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus for coating small particles and fibers. The process involves agitation by vibrating or tumbling the particles or fibers to promote coating uniformly, removing adsorbed gases and static charges from the particles or fibers by an initial plasma cleaning, and coating the particles or fibers with one or more coatings, a first coating being an adhesion coating, and with subsequent coatings being deposited in-situ to prevent contamination at layer interfaces. The first coating is of an adhesion forming element (i.e. W, Zr, Re, Cr, Ti) of a 100-10,000 .ANG. thickness and the second coating or final coating of a multiple (0.1-10 microns) being Cu or Ag, for example for brazing processes, or other desired materials that defines the new surface related properties of the particles. An essential feature of the coating process is the capability to deposit in-situ without interruption to prevent the formation of a contaminated interface that could adversely affect the coating adhesion. The process may include screening of the material to be coated and either continuous or intermittent vibration to prevent agglomeration of the material to be coated.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Alford, Craig S. (Tracy, CA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

438

Fluid driven recipricating apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached.

Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA)

1997-01-01

439

Thermal Insulation Test Apparatuses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) seeks to license its Thermal Insulation Test Apparatuses. Designed by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, these patented technologies (U.S. Patent Numbers: Cryostat 1 - 6,742,926, Cryostat 2 - 6,487,866, and Cryostat 4 - 6,824,306) allow manufacturers to fabricate and test cryogenic insulation at their production and/or laboratory facilities. These new inventions allow for the thermal performance characterization of cylindrical and flat specimens (e.g., bulk-fill, flat-panel, multilayer, or continuously rolled) over the full range of pressures, from high vacuum to no vacuum, and over the full range of temperatures from 77K to 300K. In today's world, efficient, low-maintenance, low-temperature refrigeration is taking a more significant role, from the food industry, transportation, energy, and medical applications to the Space Shuttle. Most countries (including the United States) have laws requiring commercially available insulation materials to be tested and rated by an accepted methodology. The new Cryostat methods go beyond the formal capabilities of the ASTM methods to provide testing for real systems, including full-temperature differences plus full-range vacuum conditions.

Berman, Brion

2005-01-01

440

Belt conveyor apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

Oakley, David J. (Richland, WA); Bogart, Rex L. (Kennewick, WA)

1987-01-01

441

Sleep effects on breathing and respiratory diseases  

PubMed Central

To understand normal sleep pattern and physiological changes during sleep, sleep and breathing interaction, nomenclature and scales used in sleep study, discuss the effect of rapid eye movements and non-rapid eye movements while sleep and to review the effects of obstructive and restrictive lung disease on gas exchange during sleep and sleep architecture. PMID:20531993

Choudhary, Sumer S.; Choudhary, Sanjiw R.

2009-01-01

442

Breathing Better with a COPD Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

Now that you kNow it’s CoPD, here’s how to breathe better. You have taken the important step of being aware of your symptoms, and seeing your doctor ... vaccine. 6) seek suPPort From others who have CoPD. See if your local hospital has a COPD ...

443

Mercury in human breath from dental amalgams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report the results of measurements of mercury vapor concentrations in the exhaled breath of 172 persons, a few of which exceed probable safe exposure limits and appear high enough to be a chronic toxicologic hazard for some people with numerous amalgam fillings.

J. E. Patterson; B. G. Weissberg; P. J. Dennison

1985-01-01

444

Dynamic Breathing Buildings to Combat Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic breathing building (DBB) is a new, innovative approach to construction that effectively reduces heat loss \\/ gain through the fabric of a building, delivers pre-tempered ventilation air that has been filtered of Particulate Matter (PM) and reduces the operating and capital costs of the building. By drawing ventilation air in through a permeable Dynamic Insulation (DI) layer it is

Alexander R. Brown; Mohammed S. Imbabi; Andrew D. Peacock

445

Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell  

DOEpatents

An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source.

Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01

446

Fast and accurate exhaled breath ammonia measurement.  

