Sample records for unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

  1. Fe-Mn systematics of type IIA chondrules in unequilibrated CO, CR, and ordinary chondrites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana Berlin; Rhian H. Jones; Adrian J. Brearley

    2011-01-01

    We have examined Fe\\/Mn systematics of 34 type IIA chondrules in eight highly unequilibrated CO, CR, and ordinary chondrites using new data from this study and prior studies from our laboratory. Olivine grains from type IIA chondrules in CO chondrites and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOC) have significantly different Fe\\/Mn ratios, with mean molar Fe\\/Mn = 99 and 44, respectively. Olivine

  2. New Constraints on the Timing of Fayalite Formation in Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, B.; Matzel, J. E.; Doyle, P. M.; Krot, A. N.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Telus, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present new Mn-Cr age calculations for fayalite formation in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. The calculations are based on newly determined relative ion yields for Mn and Cr in ferroan olivine.

  3. A TEM study of iron-nickel carbides in the matrix of the Semarkona unequilibrated ordinary chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    1998-07-01

    The fine-grained matrix of the Semarkona unequilibrated ordinary chondrite contains an assemblage of iron carbides that are associated with oxides, sulfides, carbonates, and hydrated silicates. The carbides consist of fine-scale epitactic intergrowths of cohenite (Fe3C) and Hogg carbide (Fe5C2) that formed as by-products of gas-solid reactions on the Semarkona parent body. The carbide intergrowths resulted from prograde reactions at moderate temperatures in the presence of a highly reducing carbon-bearing gas. The carburization occurred prior to the aqueous alteration episode that produced the Fe-rich phyllosilicates throughout the interchondrule matrix and the thin magnetite rims surrounding the carbide grains. The occurrence of the carbide intergrowths places an upper limit of <500 C on the maximum post-accretional thermal processing that occurred on the Semarkona parent body.

  4. Fayalite-silica association in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites: Evidence for aqueous alteration on a parent body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, John T.; Krot, Alexander N

    1994-01-01

    We report ten occurrences of high-fayalite (Fa56-99 mol%; four with Fa greater than 82 mol%) olivine in association with silica in type-3 ordinary chondrites. Pyroxene with high Fs contents is much less common; Fs contents do not exceed 66 mol%, and most maxima are less than 50 mol%. In those cases where the amount of fayalite is minor relative to that of silica, the fayalite forms a layer on the silica, and shows textural evidence of formation by reaction of silica with oxidized Fe; the latter seems to have resulted from reaction of metallic Fe-Ni with an oxidant, most likely H2O vapor. The fayalite is generally in contact with pyroxene (and, in one case, olivine) having a much lower Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratios, indicating that lattice diffusion has been minimal. Formation of fayalite from SiO2 explains the low Mg content of this olivine; the Mg was sequestered inside the lattices of mafic minerals and was thus inaccessible. In contrast, the moderately high Mn contents of the fayalite indicate that an appreciable fraction of the Mn in the precursor assemblage was accessible; it was probably sited in the matrix in the form of tiny, poorly crystallized oxide grains produced by nebular condensation at temperatures too low to permit diffusion into forsterite or enstatite. The reaction of SiO2 with FeO produced by oxidation (during metamorphism) of Fe-Ni can also account for fayalitic olivine associated with SiO2 microspherules in the fine-grained matrices of type-3 ordinary chondrites and, because matrix is SiO2 normative, for other occurrences of fayalite in matrix. The presence of Mn in the fayalitic rims on the olivine of carbonaceous chondrites does not require a nebular sign.

  5. Compositions and textures of relic forsterite in carbonaceous and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, I. M.

    1986-01-01

    The compositions and textures of olivines in equilibrated ordinary chondrites, C1, C2, and C3 meteorites are described. The olivines are classified by color into blue, red, or dark olivines. The characteristic features of blue olivines are examined. It is observed that the texture of the olivine: (1) forms cores in single olivine grains; (2) shows subhedral to euhedral boundaries against rim olivines; (3) rarely contains inclusions; (4) has embayments containing olivines similar to that of the rim; and (5) occurs within chondrules. The mode of formation for blue olivines, the relation between blue olivine and high temperature compounds, and modifications in the features of blue olivines are analyzed. It is noted that the olivine is a product of condensation, has been modified by additions of olivine formed from a liquid, and that these olivines represent relic grains that are similar to olivines found in cosmic particles and in cores of some deep sea particles.

  6. Anomalous REE patterns in unequilibrated enstatite chondrites: Evidence and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, Ghislaine; Hsu, Weibiao

    1993-01-01

    We present here a study of Rare Earth Element (REE) microdistributions in unequilibrated enstatite chondrites (EOC's). Although the whole rock REE contents are similar in both unequilibrated and equilibrated chondrites, the host minerals of these refractory elements are different. In the least equilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOC's), the REE reside mainly in glass whereas, in their more equilibrated counterparts, the bulk of the REE is in calcium phosphate, a metamorphic mineral that formed by oxidation of phosphorous originally contained in metal. In the smaller group of enstatite (E) chondrites, calcium phosphate is absent and the phase that contains the highest REE concentrations is a minor mineral, CaS (oldhamite), which contains approximately 50 percent of the total Ca present. In E chondrites, elements typically considered to be lithophiles (such as Ca and Mn) occur in sulfides rather than silicates. This indicates formation under extremely reducing conditions, thus in a region of the solar nebula distinct from those that supplied the more abundant ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites. Previously, we observed a variety of REE patterns in the oldhamite of UEC's; they range from almost flat to some with pronounced positive Eu and Yb anomalies. Here, we searched for complementary REE patterns in other minerals from E chondrites and found them in the major mineral, enstatite. Whenever Eu and Yb anomalies are present in this mineral, they are always negative.

  7. Rock magnetic properties of dusty olivine: a potential carrier of pre-accretionary remanence in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappe, S. C. L. L.; Harrison, R. J.; Feinberg, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The mechanism of chondrule formation is an important outstanding question in cosmochemistry. Magnetic signals recorded by Fe-Ni nanoparticles in chondrules could carry clues to their origin. Recently, research in this area has focused on 'dusty olivine' grains within ordinary chondrites as potential carriers of pre-accretionary remanence. Dusty olivine is characterised by the presence of sub-micron Fe-Ni inclusions within the olivine host. These metal particles form via subsolidus reduction of the olivine during chondrule formation and are thought to be protected from subsequent chemical and thermal alteration by the host olivine. Three sets of synthetic dusty olivines have been produced, using natural olivine (average Ni-content of 0.3 wt%), synthetic Ni-containing olivine (0.1wt% Ni) and synthetic Ni-free olivine as starting materials. The starting materials were ground to powders, packed into a 2-3 mm3 graphite crucible, heated up to 1350 °C under a pure CO gas flow and kept at this temperature for 10 minutes. After this the samples were held in a fixed orientation and quenched into water in a range of known magnetic fields, ranging from 0.2 mT to 1.5 mT. We present here for the first time an analysis of a new FORC-based method of paleointensity determination applied to metallic Fe-bearing samples [1, 2]. The method uses a first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagram to generate a Preisach distribution of coercivities and interaction fields within the sample and then physically models the acquisition of TRM as a function of magnetic field, temperature and time using thermal relaxation theory. The comparison of observed and calculated NRM demagnetisation spectra is adversely effected by a large population of particles in the single-vortex state. Comparison of observed and calculated REM' curves, however, yields much closer agreement in the high-coercivity SD-dominated range. Calculated values of the average REM' ratio show excellent agreement with the experimental values - including the observed non-linearity of the remanence acquisition curve - suggesting that this method has the potential to reduce the uncertainties in non-heating paleointensity methods for extraterrestrial samples. [1] AR Muxworthy and D Heslop(2011) A Preisach method for estimating absolute paleofield intensity under the constraint of using only isothermal measurements: 1. Theoretical framework. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, B04102, doi:10.1029/2010JB007843. [2] AR Muxworthy, D Heslop, GA Paterson, and D Michalk. A Preisach method for estimating absolute paleofield intensity under the constraint of using only isothermal measurements: 2. Experimental testing. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, B04103, doi:10.1029/2010JB007844.

  8. Chondrule thermal history from unequilibrated H chondrites: A transmission and analytical electron microscopy study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ferraris; L. Folco; M. Mellini

    2002-01-01

    Sixteen texturally different (porphyritic, barred, radial, cryptocrystalline) FeO-rich chondrules from the unequilibrated ordinary chondrites Brownfield, Frontier Mountain (FRO) 90003 and FRO 90032 were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy and then thoroughly studied by transmission and analytical electron microscopy. Nanotextural and nanochemical data indicate similar thermal evolution for chondrules of the same textural groups; minor, yet meaningful differences occur

  9. Accretionary dark rims in unequilibrated chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, T. V. V.; King, E. A.

    1981-12-01

    Textural and qualitative EDX investigations of dark-rimmed particles in six low petrologic type chondrites indicate that the rims accreted on host particles over a wide range of temperatures prior to initial accumulation and lithification of the meteorites in which the rimmed particles are now contained. Many dark rims are enriched in moderately volatile trace elements such as Na, Cl, P, and K, relative to the host particles and matrix. The range of physical/chemical environments associated with hypervelocity impacts may have offered the setting for the formation of dark-rimmed particles early in solar system history.

  10. Ordinary chondritic micrometeorites from the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, M. Shyam; Rudraswami, N. G.; de Araujo, Agnelo; Babu, E. V. S. S. K.; Vijaya Kumar, T.

    2015-06-01

    Extraterrestrial particulate materials on the Earth can originate in the form of collisional debris from the asteroid belt, cometary material, or as meteoroid ablation spherules. Signatures that link them to their parent bodies become obliterated if the frictional heating is severe during atmospheric entry. We investigated 481 micrometeorites isolated from ~300 kg of deep sea sediment, out of which 15 spherules appear to have retained signatures of their provenance, based on their textures, bulk chemical compositions, and relict grain compositions. Seven of these 15 spherules contain chromite grains whose compositions help in distinguishing subgroups within the ordinary chondrite sources. There are seven other spherules which comprise either entirely of dusty olivines or contain dusty olivines as relict grains. Two of these spherules appear to be chondrules from an unequilibrated ordinary chondrite. In addition, a porphyritic olivine pyroxene (POP) chondrule-like spherule is also recovered. The bulk chemical composition of all the spherules, in combination with trace elements, the chromite composition, and presence of dusty olivines suggest an ordinary chondritic source. These micrometeorites have undergone minimal frictional heating during their passage through the atmosphere and have retained these features. These micrometeorites therefore also imply there is a significant contribution from ordinary chondritic sources to the micrometeorite flux on the Earth.

  11. Roosevelt County 075: A petrologic chemical and isotopic study of the most unequilibrated known H chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, T. J.; Keil, K.; Ash, R. D.; Morse, A. D.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wieler, R.; Mayeda, T. K.; Clayton, R. N.; Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Roosevelt County (RC) 075 was recovered in 1990 as a single 258-gram stone. Classification of this meteorite is complicated by its highly unequilibrated nature and its severe terrestrial weathering, but we favor H classification. This is supported by O isotopes and estimates of the original Fe, Ni metal content. The O isotopic composition is similar to that of a number of reduced ordinary chondrites (e.g., Cerro los Calvos, Willaroy), although RC 075 exhibits no evidence of reduced mineral compositions. Chondrule diameters are consistent with classification as an L chondrite, but large uncertainties in chondrule diameters of RC 075 and poorly constrained means of H, L and LL chondrites prevent use of this parameter for reliable classification. Other parameters are compromised by severe weathering (e.g., siderophile element abundances) or unsuitable for discrimination between unequilibrated H, L and LL chondrites (e.g., Co in kamacite delta C-13). Petrologic subtype 3.2 +/- 0.1 is suggested by the degree of olivine heterogeneity, the compositions of chondrule olivines, the thermoluminescence sensitivity, the abundances and types of chondrules mapped on cathodoluminescence mosaics, and the amount of presolar SiC. The meteorite is very weakly shocked (S2), with some chondrules essentially unshocked and, thus, is classified as an H3.2(S2) chondrite. Weathering is evident by a LREE enrichment due to clay contamination, reduced levels of many siderophile elements, the almost total loss of Fe, Ni metal and troilite, and the reduced concentrations of noble gases. Some components of the meteorite (e.g., type IA chondrules, SiC) appear to preserve their nebular states, with little modification from thermal metamorphism. We conclude that RC 075 is the most equilibrated H chondrite yet recovered and may provide additional insights into the origin of primitive materials in the solar nebula.

  12. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T.J.; Podosek, F.A.; Johnson, M.L.; Burnett, D.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of 244Pu fission Xe, U, Th, and light REE (LREE) abundances, along with modal petrographic determinations of phosphate abundances, were carried out on equilibrated ordinary chondrites in order to define better the solar system Pu abundance and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. Our data permit comparison of the directly measured Pu/ U ratio with that determined indirectly as (Pu/Nd) ?? (Nd/U) assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. Except for Guaren??a, and perhaps H chondrites in general, Pu concentrations are similar to that determined previously for St. Se??verin, although less precise because of higher trapped Xe contents. Trapped 130Xe 136Xe ratios appear to vary from meteorite to meteorite, but, relative to AVCC, all are similar in the sense of having less of the interstellar heavy Xe found in carbonaceous chondrite acid residues. The Pu/U and Pu/Nd ratios are consistent with previous data for St. Se??verin, but both tend to be slightly higher than those inferred from previous data on Angra dos Reis. Although significant variations exist, the distribution of our Th/U ratios, along with other precise isotope dilution data for ordinary chondrites, is rather symmetric about the CI chondrite value; however, actinide/(LREE) ratios are systematically lower than the CI value. Variations in actinide or LREE absolute and relative abundances are interpreted as reflecting differences in the proportions and/or compositions of more primitive components (chondrules and CAI materials?) incorporated into different regions of the ordinary chondrite parent bodies. The observed variations of Th/U, Nd/U, or Ce/U suggest that measurements of Pu/U on any single equilibrated ordinary chondrite specimen, such as St. Se??verin, should statistically be within ??20-30% of the average solar system value, although it is also clear that anomalous samples exist. ?? 1990.

  13. Trapped xenon in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavielle, Bernard; Marti, Kurt

    1992-12-01

    A trapped component of heavy noble gates representing a distinct solar system (presumably asteroid belt) reservoir is known to be concentrated in carbonaceous carriers of chondritic meteorites. The isotopic signature of trapped Xe in separates of the H4 chondrite Forest Vale (FV) was determined by combusting its carrier phases at 600 C in oxygen, discriminating against in situ produced nucleogenic components which are released above 600 C. The isotopic abundances of FV combustion-Xe (FVC-Xe) are compared to signatures of bulk trapped Xe in chondritic meteorites. We conclude that FVC-Xe represents the predominant trapped component in ordinary chondrites (OC) for which we adopt the term OC-Xe. Its isotopic signature differs from Xe in ureilites, in 'average carbonaceous chondrites', in earth's atmosphere, and in the solar wind. Additional minor Xe components were identified in type 3 chondrites and in the metal phase of chondrites. We discuss relationships among solar system Xe reservoirs and show that OC-Xe signature is consistent with a mixture of HL-Xe with slightly mass fractionated solar-type Xe.

  14. Metallic copper in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. E.

    1994-01-01

    Metallic Cu of moderately high purity (approximately 985 mg/g Cu, approximately 15 mg/g Ni) occurs in at least 66% of ordinary chondrites (OC) as heterogeneously distributed, small (typically less than or equal to 20 micrometers) rounded to irregular grains. The mean modal abundance of metallic Cu in H, L and LL chondrites is low: 1.0 to 1.4 x 10-4 vol%, corresponding to only 4 - 5 % of the total Cu in OC whole rocks. In more than 75% of the metallic-Cu-bearing OC, at least some metallic Cu occurs at metallic-Fe-Ni-troilite grain boundaries. In some cases it also occurs within troilite, within metallic Fe-Ni, or at the boundaries these phases form with silicates or chromite. Ordinary chondrites that contain a relatively large number of occurrences of metallic Cu/sq mm have a tendency to have experienced moderately high degrees of shock. Shock processes can cause local melting and transportation of metallic Fe-Ni and troilte; because metallic Cu is mainly associated with these phases, it also gets redistributed during shock events. In the most common petrographic assemblage containing metallic Cu, the Cu is adjacent to small irregular troilite grains surrounded by taenite plus tetrataenite; this assemblage resembles fizzed troilite and may have formed by localized shock melting or remelting of a metal-troilite assemblage.

  15. Metallic copper in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1994-01-01

    Metallic Cu of moderately high purity (approximately 985 mg/g Cu, approximately 15 mg/g Ni) occurs in at least 66% of ordinary chondrites (OC) as heterogeneously distributed, small (typically less than or equal to 20 micrometers) rounded to irregular grains. The mean modal abundance of metallic Cu in H, L and LL chondrites is low: 1.0 to 1.4 x 10(exp -4) vol%, corresponding to only 4 - 5 % of the total Cu in OC whole rocks. In more than 75% of the metallic-Cu-bearing OC, at least some metallic Cu occurs at metallic-Fe-Ni-troilite grain boundaries. In some cases it also occurs within troilite, within metallic Fe-Ni, or at the boundaries these phases form with silicates or chromite. Ordinary chondrites that contain a relatively large number of occurrences of metallic Cu/sq mm have a tendency to have experienced moderately high degrees of shock. Shock processes can cause local melting and transportation of metallic Fe-Ni and troilte; because metallic Cu is mainly associated with these phases, it also gets redistributed during shock events. In the most common petrographic assemblage containing metallic Cu, the Cu is adjacent to small irregular troilite grains surrounded by taenite plus tetrataenite; this assemblage resembles fizzed troilite and may have formed by localized shock melting or remelting of a metal-troilite assemblage.

  16. Metallic Fractions of Ordinary Chondrites: Implications to the Structure of Chondritic Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, M.; Kong, P.

    1995-09-01

    Bulk metal and taenite fractions separated by a chemical method [1] from 23 ordinary chondrites were studied by INAA and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The elemental distributions demonstrate that siderophile elements, except Co and possibly As and Mo, are more enriched in taenite than kamacite but with different abundance ratios between them. Apparently, kamacite and taenite are not produced by redox reactions, condensation fractionation and melt-solid fractionation. Instead, kamacite and taenite can only be the equilibrated products by low temperature diffusion following the Fe-Ni phase diagram. Positive correlation of Co and Ni in carbonaceous chondritic metals and the existence of a high Co and low Ni metal phase in some LL chondrites suggest that chondritic kamacite and taenite can not be developed in the nebula. Rather, kamacite and taenite are produced through solid diffusion in the chondritic parent bodies. There is a large difference in the development of kamacite and taenite between the equilibrated and the unequilibrated L chondrites: the taenite phase of the unequilibrated L chondrites is mostly or totally developed into tetrataenite while low-Ni paramagnetic taenite is still present abundantly in the equilibrated L chondrites. The low-Ni paramagnetic taenite is believed to be an unequilibrated phase of either an incompletely transformed phase during fast cooling [2] or a metastable taenite located out of the miscibility gap on the Fe-Ni phase diagram [3]. In either case, the arrangement of the EOCs and the UOCs in the parent body was the same; the EOCs located near the surface of the parent body, with the UOCs being near the center, if they derived from the common parent body. An intrinsic thermal activity in the parent body would produce a temperature gradient decreasing from the center to the surface, whereas an external heating would exhibit the inverse trend. If a "reverse" onion shell structure is invoked, the generally accepted metamorphic temperatures of the equilibrated chondrites must be related with an external heating event rather than the intrinsic activity. The taenite fractions of the unequilibrated L chondrites have been developed into tetrataenite, suggesting that a cooling rate responsible to the development of kamacite and taenite was quite slow. The energy yielding such a slow cooling must have derived from intrinsic source, which heated the parent body to a temperature high enough for the development of kamacite and taenite, but too low to recrystallize silicates. During or after this "metamorphism", an external heating took place on the chondritic parent body, which recrystallized the silicates and modified the structure of kamacite and taenite. This external heating was more violent than the intrinsic one and may have derived from the early activities of the Sun. The highest temperature caused by the external heating was imprinted in the type 6 chondrites which located near the surface of the parent body, being in range of 800 C-950 C [4], and the temperature decreased gradually from the surface to the center of the body. Being different from L chondrites, H chondrites have no apparent difference in taenite components between EOCs and UOCs. If we assume similar thermal histories for both H and L chondrites, H chondritic parent body should be smaller than L's, with even its inner part being influenced to a certain degree during the external heating. References: [1] Kong P. et al. (1995) Proc. NIPR Symp. Antarct. Meteorites, 8, 237-249. [2] Gutlich P. et al. (1978) in Mossbauer Spectroscopy and Transition of Metal Chemistry, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York. [3] Reuter K. B. et al. (1989) Metall. Trans., 20A, 719-725. [4] Dodd R. T. (1981) in Meteorites: A Petrologic-Chemical Synthesis, Cambridge Univ., London.

  17. Oxidation during metamorphism of the ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y.; Labotka, T. C.

    1993-03-01

    It is suggested that some current concepts about the conditions of metamorphism in ordinary chondrites may be flawed. These meteorites display small systematic variations in the oxidation state of Fe. Evidence is presented that oxidation of Fe is linked to metamorphic grade in types 4-6 ordinary chondrites. This conclusion is at variance with a commonly accepted model for chondrite metamorphism that assumes Fe reduction by graphite.

  18. Multiple and Fast: The Accretion of Ordinary Chondrite Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Zanda, B.; Binzel, R. P.; Hiroi, T.; DeMeo, F. E.; Birlan, M.; Hewins, R.; Ricci, L.; Barge, P.; Lockhart, M.

    2014-08-01

    Although petrologic, chemical, and isotopic studies of ordinary chondrites and meteorites in general have largely helped establish a chronology of the earliest events of planetesimal formation and their evolution, there are several questions that cannot be resolved via laboratory measurements and/or experiments alone. Here, we propose the rationale for several new constraints on the formation and evolution of ordinary chondrite parent bodies (and, by extension, most planetesimals) from newly available spectral measurements and mineralogical analysis of main-belt S-type asteroids (83 objects) and unequilibrated ordinary chondrite meteorites (53 samples). Based on the latter, we suggest that spectral data may be used to distinguish whether an ordinary chondrite was formed near the surface or in the interior of its parent body. If these constraints are correct, the suggested implications include that: (1) large groups of compositionally similar asteroids are a natural outcome of planetesimal formation and, consequently, meteorites within a given class can originate from multiple parent bodies; (2) the surfaces of large (up to ~200 km) S-type main-belt asteroids mostly expose the interiors of the primordial bodies, a likely consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system; (3) the duration of accretion of the H chondrite parent bodies was likely short (instantaneous or in less than ~105 yr, but certainly not as long as 1 Myr); (4) LL-like bodies formed closer to the Sun than H-like bodies, a possible consequence of the radial mixing and size sorting of chondrules in the protoplanetary disk prior to accretion.

  19. The Semarkona meteorite - First recorded occurrence of smectite in an ordinary chondrite, and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, R.; Alexander, C. M. O.; Barber, D. J.

    1987-07-01

    Semarkona is an unshocked unequilibrated ordinary chondrite. Much of the interchondrule matrix and the mesostases of some chondrules and clasts have been hydrothermally altered. Analyses of altered materials and opaque matrix are presented. Ca and Fe have been redistributed from primary, anhydrous phases into calcite and Na, Fe smectite, respectively. In Semarkona the process possibly requires open system behavior inconsistent with the conventional view of 'metamorphism' of the ordinary chondrites. The low petrologic type previously assigned to Semarkona is the result of retrograde metamorphism, under aqueous conditions, of a higher temperature mineral assemblage. Semarkona, and possibly Bishunpur, should be assigned to petrologic type 2.

  20. An Fe isotope study of ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, A. W.; Porcelli, D.; Russell, S. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Fe isotope composition of ordinary chondrites and their constituent chondrules, metal and sulphide grains have been systematically investigated. Bulk chondrites fall within a restricted isotopic range of <0.2‰ ? 56Fe, and chondrules define a larger range of >1‰ (-0.84‰ to 0.21‰ relative to the IRMM-14 Fe standard). Fe isotope compositions do not vary systematically with the very large differences in total Fe concentration, or oxidation state, of the H, L, and LL chondrite classes. Similarly, the Fe isotope compositions of chondrules do not appear to be determined by the H, L or LL classification of their host chondrite. This may support an origin of the three ordinary chondrite groups from variable accretion of identical Fe-bearing precursors. A close relationship between isotopic composition and redistribution of Fe during metamorphism on ordinary chondrite parent bodies was identified; the largest variations in chondrule compositions were found in chondrites of the lowest petrologic types. The clear link between element redistribution and isotopic composition has implications for many other non-traditional isotope systems (e.g. Mg, Si, Ca, Cr). Isotopic compositions of chondrules may also be determined by their melting history; porphyritic chondrules exhibit a wide range in isotope compositions whereas barred olivine and radial pyroxene chondrules are generally isotopically heavier than the ordinary chondrite mean. Very large chondrules preserve the greatest heterogeneity of Fe isotopes. The mean Fe isotope composition of bulk ordinary chondrites was found to be -0.06‰ (±0.12‰ 2 SD); this is isotopically lighter than the terrestrial mean composition and all other published non-chondritic meteorite suites e.g. lunar and Martian samples, eucrites, pallasites, and irons. Ordinary chondrites, though the most common meteorites found on Earth today, were not the sole building blocks of the terrestrial planets.

  1. Fossil records of high level of 60Fe in chondrules from unequilibrated chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ritesh Kumar; Chaussidon, Marc

    2014-07-01

    The short-lived now-extinct nuclide (SLN) 60Fe, which decays to 60Ni with a half-life of 2.62 Ma, is uniquely of stellar origin. Hence, its Solar System initial abundance yields information about the source of SLNs and the astrophysical environment in which the Solar System was born. Only a few chondrules (?19) from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites have reported resolved 60Ni excesses using in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry implying Fe60/Fe56>?0.6×10-7 in the early Solar System, and among these very few (3) have higher excesses implying Fe60/Fe56?7×10-7 (Mishra et al., 2010; Mishra and Goswami, 2014; Telus et al., 2012). At variance, multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer studies of bulk samples and mineral separates from differentiated meteorites, angrites, achondrites, and chondrules suggest a low abundance of 60Fe/56Fe of ?1.4×10-8 which would rule out the need for an external seeding of the early Solar with stellar 60Fe (Quitté et al., 2011; Tang and Dauphas, 2012). Two Semarkona chondrules and one Efremovka chondrule analyzed in the present study have mass fractionation corrected excess of up to ?75 permil (‰) and give 60Fe isochrons with initial 60Fe/56Fe ratios of (7.8±3.7)×10-7, (3.8±1.6)×10-7, and (2.2±1.1)×10-7 (2?), for Efremovka Ch 1, Semarkona Ch 12, and Semarkona Ch J5 respectively. The higher values of 60Fe/56Fe ratios seen in the chondrules of these least altered meteorites samples concur with and lend greater credence to the suggestion of a massive star as the source of 60Fe, and possibly of other short-lived nuclides, to the early Solar System. However, no definitive explanation (e.g. sample bias, effects of metamorphism, 60Fe heterogeneity) to the apparent disagreement with studies of bulk chondrules and chondrule fragments has been found.

  2. Black ordinary chondrites - An analysis of abundance and fall frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Daniel T.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    Black ordinary chondrite meteorites sample the spectral effects of shock on ordinary chondrite material in the space environment. Since shock is an important regolith process these meteorites provide insight into the spectral properties of the regoliths on ordinary chondrite parent bodies. To determine how common black chondrites are in the meteorite collection and, by analogy, the frequency of shock-alteration in ordinary chondrites, several of the world's major meteorite collections were examined to identify black chondrites. Over 80 percent of all cataloged ordinary chondrites were examined and, using an optical definition, 61 black chondrites were identified. Black chondrites account for approximately 13.7 percent of ordinary chondrite falls. If the optically altered gas-rich ordinary chondrites are included the proportion of falls that exhibit some form of altered spectral properties increases to 16.7 percent. This suggests that optical alteration of asteroidal material in the space environment is a relatively common process.

  3. Magnetic classification of stony meteorites: 1 Ordinary chondrites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre ROCHETTE; Leonardo SAGNOTTI; Michèle BOUROT-DENISE; Guy CONSOLMAGNO; Luigi FOLCO; Jérôme GATTACCECA; M. L. Osete; Lauri PESONEN

    2003-01-01

    We present a database of magnetic susceptibility measurements on 971 ordinary chondrites. It demonstrates that this parameter can be successfully used to characterize and classify ordinary chondrite meteorites. In ordinary chondrites, this rapid and non-destructive measurement essentially determines the amount of metal in the sample, which occurs in a very narrow range for each chondrite class (though terrestrial weathering can

  4. Oxygen isotope temperatures of 'equilibrated' ordinary chondrites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onuma, N.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements have been made of O-18/O-16 ratios of coexisting minerals (plagioclase, pyroxene, olivine) from nine ordinary chondrites. The O-18 content of a given mineral increases systematically from H through L to LL group. Isotope fractionations for mineral pairs fall on a concordancy line, suggesting that these minerals were crystallized in oxygen isotope equilibrium. The isotopic temperature is estimated to be 950 (plus or minus 100) C for seven of the type 5 and type 6 chondrites.

  5. Classification of six ordinary chondrites from Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlmann, Arthur J.; Keil, Klaus

    1988-01-01

    Based on optical microscopy, modal and electron microprobe analyses, six ordinary chondrites from Texas were classified in compositional groups, petrologic types, and shock facies. These meteorites are Comanche (stone), L5c; Haskell, L5c; Deport (a), H4b; Naruna (a), H4b; Naruna (b), H4b; and Clarendon (b), H5d.

  6. Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites - VI: siderophile elements in ordinary chondrites

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, D.W.G.; Weeks, K.S.

    1986-12-01

    The abundances of Fe, Ni, Co, Au, Ir, Ga, As and Mg have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in 38 type 3 ordinary chondrites (10 of which may be paired) and 15 equilibrated chondrites. Classification of type 3 ordinary chondrites into the H, L and LL classes using oxygen isotopes and parameters which reflect oxidation state (Fa and Fs in the olivine and pyroxene, and Co in kamacite) is difficult or impossible. Bulk compositional parameters, based on the equilibrated chondrites, have therefore been used to classify the type 3 chondrites. The distribution of the type 3 ordinary chondrites over the classes is very different from that of the equilibrated chondrites, the LL chondrites being more heavily represented. The type 3 ordinary chondrites contain 5 to 15% lower abundances of siderophile elements, and a compilation of the present data and literature data indicates a small, systematic decrease in siderophile element concentration with decreasing petrologic type. The type 3 ordinary chondrites have, like the equilibrated ordinary chondrites, suffered a fractionation of their siderophile elements, but the loss of Ni in comparison with Au and Ir is greater for the type 3 chondrites. These siderophile element trends were established at the nebula phase of chondritic history and the co-variation with petrologic type implies onion-shell structures for the ordinary chondrite parent bodies. It is also clear that the relationship between the type 3 and the equilibrated ordinary chondrites involves more than simple, closed-system metamorphism.

  7. Penecontemporaneous metamorphism, fragmentation, and reassembly of ordinary chondrite parent bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimm, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal histories of ordinary chondrites and the canonical internal heating or onion shell models, which predict an inverse relation between the petrologic type of chondrites and the metallographic cooling rate, are reviewed. The thermal and accretional requirements of the 'metamorphosed planetesimal' model proposed by Scott and Rajan (1981) are analyzed, and an alternative model consistent with the metallographic cooling rate constraints is suggested in which ordinary chondrite parent bodies are collisionally fragmented and then rapidly reassembled before metamorphic heat has been dissipated.

  8. Chromium on Eros: Further Evidence of Ordinary Chondrite Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, C. N.; Nittler, L. R.; Brown, M. R. M.; McCoy, T. J.; Lim, L. F.

    2005-01-01

    The surface major element composition of the near-earth asteroid 433-Eros has been determined by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRS) on the NEAR-Shoemaker spacecraft [1]. The abundances of Mg, Al, Si, Ca and Fe match those of ordinary chondrites [1]. However, the observation that Eros appears to have a sulfur abundance at least a factor of two lower than ordinary chondrites, suggests either sulfur loss from the surface of Eros by impact and/or radiation processes (space weathering) or that its surface is comprised of a somewhat more differentiated type of material than an ordinary chondrite [1]. A definitive match for an ordinary chondrite parent body has very rarely been made, despite the conundrum that ordinary chondrites are the most prevalent type of meteorite found on Earth. Furthermore, Eros is classified as an S(IV) type asteroid [2] and being an S, it is the second most prevalent type of asteroid in the asteroid belt [3].

  9. Multiple and fast: the accretion of ordinary chondrite parent bodies

    E-print Network

    Vernazza, P.

    Although petrologic, chemical, and isotopic studies of ordinary chondrites and meteorites in general have largely helped establish a chronology of the earliest events of planetesimal formation and their evolution, there ...

  10. Pore size distribution in an uncompacted equilibrated ordinary chondrite

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, J.M.; Macke, R.J.; Wignarajah, D.P.; Rivers, M.L.; Britt, D.T.; Ebel, D.S. (Univ of Central FL); (Fordham Univ); (UofC); (Univ of Central FL); (AMNH); (Fordham Univ)

    2008-05-30

    The extraordinarily uncompacted nature of the ordinary L chondrite fall Baszkowka gives a unique opportunity to investigate the potentially pre-compaction pore size distribution in an equilibrated ordinary chondrite. Using X-ray microtomography and helium pycnometry on two samples of Baszkowka, we have found that on average, two-thirds of the 19.0% porosity resides in inter- and intra-granular voids with volumes between {approx}3 x10{sup 05} and 3 mm{sup 3}. We show the cumulative number density of pore volumes observable by X-ray microtomography obeys a power law distribution function in this equilibrated ordinary chondrite. We foresee these data adding to our understanding of the impact processing of chondrites and their parent asteroids, where porosity and pore size play significant roles in the parameterization of impact events.

  11. Magnetic Record of Ordinary Chondrite Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, T.; Kletetschka, G.

    2007-12-01

    The magnetic record of individual chondrules has been examined on two low-metamorphic grade ordinary chondrites - Bjurböle (L4) and Avanhandava (H4). The chondrule magnetic conglomerate study was done by removing oriented chondrules from the meteorite. The magnetic directions of the chondrules in both meteorites seems to be randomly oriented within both meteorites. The paleofield method based on the REM ratio (NRM/SIRM; Natural Remanent Magnetization / Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization) calibrated for the TRM (Thermal Remanent Magnetization; Kletetschka et al., 2004) magnetization process reveals approximate paleofields between 5 ?T and 20 ?T (REM ~ 0.002) for Avanhandava chondrules and between 12 ?T and 45 ?T (REM ˜ 0.0015-0.0048) for Bjurböle chondrules. However, the timing of the magnetizing process remains unclear. The random pattern of the individual chondrule magnetic directions suggest that the chondrules were not remagnetized by recent terrestrial weathering nor by the exposure to the artificial magnetic fields. However the effect of post aggregation metamorphism (reaching 400 - 600°C) and impact related shock demagnetization on the parent body may be responsible for partial or complete loss of the magnetic information carried by the lower coercivity grains. In the case of Avanhandava meteorite this can be observed in the REM ratio. The values of REM ratio calculated in low AF (alternating Field) demagnetizing fields are progressively lower than in the higher AF fields. The Bjurböle meteorite contains significant fraction of the tetrataenite mineral. The origin of tetrataenite is related to the slow ordering of the FeNi lattice at temperatures below ~ 350°C). Thus the origin of tetrataenite must be post-metamorphic ruling out the high temperature TRM scenario. The origin of the magnetization in the Bjurböle chondrules are most likely associated to the post-metamorphic low temperature processes (i.e. electric discharges or impact related shock remanent magnetization on the parent body). The random magnetic directions in this meteorite can be partly controlled by the strong magnetic anisotropy of tetrataenite. Moreover, the paleofield method based on REM ratio (Kletetschka et al., 2004) is calibrated for the TRM magnetizing scenario and not for low temperature acquisition processes and thus of limited use in the Bjurböle case. The results of the paleofield studies of the Avanhandava meteorite shows that the paleofield carried out by its chondrules can be significantly underestimated due to post-formation metamorphic and impact events. Those processes can in the same way influence the paleointensity results previously published for other chondritic meteorites. The interpretation of Bjurböle data may be even more difficult due to the presence of tetrataenite. Acknowledgements: Authors would like to thank to Peter J. Wasilewski from NASA/GSFC for constructive consultations and access to the laboratory facilities. References: Kletetschka, G., Acuna, M. H., Kohout, T, Wasilewski, P. J., and Connerney, J. E. P. (2004), An empirical scaling law for acquisition of thermoremanent magnetization, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 226, 521- 528.

  12. Multiple parent bodies of ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yomogida, K.; Matsui, T.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal histories of chondrite parent bodies are calculated from an initial state with material in a powder-like form, taking into account the effect of consolidation state on thermal conductivity. The very low thermal conductivity of the starting materials makes it possible for a small body with a radius of less than 100 km to be heated by several hundred degrees even if long-lived radioactive elements in chondritic abundances are the only source of heat. The maximum temperature is determined primarily by the temperature at which sintering of the constituent materials occurs. The thermal state of the interior of a chondrite parent body after sintering has begun is nearly isothermal. Near the surface, however, where the material is unconsolidated and the thermal conductivity is much lower, the thermal gradient is quite large. This result contradicts the conventional 'onion-shell' model of chondrite parent bodies. But because the internal temperature is almost constant through the whole body, it supports a 'multiple-parent bodies' model, according to which each petrologic type of chondrite comes from a different parent body.

  13. Origin of petrofabrics and magnetic anisotropy in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sneyd, Deana S.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Sugiura, Naoji; Strangway, David W.; Nord, Gordon L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Three-dimensional finite strain and magnetic susceptibility anisotropy have been determined for 15 ordinary chondrites. The axes of strain and magnetic ellipsoids roughly correlate in both magnitude and orientation. The shapes of these ellipsoids are generally oblate spheroids that define a dominant foliation and a weak lineation. These characteristics suggest deformation involving uniaxial compaction. The degree of uniaxial deformation correlates with intensity of shock, as indicated by optical, TEM and chemical criteria. These data, plus the lack of a relationship between foliation and metamorphic history, indicate that dynamic processes, i.e., impacts, produced planar deformation fabrics in chondrites.

  14. Rapid Classification of Ordinary Chondrites Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, M.; Welzenbach, L.

    2014-01-01

    Classification of ordinary chondrites is typically done through measurements of the composition of olivine and pyroxenes. Historically, this measurement has usually been performed via electron microprobe, oil immersion or other methods which can be costly through lost sample material during thin section preparation. Raman microscopy can perform the same measurements but considerably faster and with much less sample preparation allowing for faster classification. Raman spectroscopy can facilitate more rapid classification of large amounts of chondrites such as those retrieved from North Africa and potentially Antarctica, are present in large collections, or are submitted to a curation facility by the public. With development, this approach may provide a completely automated classification method of all chondrite types.

  15. Low temperature magnetic transition of chromite in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Lagroix, F.; Mathé, P.-E.; Zanda, B.

    2011-05-01

    We present low temperature magnetic data (thermal demagnetization, hysteresis) obtained on thirty three ordinary chondrite meteorites. A magnetic transition is observed in the 40-80 K range (average 66 K), and is interpreted as a ferrimagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition. We present quantitative analyses of changes in magnetization across the magnetic phase transition and chemical elemental analyses to argue that chromite, a common accessory mineral in meteorites, is the mineral undergoing the phase transition, and not troilite or tetrataenite as proposed in previous studies. Moreover, we observe a correlation between the measured Curie temperature and chemical composition of chromites in ordinary chondrites. Low temperature magnetic measurement are thus a sensitive indicator of chromite composition in these meteorites, and as such a possible proxy to the understanding of their thermal metamorphism.

  16. Carbon in weathered ordinary chondrites from Roosevelt County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. D.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    A suite of Roosevelt County ordinary chondrites of known terrestrial age have been analyzed for carbon content and isotopic composition. Initial results indicate that significant carbon contamination is evident only in samples with a terrestrial age greater than 40 ka. These samples are of weathering grade D and E and contain three times more carbon than the less weathered samples. The soil in which they were preserved has a carbon content of ca. 1.5 percent. Over 200 meteorites have been recovered from a series of soil depleted areas of New Mexico and West Texas. Most have been recovered from blowouts near Clovis in Roosevelt County (RC) on the high plains of New Mexico. The mineralogical and petrologic Al effects of weathering upon these samples have been studied previously and show that the degree of weathering is largely depend ant upon the terrestrial residence time. The study was undertaken to determine the effects of prolonged exposure to the soil and climate of Roosevelt County upon ordinary chondrites in the hope that this will enable a better understanding of the problems associated with the collection of meteoritic falls. A suite of ten grade 4 to 6 H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites were analyzed for carbon content and isotopic composition.

  17. An ordinary chondrite impactor for the Popigai crater, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagle, Roald; Claeys, Philippe

    2005-06-01

    With a diameter of ˜100 km, Popigai in Northern Siberia is the largest crater known in the Cenozoic. The concentrations in platinum group elements (PGE) were analyzed in twenty samples of homogeneous impact melt collected in the northwestern flank of the crater to identify the composition of the projectile. The method selected was preconcentration by NiS fire assay followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This technique measures all the PGE (except Os) and by using aliquots >10g, the results are highly reproducible. The major and trace element composition of the impact melt resembles that of gneissic lithologies of the Anabar shield, which are representative of the target rock. The PGE are enriched in the melt by factors of 3 to 14 compared to the main target lithology, but the meteoritic contamination is only around 0.2 wt.%. Using plots of elemental ratios such as Ru/Rh vs. Pt/Pd or Ru/Rh vs. Pd/Ir, the Popigai impactor is clearly identified as an ordinary chondrite and most likely L-chondrite. This study indicates that PGE elemental ratios allow discrimination of the type of impactor, even in the case of low meteoritic contamination. This study confirms that a significant fraction of the crater-forming projectiles presently documented could have an ordinary chondrite composition. Their probable source, the S-type asteroids, appears to form the majority of the bodies in the main asteroid belt and among Near Earth Objects (NEOs). The ordinary chondrite origin of the Popigai projectile supports an asteroidal origin for the late Eocene impacts as a plausible alternative to the comet shower scenario proposed by Farley et al. (1998).

  18. Classification and Mineralogy of a New Ordinary Chondrite from Hassi El Gassi (Southern Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabou, M. C.; Bendaoud, A.; Ait Kassi, M.

    2014-09-01

    We present here the classification and mineralogy of a new ordinary chondrite recovered in Hassi el Gassi (Southern Algeria). Based on its mineralogical composition and textural features, this meteorite is classified as an H6 chondrite.

  19. Generation of an Ordinary-Chondrite 'Regolith' by Repetitive Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, M. J.; Hoerz, F.; See, T. H.; Morris, R. V.

    2004-01-01

    Analyses of meteorites and remote sensing studies for years have suggested the presence of regolith on asteroids, yet detailed observations of asteroid regoliths have been possible only recently with the flybys of 951 Gaspra, 243 Ida, and 253 Mathilde, and with the orbiting of and landing on 433 Eros by the NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft. Virtually all investigations into the generation and evolution of asteroid regoliths to date have been theoretical in nature. These have been guided mainly by observations of the lunar regolith, using what meager experimental data exist for terrestrial materials as substitutes for their asteroidal counterparts. As part of a program to evaluate the behavior of an ordinary chondrite under impact conditions, about 460 g of the L6 chondrite ALH85017 were subjected to 50 consecutive impacts, sufficient to reduce the target from a mean grain size of 11 mm to 0.5 mm. Some of the details of these experiments are presented here.

  20. Ordinary chondrite-like colors in small Koronis family members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkin, Andrew S.; Thomas, Cristina A.; Trilling, David E.; Enga, Marie-therese; Grier, Jennifer A.

    2011-02-01

    A survey of small (<5-10 km diameter) members of the Koronis family shows some objects with visible-wavelength broadband colors consistent with membership in the Q-class (Tholen, D.J. [1984]. Asteroid taxonomy from cluster analysis of photometry. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Bus, S.J., Binzel, R.P. [2002]. Icarus 158, 146-177). This agrees with an ordinary chondritic composition for this family and suggests the timescale for changing Q-class to S-class spectra in the main belt is roughly comparable to the regolith refresh time in the 2-5 km size range.

  1. Oxygen Isotopes of Al-Rich Chondrules from Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, W.; Guan, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2012-09-01

    Oxygen isotopes indicate that ARCs from UOCs are not simple mixtures of ferromagnesian chondrules and CAIs. Instead, they probably experienced higher-degree oxygen isotopes exchange with 16O-poor nebular gas reservoir during multiple heating events.

  2. Metallographic cooling rates of L-group ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Marvin E.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Shock metamorphism appears to be a ubiquitous feature in L-group ordinary chondrites. Brecciation and heterogeneous melting obscure much of the early history of this meteorite group and have caused confusion as to whether L chondrites have undergone thermal metamorphism within onion-shell or rubble-pile parent bodies. Employing the most recent shock criteria, we have examined 55 Antarctic and 24 non-Antarctic L chondrites in order to identify those which have been least affected by post-accretional shock. Six low-shock samples (those with shock grade less than S4) of petrographic types L3-L5 were selected from both populations and metallographic cooling rates were obtained following the technique of Willis and Goldstein. All non-Antarctic L6 chondrites inspected were too heavily shocked to be included in this group. However, 4 shocked L6 chondrites were analyzed in order to determine what effects shock may impose on metallographic cooling rates. Metallographic cooling rates were derived by analyzing the cores of taenite grains and then measuring the distance to the nearest grain edge. Taenites were identified using backscatter imaging on a Cameca SX-50 electron microprobe. Using backscatter we were able to locate homogeneous, rust-free, nearly spherical grains. M-shaped profiles taken from grain traverses were also used to help locate the central portions of selected grains. All points which contained phosphorus above detection limits were discarded. Plots of cooling-rate data are summarized and data from the high-shock samples are presented. The lack of coherency of cooling rates for individual samples is indicative of heterogeneous cooling following shock. The data confirms the statement expressed by numerous workers that extreme care must be taken when selecting samples of L chondrites for cooling-rate studies. Data for the 6 non-Antarctic low-shock samples are also presented. The samples display a general trend in cooling rates. The lowest metamorphic grade yielded the slowest cooling rates and an increase in grade follows an increase in cooling rate. This is the opposite relationship to that predicted by the onion-shell model.

  3. Carbide-magnetite assemblages in type-3 ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Wasson, John T.; Scott, Edward R. D.; Keil, Klaus; Ohsumi, Kazumasa

    1997-01-01

    Abundant carbide-magnetite assemblages occur in matrix, chondrules, and chondrule rims in several H3, L3, and LL3 chondrites. Carbides, cohenite ((Fe,Ni) 3C), and haxonite ((Fe,Ni) 23C 6) show compositional variations between different meteorites and appreciable ranges within meteorites. Carbides in H chondrites have lower Co contents (0-0.6 wt%) than those in L and LL chondrites (0.3-1.2 wt%). Metal associated with carbides and magnetite consists of high-Ni (50-70 wt%) taenite and, in L and LL chondrites, Co-rich (up to 35 wt%) kamacite; minor element contents of troilite and magnetite are very low. Textural observations indicate that carbide-magnetite assemblages formed by replacement of metal-sulfide nodules. The high Co contents of residual kamacite in association with carbides indicates that Co is not incorporated into carbides (i.e., Fe/Co is much higher in the carbides than in kamacite). Because Ni in carbides and magnetite is low, the Ni contents of residual taenite tend to be high. Ni-rich sulfides were found only in LL3 chondrites, possibly indicating their more extensive oxidation and/or aqueous alteration. We suggest that carbide-magnetite assemblages in type-3 ordinary chondrites formed as the result of hydrothermal alteration of metallic Fe in metal-troilite nodules by a C sbnd O sbnd H-bearing fluid on their parent bodies. This alteration resulted in carbidization of Fe sbnd Ni metal, probably by CO gas (e.g., 15 Fe(s) + 4 CO(g) = Fe 3C(s) + Fe3O4(s) or 3 Fe(s) + 2 CO(g) = Fe 3C(s) + CO 2(g)), and oxidation, probably by H 2O gas (e.g., 3Fe(s) + 4H 2O(g) = Fe 3O 4(S) + 4H 2(g)). The C sbnd O sbnd H-bearing fluids, which were possibly released during metamorphism and transported through zones of high permeability, may have been derived from ices, adsorbed gases, or hydrated minerals. The CO may be the result of the reaction of carbon compounds (e.g., hydrocarbons) with water vapor or magnetite.

  4. Asteroidal source of ordinary chondrites (Meteoritical Society Presidential Address 1984)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    The orbital evolution of asteroidal fragments injected into the 3-1 Kirkwood gap resonance at 2.5 AU is investigated on the basis of a Monte Carlo simulation. The diameters of the fragments in the simulation were between 10 cm and 20 km, and it was assumed that the fragments cross the orbital path of the earth every one million years. The effects of close encounter planetary perturbations, the nu dot 6 secular resonance, and the ablative effects of the earth atmosphere were also taken into account. It is found that: (1) the predicted meteorite orbits closely matched the known orbits of ordinary chondrites; and (2) the total flux was in approximate agreement with the observed fall rate of ordinary chondrites. About 90 percent of the predicted impacting bodies were created by fragmentation of larger earth crossing asteroidal fragments, the largest of which were observed in the vicinity of the Apollo-Amor objects. The numerical results are presented in a series of graphs.

  5. Asteroidal source of ordinary chondrites (Meteoritical Society Presidential Address 1984)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1985-03-01

    The orbital evolution of asteroidal fragments injected into the 3-1 Kirkwood gap resonance at 2.5 AU is investigated on the basis of a Monte Carlo simulation. The diameters of the fragments in the simulation were between 10 cm and 20 km, and it was assumed that the fragments cross the orbital path of the earth every one million years. The effects of close encounter planetary perturbations, the nu dot 6 secular resonance, and the ablative effects of the earth atmosphere were also taken into account. It is found that: (1) the predicted meteorite orbits closely matched the known orbits of ordinary chondrites; and (2) the total flux was in approximate agreement with the observed fall rate of ordinary chondrites. About 90 percent of the predicted impacting bodies were created by fragmentation of larger earth crossing asteroidal fragments, the largest of which were observed in the vicinity of the Apollo-Amor objects. The numerical results are presented in a series of graphs.

  6. Manganese-Chromium Isotope Systematics of Ordinary Chondrite Forest Vale (H4) and Enstatite Chondrite Indarch (EH4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, G. E.; Schönbächler, M.; Davies, C.; Horan, M. F.; Busefield, A.; Carlson, R. W.

    2011-03-01

    Mn-Cr isochrons were determined on mineral fractions of the ordinary chondrite Forest Vale and the enstatite chondrite Indarch. The initial 53Mn/55Mn of Forest Vale is in good agreement with existing literature while Indarch displays an older age than reported previously.

  7. SType Asteroids, Ordinary Chondrites, and Space Weathering: The Evidence from Galileo's Flybys of Gaspra and Ida

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Clark R.

    S­Type Asteroids, Ordinary Chondrites, and Space Weathering: The Evidence from Galileo's Fly 1996 Abstract. New observations of the S­type asteroids Gaspra and, especially, Ida by the Galileo tend to convert spectra of ordinary chondrites to have the spectral traits of S­type asteroids

  8. Source of potassium in shocked ordinary chondrites J.R. Weirich a,

    E-print Network

    Downs, Robert T.

    Source of potassium in shocked ordinary chondrites J.R. Weirich a, , T.D. Swindle a,b , C (a variation of potassium­argon dating) of ordinary chondrites is being used to reconstruct the col shocked nature of chon- drites, the sources of potassium (K) in these meteorites have not been fully

  9. Organic compounds in the Forest Vale, H4 ordinary chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenobi, Renato; Philippoz, Jean-Michel; Zare, Richard N.; Wing, Michael R.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Marti, Kurt

    1992-07-01

    We have analyzed the H4 ordinary chondrite Forest Vale for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using two-step laser mass spectrometry (L 2MS) and for amino acids using a standard Chromatographic method. Indigenous PAHs were identified in the matrices of freshly cleaved interior faces but could not be detected in pulverized silicates and chondrules. No depth dependence of the PAHs was found in a chipped interior piece. Amino acids, taken from the entire sample, consisted of protein amino acids that were nonracemic, indicating that they are terrestrial contaminants. The presence of indigenous PAHs and absence of indigenous amino acids provides support for the contention that different processes and environments contributed to the synthesis of the organic matter in the solar system.

  10. Element distributions in metallic fractions of ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, P.; Ebihara, M.; Endo, K.

    1994-07-01

    Kamacite and taenite are the major metallic phases in ordinary chondrite, in individual grains of pure alloy. Wood interpreted the concentration gradients of Ni found in two metal phases as a result of exsolution of kamacite from taenite followed by sluggish diffusion of Ni into the taenite crystals upon cooling through approximately 500 C. A selective chemical dissolution method was developed to separated taenite from kamacite and this method was applied to several ordinary chondrites. Based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) data and Mossbauer spectra for the metal separates, we evaluated the distribution of various elements between taenite and kamacite. The magnetic fraction separated from ALH 77231 (L6) was boiled in HF for 2 min and named M-1. The M-1 fraction was further treated for 5, 10, and 15 min and the remaining fractions were designed as M-2, M-3, and M-4 respectively. Mossbauer spectrum showed that M-1 was composed almost of alpha-phase kamacite. Mossbauer spectra of the M-2, M-3, and M-4 showed each having similar intensities of kamacite, taenite, and tetrataenite. On the basis of different leaching rate with concentrated HF acid between kamacite and taenite, we can determine element distributions in these different fractions. INAA analyses show that the M-1 is composed of 10% Ni. Contents of Ni in the M-2, M-3, and M-4 show that these three metal fractions are mainly composed of Ni-rich metals with a mean value of 36% Ni. Based on different proportions of kamacite and taenite in these metal fractions, we calculated siderophile-element contents in taenite and kamacite.

  11. A Survey of Large Silicate Objects in Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, R.; Bridges, J. C.

    1995-09-01

    We present the results of a survey of large silicate objects in ordinary chondrites (OCs) from the collection of the Natural History Museum, London; 390 H-group, 386 L-group and 57 LL-group meteorites were examined. A total of 61 objects were identified (Table 1). Meteorites with light and dark, brecciated fabrics were excluded from our survey. Following Weisberg et al. [1], large silicate objects are taken to be >= 5mm in size. Macrochondrules have rounded outlines and textures - porphyritic, barred olivine, radiating pyroxene - that are indistinguishable from normal chondrules in OCs [1]. In addition, we also recognise igneous clasts and chondritic clasts. The largest macrochondrule in the collection is 4cm diameter, with a microporphyritic texture [2]. Igneous clasts are those objects whose properties indicate that they originated through melting and differentiation on a planetary body. Examples include a 2cm diameter clast, in Ness County (L6), which contains large (2mm) olivine and enstatite grains set in a plagioclase + olivine groundmass, cristobalite- and tridymite-rich clasts [3] and the FELINE feldspar-nepheline clast [4]. Chondritic clasts comprise a diverse group including a 1cm clast from Barwell (L6) which contains apparently remelted chondrules, microporphyritic clasts with K-rich mesostasis e.g. in Quenggouk (H4) and a 1cm single olivine grain with minor inclusions of anorthite and enstatite, in Julesburg (L3). The K-rich objects are similar to others described from a survey of LL-chondrites and may have an impact origin or have undergone exchange with a K-rich vapor [5]. Abundances of the three types of large silicate objects (Table 1) reflect the relative numbers of H, L and LL meteorite samples in the collection, although LL-group hosted clasts are over-represented as our work concentrated on sections of LL-chondrites. In total, 46% of the objects are macrochondrules, 18% are igneous clasts and 36% are in the indeterminate chondritic clast group. All three types of object occur in petrographic types 3-6, but none was found in H3 meteorites. Mineral compositions in large silicate objects in hosts of petrographic types 4-6 are usually equilibrated, although enstatite in H4-hosted samples and the cristobalite-rich igneous clasts from Farmington (L5) [3, 6] are exceptions to this. Clasts and chondrules from the same host-meteorite sometimes belong to different shock stages. References: [1] Weisberg M. K. et al. (1988) Meteoritics, 23, 309-310. [2] Binns R. A. (1967) Mineral. Mag., 36, 319-324. [3] Bridges J. C. et al. (1995) Meteoritics, submitted. [4] Bridges J. C. et al. (1995) Proc. NIPR Symp. Antarct. Meteorites, 8, in press. [5] Wlotzka F. et al. (1983) GCA, 47, 743-757. [6] Binns R. A. (1967) Science, 156, 1222-1226.

  12. Igneous rock from Severnyi Kolchim (H3) chondrite: Nebular origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazarov, M. A.; Brandstaetter, F.; Kurat, G.

    1993-01-01

    The discovery of lithic fragments with compositions and textures similar to igneous differentiates in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOC's) and carbonaceous chondrites (CC's) has been interpreted as to suggest that planetary bodies existed before chondrites were formed. As a consequence, chondrites (except, perhaps CI chondrites) cannot be considered primitive assemblages of unprocessed nebular matter. We report about our study of an igneous clast from the Severnyi Kolchim (H3) chondrite. The results of the study are incompatible with an igneous origin of the clast but are in favor of a nebular origin similar to that of chondrules.

  13. (7) Iris: a possible source of ordinary chondrites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, F.; Manara, A.; Cellino, A.; di Martino, M.; Zappala, V.

    1997-05-01

    Rotationally resolved visible spectroscopy (6000~9500Å) of (7) Iris is presented. Within a few percents, no variation in Iris' visible spectrum over a rotational period has been found. These data suggest that the mineralogic properties of Iris' surface are globally homogeneous, although we cannot exclude the presence of some texture and/or albedo variegation as suggested by previous photometric and polarimetric studies available in the literature. From a dynamical point of view, we estimate the ejection velocity required for collisional fragments from this asteroid to be injected into the surrounding chaotic regions. The resulting velocity values are fairly high, but not incompatible with the values suggested by the present knowledge of catastrophic break-up phenomena and by the observational constraints put by asteroid families. Taking into account the close similarity between Iris' spectrum and that of (6) Hebe, a typical S(IV)-type object according with the most modern spectral classifications, we believe that (7) Iris may be a not negligible source of ordinary chondrite meteorites.

  14. Group IIE Iron Meteorites; Metal Composition, Formation, Relationship to Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, J. T.; Scott, E. R. D.

    2011-03-01

    INAA data for metal in 8 new and 12 known IIE irons show they crystallized from various silicate-rich Fe-Ni melts with diverse S contents after impacts melted an ordinary chondrite asteroid that was probably more reduced than H chondrites.

  15. The Role of Initial Porosity in the Weathering Patterns of Ordinary Chondrites in Atacama Desert, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, E. M.; Gattacceca, J.; Munayco, P.; Munayco, J.; Uehara, M.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Rochette, P.; Jull, T.; Giscard, M.; D'Orazio, M.

    2013-09-01

    Weathering patterns from two different localities in Atacama Desert, northern Chile, differ from the ones found for other hot deserts. We present the results of an exhaustive study of ordinary chondrites found in several expeditions.

  16. Ordinary chondrite metallography: Part 2 Formation of zoned and unzoned metal particles in relatively unshocked H, L, and LL chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisener, R. J.; Goldstein, J. I.

    2003-11-01

    We studied the metallography of Fe-Ni metal particles in 17 relatively unshocked ordinary chondrites and interpreted their microstructures using the results of P-free, Fe-Ni alloy cooling experiments (described in Reisener and Goldstein 2003). Two types of Fe-Ni metal particles were observed in the chondrites: zoned taenite + kamacite particles and zoneless plessite particles, which lack systematic Ni zoning and consist of tetrataenite in a kamacite matrix. Both types of metal particles formed during metamorphism in a parent body from homogeneous, P-poor taenite grains. The phase transformations during cooling from peak metamorphic temperatures were controlled by the presence or absence of grain boundaries in the taenite particles. Polycrystalline taenite particles transformed to zoned taenite + kamacite particles by kamacite nucleation at taenite/taenite grain boundaries during cooling. Monocrystalline taenite particles transformed to zoneless plessite particles by martensite formation and subsequent martensite decomposition to tetrataenite and kamacite during the same cooling process. The varying proportions of zoned taenite + kamacite particles and zoneless plessite particles in types 4­6 ordinary chondrites can be attributed to the conversion of polycrystalline taenite to monocrystalline taenite during metamorphism. Type 4 chondrites have no zoneless plessite particles because metamorphism was not intense enough to form monocrystalline taenite particles. Type 6 chondrites have larger and more abundant zoneless plessite particles than type 5 chondrites because intense metamorphism in type 6 chondrites generated more monocrystalline taenite particles. The distribution of zoneless plessite particles in ordinary chondrites is entirely consistent with our understanding of Fe-Ni alloy phase transformations during cooling. The distribution cannot be explained by hot accretion-autometamorphism, post-metamorphic brecciation, or shock processing.

  17. SXRF determination of trace elements in chondrule rims in the unequilibrated CO3 chondrite, ALH A77307

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, Adrian J.; Bajt, Sasa; Sutton, Steve R.; Papike, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, and Se in five chondrule rims in the CO3 chondrite ALH A77307 (3.0) using the synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe at Brookhaven National Laboratory were determined. The data show that the trace element chemistry of rims on different chondrules is remarkably similar, consistent with data obtained for the major elements by electron microprobe. These results support the idea that rims are not genetically related to individual chondrules, but all sampled the same reservoir of homogeneously mixed dust. Of the trace elements analyzed Zn and Ga show depletions relative to CI chondrite values, but in comparison with bulk CO chondrites all the elements are enriched by approximately 1.5 to 3.5 x CO. The high concentrations of the highly volatile elements Se and Ga and moderately volatile Zn (1.5 to 2 x CO) in rims show that matrix is the major reservoir of volatile elements in ALH A77307.

  18. Metal phases in ordinary chondrites: Magnetic hysteresis properties and implications for thermal history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, J.; Suavet, C.; Rochette, P.; Weiss, B. P.; Winklhofer, M.; Uehara, M.; Friedrich, Jon M.

    2014-04-01

    Magnetic properties are sensitive proxies to characterize FeNi metal phases in meteorites. We present a data set of magnetic hysteresis properties of 91 ordinary chondrite falls. We show that hysteresis properties are distinctive of individual meteorites while homogeneous among meteorite subsamples. Except for the most primitive chondrites, these properties can be explained by a mixture of multidomain kamacite that dominates the induced magnetism and tetrataenite (both in the cloudy zone as single-domain grains, and as larger multidomain grains in plessite and in the rim of zoned taenite) dominates the remanent magnetism, in agreement with previous microscopic magnetic observations. The bulk metal contents derived from magnetic measurements are in agreement with those estimated previously from chemical analyses. We evidence a decreasing metal content with increasing petrologic type in ordinary chondrites, compatible with oxidation of metal during thermal metamorphism. Types 5 and 6 ordinary chondrites have higher tetrataenite content than type 4 chondrites. This is compatible with lower cooling rates in the 650-450 °C interval for higher petrographic types (consistent with an onion-shell model), but is more likely the result of the oxidation of ordinary chondrites with increasing metamorphism. In equilibrated chondrites, shock-related transient heating events above approximately 500 °C result in the disordering of tetrataenite and associated drastic change in magnetic properties. As a good indicator of the amount of tetrataenite, hysteresis properties are a very sensitive proxy of the thermal history of ordinary chondrites, revealing low cooling rates during thermal metamorphism and high cooling rates (e.g., following shock reheating or excavation after thermal metamorphism). Our data strengthen the view that the poor magnetic recording properties of multidomain kamacite and the secondary origin of tetrataenite make equilibrated ordinary chondrites challenging targets for paleomagnetic study.

  19. Ion microprobe magnesium isotope analysis of plagioclase and hibonite from ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, R. W.; Bischoff, A.

    1984-01-01

    Ion and electron microprobes were used to examine Mg-26 excesses from Al-26 decay in four Al-rich objects from the type 3 ordinary hibonite clast in the Dhajala chondrite. The initial Al-26/Al-27 ratio was actually significantly lower than Al-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites. Also, no Mg-26 excesses were found in three plagioclase-bearing chondrules that were also examined. The Mg-26 excesses in the hibonite chondrites indicated a common origin for chondrites with the excesses. The implied Al-26 content in a proposed parent body could not, however, be confirmed as a widespread heat source in the early solar system.

  20. Physical propoerties of incompletely compacted equilibrated ordinary chondrites: Implications for asteroidal structure and impact processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sasso, M.R.; Macke, R.J.; Britt, D.T.; Rivers, M.L.; Ebel, D.S.; Friedrich, J.M. (Central Florida); (AMNH); (UC); (Fordham)

    2009-03-19

    Aside from robotic exploration, meteorites are our primary source of information about the asteroids that they sample. Although there are some discrepancies, there are dynamical, spectral, and compositional evidence for an S-type asteroid connection to the ordinary chondrite meteorites. Reconciling the measured bulk density of chondrites with that of asteroids can yield important inferences about the internal structure of asteroids. For example, the bulk density of S-type asteroids is typically much less than the bulk density of chondrites, leading to the inference that asteroids contain a significant quantity of macroporosity. We have identified several unusual ordinary chondrites that have been incompletely compacted relative to petrologically similar but much less porous chondrites. Although these are equilibrated chondrites, they have extreme amounts of pore spaces between mineral grains. Here, we detail our efforts quantifying the nature of the pore spaces in these chondrites and we examine the implications for the structure and mechanical processing of the asteroids from which these chondrites originate. Our pore size distribution data may also provide constraints for the modeling of heat flow and shock waves within primordial chondritic parent bodies.

  1. Classification of five new ordinary chondrites (RC 073, 074, 076-078) from Roosevelt County, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, Timothy J.; Keil, Klaus; Wilson, Ivan E.

    1993-01-01

    Five new ordinary chondrites from Roosevelt County, New Mexico were examined by optical microscopy in transmitted and reflected light. The chondrites were moderately to heavily weathered and were assigned to a petrologic time, chemical group, and shock stage.

  2. Multiple impact events recorded in the NWA 7298 H chondrite breccia and the dynamical evolution of an ordinary chondrite asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jon M.; Weisberg, Michael K.; Rivers, Mark L.

    2014-05-01

    The major geologic process that has shaped the asteroids and led to development of their regoliths is impact. Petrofabrics in ordinary chondrites are undoubtedly the result of impact events on their asteroidal parent bodies and the foliation present in a chondrite serves as an enduring record of the magnitude of the most intense compacting event experienced by the material. An overwhelming majority of chondrites have an internally consistent petrofabric contained within the spatial dimensions of the entire rock, including across clasts or different petrographic domains. This indicates that the magnitude of the most recent impact to have affected the assembled chondrite was significant enough to impart a foliation across all lithologies. Information of any previous impacts is largely lost because of the consistent, realigned foliations. We present X-ray microtomography derived 3D petrofabric intensity and orientation data for three lithologies in the NWA 7298 breccia. The internally inconsistent petrofabrics among differing lithologies indicate that the magnitude of the final impact event was smaller than previous ones. This latter case preserves fabric information recorded during previous impacts and allows a more complete interpretation of the impact history of a local region of the asteroidal parent. We used our data to infer the sequence and intensity of distinct impact events affecting the NWA 7298 parent asteroid. We suggest a near-surface impact debris zone on the H chondrite parent asteroid as an origin for NWA 7298. These observations yield new opportunities for investigating and interpreting the dynamic collisional evolution of asteroids.

  3. Partial melting of ordinary chondrites: Lost City (H) and St. Severin (LL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurewicz, Amy J. G.; Jones, John H.; Weber, Egon T.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Eucrites and diogenites are examples of asteroidal basalts and orthopyroxenites, respectively. As they are found intermingled in howardites, which are inferred to be regolith breccias, eucrites and diogenites are thought to be genetically related. But the details of this relationship and of their individual origins remain controversial. Work by Jurewicz et al. showed that 1170-1180 C partial melts of the (anhydrous) Murchison (CM) chondrite have major element compositions extremely similar to primitive eucrites, such as Sioux County. However, the MnO contents of these melts were about half that of Sioux County, a problem for the simple partial melting model. In addition, partial melting of Murchison could not produce diogenites, because residual pyroxenes in the Murchison experiments were too Fe- and Ca-rich and were minor phases at all but the lowest temperatures. A parent magma for diogenites needs an expanded low-calcium pyroxene field. In their partial melting study of an L6 chondrite, Kushiro and Mysen found that ordinary chondrites did have an expanded low-Ca pyroxene field over that of CV chondrites (i.e., Allende), probably because ordinary chondrites have lower Mg/Si ratios. This study expands that of both Kushiro and Mysen and Jurewicz et al. to the Lost City (H) and St. Severin (LL) chondrites at temperatures ranging from 1170 to 1325 C, at an fO2 of one log unit below the iron-wuestite buffer (IW-1).

  4. Hysteresis properties of ordinary chondrites and implications for their thermal history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, J.; Suavet, C. R.; Rochette, P.; Weiss, B. P.; Winklhofer, M.; Uehara, M.; Friedrich, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a large dataset of magnetic hysteresis properties of ordinary chondrite falls. We show that hysteresis properties are distinctive of individual meteorites while homogeneous among meteorite subsamples. Except for the most primitive chondrites, these properties can be explained by a mixture of multidomain kamacite and tetrataenite (both in the cloudy zone and as larger grains in plessite and in the rim of zoned taenite). Kamacite dominates the induced magnetism whereas tetrataenite dominates the remanent magnetism, in agreement with previous microscopic magnetic observations. Type 5 and 6 chondrites have higher tetrataenite content than type 4 chondrites, suggesting they have lower cooling rates at least in the 650-450 °C interval, consistent with an onion-shell model. In equilibrated chondrites, shock-related transient heating events above ~500 °C result in the disordering of tetrataenite and associated drastic change in magnetic properties. As a good indicator of the amount of tetrataenite, hysteresis properties are a very sensitive proxy of the thermal history of ordinary chondrites, revealing low cooling rates during thermal metamorphism, and high cooling rates following shock reheating or excavation after thermal metamorphism.

  5. Weathering of Ordinary Chondrites from Algeria and Australia as a Climatic Indicator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Bland; F. J. Berry; C. T. Pillinger

    1995-01-01

    Introduction: Recently it has been recognized that ordinary chondrite meteorites resident in desert regions may preserve information about the climate at the time of their arrival on Earth in the degree to which they are weathered [1], providing that a stable surface has existed at the accumulation site. We present here a comparison of ^57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy data for additional

  6. Densities and porosities of ordinary chondrite meteorites: Study of Mercurian topography using digital elevation models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah L. Andre

    2004-01-01

    Densities and porosities of meteorites are physical properties that can be used to infer characteristics of asteroid interiors. I report density and porosity measurements of ordinary chondrite meteorites. Bulk volume was measured using a modified Archimedian method, while grain volume was measured using helium gas pycnometry; I provide a quantification of error for the methods used in this study. Based

  7. Carbon-rich aggregates in type 3 ordinary chondrites - Characterization, origins, and thermal history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brearley, A. J.

    1990-03-01

    Carbon-rich aggregates from three type 3.4-3.6 ordinary chondrites and two chondritic clasts have been characterized in detail, using TEM techniques. The aggregates in all the meteorites studied range in size from 5-1000 microns and consist of a fine scale intergrowth of poorly graphitized carbon, amorphous carbon, Fe,Ni metal, and minor chromite. Contrary to previous reports, well-crystallized graphite and magnetite are absent. The association of Fe,Ni metal and carbonaceous material suggests that the original carbonaceous material may have formed by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) type reactions at low temperatures (less than 400 K), possibly in the solar nebula. This carbonaceous material probably consisted of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, kerogen-like material, and other complex organic molecules. The aggregates were subsequently accreted onto the ordinary chondrite parent bodies and underwent planetary thermal processing which resulted in the catalytic graphitization of hydrocarbons, in the presence of Fe,Ni metal, to produce poorly graphitized carbon. None of the meteorites studied experienced temperatures sufficiently high to produce crystalline, ordered graphite. Using the empirical geothermometer of Rietmeijer and Mackinnon (1985), the measured d(002) spacings of poorly graphitized carbon show that graphitization occurred at temperatures between 300 and 450 C. This range of temperatures is significantly lower than the generally quoted metamorphic temperatures for type 3.4-3.6 ordinary chondrites (about 450-500 C).

  8. Early aqueous activity on the ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies recorded by fayalite.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Patricia M; Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N; Wakita, Shigeru; Ciesla, Fred J; Hutcheon, Ian D

    2015-01-01

    Chronology of aqueous activity on chondrite parent bodies constrains their accretion times and thermal histories. Radiometric (53)Mn-(53)Cr dating has been successfully applied to aqueously formed carbonates in CM carbonaceous chondrites. Owing to the absence of carbonates in ordinary (H, L and LL), and CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites, and the lack of proper standards, there are no reliable ages of aqueous activity on their parent bodies. Here we report the first (53)Mn-(53)Cr ages of aqueously formed fayalite in the L3 chondrite Elephant Moraine 90161 as Myr after calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs), the oldest Solar System solids. In addition, measurements using our synthesized fayalite standard show that fayalite in the CV3 chondrite Asuka 881317 and CO3-like chondrite MacAlpine Hills 88107 formed and Myr after CAIs, respectively. Thermal modelling, combined with the inferred conditions (temperature and water/rock ratio) and (53)Mn-(53)Cr ages of aqueous alteration, suggests accretion of the L, CV and CO parent bodies ?1.8-2.5?Myr after CAIs. PMID:26100451

  9. Mn-Cr isotopic systematics of Chainpur chondrules and bulk ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L.; Lindstrom, D.; Wiesmann, H.; Bansal, B.; Shih, C.-Y.; Mittlefehldt, D.; Martinez, R.; Wentworth, S.

    1994-01-01

    We report on ongoing study of the Mn-Cr systematics of individual Chainpur (LL3.4) chondrules and compare the results to those for bulk ordinary chondrites. Twenty-eight chondrules were surveyed for abundances of Mn, Cr, Na, Fe, Sc, Hf, Ir, and Zn by INAA. Twelve were chosen for SEM/EDX and high-precision Cr-isotopic studies on the basis of LL-chondrite-normalized Mn(LL), Sc(LL), (Mn/Fe)(LL), and (Sc/Fe)(LL) as well as their Mn/Cr ratios. Classification into textural types follows from SEM/EDX examination of interior surfaces.

  10. Experimental Space Weathering of Ordinary Chondrites by Nanopulse Laser: TEM Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Hiroi, T.; Keller, L. P.; Pieters, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    A set of ordinary chondrite meteorites has been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser to simulate the effects of micrometeorite bombardment. Three meteorites, an H (Ehole), L (Chateau Renard - CR), and LL (Appley Bridge - AB) were lasered following the method of Sasaki et al [1]. Near IR spectra were taken before and after exposure to examine the optical changes induced and the samples were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) to understand the physical changes.

  11. The Isotopic Composition and Origins of Silicon Nitride from Ordinary and Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, S. S.; Lee, M. R.; Arden, J. W.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1995-07-01

    The N-isotopic composition of acid-resistant residues of three low petrologic type ordinary chondrites (Adrar 003, LL3.2; Inman, L3.4; Tieschitz, H3.6) and an enstatite chondrite (Indarch, EH4) have been measured by static mass spectrometry. All of these samples have been shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to contain silicon nitride (Si3N4), and no other nitrides were detected in any of the residues (Lee et al., 1995). Stepped combustion has demonstrated the presence of at least two components with low C/N ratios, which have been interpreted as Si3N4. The most abundant component, common to all the meteorites studied, released during combustion at temperatures >1150 °C, may have formed during metamorphism of the meteorite's parent body. In addition, the ordinary chondrites Tieschitz and Inman show evidence for a second component of Si3N4 that is less stable to combustion than the first and is enriched in 15N. The unusual N-isotope signature suggests that this second type of Si3N4 may constitute a new type of interstellar grain. A comparison of the isotope and microscope data suggests that the >1150 °C component can be related to nierite (?-Si3N4) and-the less stable component to ?-Si3N4.

  12. Trace element geochemistry of ordinary chondrite chondrules: the type I/type II chondrule dichotomy

    E-print Network

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    We report trace element concentrations of silicate phases in chondrules from LL3 ordinary chondrites Bishunpur and Semarkona. Results are similar to previously reported data for carbonaceous chondrites, with rare earth element (REE) concentrations increasing in the sequence olivine ~ 10 K/h) than type I chondrules. Appreciable Na concentrations (3-221 ppm) are measured in olivine from both chondrule types; type II chondrules seem to have behaved as closed systems, which may require chondrule formation in the vicinity of protoplanets or planetesimals. At any rate, higher solid concentrations in type II chondrule forming regions may explain the higher oxygen fugacities they record compared to type I chondrules. Type I and type II chondrules formed in different environments and the correlation between high solid concentrations and/or oxygen fugacities with rapid cooling rates is a key constraint that chondrule formation models must account for.

  13. Raman spectroscopic study of four Spanish shocked ordinary chondrites: Cañellas, Olmedilla de Alarcón, Reliegos and Olivenza.

    PubMed

    Rull, F; Muñoz-Espadas, M J; Lunar, R; Martínez-Frías, J

    2010-07-13

    Shock metamorphism in chondritic parent bodies produces typical textures, visible under the microscope, which are a consequence of structural deformation of the crystals. Such deformations can be studied with Raman spectroscopy. The vibrational characteristics of olivines and pyroxenes, structurally deformed by weak-to-moderate shock metamorphism, have been determined on four Spanish ordinary chondrites (Cañellas, Olmedilla de Alarcón, Reliegos and Olivenza). Such deformations would affect, in principle, the band positions and widths of the Raman spectra peaks. The measured band positions and relative intensities are consistent with chemical composition for olivines and pyroxenes, but show little influence on the degree of shock. However, the full spectral band width of the silicate internal modes shows some dependence on the impact grade, which could be attributed to inhomogeneous effects produced by the impacts. PMID:20529952

  14. The Ardón L6 ordinary chondrite: A long-hidden Spanish meteorite fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-RodríGuez, Josep M.; Llorca, Jordi; Weyrauch, Mona; Bischoff, Addi; Moyano-Cambero, Carles E.; Keil, Klaus; Laubenstein, Matthias; Pack, Andreas; Madiedo, José MaríA.; Alonso-AzcáRate, Jacinto; Riebe, My; Wieler, Rainer; Ott, Uli; Tapia, Mar; Mestres, NarcíS.

    2014-08-01

    We report and describe an L6 ordinary chondrite fall that occurred in Ardón, León province, Spain (longitude 5.5605°W, latitude 42.4364°N) on July 9th, 1931. The 5.5 g single stone was kept hidden for 83 yr by Rosa González Pérez, at the time an 11 yr old who had observed the fall and had recovered the meteorite. According to various newspaper reports, the event was widely observed in Northern Spain. Ardón is a very well-preserved, fresh, strongly metamorphosed (petrologic type 6), and weakly shocked (S3) ordinary chondrite with well-equilibrated and recrystallized minerals. The mineral compositions (olivine Fa23.7±0.3, low-Ca pyroxene Fs20.4±0.2Wo1.5±0.2, plagioclase An10.3±0.5Ab84.3±1.2), magnetic susceptibility (log ? = 4.95 ± 0.05 × 10-9 m3 kg-1), bulk density (3.49 ± 0.05 g cm-3), grain density (3.58 ± 0.05 g cm-3), and porosity (2.5 vol%) are typical for L6 chondrites. Short-lived radionuclides confirm that the meteorite constitutes a recent fall. The 21Ne and 38Ar cosmic ray exposure ages are both about 20-30 Ma, similar to values for many other L chondrites. The cosmogenic 22Ne/21Ne ratio indicates that preatmospheric Ardón was a relatively large body. The fact that the meteorite was hidden in private hands for 83 yr makes one wonder if other meteorite falls may have experienced the same fate, thus possibly explaining the anomalously low number of falls reported in continental Spain in the 20th century.

  15. Evidence for a late thermal event of unequilibrated enstatite chondrites: a Rb-Sr study of Qingzhen and Yamato 6901 (EH3) and Khairpur (EL6)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torigoye, N.; Shima, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Rb-Sr whole rock and internal systematics of two EH3 chondrites, Qingzhen and Yamato 6901, and of one EL6 chondrite, Khairpur, were determined. The internal Rb-Sr systematics of the EH3 chondrites are highly disturbed. Fractions corresponding to sulfide phases show excess 87Sr, while other fractions corresponding to silicate phases produce a linear trend on a Rb-Sr evolution diagram. If these linear relations are interpreted as isochrons, the ages of the silicate phases are 2.12?? 0.23 Ga and 2.05 ??0.33 Ga with the initial Sr isotopic ratios of 0.7112 ?? 0.0018 and 0.7089 ?? 0.0032, for Qingzhen and Yamato 6901, respectively. The Rb-Sr results are interpeted as indicative of a late thermal event about 2Ga ago on the parent bodies of these EH3 chondrites. These ages agree well with previously published K-Ar ages. An older isochron age of 4.481 ?? 0.036 Ga with a low initial Sr isotopic ratio of 0.69866 ?? 0.00038 was obtained for the data from silicate fractions of Khairpur, indicating early petrological equilibrium on the parent body of EL6 chondrites. -from Authors

  16. How much of the S-type asteroids are made of ordinary chondrite materials, and why are they so highly space-weathered? T. Hiroi1

    E-print Network

    Hiroi, Takahiro

    How much of the S-type asteroids are made of ordinary chondrite materials, and why are they so whether the high abundance of ordinary chondrites really reflects their abundance in the main asteroid belt. The abundant S-type asteroids and less abundant Q-type asteroids could contain significant amount

  17. DERIVING THE DISTRIBUTION OF ORDINARY CHONDRITE (H, L, LL)-LIKE MATERIALS IN ASTEROIDS FROM THEIR VISIBLE AND NEAR-INFRARED REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY. T.

    E-print Network

    Hiroi, Takahiro

    DERIVING THE DISTRIBUTION OF ORDINARY CHONDRITE (H, L, LL)-LIKE MATERIALS IN ASTEROIDS FROM reflects their abundance in the main asteroid belt. The abundant S-type asteroids and less abundant Q-type asteroids could contain significant amount of ordinary chondrite materials of different degrees of thermal

  18. The S-type asteroid ordinary chondrite controversy and discoveries by the Hayabusa mission to asteroid 25143 Itokawa. T. Hiroi1

    E-print Network

    Hiroi, Takahiro

    The S-type asteroid ­ ordinary chondrite controversy and discoveries by the Hayabusa mission to asteroid 25143 Itokawa. T. Hiroi1 , M. Abe2 , K. Kitazato2,3 , S. Abe4 , B. E. Clark5 , S. Sasaki6 , and M-standing controversy concerning the parent bodies of ordinary chondrites and the identity of the S-type asteroids

  19. Microstructures of metal grains in ordinary chondrites: Implications for their thermal histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, Hugues; Doukhan, Jean-Claude; Perron, Claude

    2000-05-01

    This paper reports one of the first attempts to investigate by analytical transmission electron microscopy the microstructures and compositions of Fe-Ni metal grains in ordinary chondrites. Three ordinary chondrites, Saint Séverin, LL6, Agen H5 and Tsarev L6, were selected because they display contrasting microstructures, reflecting different thermal histories. In Saint Séverin, the microstructure of the Ni-rich metal grains is due to slow cooling. It consists of a two phase assemblage with a honeycomb structure resulting from spinodal decomposition similar to the cloudy zone of iron meteorites. Microanalyses show that the Ni-rich phase is tetrataenite (Ni = 47 wt.%) and the Ni-poor one, with a composition of about 25% Ni, is either martensite or taenite, these two occurring adjacent to each other. The observation that the Ni-poor phase is partly fcc resolves the disagreement between previous TEM and Mössbauer studies on iron meteorites and ordinary chondrite metal. The Ni content of the honeycomb phase is much higher than in mesosiderites, confirming that mesosiderites cooled much more slowly. The high-Ni tetrataenite rim in contact with the cloudy zone displays high Ni compositional variability on a very fine scale, suggesting that the corresponding area was destabilized and partially decomposed at low temperature. Both Agen and Tsarev display evidence of reheating and subsequent fast cooling obviously related to shock events. Their metallic particles mostly consist of martensite, the micro-structure of which depends on local Ni content. Microstructures are controlled by both the temperature at which martensite forms and that at which it possibly decomposes. In high Ni zones (> 15 wt.%), martensitic transformation started at low temperature (< 3008C). As no further recovery occurred, these zones contain a high density of lattice defects. In low Ni zones (< 15 wt.%), martensite grains formed at higher temperature and their lattice defects recovered. These martensite grains present a lath texture with numerous tiny precipitates of Ni-rich taenite (Ni = 50 wt.%) at lath boundaries. Ni composition profiles across precipitate/matrix interfaces show that the growth of these precipitates was controlled by preferential diffusion of Ni along lattice defects. The cooling rates deduced from Ni concentration profiles and precipitate sizes are within the range 1-10 deg C/a for Tsarev, and 10-100 deg C/a for Agen.

  20. Cosmogenic Records in 18 Ordinary Chondrites from the Dar Al Gani Region, Libya. 2; Radionclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welten, K. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Finkel, R. C.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Jull, A. J. T.; Schultz, L.

    2003-01-01

    In the past decade more than 1000 meteorites have been recovered from the Dar al Gani (DaG) plateau in the Libyan part of the Sahara. The geological setting, meteorite pairings and density are described. So far, only a few terrestrial ages are known for DaG meteorites, e.g. 60+/- 20 kyr for the DaG 476 shergottite shower and 80+/- 20 kyr for the lunar meteorite DaG 262. However, from other desert areas, such as Oman, it is known that achondrites may survive much longer than chondritic meteorites, so the ages of these two achondrites may not be representative of the majority of the DaG meteorite collection, of which more than 90% are ordinary chondrites. In this work we report concentrations of the cosmogenic radionuclides, 14C (half-life = 5,730 yr), 41Ca (1.04x10 superscript 5 yr), Cl-36 (3.01x10 superscript 5 yr), Al-26 (7.05x10 superscript 5 yr) and 10Be (1.5x10 superscript 6 yr) to determine the terrestrial ages of DaG meteorites and constrain their pre-atmospheric size and exposure history.

  1. The Danebury Iron Age meteorite—An H5 ordinary chondrite "find" from Hampshire, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillinger, C. T.; Pillinger, J. M.; Johnson, D.; Greenwood, R. C.; Tindle, A. G.; Jull, A. J. T.; Allen, D. H.; Cunliffe, B.

    2014-06-01

    What remains of a 30 g sample, first recognized as a meteorite in 1989 during characterization of metalworking debris from Danebury, an Iron Age hillfort, in Hampshire, England, has been classified as an H5 ordinary chondrite. Its arrival on Earth has been dated as 2350 ± 120 yr BP, making it contemporary with the period of maximum human activity at the recovery site. Despite its considerable terrestrial residence age, the interior of the specimen is remarkably fresh with a weathering index of W1/2. There is, however, no evidence of human intervention in its preservation. Its near-pristine state is explained in terms of its serendipitous burial during the back-fill of a pit dug into chalk by prehistoric people for the storage of grain. This chance discovery has interesting ramifications for the survival of meteorites in areas having a high pH because of a natural lime content arising as a result of the local geology.

  2. Mineralogy and chemistry of Rumuruti: The first meteorite fall of the new R chondrite group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, H.; Bischoff, A.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Dreibus, G.; Otto, J.

    1994-03-01

    The Rumuruti meteorite shower fell in Rumuruti, Kenya, on 1934 January 28 at 10:45 p.m. Rumuruti is an olivine-rich chondritic breccia with light-dark structure. Based on the coexistence of highly recrystallized fragments and unequilibrated components, Rumuruti is classified as a type 3-6 chondrite breccia. The most abundant phase of Rumuruti is olivine (mostly Fa(approximately 39) with about 70 vol%. Feldspar (approximately 14 vol%; mainly plagioclase), Ca-pyroxene (5 vol%), pyrrhotite (4.4 vol%), and pentlandite (3.6 vol%) are major constituents. All other phases have abundances below 1 vol%, including low-Ca pyroxene, chrome spinels, phosphates (chlorapatite and whitlockite), chalcopyrite, ilemenite, tridymite, Ni-rich and Ge-containing metals, kamacite, and various particles enriched in noble metals like Pt, Ir, and Au. The chemical composition of Rumuruti is chondritic. The depletion in refractory elements (Sc, REE, etc.) and the comparatively high Mn, Na, and K contents are characteristic of ordinary chondrites and distinguish Rumuruti from carbonaceous chondrites. However, S, Se, and Zn contents in Rumuruti are significantly above the level expected for ordinary chondrites. The oxygen isotope composition of Rumuruti is high in delta O-17 (5.52%) and delta O-18 (5.07%). With Rumuruti, nine meteorites samples exist that are chemically and mineralogically very similar. These meteorites are attributed to at least eight different fall events. It is proposed in this paper to call this group R chondrites (rumurutites) after the first and only fall among these meteorites. The meteorites have a close relationship to ordinary chondrites. However, they are more oxidized than any of the existing groups of ordinary chondrites. Small, but significant differences in chemical composition and in oxygen isotopes between R chondrites and ordinary chondrites exclude formation of R chondrites from ordinary chondrites by oxidation. This implies a separate, independent R chondrite parent body.

  3. Magnetic microstructures of metal grains in equilibrated ordinary chondrites and implications for paleomagnetism of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Minoru; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Leroux, Hugues; Jacob, Damien; van der Beek, Cornelis Jacominus

    2011-06-01

    Meteorites are a primary source of information about past magnetic field in the solar system. Yet, the small-scale magnetic properties of FeNi metals, which are the magnetic carriers of most meteorites, are poorly known. We study here the magnetic microstructures of FeNi metals in two equilibrated chondrites. Two types of tetrataenite-bearing microstructures are revealed: (1) Zoned taenite particles that consist of a "cloudy zone" (20-250 nm large tetrataenite precipitates embedded in Ni-poor matrix) and a 1-10 ?m thick tetrataenite rim. (2) Zoneless plessite particles that consist of large tetrataenite grains (> 1 ?m) embedded in a kamacite matrix. Magneto-optical imaging of saturation remanence shows that, the submicron-sized tetrataenite islands in cloudy zone carry a much stronger remanence than the ?m-sized tetrataenite crystals in the tetrataenite rims and plessite. Micron-scale mapping of coercivity of remanence ( Bcr) shows that the center part of the cloudy zone has finer tetrataenite grains (20 nm) and higher Bcr values (~ 1 T) than the outer part (250 nm and 400 mT, respectively). These results suggest that the micron-sized tetrataenite is in a multi domain state, whereas the submicron-sized tetrataenite in the cloudy zone are in a single domain-like state and may be regarded as a potentially good paleomagnetic recorder in meteorites. The stability of the remanent magnetization in ordinary chondrites is a function of the amount of the cloudy zones of the zoned taenite grains rather than the bulk amount of tetrataenite. The Fe-Ni phase diagram indicates that precursor of tetrataenite is paramagnetic when the metamorphic temperature was above 350-400 °C. Therefore, the remanent magnetization of tetrataenite cannot be an evidence of early magnetic activity on the parent body (e.g., dynamo activity) during the first 10 to 50 Myr after the peak of metamorphism, assuming 900 °C peak temperature and 50-100 °C/Myr cooling rate. Our TEM observations show that tetrataenite has a homogeneous crystallographic orientation in an individual zoned taenite grain. In low or null field, tetrataenite may acquire a spontaneous magnetization whose direction is controlled by this crystallographic orientation, which varies from grain to grain. The small-scale heterogeneity of remanence observed in equilibrated chondrites may imply that no significant magnetic field (e.g., dynamo field) was present during cooling below 350-400 °C.

  4. Accretion, metamorphism, and brecciation of ordinary chondrites - Evidence from petrologic studies of meteorites from Roosevelt County, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Keil, Klaus

    1986-01-01

    The olivines and pyroxenes from twenty-nine ordinary chondrites from Roosevelt County, New Mexico are examined. The mineralogical properties of the chondrites studied are described. Correlations between mineral compositions and petrologic type and between petrologic type and bulk chemistry are analyzed. It is observed that mean CaO concentrations in olivine show significant variations among equilibrated chondrites, but these are not correlated with petrologic type; the degree of heterogeneity of FeO concentrations in olivines of types 4-6 is not correlated with the degree of metamorphism; and mean FeO concentrations of silicates show average increases of 3-5 percent from type 4 to type 6 in each group.

  5. Asteroid 6 Hebe: The probable parent body of the H-Type ordinary chondrites and the IIE iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffey, Michael J.; Gilbert, Sarah L.

    1998-11-01

    The S(IV)-type asteroid 6 Hebe is identified as the probable parent body of the H-type ordinary chondrites and of the IIE iron meteorites. The ordinary chondrites are the most common type of meteorites falling to Earth, but prior to the present study no large mainbelt source bodies have been confirmed. Hebe is located adjacent to both the (6 and 3:1 resonances, and has been previously suggested as a major potential source of the terrestrial meteorite flux. Hebe exhibits subtle rotational spectral variations indicating the presence of some compositional variations across its surface. The silicate portion of the surface assemblage of Hebe is consistent, both in overall average and in its range of variation, with the silicate components in the suite of H-type chondrites. The high albedo of Hebe rules out a lunar-style space weathering process to produce the weakened absorption features and reddish spectral slope in the S-type spectrum of Hebe. Linear unmixing models show that a typical nickel-iron metal spectrum is consistent with the component which modifies an H-chondrite spectrum to produce the S-type spectrum of Hebe. Based on the association between the H chondrites and the IIE iron meteorites, our model suggests that large impacts onto the relatively metal-rich H chondrite target produced melt bodies (sheets or pods) which differentiated to form thin, laterally extensive near-surface layers of NiFe metal. Fragments of the upper silicate portions of these melt bodies are apparently represented by some of the igneous inclusions in H-chondrite breccias. Alternately, masses of metal could have been deposited on the surface of Hebe by the impact of a core or core fragment from a differentiated parent body of H chondrite composition. Subsequent impacts preferentially eroded and depleted the overlying silicate and regolith components exposing and maintaining large masses of metal at the optical surface of Hebe. In this interpretation, the nonmagmatic IIE iron meteorites are samples of the NiFe metal masses on the surface of Hebe while the H chondrites are samples from between and/or beneath the metal masses.

  6. A shock-metamorphic model for silicate darkening and compositionally variable plagioclase in CK and ordinary chondrites

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, A.E. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Silicate darkening in ordinary chondrites (OC) is caused by tiny grains of metallic Fe-Ni and troilite occurring mainly within curvilinear trails that traverse silicate interiors and decorate or, in some cases, cut across silicate grain boundaries. Highly shocked OC tend to have greater degrees of silicate darkening than lightly shocked OC; this indicates that silicate darkening is probably a result of shock metamorphism. The low Fe-FeS eutectic temperature (988C) renders metal and troilite susceptible to melting and mobilization during shock heating. Unshocked OC tend to have plagioclase with uniform compositions; shocked OC tend to have plagioclase with more variable (albeit still stoichiometric) compositions. The low impedance of plagioclase to shock compression makes it particularly susceptible to melting and mobilization; this is consistent with the molten appearance of plagioclase in highly shocked OC (e.g., Rose City and Paragould). CK chondrites also have compositionally variable plagioclase. The common association of silicate darkening with compositionally variable plagioclase is consistent with the hypothesis that both are products of shock metamorphism. Some CK and OC chondrites exhibit light shock effects in olivine that are consistent with equilibrium peak shock pressures that are too low to account for the silicate darkening or opaque shock veins in these meteorites. Therefore, the olivine in these chondrites may have been annealed after intense shock produced these effects. A few CK chondrites that contain olivine with undulose or mosaic extinction (e.g., LEW87009 and EET83311) may have been shocked again, after annealing.

  7. The flux of meteorites to the Earth and weathering in hot desert ordinary chondrite finds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, P. A.; Berry, F. J.; Smith, T. B.; Skinner, S. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1996-06-01

    The abundance of ferric iron, produced by weathering in ordinary chondrites collected from hot desert regions, is related to their terrestrial age, enabling a variety of processes involved in meteorite weathering to be deduced. Fe 0/Fe 2+/Fe 3+ content was measured quantitatively by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. It is observed that meteorites from different regions are oxidised at different rates. We also propose the tentative hypothesis that one source of scatter in total oxidation versus terrestrial age for a region is climatic change. A mechanism to explain the variable response to climatic conditions involves the high initial porosity of samples being reduced as ferric oxides and other alteration products are produced. Reliable recovery data from a meteorite accumulation site (Roosevelt County, New Mexico, USA) and a quantitative measure of weathering and terrestrial age permit an estimate of the flux of meteorites to the Earth's surface. Having established a decay constant for meteorites, and accounting for the area of searches and pairing, we estimate an accumulation rate of 159 falls of mass greater than 20 g per 10 6 km 2 per yr. This calculation is distinct from, but in broad agreement with, previous estimates from camera observations, suggesting that the accumulation rate of meteorite falls to the Earth's surface has remained essentially unchanged over the last 50,000 years at between 59 and 159 falls of mass exceeding 20 g per 10 6 km 2 per yr. The error for both methods is approximately a factor of 2.

  8. A Search for Subkilometer-sized Ordinary Chondrite Like Asteroids in the Main-Belt

    E-print Network

    Lin, H W; Chen, Y T; Ip, W H; Chang, C K

    2015-01-01

    The size-dependent effects of asteroids on surface regolith and collisional lifetimes suggest that small asteroids are younger than large asteroids. In this study, we performed multicolor main-belt asteroid (MBA) survey by Subaru telescope/Suprime-Cam to search for subkilometer-sized ordinary chondrite (Q-type) like MBAs. The total survey area was 1.5 deg^2 near ecliptic plane and close to the opposition. We detected 150 MBAs with 4 bands (B, V , R, I) in this survey. The range of absolute magnitude of detected asteroids was between 13 and 22 magnitude, which is equivalent to the size range of kilometer to sub-kilometer diameter in MBAs. From this observation, 75 of 150 MBAs with color uncertainty less than 0.1 were used in the spectral type analysis, and two possible Q-type aster- oids were detected. This mean that the Q-type to S-type ratio in MBAs is asteroids (NEAs) has been estimated to be 0.5 to 2 (Binzel et al., 2004; Dandy et al., 2003). Therefore, Q-t...

  9. Magnetic properties of a freshly fallen LL ordinary chondrite: the Bensour meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, Jérôme; Rochette, Pierre; Bourot-Denise, Michèle

    2003-12-01

    A comprehensive rock magnetic, magnetic anisotropy and paleomagnetic study has been undertaken in the brecciated LL6 Bensour ordinary chondrite, a few months only after its fall on Earth. Microscopic observations and electronic microprobe analyses indicate the presence of Ni-rich taenite, tetrataenite and rare Co-rich kamacite. Tetrataenite is the main carrier of remanence. Magnetization and anisotropy measurements were performed on mutually oriented 125 mm 3 sub-samples. A very strong coherent susceptibility and remanence anisotropy is evidenced and interpreted as due to the large impact responsible for the post-metamorphic compaction of this brecciated material and disruption of the parent body. We show that the acquisition of remanent magnetization postdates metamorphism on the parent body and predates the entering of the meteorite in Earth's atmosphere. Three components of magnetization could be isolated. A soft coherent component is closely related to the anisotropy of the meteorite and is interpreted as a shock remanent magnetization acquired during the same large impact on the parent body. Two harder components show random directions at a few mm scale. This randomness is attributed either to the formation mechanism of tetrataenite or to post-metamorphic brecciation. All components are likely acquired in very low (??T) to null ambient magnetic field, as demonstrated by comparison with demagnetization behavior of isothermal remanent magnetization. Two other LL6 meteorites, Kilabo and St-Mesmin, have also been studied for comparison with Bensour.