PubMed

This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations. PMID:24962141

Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A; Risby, Terence H

2014-01-01

447

The Physics of Breath-Hold Diving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes physical features of breath-hold diving. Considers the diver's descent and the initial surface dive and presents examples that show the diver's buoyancy equilibrium varying with depth, the driving force supplied by finning, and the effect of friction between the water and the diver. (Author/JRH)

Aguilella, Vicente; Aguilella-Arzo, Marcelo

1996-01-01

448

Quantification of the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio for breathing motion modeling  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology to quantitatively measure the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio from a 4DCT dataset for breathing motion modeling and breathing motion studies. Methods: The thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio was quantified by measuring the rate of cross-sectional volume increase throughout the thorax and abdomen as a function of tidal volume. Twenty-six 16-slice 4DCT patient datasets were acquired during quiet respiration using a protocol that acquired 25 ciné scans at each couch position. Fifteen datasets included data from the neck through the pelvis. Tidal volume, measured using a spirometer and abdominal pneumatic bellows, was used as breathing-cycle surrogates. The cross-sectional volume encompassed by the skin contour when compared for each CT slice against the tidal volume exhibited a nearly linear relationship. A robust iteratively reweighted least squares regression analysis was used to determine ?(i), defined as the amount of cross-sectional volume expansion at each slice i per unit tidal volume. The sum ??(i) throughout all slices was predicted to be the ratio of the geometric expansion of the lung and the tidal volume; 1.11. The Xiphoid process was selected as the boundary between the thorax and abdomen. The Xiphoid process slice was identified in a scan acquired at mid-inhalation. The imaging protocol had not originally been designed for purposes of measuring the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio so the scans did not extend to the anatomy with ?(i) = 0. Extrapolation of ?(i)–?(i) = 0 was used to include the entire breathing volume. The thorax and abdomen regions were individually analyzed to determine the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratios. There were 11 image datasets that had been scanned only through the thorax. For these cases, the abdomen breathing component was equal to 1.11 ? ??(i) where the sum was taken throughout the thorax. Results: The average ??(i) for thorax and abdomen image datasets was found to be 1.20 ± 0.17, close to the expected value of 1.11. The thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio was 0.32 ± 0.24. The average ??(i) was 0.26 ± 0.14 in the thorax and 0.93 ± 0.22 in the abdomen. In the scan datasets that encompassed only the thorax, the average ??(i) was 0.21 ± 0.11. Conclusions: A method to quantify the relationship between abdomen and thoracic breathing was developed and characterized. PMID:23718613

White, Benjamin M.; Zhao, Tianyu; Lamb, James; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Low, Daniel A.

2013-01-01

449

Radioactive waste material melter apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

1990-04-24

450

Radioactive waste material melter apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

Newman, Darrell F. (Richland, WA); Ross, Wayne A. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01

451

Apparatus for photon excited catalysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is described for increasing the yield of photonically excited gas phase reactions by extracting excess energy from unstable, excited species by contacting the species with the surface of a finely divided solid.

Saffren, M. M. (inventor)

1977-01-01

452

Continuous steel production and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

Peaslee, Kent D. (Rolla, MO); Peter, Jorg J. (McMinnville, OR); Robertson, David G. C. (Rolla, MO); Thomas, Brian G. (Champaign, IL); Zhang, Lifeng (Trondheim, NO)

2009-11-17

453

Bi-stem gripping apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to devices which grip cylindrical structures and more particularly to a device which has three arcuate gripping members having frictional surfaces for gripping and compressing a bi-stem. The bi-stem gripping apparatus is constructed having a pair of side gripping members, and an intermediate gripping member disposed between them. Sheets of a gum stock silicone rubber with frictional gripping surfaces are bonded to the inner region of the gripping members and provide frictional engagement between the bi-stem and the apparatus. A latch secures the gripping apparatus to a bi-stem, and removable handles are attached, allowing an astronaut to pull the bi-stem from its cassette. A tethering ring on the outside of the gripping apparatus provides a convenient point to which a lanyard may be attached.

Sanders, Fred G. (inventor)

1988-01-01

454

Validation of a new breathing simulator generating and measuring inhaled aerosol with adult breathing patterns.  