  10. Surface Properties of (6) Hebe: A Possible Parent Body of Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, F.; Manara, A.; Scaltriti, F.; Farinella, P.; Cellino, A.; Di Martino, M.

    1997-07-01

    We report for the first time rotationally resolved spectroscopic observations, as well as new photometric and polarimetric measurements, of the large S-type asteroid (6) Hebe, always at near-equatorial aspects. We have found evidence for only minor variations in Hebe's visible reflectance spectrum over a rotational cycle, comparable to our measurement accuracy (a few percent) and consistent with an undifferentiated silicate assemblage on the surface. We have also confirmed previous results of the existence of small polarization changes, but they are not correlated with the (complex and asymmetric) photometric lightcurve of the asteroid. A plausible interpretation of these data is that Hebe's surface is composed of undifferentiated materials, but presents texture, albedo, and spectral changes possibly related to the occurrence of energetic cratering events. Given the comparatively large size of Hebe, its proximity to resonance-related chaotic zones of the orbital element space (Farinellaet al. 1993,Celest. Mech.56,287-305, andIcarus101,174-187), and its assignment by Gaffeyet al. (1993,Icarus106,573-602) to the S(IV) taxonomic subclass, our results support the idea that this asteroid may be the source of a significant fraction of the ordinary chondrite meteorites.

  11. Determination of REE, Ba, Fe, Mg, Na and K in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noboru Nakamura

    1974-01-01

    Precise determination of REE and Ba abundances in three carbonaceous (Orgueil Cl, Murchison C2 and Allende C3) and seven olivine-bronzite chondrites were carried out by mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique. Replicate analyses of standard rock and the three carbonaceous chondrites demonstrated the high quality of the analyses (accuracies for REE are ±1-2 per cent). Certain carbonaceous chondrite specimens showed small

  12. A search for subkilometer-sized ordinary chondrite like asteroids in the main-belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H. W.; Yoshida, Fumi; Chen, Y. T.; Ip, W. H.; Chang, C. K.

    2015-07-01

    The size-dependent effects of asteroids on surface regolith and collisional lifetimes suggest that small asteroids are younger than large asteroids. In this study, we performed multicolor main-belt asteroid (MBA) survey by Subaru telescope/Suprime-Cam to search for subkilometer-sized ordinary chondrite (Q-type) like MBAs. The total survey area was 1.5 deg2 near ecliptic plane and close to the opposition. We detected 150 MBAs with 4 bands (B, V, R, I) in this survey. The range of absolute magnitude of detected asteroids was between 13 and 22 magnitude, which is equivalent to the size range of kilometer to sub-kilometer diameter in MBAs. From this observation, 75 of 150 MBAs with color uncertainty less than 0.1 were used in the spectral type analysis, and two possible Q-type asteroids were detected. This mean that the Q-type to S-type ratio in MBAs is <0.05. Meanwhile, the Q/S ratio in near Earth asteroids (NEAs) has been estimated to be 0.5-2 (Binzel, R.P. et al. [2004]. Icarus 107, 259-224; Dandy, C.L., Fitzsimmins, A., Collander-Brown, S.J. [2003]. Icarus 163, 363-373). Therefore, Q-type NEAs might be delivered from the main belt region with weathered, S-type surface into near Earth region and then obtain their Q-type, non-weathered surface after undergoing re-surfacing process there. The resurfacing mechanisms could be: 1. dispersal of surface material by tidal effect during planetary encounters (Binzel, R.P. et al. [2010]. Nature 463, 331-334; Nesvorný, D. et al. [2010]. Icarus 209, 510-519), 2. the YORP spin-up induced rotational-fission (Polishook, D. et al. [2014]. Icarus 233, 9-26) or surface re-arrangement, or 3. thermal degradation (Delbo, M. et al. [2014]. Nature 508, 233-236).

  13. Infrared spectroscopic observations of 69230 Hermes (1937 UB): possible unweathered endmember among ordinary chondrite analogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Rivkin; R. P. Binzel; J. Sunshine; S. J. Busc; T. H. Burbine; A. Saxenae

    2004-01-01

    We have obtained near-infrared (0.8–2.5 ?m) spectra of Hermes (1937 UB) using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea. We find Hermes to have spectral properties consistent with L\\/LL chondrites, with a strong visual similarity to Gaffey (1976, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 905) average L6 chondrites. We define a ratio of band areas (RBA) using the Modified Gaussian Method

  14. Troilite in the chondrules of type-3 ordinary chondrites: Implications for chondrule formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Sailer, Alan L.; Wasson, John T.

    1999-08-01

    The presence of primary troilite in chondrules requires that nebular temperatures were <650 K (the 50% condensation temperature of S) at the time of chondrule formation and that chondrules were molten for periods short enough (?10 s) to avoid significant volatilization of S. We examined 226 intact chondrules of all textural types from eight unshocked to weakly shocked ordinary chondrite falls of low petrologic type to determine the origin of troilite in chondrules; 68 chondrules are from LL3.0 Semarkona. There is a high probability that troilite is primary (i.e., was present among the chondrule precursors) if it is completely embedded in a mafic silicate phenocryst, located within one-half radius of the apparent chondrule center and is part of an opaque assemblage with an igneous texture. Based on these criteria, 13% of the chondrules in Semarkona and in the set as a whole contain primary troilite. Most of the remaining chondrules contain troilite that is probably primary, but does not meet all three criteria. Troilite occurs next to tetrataenite in some opaque spherules within low-FeO chondrules in Semarkona, implying that the Ni required to form the tetrataenite came from the troilite. Troilite can accommodate 5 mg/g Ni at high temperatures (>1170 K) but much less Ni at lower temperatures; because this is far higher than the metamorphic temperature inferred for Semarkona (˜670 K), the troilite must be primary. Primary troilite fitting the three criteria occurs in a smaller fraction of low-FeO [FeO/(FeO + MgO) in olivine and/or low-Ca pyroxene not greater than 0.075] than high-FeO porphyritic chondrules in Semarkona (9% vs. 33%). Coarse-grained low-FeO porphyritic chondrules appear to contain somewhat more troilite on average than those of medium grain size. We found a few troilite-free, metallic-Fe-Ni-bearing, low-FeO chondrules that contain Na 2O-bearing augite and Na 2O- and K 2O-rich mesostasis; these chondrules were probably formed after ambient nebular temperatures cooled below 910 K (the 50% condensation temperature of Na) and before they reached 650 K. Literature reports of rare fayalitic microchondrules in the rims around a few normal-size chondrules suggest that chondrule formation persisted until nebular temperatures cooled below 500 K. Secondary troilite occurs in a few percent of Semarkona chondrules as thin veins mobilized by shock; troilite or pyrrhotite in the outer portions of some chondrules occur within opaque assemblages containing magnetite, carbide, Ni-rich sulfide, awaruite, and Co-rich kamacite produced by parent-body hydrothermal alteration.

  15. Optical Effects of Regolith Processes on S-Asteroids as Simulated by Laser Shots on Ordinary Chondrite and Other Mafic Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. V. Moroz; A. V. Fisenko; L. F. Semjonova; C. M. Pieters; N. N. Korotaeva

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory results from a simulation of possible optical effects of impact melting and repeated crystallization on asteroidal surfaces are presented. Quick melting and crystallization of surface materials were simulated by impulse laser treatment of powdered materials in vacuum. The mafic materials used in this study were: ordinary chondrite (OC) ElenovkaL5, carbonaceous chondrite Allende CV3, terrestrial olivine, clinopyroxene, and olivine–clinopyroxene mixture

  16. Asteroid 6 Hebe: Spectral Evaluation of the Prime Large Mainbelt Ordinary Chondrite Parent Body Candidate with Implications from Space Weathering of Gaspra and the Ida-Dactyl System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffey, M. J.

    1996-03-01

    No large mainbelt asteroid has yet been confirmed as an ordinary chondrite parent body. A number of plausible candidates have been identified based on dynamical considerations and/or spectral evidence. The fifth largest S-asteroid, 6 Hebe, is the best current candidate for one of the long sought large mainbelt ordinary chondrite parent bodies. Its proximity to the chaotic zones associated with both the 3:1 proper motion and the nu(sub)6 (or g=g(sub)6) secular resonance "escape hatches" should make Hebe a major mainbelt contributor to the terrestrial meteorite flux. Hebe also exhibits a surface assemblage (subtype S(IV), the only subgroup among the S-asteroids that might include ordinary chondrite parent bodies) which allows (or more precisely, does not exclude) an ordinary chondrite affinity. An analysis of the rotational variations of spectra obtained in June 1979 and February 1989 provide a sophisticated test of whether or not Hebe is a viable ordinary chondrite parent body. If the rotational spectral variations of Hebe are consistent with an undifferentiated silicate assemblage, there still remains the mismatch in the overall spectral slope and band intensities. It has been suggested that the Gaspra and Ida-Dactyl encounters establish that space weathering causes this discrepancy. However, there are several inconsistencies in this simple picture which suggest that while the presence of a space weathering process on Ida and Gaspra appears well established, there still remains considerable uncertainty concerning its nature and ability to spectrally modify ordinary chondrites to match the slope and band depths of S-asteroids.

  17. Troilite in the Chondrules of Type-3 Ordinary Chondrites: Implications for Chondrule Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Sailer, Alan L.; Wasson, John T.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of primary troilite in chondrules requires that nebular temperatures were <650 K (the 50% condensation temperature of S) at the time of chondrule formation and that chondrules were molten for periods short enough (less than or equal to 10 s) to avoid significant volatilization of S. We examined 226 intact chondrules of all textural types from eight unshocked to weakly shocked ordinary chondrite falls of low petrologic type to determine the origin of troilite in chondrules; 68 chondrules are from LL3.0 Semarkona. There is a high probability that troilite is primary (i.e , was present among the chondrule precursors) if it is completely embedded in a mafic silicate phenocryst, located within one-half radius of the apparent chondrule center and is part of an opaque assemblage with an igneous texture Based on these criteria, 13% of the chondrules in Semarkona and in the set as a whole contain primary troilite. Most of the remaining chondrules contain troilite that is probably primary, but does not meet all three criteria. Troilite occurs next to tetratacnite in some opaque spherules within low-FeO chondrules in Semarkona, implying that the Ni required to form the tetrataenite came from the troilite Troilite can accommodate 5 mg/g Ni at high temperatures (> 1170 K) but much less Ni at lower temperatures; because this is far higher than the metamorphic temperature inferred for Semarkona (approx. 670 K), the troilite must be primary Primary troilite fitting the three criteria occurs in a smaller fraction of low-FeO [FeO/(FeO + MgO) in olivine and/or low-Ca pyroxene not greater than 0.0751 than high-FeO porphyritic chondrules in Semarkona (9% vs 33%) Coarse-grained low-FeO porphyritic chondrules appear to contain somewhat more troilite on average than those of medium grain size We found a few troilite-free, metallic-Fe-Ni-bearing, low-FeO chondrules that contain Na2O-bearing augite and Na2O- and K2O-rich mesostasis; these chondrules were probably formed after ambient nebular temperatures cooled below 910 K (the 50% condensation temperature of Na) and before they reached 650 K Literature reports of rare fayalitic microchondrules in the rims around a few normal-size chondrules suggest that chondrule formation persisted until nebular temperatures cooled below 500 K Secondary troilite occurs in a few percent of Semarkona chondrules as thin veins mobilized by shock; troilite or pyrrhotite in the outer portions of some chondrules occur within opaque assemblages containing magnetite, carbide, Ni-rich sulfide, awaruite, and Co-rich kamacite produced by parent-body hydrothermal alteration.

  18. The Isotopic Composition and Mineralogy of Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Within Ordinary and Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. R.; Russell, S. S.; Arden, J. W.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1992-07-01

    During stepped combustion studies of primitive meteorite residues, samples with high relative nitrogen abundances and delta^15N values have been encountered (e.g., Grady et al., 1986; Alexander, 1990; Russell et al., 1991). Such characteristics are consistent with the presence of nitrogen-rich minerals such as silicon nitride (Si3N4), which has recently been identified within the enstatite chondrites Indarch (Stone et al., 1991) and Qingzhen (Alexander et al., 1991). In order to explore this possibility more fully, the isotopic composition and mineralogy of acid residues from a number of ordinary, enstatite and carbonaceous chondrites has been determined. The carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of HF/HCl, Cr(sub)20(sub)7^2-, HClO4 residues were analysed by stepped combustion and simultaneous C/N abundances measured. The delta^15N and C/N ratio over the 800 to 1200 degree C regime, the expected combustion temperature of nitrides and carbides, is shown in the figure. The carbonaceous chondrites contain isotopically light nitrogen (delta^15N = -650o/oo) and have a C/N ratio of ~30-35. This can be attributed to the combustion of SiC. In contrast, the ordinary chondrites and enstatite chondrite Indarch yield a more nitrogen-rich gas at the same temperatures, which can be attributed to the cocombustion of Si3N4 with SiC. Assuming the data in the figure represent two-component mixing and that nitrogen in SiC from all the meteorite classes has the same mean delta^15N and C/N ratio as that from carbonaceous chondrites, then an estimate can be made of the nitrogen isotopic composition of nitride grains. Thus we calculate that Si3N4 in ordinary chondrites has a delta^15N = +336 +- 13o/oo whereas that in Indarch is +12o/oo. The data for Indarch do not conflict with the ion probe study of Alexander et al., (1991). The mineralogical information concerning the acid residues was determined by pipetting samples onto perforated carbon films and examining them using a transmission electron microscope equipped with an ultrathin window X-ray detector. Silicon nitride with a low C/N ratio has so far been identified from the Indarch and Tieschitz residues. Silicon nitride is abundant in Indarch and its electron diffraction patterns are consistent with alphaSi3N4. This mineral forms elongate tabular crystals, ~1.5 micrometers to ~5.0 micrometers long by ~0.2 micrometers to ~0.7 micrometers wide. Silicon nitride grains within the Tieschitz residue are smaller than those from Indarch and ~500 to 1000 times less abundant. The crystals are needle-like in shape, ~0.4 micrometers to ~1.5 micrometers long by ~0.04 micrometers to ~0.07 micrometers wide. Most of the silicon nitride indexes as alphaSi3N4, although one large segmented crystal found was formed of both alphaSi3N4 and betaSi3N4. The contrasting isotopic and mineralogical characteristics of silicon nitrides from enstatite (Indarch) and ordinary (Tieschitz) chondrites may be due to differences in their origin. Whereas the delta^l5N of nitride in Indarch falls within the normal solar system range and could be a solar system condensate, as suggested by Alexander et al., (1991), the nitride component in ordinary chondrites is isotopically heavy and possibly represents a newly identified presolar grain. References Alexander C. M. O'D., Arden J. W., Ash R. D., and Plllinger C. T. (1990) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 97, 220-229. Alexander C. M. O'D., Prombo C. A., Swan P. D., and Walker R. M. (1991) Lunar Planet Sci. (abstract) 22, 5-6. Grady M. M., Wright I. P., Carr L. P., and Pillinger C. T. (1986) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 50, 2799-2813. Russell S. S., Ash R. D., Pillinger C. T., and Arden J. W. (1991) Meteoritics, 26, 390. Stone J., Hutcheon I. D., Epstein S., and Wasserburg G. J. (1991) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 107, 570-586.

  19. Metallic minerals, thermal histories and parent bodies of some xenolithic, ordinary chondrite meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Rajan, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The metal grains were investigated in the hosts and lithic fragments of various petrologic types in four xenolithic chondrites using reflected-light microscopy and electron-probe analysis. The kamacite, taenite, tetrataenite, and troilite in Weston and Fayetteville have many textures; on a Wood plot of the central Ni content vs dimensions, the taenite content shows scatter if metal grains had cooled at rates of 10-1000 and 1-100 K/Myr through 700 K. In contrast, metallic minerals in Bhola and Mezo-Madaras have uniform textures and plot coherently, indicating cooling rates of 0.1 and 1 K/Myr, respectively, in the 700-600 K range. It is concluded that the host and xenoliths in these chondrites were cooled slowly after compaction; their clasts underwent peak metamorphic temperatures and slow cooling through 700 K in different environments.

  20. Weathering of ordinary chondrites from the Atacama Desert, Chile, by Mössbauer spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munayco, Pablo; Munayco, Jimmy; Avillez, Roberto R.; Valenzuela, Millarca; Rochette, Pierre; Gattacceca, JéRôMe; Scorzelli, Rosa B.

    2013-03-01

    Some terrestrial areas have climatic and geomorphologic features that favor the preservation, and therefore, accumulation of meteorites. The Atacama Desert in Chile is among the most important of such areas, known as DCA. This desert is the driest on Earth, one of the most arid, uninhabitable localities with semiarid, arid, and hyper-arid conditions. The meteorites studied here were collected from within the DCA of San Juan and Pampa de Mejillones, located, respectively, in the Central Depression and the Coastal Range of the Atacama Desert. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for quantitative analysis of the degree of weathering of the meteorites, through the determination of the proportions of the various Fe-bearing phases and in particular the amount of oxidized iron in terrestrial alteration products. The abundance of ferric ions in weathered chondrites can be related to specific precursor compositions and to the level of terrestrial weathering. The aim of the study was the identification, quantification, and differentiation of the weathering products in the ordinary chondrites found in the San Juan and the Pampa de Mejillones areas of the Atacama Desert. The 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy study was complemented by synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The results allow a clear differentiation of the rate of weathering in meteorite samples collected from the San Juan versus the Pampa de Mejillones areas of the Atacama Desert.

  1. Lavras do Sul: A New Equilibrated Ordinary L5 Chondrite from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucolotto, M. E.; Antonello, L. L.; Varela, M. E.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Ludka, Isabel P.; Munayco, P.; dos Santos, E.

    2012-03-01

    The new Brazilian chondrite, Lavras do Sul, was found in 1985 at Lavras do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State-Brazil (33°30'48?S; 53°54'65?W). It consists of a single mass weighing about 1 kg, covered by a black fusion crust with grayish interior. Four polished thin sections were prepared from a slice weighing 67 g on deposit at the Museu Nacional/UFRJ. It consists mostly of chondrules and chondrule fragments dispersed in a recrystallized matrix. Most chondrules are poorly defined and range in size from 300 to 2,000 ?m, although some of them show distinct outlines, particularly when viewed under cross-polarized transmitted and reflected light. The texture of chondrules varies from non-porphyritic (e.g., barred-olivine, radial-pyroxene) to porphyritic ones (e.g., granular olivine as well as olivine-pyroxene). The meteorite contains mainly olivine (Fa24.9), low-Ca pyroxene (Fs22.6) and metal phases, with minor amounts of plagioclase, chromite and magnetite. Mössbauer Spectroscopy studies indicate that the metal phase is kamacite, tetrataenite and antitaenite. Veins of secondary iddingsite crosscut the thin section and some ferromagnesian silicates. The chemical composition indicates that Lavras do Sul is a member of the low iron L chondrite group. The poorly delineated chondritic texture with few well-defined chondrules, the occurrence of rare clinopyroxene and plagioclase (and maskelynite) with apparent diameters ranging from 5 to 123 ?m led us to classify Lavras do Sul as an equilibrated petrologic type 5. The shock features of some minerals suggest a shock stage S3, and the presence of a small amount of secondary minerals such as iddingsite and goethite, a degree of weathering W1. The meteorite name was approved by the Nomenclature Committee (Nom Com) of the Meteoritical Society (Meteoritic Bulletin Nº99).

  2. Terrestrial weathering of Antarctic stone meteorites - Formation of Mg-carbonates on ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velbel, M. A.; Long, D. T.; Gooding, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented on the mineralogy, chemistry, and origin of white efflorescences on the surface of Lewis Cliff (Antarctica) 85320 (H5) chondrite (LEW 85320). Particular attention is given to determining the sources of the cations and anions of the evaporite, in order to establish the relative importance of the meteoritic element distribution and terrestrial contamination in the evaporite formation during the weathering process. The data on Na, K, Ca, and Rb abundances in efflorescence from LEW 85320 suggest that cations in evaporite minerals on Antarctic meteorites are not the products of contamination by terrestrial (marine) salts. It is suggested that the Mg in efflorescence on LEW 85320 originated from weathering of meteoritic olivine.

  3. An Ordinary Chondrite Impactor Composition for the Bosumtwi Impact Structure, Ghana, West Africa: Discussion of Siderophile Element Contents and Os and Cr Isotope Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Shukolyukov, Alex; Lugmair, Guenter

    2004-01-01

    Osmium isotope data had shown that Ivory Coast tektites contain an extraterrestrial component, but do not allow distinction between chondritic and iron meteorite contamination. PGE abundances of Ivory Coast tektites and impactites and target rocks from the Bosumtwi crater, the source crater of the Ivory Coast tektites, were all relatively high and did not allow to resolve the presence, or identify the nature, of the meteoritic component. However, Cr isotope analyses of an Ivory Coast tektite yielded a distinct 53Cr excess of 0.30+/-0.06, which indicates that the Bosumtwi impactor was an ordinary chondrite.

  4. Occurrence of noble metals in aluminum- and chromium-rich objects in ordinary chondrites and of baddeleyite ZrO2 in a chromite inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel-Levy, M. Christophe; Robin, E.; Blanc, Ph.

    1995-01-01

    Platinum group elements (PGE) enrichments are found in Fe-Ni blebs (less than 1 micron) in Al- and Cr-rich objects in the ordinary chondrites Ste. Marguerite, Forest Vale, Montferre. In Ste. Marguerite, high ZrO2 concentrations (Baddeleyite) are also present in a chromite inclusion. Iridium enrichment in this material compared to its metal content is confirmed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The widespread occurrence of PGE in Al- and Cr-rich objects, mostly present in H-group chondrites of nearly equilibrated types, must be taken into account to understand their conditions of formation.

  5. The iodine-xenon system in clasts and chondrules from ordinary chondrites: Implications for early solar system chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmour, J. D.; Whitby, J. A.; Turner, G.; Bridges, J. C.; Hutchison, R.

    2000-05-01

    We have studied the iodine-xenon system in chondrules and clasts from ordinary chondrites. Cristobalite bearing clasts from Parnallee (LL3.6) closed to xenon loss 1-4 Ma after Bjurböle. Feline (a feldspar and nepheline rich clast also from Parnallee) closed at 7.04 +/- 0.15 Ma. 2 out of 3 chondrules from Parnallee that yielded well defined initial iodine ratios gave ages identical to Bjurböle's within error. A clast from Barwell (L5) has a well-defined initial iodine ratio corresponding to closure 3.62 +/- 0.60 Ma before Bjurböle. Partial disturbance and complete obliteration of the I-Xe system by shock are revealed in clasts from Julesburg (L3.6) and Quenggouk (H4) respectively. Partial disturbance by shock is capable of generating anomalously high initial iodine ratios. In some cases these could be misinterpreted, yielding erroneous ages. A macrochondrule from Isoulane-n-Amahar contains concentrations of iodine similar to 'ordinary' chondrules but, unlike most ordinary chondrules, contains no radiogenic 129Xe. This requires resetting 50 Ma or more later than most chondrules. The earliest chondrule ages in the I-Xe, Mn-Cr and Al-Mg systems are in reasonable agreement. This, and the frequent lack of evidence for metamorphism capable of resetting the I-Xe chronometer, leads us to conclude that (at least) the earliest chondrule I-Xe ages represent formation. If so, chondrule formation took place at a time when sizeable parent bodies were present in the solar system.

  6. Agglomeratic olivine (AO) objects and Type II chondrules in ordinary chondrites: Accretion and melting of dust to form ferroan chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, Alex; Floss, Christine; Hutson, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Agglomeratic olivine objects (AO objects) and possibly related chondrules in three ordinary chondrites (NWA 4910 [LL3.1], NWA 3127 [LL3.1], Sahara 98175 [LL3.5]) were studied using petrographic and microanalytical techniques to evaluate the origins of these materials. AO objects are mixtures of fine-grained (?5-10 ?m-diameter) ferroan (Fa 12-35) olivine, troilite that is often concentrated towards the periphery of objects, pyroxene, feldspathic material, relict magnesian olivine and pyroxene grains, and relict chondrules. One micro-CAI with a grossite core was also found. AO objects commonly rim chondrules. AO objects show transitional variations in texture and chemistry with Type II chondrules, ranging from AO objects that are finer grained and show no evidence of melting (AO-U objects), to weakly melted and more melted AO objects (AO-WM and AO-M objects, respectively), to fine-grained Type II chondrules (olivine grain size ˜5-60 ?m), to coarse-grained Type II chondrules (olivine grain size ˜10-250 ?m across); S contents and Na/Al values are typically higher in AO objects than in Type II chondrules. The properties of AO objects and Type II chondrules are interpreted to reflect progressive heating of dust of quasi-chondritic composition, accompanied by grain coarsening during melting, partial loss of the most volatile elements (chiefly S, also Na) during evaporative melting, and back-reaction with gas, to form troilite-rimmed AO objects. Data-model comparisons suggest that progressive heating of chondritic dust to form AO objects and Type II chondrules could have occurred in a dusty environment to yield a transient, oxidizing gas of high pressure (˜10 -3 bar), with gas derived from vaporized dust being much (>500-1000× or even up to 10 4-10 5×) more abundant than ambient solar composition gas. AO objects are protochondrules, but are themselves composed of chondrule debris of different types, suggesting that they represent one step of a chondrule recycling process that also included chondrule disaggregation and additional chemical processing. Our data appear to be compatible with the nebular shock wave model for chondrule formation.

  7. The natural thermoluminescence of meteorites. 7: Ordinary chondrites from the Elephant Moraine region, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Roth, J.; Sears, H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1994-01-01

    We report natural and induced thermoluminescence (TL) measurements for meteorites from the Elephant Moraine region (76 deg 17 min S, 157 deg 20 min E) of Antarctica. We use our data to identify fragmented meteorites (i.e., 'pairings'); our dataset of 107 samples represents at most 73 separate meteorite falls. Pairing groups are generally confined to single icefields, or to adjacent icefields, but a small proportion cross widely separated icefields in the region, suggesting that the fields can be considered as a single unit. Meteorites from this region have high natural TL levels, which indicates that they have small terrestrial surface exposure ages (less than 12,500 years). There do not appear to be significant differences in natural TL levels (and hence surface exposure ages) between individual blue icefields in the region. The proportion of reheated meteorites from the Elephant Moraine region is similar to that of other Antarctic sites and modern falls, consistent with the uniformity of the meteoritic flux in this regard. An unusual subset of H-chondrites, with high induced TL peak temperatures, is absent among the data for meteorites collected in the Elephant Moraine region, which stresses their similarity to modern falls. We suggest that the Elephant Moraine region, which stresses their similarity to modern falls. We suggest that the Elephant Moraine icefields formed through shallow ablation of the ice. Unlike the Allan Hills sites to the south, lateral transport is probably less important relative to the infall of meteorites in concentrating meteorites on these icefields.

  8. Preliminary results of sulfide melt/silicate wetting experiments in a partially melted ordinary chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurewicz, Stephen R.; Jones, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, mechanisms for core formation in planetary bodies have received considerable attention. Most current theories emphasize the need for large degrees of silicate partial melting to facilitate the coalescence and sinking of sulfide-metal liquid blebs through a low strength semi-crystalline silicate mush. This scenario is based upon observations that sulfide-metal liquid tends to form circular blebs in partially molten meteorites during laboratory experiments. However, recent experimental work by Herpfer and Larimer indicates that some sulfide-Fe liquids have wetting angles at and slightly below 60 deg in an olivine aggregate, implying an interconnected melt structure at any melt fraction. Such melt interconnectivity provides a means for gravitational compaction and extraction of the majority of a sulfide liquid phase in small planetary bodies without invoking large degrees of silicate partial melting. Because of the important ramifications of these results, we conducted a series of experiments using H-chondrite starting material in order to evaluate sulfide-liquid/silicate wetting behavior in a more complex natural system.

  9. Experimental shock metamorphism of the L4 ordinary chondrite Saratov induced by spherical shock waves up to 400GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezaeva, Natalia S.; Badjukov, Dmitri D.; Rochette, Pierre; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Trukhin, Vladimir I.; Kozlov, Evgeny A.; Uehara, Minoru

    2010-06-01

    We carried out shock experiments on macroscopic spherical samples of the L4 ordinary chondrite Saratov (natural shock stages S2-S3), using explosively generated spherical shock waves with maximum peak pressures of 400GPa and shock-induced temperatures >800°C (up to several thousands °C). The evolution of shock metamorphism within a radius of the spherical samples was investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, microprobe and magnetic analyses as well as Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Petrographic analyses revealed a shock-induced formation of three different concentric petrographic zones within the shocked samples: zone of total melting (I), zone of partial melting (II), and zone of solid-state shock features (III). We found a progressive pressure-induced oxidation of Fe-Ni metal, whose degree increased with increasing shock peak pressure. The amount of FeO within zone I increased the factor of 1.4 with respect to its amount in the unshocked Saratov sample. This suggests that within zone I about 70wt% of the initial metallic iron was oxidized, whereas magnetic analyses showed that about 10wt% of it remained intact. This strongly supports the hypothesis that, in addition to oxidation, a migration of metallic iron from the central heavily shocked zone I toward less shocked peripheral zone took place as well (likely through shock veins where metallic droplets were observed). Magnetic analyses also showed a shock-induced transformation of tetrataenite to taenite within all shocked subsamples, resulting in magnetic softening of these subsamples (decrease in remanent coercivity). These results have important implications for extraterrestrial paleomagnetism suggesting that due to natural impact processes, the buried crustal rocks of heavily cratered solid solar system bodies can have stronger remanent magnetism than the corresponding surface rocks.

  10. Chromite-Plagioclase Assemblages as a New Shock Indicator; Implications for the Shock and Thermal Histories of Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Chromite in ordinary chondrites (OC) can be used as a shock indicator. A survey of 76 equilibrated H, L and LL chondrites shows that unshocked chromite grains occur in equant, subhedral and rounded morphologies surrounded by silicate or intergrown with metallic Fe-Ni and/or troilite. Some unmelted chromite grains are fractured or crushed during whole-rock brecciation. Others are transected by opaque veins; the veins form when impacts cause localized heating of metal-troilite intergrowths above the Fe-FeS eutectic (988 C), mobilization of metal-troilite melts, and penetration of the melt into fractures in chromite grains. Chromite-plagioclase assemblages occur in nearly every shock-stage S3-S6 OC; the assemblages range in size from 20-300 microns and consist of 0.2-20-micron-size euhedral, subhedral, anhedral and rounded chromite grains surrounded by plagioclase or glass of plagioclase composition. Plagioclase has a low impedance to shock compression. Heat from shock-melted plagioclase caused adjacent chromite grains to melt; chromite grains crystallized from this melt. Those chromite grains in the assemblages that are completely surrounded by plagioclase are generally richer in Al2O3, than unmelted, matrix chromite grains in the same meteorite. Chromite veinlets (typically 0.5-2 microns thick and 10-300 microns long) occur typically in the vicinity of chromite-plagioclase assemblages. The veinlets formed from chromite-plagioclase melts that were injected into fractures in neighboring silicate grains; chromite crystallized in the fractures and the residual plagioclase-rich melt continued to flow, eventually pooling to form plagioclase-rich melt pockets. Chromite-rich chondrules (consisting mainly of olivine, plagioclase-normative mesostasis, and 5-15 vol.% chromite) occur in many shocked OC and OC regolith breccias but they are absent from primitive type-3 OC. They may have formed by impact melting chromite, plagioclase and adjacent mafic silicates during higher-energy shock events. The melt was jetted from the impact site and formed droplets due to surface tension. Crystallization of these droplets may have commenced in flight, prior to landing on the parent-body surface. Chromite-plagioclase assemblages and chromite veinlets occur in 25 out of 25 shock-stage S1 OC of petrologic type 5 and 6 that I examined. Although these rocks contain unstrained olivine with sharp optical extinction, most possess other shock indicators such as extensive silicate darkening, numerous occurrences of metallic Cu, polycrystalline troilite, and opaque veins. It seems likely that these rocks were shocked to levels at least as high as shock-stage S3 and then annealed by heat generated during the shock event. During annealing, the olivine crystal lattices healed but other shock indicators survived. Published Ar-Ar age data for some SI OC indicate that many shock and annealing events occurred very early in the history of the parent asteroids. The common occurrence of shocked and annealed OC is consistent with collisions being a major mechanism responsible for metamorphosing OC.

  11. Climate and rock weathering: a study of terrestrial age dated ordinary chondritic meteorites from hot desert regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, P. A.; Sexton, A. S.; Jull, A. J. T.; Bevan, A. W. R.; Berry, F. J.; Thornley, D. M.; Astin, T. R.; Britt, D. T.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1998-09-01

    Ordinary chondrites (OC) recovered from the desert areas of Roosevelt County, New Mexico, the Nullarbor Region of Western Australia, and the Algerian and Libyan Sahara, for which 14C terrestrial ages have been determined, were examined by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. OC were chosen as a standard sample to investigate weathering processes as their well constrained trace and bulk element chemistry, normative mineralogy and isotopic composition define a known, pre-weathering, starting composition. Given that terrestrial ages are known, it is possible to compare (initially very similar) samples that have been subsequently weathered in a range of climatic regimes from the present day to > 44 ka BP. In addition, recently fallen equilibrated OC contain iron only as Fe 0 and Fe 2+, thus the abundance of ferric iron is directly related to the level of terrestrial weathering. Mössbauer spectroscopy identifies two broad types of ferric alteration: paramagnetic phases (akaganéite, lepidocrocite, and goethite), and magnetically ordered (principally magnetite and maghemite). OC finds show a range in the percentage of total Fe existing as Fe 3+ from zero to over 80%. However, oxidation is comparable between fragments of the same OC separated since their time of fall (i.e., paired meteorites). Our results indicate several features of meteorite weathering that may result from climatic or geomorphologic conditions at the accumulation site: (1) Saharan samples are, overall, less weathered than non-Saharan samples, which may be related to the relatively recent age (ca. 20 ka) of the Saharan accumulation surface; (2) broad differences between sites in the rate of weathering, arising from regional differences in climate; (3) consistent differences in the weathering products between samples that fell during humid periods and those that fell during more arid periods (those falling during humid periods contain a higher proportion of magnetically ordered ferric oxides); (4) one region (the Nullarbor) that shows a variation in the total amount of ferric species that closely matches the climatic record for this area of Australia for the last 30 ka. Points (3) and (4) may be related to the identification of a rapid initial weathering phase: the majority of weathering occurs in the first few hundred years after fall, followed by passivation of weathering by porosity reduction. Porosity reduction, and the associated restriction in the ability of water to penetrate the sample, appears to be the mechanism whereby a weathering assemblage formed during the brief initial period of oxidation is preserved through subsequent climatic cycles over the terrestrial lifetime of the sample.

  12. Using the Fe/Mn Ratio of FeO-Rich Olivine In WILD 2, Chondrite Matrix, and Type IIA Chondrules to Disentangle Their Histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, David R.; Le, L.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The Stardust Mission returned a large abundance of impactors from Comet 81P/Wild2 in the 5-30 m range. The preliminary examination of just a limited number of these particles showed that the collection captured abundant crystalline grains with a diverse mineralogy [1,2]. Many of these grains resemble those found in chondrite matrix and even contain fragments of chondrules and CAIs [1-3]. In particular, the olivine found in Wild 2 exhibits a wide compositional range (Fa0-97) with minor element abundances similar to the matrix olivine found in many carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs). Despite the wide distribution of Fa content, the olivine found in the matrices of CCs, UOCs, and Wild 2 can be roughly lumped into two types based solely on fayalite content. In fact, in some cases, a distinct bi-modal distribution is observed.

  13. Comparison of Nickel XANES Spectra and Elemental Maps from a Ureilite, a LL3.8 Ordinary Chondrite, Two Carbonaceous Chondrites and Two Large Cluster IDPs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel in the extraterrestrial world is commonly found in both Fe-Ni sulfide and Fe-Ni met-al forms [1] and in the pure metal state in the interior of iron meteorites where it is not easily oxidized. Ni is also found in olivine, pyroxene and glasses and in some melts the partitioning of Ni between the olivines and glass is controlled by the amount of S in the melt [2]. Its most common valence state is Ni(2+) but Ni also occurs as Ni(0), Ni(+), and Ni(3+) and rarely as Ni(2-), Ni(1-) and Ni(4+) [3]. It's valence state in olivines is Ni(2+) in octa-hedral coordination on the M1 site and rarely on the M2 site.[4]. The chemical sensitivity of X-ray absorp-tion near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is well established and can be used to determine not only va-lence states but also coordination sites [5]. We report here Ni XANES spectroscopy and elemental maps collected from 2 carbonaceous chondrites, 2 large clus-ter IDPs, 1 ureilite and 1 LL3 orginary chondrite.Using XANES it may be possible to find a common trait in the large cluster IDPs that will also be found in mete-orite samples.

  14. Alkali-granitoids as fragments within the ordinary chondrite Adzhi-Bogdo: Evidence for highly fractionated, alkali-granitic liquids on asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, A.

    1993-03-01

    Adzhi-Bogdo is an ordinary chondrite regolith breccia (LL3-6) that fell October 30, 1949 in Gobi Altay, Mongolia. The rock consists of submm- to cm-sized fragments embedded in a fine-grained elastic matrix. The breccia contains various types of clasts, some of which must be of foreign heritage. Based on chemical compositions of olivine some components have to be classified as L-type. Components of the breccia include chondrules, impact melts (some are K-rich, similar to those found in other LL-chondrites, highly recrystalized rock fragments ('granulites'), pyroxene-rich fragments with achondritic textures, and alkali-granitoidal fragments that mainly consist of K-feldspar and quartz or tridymite. Probably, this is the first report on granitoids from asteroids. It can be ruled out that these fragments represent huge rock assemblages of the parent body like granites do on Earth. Therefore, to avoid misunderstandings, these rocks will be designated as granitoids. In one thin section four granitoids were observed. The main phases within these clasts are K-feldspar and SiO2-phases. Minor phases include albite, Cl-apatite, whitlockite, ilmenite, zircon, Ca-poor pyroxene, and an unidentified Na,Ti-bearing silicate. Based on chemical composition and on optical properties quartz appears to be the SiO2-phase in two fragments, whereas tridymite seems to occur in the other two. The calculated formula of the unknown Na,Ti-rich silicate is very close to (Na,Ca)2.7(Fe,Mg)6(Ti)1.3(Si)7(O)24. Quartz and K-feldspar can reach sizes of up to 700 microns. Thus, the fragments can be described as coarse-grained (by chondritic standards). This is especially the case considering that quartz and K-feldspar are very rare minerals in ordinary chondrites. Representative analyses of minerals from some granitoidal clasts are given. Based on the mineral compositions and the modal abundances the bulk compositions were calculated.

  15. Alkali-granitoids as fragments within the ordinary chondrite Adzhi-Bogdo: Evidence for highly fractionated, alkali-granitic liquids on asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bischoff, A.

    1993-01-01

    Adzhi-Bogdo is an ordinary chondrite regolith breccia (LL3-6) that fell October 30, 1949 in Gobi Altay, Mongolia. The rock consists of submm- to cm-sized fragments embedded in a fine-grained elastic matrix. The breccia contains various types of clasts, some of which must be of foreign heritage. Based on chemical compositions of olivine some components have to be classified as L-type. Components of the breccia include chondrules, impact melts (some are K-rich, similar to those found in other LL-chondrites, highly recrystalized rock fragments ('granulites'), pyroxene-rich fragments with achondritic textures, and alkali-granitoidal fragments that mainly consist of K-feldspar and quartz or tridymite. Probably, this is the first report on granitoids from asteroids. It can be ruled out that these fragments represent huge rock assemblages of the parent body like granites do on Earth. Therefore, to avoid misunderstandings, these rocks will be designated as granitoids. In one thin section four granitoids were observed. The main phases within these clasts are K-feldspar and SiO2-phases. Minor phases include albite, Cl-apatite, whitlockite, ilmenite, zircon, Ca-poor pyroxene, and an unidentified Na,Ti-bearing silicate. Based on chemical composition and on optical properties quartz appears to be the SiO2-phase in two fragments, whereas tridymite seems to occur in the other two. The calculated formula of the unknown Na,Ti-rich silicate is very close to (Na,Ca)2.7(Fe,Mg)6(Ti)1.3(Si)7(O)24. Quartz and K-feldspar can reach sizes of up to 700 microns. Thus, the fragments can be described as coarse-grained (by chondritic standards). This is especially the case considering that quartz and K-feldspar are very rare minerals in ordinary chondrites. Representative analyses of minerals from some granitoidal clasts are given. Based on the mineral compositions and the modal abundances the bulk compositions were calculated. Besides these granitoidal rocks, pyroxene-rich fragments occur that show exsolution textures that are similar to those found in eucrites.

  16. The Effects of Shock Metamorphism on Metal Textures and Metallographic Cooling Rates in L-Group Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, M. E.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.

    1993-07-01

    Postshock reheating and rapid cooling have severely disturbed geothermometers and coolingrate indicators in L chondrites. This has generated an ongoing debate on the interpretation of the early thermal history of an 'onion-shell' [1] or a 'rubble-pile' [2] L-chondrite parent body. In order to access the degree that reheating has perturbed metallographic cooling rates (disrupting this early thermal history), we have undertaken a study of textures derived from shock metamorphism and subsequent fast cooling of sulfides and Fe-Ni metals. Classification of shock stage by petrographic analysis [3] was performed on 70 L- chondrite thin sections, 55 Antarctic and 15 non-Antarctic, in order to place each into their appropriate shock stage. Fe-Ni metals from representative samples of each shock stage were studied optically and analyzed chemically with a Cameca SX-50 electron microprobe to obtain textural and chemical data. Meteorites of shock stage S3. Meteorites of S4 shock stage contain features similar to lower-shocked S3s, except that they exhibit more abundant melt pockets with melt droplets larger by an order of magnitude (~10 micrometers in diameter). Samples of shock grade S5 have numerous melt droplets of troilite adjacent to troilite grains. They also contain small metal-silicate melt veins and patchy fizzed troilite [4]. These textures indicate reheating to an average temperature of 600-800 degrees C at 45-55 GPa [3]. At S6 stage large melt pockets and veins are readily visible and all original metal textures are totally disrupted. Metallographic cooling rate data were obtained four moderately- to highly-shocked samples. The lack of coherency for these samples is indicative of heterogeneous cooling following shock and confirms the statement by numerous workers that extreme care must be taken when selecting samples of L chondrites for cooling-rate studies. Six low-shock samples were also analyzed for metallographic cooling rates. Incoherency in most of the samples may be due to the slight degree of shock reheating present in even the 'least-shocked' L chondrites, however great care was taken during the analyses to avoid those regions where shock-related features were noted. These samples do, however, display a general trend in cooling rates. The lowest metamorphic grade yielded the slowest cooling rates and an increase in grade followed an increase in cooling rate. This is opposite the relationship predicted by the onion-shell model and suggests that the L parent body may have broken up while still hot and then gravitationally reaccreted as a rubble-pile [6]. Further study of metal and sulfide textures in L chondrites will provide additional information that can be used to better quantify the effect of shock metamorphism on L chondrites. This additional information will, in turn, furnish the necessary low-shock samples for use in determining the thermal history and, hence, the internal structure of the L-chondrite parent body. References: [1] Pellas P. and Storzer D. (1981) Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A374, 253-270. [2] Taylor G. J. et al. (1987) Icarus, 69, 1-13. [3] Stoffler D. et al. (l991) GCActa, 55, 3845-3867. [4] Scott E. R. D. et al. (1991) Meteoritics, 26, 393. [5] Raikes S. and Ahrens T. J. (1979) Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc., 58, 717

  17. Textural properties of iron-rich phases in H ordinary chondrites and quantitative links to the degree of thermal metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guignard, J.; Toplis, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    The textural characteristics of opaque iron-rich phases (kamacite-taenite and troilite) have been quantified in the eight H-chondrites (two H4, three H5 and three H6) that have been the subject of previous thermo-chronological studies. These samples are of interest as they have temperature-time paths during cooling that have been shown to be consistent with radiogenic heating by 26Al on a single parent-body, thus offering the possibility to quantitatively link textural characteristics to thermal history. In addition to these eight samples, two other H5 samples (Forest City & Misshof) and two primitive achondrites (Acapulco & Lodran) were studied for comparison. The textural characteristics measured include: (i) phase proportions, (ii) the length of metal-sulphide contacts, (iii) dihedral angle at contacts with silicate grains, (iv) grain shape and circularity, (v) grain size and size distributions. The absolute and relative proportions of metals and sulphides are found to be approximately constant in all studied H chondrites, consistent with evolution in a chemically closed system. With increasing degree of thermal metamorphism, H-chondrites are found to show evidence for separation of metal and sulphide phases, increasing grain circularity, increasing grain size, and modification of size distributions characterized by the elimination of small grains. Variations of these parameters are found to be almost identical for sulphides and metals suggesting similar growth mechanisms for these two phases. Furthermore, trends between samples place them consistently in the same order: Sainte Marguerite (H4), Forest Vale (H4), Nadiabondi (H5), Richardton (H5), Forest City (H5), Misshof (H5), Allegan (H5), Kernouvé (H6), Guareña (H6) and Estacado (H6). In all cases Acapulco and Lodran extend the trends observed among the H-chondrites. In general, it is found that characteristics requiring material transport over shorter length scales (i.e. within grains) show greater variation for low petrographic type (H4/H5) and reach textural equilibrium earlier in the sequence than characteristics which require transport over larger distances (i.e. between grains). In the latter case (e.g. slopes of crystal size distribution), variations are most marked for H6 samples, trends that are significantly extended by Acapulco and Lodran, highlighting the role of silicate melt on variations in textural properties. Crystal size distributions imply normal grain growth (NGG) for both metals and sulphides, possibly controlled by grain boundary migration of olivine and/or pyroxene. Comparison of these results with geochemically constrained thermal models of the H-chondrite parent body shows an excellent correlation between average crystal sizes, and inferred depths in the original parent body, consistent with expectations based on thermal modelling. This study highlights the potential of grain-size as a quantitative marker of the degree of thermal metamorphism, although further work on a wider set of samples will be required to explore the limits of this approach.

  18. Origin of iron-rich olivine in the matrices of type 3 ordinary chondrites - an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagahara, H.; Kushiro, I.

    1987-10-01

    The reaction of metallic iron and enstatite, with and without forsterite and SiO2, is experimentally studied at temperatures between 1150 and 800 C in order to investigate the origin of iron-rich olivine in the matrices of type 3 chondrites. The composition of olivine is shown to become more iron-rich with increasing silica/enstatite ratio. Possible scenarios for the origin of this olivine include: (1) free silica having been present if the iron-rich olivine was formed by solid-state reactions under oxidizing conditions in the solar nebula; and (2) the reaction of silicon-rich gas with metallic iron having taken place under oxidizing conditions in the solar nebula.

  19. The S(IV)-type Asteroids as Ordinary Chondrite Parent Body Candidates: Implications for the Completeness of the Meteorite Sample of Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffey, M. J.

    1995-09-01

    The discrepancy between the abundance of ordinary chondrites (OCs) among the meteorites and the rarity of unambiguously similar assemblages in the asteroid belt has been a major point of discussion within and between the asteroid and meteorite communities. Various resolutions to this apparent paradox have been proposed [e.g., 1-5], including: 1) interpretations of S-type asteroid spectra are incorrect due to space weathering effects; 2) ordinary chondrites derive from a few rare but favorably situated parent bodies; 3) OCs come from a residual population of small unheated mainbelt asteroids; 4) shock effects darken OC parent body surfaces disguising them as C-type asteroids, and 5) OCs come from inner solar system planetesimals ejected to the Oort cloud which have been recently perturbed into Earth-crossing orbits. Although none of these possibilities has yet been rigorously excluded, recent investigations suggest that the resolution of the apparent paradox lies in some combination of the first three options. For option 3, the discovery of a small mainbelt asteroid with an OC-like spectrum indicates OC-assemblages among the smaller mainbelt asteroids [6], although their abundance is still low in the current sample [7]. For option 2, the mineralogical survey indicated that while most S-asteroids could be rigorously excluded on mineralogical criteria, the S(IV) subtype of this class has silicate compositions within the OC range [8]. The S(IV)-objects are concentrated near the 3:1 secular resonance at 2.5 AU providing an efficient escape into Earth-crossing orbits. Unfortunately for a simple resolution of the OC parent body question, S(IV) spectra still exhibit weaker silicate features and redder spectral slopes than OC assemblages. Although significant uncertainties remain, optical alteration of asteroid surfaces interpreted from the Galileo images of Ida and Gaspra may reconcile the mismatch between OC and S(IV) spectra [option 1]. Although only a subset of the S(IV) objects are viable OC-parent bodies [3 Juno, 6 Hebe, and 7 Iris are the leading candidates], their proximity to the 3:1 chaotic zone would allow them to contribute a significant portion of the ordinary chondrites. In particular, dynamical models suggest that Hebe should be a major contributor to the terrestrial meteorite flux [9]. Each leading contender is currently undergoing detailed spectral evaluation as a potential OC source. From both asteroid observational constraints and from chemical and isotopic studies of meteorites, the ordinary chondrites appear to represent an extensive and relatively complete (by meteoritic standards) sample of a few asteroid source bodies. In a similar fashion, the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite suite sample a single primary parent body (Vesta) and are over-represented in meteorite collections due to a fortuitous (and temporary on a solar system timescale) emplacement of Vesta ejecta fragments close to the 3:1 resonance. This suggests that the particular value of the ordinary chondrites lies in the good sample provided for each source body rather than as representatives of an abundant asteroid type. Acknowledgments: Various portions of this research were supported by NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics grant NAGW-642 and NSF Planetary Astronomy grant AST-9012180. References: [1] Wetherill G. W. and Chapman C. R. (1988) in Meteorites and the Early Solar System, pp. 35-67, Univ. of Arizona. [2] Bell J. F. et al. (1989) in Asteroids II, pp. 921-945, Univ. of Arizona. [3] Gaffey M. J. et al. (1989) in Asteroids II, pp. 98-127, Univ. of Arizona. [4] Britt D. T. and Pieters C. M. (1991) LPS XXII, 141-142. [5] Gaffey M. J. (1984) Icarus, 60, 83-114. [6] Binzel R. P. et al. (1993) Science, 262, 1541-1543. [7] Shui X. et al. (1995) Icarus, 115, 1-35. [8] Gaffey M. J. et al. (1993) Icarus, 106, 573-602. [9] Farinella P. et al. (1993) Icarus, 101, 174-187.

  20. Calibration of cosmogenic noble gas production in ordinary chondrites based on 36Cl-36Ar ages. Part 1: Refined produced rates for cosmogenic 21Ne and 38Ar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalcher, N.; Caffee, M. W.; Nishiizumi, K.; Welten, K. C.; Vogel, N.; Wieler, R.; Leya, I.

    2013-10-01

    We measured the concentrations and isotopic compositions of He, Ne, and Ar in bulk samples and metal separates of 14 ordinary chondrite falls with long exposure ages and high metamorphic grades. In addition, we measured concentrations of the cosmogenic radionuclides 10Be, 26Al, and 36Cl in metal separates and in the nonmagnetic fractions of the selected meteorites. Using cosmogenic 36Cl and 36Ar measured in the metal separates, we determined 36Cl-36Ar cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) ages, which are shielding-independent and therefore particularly reliable. Using the cosmogenic noble gases and radionuclides, we are able to decipher the CRE history for the studied objects. Based on the correlation 3He/21Ne versus 22Ne/21Ne, we demonstrate that, among the meteorites studied, only one suffered significant diffusive losses (about 35%). The data confirm that the linear correlation 3He/21Ne versus 22Ne/21Ne breaks down at high shielding. Using 36Cl-36Ar exposure ages and measured noble gas concentrations, we determine 21Ne and 38Ar production rates as a function of 22Ne/21Ne. The new data agree with recent model calculations for the relationship between 21Ne and 38Ar production rates and the 22Ne/21Ne ratio, which does not always provide unique shielding information. Based on the model calculations, we determine a new correlation line for 21Ne and 38Ar production rates as a function of the shielding indicator 22Ne/21Ne for H, L, and LL chondrites with preatmospheric radii less than about 65 cm. We also calculated the 10Be/21Ne and 26Al/21Ne production rate ratios for the investigated samples, which show good agreement with recent model calculations.

  1. Organic Analysis of Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Products and Ordinary Chondrite Meteorites by Stepwise Pyrolysis-GCMS: Organics in the Early Solar Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic generation of complex organic compounds, in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system, is hypothesized by some to occur via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. In its simplest form, FT synthesis involves the low temperature (<300degC) catalytic reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases to form more complex hydrocarbon compounds, primarily n-alkanes, via reactive nano-particulate iron, nickel, or cobalt, for example. Industrially, this type of synthesis has been utilized in the gas-to-liquid process to convert syngas, produced from coal, natural gas, or biomass, into paraffin waxes that can be cracked to produce liquid diesel fuels. In general, the effect of increasing reaction temperature (>300degC) produces FT products that include lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. We have begun to experimentally investigate FT synthesis in the context of abiotic generation of organic compounds in the early solar nebula. It is generally thought that the early solar nebula included abundant hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases and nano-particulate matter such as iron and metal silicates that could have catalyzed the FT reaction. The effect of FT reaction temperature, catalyst type, and experiment duration on the resulting products is being investigated. These solid organic products are analyzed by thermal-stepwise pyrolysis-GCMS and yield the types and distribution of hydrocarbon compounds released as a function of temperature. We show how the FT products vary by reaction temperature, catalyst type, and experimental duration and compare these products to organic compounds found to be indigenous to ordinary chondrite meteorites. We hypothesize that the origin of organics in some chondritic meteorites, that represent an aggregation of materials from the early solar system, may at least in part be from FT synthesis that occurred in the early solar nebula.

  2. Sahara 03505 sulfide-rich iron meteorite: Evidence for efficient segregation of sulfide-rich metallic melt during high-degree impact melting of an ordinary chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orazio, M. D.; Folco, L.; Chaussidon, M.; Rochette, P.

    2009-03-01

    The Sahara 03505 meteorite is a 65 g sulfide-rich iron found in an undisclosed locality of the Sahara. It consists of roughly equal volumetric proportion of polycrystalline troilite (crystal size 1.5-7.5 mm) enclosing cellular/dendritic metallic Fe-Ni (width of the dendrite arms, ~100 µm). The mineral assemblage is completed by sparse skeletal crystals of chromite, abundant droplets, 5- 100 µm in size, of anhydrous Fe-, Fe-Na-, and Fe-Mn-Mg-Ca-Na-K-phosphates, tiny crystals of schreibersite, and particles of metallic Cu. The medium- to fine-grained quench texture, and cooling modeling suggest that Sahara 03505 formed through crystallization of a sulfur-rich metallic melt under rapid cooling conditions (1- 4 °C s-1). The low troilite/metallic Fe-Ni ratio (~0.6 by weight) shows that this liquid was generated at much higher temperatures (>1300 °C) with respect to the FeS-Fe,Ni cotectic liquids. Based on bulk chemistry and oxygen isotope composition of chromite, we propose that Sahara 03505 formed by extensive impact melting of an ordinary chondrite lithology, followed by the efficient segregation of the immiscible silicate and metallic liquids. The sulfur-rich metallic liquid rapidly cooled either by radiation into space as a small lump, or by conduction to a chondrite country rock as a vein intruded into the walls of an impact crater. Sahara 03505 belongs to a small group of sulfide-rich iron meteorites which are characterized by medium- to fine-grained quench textures and by bulk chemistry that is different from the other iron meteorite groups. We propose here to use the descriptive term “sulfide-irons” for this meteorite group, by analogy with the stony-irons.

  3. A comparative study of troilite in bulk ordinary chondrites Farmington L5, Tsarev L5 and Chelyabinsk LL5 using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimova, A. A.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Klencsár, Z.; Petrova, E. V.; Grokhovsky, V. I.; Kuzmann, E.; Homonnay, Z.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2014-09-01

    A comparative study of troilite in bulk ordinary chondrites Farmington L5, Tsarev L5 and Chelyabinsk LL5 was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution and two different fitting programs: in the first case the quadrupole interaction was treated as a perturbation to the first order on the nuclear Zeeman levels, whereas in the other case the full static Hamiltonian of the hyperfine interaction (magnetic + quadrupole) was taken into account for the excited and ground nuclear states. The first fit of the Mössbauer spectra revealed a difference between the hyperfine magnetic field values as found for troilite in Farmington L5 (307.7 ± 0.2 kOe) and in both Tsarev L5 (311.3 ± 0.3 kOe) and Chelyabinsk LL5 (311.9 ± 0.5 kOe), although the spectral component of troilite could not be fitted satisfactorily. In contrast, the second fit resulted in a more accurate description of the troilite spectral component, and revealed a difference in the electric field gradient values found for troilite in Farmington L5 (-4.85 ± 0.03 × 1021 V/m2) and in both Tsarev L5 (-4.68 ± 0.05 × 1021 V/m2) and Chelyabinsk LL5 (-4.66 ± 0.04 × 1021 V/m2), while the difference between the hyperfine magnetic field values was less pronounced.

  4. Micron-scale D/H heterogeneity in chondrite matrices: a signature of the pristine solar system water?

    E-print Network

    Piani, Laurette; Remusat, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Organic matter and hydrous silicates are intimately mixed in the matrix of chondrites and in-situ determination of their individual D/H ratios is therefore challenging. Nevertheless, the D/H ratio of each pure component in this mixture should yield a comprehensible signature of the origin and evolution of water and organic matter in our solar system. We measured hydrogen isotope ratios of organic and hydrous silicates in the matrices of two carbonaceous chondrites (Orgueil CI1 and Renazzo CR2) and one unequilibrated ordinary chondrite (Semarkona, LL3.0). A novel protocol was adopted, involving NanoSIMS imaging of H isotopes of monoatomatic ($H^-$) and molecular ($OH^-$) secondary ions collected at the same location. This allowed the most enriched component with respect to D to be identified in the mixture. Using this protocol, we found that in carbonaceous chondrites the isotopically homogeneous hydrous silicates are mixed with D-rich organic matter. The opposite was observed in Semarkona. Hydrous silicates i...

  5. The Seoni chondrite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Mall, A. P.; Lewis, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the Seoni (India, 1966) chondrite in terms of its mineralogy, bulk chemistry, and sample shape and mass. It is an H6 group ordinary chondrite that contains olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, together with chromite, troilite, kamacite, taenite, chlorapatite, and whitlockite. Recrystallization has been quite extensive, as indicated by the presence of a few remnant chondrules, low abundance of clinopyroxene, and relatively high abundance of well formed plagioclase.

  6. Metal phases of L chondrites: Their formation and evolution in the nebula and in the parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Ping; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    1996-07-01

    Metal phases of six (three equilibrated and three unequilibrated) L chondrites were studied by INAA, SEM, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Characteristics retained in the bulk metals of unequilibrated chondrites (abundant carbon, high contents of Cr, V, Mn, and low contents of W, Mo, and Ga compared to metals of equilibrated chondrites, less enrichment of W than Mo, and fractionation of Co from Ni) demonstrate that chondrite metals are not nebular condensates. All those characteristics can be well explained by melting. Chondrite metals are not melting remnants of previously condensed metals, rather, they were produced by reduction of CI- or CM-like material during the melting process. The complementarity in composition and the similarity in melting feature suggest that chondritic metals and chondrules are the complementary components of the same melting event. Distribution of trace siderophile elements between taenite and bulk metal indicates that kamacite and taenite can only be the low-temperature diffusion products and must have been developed in the chondrite parent body. The difference in the taenite composition between equilibrated and unequilibrated chondrites reveals that the equilibrated chondrites were located near the surface while the unequilibrated chondrites were in the interior if they were derived from the common parent body. Thus, while the exsolution of chondrite metal into kamacite and taenite was due to the internal thermal activity, the crystallization of EOC silicates resulted from an external heating. The internal metamorphism was mild (400-600°C) and long whereas the external heating was intense (with a maximum temperature in range of 800-950°C) and short. Tetrataenite is present not only in UOCs but also in EOCs, suggesting that the external heating occurred during the internal metamorphism, i.e., within 100 myr of chondrite formation.

  7. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Concerning Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV session entitled "Concerning Chondrites" includes the following topics: 1) Petrology and Raman Spectroscopy of Shocked Phases in the Gujba CB Chondrite and the Shock History of the CB Parent Body; 2) The Relationship Between CK and CV Chondrites: A Single Parent Body Source? 3) Samples of Asteroid Surface Ponded Deposits in Chondritic Meteorites; 4) Composition and Origin of SiO2-rich Objects in Carbonaceous and Ordinary Chondrites; 5) Re-Os Systematics and HSE distribution in Tieschitz (H3.6); Two Isochrons for One Meteorite; 6) Loss of Chromium from Olivine During the Metamorphism of Chondrites; 7) Very Short Delivery Times of Meteorites After the L-Chondrite Parent Body Break-Up 480 Myr Ago; and 8) The Complex Exposure History of a Very Large L/LL5 Chondrite Shower: Queen Alexandra Range 90201.

  8. Solar gases in meteorites - The origin of chondrites and C1 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.

    1978-01-01

    Evidence suggesting that chondritic meteorites broke off from parent bodies in earth-crossing orbits is considered. It is suggested that ordinary chondrites have an asteroidal origin, and the possibility that C1 chondrites have a cometary origin is examined. Indications of heavy shock and reheating among L and H chondrites provides support for an asteroidal origin, while the Apollo and Amor objects are too small to be unfragmented asteroids, as proposed in the Anders theory of the origin of gas-rich meteorites. Events associated with the megaregolith are discussed in the framework of the proposed cometary origin of C1 chondrites.

  9. The Vicência meteorite fall: A new unshocked (S1) weakly metamorphosed (3.2) LL chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Klaus; Zucolotto, Maria E.; Krot, Alexander N.; Doyle, Patricia M.; Telus, Myriam; Krot, Tatiana V.; Greenwood, Richard C.; Franchi, Ian A.; Wasson, John T.; Welten, Kees C.; Caffee, Marc W.; Sears, Derek W. G.; Riebe, My; Wieler, Rainer; Santos, Edivaldo; Scorzelli, Rosa B.; Gattacceca, Jerome; Lagroix, France; Laubenstein, Matthias; Mendes, Julio C.; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Harir, Mourad; Moutinho, Andre L. R.

    2015-06-01

    The Vicência meteorite, a stone of 1.547 kg, fell on September 21, 2013, at the village Borracha, near the city of Vicência, Pernambuco, Brazil. It was recovered immediately after the fall, and our consortium study showed it to be an unshocked (S1) LL3.2 ordinary chondrite. The LL group classification is based on the bulk density (3.13 g cm-3); the chondrule mean apparent diameter (0.9 mm); the bulk oxygen isotopic composition (?17O = 3.768 ± 0.042‰, ?18O = 5.359 ± 0.042‰, ?17O = 0.981 ± 0.020‰); the content of metallic Fe,Ni (1.8 vol%); the Co content of kamacite (1.73 wt%); the bulk contents of the siderophile elements Ir and Co versus Au; and the ratios of metallic Fe0/total iron (0.105) versus total Fe/Mg (1.164), and of Ni/Mg (0.057) versus total Fe/Mg. The petrologic type 3.2 classification is indicated by the beautifully developed chondritic texture, the standard deviation (~0.09) versus mean Cr2O3 content (~0.14 wt%) of ferroan olivine, the TL sensitivity and the peak temperature and peak width at half maximum, the cathodoluminescence properties of chondrules, the content of trapped 132Xetr (0.317 × 10-8cm3STP g-1), and the Raman spectra for organic material in the matrix. The cosmic ray exposure age is ~72 Ma, which is at the upper end of the age distribution of LL group chondrites. The meteorite is unusual in that it contains relatively large, up to nearly 100 ?m in size, secondary fayalite grains, defined as olivine with Fa>75, large enough to allow in situ measurement of oxygen and Mn-Cr isotope systematics with SIMS. Its oxygen isotopes plot along a mass-dependent fractionation line with a slope of ~0.5 and ?17O of 4.0 ± 0.3‰, and are similar to those of secondary fayalite and magnetite in the unequilibrated chondrites EET 90161, MET 96503, and Ngawi. These data suggest that secondary fayalite in Vicência was in equilibrium with a fluid with a ?17O of ~4‰, consistent with the composition of the fluid in equilibrium with secondary magnetite and fayalite in other unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Secondary fayalite and the chondrule olivine phenocrysts in Vicência are not in isotopic equilibrium, consistent with low-temperature formation of fayalite during aqueous alteration on the LL parent body. That alteration, as dated by the 53Mn-53Cr chronology age of secondary fayalite, took place 4.0-1.1+1.4 Ma after formation of CV CAIs when anchored to the quenched angrite D'Orbigny.

  10. The Vicência meteorite fall: A new unshocked (S1) weakly metamorphosed (3.2) LL chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Klaus; Zucolotto, Maria E.; Krot, Alexander N.; Doyle, Patricia M.; Telus, Myriam; Krot, Tatiana V.; Greenwood, Richard C.; Franchi, Ian A.; Wasson, John T.; Welten, Kees C.; Caffee, Marc W.; Sears, Derek W. G.; Riebe, My; Wieler, Rainer; Santos, Edivaldo; Scorzelli, Rosa B.; Gattacceca, Jerome; Lagroix, France; Laubenstein, Matthias; Mendes, Julio C.; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Harir, Mourad; Moutinho, Andre L. R.

    2015-05-01

    The Vicência meteorite, a stone of 1.547 kg, fell on September 21, 2013, at the village Borracha, near the city of Vicência, Pernambuco, Brazil. It was recovered immediately after the fall, and our consortium study showed it to be an unshocked (S1) LL3.2 ordinary chondrite. The LL group classification is based on the bulk density (3.13 g cm-3); the chondrule mean apparent diameter (0.9 mm); the bulk oxygen isotopic composition (?17O = 3.768 ± 0.042‰, ?18O = 5.359 ± 0.042‰, ?17O = 0.981 ± 0.020‰); the content of metallic Fe,Ni (1.8 vol%); the Co content of kamacite (1.73 wt%); the bulk contents of the siderophile elements Ir and Co versus Au; and the ratios of metallic Fe0/total iron (0.105) versus total Fe/Mg (1.164), and of Ni/Mg (0.057) versus total Fe/Mg. The petrologic type 3.2 classification is indicated by the beautifully developed chondritic texture, the standard deviation (~0.09) versus mean Cr2O3 content (~0.14 wt%) of ferroan olivine, the TL sensitivity and the peak temperature and peak width at half maximum, the cathodoluminescence properties of chondrules, the content of trapped 132Xetr (0.317 × 10-8cm3STP g-1), and the Raman spectra for organic material in the matrix. The cosmic ray exposure age is ~72 Ma, which is at the upper end of the age distribution of LL group chondrites. The meteorite is unusual in that it contains relatively large, up to nearly 100 ?m in size, secondary fayalite grains, defined as olivine with Fa>75, large enough to allow in situ measurement of oxygen and Mn-Cr isotope systematics with SIMS. Its oxygen isotopes plot along a mass-dependent fractionation line with a slope of ~0.5 and ?17O of 4.0 ± 0.3‰, and are similar to those of secondary fayalite and magnetite in the unequilibrated chondrites EET 90161, MET 96503, and Ngawi. These data suggest that secondary fayalite in Vicência was in equilibrium with a fluid with a ?17O of ~4‰, consistent with the composition of the fluid in equilibrium with secondary magnetite and fayalite in other unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Secondary fayalite and the chondrule olivine phenocrysts in Vicência are not in isotopic equilibrium, consistent with low-temperature formation of fayalite during aqueous alteration on the LL parent body. That alteration, as dated by the 53Mn-53Cr chronology age of secondary fayalite, took place 4.0-1.1+1.4 Ma after formation of CV CAIs when anchored to the quenched angrite D'Orbigny.

  11. Osmium Isotopic Compositions of Chondrites and Earth's Primitive Upper Mantle: Constraints on the Late Veneer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; Horan, M. F.; Morgan, J. W.; Meisel, T.

    2001-01-01

    The 187 Os/188 Os of carbonaceous chondrites averages approximately 2% lower than for enstatite and ordinary chondrites. The primitive upper mantle ratio for the Earth best matches that of ordinary and enstatite chondrites. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Ardón: A Long Hidden L6 Chondrite Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Llorca, J.; Weyrauch, M.; Bischoff, A.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Keil, K.; Laubenstein, M.; Pack, A.; Madiedo, J. M.; Alonso-Azcárate, J.; Riebe, M.; Wieler, R.; Ott, U.; Tapia, M.; Mestres, N.

    2014-09-01

    A L6 ordinary chondrite fall that occurred in Ardón, León province, Spain on July 9, 1931 is described. The 5.5 g stone was kept hidden for 83 years by Rosa González Pérez, who recovered the meteorite. Ardón is still a fresh ordinary chondrite.

  13. Thermoluminescence of shocked chondrites and regolith breccias

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, M.U.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of TL sensitivities for non-Antarctic L chondrites differs from that of non-Antarctic H chondrites, consistent with a greater proportion of the former class suffering post metamorphic shock. Data from TL annealing experiments and {sup 40}Ar step-wise release measurements enables the meteorites to be sorted into three post-shock temperature groups (<800 C, 800-1000C,> 1000C). The TL sensitivities of Antarctic H chondrites are typically 1/3 those of non-Antarctic H chondrites. On TL peak temperature-peak width diagram, L chondrites produce tight clusters with only partial overlap between those of Antarctic and non-Antarctic L chondrites. H chondrites from Antarctic also from tight clusters but non-Antarctic H chondrites plot in a band of increasing peak temperature and width, with no overlap between the data for Antarctic and non-Antarctic meteorites. On TL peak temperature-peak width plots for meteorites with greater regolith maturity the clast and matrix form two separate clusters, while meteorites with lower regolith maturity showed no difference in their matrix and clast data. The data are consistent with the dark matrix being comminuted clast material contaminated with another component. The Cumberland Falls inclusions produced glow curves with similar shapes to those of type 3 ordinary chondrites and very different to those of the host samples. TL sensitivities for the inclusions were in the range of type 3.4-3.6 ordinary chondrites. The TL data are consistent with the inclusions are metamorphic series of primitive ordinary chondrites. The inclusions have not been heated in excess of 800C for 100 hours since the formation of feldspar.

  14. Lea County 001, an H5 chondrite, and Lea County 002, an ungrouped type 3 chondrite

    SciTech Connect

    Zolensky, M.E.; Score, R.; Clayton, R.N.; Mayeda, T.K.; Schutt, J.W. (NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (USA) Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Co., Houston, TX (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA))

    1989-12-01

    A search of active deflation basins near Jal, Lea County, New Mexico resulted in the discovery of two meteorites, Lea County 001 and 002. Lea County 001 has mean olivine and low-Ca pyroxene compositions of Fa(19) and Fs(17), respectively. These and all other mineralogical and petrological data collected indicate a classification of H5 for this stone. Lea County 002 has mean olivine and low-Ca pyroxene compositions of Fa(2) and Fs(4), and is unequilibrated. Although it is mineralogically most similar to Kakangari and chondritic clasts within Cumberland Falls, the high modal amount of forsterite makes Lea County a unique type 3 chondrite. Oxygen isotope data for Lea County 002 fall on an 0-16-mixing line through those of the enstatite meteorites and IAB irons, a feature shared by Kakangari. 28 refs.

  15. The classification and complex thermal history of the enstatite chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1995-01-01

    We have carried out instrumental neutron activation analysis of 11 enstatite chondrites and electron microprobe analyses of 17 enstatite chondrites, most of which were previously little described. We report here the third known EH5 chondrite (LEW 88180) and an unusual EL6 chondrite (LEW 87119), new data on four EL3 chondrites (ALH 85119, EET 90299, PCA 91020, and MAC 88136, which is paired with MAC 88180 and MAC 88184), the second EL5 chondrite (TIL 91714), and an unusual metal-rich and sulfide-poor EL3 chondrite (LEW 87223). The often discussed differences in mineral composition displayed by the EH and EL chondrites are not as marked after the inclusion of the new samples in the database, and the two classes apparently experienced a similar range of equilibrium temperatures. However, texturally the EL chondrites appear to have experienced much higher levels of metamorphic alteration than EH chondrites of similar equilibration temperatures. Most of the petrologic type criteria are not applicable to enstatite chondrites and, unlike the ordinary chondrites, texture and mineralogy reflect different aspects of the meteorite history. We therefore propose that the existing petrologic type scheme not be used for enstatite chondrites. We suggest that while 'textural type' reflects peak metamorphic temperatures, the 'mineralogical type' reflects equilibration during postmetamorphic (probably regolith) processes. Unlike the ordinary chondrites and EH chondrites, EL chondrites experienced an extensive low-temperature metamorphic episode. There are now a large number of enstatite meteorite breccias and impact melts, and apparently surface processes were important in determining the present nature of the enstatite chondrites.

  16. Establishment of redox conditions during planetary collisions as an origin of chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Kitamura, M.

    1994-01-01

    Collisions between a 'cometlike' body (mixtures of chondritic materials and ice) and a slightly differentiated body were proposed for shock origin of ordinary chondrites. In this model, chondrules were formed with shock melting, and matrices were formed both by fracturing of materials and by recondensation of evaporated materials. This model can explain different redox conditions of chondrite formations by ice evaporation. Although this model was originally proposed for ordinary chondrites, we assume here that the model can be extended to chondrite formation in general. In this paper, redox conditions during chondrite formation by collisions will be discussed in the light of phase diagrams for solid-vapor equilibria.

  17. Discovery of Hg-Cu-bearing metal-sulfide assemblages in a primitive H-3 chondrite: Towards a new insight in early solar system processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillet Komorowski, Catherine; El Goresy, Ahmed; Miyahara, Masaaki; Boudouma, Omar; Ma, Chi

    2012-10-01

    We report here the discovery of a novel meteoritic paragenesis consisting of sub-micrometric HgS, Cu sulfides, and Hg metal, associated with polycrystalline fine-grained native Cu in opaque mineral aggregates heterogeneously distributed in the matrix of the H-3 Tieschitz unequilibrated ordinary chondrite (UOC). The systematic association of Hg with Cu in Tieschitz chondrite provides a unique opportunity to place robust constraints on the origin of these assemblages either by condensation and sulfidation in a local nebular reservoir of non-solar composition, followed by gentle and fast accretion, or by sublimation of Hg from the hot interior of the asteroid and recondensation in its cold outer regions. The sulfide phase relations support low temperature conditions (<300 °C), implying that subsequent to accretion indigenous hydrothermal processing, oxidation/sulfidation, transportation, or shock-induced thermal processing of the assemblage on the parent body earlier proposed are very unlikely and unrealistic. Origin of HgS by sublimation of Hg from the hotter asteroid interior and precipitation as cinnabar in the colder surface regions is discrepant with our findings and can be ruled out because cinnabar occurs only in Tieschitz matrix in alternating rhythmic intergrowth with Cu-sulfide. The sublimation scenario calls for co-evaporation of both the highly volatile Hg as HgS and Hg metal and the moderately volatile Cu both as Cu metal, or their sulfides and deposition as sulfides in alternating episodes. Our findings provide further ample evidence refuting the repeated claim of formation of native copper in chondritic metal by shock-induced impact melting. Cold accretion is the only reasonable possibility to preserve the delicate accretionary intergrowth textures, the polycrystallinity of FeNi-metal, native Cu, Hg-Cu-sulfides and native Hg globules and the high Hg concentration retained in this meteorite. Our findings strongly suggest that Tieschitz resided near the cold surface of the parent asteroid.

  18. The Effect of Aqueous Alteration and Metamorphism in the Survival of Presolar Silicate Grains in Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, Josep M.; Blum, Jürgen

    2009-09-01

    Relatively small amounts (typically between 2 and 200 ppm) of presolar grains have been preserved in the matrices of chondritic meteorites. The measured abundances of the different types of grains are highly variable from one chondrite to another, but are higher in unequilibrated chondrites that have experienced little or no aqueous alteration and/or metamorphic heating than in processed meteorites. A general overview of the abundances measured in presolar grains (particularly the recently identified presolar silicates) contained in primitive chondrites is presented. Here we will focus on the most primitive chondrite groups, as typically the highest measured abundances of presolar grains occur in primitive chondrites that have experienced little thermal metamorphism. Looking at the most aqueously altered chondrite groups, we find a clear pattern of decreasing abundance of presolar silicate grains with increasing levels of aqueous alteration. We conclude that measured abundances of presolar grains in altered chondrites are strongly biased by their peculiar histories. Scales quantifying the intensity of aqueous alteration and shock metamorphism in chondrites could correlate with the content of presolar silicates. To do this it would be required to infer the degree of destruction or homogenization of presolar grains in the matrices of primitive meteorites. To get an unbiased picture of the relative abundance of presolar grains in the different regions of the protoplanetary disk where first meteorites consolidated, future dedicated studies of primitive meteorites, IDPs, and collected materials from sample-return missions (like e.g. the planned Marco Polo) are urgently required.

  19. Shock-Melted Regions in the Krymka (LL3) Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenenko, V. P.; Perron, C.

    1995-09-01

    Shock effects of various intensities are common in all kinds of meteorites, but, in ordinary chondrites, the most severe ones are observed mostly in metamorphosed chondrites (petrologic types 5 and 6), and they are rare in type 3 [1]. However, we report here observations of strong shock effects in a specimen of the Krymka (LL3.1/S3) chondrite, one of the three most primitive ordinary chondrites. Examination of various samples of Krymka in the Ukrainian meteorite collection has already revealed evidences of shock effects, indicative of pressures of 25-45 GPa (assuming non-porous material) and temperatures <= 500 degrees C, with local excursions to >=988 degrees C (melting of Fe-FeS eutectic) [2]. Sample N1290/29 (134 g), from the same collection, contains light-colored, friable, completely melted zones. Observations were made on 6 polished sections from that specimen, with a total area of 14 cm2. In 4 of these, 4 melted regions occupy a total of ~3 cm2. They are chondrule-free and consist of porphyritic and skeletal silicates (mainly olivine) in a cryptocrystalline mesostasis, along with metal-troilite mixtures with dendritic and cellular structures. Olivine composition is variable (Fa(sub)10-26) but to a lesser extent than in Krymka chondrules (Fa(sub)0-35). The mesostasis is also inhomogeneous. Apart from a few notable exceptions, olivine crystals are normally zoned, with FeO increasing from core to rim. Fe-Ni cells are zoned as well, consisting of a core with 11.2-22.6 wt%Ni and 0.83-0.96 wt%Co (probably martensite), and a Ni-rich rim (up to 51.3 wt%Ni, probably tetrataenite). The metal contains P (0.12-0.43 wt%), which seems to be, at least in part, in tiny schreibersite inclusions, and the troilite contains Ni (0.05- 4.2 wt%Ni). Metal-troilite mixtures contain abundant globules (up to 15 microns in diameter) of a Fe-Na phosphate (maybe maricite). These globules are usually rimmed with numerous euhedral micrometer-sized chromites. Larger euhedral chromites also occur isolated in metal-troilite. The melted regions are surrounded by a transition zone with chondritic texture, containing completely melted troilite and partially melted metal. The highly variable Co concentration (0.2-13.0 wt%) of the metal grains in this zone reflects the high degree of unequilibration of the Krymka chondrite. Shock pressure in the range 75-90 GPa is normally required to induce local complete melting of chondritic matter, but, in the present case, pressure as low as 30 GPa may be responsible for the observed effects, because of the porous nature of type 3 material [1]. In any case, the temperature must have been larger than 1450 degrees C. Experimental data on zoning trends in olivine [3] and Ni content in troilite [4] suggest a cooling rate of at least 100 degrees C/h. The association of P and Cr with metal-troilite reflects their association with metal in the host: Ca- phosphates are common at the boundaries of Krymka metal grains and many of these contain myriads of tiny chromites [5]. P and Cr were probably reduced at high temperature and they dissolved in metal-troilite liquid. Upon cooling, they reoxidized and crystallised. The unusual phosphate may result from higher volatility and mobility of Na relative to Ca. Mechanical deformations (shear) of some of these phosphate globules and of melted troilite attest that, after complete solidification of the melted regions, Krymka was subjected to other, less intense shock(s). References: [1] St"ffler D. et al. (1991) GCA, 55, 3845. [2] Semenenko V. P. et al. (1987) The Meteorites of Ukraine, 218 pp., Naukova Dumka (in Russian). [3] Radomsky P. M. and Hewins R. H. (1990) GCA, 54, 3475. [4] Smith B. A. and Goldstein J. I. (1977) GCA, 41, 1061. [5] Perron C. and Bourot-Denise M. (1992) LPS XXIII, 1055.

  20. An impact origin for the foliation of chondrites [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Denise, M.; Consolmagno, G.; Folco, L.

    2005-06-01

    The origin of the foliation of ordinary chondrites is addressed through the study of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of these meteorites, based on a database of 295 different meteorites, including 35 achondrites (HED and SNC). AMS is a reliable proxy for preferred orientation in ordinary chondrites. Moreover, the intensity of magnetic anisotropy is constant over a given chondrite. The intensity of L chondrite petrofabric, evaluated by means of AMS measurements, and shock stage, determined independently by microscopic observation of shock features in silicates, appear to be positively correlated. This suggests that the oblate petrofabric in L chondrites is shock-induced. The inverse correlation between porosity and AMS intensity suggests that hypervelocity impacts compacted and lithified an originally loose material, causing the deformation of metallic Fe, Ni grains. LL and H ordinary chondrites cannot be studied as easily as L chondrites: tetrataenite in LL chondrites affects the AMS in an unpredictable way, and shape anisotropy due to the strong susceptibility of H chondrites imposes strong constraints on sample shape. Our limited dataset for carbonaceous chondrites is compatible with a shock-induced foliation model. The very low degrees of AMS in Rumuruti chondrites testify that, surprisingly, the easily deformable Fe-sulfides in these chondrites show almost no deformation, suggesting that sulfidation is a secondary phenomenon that occurred after the major impacts on the Rumuruti parent body. The weak magnetic anisotropy of Martian meteorites implies that no significant macroscopic deformation took place during the severe impacts suffered by these rocks, which is explained by the weak initial porosity and high compressive strength of these igneous products.

  1. Structure, composition, and location of organic matter in the enstatite chondrite Sahara 97096 (EH3)

    E-print Network

    Piani, Laurette; Beyssac, Olivier; Binet, Laurent; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Derenne, Sylvie; Guillou, Corentin Le; Marrocchi, Yves; Mostefaoui, Smail; Rouzaud, Jean-Noel; Thomen, Aurelien

    2015-01-01

    The insoluble organic matter (IOM) of an unequilibrated enstatite chondrite Sahara (SAH) 97096 has been investigated using a battery of analytical techniques. As the enstatite chondrites are thought to have formed in a reduced environment at higher temperatures than carbonaceous chondrites, they constitute an interesting comparative material to test the heterogeneities of the IOM in the solar system and to constrain the processes that could affect IOM during solar system evolution. The SAH 97096 IOM is found in situ: as submicrometer grains in the network of fine-grained matrix occurring mostly around chondrules and as inclusions in metallic nodules, where the carbonaceous matter appears to be more graphitized. IOM in these two settings has very similar $\\delta^{15}N$ and $\\delta^{13}C$; this supports the idea that graphitized inclusions in metal could be formed by metal catalytic graphitization of matrix IOM. A detailed comparison between the IOM extracted from a fresh part and a terrestrially weathered part...

  2. On Type III plessite in chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, R., Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Questions are raised concerning the possible sources of heat necessary for converting martensite to coarse Type III plessite in ordinary chondrites. It is suggested that the unusual Type III plesite in the Kingfisher, Oklahoma black chondrite was formed by partial homogenization of preexisting Type III plessite as a result of shock reheating of the metal into the gamma field of the Fe-Ni phase diagram, rather than by decomposition of shock reheated prior martensite in the alpha + gamma field, as originally proposed by Taylor and Heymann. Because martensite is sporadically distributed within Kingfisher plessite it is suggested that microstructures of this kind be called Type II-III plessite.

  3. Petrology and Cosmochemistry of a Suite of R Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torrano, Z. A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.

    2015-01-01

    Chondrites are among the most primitive surviving materials from the early solar system. They are divided into groups based on chemical types defined by mineralogy, bulk composition, and oxygen isotope compositions. Chondrites range in petrographic grade from type 1 to type 7. Type 3 chondrites are the most primitive and are little changed from the nebular solids accreted to form asteroids. They are composed of chondrules, fine-grained matrix, metal and sulfide, plus or minus Ca-Al-rich inclusions. With increasing aqueous alteration at low temperatures, members of some chondrite classes transformed from type 3 towards type 1. With increasing thermal metamorphism and low fluid content, members of other classes changed from type 3 towards type 7. Rumuruti (R) chondrites are a rare group (0.1% of falls) similar to ordinary chondrites in some properties but different in others. They are characterized by low chondrule/matrix modal abundance ratios, high oxidation state, small mean chondrule size, abundant sulfides and low metal contents. R chondrites vary in petrologic type from 3 to 6. They are important objects to study because some of them have undergone metamorphism at high temperatures in the presence of aqueous fluids. In contrast, CM and CI chondrites were heated to low temperatures in the presence of aqueous fluids leading to alteration; they contain low-T hydrous phases (phyllosilicates) and little or no remaining metal. Ordinary chondrites were heated to high temperatures in a low-fluid environment resulting in anhydrous metamorphic rocks. R6 chondrites are highly metamorphosed and some contain the high-T hydrous phases mica and amphibole. R chondrites are thus unique and give us an opportunity to examine whether there are compositional effects caused by high-T, highfluid metamorphism of nebular materials.

  4. The Pasamonte unequilibrated eucrite: Pyroxene REE systematic and major-, minor-, and trace-element zoning. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pun, A.; Papike, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    We are evaluating the trace-element concentrations in the pyroxenes of Pasamonte. Pasamonte is a characteristic member of the main group eucrites, and has recently been redescribed as a polymict eucrite. Our Pasamonte sample contained eucritic clasts with textures ranging from subophitic to moderately coarse-grained. This study concentrates on pyroxenes from an unequilibrated, coarse-grained eucrite clast. Major-, minor-, and trace-element analyses were measured for zoned pyroxenes in the eucritic clast of Pasamonte. The major- and minor-element zoning traverses were measured using the JEOL 733 electron probe with an Oxford-Link imaging/analysis system. Complemenatry trace elements were then measured for the core and rim of each of the grains by SIMS. The trace elements analyzed consisted of eight REE, Sr, Y, and Zr. These analyses were performed on a Cameca 4f ion probe. The results of the CI chondrite normalized (average CI trace-element analyses for several grains and the major- and minor-element zoning patterns from a single pyroxene grain are given. The Eu abundance in the cores of the pyroxenes represents the detection limit and therefore the (-Eu) anomaly is a minimum. Major- and minor-element patterns are typical for igneous zoning. Pyroxene cores are Mg enriched, whereas the rims are enriched in Fe and Ca. Also, Ti and Mn are found to increase, while Cr and Al generally decrease in core-to-rim traverses. The cores of the pyroxenes are more depleted in the Rare Earth Elements (REE) than the rims. Using the minor- and trace-element concentrations of bulk Pasamonte and the minor- and trace-element concentrations from the cores of the pyroxenes in Pasamonte measured in this study, we calculated partition coefficients between pyroxene and melt. This calculation assumes that bulk Pasamonte is representative of a melt composition.

  5. Sulfide-rich metallic impact melts from chondritic parent bodies Devin L. SCHRADER1*

    E-print Network

    Downs, Robert T.

    Sulfide-rich metallic impact melts from chondritic parent bodies Devin L. SCHRADER1* , Dante SW 005 and MET 00428 are the first recognized iron- and sulfide-rich meteorites, which formed by impact diameter) metal- and sulfide-bearing nodules occur in ordinary chondrites. Some of them have been

  6. Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: On the Dynamical Evolution of a Nebula and Its Effect on Dust Coagulation and the Formation of Centimeter-sized Particles. The Mineralogy and Grain Properties of the Disk Surfaces in Three Herbig Ae/Be Stars. Astrophysical Observations of Disk Evolution Around Solar Mass Stars. The Systematic Petrology of Chondrites: A Consistent Approach to Assist Classification and Interpretation. Understanding Our Origins: Formation of Sun-like Stars in H II Region Environments. Chondrule Crystallization Experiments. Formation of SiO2-rich Chondrules by Fractional Condensation. Refractory Forsterites from Murchison (CM2) and Yamato 81020 (CO3.0) Chondrites: Cathodoluminescence, Chemical Compositions and Oxygen Isotopes. Apparent I-Xe Cooling Rates of Chondrules Compared with Silicates from the Colomera Iron Meteorite. Chondrule Formation in Planetesimal Bow Shocks: Physical Processes in the Near Vicinity of the Planetesimal. Genetic Relationships Between Chondrules, Rims and Matrix. Chondrite Fractionation was Cosmochemical; Chondrule Fractionation was Geochemical. Chondrule Formation and Accretion of Chondrite Parent Bodies: Environmental Constraints. Amoeboid Olivine Aggregates from the Semarkona LL3.0 Chondrite. The Evolution of Solids in Proto-Planetary Disks. New Nickel Vapor Pressure Measurements: Possible Implications for Nebular Condensates. Chemical, Mineralogical and Isotopic Properties of Chondrules: Clues to Their Origin. Maximal Size of Chondrules in Shock-Wave Heating Model: Stripping of Liquid Surface in Hypersonic Rarefied Gas Flow. The Nature and Origin of Interplanetary Dust: High Temperature Components. Refractory Relic Components in Chondrules from Ordinary Chondrites. Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and CAIs from Short-lived and Long-lived Radionuclides. The Genetic Relationship Between Refractory Inclusions and Chondrules. Contemporaneous Chondrule Formation Between Ordinary and Carbonaceous Chondrites. Chondrules and Isolated Grains in the Fountain Hills Bencubbinite. Implications of Chondrule Formation in a Gas of Solar Composition. Implications of Meteoritic Cl-36 Abundance for the Origin of Short-lived Radionuclides in the Early Solar System. Size Sorting and the Chondrule Size Spectrum. Comparative Study of Refractory Inclusions from Different Groups of Chondrites. In Situ Investigation of Mg Isotope Distributions in an Allende CAI by Combined LA-ICPMS and SIMS Analyses Photochemical Speciation of Oxygen Isotopes in the Solar Nebula.

  7. Mineralogy of dark clasts in primitive versus differentiated meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Weisberg, M. K.; Barrett, R. A.; Prinz, M.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of dark lithic clasts within meteorites can provide information concerning asteroidal regolith processes, the extent of interactions between asteroids, and the relationship between meteorite types, micrometeorites, and interplanetary dust particles. Accordingly, we have been seeking and characterizing dark clasts found within carbonaceous chondrites, unequilibrated ordinary chondrites, howardites, and eucrites. We find that unequilibrated chondrites in this study contain fine-grained, anhydrous unequilibrated inclusions, while the howardites often contain inclusions from geochemically processed, hydrous asteroids (type 1 and 2 carbonaceous chondrites). Eucrites and howardities contain unusual clasts, not easily classified.

  8. The Origin of Chondrules and Refractory Inclusions in Chondritic Meteorites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsien Shang; Matthieu Gounelle; Alfred E. Glassgold; Typhoon Lee

    2001-01-01

    Examples of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) surrounded by thick chondrule mantles have been found in chondritic meteorites and cast doubt on the conventional belief that CAIs and chondrules possessed different spacetime origins in the primitive solar nebula. We study specific processes by which such objects, and the more common ordinary CAIs and chondrules, might have formed by flare heating of primitive

  9. Siderophile element fractionation in enstatite chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaldi, E. R.; Cendales, M.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of the concentration of 10 to 15 siderophile elements was made in the magnetic regions of Abee (E4) and Hvittis (E6). All elements, except Cu, W, and Fe were concentrated in the metal phase; unlike ordinary chondrites, the metal phase Abee and Hvittis consists of homogeneous, uniform grain size kamacite. The Ir/Ni ratio was 25% lower in Abee than in Hvittis, showing that more Ir was lost from Abee during the refractory element fractionation; Abee and other E4-5 members were not depleted in moderately volatile elements. It was concluded that E4-5 and E6 chondrites evolved from two different reservoirs, and that exchange of material among them has not occurred.

  10. Experimental Impacts into Chondritic Targets. Part 1; Disruption of an L6 Chondrite by Multiple Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Horz, Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    A fragment of an L6 chondrite (ALH 85017,13) with an initial mass (M(sub 0)) of 464.1 g was the target in a series of experimental impacts in which the largest remaining fragment (M(sub R)) after each shot was impacted by a 3.18-mm ceramic sphere at a nominal speed of 2 km/s. This continued until the mass of the largest remaining piece was less than half the mass of the target presented to that shot (M(sub S)). Two chunks of Bushveldt gabbro with similar initial masses were also impacted under the same conditions until M(sub R) was less than half M(sub 0). The two gabbro targets required a total of 1.51x10(exp 7) and 1.75x10(exp 7) erg/g to attain 0.27 and 0.33 M(sub R)/M(sub 0), respectively; the chondrite, however, was considerably tougher, reaching 0.40 and 0.21 M(sub R)/M(sub 0) only after receiving 2.37x10(exp 7) and 3.10x10(exp 7) erg g-1, respectively. The combined ejecta and spallation products from the gabbro impacts were coarser than those from the chondrite and in sufficient quantities that the new surface areas exceeded those from the meteorite until the fifth shot in the chondrite series, which was the number of impacts required to disrupt each gabbro target (i.e., MR/M0 = 0.5). Unlike the behavior shown in previous regolith-evolution series, neither gabbro target produced an enhancement in the size fraction reflecting the mean size of the crystals composing the rock (about 3 mm), an effect possibly related to the width of the shock pulse. The original chondrite was so fine-grained and fractured, and the variance in its grain-size distribution so large, that effects related to grain-size were relegated to the <63- m fraction. Impacts into ALH 85017 produced abundant, fine-grained debris, but otherwise the slopes of its size distributions were comparable to those from other experiments involving natural and fabricated terrestrial targets. The characteristic slopes of the chondrite's size distributions, however, were notably more constant over the entire nine-impact series than those from any of the terrestrial targets, a testament to the control over comminution apparently exerted by pre-existing fractures and other, microscopic damage in the meteorite. The enhancement in the finer fraction of debris from ALH 85017 indicates that ordinary chondrites in solar orbit would be very efficient contributors to the cosmic-dust complex. At the same time, the greater resistance to disruption displayed by ordinary chondrites relative to that exhibited by igneous rocks indicates that a selection effect could be operative between the annealed, ordinary-chondritic breccias and relatively weaker, differentiated meteorites. Preferential survival from their time in the regoliths of their parent bodies through their transit to Earth and passage through the atmosphere suggests that meteorite collections could be biased in favor of the ordinary chondrites.

  11. Young Pb-Isotopic Ages of Chondrules in CB Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amelin, Yuri; Krot, Alexander N.

    2005-01-01

    CB (Bencubbin-type) carbonaceous chondrites differ in many ways from more familiar CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites and from ordinary chondrites. CB chondrites are very rich in Fe-Ni metal (50-70 vol%) and contain magnesian silicates mainly as angular to sub-rounded clasts (or chondrules) with barred olivine (BO) or cryptocrystalline (CC) textures. Both metal and silicates appear to have formed by condensation. The sizes of silicate clasts vary greatly between the two subgroups of CB chondrites: large (up to one cm) in CB(sub a) chondrites, and typically to much much less than 1 mm in CB(sub b) chondrites. The compositional and mineralogical differences between these subgroups and between the CB(sub s) and other types of chondrites suggest different environment and possibly different timing of chondrule formation. In order to constrain the timing of chondrule forming processes in CB(sub s) and understand genetic relationship between their subgroups, we have determined Pb-isotopic ages of silicate material from the CB(sub a) chondrite Gujba and CB(sub b) chondrite Hammadah al Hamra 237 (HH237 hereafter).

  12. IN-SITU STUDY OF OXYGEN ISOTOPES IN GRAPHITE FROM L3 CHONDRITES: INDICATIONS FOR OXYGEN ISOTOPIC HETEROGENEITY. S. Mostefaoui1, FJ. Stadermann2, and A. El Goresy1. !Max-

    E-print Network

    IN-SITU STUDY OF OXYGEN ISOTOPES IN GRAPHITE FROM L3 CHONDRITES: INDICATIONS FOR OXYGEN ISOTOPIC-situ study of graphite-bearing assemblages in ordinary chondrites we found large H and N isotopic anomalies in-situ measurements of oxygen isotopes in graphite from the Khohar and Mez6-Madaras (L3) chondrites

  13. Further Observations of Fe-60-Ni-60 and Mn-53-Cr-53 Isotopic Systems in Sulfides from Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guan, Y.; Huss, G. R.; Leshin, L. A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that short-lived Fe-60 (t(sub 1/2) = 1.5 Ma) was present in some components of ordinary and enstatite chondrites when they formed. Here we report additional data on Fe-60 from sulfides in enstatite chondrites and on the potential relationship between the Fe-60-Ni-60 and Mn-53-Cr-53 systems.

  14. Chondrites as samples of differentiated planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2010-05-01

    Chondritic meteorites are unmelted, variably metamorphosed samples of the earliest solids of the solar system. A recent paleomagnetic study of CV chondrites suggests that their parent body was internally differentiated and produced a core magnetic dynamo (Carporzen et al., submitted, and this session). Here we show that a parent body that accreted to >250 km in radius by ~1.7 Ma after the formation of CAIs could retain a solid undifferentiated crust overlying a differentiated interior, and would be consistent with formational and evolutionary constraints on the CV parent body. Further, this body could have produced a magnetic field lasting more than 10 Ma. CV chondritic meteorites contain the oldest known solids: calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). The variety of metamorphic textures in ordinary chondrites motivated the "onion shell" model in which chondrites originated at varying depths within a parent body heated primarily by the short-lived radioisotope 26Al, with the highest metamorphic grade originating nearest the center. The large abundances and sizes of CAIs in CV chondrites have long suggested an early parent body accretion age. New Pb-Pb and Al-Mg ages of chondrules in CVs are consistent with the CV parent body having largely completed accretion by the youngest chondrule age of ~1.7-3 Ma. The CV chondrite parent body likely reached peak metamorphic temperatures around 7 to 10 Ma after CAIs, based on I-Xe chronometry for Allende and Mn-Cr chronometry for Mokoia. Bodies that accreted to more than >~20 km radius before ~1.3 to 3 Ma after the formation of CAIs likely contained sufficient 26Al to melt internally from the insulated cumulative effects of radiogenic heating. These early-accreting bodies will melt from the interior out, sometimes forming an interior magma ocean under a solid, conductive, undifferentiated shell. This shell would consist of the same chondritic material that made up the bulk accreting body before melting began. The presence of talc and the absence of serpentine indicate peak temperatures of ~300-350°C. Subsequent to the analysis of natural remanent magnetization in angrites, Carporzen et al. (2009, submitted, and this conference) have described how unidirectional magnetization in Allende is consistent with a long-lived internally generated field. The metamorphic, magnetic, and exposure age data collectively indicate a new model for the CV chondrite parent body in which interior melting is incomplete and the magma ocean remains capped by an undifferentiated chondritic shell. This conductive lid insulates the internal magma ocean, slowing its cooling and solidification by orders of magnitude while still allowing sufficient heat flux out of the core to produce a dynamo with intensities consistent with magnetization in Allende. Materials in the undifferentiated lid experienced varying metamorphic conditions. Bodies that are internally differentiated in the manner described here may well exist undetected in the asteroid belt. The shapes and masses of the two largest asteroids, 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas, can be consistent with differentiated interiors, conceivably with small iron cores with hydrated silicate or ice-silicate mantles. Other asteroids may have lost their hydrostatic shapes through later impacts, and their surfaces may never have been covered with erupted basalt; surfaces of these bodies may have remained chondritic throughout this process. Such surfaces will therefore be irregular, space-weathered primitive material, perhaps with highly altered or even differentiated material at the bottoms of the largest craters and in crater ejecta. This scenario can explain the mismatch between the enormous diversity (> 130) of parent bodies represented by achondrites and the paucity (< 10) of basaltic asteroids.