PubMed

The use of breathing simulators for the in vitro determination of the inhaled mass of drug from nebulizers has become widely accepted. Their use is, however, based on the assumption that there is a correlation between the in vitro and in vivo inhaled mass of drug. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate whether a new breathing simulator--the MIMIC Breathing Emulator (Medic-Aid Limited, Bognor Regis, UK)--could accurately emulate the in vivo inhaled mass of budesonide suspension for nebulization. Eight adult healthy subjects were included. Each subject inhaled for 2 min from a Spira Module 1 jet nebulizer (Respiratory Care Center, Hämeenlinna, Finland), charged with 1.0 mg of budesonide suspension for nebulization (0.5 mg mL-1, 2 mL suspension, AstraZeneca, Sweden) and supplied with an inhaled mass filter between the nebulizer and the subject. The breathing patterns were recorded during the nebulization and simulated in vitro at two different experimental sites (simulations A and B) with the breathing simulator. With the patients breathing through the filters (in vivo test), inhaled mass of budesonide averaged 103.6 micrograms. The two in vitro experiments using the simulator revealed similar results with in vitro simulation A equal to 101.0 micrograms and simulation B 99.1 micrograms. There were no statistically significant differences between the in vivo results and those of in vitro simulation A. Results were significantly different for simulation B (p = 0.032) although the difference was less than 4.5%. These data indicate that the breathing simulator can be used to accurately simulate sine waveforms, human breathing patterns, and the in vitro and in vivo inhaled mass of budesonide suspension for nebulization. PMID:11010594

Nikander, K; Denyer, J; Everard, M; Smaldone, G C

2000-01-01

455

Autonomous underwater vehicle navigation scheme for cable following  

Microsoft Academic Search

A navigation scheme for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) following underwater cables is presented. The objective in following the cable is to capture a video of the cable for inspection purposes. Two main practical difficulties arising in using optical images for navigation are considered and a sensor fusion scheme is proposed to overcome these problems. The paper presents experimental results obtained

Arjuna Balasuriya; Tamaki Ura

2001-01-01

456

Underwater Cable Following by Twin-Burger 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a sensor fusion technique is proposed for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) to track underwater cables. The paper discusses the navigation of AUV when cable is invisible in the image, and the selection of the correct cable (interested feature) when there are many similar features appearing in the image. The proposed sensor fusion scheme uses deadreckoning position uncertainty

Arjuna P. Balasuriya; Tamaki Ura

2001-01-01

457

Sensor fusion technique for cable following by autonomous underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensor fusion technique is proposed for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to track underwater cables. The work presented is an extension of the vision based cable tracking system proposed by that authors (1997, 1998) and Balasutiya (1998). The focus of this paper is to solve the two practical problems encountered in vision based systems; namely: 1) navigation of AUV when

Arjuna Balasuriya; Tamaki Ura

1999-01-01

458

76 FR 52734 - Underwater Locating Devices (Acoustic) (Self-Powered)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

This notice announces the planned revocation of all Technical Standard Order authorizations (TSOA) issued for the production of Underwater Locating Devices (Acoustic) (Self-Powered) manufactured to the TSO-C121 and TSO-C121a specifications. These actions are necessary because the planned issuance of TSO-C121b, Underwater Locating Devices (Acoustic) (Self-Powered), with a minimum performance......

2011-08-23

459

77 FR 13174 - Underwater Locating Devices (Acoustic) (Self-Powered)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

This is a confirmation notice for the planned revocation of all Technical Standard Order authorizations issued for the production of Underwater Locating Devices (Acoustic) (Self-Powered) manufactured to the TSO-C121 and TSO-C121a specifications. These actions are necessary because the planned issuance of TSO-C121b, Underwater Locating Devices (Acoustic) (Self-Powered), minimum performance......

2012-03-05

460

Laser Produced Bubbles for Underwater Shock Hydrodynamics Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NRL Laser Laboratory for Underwater Hydrodynamics is producing strong underwater shocks and bubbles to study hydrodynamics relevant to Navy problems. The initial high energy density conditions have been achieved by propagating 0.53 mum laser energy into a small focal volume under water. Data will be presented showing bubble formation and interaction with solid surfaces. Shock propagation through sand, air,

C. K. Manka; E. C. Briscoe; R. Lunsford; T. G. Jones; J. Grun; J. Penano

2000-01-01

461

Underwater Laser Plasma Acoustic Source Directivity and Frequency Control Demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A remote underwater laser acoustic source is under development at NRL. Sound is generated by intense laser pulses propagating through air and water, followed by underwater optical compression and laser-induced breakdown (LIB). Such an acoustic source would be useful for communications, navigation, and sonar imaging. Recent experiments demonstrated control of the shape of the LIB plasma volume, and thereby control

T. G. Jones; M. Hornstein; A. Ting; M. Nicholas

2009-01-01

462

Underwater vision method for low-visibility turbulent conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

During rescue work after a 'bus fell from the Hintze Ribeiro bridge into the Douro river in Portugal on 4 March 2001, a device was invented which can visualize underwater objects whose rough location is obtained by standard acoustic sonar. A canvas flexible diving bubble having a transparent window was filled with clean water. An underwater camera and light within