  15. Isotopic Composition of Silicon Carbide in the CO3 Chondrite Colony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. B.; Huss, G. R.

    2003-01-01

    Presolar grains have been identified in primitive members of all chondrite classes. The isotopic compositions of presolar grains provide probes of galactic evolution and nucleosynthesis in stars, while the abundances and characteristics of presolar grains contain a record of thermal processing in the solar system. Most of the detailed isotopic work has been done on SiC from Murchison and Orgueil, supplemented by a few studies of ordinary and enstatite chondrites. This work investigates SiC in the Colony CO3.O meteorite. SiC is present in Colony at a matrix-normalized abundance of approximately 3.7 ppm, much less than in CI chondrites and the matrixes of CM and primitive ordinary and enstatite chondrites. The abundances of SiC and other presolar grains in Colony seem to correlate with the chemical processing that produced CO3 chondrites. This implies that the known presolar grains experienced the same processing as the bulk CO3 material and assumes that the parent material was the same as that for other chondrites, including CI. That parent material is most plausibly the average material in the sun s parent molecular cloud. One test of this idea is to look for primary differences between SiC in Colony (and other meteorites) and that in CI and CM chondrites. True differences not related to thermal processing would falsify the assumption that all chondrite classes originated from the same reservoir of presolar dust.

  16. Rhenium-osmium isotope systematics of carbonaceous chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Morgan, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Rhenium and osmium concentrations and Os isotopic compositions of eight carbonaceous chondrites, one LL3 ordinary chondrite, and two iron meteorites were determined by resonance ionization mass spectrometry. Iron meteorite 187Re/186Os and 187OS/186Os ratios plot on the previously determined iron meteorite isochron, but most chondrite data plot 1 to 2 percent above this meteorite isochron. This suggests either that irons have significantly younger Re-Os closure ages than chondrites or that chondrites were formed from precursor materials with different chemical histories from the precursors of irons. Some samples of Semarkona (LL3) and Murray (C2M) meteorites plot 4 to 6 percent above the iron meteorite isochron, well above the field delineated by other chondrites. Murray may have lost Re by aqueous leaching during its preterrestrial history. Semarkona could have experienced a similar loss of Re, but only slight aqueous alteration is evident in the meteorite. Therefore, the isotopic composition of Semarkona could reflect assembly of isotopically heterogeneous components subsequent to 4.55 billion years ago or Os isotopic heterogeneities in the primordial solar nebula.

  17. Primitive material surviving in chondrites - Refractory inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, Glenn J.; Wark, D. A.; Armstrong, John T.

    1988-01-01

    The refractory inclusions embedded in the matrix of many carbonaceous and some ordinary or enstatite chondrites exhibit mineralogical and bulk composition characteristics which correlate with the first, or highest-temperature, condensation products that have been predicted to form from a hot, but cooling, solar nebula. These inclusions' isotopic compositions indicate presolar nucleosynthetic processes that have contributed to the production of the elements from which the solar system was formed; subsequently, the inclusions experienced melting, recrystallization, and alteration histories that have obscured the formation processes.

  18. Thermal evolution and sintering of chondritic planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henke, S.; Gail, H.-P.; Trieloff, M.; Schwarz, W. H.; Kleine, T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Radiometric ages for chondritic meteorites and their components provide information on the accretion timescale of chondrite parent bodies, and on cooling paths within certain areas of these bodies. However, to use this age information for constraining the internal structure, and the accretion and cooling history of the chondrite parent bodies, the empirical cooling paths obtained by dating chondrites must be combined with theoretical models of the thermal evolution of planetesimals. Important parameters in such thermal models include the initial abundances of heat-producing short-lived radionuclides (26Al and 60Fe), which are determined by the accretion timescale and the terminal size, chemical composition and physical properties of the chondritic planetesimals. The major aim of this study is to assess the effects of sintering of initially porous material on the thermal evolution of planetesimals, and to constrain the values of basic parameters that determined the structure and evolution of the H chondrite parent body. Methods: We present a new code for modelling the thermal evolution of ordinary chondrite parent bodies that initially are highly porous and undergo sintering by hot pressing as they are heated by decay of radioactive nuclei. The pressure and temperature stratification in the interior of the bodies was calculated by solving the equations of hydrostatic equilibrium and energy transport. The decrease of porosity of the granular material by hot pressing due to self-gravity was followed by solving a set of equations for the sintering of powder materials. For the heat-conductivity of granular material we combined recently measured data for highly porous powder materials, relevant for the surface layers of planetesimals, with data for heat-conductivity of chondrite material, relevant for the strongly sintered material in deeper layers. Results: Our new model demonstrates that in initially porous planetesimals heating to central temperatures sufficient for melting can occur for bodies a few km in size, that is, a factor of ?10 smaller than for compact bodies. Furthermore, for high initial 60Fe abundances small bodies may differentiate even when they had formed as late as 3-4 Ma after CAI formation. To demonstrate the capability of our new model, the thermal evolution of the H chondrite parent body was reconstructed. The model starts with a porous body that is later compacted first by "cold pressing" at low temperatures and then by "hot pressing" for temperatures above ?700 K, i.e., the threshold temperature for sintering of silicates. The thermal model was fitted to the well-constrained cooling histories of the two H chondrites Kernouvé (H6) and Richardton (H5). The best fit was obtained for a parent body with a radius of 100 km that accreted at t = 2.3 Ma after CAI formation, and had an initial 60Fe/56Fe = 4.1 × 10-7. Burial depths of 8.3 km and 36 km for Richardton and Kernouvé were able to reproduce their empirically determined cooling history. These burial depths are shallower than those derived in previous models. This reflects the strong insulating effect of the residual powder surface layer, which is characterised by a low thermal conductivity.

  19. In-Situ Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Tagish Lake: An Ungrouped Type 2 Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Engrand, Cecile; Gounelle, Matthieu; Zolensky, Mike E.

    2001-01-01

    We have measured the oxygen isotopic composition of several components of Tagish Lake by ion microprobe. This meteorite constitutes the best preserved sample of C2 matter presently available for study. It presents two different lithologies (carbonate-poor and -rich) which have fairly comparable oxygen isotopic composition, with regard to both the primary or secondary minerals. For the olivine and pyroxene grains, their delta O-18 values range from - 10.5% to + 7.4% in the carbonate-poor lithology, with a mean Delta O-17 value of - 3.7 2.4%. In the carbonate-rich lithology, delta O-18 varies from - 7.9% to + 3.3%, and the mean Delta O-17 value is - 4.7 +/- 1.4%. Olivine inclusions (Fo(sub >99)) with extreme O-16-enrichment were found in both lithologies: delta O-18 = - 46.1 %, delta O-187= - 48.3% and delta O-18 = - 40.6%, delta O-17 = - 41.2% in the carbonate-rich lithology; delta O-18 = - 41.5%, delta O-17 = -43.4%0 in the carbonate-poor lithology. Anhydrous minerals in the carbonate-poor lithology are slightly more O-16-rich than in the carbonate-rich one. Four low-iron manganese-rich (LIME) olivine grains do not have an oxygen isotopic composition distinct from the other "normal" olivines. The phyllosilicate matrix presents the same range of oxygen isotopic compositions in both lithologies: delta O-18 from approximately 11 % to approximately 6%, with an average Delta. O-17 approximately 0%. Because the bulk Tagish Lake oxygen isotopic composition given by Brown et al. is on the high end of our matrix analyses, we assume that this "bulk Tagish Lake" composition probably only represents that of the carbonate-rich lithology. Calcium carbonates have delta O-18 values up to 35%, with Delta O-17 approximately 0.5%0. Magnetite grains present very high Delta O-17 values approximately + 3.4%0 +/- 1.2%. Given our analytical uncertainties and our limited carbonate data, the matrix and the carbonate seem to have formed in isotopic equilibrium. In that case, their large isotopic fractionation would argue for a low temperature (CM-like, T approximately 0 deg) formation. Magnetite probably formed during a separate event. Tagish Lake magnetite data is surprisingly compatible with that of R-chondrites and unequilibrated ordinary (LL3) chondrites. Our oxygen isotope data strongly supports the hypothesis of a single precursor for both lithologies. Drastic mineralogical changes between the two lithologies not being accompanied with isotopic fractionation seem compatible with the alteration model presented by Young et aI. Tagish Lake probably represents the first well preserved large sample of the C2 matter that dominates interplanetary matter since the formation of the solar system.

  20. Xenon in chondritic metal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, K.; Kim, J. S.; Lavielle, B.; Pellas, P.; Perron, C.

    1989-10-01

    The authors report xenon isotopic abundances observed in the stepwise release of noble gases in a high-purity metal separate of the Forest Vale (H4) chondrite. They identify a 244Pu-derived fission component, due to recoils into the metal, a cosmic-ray-produced spallation component and a new trapped component which is isotopically distinct from known solar system reservoirs. The authors discuss several processes which might account for observed isotopic shifts and conclude that the signature of FVM xenon may provide clues regarding the origin of chondritic metal.

  1. Magnetic Properties of LL6 Ordinary Chondrite St. Severin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doh, S.; Yu, Y.; Kim, W.; Min, K. K.

    2010-12-01

    The LL6 St. Severin possesses an ancient stable natural remanent magnetization (NRM), whose higher unblocking fractions (520-560°C) are randomly oriented yet lower unblocking fractions (<520°C) form a potential magnetic foliation. The St. Severin contains paramagnetic troilite, Cr-Fe-Ti-oxide and potentially ferromagnetic Fe-Ni system. A sharp unblocking around 560°C during thermal demagnetization strongly indicates that tetrataenite is the sole remanence carrier in the St. Severin. However, the absence of ferromagnetic signal in kamacite and the presence of a randomly oriented higher unblocking fraction (520-560°C) of NRM for tetrataenite indicate a multi-stage shock-induced metamorphism of the St. Severin rather than a thermal origin of NRM. More than an order difference in NRM/ARM (anhysteretic remanent magnetization) and NRM/SIRM (saturation isothermal remanent magnetization) with respect to a terrestrial signal can be a manifestation of taenite conversion to tetrataenite.

  2. Chemical characteristic of R chondrites in the light of P, REEs, Th and U abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Rahat; Shirai, Naoki; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2015-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs), Th, U and P were determined in 15 Rumuruti (R)-type chondrites and the Allende CV chondrite. Repeated analyses of Allende for REEs, Th and U by ICP-MS and P by ICP-AES, and comparisons of these data with literature values ensure high reproducibility (precision) and reliability (accuracy) of acquired data. CI-normalized REE abundances in R chondrites are slightly enriched in heavy REEs with a small, positive Ce anomaly, in contrast to Allende. CI-normalized Pr/Tm and Nd/Yb ratios show a positive correlation, suggesting the heterogeneous mixing of two components (CI-like and refractory-rich materials) during the accretion of the R chondrite parent body. A Ce anomaly, however, was likely homogeneously present in the nebula. A mean Th/U ratio of R chondrites is 3.81 ± 0.13 (1 ?), which is 5.1% higher than the CI ratio. Probably, the Th-U fractionation was inherited from the nebula from which the R chondrite parent body formed. Besides the Th-U fractionation, REEs and Th-U are heterogeneously fractionated in R chondrites, for which parent body processing is assumed to be the cause. A mean P content of R chondrites (1254 ?g/g) is higher than for any ordinary chondrite and is close to the EL mean. There appears to be a negative correlation between P and REEs contents in R chondrites. It is probable that REEs were diluted by extraneously supplied, REEs-depleted and P-containing materials (schreibersite or metal). This process must have occurred heterogeneously during accretion so that the heterogeneity of P-containing materials was preserved in the R chondrite parent body and individual R chondrites.

  3. Re-Os Systematics and HSE Distribution in Metal from Ochansk (H4) Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoliar, M. I.; Horan, M. F.; Alexander, C. M. OD.; Walker, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of the Re-Os systematics of chondrites have documented considerable variation in the Re/Os ratios of whole rock samples. For some whole rock chondrites, Re-Os systematics display large deviations from the primitive isochron that are considerably larger than deviations in other isotope systems. Possible interpretation of these facts is that the Re-Os system in chondrites is particularly sensitive to post-formation alteration processes, thus providing a useful tool to examine such processes. Significant variations that have been detected in highly siderophile element (HSE) patterns for ordinary chondrites support this conclusion. We report Re-Os isotope data for metal separates from the Ochansk H4 chondrite coupled with abundance data for Ru, Pd, Ir, and Pt, determined in the same samples by isotope dilution. We chose this meteorite mainly because it is an observed fall with minimal signs of weathering, and its low metamorphic grade (H4) and shock stage (S3).

  4. Chondrites - Initial strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios and the early history of the solar system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.; Mark, R.; Lee-Hu, C.

    1973-01-01

    A sodium-poor, calcium-rich inclusion in the carbonaceous chondrite Allende had a Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio at the time of its formation of 0.69880, as low a value as that found in any other meteorite. The higher Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios found in ordinary chondrites indicate that their formation or isotopic equilibration occurred tens of millions of years later.

  5. Raman Characterization of Graphite Inclusions in the Metal of the Bishunpur Chondrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mostefaoui; C. Perron

    1995-01-01

    In the course of a study of Fe-Ni metal composition in chondrites, we found abundant graphite inclusions in the metal of Bishunpur (L3.1) and other primitive ordinary chondrites [1]. In addition, the metal composition in Bishunpur showed evidence that these graphite inclusions are remains of carbon which served to reduce Cr, P and Si into Fe-Ni during chondrule formation. To

  6. Chemical Variations Among L-Chondrites--IV. Analyses, with Petrographic Notes, of 13 L-group and 3 LL-group Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosewich, E.; Dodd, R. T.

    1985-03-01

    We review our procedures for selecting, preparing and analyzing meteorite samples, present new analyses of 16 ordinary chondrites, and discuss variations of Fe, S and Si in the L-group. A tendency for Fe/Mg, S/Mg and Si/Mg to be low in L chondrites of facies d to f testifies that post-metamorphic shock melting played a significant role in the chemical diversification of the L-group. However, these ratios also vary widely and sympathetically in melt-free chondrites, indicating that much of the L-group's chemical variation arose prior to thermal metamorphism and is in that sense primary. If all L chondrites come from one parent body, type-correlated chemical trends suggest: 1) that the body had a traditional "onion skin" structure, with metamorphic intensity increasing with depth; and 2) that it formed from material that became more homogeneous, slightly poorer in iron, and significantly richer in sulfur as accretion proceeded.

  7. Chemical variations among L-chondrites. IV - Analyses, with petrographic notes, of 13 L-group and 3 LL-group chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosewich, E.; Dodd, R. T.

    1985-03-01

    Procedures are reviewed for selecting, preparing and analyzing meteorite samples, present new analyses of 16 ordinary chondrites, and discuss variations of Fe, S and Si in the L-group. A tendency for Fe/Mg, S/Mg and Si/Mg to be low in L chondrites of facies d to f testifies that post-metamorphic shock melting played a significant role in the chemical diversification of the L-group. However, these ratios also vary widely and sympathetically in melt-free chondrites, indicating that much of the L-group's chemical variation arose prior to thermal metamorphism and is in that sense primary. If all L chondrites come from one parent body, type-correlated chemical trends suggest: (1) that the body had a tradiational 'onion skin' structure, with metamorphic intensity increasing with depth; and (2) that it formed from material that became more homogeneous, slightly poorer in iron, and significantly richer in sulfur as accretion proceeded.

  8. LEW 87223: A Unique E Chondrite with Possible Links to H Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, J. N.; MacPherson, G. J.; Crozaz, G.

    1993-07-01

    LEW87223 (paired with LEW87057, 87220, and 87234) is an enstatite chondrite with unique textural and compositional properties. The Si content of metal (~0.5%), the presence of alabandite instead of niningerite, and the bulk WNi ratio in this chondrite are all consistent with an EL classification, but the high metal (23 wt%) and siderophile element abundances are closer to those in the EH group [1,2]. The moderately volatile elements, Mn, Na, K, As, Ga, and Se are all depleted relative to EH and EL chondrites [2]. The presence of olivine is consistent with an E3 classification. Oxygen isotopes in LEW87220 and 87234 are in the EH and EL chondrite field [R. Clayton, priv. comm., 1993]. Zhang et al. [2] suggested that this meteorite formed from an EL3 chondrite that experienced fractionation during impact and brecciation. Shock and thermal processing undoubtedly occurred, but our work suggests that LEW87223 was not derived from normal EL starting material. A precursor with properties intermediate between H and E chondrites seems to be indicated. LEW87223 has an opaque-mineral assemblage unlike that of other E chondrites. It has EH-like amounts of metal and troilite, schreibersite is common, but penyite, sphalerite, and djerfisherite (all found in EH3 and EL3 chondrites; [3]) were not observed. Oldhamite does occur as rare, transparent, pink crystals up to 100 micrometers in size, completely enclosed in kamacite. Metal grains are comparable in size to chondrules, and equant. Although it is a type 3, LEW87223 chondrules commonly appear to be welded together, and share long boundaries with other chondrules and metal grains. The olivines show features consistent with shock stage 2 of Stoffler et al. [4]. Alabandite is Fe-rich [2] and occurs as recrystallized aggregates along FeS grain boundaries [A. El Goresy, priv. comm., 1993]. Many chondrules appear dark or opaque in transmitted light due to abundant sub-micrometer, pure Fe metal intergrown with enstatite and silica, all of which partially replace ferroan pyroxene ^FS(sub)15-18). All of these features are consistent with a history involving strong reduction, shock, and heating. We analyzed four large, unweathered oldhamite grains in LEW87220 and 87234 by ion probe, and found trace element characteristics similar to those seen in MAC88136, the only known EL3 chondrite [3]: Mg, Sr, and Zr are lower, and Mn is higher than in EH oldhamite. One grain has a REE pattem that is flat at 60 x CI for LREE, and decreases from 46 x CI at Eu to 15 x CI at Lu, with a positive Yb anomaly (Yb/Yb*=3). The other grains have flat REE patterns near 75 x CI, with negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*=0.4). The first pattern is most likely nebular in origin. The second, more common pattern, with the negative Eu anomaly is unlikely to be nebular, and may be metamorphic in origin, in which case the meteorite contains a mixture of nebular and metamorphic oldhamite. Zhang et al. [2] explained the low abundances of alkalis, Mn, Ga, and Se, and high abundance of siderophiles in LEW87223 as being due to the addition of EL metal, and removal of sulfides during shock and thermal processing of a normal EL3. This seems highly implausible to us because of the physical difficulty of completely separating minor sulfides from FeS and metal, and because perryite, which is intimately associated with metal in E chondrites, is missing. It is more likely that the chondrite represents an entirely new group of E chondrites. The high abundance (10s of %) of blackened (reduced) chondrules also indicates a population of chondrules that was initially quite oxidized; in fact, the measured compositions of surviving ferroan pyroxene are in the H-chondrite range. Also evident in the published trace element data [2] is a siderophile element abundance pattern identical to that in H chondrites but different from those in EH and EL chondrites. LEW87223 may be a link between the ordinary and enstatite chondrite groups. References: [1] Mason (1989,1992) Ant. Meteor. Newslett., 12(1) and 15(1,2). [2] Zhang et al. (1993) LPS XXIV, 1571. [3] Li

  9. The Galatia, Kansas, chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Schmus, W. R.; Keil, K.; Lange, D. E.; Conrad, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the Galatia meteorite found August 1971 approximately 7 km ENE of Galatia, Barton County, Kansas (98 deg 53 min W, 38 deg 39.5 min N). The single stone weighed 23.9 kg and is partially weathered. Olivine (Fa 24.9) and pyroxene (Fs 20.9) compositions indicate L-group classification, and textural observations indicate that the stone is of petrologic type 6. While Galatia is similar in many respects to the Otis L6 chondrite found 20 miles to the west, Galatia does not have the brecciated structure of Otis and is therefore not part of the same fall.

  10. Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of collisional events in chondrite parent bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D. D.; Wright, R. J.; Husain, L.

    1976-01-01

    Ar-40/Ar-39 age dating of a number of shocked ordinary chondrites is interpreted in terms of collisional degassing events of meteorite parent bodies, probably in the asteroid belt. Examples of L, H, and at least one LL chondrite show episodic degassing. Degassing ages suggest several distinct events ranging from about 0.03 aeon to 0.7 aeon and probably higher. All specimens of either the H or L chondrites are not consistent with a single age event. A direct correlation exists between the degree of shock heating and the fraction of argon lost during degassing. However, no chondrite yet analyzed shows complete degassing of its high-temperature phase. Consequently, whole rock K-Ar ages are not accurate monitors of the time of the shock event.

  11. Heterogeneous distribution of 26Al at the birth of the Solar System: Evidence from corundum-bearing refractory inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makide, Kentaro; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Hellebrand, Eric; Petaev, Michail I.

    2013-06-01

    We report on the mineralogy, petrology, and in situ oxygen- and magnesium-isotope measurements using secondary ion mass spectrometry of 10 corundum-bearing calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the Adelaide (ungrouped), Murray and Murchison (CM) carbonaceous chondrites. We also measured in situ oxygen-isotope compositions of several isolated corundum grains in the matrices of Murray and Murchison. Most of the corundum-bearing objects studied are uniformly 16O-rich [?17O values range from -17‰ to -28‰ (2? = ±2.5‰) (?17Oavr = -23 ± 5‰)], suggesting that they formed in a 16O-rich gas of approximately solar composition and largely avoided subsequent thermal processing in an 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. There is a large spread of the initial 26Al/27Al ratio [(26Al/27Al)0] in the corundum-bearing CAIs. Two Adelaide CAIs show no resolvable excess of radiogenic 26Mg (?26Mg?): the inferred (26Al/27Al)0 are (0.6 ± 2.0) × 10-6 and (-0.9 ± 1.2) × 10-6, respectively. Slopes of the model 26Al-26Mg isochrons in five CAIs from Murray and Murchison are (4.4 ± 0.2) × 10-5, (3.3 ± 0.3) × 10-5, (4.1 ± 0.3) × 10-5, (3.9 ± 0.4) × 10-5, and (4.0 ± 2.0) × 10-6, respectively. These values are lower than the canonical (26Al/27Al)0 ratio of (5.23 ± 0.13) × 10-5 inferred from the whole-rock magnesium-isotope measurements of the CV CAIs, but similar to the (26Al/27Al)0 ratio of (4.1 ± 0.2) × 10-5 in the corundum-bearing CAI F5 from Murray. Five other previously studied corundum-bearing CAIs from Acfer 094 (ungrouped) and CM carbonaceous chondrites showed no resolvable ?26Mg?. We conclude that the corundum-bearing CAIs, as well as the solar corundum grains from matrices and acid-resistant residues of unequilibrated ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites, recorded heterogeneous distribution of 26Al in the Solar System during an epoch of CAI formation. The 26Al-rich and 26Al-poor corundum-bearing CAIs and solar corundum grains represent different generations of refractory objects formed during this epoch. As a result, its duration cannot be inferred from 26Al-26Mg systematics of CAIs. Oxygen-isotope composition of the protoplanetary disk was probably heterogeneous during this time reflecting either initial differences in oxygen isotopic compositions of the solid and gaseous reservoirs in the early Solar System or rapid isotopic evolution of these reservoirs in the protoplanetary disk with time. We suggest that 26Al was injected into the protosolar molecular cloud core, possibly by a wind from a neighboring massive star or by or a low-mass asymptotic giant branch star, prior to formation of CAIs and refractory grains, and was subsequently homogenized through the protoplanetary disk by radial mixing.

  12. On the Relationship between Cosmic Ray Exposure Ages and Petrography of CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takenouchi, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M.; Velbel, M. A.; Ross, K.; Zolensky, A.; Lee, L.; Imae, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonaceous (C) chondrites are potentially the most primitive among chondrites because they mostly escaped thermal metamorphism that affected the other chondrite groups. C chondrites are chemically distinguished from other chondrites by their high Mg/Si ratios and refractory elements, and have experienced various degrees of aqueous alteration. They are subdivided into eight subgroups (CI, CM, CO, CV, CK, CR, CB and CH) based on major element and oxygen isotopic ratios. Their elemental ratios vary over a wide range, in contrast to those of ordinary and enstatite chondrites which are relatively uniform. It is critical to know how many separate bodies are represented by the C chondrites. In this study we defined 4 distinct cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age groups of CMs and systematically characterized the petrography in each of the 4 CRE age groups to determine whether the groups have significant petrographic differences with such differences probably reflecting different parent body (asteroid) geological processing, or multiple original bodies. We have reported the results of a preliminary grouping at the NIPR Symp. in 2013 [3], however, we revised the grouping and here report our new results.

  13. Thermal evolution model for the H chondrite asteroid-instantaneous formation versus protracted accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henke, S.; Gail, H.-P.; Trieloff, M.; Schwarz, W. H.

    2013-09-01

    We present a model of the thermal evolution of asteroids. Assuming an onion shell model for the H chondrite parent body we obtain constraints for the H chondrite asteroid parameters by fitting empirical H chondrite cooling ages of Estacado, Guareña, Kernouvé, Mt. Browne, Richardton, Allegan, Nadiabondi, Ste. Marguerite, and Forest Vale by using a genetic algorithm for parameter optimisation. The model improves previous calculations on the thermal history calculated in the instantaneous accretion approximation considering sintering and porosity dependent heat conduction. The model is extended to include a finite growth time of the parent body to study whether the meteoritic record constrains the duration of the growth phase of the parent body where it assembles most of its mass. It is found that only short accretion times of up to 0.1 Ma are compatible with the empirical data on H chondrite cooling histories. Best fit models yield excellent agreement with the cooling age data. Particularly, they indicate that (i) 26Al was the major heat source driving metamorphism, while 60Fe contributed rather marginally, (ii) maximum temperatures remained below partial melting temperatures throughout the body, indicating that no partial differentiation occurred on the H chondrite parent asteroid, (iii) the H chondrite asteroid formed 2 Ma after CAIs, briefly after most ordinary chondrite chondrules formed (if 26Al abundance defines a chronological sequence).

  14. Chondritic Asteroids--When Did Aqueous Alteration Happen?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, P. M.

    2015-06-01

    Using a synthesized fayalite (Fe2SiO4) standard for improved 53Mn-53Cr radiometric age dating, Patricia Doyle (previously at the University of Hawaii and now at the University of Cape Town, South Africa) and coauthors from Hawaii, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, University of Chicago, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, analyzed aqueously formed fayalite in the ordinary chondrite Elephant Moraine 90161 (L3.05) and in the carbonaceous chondrites Asuka 881317 (CV3) and MacAlpine Hills 88107 (CO3-like) from Antarctica. The data obtained indicate that liquid water existed - and aqueous alteration started - on the chondritic parent bodies about three million years earlier than previously determined. This discovery has implications for understanding when and where the asteroids accreted. The 53Mn-53Cr chronology of chondrite aqueous alteration, combined with thermodynamic calculations and physical modeling, signifies that hydrated asteroids, at least those sampled by meteorites, accreted in the inner Solar System (2-4 AU) near the main asteroid belt 2-4 million years after the beginning of the Solar System, rather than migrating inward after forming in the Solar System's colder, outer regions beyond Jupiter's present orbit (5-15 AU).

  15. The Glanerbrug Breccia: Evidence for a Separate L\\/LL-Chondritic Parent Body?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Welten; L. Lindner; R. P. E. Poorter; G. W. Kallemeyn; A. E. Rubin; J. T. Wasson

    1992-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. On April 7, 1990, a brecciated ordinary chondrite fell through the roof of a house near Glanerbrug in the Netherlands and was shattered to pieces. The total weight of the recovered fragments was about 800 g, the largest piece weighing 135 g. This main fragment clearly shows the inhomogeneous structure of the Glanerbrug: a dark-grey breccia occasionally containing blackish

  16. Magnesium isotopic composition of the Earth and chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Fang-Zhen; Li, Wang-Ye; Ke, Shan; Marty, Bernard; Dauphas, Nicolas; Huang, Shichun; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Pourmand, Ali

    2010-07-01

    To constrain further the Mg isotopic composition of the Earth and chondrites, and investigate the behavior of Mg isotopes during planetary formation and magmatic processes, we report high-precision (±0.06‰ on ? 25Mg and ±0.07‰ on ? 26Mg, 2SD) analyses of Mg isotopes for (1) 47 mid-ocean ridge basalts covering global major ridge segments and spanning a broad range in latitudes, geochemical and radiogenic isotopic compositions; (2) 63 ocean island basalts from Hawaii (Kilauea, Koolau and Loihi) and French Polynesia (Society Island and Cook-Austral chain); (3) 29 peridotite xenoliths from Australia, China, France, Tanzania and USA; and (4) 38 carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrites including 9 chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CV, L, LL, H, EH and EL). Oceanic basalts and peridotite xenoliths have similar Mg isotopic compositions, with average values of ? 25Mg = -0.13 ± 0.05 (2SD) and ? 26Mg = -0.26 ± 0.07 (2SD) for global oceanic basalts ( n = 110) and ? 25Mg = -0.13 ± 0.03 (2SD) and ? 26Mg = -0.25 ± 0.04 (2SD) for global peridotite xenoliths ( n = 29). The identical Mg isotopic compositions in oceanic basalts and peridotites suggest that equilibrium Mg isotope fractionation during partial melting of peridotite mantle and magmatic differentiation of basaltic magma is negligible. Thirty-eight chondrites have indistinguishable Mg isotopic compositions, with ? 25Mg = -0.15 ± 0.04 (2SD) and ? 26Mg = -0.28 ± 0.06 (2SD). The constancy of Mg isotopic compositions in all major types of chondrites suggest that primary and secondary processes that affected the chemical and oxygen isotopic compositions of chondrites did not significantly fractionate Mg isotopes. Collectively, the Mg isotopic composition of the Earth's mantle, based on oceanic basalts and peridotites, is estimated to be -0.13 ± 0.04 for ? 25Mg and -0.25 ± 0.07 for ? 26Mg (2SD, n = 139). The Mg isotopic composition of the Earth, as represented by the mantle, is similar to chondrites. The chondritic composition of the Earth implies that Mg isotopes were well mixed during accretion of the inner solar system.

  17. Effect of metamorphism on isolated olivine grains in CO3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1993-06-01

    The presence of a metamorphic sequence in the CO3 chondrite group has been shown previously to result in changes in properties of chondrule silicates. However, the role of isolated olivine grains during metamorphism of these chondrites has not been addressed. Isolated olivine grains in two metamorphosed CO3 chondrites, Lance and Isna, have been investigated in this study in order to assess the compositional properties of isolated olivine grains that may be attributable to metamorphism. Compositional changes in isolated olivines with increasing petrologic subtype are very similar to changes in chondrule olivines in the same chondrites. Olivine compositions from all occurrences (chondrules, isolated grains, and matrix) converge with increasing petrologic subtype. The degree of equilibration of minor elements is qualitatively related to the diffusion rate of each element in olivine, suggesting that diffusion-controlled processes are the most important processes responsible for compositional changes within the metamorphic sequence. The data are consistent with metamorphism taking place in a closed system on the CO3 chondrite parent body. Fe-poor olivine grains in metamorphosed chondrites are characterized by an Fe-rich rim, which is the result of diffusion of Fe into the grains from Fe-rich matrix. In some instances, 'complex', Fe-rich rims have been identified, which appear to have originated as igneous overgrowths and subsequently to have been overprinted by diffusion processes during metamorphism. Processes experienced by CO3 chondrites are more similar to those experienced by the ordinary chondrites than to those encountered by other carbonaceous chondrites, such as the CV3 group.

  18. Magnetite in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Xin; Buseck, Peter R.

    1997-03-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) occurs in many carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) and has long attracted the attention of meteorite researchers. However, its origin is unresolved; suggestions range from condensates from the solar nebular to products from aqueous alteration on the meteorite parent body. The report of possible evidence of former life in ancient Martian meteorite ALH84001 suggested an additional and highly intriguing origin for certain meteoritic magnetite, namely as magnetosomes from bacteria. However, a recent publication reports TEM evidence of spiral defects running through some of the the magnetite in ALHA84001, interpreted as evidence for a high temperature origin. These studies provide special interest to the occurrence of magnetite in meteorites. Using SEM, we studied magnetite from the Orgueil, Murchison, and Kaba and Mokoia meteorites, and obtained images at a nm-scale. We also did EMPA measurements to determine the compositions of the magnetite and surrounding minerals.

  19. Formation and Processing of Amorphous Silicates in Primitive Carbonaceous Chondrites and Cometary Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Messenger, S.

    2012-01-01

    Chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) exhibit strongly heterogeneous and unequilibrated mineralogy at sub-micron scales, are enriched in carbon, nitrogen and volatile trace elements, and contain abundant presolar materials [1-4]. These observations suggest that CP IDPs have largely escaped the thermal processing and water-rock interactions that have severely modified or destroyed the original mineralogy of primitive meteorites. CP IDPs are believed to represent direct samples of the building blocks of the Solar System - a complex mixture of nebular and presolar materials largely unperturbed by secondary processing. The chemical and isotopic properties of CP IDPs and their atmospheric entry velocities are also consistent with cometary origins. GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains are a major silicate component of CP IDPs. GEMS grains are < 0.5 microns in diameter objects that consist of numerous 10 to 50 nm-sized Fe-Ni metal and Fe-Ni sulfide grains dispersed in a Mg-Si-Al-Fe amorphous silicate matrix [2, 5]. Based on their chemistry and isotopic compositions, most GEMS appear to be non-equilibrium condensates from the early solar nebula [2]. If GEMS grains are a common nebular product, then they should also be abundant in the matrices of the most physically primitive chondritic meteorites. Although amorphous silicates are common in the most primitive meteorites [6-9], their relationship to GEMS grains and the extent to which their compositions and microstructure have been affected by parent body processing (oxidation and aqueous alteration) is poorly constrained. Here we compare and contrast the chemical, microstructural and isotopic properties of amorphous silicates in primitive carbonaceous chondrites to GEMS grains in IDPs.

  20. Partial asteroid differentiation revealed by paleomagnetism of R-chondrite meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cournède, Cécile; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Rochette, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The study of the paleomagnetism of extraterrestrial material allows constraining magnetic fields in the early solar system. This can help us to understand primordial aspects of the history of the early solar system. Indeed, nebular or solar magnetic fields could have played a major role in the accretion process that generated the primary components of our solar system. Internal fields (i.e. generated by a dynamo within a solid body) are also of substantial interest since they provide information on parent body evolution, especially on parent body differentiation. In this study we focused on Rumuruti chondrites (R chondrites) [1]. This meteorite group is of particular interest because R chondrites parent body is believed to have formed at a heliocentric distance greater than ordinary chondrites and less than carbonaceous chondrites [2]. As such, more than a simple new chondrite group, R chondrites offer the possibility to estimate the magnetic fields strength present in a yet unstudied part of the early solar system. Only preliminary paleomagnetic data are available for these meteorites [3]. We performed a detailed magnetic and paleomagnetic study of two R chondrites, PCA91002 and LAP03639. Our aim was to establish the nature and the origin of the magnetic field recorded in these meteorites. Our results show that these two meteorites contain sulfide (pyrrhotite). Magnetite was also found in PCA91002. Paleomagnetic analyses using thermal and alternating field demagnetization evidenced a stable and homogenous magnetization in both R chondrites. Because magnetic carriers in these meteorites are secondary phases formed during a metamorphic event several Myr after the parent body formation (I-Xe dating on magnetite, [4]), the magnetization was acquired after the possible existence of solar and nebular magnetic fields. Therefore the magnetizing field was most probably of internal origin. Using alternating field normalizing methods we estimate that the magnetization was acquired in a magnetic field of about 5 µT. In view of the intensity and the likely internal (dynamo) origin of the magnetizing field, partial differentiation of the R chondrite parent body seems necessary. This idea, with a chondritic crust overlying a differentiated inner body has recently been proposed for CV chondrites parent body [5,6]. [1] Schulze et al., 1994. Meteoritics 29, 275-286. [2] Khan et al., 2013. 44th Lunar and Planet. Sci. Conf., abstract 2059. [3] Gattacceca and Rochette 2004. Earth Planet . Sci. Lett., 277, 377-393. [4] Claydon et al., 2013. 44th Lunar and Planet. Sci. Conf., abstract 2211. [5] Carporzen et al., 2011. Proc. National Acad. Sci., 108, 6386-6389. [6] Elkins-Tanton et al., 2011. Earth Planet . Sci. Lett., 305, 1-10.

  1. Validity of trace element cosmothermometer. [for accretion range of chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.; Larimer, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    A reply is made to previous criticisms of the claim that the range of accretion of ordinary chondrites can be narrowed to 500-420 K (from 560-405 K) using volatile metals as cosmothermometers. Questions concerning uncertainties in vapor pressure data, entropy of mixing, methods of analysis, uncertainties in condensation curves, metamorphic transport, alloy formation, condensation of Tl, condensation of In, and concordance with other thermometers (FeO contents of silicates) are addressed. It is concluded that the original claim is valid.

  2. REE and Hf distribution among mineral phases in the CV-CK clan: A way to explain present-day Hf isotopic variations in chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Céline; Debaille, Vinciane; Lanari, Pierre; Goderis, Steven; Vandendael, Isabelle; Vanhaecke, Frank; Vidal, Olivier; Claeys, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Chondrites are among the most primitive objects in the Solar System and constitute the main building blocks of telluric planets. Among the radiochronometers currently used for dating geological events, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf are both composed of refractory, lithophile element. They are thought to behave similarly as the parent elements (Sm and Lu) are generally less incompatible than the daughter elements (Nd and Hf) during geological processes. As such, their respective average isotopic compositions for the solar system should be well defined by the average of chondrites, called Chondritic Uniform Reservoir (CHUR). However, while the Sm-Nd isotopic system shows an actual spread of less than 4% in the average chondritic record, the Lu-Hf system shows a larger variation range of 28% [Bouvier A., Vervoort J. D. and Patchett P. J. (2008) The Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopic composition of CHUR: Constraints from unequilibrated chondrites and implications for the bulk composition of terrestrial planets. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.273, 48-57]. To better understand the contrast between Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf systems, the REE and Hf distribution among mineral phases during metamorphism of Karoonda (CK) and Vigarano-type (CV) carbonaceous chondrites has been examined. Mineral modes were determined from elemental mapping on a set of five CK chondrites (from types 3-6) and one CV3 chondrite. Trace-element patterns are obtained for the first time in all the chondrite-forming minerals of a given class (CK chondrites) as well as one CV3 sample. This study reveals that REE are distributed among both phosphates and silicates. Only 30-50% of Sm and Nd are stored in phosphates (at least in chondrites types 3-5); as such, they are not mobilized during early stages of metamorphism. The remaining fraction of Sm and Nd is distributed among the same mineral phases; these elements are therefore not decoupled during metamorphism. Of the whole-rock total of Lu, the fraction held in phosphate decreases significantly as the degree of metamorphism increases (30% for types 3 and 4, less than 5% in type 6). In contrast to Lu, Hf is mainly hosted by silicates with little contribution from phosphates throughout the CK metamorphic sequence. A significant part of Sm and Nd are stored in phosphates in types 3-5, and these elements behave similarly during CK chondrite metamorphism. That explains the robustness of the Sm/Nd ratios in chondrites through metamorphism, and the slight discrepancies observed in the present-day isotopic Nd values in chondrites. On the contrary, Lu and Hf are borne by several different minerals and consequently they are redistributed during metamorphism-induced recrystallization. The Lu/Hf ratios are therefore significantly disturbed during chondrites metamorphism, leading to the high discrepancies observed in present-day Hf isotopic values in chondrites.

  3. Reflectance spectra of primitive chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Llorca, J.

    2013-05-01

    We are studying a wide sample of pristine carbonaceous chondrites from the NASA Antarctic collection in order to get clues on the physico-chemical processes occurred in the parent bodies of these meteorites. We are obtaining laboratory reflectance spectra of different groups of carbonaceous chondrites, but here we focus in CM and CI chondrites. We discuss the main spectral features that can be used to identify primitive carbonaceous asteroids by remote sensing techniques. Two different spectrometers were used covering the entire 0.3 to 30 ?m electromagnetic window. Only a handful of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) exhibit bands or features clearly associated with aqueous alteration. Among them are the target asteroids of Osiris Rex and Marco Polo-R missions.

  4. Porosity of Chondrites: Some Regularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Kuyunko, N. S.

    1996-03-01

    Porosity depends on processes of formation and evolutionary history of composite materials of chondrites. The same processes may stipulate, in particular, the content of radiogenic 4He and 40Ar in the meteorites. We have analysed the distribution of porosity of H and L chondrites depending on ratio of T(sub)4/T(sub)40, (where T(sub)4 and T(sub)40 are U, Th-He and K-Ar gas-retention ages, respectively) for determination of possible interrelation between these features of meteorites.

  5. Magnetite-sulfide chondrules and nodules in CK carbonaceous chondrites - Implications for the timing of CK oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1993-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites contain rare (about 0.1 vol pct) magnetite-sulfide chondrules that range from about 240 to 500 microns in apparent diameter and have ellipsoidal to spheroidal morphologies, granular textures, and concentric layering. They resemble the magnetite-sulfide nodules occurring inside mafic silicate chondrules in CK chondrites. It seems likely that the magnetite-sulfide chondrules constitute the subset of magnetite-sulfide nodules that escaped as immiscible droplets from their molten silicate chondrule hosts during chondrule formation. The intactness of the magnetite-sulfide chondrules and nodules implies that oxidation of CK metal occurred before agglomeration. Hence, the pervasive silicate darkening of CK chondrites was caused by the shock mobilization of magnetite and sulfide, not metallic Fe-Ni and sulfide as in shock-darkened ordinary chondrites.

  6. Noble gases in chondrites found in hot deserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, P.; Loeken, T.; Schultz, L.

    1994-07-01

    Many new meteorites have been recovered from hot desert regions during recent years. These generally heavily weathered chondrites have terrestrial ages up to a few 104 yr, which are younger than those of the less-weathered Antarctic meteorites. We have investigated the influence of weathering on the noble gas record. Concentration and isotopic composition of all noble gases were measured in 30 ordinary chondrites from hot deserts, mainly from the Sahara, the Nullabor Plain, Roosevelt County, and Chile. The results are compared with those of Modern Falls and Antarctic finds respectively. Most of the hot desert chondrite samples contain elevated concentrations of trapped Ar, Kr, and Xe in spite of a preheating at 140 C in-vacuo for 48 hr. Since the isotopic composition of Xe suggests an atmospheric origin, it is concluded that the high concentrations of Kr are also due to a terrestrial contamination. High concentrations of Kr are correlated with low Xe-132/Kr-84 ratios. Finds with high Kr concentrations have ratios of about 0.2, which is higher than the atmospheric value of about 0.04. This implies an elemental fractionation during the trapping process. Stepwise heating experiments show that for strongly weathered meteorites most of the atmospheric Kr is lost after degassing the chondrite for 30 min at 800 C. The treatment of weathered meteorites with acids removes weathering products but does not completely remove the atmospheric gases. Weathering products are not the only carrier of these gases. 'Irreversible adsorption' could be responsible for the incorporation of atmospheric noble gases into other meteoritic mineral grains.

  7. Deuterium enrichments in chondritic macromolecular material—Implications for the origin and evolution of organics, water and asteroids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. O’D. Alexander; S. D. Newsome; M. L. Fogel; L. R. Nittler; H. Busemann; G. D. Cody

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the elemental and isotopic compositions of the insoluble organic material (IOM) isolated from several previously unanalyzed meteorites, as well as the reanalyses of H isotopic compositions of some previously measured samples (Alexander et al., 2007). The IOM in ordinary chondrites (OCs) has very large D enrichments that increase with increasing metamorphism and decreasing H\\/C, the most extreme

  8. Igneous Graphite in Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1997-01-01

    Igneous graphite. a rare constituent in terrestrial mafic and ultramafic rocks. occurs in three EH and one EL enstatite chondrite impact-melt breccias as 2-150 Ilm long euhedrallaths. some with pyramidal terminations. In contrast. graphite in most enstatite chondrites exsolved from metallic Fe-Ni as polygonal. rounded or irregular aggregates. Literature data for five EH chondrites on C combusting at high temperatures show that Abee contains the most homogeneous C isotopes (i.e. delta(sup 13)C = -8.1+/-2.1%); in addition. Abee's mean delta(sup l3)C value is the same as the average high-temperature C value for the set of five EH chondrites. This suggests that Abee scavenged C from a plurality of sources on its parent body and homogenized the C during a large-scale melting event. Whereas igneous graphite in terrestrial rocks typically forms at relatively high pressure and only moderately low oxygen fugacity (e.g., approx. 5 kbar. logfO2, approx. -10 at 1200 C ). igneous graphite in asteroidal meteorites formed at much lower pressures and oxygen fugacities.

  9. Travel for ordinary comforts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aida Hozic

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on the co-constitution of political subjectivities, political regimes and global political economy by exploring experiences of international travel by ordinary Yugoslav citizens. Political non-players (Ashis Nandy (1998) The intimate enemy: loss and recovery of self under colonialism (New Delhi: Oxford University Press)) and their everyday practices are key protagonists in the narrative of border crossings, migrations, translocations

  10. Rare-earth abundances in chondritic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evensen, N. M.; Hamilton, P. J.; Onions, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    Fifteen chondrites, including eight carbonaceous chondrites, were analyzed for rare earth element abundances by isotope dilution. Examination of REE for a large number of individual chondrites shows that only a small proportion of the analyses have flat unfractionated REE patterns within experimental error. While some of the remaining analyses are consistent with magmatic fractionation, many patterns, in particular those with positive Ce anomalies, can not be explained by known magmatic processes. Elemental abundance anomalies are found in all major chondrite classes. The persistence of anomalies in chondritic materials relatively removed from direct condensational processes implies that anomalous components are resistant to equilibrium or were introduced at a late stage of chondrite formation. Large-scale segregation of gas and condensate is implied, and bulk variations in REE abundances between planetary bodies is possible.

  11. Re-Os systematics in chondrites and the fractionation of the platinum group elements in the early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1998-10-01

    We have investigated the Re-Os system for samples of whole rock, metal, and sulfide from ordinary chondrites. Using closed-system analytical techniques, we found complete exchange between sample and tracer isotopes for silicate-containing samples and obtained precise and reliable Re-Os concentration measurements. Results on two Group IVA iron meteorites and on a silicate-rich iron (Steinbach, IVA-AN) are consistent with the IVA-IVB isochron and support the previous observation that IVA-IVB irons may be slightly older than IIAB irons. Data on whole-rock fragments and metal-rich separates from the St. Séverin chondrite (LL6) show a large range in 187Re/ 188Os and in 187Os/ 188Os, which makes possible, in principle, the determination of a Re-Os internal isochron on a chondrite, for the first time. This Re-Os fractionation may be due to partial melting of FeNiS and macroscopic redistribution of metal and sulfide. The St. Séverin data show a good correlation line on a 187Re- 187Os evolution diagram. If this is considered to represent an internal isochron, it gives an age T = 4.68 ± 0.15 AE [?( 187Re) = 1.64 × 10 -11 a -1] and an initial ( 187Os/ 188Os) 0 = 0.0953 ± 0.0013. This age is in agreement with but slightly older than the more precise 187Re- 187Os age for the IIAB irons as well as for irons from other groups (T = 4.61 ± 0.01 AE). A St. Séverin sulfide nodule has very low Re and Os concentrations and shows a young Re-Os model age (2.3 AE), indicating recent element remobilization. Whole rock and metal-rich separates of H-Group chondrites (H3 to H6) yield restricted ranges in 187Re/ 188Os (0.42-0.47) and 187Os/ 188Os (0.128-0.133). There is a systematic difference between Re/Os in the metal extracted from a chondrite and the bulk chondrite. This shows that there is a small but significant Re-Os fractionation within subsystems contained in the chondrites. From whole rock samples of H Group chondrites we calculate a mean 187Re/ 188Os = 0.423 ± 0.007 and 187Os/ 188Os = 0.12863 ± 0.00046, which may characterize the evolution of an average chondritic reservoir for Re-Os. The ordinary chondrite data plot close to the IIAB isochron, although the deviations found are larger than found for the irons. The Re-Os chronometer in iron meteorites is apparently controlled by the Re-Os fractionation due to fractional crystallization of liquid metal. Re-Os ages of iron meteorites give the time of crystallization of metal segregations and cores of early planetary bodies. In contrast, the behavior in ordinary chondrites, while also dominated by the metal phases, must reflect fractionation and transport on a local macroscopic scale within the chondrites between the metal phases after aggregation, due to partial melting of FeNiS or represent variable Re-Os fractionation of the metal phases prior to the accretion of the chondrites. However, for St. Séverin, we attribute the major Re-Os fractionation to early heating of the meteorite, above the Fe-FeS eutectic. We do not consider that the Re-Os fractionation observed in other chondrites is due to the redistribution of Re and Os during chondrite metamorphism (including shock) but it may plausibly represent earlier stages of Re-Os fractionation for the different FeNi metal constituents prior to accretion.

  12. Ordinary electromagnetic mode instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, C. Z.

    1974-01-01

    The instability of the ordinary electromagnetic mode propagating perpendicular to an external magnetic field is studied for a single-species plasma with ring velocity distribution. The marginal instability boundaries for both the purely growing mode and the propagating growing modes are calculated from the instability criteria. The dispersion characteristics for various sets of plasma parameters are also given. The typical growth rates are of the order of the cyclotron frequency.

  13. Formation and transformations of Fe-rich serpentines by asteroidal aqueous alteration processes: A nanoscale study of the Murray chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmaleh, Agnès; Bourdelle, Franck; Caste, Florent; Benzerara, Karim; Leroux, Hugues; Devouard, Bertrand

    2015-06-01

    Fe-rich serpentines are an abundant product of the early aqueous alteration events that affected the parent bodies of CM carbonaceous chondrites. Alteration assemblages in these meteorites show a large chemical variability and although water-rock interactions occurred under anoxic conditions, serpentines contain high amounts of ferric iron. To date very few studies have documented Fe valence variations in alteration assemblages of carbonaceous chondrites, limiting the understanding of the oxidation mechanisms. Here, we report results from a nanoscale study of a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Murray chondrite, in which alteration resulted in Fe import and Ca export by the fluid phase and in massive Fe-rich serpentines formation. We combined scanning and transmission electron microscopies and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy for characterizing the crystal chemistry of Fe-serpentines. We used reference minerals with known crystallographic orientations to quantify the Fe valence state in Fe-rich serpentines using X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Fe L2,3-edges, yielding a robust methodology that would prove valuable for studying oxidation processes in other terrestrial or extra-terrestrial cases of serpentinization. We suggest that aqueous Fe2+ was transported to the initially Fe-depleted CAI, where local changes in pH conditions, and possibly mineral catalysis by spinel promoted the partial oxidation of Fe2+ into Fe3+ by water and the formation of Fe-rich serpentines close to the cronstedtite endmember. Such mechanisms produce H2, which opens interesting perspectives as hydrogen may have reacted with carbon species, or escaped and yield increasingly oxidizing conditions in the parent asteroid. From the results of this nanoscale study, we also propose transformations of the initial cronstedtite, destabilized by later input of Al- and Mg-rich solutions, leading to Fe2+ leaching from serpentines, as well as to random serpentine-chlorite interstratifications. Such transformations towards polysomatic assemblages that are un-equilibrated from the structural, chemical and redox point of views are probably controlled by the various rates of alteration of primary minerals, but also by porosity gradients, as in terrestrial hydrothermal systems. We suggest that the proposed mechanisms may have played a role in the early formation of (Fe2+,Fe3+)-rich serpentines documented in CM chondrites, as well as in their transformation with on-going alteration towards Fe-poorer compositions inferred from previous petrologic, mineralogical and magnetic studies of CM chondrites.

  14. The Metal-Phosphate Connection in Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perron, C.; Bourot-Denise, M.; Marti, K.; Kim, J. S.; Crozaz, G.

    1992-07-01

    Phosphates in ordinary chondrites are frequently associated with metal and troilite (e.g., Murrell and Burnett, 1983). They also constitute a large fraction of the inclusions present inside these two phases (Perron et al., 1990), in which they seem to have evolved from tiny precipitates formed from P solid solution in Fe-Ni (Zanda et al., 1990). Here, we further characterize these inclusions, and the external phosphates as well ("external" and "internal" will refer to phosphates located outside and inside metal grains, respectively). Polished sections of Dhajala, H3.8, and Forest Vale, H4 (hereafter DH and FV) were etched to reveal tracks in phosphates. Track densities were obtained with an SEM in internal phosphates in DH and FV, and in external phosphates in DH . The area of all phosphates larger than about 4 micrometers (224 grains in DH, 106 in FV) was measured, and their location noted. REE were measured with an ion probe in internal phosphates. Xe was analysed by stepwise heating in separated metal grains from both chondrites. A ^244Pu fission Xe component (Xe(sub)f) was released at low temperature, attributed to recoils from external phosphates, and another one at high temperature, attributed to internal phosphates. The strong link between phosphates and metal is confirmed: 74% by area (and thus, approximately, by mass) of the phosphates in DH are associated with metal, whether internal, or external in contact with metal (62% in FV). This translates into a ratio of metal-associated P to metal of 0.3% by mass, comparable to the P concentration in the metal of CM2 chondrites (Grossman and Olsen, 1974), of Semarkona (Paris, 1992), and of Leoville (under the form of tiny inclusions, Zanda et al., 1990). It is thus likely that a large proportion of chondritic phosphates formed from P originally contained in Fe-Ni as solid solution, through exsolution followed by growth of the original precipitates during parent-body metamorphism. Mean track densities of internal merrillites agree with those measured here in external grains for DH, and by Lavielle et al. (1992) for FV. So, in the moderately metamorphosed chondrites studied here, merrillite inclusions in metal had already their full share of Pu, as compared to external merrillites. On the other hand, REE abundances in internal merrillites are about a factor of two lower than in typical OC merrillites (Crozaz et al., 1989), with a less pronounced Eu anomaly. The elemental pattern varies somewhat from grain to grain (especially in FV) displaying sometimes a steady decrease of the CI-normalized abundances from light to heavy REE. This, together with the presence, inside the metal, of "exotic" phases like farringtonite (Perron et al., 1990), shows that internal phosphates are not completely equilibrated with the external ones. Track densities are considerably lower in DH (-50 x 10^6 cm^-2) than in FV (-350 x 10^6 cm^-2), which points to a lower Pu concentration or a slower cooling rate for the former. On the other hand, the fission Xe released at high temperature by the metal is larger for DH than for FV (~5 and ~3 x 10^-14 cm^3 ^136Xe/g, respectively). This is also true for low temperature Xe(sub)f (a factor -2 difference between DH and FV). Resolution of this conflict must await the measurement of Xe(sub)f in DH external phosphates. References: Crozaz G., Pellas P., Bourot-Denise M., de Chazal S.M., Fieni C., Lundberg L.L. and Zinner E. (1989) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 93, 157-169. Grossman L. and Olsen E. (1974) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 38, 173-187. Lavielle B., Marti K., Pellas P. and Perron C. (1992) Meteoritics, submitted. Murrell M.T. and Burnett D.S. (1983) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 47, 1999-2014. Perron C., Bourot-Denise M., Pellas P. and Marti K. (1990) Meteoritics (abstract) 25, 398-399. Zanda B., Bourot-Denise M. and Perron C. (1990) Meteoritics (abstract) 25, 422-423.

  15. A refractory inclusion in the Kaba CV3 chondrite - Some implications for the origin of spinel-rich objects in chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegley, B., Jr.; Post, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The first detailed petrographic and mineralogical study of a Ca, Al-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Kaba CV3 chondrite is reported. This 'fine-grained' CAI contains abundant small, rounded, rimmed, spinel-rich objects which have important features in common with the spinel-rich objects in other carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites. These nodules are interpreted as fractionated distillation residues of primitive dust. However, the available data do not unambiguously rule out a condensation origin for at least some of these objects. Finally, the preservation of distinct diopside-hedenbergite rims on the spinel-rich bodies and the small grain size of many minerals in the CAI matrix material both suggest that the CAI accreted cool and had a relatively cool thermal history in the Kaba parent body.

  16. Micro-Scale Distributions of Major and Trace Elements in Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ireland, T. R.; Zolensky, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Hayabusa spacecraft has successfully returned to Earth after two touchdowns on the surface of Asteroid 25143 Itokawa. This asteroid is classified as an S-type and inferred to consist of materials similar to ordinary chondrites or primitive achondrites [1]. More than 1500 particles have been identified consisting of olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, Fe sulfide and Fe metal, with compositions consistent with being of LL origin. While the chondritic components are familiar to us, the level of detail to which the Itokawa samples will be exposed to will be unprecedented given that the samples are reasonably large and accessible to a wide variety of techniques. In many ways, we expect that our knowledge base of the comparator chondrites will be found to be wanting. Chondrites are the building blocks of the solar system. However, these rocks are essentially breccias and they are quite variable in bulk element compositions as well as compositions of the individual components. We have initiated a program of analysis for chondrites focusing on major and trace element distributions between the mineral components and the matrix. The issues to be addressed include the homogeneity of matrix and chondrule components and the representivity of any given sample to the bulk meteorite. This may be particularly important given the limited numbers of Itokawa grains that may be available for a specific analysis. As an initial study, we have taken thin sections of carbonaceous chondrites to study the representivity of the matrix compositions. Spot locations were constrained to limited regions of the sections so as to assess the variability of a local scale. Further work will be required to assess variability over a centimeter scale.

  17. 2D Size Distribution of Chondrules and Chondritic Fragments of an Ordinary Chondrite from Lut Desert (Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourkhorsandi, H.; Mirnejad, H.

    2014-09-01

    2D size measurement of chondrules and chondiritic fragments of a meteorite from Lut desert of Iran is conducted. Chondrules exhibit a size range of 55-1800 µm (average 437 µm). Chondiritic fragments show a size range of 46-1220 µm (average 261 µm).

  18. Photometric and polarimetric properties of the Bruderheim chondritic meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, W. G.; Veverka, J.; Noland, M.; Hilgeman, T.

    1973-01-01

    Photometric and polarimetric laboratory measurements were made as a function of phase angle in the U(0.36 microns), G(0.54 microns) and R(0.67 microns) bands for 0, 30 and 60 deg incident illumination on four particle size ranges of Bruderheim, an L6 olivine-hypersthene chondritic meteorite. The four particle size ranges were: 0.25-4.76 mm coated with less than 74 microns powder, 74-250 microns, and less than 37 microns. In addition, normal reflectance measurements were made in the spectral range from 0.31 to 1.1 microns. Comparison with astronomical data reveals that none of the asteroids in the main belt for which adequate observations exist can be matched with Bruderheim, which is representative of the most common meteoritic material encountered by the Earth. However, it appears from the polarization and photometry data that the surface of the Apollo asteroid Icarus is consistent with an ordinary chondrite composition. This suggests the possibility that this material, although common in Earth-crossing orbits, is rare as a surface constituent in the main asteroid belt.

  19. Evidence for a source of H chondrites in the outer main asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelcu, D. A.; Birlan, M.; Popescu, M.; B?descu, O.; Pricopi, D.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: In this paper we report near-infrared spectroscopic observations of one of the largest potentially hazardous asteroids, (214869) 2007 PA8. Mineralogical analysis of this object was followed by the investigation of the dynamical delivery mechanism from its probable source region, based on long-term numerical integrations. Methods: The spectrum of (214869) 2007 PA8 was analysed using the positions of 1 ?m and 2 ?m bands and by curve-matching with RELAB meteorites spectra. Its dynamical evolution was investigated by means of a 200 000-year numerical integration in the past of 1275 clones followed to the source region. Results: (214869) 2007 PA8 has a very young surface with a composition more akin to H chondrites than to any other type of ordinary chondrite. It arrived from the outer Main Belt in the near-Earth space via the 5:2 mean motion resonance with Jupiter by eccentricity pumping. Identification of its source region far from (6) Hebe raises the possibility of the existence of a second parent body of the H chondrites that has a radically different post-accretion history. Future spectroscopic surveys in the 5:2 resonance region will most likely discover other asteroids with an H chondrite composition. Figure 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. H/L chondrite LaPaz Icefield 031047 ? A feather of Icarus?

    SciTech Connect

    Wittmann, Axel; Friedrich, Jon M.; Troiano, Julianne; Macke, Robert J.; Britt, Daniel T.; Swidle, Timothy D.; Weirich, John R.; Rumble III, Douglas; Lasue, Jeremie; King, David A. (Central Florida); (Lunar and Planetary Institute); (CIW); (Ariz); (Fordham); (LANL)

    2011-10-28

    Antarctic meteorite LAP 031047 is an ordinary chondrite composed of loosely consolidated chondritic fragments. Its petrography, oxygen isotopic composition and geochemical inventory are ambiguous and indicate an intermediate character between H and L chondrites. Petrographic indicators suggest LAP 031047 suffered a shock metamorphic overprint below {approx}10 GPa, which did not destroy its unusually high porosity of {approx}27 vol%. Metallographic textures in LAP 031047 indicate heating above {approx}700 C and subsequent cooling, which caused massive transformation of taenite to kamacite. The depletion of thermally labile trace elements, the crystallization of chondritic glass to microcrystalline plagioclase of unusual composition, and the occurrence of coarsely crystallized chondrule fragments is further evidence for post-metamorphic heating to {approx}700-750 C. However, this heating event had a transient character because olivine and low-Ca pyroxene did not equilibrate. Nearly complete degassing up to very high temperatures is indicated by the thorough resetting of LAP 031047's Ar-Ar reservoir {approx}100 {+-} 55 Ma ago. A noble gas cosmic-ray exposure age indicates it was reduced to a meter-size fragment at < 0.5 Ma. In light of the fact that shock heating cannot account for the thermal history of LAP 031047 in its entirety, we test the hypothesis that this meteorite belonged to the near-surface of an Aten or Apollo asteroid that underwent heating during orbital passages close to the Sun.

  1. H/L chondrite LaPaz Icefield 031047 - A feather of Icarus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Axel; Friedrich, Jon M.; Troiano, Julianne; Macke, Robert J.; Britt, Daniel T.; Swindle, Timothy D.; Weirich, John R.; Rumble, Douglas; Lasue, Jeremie; Kring, David A.

    2011-10-01

    Antarctic meteorite LAP 031047 is an ordinary chondrite composed of loosely consolidated chondritic fragments. Its petrography, oxygen isotopic composition and geochemical inventory are ambiguous and indicate an intermediate character between H and L chondrites. Petrographic indicators suggest LAP 031047 suffered a shock metamorphic overprint below ˜10 GPa, which did not destroy its unusually high porosity of ˜27 vol%. Metallographic textures in LAP 031047 indicate heating above ˜700 °C and subsequent cooling, which caused massive transformation of taenite to kamacite. The depletion of thermally labile trace elements, the crystallization of chondritic glass to microcrystalline plagioclase of unusual composition, and the occurrence of coarsely crystallized chondrule fragments is further evidence for post-metamorphic heating to ˜700-750 °C. However, this heating event had a transient character because olivine and low-Ca pyroxene did not equilibrate. Nearly complete degassing up to very high temperatures is indicated by the thorough resetting of LAP 031047's Ar-Ar reservoir ˜100 ± 55 Ma ago. A noble gas cosmic-ray exposure age indicates it was reduced to a meter-size fragment at <0.5 Ma. In light of the fact that shock heating cannot account for the thermal history of LAP 031047 in its entirety, we test the hypothesis that this meteorite belonged to the near-surface of an Aten or Apollo asteroid that underwent heating during orbital passages close to the Sun.

  2. The Dresden (Ontario) H6 Chondrite, Part II: Classification Estimated Fireball Trajectory, and Possible Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCausland, Phil J. A.; Brown, Peter G.; Wilson, Graham C.

    2006-06-01

    The Dresden (Ontario) meteorite fell in southwestern Ontario on the early evening of July 11, 1939. We re-examine this historic Canadian fall, consider the mineralogy, physical properties, and bulk chemistry of the meteorite, and estimate its trajectory and pre-atmospheric orbit based on visual accounts of the event. Mineralogical examination of several fragments of the meteorite reveals poor definition of chondrule margins, lack of glass, and the presence of minor feldspar, confirming Dresden (Ontario) to be an H6 ordinary chondrite. The bulk of the stone has undergone a low level of shock (S2) as indicated by generally clean extinction of silicate grains. A 12-g bulk sample of the Dresden (Ontario) main mass has elemental abundances that agree well with the H-chondrite average. The bulk density for Dresden (3.48+/-0.07 g/cm3) and porosity (4.9%) are also typical of H chondrites. Several accounts of the fall event constrain the Dresden fireball to have had a ground projection azimuth of ~050, passing from north of London, Ontario southwestwards toward Dresden. The tightly grouped strewnfield of fusion-encrusted fragments recovered ~10 km southwest of Dresden, Ontario suggests that the fireball trajectory was steep. Dark-flight simulations using the 050 azimuth best reproduce the recovered strewnfield distribution with an entry angle of >70°. The range of potential orbits derived from this inferred steep trajectory is consistent with previous orbits measured for meteorite-producing fireballs, and suggest that the Dresden meteoroid had an Apollo asteroid-type orbit, with a perihelion just inside that of the Earth's and a low-to-moderate inclination. The Dresden (Ontario) H6 chondrite is thus petrologically and dynamically similar to other H chondrites with known orbits. A comparison of the known H-chondrite orbits with a modelled debiased distribution of near-Earth objects indicates that the H chondrites were most likely delivered to the Earth via the v6 and the 3:1 resonances, thus strengthening the dynamical case for the linkage of H-chondrite meteorites with the S-type asteroid 6 Hebe as suggested by Gaffey et al. (1993).

  3. Various Nitrogen Isotopic Compositions in H-Chondrite Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, K.; Sugiura, N.

    1992-07-01

    Previous works of the authors (1,2) have revealed that nitrogen isotopes in bulk ordinary chondrites are various in a range of - 15< delta^15N < +45 o/oo (after reduction of the contribution of cosmogenic nitrogen). Recently, the isotopically anomalous nitrogen components in equilibrated H-chondrites, both the heavy nitrogen and the light nitrogen, have proved to be concentrated in the metal portion. The metal portion was prepared by etching the magnetic portion by a concentrated NaOH at 100-160 degrees C which dissolves phosphate and troilite, and attacks the silicates together with a slight amount of metal. Nitrogen is extracted from the purified metal by a stepwise combustion method and its isotope is measured by a mass-spectrometer with a high sensitivity. The results of nitrogen analyses are described in the table. The remarkable point is that nitrogen contents in the metal are almost constant, though the isotopic ratio differs by approximately 160 o/oo. Since behaviors of nitrogen in the metal are very sensitive to temperature, nitrogen study in the metal phase of ordinary chondrites is possible to give us interesting information concerning the behavior of volatile elements during the metamorphic and/or cooling sequences. The large differences of nitrogen isotopic ratios among H-chondrites suggest that isotopic heterogeneity already existed during the accretionary stage, since there seems to be little chance to explain the observations by any other processes expected after the formation of their parent bodies. Acknowledgement: We are indebted to Drs. C. Perron and P. Pellas of Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, for introducing to us the etching technique to purify the metal. References: (1) Hashizume K. and Sugiura N. (1990) Meteoritics 25, 370. (2) Hashizume K. and Sugiura N. ( 1992) submitted to Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. Table 1. Nitrogen isotopic composition in H-chondrite metal. -----------------------Metal---------------------------Whole Rock Sample------Class-N----delta^15N(mean)-delta^15N(peak)-N---- delta^15N(mean) Forest Vale-H4-------------------------48+-12----------3.07-10+-8 Ochansk-----H4----1.73-14.1+-2.3-------15+-7----------------- Allegan-----H5----1.71-13.8+-2.0-------16+-4-----------0.70--8+-4 Jilin-------H5----1.56-99.4+-7.0-------119+-7----------0.89-4.5+- 3 Plainview---H5----1.92-61.1+-3.7-------99+-4-----------1.72-33+-1 Guarena-----H6----(<2)------------------44+-4----------1.14--15+- 2 Nitrogen content (N) and delta^15N are in units of ppm and o/oo, respectively. Errors are 1 sigma. Whole rock data are from references (1,2). Nitrogen amounts and mean delta^15N are taken from 800 degrees C and above fractions. (They were not available for Forest Vale and Guarena due to large amounts of contaminating nitrogen.)

  4. Carbonaceous chondrite clasts in the Kapoeta howardite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, Adrian J.; Papike, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    A petrographic and mineralogical study of a number of carbonaceous chondrite clasts in the Kapoeta howardite has been carried out. Most of the clasts have mineralogical and chemical properties which link them to the CM carbonaceous chondrites. Some clasts contain chondrules which often have well-developed fine-grained rims, but many have been extensively brecciated. PCP-rich objects are common and pentlandite and pyrrhotite also occur. Calcite has also been found. The remainder of the clasts are extremely fine-grained and appear to be closely related to CI carbonaceous chondrites. In these clasts magnetite framboids are common and finegrained sulfides and magnetite occur disseminated throughout the matrix.

  5. Origin and metamorphic redistribution of silicon, chromium, and phosphorus in the metal of chondrites.

    PubMed

    Zanda, B; Bourot-Denise, M; Perron, C; Hewins, R H

    1994-09-23

    Chromium, silicon, and phosphorus concentrations of 0.1 to 1 percent by weight are common in metal grains in the least metamorphosed ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites. These concentrations are fairly uniform within single chondrules (but different from chondrule to chondrule) and are inversely correlated with the fayalite concentrations of the chondrule olivines. This relation shows that these chromium, silicon, and phosphorus concentrations could not have been established by condensation or equilibration in the solar nebula but are the result of metal-silicate equilibration within chondrules. Two generations of inclusions made by the exsolution of those elements have been identified: One formed during chondrule cooling and the other formed during metamorphism. The distribution and composition of the latter in type 3 to type 5 chondrites are consistent with increasing metamorphism relative to type 2 and type 3.0 material. PMID:17797224

  6. Ion Irradiation Experiments on the Murchison CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite: Simulating Space Weathering of Primitive Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing observations show that space weathering processes affect all airless bodies in the Solar System to some degree. Sample analyses and lab experiments provide insights into the chemical, spectroscopic and mineralogic effects of space weathering and aid in the interpretation of remote- sensing data. For example, analyses of particles returned from the S-type asteroid Itokawa by the Hayabusa mission revealed that space-weathering on that body was dominated by interactions with the solar wind acting on LL ordinary chondrite-like materials [1, 2]. Understanding and predicting how the surface regoliths of primitive carbonaceous asteroids respond to space weathering processes is important for future sample return missions (Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS-REx) that are targeting objects of this type. Here, we report the results of our preliminary ion irradiation experiments on a hydrated carbonaceous chondrite with emphasis on microstructural and infrared spectral changes.

  7. The Bawku LL5 Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, S. J. B.; Chinner, G. A.

    1993-07-01

    Introduction: A 59-g piece of stony meteorite with black fusion crust and medium grey interior was recovered in 1992 from Northern Ghana by Dr. S. Abudulai of the Centre for African Studies, University of Cambridge. This meteorite was reported to be part of a fall that occurred in the vicinity of Bawku (11 degrees 05'N, 0 degrees 11'W) at 1630 hours (local time) on December 29, 1989; the meteorite was found between the villages of Naarango-Anisi and Kpukparigu, east of Bawku. A further mass of 1.5 kg was recovered by Dr. Abudulai during a visit in January 1993. The name "Bawku" is proposed for this meteorite. Description: The Bawku chondrite is a monomict breccia. Some well-preserved chondrules with a variety of textures are present. Olivine exhibits undulose extinction and extensive irregular cracking. Other shock features include cracks infilled with metal/troilite. Electron microprobe analyses of olivines gave a mean Fe/Fe + Mg ratio of 26.8%, with a standard deviation of 1.0% (relative) and an average CaO content of 0.03% (by weight). The mean Fe/Fe + Mg content of orthopyroxene was found to be 22.6% (standard deviation 1.2% relative). Small (10-micrometer) grains of plagioclase (75-85% Ab) were found. Automated point counting (700 points) gave volume fractions of 4.6% troilite and 1.3% metal. Compositions of 200 randomly selected points on metal grains fell into three groups, corresponding to kamacite (4-7% Ni, 1.4% Co), taenite (34-38% Ni, 0.35% Co), and tetrataenite (48-56% Ni, 0.2% Co). The inferred volume fractions of these phases were 52%, 45%, and 3% respectively. The average Ni content of the metal was 21%, with 0.9% Co. On etching, Neumann lamellae became visible in kamacite, while the taenite took on a cloudy appearance. Tetrataenite was observed as narrow rims adjacent to cloudy taenite, but also occurred sometimes in larger areas. Minor phases noted included chromite, ilmenite, apatite, and whitlockite. Classification: The Fe/Fe + Mg ratios of olivine and pyroxene place this chondrite at the lower limit of the range for the LL group, adjacent to the hiatus between LL and L [1]. The low metal content is consistent with this classification. The relatively high proportion of kamacite compared to other LL chondrites is in accordance with Prior's law, which applies within this group, unlike others [2]. The homogeneity of olivine and orthopyroxene, the existence of moderately abundant preserved chondrules, and the presence of feldspar grains comparable in size to those observed in LL5 chondrites [3] point to Bawku being a member of this class. The undulose extinction and irregular fracturing of olivine are indicative of shock class S2 [4]. References: [1] Fredriksson K. et al. (1978) In Origin and Distribution of the Elements (L. Ahrens, ed.), 457-466, Pergamon, Oxford. [2] Sears D. W. and Axon H. J. (1976) Meteoritics, 11, 97-100. [3] Heyse J. V. (1978) EPSL, 40, 365-381. [4] Stoffler D. et al. (1991) GCA, 55, 3845-3867.

  8. Saturation magnetization measurements of carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyman, M.; Rowe, M. W.

    1986-03-01

    The saturation magnetization of some carbonaceous chondrites was studied using a Faraday balance. The authors present measurements on the magnetite contents of some CM2, CV3 and a CV5 chondrites. The method was also used to measure the content of metallic nickel-iron in Ornans, 3.4±0.3%. Of the CM2 chondrites examined, only Bells, Essebi and Haripura had magnetite contents over about 1% by weight. A number of CV chondrites have magnetite between 2.3 and 13%, with little or no metallic iron. Leoville and Vigarano contain both magnetite and metallic iron, complicating the saturation magnetization results. Arch and Allende have very little metallic iron or magnetite, probably <1% of either.

  9. Interstellar grains in museums. [carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, A. G. W.

    1973-01-01

    It is argued that carbonaceous chondrites, particularly of type I, are probably collections of interstellar grains which have been mildly transformed through exposure to higher than normal temperatures, resulting in a loss of volatile materials.

  10. Re-Os systematics in chondrites and the fractionation of the platinum group elements in the early solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H Chen; D. A Papanastassiou; G. J Wasserburg

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the Re-Os system for samples of whole rock, metal, and sulfide from ordinary chondrites. Using closed-system analytical techniques, we found complete exchange between sample and tracer isotopes for silicate-containing samples and obtained precise and reliable Re-Os concentration measurements. Results on two Group IVA iron meteorites and on a silicate-rich iron (Steinbach, IVA-AN) are consistent with the IVA-IVB

  11. Carbonaceous chondritic asteroids - The ideal extraterrestrial resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuck, David L.

    It is proposed that carbonaceous chondritic asteroids be used as extraterrestrial resources because they contain biogenic resources, water, hydrocarbons and water soluble metal salts. The chemical composition determined for carbonaceous chondritic asteroids is presented in tables and the processes for extracting iron ore and silicon, aluminum, magnesium, calcium, sulfur, and phosphorus compounds from them are examined. It is suggested that these asteroids could provide valuable resources for lunar and LEO colonies.

  12. Chondritic models of 4 Vesta: Implications for geochemical and geophysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toplis, M. J.; Mizzon, H.; Monnereau, M.; Forni, O.; McSween, H. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; McCoy, T. J.; Prettyman, T. H.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2013-11-01

    Simple mass-balance and thermodynamic constraints are used to illustrate the potential geochemical and geophysical diversity of a fully differentiated Vesta-sized parent body with a eucrite crust (e.g., core size and density, crustal thickness). The results of this analysis are then combined with data from the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) meteorites and the Dawn mission to constrain Vesta's bulk composition. Twelve chondritic compositions are considered, comprising seven carbonaceous, three ordinary, and two enstatite chondrite groups. Our analysis excludes CI and LL compositions as plausible Vesta analogs, as these are predicted to have a negative metal fraction. Second, the MELTS thermodynamic calculator is used to show that the enstatite chondrites, the CV, CK and L-groups cannot produce Juvinas-like liquids, and that even for the other groups, depletion in sodium is necessary to produce liquids of appropriate silica content. This conclusion is consistent with the documented volatile-poor nature of eucrites. Furthermore, carbonaceous chondrites are predicted to have a mantle too rich in olivine to produce typical howardites and to have Fe/Mn ratios generally well in excess of those of the HEDs. On the other hand, an Na-depleted H-chondrite bulk composition is capable of producing Juvinas-like liquids, has a mantle rich enough in pyroxene to produce abundant howardite/diogenite, and has a Fe/Mn ratio compatible with eucrites. In addition, its predicted bulk-silicate density is within 100 kg m-3 of solutions constrained by data of the Dawn mission. However, oxidation state and oxygen isotopes are not perfectly reproduced and it is deduced that bulk Vesta may contain approximately 25% of a CM-like component. Values for the bulk-silicate composition of Vesta and a preliminary phase diagram are proposed.

  13. Oxygen isotopic composition of chondritic interplanetary dust particles: A genetic link between carbonaceous chondrites and

    E-print Network

    materials. Hydrated IDPs have mass-fractionated oxygen isotopic compositions similar to those of CI and CMOxygen isotopic composition of chondritic interplanetary dust particles: A genetic link between 12 May 2009 Abstract Oxygen isotopes were measured in four chondritic hydrated interplanetary dust

  14. Osmium isotope anomalies in chondrites: Results for acid residues and related leachates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuya; O'D. Alexander, Conel M.; Walker, Richard J.

    2010-03-01

    We have investigated Os isotope anomalies in acid residues enriched in insoluble organic matter (IOM) extracted from ten primitive chondrites, acid leachates and residues of these fractions, as well as acid leachates of bulk chondrites. Osmium isotopic compositions of bulk carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrites are also reported. Consistent with prior results, bulk chondrites have homogeneous Os isotope compositions for s-, r-, and p-process nuclides that are indistinguishable from terrestrial, at the current level of resolution. In contrast, nearly all the IOM-rich residues are enriched in s-process Os, evidently due to the preferential incorporation of s-process enriched presolar grains (most likely presolar SiC). Presolar silicate grains that formed in red giant branch (RGB) or asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are also likely hosts of additional s-process Os in chondrites. Consistent with one prior study, Os released by weak acid leaching of bulk chondrites is slightly to strongly enriched in r-process nuclides, of which the carrier may be fine-grained presolar silicates formed in supernovae or unidentified solar phases. Collectively, the different, chemically concentrated components in these meteorites are variably enriched in s-, r-, and possibly p-process Os, of which the individual carriers must have been produced in multiple stellar environments. The lack of evidence for Os isotopic heterogeneity among bulk chondrites contrasts with evidence for isotopic heterogeneities for various other elements at approximately the same levels of resolution (e.g., Cr, Mo, Ru, Ba, Sm, and Nd). One possible explanation for this is that the heterogeneities for some elements in bulk materials reflect selective removal of some types of presolar grains as a result of nebular processes, and that because of the strong chemical differences between Os and the other elements, the Os was not significantly affected. Another possible explanation is that late-stage injection of isotopically distinct materials into the nebula led to heterogeneous distribution of some elements. Osmium may not have been affected because of a lack of isotopic contrast with the pre-injection, well mixed nebula.

  15. Effects of Microsecond Pulse Laser Irradiation on Vis-NIR Reflectance Spectrum of Carbonaceous Chondrite Simulant: Implications for Martian Moons and Primitive Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiroi, T.; Moroz, L. V.; Shingareva, T. V.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Pieters, M.

    2003-01-01

    Goal of this study is to make a progress in understanding the optical effects of space weathering on small bodies believed to be similar in composition to carbonaceous chondrites: C, G, B, F, T, D, and P asteroids and possibly Martian satellites Phobos and Deimos. The companion work focuses on petrological and mineralogical aspects of this process. One of the main factors of space weathering is meteorite and micrometeorite bombardment leading, in particular, to impact melting of components of the regolith. Studies of lunar regolith and laboratory experiments simulating impact melting show that the melting products differ from the unmelted material in mineralogy and distribution of chemical components among different phases that results in spectral changes. We simulate impact melting of CM chondrite by pulse laser irradiation of an artificial analog of such a meteorite. The analog is a mixture of 46 wt.% non-magnetic fraction of L5 ordinary chondrite Tsarev, 47 wt.% serpentine, 5 wt.% kerite, and 2 wt.% calcite. It simulates rather well bulk chemistry, including volatiles such as H2O and CO2, and only approximately the CM chondrite mineralogy. Thus, we do not expect the mixture to be spectrally similar to CM chondrites, but expect the laser melting products to be similar to those formed by impact melting of natural CM chondrites.

  16. Petrologic evidence for collisional heating of chondritic asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1995-01-01

    The identification of the mechanism(s) responsible for heating asteroids is among the major problems in planetary science. Because of difficulties with models of electromagnetic induction and the decay of short-lived radionuclides, it is worthwhile to evaluate the evidence for collisional heating. New evidence for localized impact heating comes from the high proportion of relict type-6 material among impact-melt-bearing ordinary chondrites (OC). This relict material was probably metamorphosed by residual heat within large craters. Olivine aggregates composed of faceted crystals with 120 deg triple junctions occur within the melted regions of the Chico and Rose City OC melt rocks; the olivine aggregates formed from shocked, mosaicized olivine grains that underwent contact metamorphism. Large-scale collisional heating is supoorted by the correlation in OC between petrologic type and shock stage; no other heating mechanism can readily account for this correlation. The occurrence of impact-melt-rock clasts in OC that have been metamorphosed along with their whole rocks indicates that some impact events preceded or accompanied thermal metamorphism. Such impacts events, occurring during or shortly after accretion, are probably responsible for substantially melting approximately 0.5% of OC. These events must have heated a larger percentage of OC to subsolidus temperatures sufficient to have caused significant metamorphism. If collisional heating is viable, then OC parent asteroids must have been large; large OC asteroids in the main belt may include those of the S(IV) spectral subtype. Collisional heating is inconsistent with layered ('onion-shell') structures in OC asteroids (wherein the degree of metamorphism increases with depth), but the evidence for such structures is weak. It seems likely that collisional heating played an important role in metamorphosing chondritic asteroids.

  17. Magnetic Evidence for a Partially Differentiated Carbonaceous Chondrite Parent Body

    E-print Network

    Shuster, David L.

    The textures of chondritic meteorites demonstrate that they are not the products of planetary melting processes. This has long been interpreted as evidence that chondrite parent bodies never experienced large-scale melting. ...

  18. Depth Profiles of Cosmogenic Noble Gases in the Chondrite Knyahinya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toe, S.; Lavielle, B.; Gilabert, E.; Simonoff, G. N.

    1993-07-01

    Concentrations and isotopic ratios of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe have been analyzed in 5-g size samples from different positions within the L5 chondrite Knyahinya. A previous work [1] has shown that Knyahinya experienced a single-stage exposure history (duration 40.5 Ma) as a meteoroid of approximately spherical shape (radius 45 cm). For these reasons, this meteorite represents a very interesting object to study depth profiles of cosmogenic nuclide concentrations and to test and improve model calculations of production rates. The procedure of extraction of noble gases adopted for this work, includes two pyrolyses respectively at about 450 degrees C and 650 degrees C, followed by a combustion step in pure O2 (15-25 torr pressure) at 650 degrees C before the complete melting of the sample [2]. This procedure allows a low-temperature extraction of a significant fraction of the Kr and Xe trapped noble gas component, leading to an enrichment of the cosmogenic component during the last temperature step. Concentration of trapped Ar, Kr, and Xe is 2-3 times lower than expected for a type 5 chondrite. The isotopic composition of the trapped Xe component analyzed in the combustion step is identical with the OC- Xe composition measured in Forest Vale [3]. Preliminary results show that concentration of cosmogenic 83Kr increases by 16% from the surface to the center when the ratio of cosmogenic 78Kr to 83Kr decreases from 0.157 to 0.136. The concentration of 81Kr has been measured in each sample. It increases from 0.0220 10^-12 cm^3 STP/g near the surface to 0.0255 10^-12 cm^3 STP/g at the center, in excellent agreement with the variations measured by Eugster [4] in other ordinary chondrites. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by C.N.R.S., by IN2P3 and by INSU (Programme National de Planetologie). References: [1] Graf Th. et al. (1990) GCA, 54, 2511-2520. [2] Gilabert E. and Lavielle B. (1991) Meteoritics, 26, 337. [3] Lavielle B. and Marti K. (1992) JGR, 97, 20875-20881. [4] Eugster O. (1988) GCA, 52, 1649-1662.

  19. Birth in an Ordinary Instant

    PubMed Central

    De Vries, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Our daily lives are a series of ordinary moments and unnoticed thresholds—times that define us in ways we often do not give much attention. While we consider childbirth to be one of life's extra-ordinary events, the hours of labor and birth need not be dramatic (or traumatic) ones. I describe a quiet, well-supported birth in the Netherlands that is cause for celebration of the beauty of an ordinary instant that can define and enrich the human experience. PMID:21629383

  20. Silicate sulfidation and chemical differences between enstatite chondrites and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, S. W.; Petaev, M. I.; Buseck, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    Isotopic similarity between the Earth-Moon system and enstatite chondrites (ECs) led to the idea that ECs were Earth's building blocks [1-3]. However, compared to Earth's mantle, ECs have low Fe0/Fe ratios, are enriched in volatile elements, and depleted in refractory lithophile elements and Mg [4]. Therefore, deriving Earth composition from ECs requires a loss of volatiles during or prior to accretion and sequestering a large fraction of Si in the deep Earth. Alternatively, the isotopic similarity between the Earth and ECs is explained by their formation from a common precursor that experienced different evolutionary paths resulting in the chemical difference [4]. The vestiges of such a precursor are still present in the unequilibrated ECs as FeO-rich silicates with O isotopic compositions identical to bulk ECs and Earth [5]. Conversion of such a precursor into the characteristic EC mineral assemblage requires high-temperature processing in an H-poor environment with high fS2 and fO2 close to that of the classic solar nebula [6], consistent with redox conditions inferred from Ti4+/Ti3+ ratios in EC pyroxene [7]. Under such conditions reaction of FeO-rich silicates with S-rich gas results in their replacement by the assemblage of FeO-poor silicates; Fe, Mg, Ca sulfides; free silica; and Si-bearing Fe,Ni metal alloy. The progressive sulfidation of ferromagnesian silicates in chondrules results in loss of Mg and addition of Fe, Mn, S, Na, K and, perhaps, other volatiles [6]. At the advanced stages of silicate sulfidation recorded in the metal-sulfide nodules [8], a portion of Si is reduced and dissolved in the Fe,Ni metal. This process is known to fractionate Si isotopes [9,10] and would explain the differences between the ECs and Earth's mantle [11]. The sulfidation of silicates also produces porous S-rich silica, a peculiar phase observed so far only in the ECs. It consists of a sinewy SiO2-rich framework enclosing numerous vesicles filled with beam-sensitive material and contains minor elements such as Na, Ca, Mg, or Fe, which also occur in the adjacent minerals. Its high S content and vesicular nature point to formation by quenching of a high-temperature melt saturated with a gaseous phase. The porous silica occurs in ~50% of chondrules [12], metal-sulfide nodules, and as inter-chondrule clasts, suggesting it is a good tracer of silicate sulfidation. Refs: [1] Javoy M. (1995) GRL 22: 2219-2222. [2] Javoy M. et al. (2010) EPSL 293: 259-268. [3] Kaminski E. & Javoy M. (2013) EPSL 365: 97-107. [4] Jacobsen S.B. et al. (2013) LPSC 44: #2344. [5] Weisberg M.K. et al. (2011) GCA 75: 6556-6569. [6] Lehner S.W. et al. (2013) GCA 101: 34-56. [7] Simon S.B. et al. (2013) LPSC 44: #2270. [8] Lehner S.W. et al. (2012) LPSC 43: #2252. [9] Shahar A. et al. (2011) GCA 75: 7688-7697. [10] Kempl J. et al. (2013) EPSL 368: 61-68. [11] Fitoussi C. & Bourdon B. (2012) Science 335: 1477-1480. [12] Piani L. et al. (2013) MetSoc 76: # 5178.

  1. Exposure ages of carbonaceous chondrites, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Caffee, M. W.; Finkel, R. C.; Southon, J. R.; Nagai, H.; Honda, M.; Sharma, P.; Imamura, M.; Kobayashi, K.

    1993-01-01

    The recent exposure histories of carbonaceous chondrites have been investigated using cosmogenic radionuclides. Our results may indicate a clustering of exposure ages of C1 and C2 chondrites into two peaks, 0.2 My and 0.6 My, perhaps implying two collisional events of Earth-crossing parent bodies. Among carbonaceous chondrites are some having short exposure ages which Mazor et al. hypothesized cluster into a small number of families. This hypothesis is based on spallogenic Ne-21 exposure ages, which in some instances are difficult to determine owing to the large amounts of trapped noble gases in carbonaceous chondrites. Also, since Ne-21 is stable, it integrates a sample's entire exposure history, so meteorites with complex exposure histories are difficult to understand using exclusively Ne-21. Cosmogenic radionuclides provide an alternative means of determining the recent cosmic ray exposure duration. To test the hypothesis of Mazor et al. we have begun a systematic investigation of exposure histories of Antarctic and non-Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites especially C2s.

  2. A strongly hydrated microclast in the Rumuruti chondrite NWA 6828: Implications for the distribution of hydrous material in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greshake, Ansgar

    2014-05-01

    Hydrous carbonaceous microclasts are by far the most abundant foreign fragments in stony meteorites and mostly resemble CI1-, CM2-, or CR2-like material. Their occurrence is of great importance for understanding the distribution and migration of water-bearing volatile-rich matter in the solar system. This paper reports the first finding of a strongly hydrated microclast in a Rumuruti chondrite. The R3-6 chondrite Northwest Africa 6828 contains a 420 × 325 ?m sized angular foreign fragment exhibiting sharp boundaries to the surrounding R-type matrix. The clast is dominantly composed of magnetite, pyrrhotite, rare Ca-carbonate, and very rare Mg-rich olivine set in an abundant fine-grained phyllosilicate-rich matrix. Phyllosilicates are serpentine and saponite. One region of the clast is dominated by forsteritic olivine (Fa<2) supported by a network of interstitial Ca-carbonate. The clast is crosscut by Ca-carbonate-filled veins and lacks any chondrules, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, or their respective pseudomorphs. The hydrous clast contains also a single grain of the very rare phosphide andreyivanovite. Comparison with CI1, CM2, and CR2 chondrites as well as with the ungrouped C2 chondrite Tagish Lake shows no positive match with any of these types of meteorites. The clast may, thus, either represent a fragment of an unsampled lithology of the hydrous carbonaceous chondrite parent asteroids or constitute a sample from an as yet unknown parent body, maybe even a comet. Rumuruti chondrites are a unique group of highly oxidized meteorites that probably accreted at a heliocentric distance >1 AU between the formation regions of ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites. The occurrence of a hydrous microclast in an R chondrite attests to the presence of such material also in this region at least at some point in time and documents the wide distribution of water-bearing (possibly zodiacal cloud) material in the solar system.

  3. 146Sm-142Nd systematics measured in enstatite chondrites reveals a heterogeneous distribution of 142Nd in the solar nebula.

    PubMed

    Gannoun, Abdelmouhcine; Boyet, Maud; Rizo, Hanika; El Goresy, Ahmed

    2011-05-10

    The short-lived (146)Sm-(142)Nd chronometer (T(1/2) = 103 Ma) is used to constrain the early silicate evolution of planetary bodies. The composition of bulk terrestrial planets is then considered to be similar to that of primitive chondrites that represent the building blocks of rocky planets. However for many elements chondrites preserve small isotope differences. In this case it is not always clear to what extent these variations reflect the isotope heterogeneity of the protosolar nebula rather than being produced by the decay of parent isotopes. Here we present Sm-Nd isotopes data measured in a comprehensive suite of enstatite chondrites (EC). The EC preserve (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratios that range from those of ordinary chondrites to values similar to terrestrial samples. The EC having terrestrial (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratios are also characterized by small (144)Sm excesses, which is a pure p-process nuclide. The correlation between (144)Sm and (142)Nd for chondrites may indicate a heterogeneous distribution in the solar nebula of p-process matter synthesized in supernovae. However to explain the difference in (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratios, 20% of the p-process contribution to (142)Nd is required, at odds with the value of 4% currently proposed in stellar models. This study highlights the necessity of obtaining high-precision (144)Sm measurements to interpret properly measured (142)Nd signatures. Another explanation could be that the chondrites sample material formed in different pulses of the lifetime of asymptotic giant branch stars. Then the isotope signature measured in SiC presolar would not represent the unique s-process signature of the material present in the solar nebula during accretion. PMID:21515828

  4. 146Sm–142Nd systematics measured in enstatite chondrites reveals a heterogeneous distribution of 142Nd in the solar nebula

    PubMed Central

    Gannoun, Abdelmouhcine; Boyet, Maud; Rizo, Hanika; El Goresy, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    The short-lived 146Sm–142Nd chronometer (T1/2 = 103 Ma) is used to constrain the early silicate evolution of planetary bodies. The composition of bulk terrestrial planets is then considered to be similar to that of primitive chondrites that represent the building blocks of rocky planets. However for many elements chondrites preserve small isotope differences. In this case it is not always clear to what extent these variations reflect the isotope heterogeneity of the protosolar nebula rather than being produced by the decay of parent isotopes. Here we present Sm–Nd isotopes data measured in a comprehensive suite of enstatite chondrites (EC). The EC preserve 142Nd/144Nd ratios that range from those of ordinary chondrites to values similar to terrestrial samples. The EC having terrestrial 142Nd/144Nd ratios are also characterized by small 144Sm excesses, which is a pure p-process nuclide. The correlation between 144Sm and 142Nd for chondrites may indicate a heterogeneous distribution in the solar nebula of p-process matter synthesized in supernovae. However to explain the difference in 142Nd/144Nd ratios, 20% of the p-process contribution to 142Nd is required, at odds with the value of 4% currently proposed in stellar models. This study highlights the necessity of obtaining high-precision 144Sm measurements to interpret properly measured 142Nd signatures. Another explanation could be that the chondrites sample material formed in different pulses of the lifetime of asymptotic giant branch stars. Then the isotope signature measured in SiC presolar would not represent the unique s-process signature of the material present in the solar nebula during accretion. PMID:21515828

  5. Fusion Crust and the Measurement of Surface Ages of Antarctic Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akridge, Jannette M. C.; Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1997-01-01

    Natural thermoluminescence (TL) reflects radiation exposure and storage temperature. Meteorites generally exhibit thermoluminescence acquired during their long exposure to galactic cosmic rays in space. During atmospheric passage, temperatures are high enough to completely drain the TL, in the first mm of material under the fusion crust. We therefore refer to this surface layer as "fusion crust" although it does include some unmelted material just below the crust. When the meteorite lands on earth this drained layer will begin to build up natural TL once again due to radiation from cosmic rays and internal radionuclides. Cosmic ray annual dose is estimated to be between 0.04 and 0.06 rad/yr on the earth's surface in Antarctica while the internal radionuclides contribute only about 0.01 rad/yr. Therefore the total annual dose received by the meteorite while it is on the surface is between 0.05 and 0.07 rad/yr. If the meteorite is buried deeply in the ice it is effectively shielded from most cosmic rays and thus only internal radioactivity contributes to the annual dose.

  6. A three-dimensional study of metal grains in equilibrated, ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, J.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1983-11-01

    Metal particles in Guarena (H6), Colby (L6) and St. Severin (LL6) were studied by optical microscopy and by electron microprobe analysis. Observations from successive polished sections through the metal particles show that kamacite and taenite grains, which often appear to be isolated particles, are connected directly or by intervening sulfides. Also tetrataenite rims are widest when adjacent to sulfide or kamacite. These observations indicate that transfer of Ni during cooling when kamacite-taenite phase growth takes place does not occur through the silicate phases but proceeds through metal and sulfide phases or along grain boundaries. By utilizing the central Ni content of taenite grains from successive sections, metallographic cooling rates were determined more precisely than by using one arbitrary section. Cooling rates determined in this manner for Guarena, Colby, and St. Severin are 4.3 K, 4.0 K, and 1.0 K per million years, respectively.

  7. Cosmogenic Records in 18 Ordinary Chondrites from the Dar Al Gani Region, Libya. 1; Noble Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, L.; Franke, L.; Welten, K. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Jull, A. J. T.

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade thousands of meteorites have been recovered from hot deserts in the Sahara and Oman. One of the main meteorite concentration surfaces in the Sahara is the Dar al Gani plateau in Libya, which covers a total area of 8000 km2. More than 1000 meteorites have been reported from this area. The geological setting, meteorite pairings and the meteorite density of the Dar al Gani (DaG) field are described in more detail in [1]. In this work we report concentrations of the noble gas isotopes of He, Ne, Ar as well as 84Kr and 132Xe in 18 DaG meteorites. In a separate paper we will report the cosmogenic radionuclides [2]. We discuss the thermal history and cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) history of these meteorites, and evaluate the effects of the hot desert environment on the noble gas record.

  8. ALUMINUM-, CALCIUM-AND TITANIUM-RICH OXIDE STARDUST IN ORDINARY CHONDRITE METEORITES

    E-print Network

    Nittler, Larry R.

    evolution, stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis, circum- stellar dust formation processes, interstellar, extinction -- Galaxy: evolution -- nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances -- stars: AGB and post

  9. Shock and Anisotropy Related Magnetization in a Freshly Fallen LL Ordinary Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Denise, M.

    2003-12-01

    We conducted a rock magnetic, magnetic anisotropy and paleomagnetic study of the brecciated LL6 bensour meteorite a few months after its fall on Earth. Magnetic properties, in particular hysteresis loops before and after heating, as well as high field anisotropy indicate that tetrataenite is the major magnetic mineral. A very strong coherent susceptibility and remanence anisotropy is evidenced and interpreted as due to the last large impact responsible for the post-metamorphic and post-brecciation compaction of this material. Demagnetization of mutually oriented sub-samples evidences three components of magnetization. Medium and high coercivity components carried by tetrataenite are randomly distributed down to a scale of 0.1 cc. They represent the magnetization acquired by tetrataenite during its formation by low-temperature atomic ordering of taenite, but the link with the original magnetization of taenite and kamacite grains, acquired during cooling of the parent body after metamorphism, is unknown. Alternatively this randomness may be due to a post-metamorphic thermoremanent magnetization subsequently randomized by brecciation. A non random low-coercivity component is also evidenced. We show that it clearly predates the fall of the meteorite on Earth and postdates the last major impact on the meteorite parent body. The coercivity spectrum of this component as well as the close relation with the impact-related petrofabric indicate that the low coercivity component is likely related to this major impact, possibly in quasi-absence of ambient magnetic field.

  10. A three-dimensional study of metal grains in equilibrated, ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, J.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    Metal particles in Guarena (H6), Colby (L6) and St. Severin (LL6) were studied by optical microscopy and by electron microprobe analysis. Observations from successive polished sections through the metal particles show that kamacite and taenite grains, which often appear to be isolated particles, are connected directly or by intervening sulfides. Also tetrataenite rims are widest when adjacent to sulfide or kamacite. These observations indicate that transfer of Ni during cooling when kamacite-taenite phase growth takes place does not occur through the silicate phases but proceeds through metal and sulfide phases or along grain boundaries. By utilizing the central Ni content of taenite grains from successive sections, metallographic cooling rates were determined more precisely than by using one arbitrary section. Cooling rates determined in this manner for Guarena, Colby, and St. Severin are 4.3 K, 4.0 K, and 1.0 K per million years, respectively.