L. Botelho-Ribeiro

2001-01-01

463

Airwaves generated by an underwater explosion: Implications for volcanic infrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shallow explosion in a fluid is one of the fundamental processes of airwave generation in volcanic eruptions. To better understand the mechanism of the airwave generation, underwater explosion experiments were conducted. Although the underwater explosions have been intensely studied over the last century, airwaves have received little attention. In this study, pressure waves were measured in air and under

M. Ichihara; M. Ripepe; A. Goto; H. Oshima; H. Aoyama; M. Iguchi; K. Tanaka; H. Taniguchi

2009-01-01

464

Underwater acoustic technology: Review of some recent developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a truism to say that the relationship of science and technology is push-pull. This is illustrated regularly throughout the fields of ocean engineering and ocean science. It underlies this review for the particular case of underwater acoustics over the past decade. Developments are summarized apropos of the interests of the OES Technology Committee on Underwater Acoustics: (1) design,

Kenneth G. Foote; Woods Hole

2008-01-01

465

Underwater acoustic technology: review of some recent developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a truism to say that the relationship of science and technology is pushpull. This is illustrated regularly throughout the fields of ocean engineering and ocean science. It underlies this review for the particular case of underwater acoustics over the past decade. Developments are summarized apropos of the interests of the OES Technology Committee on Underwater Acoustics: (1) design,

Kenneth G. Foote; Woods Hole

2008-01-01

466

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin during underwater zero-gravity training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, pilot for the Gemini 12 space flight, assumes a rest position during underwater zero-gravity training. The underwater environment creates similar conditions to those found in space. He is secured to the adapter section of the spacecraft by special foot plates.

1966-01-01

467

NAMS: A Networked Acoustic Modem System for Underwater Applications  

E-print Network

NAMS: A Networked Acoustic Modem System for Underwater Applications Zheng Peng, Haining Mo, Jun Liu a networked acoustic modem system (NAMS) by integrating a high-speed OFDM modem and a comprehensive underwater network protocols to run on top of the OFDM modem platform and can provide high-speed, reliable

Zhou, Shengli

468

An Underwater Acoustic Telemetry Modem for Eco-Sensing  

E-print Network

An Underwater Acoustic Telemetry Modem for Eco-Sensing Ronald A. Iltis, Hua Lee, Ryan Kastner,kastner,lee}@ece.ucsb.edu Abstract-- An underwater acoustic telemetry modem is presented for ecological research (Eco-sensing) applica- tions. The modem is intended for the physical layer (PHY) in an Ad hoc network of "Aqua

Kastner, Ryan

469

Designing an Adaptive Acoustic Modem for Underwater Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

1 Designing an Adaptive Acoustic Modem for Underwater Sensor Networks Lingjuan Wu, Jennifer Trezzo an adaptive underwater acoustic modem which changes its parameters according to the situation. We present the design of such a modem and provide supporting results from simulations and experiments. Index Terms

Kastner, Ryan

470

A Physical Layer Implementation on Reconfigurable Underwater Acoustic Modem  

E-print Network

1 A Physical Layer Implementation on Reconfigurable Underwater Acoustic Modem Mehmet Aydinlik, A a real underwater channel. Reconfigurable UWA modem provides a flexible environment for the testing, implementation, and testing of a physical layer algorithm on reconfigurable acoustic modem. This physical layer

Stojanovic, Milica

471

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Procedure on Accounting for True Underwater Endowments  

E-print Network

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Procedure on Accounting for True Underwater Endowments Is the endowment Underwater (UW) as of June 30, 2011? a. Calculation: Book +/- Market Value = Appreciation b. If Appreciation is less than $0, YES, endowment is UW for FY12 c. All other endowments are classified as Above

Salama, Khaled

472

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Procedure on Accounting for Quasi Underwater Endowments  

E-print Network

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Procedure on Accounting for Quasi Underwater Endowments For all UW endowments for Quasi Endowments: 1. Underwater Quasi endowment funds will not receive the entire spending. 4. Quarterly, UW endowment spending funds will be reviewed. a. If the fund balance is positive

Salama, Khaled

473

UUV mobility management for underwater acoustic sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater acoustic sensor networks typically comprised of sensor nodes that are deployed in sufficiently large numbers for data collection, monitoring and surveillance. Multi-hop relay transmission manner is used to deliver acquired data from sensor nodes to the sink node; nevertheless, hot spots around sink node will bring severe problems. In underwater sensor networks model of this paper, nodes are divided