  11. Thursday, March 16, 2006 POSTER SESSION II: ORDINARY AND ENSTATITE CHONDRITES

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    sets of data are discussed. Kohout T. Kletetschka G. Pesonen L. J. Wasilewski P. J. Magnetic Studies. Guilhaumou N. Libourel G. Duhamel R. Chondrule Thermal History: An Approach Based on NanoSIMS Analysis suggesting the addition of a Ti-rich component in OC. Sandel L. E. Strait M. M. Durda D. D. Flynn G. J

  12. An H chondrite stream - Identification and confirmation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, Robert T.; Wolf, Stephen F.; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    Fall data indicate that a significant, elongate cluster of co-orbital H chondrite falls in May between 1855 and 1895 (H Cluster 1) records encounters with two or three closely spaced and probably related meteoroid stream components, each of which was met near its perihelion. Although meteorites included in the cluster vary widely in petrographic type, shock facies, and Ne-21 exposure age, they have a distinct labile trace element signature that confirms a common thermal history and, thus, a common source region within an H chondrite parent body. Hence, meteorites selected by one criterion (fall parameters) as distinguishable from all other H chondrites, are distinguished from them by another completely different criterion (contents of labile trace elements).

  13. Cathodoluminescence observations of in situ aqueous destruction of chondrules in the Murchison CM chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.; Benoit, Paul H.; Jie, LU; Sears, Andrew S. R.

    1993-01-01

    A low-power cathodoluminescence (CL) mosaic of a 1x2 cm section of the Murchison CM chondrite contains chondrules of two types: one contains olivines with red CL and is thought to be the equivalent of group A chondrules of Sears et.; and one without observable CL, which is probably equivalent to their group B chondrules. Both types of chondrule contain dust mantles with a characteristic uniform red CL due to very fine-grained forsterites, but the mantles of group A chondrules have a complex internal structure and are much thicker than the relatively thin rims on the group B chondrules. The variety of internal textures and the progressive integration of the objects with the surrounding matrix suggests to us that these features are large group A chondrules in the process of being destroyed by aqueous alteration. Prior to aqueous alteration, group A chondrules in CM chondrites were larger than group B chondrules, which is contrary to the situation in ordinary chondrites and were apparently destroyed more rapidly than group B chondrules by aqueous alteration.

  14. Early Solar System hydrothermal activity in chondritic asteroids on 1–10-year timescales

    PubMed Central

    Dyl, Kathryn A.; Bischoff, Addi; Ziegler, Karen; Young, Edward D.; Wimmer, Karl; Bland, Phil A.

    2012-01-01

    Chondritic meteorites are considered the most primitive remnants of planetesimals from the early Solar System. As undifferentiated objects, they also display widespread evidence of water–rock interaction on the parent body. Understanding this history has implications for the formation of planetary bodies, the delivery of water to the inner Solar System, and the formation of prebiotic molecules. The timescales of water–rock reactions in these early objects, however, are largely unknown. Here, we report evidence for short-lived water–rock reactions in the highly metamorphosed ordinary chondrite breccia Villalbeto de la Peña (L6). An exotic clast (d = 2cm) has coexisting variations in feldspar composition and oxygen isotope ratios that can only result from hydrothermal conditions. The profiles were modeled at T = 800 °C and P(H2O) = 1 bar using modified grain-boundary diffusion parameters for oxygen self-diffusion and reaction rates of NaSiCa-1Al-1 exchange in a fumarole. The geochemical data are consistent with hydrothermal activity on the parent body lasting only 1–10 y. This result has wide-ranging implications for the geological history of chondritic asteroids. PMID:23093668

  15. Early Solar System hydrothermal activity in chondritic asteroids on 1-10-year timescales.

    PubMed

    Dyl, Kathryn A; Bischoff, Addi; Ziegler, Karen; Young, Edward D; Wimmer, Karl; Bland, Phil A

    2012-11-01

    Chondritic meteorites are considered the most primitive remnants of planetesimals from the early Solar System. As undifferentiated objects, they also display widespread evidence of water-rock interaction on the parent body. Understanding this history has implications for the formation of planetary bodies, the delivery of water to the inner Solar System, and the formation of prebiotic molecules. The timescales of water-rock reactions in these early objects, however, are largely unknown. Here, we report evidence for short-lived water-rock reactions in the highly metamorphosed ordinary chondrite breccia Villalbeto de la Peña (L6). An exotic clast (d = 2cm) has coexisting variations in feldspar composition and oxygen isotope ratios that can only result from hydrothermal conditions. The profiles were modeled at T = 800 °C and P(H(2)O) = 1 bar using modified grain-boundary diffusion parameters for oxygen self-diffusion and reaction rates of NaSiCa(-1)Al(-1) exchange in a fumarole. The geochemical data are consistent with hydrothermal activity on the parent body lasting only 1-10 y. This result has wide-ranging implications for the geological history of chondritic asteroids. PMID:23093668

  16. The Campos Sales Brazil meteorite: A lightly shocked L5 chondrite fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorzelli, R. B.; Michel-Levy, M. Christophe; Gilabert, E.; Lavielle, B.; Souza Azevedo, I.; Vieira, V. W.; Costa, T. V. V.; Araujo, M. A. B.

    1998-11-01

    The Campos Sales meteorite fell close to the town of Campos Sales, in the northeastern Brazilian state of Ceara (72' deg S; 4010' deg W), on 31 January 1991, at 10:00 PM (local time). Several fragments were recovered from an area estimated to be 3 km ? 1 km. The stone is an ordinary chondrite, L5 ( Fa25.0 and Fs21.6 ), lightly shocked, S1. Metal phases present are kamacite, tetrataenite and antitaenite. Noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe have been analyzed in 2 bulk samples of Campos Sales. All exposure ages based on determination of cosmogenic 3He, 21Ne, 38Ar, 83Kr, 126Xe abundances and on cosmogenic 81Kr/83Kr ratio agree well, suggesting no gas loss during cosmic-ray exposure. The cosmic-ray exposure age is 23.3 +- 1.0 Ma, which falls in the range observed for L5 chondrites (20-30 Ma). The gas-retention ages indicate He loss that must have occurred prior to or during ejection from the L-chondrite parent body.

  17. Zr isotope anomalies in chondrites and the presence of 92Nb in the early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanloup, Chrystèle; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Télouk, Philippe; Gillet, Philippe; Albarède, Francis

    2000-12-01

    The presence of Zr isotope anomalies in the early solar system is demonstrated with the identification of 92Zr excesses and 96Zr deficits in several chondrites and the CAI Allende inclusions. The isotopic composition of Zr in carbonaceous, enstatite, and ordinary chondrites, along with four SNC meteorites, was analyzed by plasma source mass spectrometry. Most chondrite samples show negative96Zr anomalies, which indicate the presence of a pre-solar nucleosynthetic component. Six of them also display a distinct negative92Zr anomaly, reaching down to -2.7±0.8 ? units for Forest Vale (H4). The CAI inclusions from Allende, which are among the oldest known igneous objects of the solar system and have the highest Zr/Nb ratios, also show negative ?92Zr of -2.4±0.5. Although a substantial fraction of the Zr isotope variability may be due to pre-solar nucleosynthetic processes, part of the 92Zr excess must result from the decay of the now extinct 92Nb.

  18. Olivine in terminal particles of Stardust aerogel tracks and analogous grains in chondrite matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, David R.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Le, Loan

    2014-10-01

    The dearth of both major and minor element analyses of anhydrous silicate phases in chondrite matrix has thus far hindered their comparison to the Wild 2 samples. We present 68 analyses of olivine (Fa0-97) in the coarse-grained terminal particles of Stardust aerogel tracks and a comprehensive dataset (>103 analyses) of analogous olivine grains (5-30 ?m) isolated in CI, CM, CR, CH, CO, CV3-oxidized, CV3-reduced, C3-ungrouped (Acfer 094 and Ningqiang), L/LL 3.0-4, EH3, and Kakangari chondrite matrix. These compositions reveal that Wild 2 likely accreted a diverse assortment of material that was radially transported from various carbonaceous and ordinary chondrite-forming regions. The Wild 2 olivine includes amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), refractory forsterite, type I and type II chondrule fragments and/or microchondrules, and rare relict grain compositions. In addition, we have identified one terminal particle that has no known compositional analog in the meteorite record and may be a signature of low-temperature, aqueous processing in the Kuiper Belt. The generally low Cr content of FeO-rich olivine in the Stardust samples indicates that they underwent mild thermal metamorphism, akin to a petrologic grade of 3.05-3.15.

  19. I-129/I-127 variations among enstatite chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. M.; Hudson, B.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Podosek, F. A.

    1988-01-01

    The iodine isotopic compositions and corresponding I-Xe ages were obtained for eight enstatite chondrites, bringing the total number of enstatite chondrites examined by the I-Xe technique to 11. Iodine isotopic compositions of these 11 chondrites indicate a well-defined hiatus correlated with the hiatus in chemical composition defining the two distinct enstatite groups: EH(4,5) and EL(6). Judging by the I-129/I-127 ratios and assuming that both the EH and EL groups originated from a reservoir with a uniform initial iodine isotopic composition, the EH(4,5) chondrites were estimated to be about 4 mln older than the El chondrites.

  20. Petrology and Stable Isotopes of LEW 87232, A New Kakangari-type Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, M. K.; Prinz, M.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.; Grady, M. M.; Franchi, I. A.

    1993-07-01

    The discovery of new chondrite groups is an important step in widening our understanding of the primitive asteroidal materials on which models of early solar system processes are based. LEW87232 was tentatively classified as a CR chondrite [1] and our interest in the CR group and its diversity [2] led us to study this meteorite. This petrologic and stable isotope study shows that LEW87232 is, in fact, a new member of the rare Kakangari-type chondrite grouplet. Kakangari was recognized as the first member of a new chondrite group with petrologic, bulk chemical, and oxygen isotopic characteristics that sharply distinguish it from other chondrites [3-7]. Lea Co. 002 was found to be a second member [8]. Texturally, LEW87232 consists of chondrules, fragments, and metal spheres (chondrules) set in a fine-grained matrix. The chondrule mean diameter is 0.4 nm (some up to 1.6 mm). Most chondrules are porphyritic pyroxene, and olivine is poikilitically enclosed in the pyroxene. Rarely, chondrules are olivine rich. Metal chondrules consist of kamacite with exsolved taenite and are rimmed by, and enclose, lath-shaped pyroxene that is similar in size and morphology to the matrix pyroxene; accessory apatite and schreibersite are associated with the metal. The matrix consists mainly of low-Ca-pyroxene laths 1-3 micrometers wide, up to 15 micrometers long, and it is intermixed with an Fe oxide, possibly ferrihydrite. Ferrihydrite was identified in Kakangari [9]. Mineral compositions in chondrules, fragments, and matrix are fairly homogeneous, and similar, with pyroxene Wo0.2-0.5Fs2.6-3.6, olivine Fa0.5-2.9, Ca-pyroxene Wo45Fs0.8, and plagioclase An~60. Kamacite (Ni ~ 5.6%) and taenite (Ni ~ 27%) are homogeneous. Kakangari has similar mineral compositions [7]. Bulk compositions of the chondrules and matrix are strikingly similar, reflecting similarities in their modes and mineral compositions. Stable Isotopes: LEW87232 nitrogen, total delta-15N = +10.6 permil, [N] = 80.6 ppm, is closest to that of ordinary chondrites and differs from that of Kakangari, which has lighter N (total delta-15N = -20 permil). Total [C] = 1989 ppm and is also closest to ordinary chondrites. Kakangari total [C] = 864 [10]. Combustion temperatures indicate the presence of some organic component with delta-15N ~ +4 to +8 permil released at low T. N released above 1000 degrees C may be a combination of spallogenic N, with N possibly from SiC. The oxygen isotope compositions of Kakangari-type chondrites are shown in the figure. Whole rock LEW87232 plots close to the other Kakangari-type chondrites. Chondrule compositions are similar to those in Kakangari, but are displaced toward lower delta-18O values perhaps, in part, due to weathering. Chondrules from Kakangari-type chondrites generally have oxygen compositions similar to enstatite chondrite chondrules (shown by the loop) and some extend toward more 16O-rich compositions. Conclusions: LEW87232 is shown to be a Kakangari-type meteorite and it further defines this distinct chondrite grouplet. Characteristics that distinguish the Kakangari-type grouplet from other chondrite groups include (1) the oxygen isotope composition of the chondrules and matrix, (2) the high metal and pyroxene abundances and low FeO content of the silicates that indicate an oxidation state between H and E chondrites, (3) the Mg- and pyroxene-rich nature and similarity of the chondrules and matrix, (4) the unique intergrowths of matrix pyroxene within and rimming metal chondrules, suggesting that abundant Mg-rich pyroxene crystals formed in the nebula and were present during chondrule formation. References: [1] Mason B. (1992) Ant. Met. News., 15, 24. [2] Weisberg M. K. et al. (1993) GCA, 57, 1567-1586. [3] Graham A. L. and Hutchison R. (1974) Nature, 251, 128-129. [4] Clayton R. N. et al. (1976) LPSC, VII, 160-162. [5] Clayton R. N. et al. (1976) EPSL, 30, 10-18. [6] Davis A. M. et al. (1977) Nature, 265, 230-232. [7] Prinz M. et al. (1989) LPSC, XX, 870-871. [8] Prinz M. et al. (1991) LPSC, XXII, 1097-1098. [9] Brearley A. J. (1989) GCA, 53,

  1. Non-nebular Origin of Dark Mantles Around Chondrules and Inclusions in CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigo-Rodriquez, Josep M.; Rubin, Alan E.; Wasson, John T.

    2006-01-01

    Our examination of nine CM chondrites that span the aqueous alteration sequence leads us to conclude that compact dark fine mantles surrounding chondrules and inclusions in CM chondrites are not discrete fine-grained rims acquired in the solar nebula as modeled by Metzler et al. [Accretionary dust mantles in CM chondrites: evidence for solar nebula processes. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 56, 1992, 2873-28971. Nebular processes that lead to agglomeration produce materials with porosities far higher than those in the dark mantles. We infer that the mantles were produced from porous nebular materials on the CM parent asteroid by impact-compaction (a process that produces the lowest porosity adjacent to chondrules and inclusions). Compaction was followed by aqueous alteration that formed tochilinite, serpentine, Ni-bearing sulfide, and other secondary products in voids in the interchondrule regions. Metzler et al. reported a correlation between mantle thickness and the radius of the enclosed object. In Yamato 791 198 we find no correlation when all sizes of central objects and dark lumps are included but a significant correlation (r(sup 2) = 0.44) if we limit consideration to central objects with radii >35 microns; a moderate correlation is also found in QUE 97990. We suggest that impact-induced shear of a plum-pudding-like precursor produced the observed "mantles"; these were shielded from comminution during impact events by the adjacent stronger chondrules and inclusions. Some mantles in CM chondrites with low degrees of alteration show distinct layers that may largely reflect differences in porosity. Typically, a gray, uniform inner layer is surrounded by an outer layer consisting of darker silicates with BSE-bright speckles. The CM-chondrite objects characterized as "primary accretionary rocks" by Metzler et al. did not form in the nebula, but rather on the parent body. The absence of solar-flare particle tracks and solar-wind-implanted rare gases in these clasts reflect their lithified nature and low surface/volume ratios during the period when they resided in the regolith and were subject to irradiation by solar particles. The clasts are analogous to the light-colored metamorphosed clasts in ordinary-chondrite regolith breccias (which also lack solar-flare particle tracks and solar-wind gas).

  2. Preliminary Compositional Comparisons of H-Chondrite Falls to Antarctic H-Chondrite Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Kallemeyn; A. N. Krot; A. E. Rubin

    1993-01-01

    In a series of papers [e.g., 1,2], Lipschutz and co-workers compared trace- element RNAA data from Antarctic and non-Antarctic H4-6 chondrites and concluded that the two populations have significantly different concentrations of several trace elements including Co, Se, and Sb. They interpreted their data as indicating that these Antarctic H chondrites form different populations than observed H falls and may

  3. Impact processing of chondritic planetesimals: Siderophile and volatile element fractionation in the Chico L chondrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc D. Norman; David W. Mittlefehldt

    2002-01-01

    A large impact event 500 million years ago shocked and melted portions of the L chondrite parent body. Chico is an impact melt breccia produced by this event. Sawn surfaces of this 105 kg meteorite reveal a dike of fine-grained, clast-poor impact melt cutting shocked host chondrite. Coarse (1-2 cm diameter) globules of FeNi metal+sulfide are concentrated along the axis

  4. Collisional records in LL-chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, Thomas; Marti, Kurt

    1994-01-01

    One third of all the LL-chondrites have exposure ages of approx. 15 Ma and were exposed to cosmic rays following a collisional break-up. The probability that the 15-Ma peak represents a random signal is calculated to be less than 2%. Considerably lower probabilities are obtained if only LL5s or subgroups of high Ar-40 retention are used. Furthermore, we show that the peak shape agrees with statistical constraints obtained from multiple analyses of samples from the St. Severin LL6-chondrites. The frequency in and out of the 15-Ma peak varies significantly for different petrographic LL-types. The radiogenic Ar-40 retention systematics (most LL-chondrites retained Ar-40(sub rad) shows that no substantial heat pulse resulted in the 15-Ma collisional event. Interestingly, smaller exposure age clusters at approx. 28 Ma and approx. 40 Ma match up well with clusters in the histogram of L-chondrites. The distribution of LL-exposure ages is not consistent with that expected for a quasi-continuous injection of LL material into a resonance zone of the asteroid belt. The near absence of exposure ages shorter than 8 Ma either indicates a lack of recent collisional events or considerably longer transfer times than inferred from dynamical considerations.

  5. Evidence of Microfossils in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Zhmur, S. I.; Gorlenko, V. M.

    1998-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out on freshly broken, internal surfaces of the Murchison, Efremovka and Orgueil carbonaceous chondrites using Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) in Russia and the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) in the United States. These independent studies on different samples of the meteorites have resulted in the detection of numerous spherical and ellipsoidal bodies (some with spikes) similar to the forms of uncertain biogenicity that were designated "organized elements" by prior researchers. We have also encountered numerous complex biomorphic microstructures in these carbonaceous chondrites. Many of these complex bodies exhibit diverse characteristics reminiscent of microfossils of cyanobacteria such as we have investigated in ancient phosphorites and high carbon rocks (e.g. oil shales). Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis and 2D elemental maps shows enhanced carbon content in the bodies superimposed upon the elemental distributions characteristic of the chondritic matrix. The size, distribution, composition, and indications of cell walls, reproductive and life cycle developmental stages of these bodies are strongly suggestive of biology' These bodies appear to be mineralized and embedded within the meteorite matrix, and can not be attributed to recent surface contamination effects. Consequently, we have interpreted these in-situ microstructures to represent the lithified remains of prokaryotes and filamentous cyanobacteria. We also detected in Orgueil microstructures morphologically similar to fibrous kerite crystals. We present images of many biomorphic microstructures and possible microfossils found in the Murchison, Efremovka, and Orgueil chondrites and compare these forms with known microfossils from the Cambrian phosphate-rich rocks (phosphorites) of Khubsugul, Northern Mongolia.

  6. Collision condition indicted by High Pressure Phases in a Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Y.; Sekine, T.; Kayama, M.; Miyahara, M.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2012-12-01

    It has been generally recognized that there were many collisions during planetary accretion. Chondrites include the materials at the time of formation of the solar system. It is essential to unravel the shock history in meteorites and the parent planet in order to understand such collisional processes. In this study, we investigate a thin section of ordinary chondrite Y-790729 classified as L6 in which high-pressure minerals are found in the about 620-?m-wide shock vein. The mineralogical and chemical features give us detailed information to constrain the shock conditions. We have tried to constrain the P-T condition from the viewpoints of the mineral assemblage and cathodoluminescense (CL) spectroscopy. Y-790729 consists mostly of olivine and pyroxene and has shock veins. To identify high pressure phases, we used an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), micro Raman spectroscopy, and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). In addition, scanning electron microscopy-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) analysis, detectable shock-induced defect centers, was used to characterize the shock metamorphism in feldspar minerals. The presence of shock vein, maskelynite, and high pressure phases confirms shock record. 7 high pressure phases of ringwoodite, high-pressure clinoenstatite (HPC), majorite, merrillite, lingunite, high-pressure chromite and akimotoite were found in this section. All of them exist only in a shock vein, but maskelynite occurs everywhere in the section. From these observations, it is obvious that the shock vein experienced the high pressure and high temperature generated by shock wave. If some of the high pressure minerals are equilibrated, the P-T condition can be estimated. Based on the equilibrium phase diagram of MgSiO3 polymorphs (Presnall. 1995), the P-T conditions for crystallization of majorite, HPC and akimotoite is about 17 GPa and 1600 oC, because the compositions of the three phases are close to MgSiO3. It is consistent with the stability fields for ringwoodite, merrillite and diopside. Employing the shock properties of an ordinary chondrite (F. Zhang and T. Sekine, 2007) and the impedance match method, an impact velocity of 1.74 km/s is obtained for a symmetrical head-on impact. CL spectroscopy of experimentally shocked sanidine gives us a linear correlation between integral intensity of emission components at 2.948 eV and the applied peak shock pressure. Then, a pressure over 15 GPa can be estimated based on these relationships and the intensities at 2.948 eV derived from maskelynite in Y-790729, covering the value estimated from the high pressure phase assemblage. We plan to investigate the detailed microstructures and the particle sizes of the high pressure minerals in the shock vein by transmission electron microscope (TEM). By examining minerals in the shock vein in detail, it is expected that the formation mechanism of the high pressure phases will be understood and that the collisional process will be unraveled from the material evolution. In addition, the shock duration, the parent body size, and the time required for the crystal growth need to be estimated as further development.

  7. Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk, Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: Ca-, Al-Rich Inclusions and Ameoboid Olivine Aggregates: What We Know and Don t Know About Their Origin. Aluminium-26 and Oxygen Isotopic Distributions of Ca-Al-rich Inclusions from Acfer 214 CH Chondrite. The Trapping Efficiency of Helium in Fullerene and Its Implicatiion to the Planetary Science. Constraints on the Origin of Chondritic Components from Oxygen Isotopic Compositions. Role of Planetary Impacts in Thermal Processing of Chondrite Materials. Formation of the Melilite Mantle of the Type B1 CAIs: Flash Heating or Transport? The Iodine-Xenon System in Outer and Inner Portions of Chondrules from the Unnamed Antarctic LL3 Chondrite. Nucleosynthesis of Short-lived Radioactivities in Massive Stars. The Two-Fluid Analysis of the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability in the Dust Layer of a Protoplanetary Disk: A Possible Path to the Planetesimal Formation Through the Gravitational Instability. Shock-Wave Heating Model for Chonodrule Formation: Heating Rate and Cooling Rate Constraints. Glycine Amide Hydrolysis with Water and OH Radical: A Comparative DFT Study. Micron-sized Sample Preparation for AFM and SEM. AFM, FE-SEM and Optical Imaging of a Shocked L/LL Chondrite: Implications for Martensite Formation and Wave Propagation. Infrared Spectroscopy of Chondrites and Their Components: A Link Between Meteoritics and Astronomy? Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of CAI and Their Mineral Components. The Origin of Iron Isotope Fractionation in Chondrules, CAIs and Matrix from Allende (CV3) and Chainpur (LL3) Chondrites. Protoplanetary Disk Evolution: Early Results from Spitzer. Kinetics of Evaporation-Condensation in a Melt-Solid System and Its Role on the Chemical Composition and Evolution of Chondrules. Oxygen Isotope Exchange Recorded Within Anorthite Single Crystal in Vigarano CAI: Evidence for Remelting by High Temperature Process in the Solar Nebula. Chondrule Forming Shock Waves in Solar Nebula by X-Ray Flares. Organic Globules with Anormalous Nitrogen Isotopic Compositions in the Tagish Lake Meteorite: Products of Primitive Organic Reactions. Yet Another Chondrule Formation Scenario. CAIs are Not Supernova Condensates. Microcrystals and Amorphous Material in Comets and Primitive Meteorites: Keys to Understanding Processes in the Early Solar System. A Nearby Supernova Injected Short-lived Radionuclides into Our Protoplanetary Disk. REE+Y Systematics in CC and UOC Chondrules. Meteoritic Constraints on Temperatures, Pressures, Cooling Rates, Chemical Compositions, and Modes of Condensation in the Solar Nebula. The I-Xe Record of Long Equilibration in Chondrules from the Unnamed Antarctic Meteorite L3/LL3. Early Stellar Evolution.

  8. Csátalja, the largest H4-5 chondrite from Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, János; Sajó, István; Márton, Zsuzsanna; Jáger, Viktor; Hegedüs, Tibor; Berecz, Tibor; Tóth, Tamás; Gyenizse, Péter; Podobni, András

    2015-01-01

    We report here for the first time the composition and mineralogical studies on a new meteorite, which was found in August 2012 near the village of Csátalja, Hungary (46°0'21''N; 18°59'27'E). The Csátalja meteorite is classified as a H4-5 ordinary chondrite with shock stage S2 and a degree of weathering W1 and the total mass is 15 kg. The Csátalja meteorite is characterized by well-defined chondrules composed either of olivine or pyroxene. X-ray diffractogram shows the primary phases olivine, pyroxene, kamacite, and albite. Metal particles were extracted from the bulk powdered samples exhibit only kamacite and small amounts of the intergrowth taenite/kamacite. Raman spectra of forsterite indicate that Csátalja meteorite suffered from relatively low shock pressure regime. The texture of chondrules varies from nonporphyritic (e.g., barred olivine, radial pyroxene) to porphyritic ones (e.g., granular olivine as well as olivine pyroxene). The meteorite name has not yet approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the Meteoritical Society.

  9. Correlated alteration effects in CM carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Lauren B.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1996-07-01

    Three parameters are proposed to determine the relative extent of alteration in CM chondrites. The mineralogic alteration index monitors the relative progress of coupled substitutions in the progressive alteration of cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine and increases with increasing alteration. To calculate values of this index, an algorithm has been developed to estimate the average matrix phyllosilicate composition in individual CM chondrites. The second parameter is the volume percent of isolated matrix silicates, which decreases with progressive alteration due to mineral hydration. Finally, the volume percent of chondrule alteration monitors the extent of chondrule phyllosilicate production and increases as alteration proceeds. These parameters define the first CM alteration scale that relies on multiple indicators of progressive alteration. The following relative order of increasing alteration is established by this model: Murchison ? Bells < Pollen ? Murray < Mighei < Nogoya < Cold Bokkeveld. The relative degree of aqueous processing Cochabamba and Boriskino experienced is less precisely constrained, although both fall near the middle of this sequence. A comparison between the mineralogic alteration index and literature values for the whole-rock chemistry of CM chondrites reveals several correlations. A positive, nearly linear correlation between bulk H content and progressive CM alteration suggests an approximately constant production rate of new phyllosilicates relative to the mineralogical transition from cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine. The abundance of trapped planetary 36Ar decreases systematically in progressively altered CM chondrites, suggesting the wholesale destruction of primary noble gas carrier phase (s) by aqueous reactions. Because low temperature fluid-rock reactions are generally associated with large isotopic mass fractionation factors, we also compared our model predictions with ?18O values for bulk CM samples. Although some of these data are poorly resolved, the order of increasing ?18O values approximates the order of increasing alteration predicted by our model parameters. Multiple correlations between diverse alteration parameters strongly suggest that (a) different CM chondrites experienced similar kinds of processes and conditions, and (b) CM materials experienced in situ alteration on the CM parent body or bodies.

  10. Correlated Alteration Effects in CM Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Browning, Lauren B.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Three parameters are proposed to determine the relative extent of alteration in CM chondrites. The mineralogic alteration index monitors the relative progress of coupled substitutions in the progressive alteration of cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine, and increases with increasing alteration. To calculate values of this index, an algorithm has been developed to estimate the average matrix phyllosilicate composition in individual CM chondrites. The second parameter is the volume percent of isolated matrix silicates, which decreases with progressive alteration due to mineral hydration. Finally, the volume percent of chondrule alteration monitors the extent of chondrule phyllosilicate production, and increases as alteration proceeds. These parameters define the first CM alteration scale that-relies on multiple indicators of progressive alteration. The following relative order of increasing alteration is established by this model: Murchison less than or equal to Bells less than Pollen less than or equal to Murray less than Mighei less than Nogoya less than Cold Bokkeveld. Bulk delta18O values generally increase with progressive alteration, providing additional support for this sequence. The relative degree of aqueous processing Cochabamba and Boriskino experienced is less precisely constrained, although both fall near the middle of this sequence. A comparison between the mineralogic alteration index and literature values of the whole-rock chemistry of CM chondrites reveals several correlations. For example, a positive, nearly linear correlation between bulk H content and progressive CM alteration suggests an approximately constant production rate of new phyllosilicates relative to the mineralogical transition from cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine. Furthermore, the abundance of trapped planetary Ar-36 decreases systematically in progressively altered CM chondrites, suggesting the wholesale destruction of primary noble gas carrier phase(s) by aqueous reactions. Multiple correlations between diverse alteration parameters indicate that different CM chondrites probably experienced the same kinds of processes and conditions during in situ parent body alteration.

  11. Nucleosynthetic strontium isotope anomalies in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuya; Fukami, Yusuke; Okui, Wataru; Ito, Nobuaki; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Precise Sr isotopic compositions in samples from sequential acid leaching experiments have been determined for three carbonaceous chondrites, Allende, Murchison, and Tagish Lake, together with those in the bulk aliquots of these meteorites. The chondritic acid leachates and residues were characterized by Sr isotope anomalies with variable ?84Sr values (106 relative deviation from a standard material) ranging from +120 to - 4700 ppm, documenting multiple nucleosynthetic sources within a single meteorite. In addition, the ?84Sr patterns across leaching samples for individual chondrites differed from one another. The highest ?84Sr values were observed for leaching Step 3 (HCl+H2O, 75 °C) for Allende and Murchison likely because of the incorporation of calcium and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). In contrast, extremely low ?84Sr values were observed in the later fractions (Steps 6 and 7) for Murchison and Tagish Lake, suggesting the existence of s-process-enriched presolar SiC grains derived from AGB stars. A ?84Sr-?54Cr diagram was prepared with the CAIs and bulk aliquots of carbonaceous chondrites and other meteorites (noncarbonaceous) that were plotted separately; however, they still formed a global positive correlation. CAIs presented the highest ?84Sr and ?54Cr values, whereas carbonaceous chondrites and noncarbonaceous meteorites had intermediate and the lowest ?84Sr and ?54Cr values, respectively. The positive trend was interpreted as resulting from global thermal processing in which sublimation of high ?84Sr and ?54Cr carriers generated the excess ?84Sr and ?54Cr signatures in CAIs, while noncarbonaceous planetesimals accreted from materials that underwent significant thermal processing and thus had relatively low ?84Sr and ?54Cr values. Apart from the global trend, the carbonaceous chondrites and noncarbonaceous meteorites both exhibited intrinsic variations that highlight an isotopic dichotomy similar to that observed in other isotope combinations (e.g., ?54Cr-?50Ti, ?54Cr-?17O). A plausible scenario for creation of the intrinsic variations involves local thermal processing (e.g., flash heating for chondrule formation) caused by additional selective destruction of presolar grains differently than that caused by global thermal processing. The existence of such a global positive trend and local variations for two meteorite groups suggests a complicated dynamic history for the dust grains with respect to thermal processing, material transportation, and mixing in the protoplanetary disk prior to planetesimal formation.

  12. On the chemical composition of L-chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, C. W.; Dodd, R. T.; Jarosewich, E.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of Ag, As, Au, Bi, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Te, Tl, and Zn and major element data in 14 L4-6 and 3 LL5 chondrites indicates that the L group is unusually variable and may represent at least 2 subgroups differing in formation history. Chemical trends in the S/Fe rich subgroup support textural evidence indicating late loss of a shock formed Fe-Ni-S melt; the S/Fe poor subgroup seemingly reflects nebular fractionation only. Highly mobile In and Zn apparently reflect shock induced loss from L chondrites. However, contrasting chemical trends in several L chondrite sample sets indicate that these meteorites constitute a more irregular sampling of, or more heterogeneous parent material than do carbonaceous or enstatite chondrites. Data for 15 chondrites suggest higher formation temperatures and/or degrees of shock than for LL5 chondrites.

  13. Deducing Wild 2 Components with a Statistical Dataset of Olivine in Chondrite Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, D. R.; Zolensky, M. E.; Le, L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: A preliminary exam of the Wild 2 olivine yielded a major element distribution that is strikingly similar to those for aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites (CI, CM, and CR) [1], in which FeO-rich olivine is preferentially altered. With evidence lacking for large-scale alteration in Wild 2, the mechanism for this apparent selectivity is poorly understood. We use a statistical approach to explain this distribution in terms of relative contributions from different chondrite forming regions. Samples and Analyses: We have made a particular effort to obtain the best possible analyses of both major and minor elements in Wild 2 olivine and the 5-30 micrometer population in chondrite matrix. Previous studies of chondrite matrix either include larger isolated grains (not found in the Wild 2 collection) or lack minor element abundances. To overcome this gap in the existing data, we have now compiled greater than 10(exp 3) EPMA analyses of matrix olivine in CI, CM, CR, CH, Kakangari, C2-ungrouped, and the least equilibrated CO, CV, LL, and EH chondrites. Also, we are acquiring TEM/EDXS analyses of the Wild 2 olivine with 500s count times, to reduce relative errors of minor elements with respect to those otherwise available. Results: Using our Wild 2 analyses and those from [2], the revised major element distribution is more similar to anhydrous IDPs than previous results, which were based on more limited statistics (see figure below). However, a large frequency peak at Fa(sub 0-1) still persists. All but one of these grains has no detectable Cr, which is dissimilar to the Fa(sub 0-1) found in the CI and CM matrices. In fact, Fa(sub 0-1) with strongly depleted Cr content is a composition that appears to be unique to Kakangari and enstatite (highly reduced) chondrites. We also note the paucity of Fa(sub greater than 58), which would typically indicate crystallization in a more oxidizing environment [3]. We conclude that, relative to the bulk of anhydrous IDPs, Wild 2 may have received a larger contribution from the Kakangari and/or enstatite chondrite forming regions. Alternatively, Wild 2 may have undergone accretion in an anomalously reducing region, marked by nebular condensation of this atypical forsterite. In [4], a similar conclusion was reached with an Fe-XANES study. We will also use similar lines of reasoning, and our previous conclusions in [5], to constrain the relative contributions of silicates that appear to have been radially transported from different ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite forming regions to the Kuiper Belt. In addition, the widespread depletion of Cr in these FeO-rich (Fa(sub greater than 20)) fragments is consistent with mild thermal metamorphism in Wild 2.

  14. The formation conditions of chondrules and chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Grossman, J.N.; Ebel, D.S.; Ciesla, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Chondrules, which are roughly millimeter-sized silicate-rich spherules, dominate the most primitive meteorites, the chondrites. They formed as molten droplets and, judging from their abundances in chondrites, are the products of one of the most energetic processes that operated in the early inner solar system. The conditions and mechanism of chondrule formation remain poorly understood. Here we show that the abundance of the volatile element sodium remained relatively constant during chondrule formation. Prevention of the evaporation of sodium requires that chondrules formed in regions with much higher solid densities than predicted by known nebular concentration mechanisms. These regions would probably have been self-gravitating. Our model explains many other chemical characteristics of chondrules and also implies that chondrule and planetesimal formation were linked.

  15. Chondrule-matrix relationships in chondritic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between chondrules and matrix (fine grained material with a grain size less than 5 micrometers) in chondritic meteorites has been the subject of considerable controversy and no consensus currently exists. The coexistence of these two components in meteorites with bulk compositions that deviate only slightly from CI abundances suggests that cosmochemically their origins are closely linked. Any consideration of the relationship between chondrules and matrix hinges to a large degree on the origin of matrix. The entire spectrum of models exists from matrix as a nebular product to derivation entirely from chondrules. Early models of solar nebular evolution viewed chondrites as a two-component mixture of high- and low-temperature condensates. However, this model has been challenged by the recognition that the nebula was probably not uniformly vaporized.

  16. Trace element geochemistry of CR chondrite metal

    E-print Network

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Alard, Olivier; Kearsley, Anton T; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    We report trace element analyses by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry of metal grains from 9 different CR chondrites, distinguishing grains from chondrule interior ("interior grains"), chondrule surficial shells ("margin grains") and the matrix ("isolated grains"). Save for a few anomalous grains, Ni-normalized trace element patterns are similar for all three petrographical settings, with largely unfractionated refractory siderophile elements and depleted volatile Au, Cu, Ag, S. All types of grains are interpreted to derive from a common precursor approximated by the least melted, fine-grained objects in CR chondrites. This also excludes recondensation of metal vapor as the origin of the bulk of margin grains. The metal precursors presumably formed by incomplete condensation, with evidence for high-temperature isolation of refractory platinum-group-element (PGE)-rich condensates before mixing with lower temperature PGE-depleted condensates. The rounded shape of the Ni-rich, interior ...

  17. I-129\\/I-127 variations among enstatite chondrites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Kennedy; B. Hudson; C. M. Hohenberg; F. A. Podosek

    1988-01-01

    The iodine isotopic compositions and corresponding I-Xe ages were obtained for eight enstatite chondrites, bringing the total number of enstatite chondrites examined by the I-Xe technique to 11. Iodine isotopic compositions of these 11 chondrites indicate a well-defined hiatus correlated with the hiatus in chemical composition defining the two distinct enstatite groups: EH(4,5) and EL(6). Judging by the I-129\\/I-127 ratios

  18. Amino acids of the Nogoya and Mokoia carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, J. R.; Moore, C. B.

    1976-01-01

    Amino acids were found in acid hydrolyzed, hot water extracts of the Nogoya (C2) and Mokoia (C3V) chondrites. About 40 n moles/g of amino acids were found in the Nogoya extract while Mokoia contained less than 1 n mole/g. The amino acid composition of Nogoya differs from that of other C2 chondrites studied earlier. The results from Mokoia are similar to previous data obtained from the C3V chondrite Allende.

  19. Toward an Astrophysical Theory of Chondrites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank H. Shu; Hsien Shang; Typhoon Lee

    1996-01-01

    The chondrules, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), and rims in chondritic meteorites could be formed when solid bodies are lifted by the aerodynamic drag of a magnetocentrifugally driven wind out of the relative cool of a shaded disk close to the star into the heat of direct sunlight. For reasonable self-consistent parameters of the bipolar outflow, the base and peak temperatures reached

  20. Size distributions in two porous chondritic micrometeorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative size measurements of granular units (GUs), and nm-sized minerals in these units, in two porous chondritic micrometeorites are investigated. The matrix of these micrometeorites consist of loosely packed, 0.1 micron-sized, GUs. These objects were a major component of the solar nebula dust that accreted into protoplanets. The matrix in micrometeorite W7010*A2 has a fractal dimension with a small coefficient that supports efficient sticking of carbon-rich GUs during accretion. The fractal nature of the matrix provides a way to calculate the density using the aggregate size. The resulting very low density for porous chondritic micrometeorites is 0.08-0.14 g/cu cm, which supports the view that they are the solid debris from unconsolidated solar system bodies. Chondritic GUs contain ultrafine olivines, pyroxenes, and sulfides, embedded in hydrocarbons and amorphous carbons. Nanocrystals in the micrometeorites W7010*A2 and U2015*B show log normal size distributions. The high incidence of disk-shaped grains, a changeover from disk-shaped to euhedral grains, the unevolved nature of the size distributions, and multiple populations for grains less than 127 nm in size, are consistent with continuous postaccretion nucleation and growth in amorphous GUs, including coarsening via Ostwald ripening.

  1. Sulfur and Selenium in Chondritic Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreibus, G.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Wanke, H.

    1993-07-01

    Selenium is the only truly chalcophile element in chondritic meteorites. It has no other host phases except sulfides. Since Se-volatility is similar to S-volatility one may expect constant S/Se ratios. To test this hypothesis chondritic meteorites were analyzed for Se and S. To avoid problems from inhomogeneous distribution of sulfides the same samples that had been analyzed for Se by INAA were analyzed for S (see Table 1) using a Leybold Heraeus Carbon and Sulfur Analyser (CSA 2002). Solar System Abundances of S and Se: The average S-content of CI- meteorites is with 5.41% in agreement with an earlier average of 5.25% for Orgueil [1], but not with higher S-contents for Ivuna, Alais, and Tonk. Inclusion of these data led to an average CI- content of 6.25% in the Anders and Grevesse compilation [2]. The essentially constant average S/Se ratio in all groups of carbonaceous chondrites of 2563 +- 190 suggests that our Orgueil S-content provides a reliable estimate for the average solar system. The new solar S/Se ratio and the CI-value of Se of 21.3 ppm [3] yield an atomic S/Se ratio of 6200 +- 170, 24% below that calculated from [2]. Weathering Effects: Some of the carbonaceous chondrite finds have similar S/Se ratios as falls (see Table 1). However the badly- weathered Arch (CVR) and Colony (CO) and the two C4-chondrites Mulga West and Maralinga have much lower S and somewhat lower Se contents compared to unweathered meteorites. Their S/Se ratios of 1000-230 indicate higher losses of S--probably by oxidation--as of Se. The low Na-contents in Arch and Colony rel. to CV3 and CO3 may also reflect weathering. Low S/Se ratios in the Sahara meteorites are also indicative of weathering processes. The depletion factors for the CV3- chondrite Acfer086 are, relative to average CV, 10 (S), 5 (Se), 6 (Na), and 4 (Ni). Lower absolute depletions, but the same depletion sequence are found for the CO-meteorite Acfer 202. In the CO/CM Acfer 094 only S and Na are depleted. The influence of weathering in the two CR-types Acfer 097 and Acfer 270 is less obvious. Although Se does not appear to be depleted in these meteorites [4] the lower S/Se ratios of 1660 res. 1970 rel. to CI and the low Na-contents indicate weathering related losses of S and Na. Losses of Ni by weathering are more pronounced in meteorites containing Ni-rich sulfides, whereas metallic Ni is apparently less affected (CR-meteorites). A high depletion of S and Ni but none for Se and Na is found in the Carlisle Lake-type, Acfer 217. In summary, weathering effects in the carbonaceous chondrites result in losses of S, Se, Na, and Ni. Sulfur is in all cases significantly more affected by weathering than Se resulting in low S/Se ratio rel. to CI. References: [1] Mason B. (1962) Space Sci. Rev., 1, 621-646. [2] Anders E. and Grevesse N. (1989) GCA, 53, 197-214. [3] Spettel B. et al. (1993) this volume. [4] Bischoff A. et al. (1993) GCA, 57, in press.

  2. REE and actinide microdistribution in Sahara 97072 and ALHA77295 EH3 chondrites: A combined cosmochemical and petrologic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannoun, A.; Boyet, M.; El Goresy, A.; Devouard, B.

    2011-06-01

    We report the results of rare earth elements (REEs) and U-Th inventory of individual minerals (oldhamite, enstatite and niningerite) in two of the most unequilibrated and primitive EH3 known so far, ALHA77295 and Sahara 97072. Under the highly reducing condition that prevailed during the formation of enstatite chondrites, REEs are mainly chalcophile and concentrated in oldhamite. The study is guided by detailed petrographic investigations of the individual minerals in chondrules, complex sulfide-metal clasts and enstatite-dominated matrices. We developed two textural parameters in order to resolve the evolution of oldhamite condensates and their residence in the solar gas prior to their accretion in the individual objects or in matrices and relate these textural features to the measured REE patterns of the individual oldhamite crystals. These textural parameters are the crystal habit of oldhamite grains (idiomorphic or anhedral) and their host assemblages. REE concentrations were measured by SIMS and LA-ICPMS. Oldhamite grains display REE enrichments (10-100 × CI). Four types of REE patterns are encountered in oldhamite in ALHA77295. In general the REE distributions cannot be assigned to a specific oldhamite-bearing assemblage. The most represented REE pattern is characterized by both slight to large positive Eu and Yb anomalies and is enriched in light REEs relative to heavy REEs. This pattern is present in 97% of oldhamite in Sahara 97072, suggesting a different source region in the reduced part of the nebula or different parental EH asteroids for the two EH3 chondrites. Different parental asteroids are also supported by MgS-FeS zoning profiles in niningerite grains adjacent to troilite revealing both normal and reverse zoning trends and different MnS contents. The observed homogeneity of REE distribution in oldhamite grains in Sahara 97072 is not related to the mild metamorphic event identified in this meteorite that caused breakdown of the major K- and Rb-bearing sulfide (djerfisherite). REE concentrations in enstatite range between 0.2 and 8 × CI. Hence, enstatite is an important REE host next to oldhamite. Most patterns are characterized by negative Eu and Yb anomalies. Niningerites are negligible contributors to bulk EH3 REE inventory. Average positive Eu and Yb anomalies observed in most oldhamite are complimentary to the negative ones in enstatite thus explaining the flat patterns of the bulk meteorites. The condensation calculations based on cosmic abundances predict that the first oldhamite condensates should have flat REE patterns with Eu and Yb depletions since Eu and Yb condense at lower temperature than other REE. However, this pattern is seen in enstatite. Our findings are at odds with the predicted negative Eu and Yb anomalies in oldhamite earliest condensates from a closed system in a reduced solar source. Our petrographic, mineral chemistry and REE abundances of oldhamite, enstatite and niningerite discards an origin of oldhamite by impact melting ( Rubin et al., 2009). Our results do not support in first order the scenario of the incorporation of REE in the Earth's core to explain 142Nd excess in terrestrial samples relative to chondrites because oldhamite is the major REE carrier phase and has super-chondritic Sm/Nd ratios.

  3. Unraveling the evolution of chondrite parent asteroids by precise U-Pb dating and thermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelin, Yuri; Ghosh, Amitabha; Rotenberg, Ethan

    2005-01-01

    U-Th-Pb isotopic data are reported for mineral fractions, individual chondrules and fractions of chondrule fragments from the equilibrated ordinary chondrite Richardton (H5). Chondrules and milligram-sized fractions of pyroxene-rich chondrule fragments contain highly radiogenic Pb and concordant or nearly concordant U-Th-Pb isotopic systems, and are suitable for precise Pb-Pb age determinations. Olivine and sulfide have low U concentrations and contain less radiogenic Pb. The ages of individual chondrules, pyroxene-rich and phosphate fractions are determined using U-Pb and Pb-Pb isochron and model date calculations. The Pb-Pb isochron date of 4562.7 ± 1.7 Ma of the Richardton chondrules and chondrule fragments is resolved from the Pb-Pb isochron date of 4550.7 ± 2.6 Ma obtained from multiple phosphate fractions. Possible biases of the isochron dates due to single-stage approximation of multi-stage evolution, contamination with modern common Pb, and disturbance to the system by reheating, are examined and are found to be insignificant. The chondrule and phosphate dates are interpreted as the timing of cessation of Pb diffusion during cooling following metamorphism in chondrite parent bodies. The difference in estimated closure temperatures, ˜950-1150 K for pyroxenes, and 700-800 K for phosphates (temperature estimates are based on published diffusion rates for Pb in pyroxenes and apatite), allows evaluation of the average cooling rate at 26 ± 13 K/million years for the Richardton parent body over the period of 4563-4551 my. Thermal modeling of the H-chondrite parent body (which is assumed to be asteroid 6 Hebe, heated by decay of 26Al) suggests a scenario in which accretion initiated at 1.7 m.y. after formation of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and continued for 3.5 m.y.

  4. Fedkin and Grossman: Fayalite Content of Chondritic Olivine 279 The Fayalite Content of Chondritic Olivine

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Lawrence

    enrichment factors near the maximum produced in coagulation and settling models, together with C1 chondrite dust whose O content has been enhanced by admixture of water ice, can yield olivine condensate grains during condensation of a so- lar gas. 1.2. Dust-enriched Systems While thermodynamic treatments

  5. Cumberland Falls chondritic inclusions - Mineralogy/petrology of a forsterite chondrite suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, C. W.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The mineralogy and petrology of a suite of chondritic inclusions from the Cumberland Falls aubrite are investigated in order to clarify the relation of the inclusions to each other, forsterite chondrites, and the aubrites. Thin sections of nine chondritic inclusions and the achondritic matrix of Cumberland Falls were examined in reflected light, then analyzed for up to 12 elements by electron microprobe techniques. Minerals detected in abundant quantities include low-Ca pyroxene, olivine, plagioclase, kamacite, taenite, schreibersite, troilite, ferroan alabandite and daubreelite; diospide, oldhamite and a Ti-rich sulfide are found in one or two inclusions. The mineralogic compositions indicate similar degrees of reduction for the inclusions in the Cumberland Falls meteorites and in four meteorites identified as forsterite chondrites (Kakangari, Mt. Morris, Pontlyfni and Winona). The inclusions are found to be of a primitive composition, corresponding to petrological types 2 or 3, while the identification of jadeitic pyroxene in nearly all inclusions indicates a substantial degree of shock. The results suggest that the inclusions formed from nebular material that condensed and accreted over a broad redox range, and experienced tertiary shock in a collision with an enstatite meteorite in which the Cumberland Falls meteorite formed.