Cai Wen-Yu; Liu Jing-Biao

2008-01-01

474

Model-aided inertial navigation for underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the development and experimental evaluation of a complete model-aided inertial navigation system (INS) for underwater vehicles. The navigation system is novel in that accurate knowledge of the vehicle dynamics is utilized for aiding the INS, and the performance is evaluated using real data collected by an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Together with real-time sea current estimation, the

Oyvind Hegrenaes; Einar Berglund; Oddvar Hallingstad

2008-01-01

475

The state of the art in underwater acoustic telemetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in underwater acoustic telemetry since 1982 is reviewed within a framework of six current research areas: (1) underwater channel physics, channel simulations, and measurements; (2) receiver structures; (3) diversity exploitation; (4) error control coding; (5) networked systems; and (6) alternative modulation strategies. Advances in each of these areas as well as perspectives on the future challenges facing them are

Daniel B. Kilfoyle; Arthur B. Baggeroer

2000-01-01

476

A Vision System for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle  

E-print Network

A Vision System for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Ian Fitzgerald October 1999 Supervisors: Mr vision system that is intended for use on the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, Kambara. The vision system an automated calibration routine to determine the vision systems camera parameters. Using this information

477

BOUSSINESQ MODELING OF SURFACE WAVES DUE TO UNDERWATER LANDSLIDES  

E-print Network

BOUSSINESQ MODELING OF SURFACE WAVES DUE TO UNDERWATER LANDSLIDES DENYS DUTYKH AND HENRIK KALISCH Abstract. Consideration is given to the influence of an underwater landslide on waves at the surface of the landslide mass include var- ious dissipative effects due to bottom friction, internal energy dissipation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

478

BOUSSINESQ MODELING OF SURFACE WAVES DUE TO UNDERWATER LANDSLIDES  

E-print Network

BOUSSINESQ MODELING OF SURFACE WAVES DUE TO UNDERWATER LANDSLIDES DENYS DUTYKH # AND HENRIK KALISCH Abstract. Consideration is given to the influence of an underwater landslide on waves at the surface of the landslide mass include various dissipative e#ects due to bottom friction, internal energy dissipation

479

BOUSSINESQ MODELING OF SURFACE WAVES DUE TO UNDERWATER LANDSLIDES  

E-print Network

BOUSSINESQ MODELING OF SURFACE WAVES DUE TO UNDERWATER LANDSLIDES DENYS DUTYKH AND HENRIK KALISCH Abstract. Consideration is given to the influence of an underwater landslide on waves at the surface of the landslide mass include various dis- sipative effects due to bottom friction, internal energy dissipation

480

BOUSSINESQ MODELING OF SURFACE WAVES DUE TO UNDERWATER LANDSLIDES  

E-print Network

BOUSSINESQ MODELING OF SURFACE WAVES DUE TO UNDERWATER LANDSLIDES DENYS DUTYKH AND HENRIK KALISCH Abstract. Consideration is given to the influence of an underwater landslide on waves at the surface of the landslide mass include various dissipative effects due to bottom friction, internal energy dissipation

481

Robotic system for underwater inspection of bridge piers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research objective is to develop an automated robotic system that will enable safe and cost-effective underwater inspection of bridge substructures. The system concept being developed is a semiautonomous robotic system that can carry a sensor platform underwater to detect scour, deterioration, or damage to support columns. It provides positional data and sensor information (video images) to the system operator;

J. E. DeVault

2000-01-01

482

A Control Module Scheme for an Underactuated Underwater Robotic Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite major advances in Autonomous Underwater Vehicle design, the manually operated Underwater Vehicle (ROV) is still very much the industry workhorse. Current technologies are being used to reduce the stress of direct task operations by providing autonomy and to improve efficiency. This paper presents a design of a control module subsystem for a VE tele-operated ROV system. It discusses the

Teck Hong Koh; M. W. S. Lau; Gerald Seet; E. Low

2006-01-01

483

VENUS, Virtual ExploratioN of Underwater Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VENUS project aims at providing scientific methodologies and technolo gical tools for the virtual exploration of deep underwater archaeology sites. Underwater archaeological s ites, for example shipwrecks, offer extraordi- nary opportunities for archaeologists due to factors such as darkness, lo w temperatures and a low oxygen rate which are favourable to preservation. On the other hand, these sites cann

P. Chapman; G. Conte; P. Drap; P. Gambogi; F. Gauch; K. Hanke; V. Loureiro; O. Papini; A. Pascoal; J. Richards; D. Roussel

2006-01-01

484

Operations with Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles: the PISCIS Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals, technical challenges, and activities of the project PISCIS - Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles for Coastal and Environmental Field Studies - are reviewed in the context of the activities of the Underwater Systems and Technologies Laboratory from Porto University. I. I NTRODUCTION The future of humanity is deeply related to the quality of the bodies of water of the

Roberto Frias

485

Pollen, phytoliths, and other microscopic plant remains in underwater archaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materials and methods for the recovery and analysis of microscopic plant remains in underwater archaeology. This article explores formation of underwater sites, preservation and potential contamination of botanical remains, sampling techniques, benefits of sampling and searching for microscopic remains including pollen, phytoliths, cystoliths, starch grains, epidermal tissue, and cellulose fibre, and conservation and archiving of archaeobotanical samples. Materials such as

Dillon L. Gorham

2001-01-01

486

VIRTUAL TIME REVERSAL IN UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC COMMUNICATIONS: RESULTS ON  

E-print Network

VIRTUAL TIME REVERSAL IN UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC COMMUNICATIONS: RESULTS ON THE INTIFANTE'00 SEA TRIAL limitates practical transmission rates with actual equalization tech- niques. The virtual Time Reversal The underwater acoustic channel is extremely adverse to high throughput communica- tions. For a shallow water

Jesus, Sérgio M.

487

Energy Efficient Signaling Strategies for Tracking Mobile Underwater Vehicles  

E-print Network

to carrying out these missions is the vehicle's ability to actuate, self-localize, sense its environmentEnergy Efficient Signaling Strategies for Tracking Mobile Underwater Vehicles Diba Mirza§ Paul of vehicles has to be estimated over time. Underwater navigation techniques often rely on acoustic

Kastner, Ryan

488

An Underwater Robotic Network for Monitoring Nuclear Waste Storage Pools  

E-print Network

weeks or months be- fore being solidified and buried in near surface trenches. Spent nuclear fuelAn Underwater Robotic Network for Monitoring Nuclear Waste Storage Pools Sarfraz Nawaz1 , Muzammil must be stored for around 60 years in underwater storage pools before permanent disposal

Jeavons, Peter

489

Sensor-Based Behavior Control for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle  

E-print Network

surveillance of reef environments to assess the health and behavior of the marine life. This task, like many envi- ronment: visual processing, interactive communication with an underwater crew, and finally tracking using various technique (color blob, color histogram and mean shift). The underwater communication

490

When does apparatus dead space matter for the pediatric patient?  

PubMed

Physiologic dead space is defined as the volume of the lung where gas exchange does not occur. Apparatus dead space increases dead space volume, causing either increased PaCO2 or the need to increase minute ventilation to maintain normocapnia. Children are especially vulnerable because small increases in apparatus dead space can significantly increase dead space to tidal volume ratio (Vd/Vt). The effect of changes in dead space on arterial CO2 (PaCO2) and required minute ventilation were calculated for patients weighing 2 to 17 kg that corresponds to 0 to 36 months of age. Apparatus volumes for typical devices were obtained from the manufacturer or measured by the volume of water required to fill the device. The relationship between the fraction of alveolar CO2 (FaCO2) and dead space volume (Vd) was derived from the Bohr equation, FaCO2 = VCO2/(RR*(Vt - Vd)), where VCO2 is CO2 production, RR is respiratory rate, and Vt is tidal volume. VCO2 was estimated by using Brody's equation for humans aged up to 36 months, (VCO2 = 5.56*(wt)), where weight is in kilogram. Initial conditions were Vt = 8 mL/kg, Vd/Vt = 0.3, and a RR of 20 breaths per minute. The relationship between PaCO2 and dead space was determined for increasing Vd. Rearranging the Bohr equation, the RR required to maintain PaCO2 of 40 mm·Hg was determined as dead space increased. The apparatus Vd of typical device arrangements ranged from 8 to 55 mL, and these values were used for the dead space values in the model. PaCO2 increased exponentially with increasing apparatus dead space. For smaller patients, the PaCO2 increased more rapidly for small changes in Vd than that in larger patients. Similarly, RR required to maintain PaCO2 of 40 mm·Hg increased exponentially with increasing dead space. Increasing apparatus Vd can lead to exponential increases in PaCO2 and/or RR required to maintain normal PaCO2. The effect on PaCO2 is less as patient weight increases, but these data suggest it can be significant for typical circuit components up to at least 17 kg or aged 36 months. PMID:24651232

Pearsall, Matthew F; Feldman, Jeffrey M

2014-04-01

491

New breathing functions for the transverse breathing crack of the cracked rotor system: Approach for critical and  

E-print Network

equations of motion are then formulated for the cracked rotor system and solved via harmonic balance methodNew breathing functions for the transverse breathing crack of the cracked rotor system: Approach mechanism of the transverse breathing crack in the cracked rotor system that appears due to the shaft weight

Butcher, Eric A.

492

EDITORIAL: Exhaled breath analysis: the new frontier in medical testing Exhaled breath analysis: the new frontier in medical testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

With each breath we exhale, thousands of molecules are expelled in our breath and each one of us has a 'breathprint' that can tell a lot about his or her state of health. While this may be news to some, it should not be to people in medicine. For one can argue that the field of breath analysis is as

Raed A. Dweik; Anton Amann

2008-01-01

493

Design and implementation of an underwater sound recording device  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to design and build two versions of an underwater sound recording device. The device designed is referred to as the Underwater Sound Recorder (USR), which can be connected to one or two hydrophones or other underwater sound sensors. The URS contains a 26 dB preamplifier and a user selectable gain that permits additional amplification of input to the system from 26 dB to 46 dB. Signals within the frequency range up to 15 kHz may be recorded using the USR. Examples of USR applications are monitoring underwater processes that have the potential to create large pressure waves that could potentially harm fish or other aquatic life, such as underwater explosions or pile driving. Additional applications are recording sound generated by vessels or the vocalizations of some marine mammals, such as the calls from many species of whales.

Martinez, Jayson J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Rohrer, John S.; Caviggia, Kurt A.

2011-09-19

494

The Qweak experimental apparatus  

SciTech Connect

The Jefferson Lab Qweak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity- violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target at small momentum transfer. A custom apparatus was designed for this experiment to meet the technical challenges presented by the smallest and most precise ~ep asymmetry ever measured. Technical milestones were achieved at Jefferson Lab in target power, beam current, beam helicity reversal rate, polarimetry, detected rates, and control of helicity-correlated beam properties. The experiment employed 180 muA of 89% longitudinally polarized electrons whose helicity was reversed 960 times per second. The electrons were accelerated to 1.16 GeV and directed to a beamline with extensive instrumentation to measure helicity-correlated beam properties that can induce false asymmetries. M#28;ller and Compton polarimetry were used to measure the electron beam polarization to better than 1%. The electron beam was incident on a 34.4 cm liquid hydrogen target. After passing through a triple collimator system, scattered electrons between 5.8deg.and 11.6deg. were bent in the toroidal magnetic field of a resistive copper-coil magnet. The electrons inside this acceptance were focused onto eight fused silica Cerenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. A total scattered electron rate of about 7 GHz was incident on the detector array. The detectors were read out in integrating mode by custom-built low-noise pre-amplifiers and 18-bit sampling ADC modules. The momentum transfer Q2 = 0.025 GeV2 was determined using dedicated low-current (~100 pA) measurements with a set of drift chambers before (and a set of drift chambers and trigger scintillation counters after) the toroidal magnet.

Allison, T.; Anderson, M.; Androic, D.; Armstrong, D.S.; Asaturyan, A.; Averett, T.D.; Averill, R.; Balewski, J.; Beaufait, J.; Beminiwattha, R.S.; Benesch, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bessuille, J.; Birchall, J.; Bonnell, E.; Bowman, J.; Brindza, P.; Brown, D.B.; Carlini, R.D.; Cates, G.D.; Cavness, B.; Clark, G.; Cornejo, J.C.; Dusa, S. Covrig; Dalton, M.M.; Davis, C.A.; Dean, D.C.; Deconinck, W.; Diefenbach, J.; Dow, K.; Dowd, J.F.; Dunne, J.A.; Dutta, D.; Duvall, W.S.; Echols, J.R.; Elaasar, M.; Falk, W.R.; Finelli, K.D.; Finn, J.M.; Gaskell, D.; Gericke, M.T.W.; Grames, J.; Gray, V.M.; Grimm, K.; Guo, F.; Hansknecht, J.; Harrison, D.J.; Henderson, E.; Hoskins, J.R.; Ihloff, E.; Johnston, K.; Jones, D.; Jones, M.; Jones, R.; Kargiantoulakis, M.; Kelsey, J.; Khan, N.; King, P.M.; Korkmaz, E.; Kowalski, S.; Kubera, A.; Leacock, J.; Leckey, J.P.; Lee, A.R.; Lee, J.H.; Lee, L.; Liang, Y.; MacEwan, S.; Mack, D.; Magee, J.A.; Mahurin, R.; Mammei, J.; Martin, J.W.; McCreary, A.; McDonald, M.H.; McHugh, M.J.; Medeiros, P.; Meekins, D.; Mei, J.; Michaels, R.; Micherdzinska, A.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Morgan, N.; Musson, J.; Mesick, K.E.; Narayan, A.; Ndukum, L.Z.; Nelyubin, V.; Nuruzzaman, N.; van Oers, W.T.H.; Opper, A.K.; Page, S.A.; Pan, J.; Paschke, K.D.; Phillips, S.K.; Pitt, M.L.; Poelker, M.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramsay, W.D.; Roberts, W.R.; Roche, J.; Rose, P.W.; Sawatzky, B.; Seva, T.; Shabestari, M.H.; Silwal, R.; Simicevic, N.; Smith, G.R.; Sobczynski, S.; Solvignon, P.; Spayde, D.T.; Stokes, B.; Storey, D.W.; Subedi, A.; Subedi, R.; Suleiman, R.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tobias, W.A.; Tvaskis, V.; Urban, E.; Waidyawansa, B.; Wang, P.; Wells, S.P.; Wood, S.A.; Yang, S.; Zhamkochyan, S.; Zielinski, R.B.

2015-01-01

495

Autonomous recognition of bubble plumes for navigation of underwater robots in active shallow vent areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although underwater vent fields are of great scientific interest, little is understood concerning their influence on the underwater ecosystem due to the great difficulties involved in their underwater survey. The authors propose an underwater survey method using AUVs. In previous works, the authors proposed a practical method to survey the \\

H. Mizushima; T. Maki; T. Ura; T. Sakamaki; H. Kondo; M. Yanagisawa

2007-01-01

496

Design of a Low-Cost, Underwater Acoustic Modem for Short-Range Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

Design of a Low-Cost, Underwater Acoustic Modem for Short-Range Sensor Networks B. Benson, Y. Li, R underwater sensor networks is an inexpensive acoustic modem. Commercial underwater modems that do exist were are building an underwater acoustic modem starting with the most critical component from a cost perspective

Kastner, Ryan

497

Comparative study of two 3D reconstruction methods for underwater archaeology  

E-print Network

Comparative study of two 3D reconstruction methods for underwater archaeology Arnaud Meline, Jean Triboulet and Bruno Jouvencel Abstract-- The underwater 3D reconstruction cartography has made great is presented and tested on synthetic and real underwater pictures. Filters are proposed to simulate underwater

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

498

Metabolite Content Profiling of Bottlenose Dolphin Exhaled Breath  

PubMed Central

Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

2014-01-01

499

Metabolite content profiling of bottlenose dolphin exhaled breath.  

PubMed

Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

Aksenov, Alexander A; Yeates, Laura; Pasamontes, Alberto; Siebe, Craig; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Simmons, Jason; McCartney, Mitchell M; Deplanque, Jean-Pierre; Wells, Randall S; Davis, Cristina E

2014-11-01

500

Pipeline inspection using an autonomous underwater vehicle  

SciTech Connect

Pipeline inspection can be carried out by means of small Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), operating either with a control link to a surface vessel, or totally independently. The AUV offers an attractive alternative to conventional inspection methods where Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) or paravanes are used. A flatfish type AUV ``MARTIN`` (Marine Tool for Inspection) has been developed for this purpose. The paper describes the proposed types of inspection jobs to be carried out by ``MARTIN``. The design and construction of the vessel, its hydrodynamic properties, its propulsion and control systems are discussed. The pipeline tracking and survey systems, as well as the launch and recovery systems are described.

Egeskov, P.; Bech, M. [Maridan Aps., Hoersholm (Denmark); Bowley, R. [TSS Ltd., Weston-on-the-Green (United Kingdom); Aage, C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Ocean Engineering

1995-12-31