  6. EH vs. CI chondrite derived mantle: A geodynamical comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Samuel; C. G. Farnetani; M. Javoy

    2004-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the Earth's bulk composition is derived from carbonaceous CI chondrites. However, arguments based on stable isotopes and redox considerations favor another type of material from which the Earth could be derived: the enstatite EH chondrites. The latter implies substantial heterogeneities either in minor and major elements within the mantle which is strongly suggested by seismological

  7. Rumuruti: A New Carlisle Lakes-type Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, H.; Otto, J.

    1993-07-01

    We report here preliminary results of the investigation of a meteorite that fell on January 28, 1934, at 10:45 p.m. at Rumuruti, Kenya. The stone, weighing originally about 75 g, was part of a shower of a few pounds. It was picked up immediately after the fall and has been in the collection of the Museum fur Naturkunde in Berlin since 1938, but it has never been investigated. The stone has a black crust. A cut exhibits a nice light-dark structure typical of regolithic breccias. The numerous clasts are light-grey and reach up to 7 mm. The groundmass is dark grey. The portion of chondrules in the meteorite is rather small. They are often broken or irregularly shaped. The mineralogical investigation revealed a quite equilibrated olivine with a high fayalite content ranging in composition from Fa37 to Fa42 and averaging Fa39 (PMD 2.4; n = 66). The grains are up to 400 micrometers and often appear to be fragments of larger lithologies. Low-Ca pyroxene is much less abundant. It is unequilibrated with a mean of approximately Fs26 (n = 2). It is smaller than olivine (up to ~100 micrometers) and often shows polysynthetical twinning. A Ca-rich pyroxene was measured having En43Fs17Wo40. The common plagioclase reaches several micrometers and is mostly of oligoclasic composition with a mean of Ab85An11Or5 (n = 15), similar to OCs [1]. Also whitlockite of a composition similar to OCs [2] has been observed. Common sulfides comprise pentlandite (~35 wt% Ni) and low-Ni iron sulfide, which is pyrrhotite according to powder diffraction patterns. They occur individually or intergrown as grains of up to 1 mm. Pentlandite partly forms flame-like exsolutions in pyrrhotite. Also chalcopyrite, which is otherwise a rare mineral in meteorites [3], can be observed in grains of up to 50 micrometers. It is generally intergrown with the other sulfides. The common chromian spinel is Ti-rich (TiO2 ~6 wt%), Cr2O3 ranges from 32 to 48 wt%, and FeO from 37 to 53 wt%. For charge balance a high Fe3+-content is required (12-51 mol% of the iron). The mean composition of this spinel phase can be expressed as a mixture of the end members chromite (55 mol%), ulvospinel (17 mol%), magnetite (15 mol%), and spinel (9 mol%). Only the magnetite (4-25 mol%) and the chromite component (46-68 mol%) are strongly variable, obviously substituting each other. Chromian spinel occurs intergrown with the sulfides, as xenomorphic or chondrulelike individual grains (up to 200 micrometers) or as inclusions in the olivine. Nickel-iron is a rare phase. Only four grains of up to 30 micrometers have been observed. It seems to be associated with pentlandite and is very rich in Ni (67 wt% Ni). The homogeneity of the olivine and the grain size of plagioclase indicates a classification as a type-4 chondrite, whereas some glass in a chondrule points also to type 3. A refined investigation of clasts and groundmass will provide more clarity. Rumuruti is only mildly shocked (S2 according to [4]), but a vein restricted to one of the light clasts indicates that components of the meteorite experienced higher shock pressures. The unusual assemblage of fayalite-rich olivine (Fa39), Ti- and Fe3+-rich chromite, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, and chalcopyrite is comparable to the highly oxidized Carlisle Lakes-type meteorites [3,5]. Rumuruti now brings this group, together with Carlisle Lakes, ALH85151, Y75302 [3], and Acfer 217 [6], to five meteorites where Rumuruti is the first observed fall. References: [1] Van Schmus W. R. and Ribbe P. H. (1968) GCA, 32, 1327-1342. [2] Van Schmus W. R. and Ribbe P. H. (1969) GCA, 33, 637-640. [3] Rubin A. E. and Kallemeyn G. W. (1989) GCA, 53, 3035-3044. [4] Stoffler D. et al. (1991) GCA, 55, 3845-3867. [5] Weisberg M. K. et al. (1991) GCA, 55, 2657-2669. [6] Bischoff A. et al. (1993) Meteoritics, submitted.

  8. Mineral and chemical composition of the Jezersko meteorite—A new chondrite from Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miler, Miloš; Ambroži?, Bojan; Mirti?, Breda; Gosar, Mateja; Å turm, Sašo.; Dolenec, Matej; Jeršek, Miha

    2014-10-01

    The Jezersko meteorite is a newly confirmed stony meteorite found in 1992 in the Karavanke mountains, Slovenia. The meteorite is moderately weathered (W2), indicating short terrestrial residence time. Chondrules in partially recrystallized matrix are clearly discernible but often fragmented and have mean diameter of 0.73 mm. The meteorite consists of homogeneous olivine (Fa19.4) and low-Ca pyroxenes (Fs16.7Wo1.2), of which 34% are monoclinic, and minor plagioclase (Ab83An11Or6) and Ca-pyroxene (Fs6Wo45.8). Troilite, kamacite, zoned taenite, tetrataenite, chromite, and metallic copper comprise about 16.5 vol% of the meteorite. Phosphates are represented by merrillite and minor chlorapatite. Undulatory extinction in some olivine grains and other shock indicators suggests weak shock metamorphism between stages S2 and S3. The bulk chemical composition generally corresponds to the mean H chondrite composition. Low siderophile element contents indicate the oxidized character of the Jezersko parent body. The temperatures recorded by two-pyroxene, olivine-chromite, and olivine-orthopyroxene geothermometers are 854 °C, 737-787 °C, and 750 °C, respectively. Mg concentration profiles across orthopyroxenes and clinopyroxenes indicate relatively fast cooling at temperatures above 700 °C. A low cooling rate of 10 °C Myr-1 was obtained from metallographic data. Considering physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties, meteorite Jezersko was classified as an H4 S2(3) ordinary chondrite.

  9. A carbon and nitrogen isotope study of diamond from primitive chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Sara S.; Arden, John W.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1996-05-01

    Diamonds isolated from primitive chondrites of the carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite groups have been analysed by high-resolution stepped combustion, followed by measurement of their C and N isotopes using a newly adapted technique that allows quantitative measurements of C/N ratios. The ?13C of the diamond is shown to vary between meteorite groups from -32 to -38%0, and the measured C/N ratios suggest that the N concentration of diamond ranges over a factor of 7 from 1800 ppm (Tieschitz) to 13,000 ppm (Adrar 003). The ?15N of N released from diamond is constrained to -348 ± 7%. The complexity of the C release pattern and C/N ratio during combustion implies the presence of more than one component, which suggests that either more than one type of diamond is present in the samples, or unidentified additional phases are located in the acid-resistant residue. The components are present in varying proportions between meteorite groups. The data are compatible with a model of a mix of different diamond populations (some probably presolar and some possibly solar) existing in the early solar nebula, where each population originally contributed a roughly equal amount to chondrites of every class. Subsequent metamorphism has resulted in overall variations in ?13C and C/N ratios in diamond isolated from meteorites of differing petrologic grade without significantly altering the N isotopic composition. Possible ways for this to be achieved are explored.

  10. The Leedey, Oklahoma, Chondrite: Fall, petrology, chemistry and an unusual Fe,Ni-FeS inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, T. J.; Ehlmann, A. J.; Moore, C. B.

    1997-01-01

    The Leedey, Oklahoma meteorite shower fell on Nov. 25, 1943, following a fireball which was visible across much of southwestern Oklahoma and north-central Texas. The shower produced 24 stones with a total mass of ~51.5 kg. The stones formed a strewnfield ~18 km in length in the same direction as the observed path of the meteor (N50 W). Leedey is classified as an L6(S3) ordinary chondrite. We report bulk major element chemical analyses from four separate laboratories. Leedey contains an unusual 6 by 8 mm composite Fe,Ni-FeS grain, which is composed of a 3 mm kamacite grain adjacent to a 5 mm troilite grain. A 50-100 micron rim of high-Ni (45-55 wt.%) taenite (tetrataenite) occurs at the boundary between kamacite and troilite. A single, zoned pyrophanite grain is observed at the boundary between the inclusion troilite and host silicates. An origin as a foreign particle incorporated after metamorphism or during impact melting appears unlikely. This particle likely formed by a complex set of processes, including melting in the nebula, parent body metamorphism and reheating by later shock, mirroring the history of the host chondrite.

  11. The mineralogy of the Yaringie Hill meteorite —A new H5 chondrite from South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappert, R.; Foden, J.; Pring, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Yaringie Hill meteorite is a new H5 ordinary chondrite found in the Gawler Ranges, South Australia. The meteorite, which shows only minor signs of terrestrial weathering, is predominantly composed of olivine (Fa17.2), orthopyroxene (Fs15.1Wo1.1), and three distinct phases of nickeliferous iron metal (kamacite, taenite, tetrataenite). Other minerals include troilite, plagioclase (Ab81An16Or3), clinopyroxene (En52Wo42Fs6), chlorapatite, merrillite, ilmenite, and native copper. Three types of spinel with distinctive textures (coarse, skeletal aggregates, rounded aggregates) and with compositions close to the join MgAl2O4-FeCr2O4 are also present. Chondrules within the Yaringie Hill meteorite, which often have poorly defined boundaries, are placed in a recrystallized matrix. Shock indicators suggest that the meteorite experienced only weak shock metamorphism (S3).

  12. ACFER 182 and paired samples, an iron-rich carbonaceous chondrite - Similarities with ALH85085 and relationship to CR chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, A.; Palme, H.; Schultz, L.; Weber, D.; Weber, H. W.; Spettel, B.

    1993-06-01

    Data are presented on the minerology, chemical composition, and rare gas composition of three paired meteorite samples of a new Fe-rich chondrite found in the Sahara in 1990 and 1991 (Acfer 182, Acfer 207, and Acfer 214), designated as meteorite Acfer 182. The major components of Acfer 182 are (in decreasing order of abundance): (1) highly altered matrix, (2) mineral and polymineralic silicate fragments and aggregates, (3) chondrule fragments, (4) chondrules, (5) metal, and (6) fine-grained dark inclusions. The chemical composition of Acfer 182 was found to be almost indistinguishable from that of ALH85085. Considering their affinity to carbonaceous chondrites and their high bulk iron content, Acfer 182 and ALH85085 are designated as CH chondrites. Their relation to other groups of chondritic meteorites, such as CR chondrites, is discussed.

  13. Nucleosynthetic Nd isotope anomalies in primitive enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyet, M.; Gannoun, A.

    2013-11-01

    We carried out stepwise dissolutions of four primitive enstatite chondrites (EC) belonging to the EH subgroup. Large Nd isotope anomalies are found in the most refractory phases, dissolved using strong acids. Residues are characterized by excesses in 142Nd and deficits in 145Nd, 148Nd and 150Nd isotopes. The Nd anomalies measured in the ALHA77295 residue are even greater than those measured in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite (CC) using a similar analytical technique (Qin et al., 2011). Once corrected for a common Sm/Nd evolution, the 142Nd excess in the ALHA77295 residue is equal to 700 ppm relative to the terrestrial standard value. The Nd isotope patterns measured in EC and CC residues can be adjusted to coincide by adding a small amount of an s-process-rich carrier phase such as SiC and 0.075% is required to fit the ALHA7795 residue. Small isotope differences still persist between these residues even if they can be considered similar within error. In enstatite chondrites, residues have a deficit in 150Nd similar to or smaller than that measured in 148Nd, whereas in SiC extracted from carbonaceous chondrites or in whole rock, the deficit in 150Nd is always greater than that in 148Nd. Moreover in a binary 142Nd-148Nd diagram, the best-fit lines obtained for leachates and residues from carbonaceous chondrites and enstatite chondrites have slightly different slopes. For the same 148Nd/144Nd ratio, the anomalous component in an enstatite chondrite has a higher 142Nd/144Nd ratio compared to carbonaceous chondrites, a feature already observed at the whole rock scale. Our results suggest that different chondrite groups sample different reservoirs of presolar grains formed in different environments. Assuming that the carrier of this anomalous component measured in residues of enstatite chondrites are SiC, our results may suggest that different meteorite parent bodies sample reservoirs of presolar SiC formed in different stellar environments. This could explain why ALHA77295, the sample which is the most enriched in presolar grains, has a bulk 142Nd isotope composition similar to the terrestrial value. Further investigation of enstatite chondrites is needed to test whether the isotope composition of the most refractory phases is similar to that measured in carbonaceous chondrites and in particular the 144Sm that is a p-process isotope only. Finally this study highlights the difficulty of interpreting the 142Nd excess in terrestrial samples relative to chondrites since incomplete mixing of nucleosynthetic material in the solar nebula creates significant 142Nd variation, as shown by ALHA77295.

  14. The UThPb age of equilibrated L chondrites and a solution to the excess radiogenic Pb problem in chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unruh, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    U, Th, and Pb analyses of whole-rock and troilite separates from seven L chondrites suggest that the excess radiogenic Pb relative to U and the large variations in PbPb model ages commonly observed in chondritic meteorites are largely due to terrestrial Pb contamination induced prior to analyses. Using the Pb isotopic composition of troilite separates to calculate the isotopic composition of the Pb contaminants, the whole-rock data have been corrected for pre-analysis terrestrial Pb contamination. Two approaches have been used: (1) the chondrite-troilite apparent initial Pb isotopic compositions were used to approximate the mixture of indigenous intial Pb and terrestrial Pb in the whole-rock sample, and (2) a single-stage (concordant) model was applied using the assumption that the excess radiogenic Pb in these samples was terrestrial. Data for L5 and L6 chondrites yield a 4551 ?? 7 My age using the former correction and a 4550 ?? 5 My age using the latter one. Corrected data for one L4 chondrite, Tennasilm, yield a 4552 ?? 13 My age which is indistinguishable from that of the L5-L6 chondrites. However, the other L4 chondrite, Bjurbo??le, yields a 4590 ?? 6 My. ThUPb data suggest that this older age may be an artifact of the correction procedure, and that some of the discordancy of the Bjurbo??le data is the result of either a recent geologic disturbance to the UThPb system or to terrestrial U loss. Some aliquots of the L5L6 chondrites also show small amounts of discordancy (??? 10%) which are not easily attributable to terrestrial Pb contamination. The data from the L5-L6 chondrites and Tennasilm suggest that there are no more than ??? 15 MY differences in the ages of L24-L6 chondrites. ?? 1982.

  15. Evidence for differences in the thermal histories of Antarctic and non-Antarctic H chondrites with cosmic-ray exposure ages less than 20 Ma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.; Benoit, Paul; Batchelor, J. David

    1991-01-01

    Antarctic H chondrites show a different range of induced thermoluminescence properties compared with those of H chondrites that have fallen elsewhere in the world. Recent noble gas data of Schultz et al. (1991) show that this difference is displayed most dramatically by meteorites with cosmic-ray exposure ages less than 20 Ma, and they confirm that the differences cannot be attributed to weathering or to the presence of a great many fragments of an unusual Antarctic meteorite. Annealing experiments on an H5 chondrite, and other measurements on a variety of ordinary chondrites, have shown that induced TL properties are sensitive to the thermal histories of the meteorities. It is concluded that the events(s) that released the less than 20 Ma samples, which are predominantly those with exposure ages of 8 + or - 2 Ma, produced two groups with different thermal histories, one that came to earth several 100,000 years ago and that are currently only found in Antarctica, and one that is currently falling on the earth.

  16. Structural deformation of the Leoville chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cain, P. M.; Mcsween, H. Y., Jr.; Woodward, N. B.

    1986-01-01

    A petrofabric study of the Leoville chondrite was performed in order to gain an understanding of its deformation process. Strain values were determined from the chondrules' axial ratios or by the all-object-separation method, and the compaction required to deform Leoville chondrules was calculated from the decrease of radius in the circle-to-ellipse transformation. Structural and strain studies indicate the following order of events experienced by Leoville: (1) formation as an accretionary breccia, (2) compaction and development of foliation, (3) fracturing, possibly due to impact on earth, and (4) terrestrial weathering. Similarities between the axial ratios of chondrules (1.9-2.0) and of the whole meteorite (2.0) indicate either that Leoville deformed homogeneously or that it deformed as a framework of touching chondrules. This amount of strain corresponds to approximately 33 percent uniaxial shortening, assuming constant volume, and is likely to have been caused by compaction due to overburden from progressive accretion on the chondrite body. Diffusional flow is believed to be the mechanism by which olivines in these chondrules deformed.

  17. Chondritic meteorites and the lunar surface.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A; Scott, R F

    1967-12-01

    The landing dynamics of and soil penetration by Surveyor I indicated that the lunar soil has a porosity in the range 0.35 to 0.45. Experiments with Surveyor III's surface sampler for soil mechanics show that the lunar soil is approximately incompressible (as the word is used in soil mechanics) and that it has an angle of internal friction of 35 to 37 degrees; these results likewise point to a porosity of 0.35 to 0.45 for the lunar soil. Combination of these porosity measurements with the already-determined radar reflectivity fixes limits to the dielectric constant of the grains of the lunar soil. The highest possible value is about 5.9, relative to vacuum; a more plausible value is near 4.3. Either figure is inconsistent with the idea that the lunar surface is covered by chondritic meteorites or other ultrabasic rocks. The data point to acid rocks, or possibly vesicular basalts; carbonaceous chondrites are not excluded. PMID:17734304

  18. The Early History of Chondritic Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. S.

    1992-07-01

    Recently several related studies of chondritic metal were performed in order to obtain information on its origin and history. Most chondritic metal grains contain inclusions such as silica, chromite, and phosphate. Some inclusions in metal of low petrographic type chondrites contain chain-like structures which suggest that metal agglomerated from relic grains (Perron et al., 1989). Rb-Sr studies on chondritic metal show evolved initial ^87Sr (Podosek et al., 1991). Chronometric information can be obtained from studies of fission Xe from extinct ^244Pu, radiogenic ^129Xe from extinct ^129I, and radiogenic ^40Ar from long-lived ^40K. Therefore, the study of noble gas in chondritic metal can provide independent information on origin and thermal history. Some constraints on the origin and thermal history of metal which are based on detailed noble gas studies are discussed. High-purity (>99.5% by microscopic inspection) metal separates from H3.8 Dhajala (Dh), H4 Ste Marguerite (SM), H4 Forest Vale (FV), and H6 Estacado (Es), were obtained and studied for Ar and Xe isotopic abundances. They contain several noble gas components: fission Xe due to ^244Pu recoils and ^244Pu in inclusions, FVM-Xe (Marti et al., 1989), radiogenic ^129Xe, and radiogenic ^40Ar, together with in situ spallogenic products. 1). The ^244Pu fission Xe record: ^244Pu fission Xe which recoiled from adjacent phosphates is observed in decreasing amounts as Dh > FV=SM >> Es. The release of substantial amounts of ^244Pu-derived fission Xe at low temperatures (600 degrees C) in H4 metal implies that these metal grains were never heated to 600 degrees C after the decay of ^244Pu. 2). FVM-Xe: The metal of low petrographic type chondrites (H3 and 4) contains the novel component FVM-Xe (Marti et al., 1989). The most plausible source of FVM-Xe is a mixture of a ^235U neutron- induced fission Xe component with solar Xe (Kim and Marti, 1992). The phosphate separate from Forest Vale that contains most uranium does not show a neutron irradiation effect (Lavielle et al., 1992). Therefore the neutron irradiation occurred before the Xe closure time of phosphates. Possible sources of neutrons include: secondary neutrons produced by proto-solar activity and neutrons produced by fission of transuranic elements. 3). Radiogenic ^129Xe: All chondritic metals show ^129Xe(sub)r excesses, but the amounts of retained radiogenic ^129Xe(sub)r decrease with increasing petrographic type. The ratios ^129Xe/^132Xe in metal phases are not higher than those of bulk samples, indicating that metamorphic events may have taken place after decay of much of the ^129I. However, Estacado metal was not totally melted during metamorphism because its ^129Xe(sub)r is associated with inclusions. 4). Radiogenic ^40Ar: The amounts of radiogenic ^40Ar are very similar in the different petrographic types as expected for a parent with long half life. Also, the metamorphic event did not strongly fractionate potassium in the metal. In conclusion, acceptable models for the origin of chondritic metal need to consider the following constraints: Before or during accretion in the solar system, nebular materials including metal were exposed to a neutron fluence (>10^16 n/cm^2). After accretion of these early metal grains, secondary processing and metamorphism occurred, and the high petrographic types (H6) lost most of their fission Xe together with FVM-Xe and trapped gases. However, H4 metal was not heated to 600 degrees C after the decay of ^244Pu. References Kim J. S. and Marti K. (1992) Lunar Planet. Sci. (abstract) 23, 689. Lavielle B., Marti K., Pellas P., and Perron C. (1992) Search for 248Cm in the early solar system. Meteoritics (in Press). Marti K., Kim J. S., Lavielle B., Pellas P., and Perron C. (1989) Z. Naturforsch. 44a, 963-967. Perron C., Bourot-Denise M., Pellas P., Marti K., Kim J. S., and Lavielle B. (1989) Lunar Planet. Sci. (abstract) 20, 838. Podosek F. A., Brannon J. C., Perron C., and Pellas P. (1991) Lunar Planet. Sci. (abstract) 22, 1081.

  19. The origin of non-porphyritic pyroxene chondrules in UOCs: Liquid solar nebula condensates?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Almut Engler; Maria Eugenia Varela; Gero Kurat; Denton Ebel; Paul Sylvester

    2007-01-01

    A total of 56 non-porphyritic pyroxene and pyroxene\\/olivine micro-objects from different unequilibrated ordinary chondrites were selected for detailed studies to test the existing formation models. Our studies imply that the non-porphyritic objects represent quickly quenched liquids with each object reflecting a very complex and unique evolutionary history. Bulk major element analyses, obtained with EMPA and ASEM, as well as bulk

  20. Origins and Distribution of Chondritic Olivine Inferred from Wild 2 and Chondrite Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, D. R.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    To date, only 180 particle impact tracks from Wild 2 have been extracted from the Stardust aerogel collector and even fewer have been thoroughly characterized. In order to provide a cohesive compositional dataset that can be compared to the meteorite record, we have made both major and minor element analyses (TEM/EDXS) of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene for 39 particles harvested from 26 tracks. However, the dearth of equivalent analyses for these phases in chondrite matrix hinders their comparison to the Wild 2 samples. To properly permit comparison of chondritic olivine and pyroxene to the Wild 2 samples, we have also provided a large, comprehensive EPMA dataset (greater than10(exp 3) analyses) of analogous grains (5-30 micrometers) isolated in L/LL3.0-4, CI, CM, CR, CH, CO, CV, Acfer 094, EH3, EL6, and Kakangari matrix

  1. Thermal history modelling of the H chondrite parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henke, S.; Gail, H.-P.; Trieloff, M.; Schwarz, W. H.; Kleine, T.

    2012-09-01

    Context. The cooling histories of individual meteorites can be empirically reconstructed by using ages obtained from different radioisotopic chronometers having distinct closure temperatures. For a given group of meteorites derived from a single parent body such data permit the detailed reconstruction of the cooling history of that body. Particularly suited for this purpose are H chondrites because (i) all of them are thought to derive from a single parent body (possibly asteroid (6) Hebe) and (ii) for several specimens precise radiometric ages over a wide range of closure temperatures are available. Aims: A thermal evolution model for the H chondrite parent body is constructed by using the cooling histories of all H chondrites for which at least three different precise radiometric ages are available. The thermal model thus obtained is then used to constrain some important basic properties of the H chondrite parent body. Methods: Thermal evolution models are calculated using our previously developed code, which incorporates the effects of sintering and uses new thermal conductivity data for porous materials. Several key parameters determining the thermal evolution of the H chondrite parent body are varied together with the unknown original location of the H chondrites within their parent body until an optimal fit between the radiometric age data and the properties of the model is obtained. The fit is performed in an automated way based on an "evolution algorithm" to allow for a simultaneous fit of a large number of data, which depend in a complex way on several parameters. Empirical data for the cooling history of H chondrites are taken from the literature and the thermal model is optimised for eight samples for which radiometric ages are available for at least three different closure temperatures. Results: A set of parameters for the H chondrite parent body is found that yields excellent agreement (within error bounds) between the thermal evolution model and empirical data for the cooling histories of six of the examined eight H chondrites. For two of the samples significant discrepancies exist between model and empirical data, most likely reflecting inconsistencies in the empirical cooling data. The new thermal model constrains the radius and formation time of the H chondrite parent body, and the initial burial depths of the individual H chondrites. In addition, the model provides an estimate for the average surface temperature of the body, the average initial porosity of the material the body accreted from, and the initial 60Fe content of the H chondrite parent body.

  2. A comparative study of naturally and experimentally shocked chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiande; Chen, Ming; Dai, Chengda; El Goresy, Ahmed; Gillet, Phillip

    2001-05-01

    Samples of the Jilin H5 chondrite were experimentally shock-loaded at the peak pressures of 12, 27, 39, 53, 78, 83, 93, and 133 GPa. The aim of this study is to compare experimentally shock-induced phenomena with those in naturally shocked chondrites and to test the feasibility of experimentally calibrating naturally induced shock phenomena in H- and L-chondrites. Planar fractures, mosaicism, brecciation in olivine and pyroxene, as well as transformation of plagioclase into diaplectic glass were observed in the Jilin samples shocked at pressures lower than 53 GPa. Shock-induced chondritic melts were first obtained at P>78 GPa and more than 60% of the whole-rock melting was achieved at P˜133 GPa, and that shock-induced silicate melt consists of quenched microcrystalline olivine and pyroxene, metal, troilite and vesicular glass. No high-pressure phases were observed in any of the experimentally shocked samples, neither in the deformed nor in the molten regions. Deformation features in Jilin samples shock-loaded below 53 GPa are comparable to those found in H- and L-chondrites. The mineral assemblages in the molten regions in the shocked Jilin samples are also comparable to those encountered in the heavily shocked Yanzhuang (H6) and some Antarctic H-chondrites, but differ considerably from those found in heavily shocked Sixiangkou and many other L6 chondrites. Shock melt veins in L6 chondrites contain high-pressure polymorphs of olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase and high-pressure liquidus phases, whereas shock melt veins in heavily shocked H-chondrites contain mainly low-pressure mineral assemblages. The differences in the mineral constituents of shock melt veins in L- and H-chondrites clearly indicate differences in the shock histories of these meteorites. While crystallization in the shock melt veins in L-chondrites took place at high pressures, crystallization in shock-induced melt in most H-chondrites took place after decompression. It is evident that the thickness and abundance of shock melt veins and size of melt regions is not necessarily a quantitative measure of the degree of shock. The duration of the high-pressure regime, the time of the cooling and the P-T regime during the crystallization path, and the post-shock temperatures are stringent parameters that control the evolution of the shock-induced melt. So, scaling from shock experiments on millimeter-sized samples to natural shock features on kilometer-sized asteroids poses considerable problems in quantifying the P-T conditions during natural shock events on asteroids.

  3. Yes, Kakangari is a unique chondrite. [meteoritic composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, A. M.; Grossman, L.; Ganapathy, R.

    1977-01-01

    The position of the Kakangari chondrite as the representative of a new class of chondrites is considered, taking into account the results of the analysis of a 17.1-mg piece of Kakangari for 20 elements. Elemental concentration data are compared for Kakangari and other meteorite groups. Data for the most similar groups, C2, C3(V), L, and E4 chondrites are represented in a graph along with Kakangari data. It is found that pronounced differences exist between Kakangari and the other meteorite classes.

  4. Behavior of Chromium in Chondritic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, N.; Matsuzaki, H.; Nogami, K.; Imamura, M.

    1996-03-01

    To survey the existence forms and existence patterns of Cr and Ru in high-temperature condensate, we have continued to carry out elemental analyses of primitive meteorites particularly acid insoluble fractions and metal phases from them. In addition, condensation calculation, which assume ideal solid solution in the multicomponent alloy, by using thermodynamic data have been performed. Noting that acid residues would contain the high-temperature condensate component, we considerd chemical compositions of acid residues by relating to the condensation process from the solar nebula. In this paper, we present the representative elemental compositions of some chondritic meteorites and discuss the implications of these data to consider the behavior of Cr in meteoritical samples.

  5. CM Chondrite Impact Melt Clast Identified in a Regolithic Howardite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunning, N. G.; Corrigan, C. M.; McSween, H. Y.; Tenner, T. J.; Kita, N.

    2014-09-01

    The first recognized CM chondrite impact melt provides insight into the behavior of volatiles during its formation. Its notable occurrence as a clast in a regolithic howardite fits well with observations of Vesta’s surface by the Dawn spacecraft.

  6. Evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies: Insights into cometary nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    It is thought that cometary samples will comprise the most primitive materials that are able to be sampled. Although parent body alteration of such samples would not necessarily detract from scientists' interest in them, the possibility exists that modification processes may have affected cometary nuclei. Inferences about the kinds of modifications that might be encountered can be drawn from data on the evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies. Observations suggest that, of all the classes of chondrites, these meteorites are most applicable to the study of comets. If the proportion of possible internal heat sources such as Al-26 in cometary materials are similar to those in chondrites, and if the time scale of comet accretion was fast enough to permit incorporation of live radionuclides, comets might have had early thermal histories somewhat like those of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies.

  7. Application of the sphalerite cosmobarometer to the enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissin, S. A.

    1989-07-01

    Thirteen enstatite chondrites and two aubrites were examined for the presence of sphalerite, which was found and analyzed in four of these samples, including ALHA77295, Qingzhen (EH3), Pillistfer (EL6), and Indarch (EH4). The analyses of these sphalerites allow the application of the sphalerite cosmobarometer to the enstatite chondrites. Assuming nebular conditions and zero pressure, the blocking temperatures for the diffusion of iron, T(B), and the cooling rates for these meteorites were calculated. Differences in iron content were found in sphalerites from EH3, EH4, and EL6, considered to be related to differences in their thermal histories. Results indicate that the EH4 chondrite has cooled at an extremely rapid rate and has an unreasonably high T(B). Data for the EL6 chondrites were consistent with relatively slow cooling ca. 773 K, whereupon rapid cooling occurred.

  8. A Common Parent for IIE Iron Meteorite and H Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplyakova, S. N.; Humayun, M.; Lorenz, C. A.; Ivanova, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    We report new siderophile element abundances for the metal in the IIE irons — Watson, Tobychan, Elga, Verkhne Dnieprovsk, and Miles — to examine the possible genetic relations between IIE metal and H chondritic precursors.

  9. Characterization of Luminescent Minerals in CM2 Chondrite (Jbilet Winselwan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, Y. K.; Ohgo, S. O.; Nishido, H. N.

    2014-09-01

    We have characterized luminescent minerals of forsterite, diopside and spinel in the CM2 chondrite (Jbilet Winselwan) using SEM-CL and to discuss the formation of the luminescent minerals under aqueous conditions.

  10. Magnetic Characterization of Tetrataenite in Mesosoderites and Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeaux, N.; Mubarok, A.; Goldstein, J. I.; Lewis, L. H.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the magnetic domain configurations of tetratagonal L10 tetrataenite (Tt) found in chondritic and mesosiderite metal using Magnetic Force Microscopy to understand the relationships between magnetic domain state and the properties of Tt.

  11. Origin of plagioclase-olivine inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Y. J.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1991-02-01

    The origin of plagioclase-olivine inclusions (POIs) from three CV chondrites and one ungrouped chondrite was investigated by examining the chemical, mineralogical, and isotopic characteristics of a group of POIs from these chondrites. Results of these analyses demonstrate that the mixing and the partial melting processes in these inclusions were superimposed on more ancient isotopically heterogeneous material. A comparison of the essential characteristics of POIs and CAIs suggests that the major processes leading to the formation of POIs (such as condensation, dust/gas fractionation, aggregation of chemically and isotopically disparate materials, and partial melting) are common to most CAIs and chondrules. A scenario for the origin of POIs is proposed, showing that the homogeneity of the final assemblage (whether a POI, a CAI, or a chondrite) is primarily a reflection of the thermal history rather than the nature of precursor materials.

  12. The Trace-Element Composition of a Silica-rich Clast in the Bovedy (L3/4) Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, A.; Kring, D. A.; Hill, D. H.; Boynton, W. V.

    1993-07-01

    The discovery of a ~4 X 4.5 X 7 mm^3, igneous-textured, silica-rich clast in the Bovedy chondrite [1] may have important implications regarding igneous processes that occurred on chondritic parent bodies [1,2]. This clast, designated Bo-1, is comprised of orthopyroxene, a silica polymorph, two feldspars, pigeonite, and minor chromite and trace metal and sulfide [1]. Bulk SEM/EMPA analyses of the clast indicated superchondritic Si/Mg and Si/Fe ratios, which Ruzicka and Boynton [1] proposed was produced by extensive olivine fractionation from a melted L-chondrite precursor. The low Fe/Mn ratio and low metal and sulfide abundances also suggest that the clast is largely missing a chondritic complement of metal and sulfide. To test these hypotheses, we measured the bulk composition of the clast using INAA techniques and found that the siderophile elements were lost in a two-step process and that partial melting also depleted incompatible lithophile elements. Lithophile Elements: Two splits (2.94 and 2.39 mg) of Bo-1 were analyzed. The concentrations of major elements (Ca, Fe, Cr, K, Na) bracket those previously determined by SEM/EMPA [1], suggesting that the two splits are reasonably representative of the bulk clast. If olivine and metal had been removed from an ordinary chondrite melt to produce the clast, then incompatible lithophile trace elements should have been enriched. Contrary to this expectation, however, the REE, Zr, Hf, Th, Sr, Rb, Cs and Br are consistently depleted to a level of 0.5-1.0 X CI abundances, while all of them (except the highly volatile Cs and Br) have concentrations of ~1.0-2.0 X CI abundances in ordinary chondrites. If the clast had been derived from melted ordinary chondrite material, then an additional step that removed incompatible elements, such as the loss of a partial melt, must have occurred. Siderophile Elements: Unlike lithophile trace elements, which are relatively unfractionated, the siderophiles Ni, Co, and Au are dramatically fractionated from Re, Os, Ir, and Ru. Nickel, Co, Au, and the chalcophile element Se are present at approximately 0.004-0.015 X CI abundances, compared to Re, Os, Ir, and Ru at 0.1-0.3 X CI. All the former elements have high affinities for S- rich metallic liquids, while the latter elements prefer solid metal [3], implying that the petrogenesis of Bo-1 included the loss of a S-rich metallic liquid. An equilibrium batch melting model of these trace siderophile elements, using the partition coefficients of [3], was constructed assuming an ordinary chondrite precursor. In these models, the proportion of liquid to solid silicate or of silicate to metal is unimportant, because the siderophile elements partition almost entirely into the metallic phases. The model results suggest that the siderophile trace elements can be adequately accounted for by a two-step process: (1) loss of a S-rich metallic liquid at high degrees of melting; and (2) subsequent loss of much of the remaining solid metal fraction. For an L-chondrite precursor, an optimal model involves the complete removal of metallic liquid generated by 90% partial melting of the metal + sulfide system, followed by the loss of 80% of the remaining 10% of the solids. Together, these two steps remove all but 2% of the initial metal + sulfide complement, consistent with the presence of only trace metal and sulfide in Bo-1. The large fraction of metallic melt involved in the first step implies that metallic liquid segregated from the remainder of the system at relatively high temperatures (~1325 degrees C for an L-chondrite precursor, based on the Fe-S phase diagram of [4]). References: [1] Ruzicka A. and Boynton W. V. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 283. [2] Ruzicka A. and Boynton W. V. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 284. [3] Jones J. H. and Drake M. J. (1986) Nature, 322, 221-228. [4] Kellerud G. and Yoder H. (1959) Econ. Geol., 54, 533-572.

  13. Ordinary Differential Equations 1 An Oscillating Pendulum

    E-print Network

    Verschelde, Jan

    Ordinary Differential Equations 1 An Oscillating Pendulum applying the forward Euler method using 1 / 39 #12;Ordinary Differential Equations 1 An Oscillating Pendulum applying the forward Euler Equations 4 October 2013 2 / 39 #12;a simple pendulum Imagine a sphere attached to a massless rod oscilating

  14. The Bloomington (LL6) chondrite and its shock melt glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, R.; Olsen, E. J.; Clarke, R. S., Jr.

    1985-09-01

    The shock melt glasses of the Bloomington LL-group chondrite were examined using electron-beam microscopy and compared with data from studies of other shock melt glasses. Petrologic and mineralogic characterizations were also performed of the samples. The metal contents of the meteorite were almost wholly Ni-rich martensite. The glasses resembled shock melt glasses in L-group chondrites, and were indicative of isochemical melting during one melt phase, i.e., a very simple history.

  15. Insights on Asteroid Partial Differentiation and Early Solar System Magnetic Fields Revealed by Paleomagnetism of Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cournède, C.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Weiss, B. P.

    2014-09-01

    Through a paleomagnetic study we test the new hypothesis that chondrites may originate from partially differentiated bodies (previously proposed for Allende (CV)). It appears that Kaba, another CV chondrite, and R chondrites confirm this possibility.

  16. Amoeboid olivine aggregates from CH carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Park, Changkun; Nagashima, Kazuhide

    2014-08-01

    Amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) in CH carbonaceous chondrites are texturally and mineralogically similar to those in other carbonaceous chondrite groups. They show no evidence for alteration and thermal metamorphism in an asteroidal setting and consist of nearly pure forsterite (Fa<3; in wt%, CaO = 0.1-0.8, Cr2O3 = 0.04-0.48; MnO < 0.5), anorthite, Al-diopside (in wt%, Al2O3 = 0.7-8.1; TiO2 < 1), Fe,Ni-metal, spinel, and, occasionally, low-Ca pyroxene (Fs1Wo2-3), and calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). The CAIs inside AOAs are composed of hibonite, grossite, melilite (Åk13-44), spinel, perovskite, Al,Ti-diopside (in wt%, Al2O3 up to 19.6; TiO2 up to 13.9), and anorthite. The CH AOAs, including CAIs within AOAs, have isotopically uniform 16O-rich compositions (average ?17O = -23.4 ± 2.3‰, 2SD) and on a three-isotope oxygen diagram plot along ?slope-1 line. The only exception is a low-Ca pyroxene-bearing AOA 1-103 that shows a range of ?17O values, from -24‰ to -13‰. Melilite, grossite, and hibonite in four CAIs within AOAs show no evidence for radiogenic 26Mg excess (?26Mg). In contrast, anorthite in five out of six AOAs measured has ?26Mg corresponding to the inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratio of (4.3 ± 0.7) × 10-5, (4.2 ± 0.6) × 10-5, (4.0 ± 0.3) × 10-5, (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10-5, and (3.0 ± 2.6) × 10-6. Anorthite in another AOA shows no resolvable ?26Mg excess; an upper limit on the initial 26Al/27Al ratio is 5 × 10-6. We infer that CH AOAs formed by gas-solid condensation and aggregation of the solar nebula condensates (forsterite and Fe,Ni-metal) mixed with the previously formed CAIs. Subsequently they experienced thermal annealing and possibly melting to a small degree in a 16O-rich gaseous reservoir during a brief epoch of CAI formation. The low-Ca pyroxene-bearing AOA 1-103 may have experienced incomplete melting and isotope exchange in an 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. The lack of resolvable ?26Mg excess in melilite, grossite, and hibonite in CAIs within AOAs reflects heterogeneous distribution of 26Al in the solar nebula during this epoch. The observed variations of the inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios in anorthite of the mineralogically pristine and uniformly 16O-rich CH AOAs could have recorded (i) admixing of 26Al in the protoplanetary disk during the earliest stages of its evolution and/or (ii) closed-system Mg-isotope exchange between anorthite and Mg-rich minerals (spinel, forsterite, and Al-diopside) during subsequent prolonged (days-to-weeks) thermal annealing at high temperature (?1100 °C) and slow cooling rates (?0.01 K h-1) that has not affected their O-isotope systematics. The proposed thermal annealing may have occurred in an impact-generated plume invoked for the origin of non-porphyritic magnesian chondrules and Fe,Ni-metal grains in CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites about 5 Myr after formation of CV CAIs.

  17. Shock Effects in Olivine from Mocs Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iancu, O. G.; Miura, Y.; Iancu, G.

    1995-09-01

    The Mocs (syn. Moci) meteorite, classified as L6 chondrite by Van Schmus and Wood [1] and recently reclassified as L5-6 by Miura et al. [2], fell on February 3, 1882, 16.00 hrs. , over a large area (15 km by 3 km) in Transylvania (Cluj District). Olivine from six fragments of the Mocs chondrite was analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis and X-ray powder diffractometry. Olivine occurs as grains in matrix or chondrules: barred olivine chondrules, composed of parallel sets of prismatic olivine crystals and devitrified glass and porphyritic olivine chondrules, which consist mainly of fine-grained olivine crystals and glassy materials of feldspsr composition. In order to determine the mineralogical and chemical effects of shock metamorphism (induced by collisions in space of the Mocs chondrite parent body), in every thin section, ten to twenty of the largest, randomly distributed olivine single crystals were examined by optical polarizing microscope with 20X- or 40X- objectives [3] and with a JEOL JSM-5400 scanning electron microscope for higher magnifications. The mineralogical effects observed are: undulatory extinction, irregular fractures, planar fractures, mosaicism and planar deformation features. These, correlated with the presence of small amounts of maskelynite (An 12-19) indicate that the maximum shock degree this meteorite experienced was S-5 [3]. The quantitative chemical analysis of 77 olivine grains in matrix from all thin sections (6), determined by a JEOL JSM-5400 scanning electron microscope with JED 2001 energy dispersive X-ray analysis at the Yamaguchi University, shows a variation in composition from Fa23 to Fa27 mole % fayalite (Avg. Fa25; PMD 2.3%), indicative of the L-group. The Fayalite content of olivine from chondrules ranges from Fa23 to Fa27 (Avg. Fa25; PMD 1.74%). According to DEER et al. [4], olivine composition can be measured also by X-ray powder diffractometry as Fa (mol per cent) = 100-(4233.91-1494.59 x d130). By using a RIGAKU computer assisted-diffractometer (radiation Cu K alpha = 1.54059) at the Yamaguchi University, the d130 value of olivine from Mocs meteorite was calculated as 2.781 A and the fayalite content as Fa23 mole % fayalite (Forsterite-ferroan as of IMA files, 1993) consistent also with the L-group. The cell parameters and density determined from the X-ray diffraction pattern are: a=4.779; b=10.297; c=6.032; V=296.857 and Dx=3.446 g/cm3. References: [1] Van Schmus W. R. and Wood J. A. (1967) GCA, 31, 747-765. [2] Miura Y. et al. (1995) Proc. NIPR Symp. Antarct. Meteorites, 8, in press. [3] Stoffler D. et al. (1991) GCA, 55, 3845-3867. [4] Deer W. A. et al. (1992) 2nd edition, 4.

  18. Early Chronology of the H Chondrite Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellas, P.

    1992-07-01

    We are actually witnessing an exciting transition between our past ignorance on asteroid prehistories and a better understanding of their early thermal evolution. This is the result of data from absolute (U/Pb, Ar-Ar) and relative (^244Pu, ^26Al) chronologies obtained on one object having the simplest post-accretional thermal history: the H-asteroid. The motor of this deciphering has been the recent confirmation of the previously suggested "onion-shell" model (Pellas and Storzer, 1981), with U/Pb absolute ages anticorrelated with petrological types (Gopel et al., 1991). The very fast cooling of three (unshocked) H4 chondrites (Ste Marguerite: SM, Forest Vale and Beaver Creek: BC) from their peak metamorphic temperature (700 K) was confirmed both by metallography and Pu fission track thermometry (Lipschutz et al., 1989). This observation, first made on BC, led to predict the possible presence of live ^26Al in feldspars of this chondrite (Pellas and Storzer, 1981). This prediction is confirmed today by the discovery of live ^26Al in SM feldspars (Zinner and Gopel, this conf.), with an abundance sufficient to explain the mild metamorphism of petrological type 4, together with the fact that the more metamorphosed H6 chondrites did not melt. From this observation an upper limit of 3 Ma can be inferred between the condensation-accretion, the heating spike due to ^26Al decay, and the cooling which has frozen the feldspar phase of SM. Such an upper limit corresponds to the formation time of the H-asteroid. The fast cooling of some H4 materials does also preclude the existence of an insulating regolith of petrologic type 3, which would have drastically slowed down the cooling process, as already suggested (Pellas and Storzer, 1981). Consequently, accretion of type 3 materials must have occurred later. This result appears to discard the hypothesis of electromagnetic induction in the protosolar wind as the effective heat source (Herbert et al., 1991). The ^26Al heating also has important implications for our understanding of the compositional gradient in the asteroid belt (Gradie and Tedesco, 1982), which must be an inherent property of the condensing nebula (as is the case for the planets). This confirms the conclusions of Wood and Pellas (1991). From the above observations, and provided that a phase with high Fe/Ni ratios is found, it seems safe to predict that live ^60Fe could also be detected in those H4 chondrites that cooled fast, and which therefore must present a much higher ^60Fe/^56Fe ratio than that measured in Chervony Kut eucrite (Shukolyukov and Lugmair, 1992). Thus it seems that we are close to finally understanding the motor(s) of metamorphism and differentiation to which planetesimals were subjected around 4.565 Ga ago, in full agreement with Urey's earlier suggestions (1955). REFERENCES: Gopel C., Manhes G., and Allegre C. (1991) Meteoritics 26, 338. Gradie J.C. and Tedesco E. (1982) Science 216, 1405-1407. Herbert F., Sonett C.P., and Gaffey M.J. (1991) in The Sun in Time (eds. C.P. Sonett, M.S. Giampapa, and M.S. Matthews) pp. 710-739. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona. Lipschutz M.E., Gaffey M.J., and Pellas P. (1989) in Asteroids II (eds. R.P. Binzel, T. Gehrels and M.S. Matthews) pp. 740-777. Pellas P. and Storzer D. (1981) Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A374, 253-270. Shukolyukov A. and Lugmair G.W. (1992) Lunar Planet. Sci. (abstract) 23, 1295. Wood J.A. and Pellas P. (1991) in The Sun in Time (eds. C.P. Sonett, M.S. Giampapa, and M.S. Matthews) pp. 740-760. Urey H.C. (1955) Proc. Acad. Sci. U.S. 41, 127-144. Zinner E. and Gopel C. (1992) Abstract 55th Annual Meeting Meteoritical Soc. (this volume).

  19. Do We Already have Samples of Ceres? H Chondrite Halites and the Ceres-Hebe Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, M.; Messenger, S.; Steele, A.; Zolensky, M.

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that halites in the H chondrites Zag and Monahans originate from Ceres. Evidence includes mineralogy of the halites and orbital simularities between 1 Ceres and the purported H chondrite parent body 6 Hebe.

  20. Primitive Fine-Grained Matrix in the Unequilbrated Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisberg, M. K.; Zolensky, M. E.; Kimura, M.; Ebel, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Enstatite chondrites (EC) have important implications for constraining conditions in the early solar system and for understanding the evolution of the Earth and other inner planets. They are among the most reduced solar system materials as reflected in their mineral compositions and assemblage. They are the only chondrites with oxygen as well as Cr, Ti, Ni and Zn stable isotope compositions similar to the earth and moon and most are completely dry, lacking any evidence of hydrous alteration; the only exception are EC clasts in the Kaidun breccia which have hydrous minerals. Thus, ECs likely formed within the snow line and are good candidates to be building blocks of the inner planets. Our goals are to provide a more detailed characterization the fine-grained matrix in E3 chondrites, understand its origin and relationship to chondrules, decipher the relationship between EH and EL chondrites and compare E3 matrix to matrices in C and O chondrites as well as other fine-grained solar system materials. Is E3 matrix the dust remaining from chondrule formation or a product of parent body processing or both?

  1. Evidence for Extended Aqueous Alteration in CR Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigo-Rodriquez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Mestres, N.; Fraxedas, J.; Zolensky, M.; Nakamura, T.; Martins, Z.

    2013-01-01

    We are currently studying the chemical interrelationships between the main rockforming components of carbonaceous chondrites (hereafter CC), e.g. silicate chondrules, refractory inclusions and metal grains, and the surrounding meteorite matrices. It is thought that the fine-grained materials that form CC matrices are representing samples of relatively unprocessed protoplanetary disk materials [1-3]. In fact, modern non-destructive analytical techniques have shown that CC matrices host a large diversity of stellar grains from many distinguishable stellar sources [4]. Aqueous alteration has played a role in homogeneizing the isotopic content that allows the identification of presolar grains [5]. On the other hand, detailed analytical techniques have found that the aqueously-altered CR, CM and CI chondrite groups contain matrices in which the organic matter has experienced significant processing concomitant to the formation of clays and other minerals. In this sense, clays have been found to be directly associated with complex organics [6, 7]. CR chondrites are particularly relevant in this context as this chondrite group contains abundant metal grains in the interstitial matrix, and inside glassy silicate chondrules. It is important because CR are known for exhibiting a large complexity of organic compounds [8-10], and only metallic Fe is considered essential in Fischer-Tropsch catalysis of organics [11-13]. Therefore, CR chondrites can be considered primitive materials capable to provide clues on the role played by aqueous alteration in the chemical evolution of their parent asteroids.

  2. 22 CFR 17.6 - Ordinary and necessary living expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Ordinary and necessary living expenses. 17.6 Section 17.6 ...FSPS) § 17.6 Ordinary and necessary living expenses. An individual's ordinary and necessary living expenses include rent, mortgage...

  3. 22 CFR 17.6 - Ordinary and necessary living expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Ordinary and necessary living expenses. 17.6 Section 17.6 ...FSPS) § 17.6 Ordinary and necessary living expenses. An individual's ordinary and necessary living expenses include rent, mortgage...

  4. 31 CFR 29.525 - Ordinary and necessary living expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Ordinary and necessary living expenses. 29.525 Section 29.525...Overpayments § 29.525 Ordinary and necessary living expenses. An individual's ordinary and necessary living expenses include rent, mortgage...

  5. 5 CFR 845.305 - Ordinary and necessary living expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Ordinary and necessary living expenses. 845.305 Section 845... § 845.305 Ordinary and necessary living expenses. An individual's ordinary and necessary living expenses include rent, mortgage...

  6. 5 CFR 831.1405 - Ordinary and necessary living expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Ordinary and necessary living expenses. 831.1405 Section 831... § 831.1405 Ordinary and necessary living expenses. An individual's ordinary and necessary living expenses include rent, mortgage...

  7. 31 CFR 29.525 - Ordinary and necessary living expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Ordinary and necessary living expenses. 29.525 Section 29.525...Overpayments § 29.525 Ordinary and necessary living expenses. An individual's ordinary and necessary living expenses include rent, mortgage...

  8. 5 CFR 831.1405 - Ordinary and necessary living expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Ordinary and necessary living expenses. 831.1405 Section 831... § 831.1405 Ordinary and necessary living expenses. An individual's ordinary and necessary living expenses include rent, mortgage...

  9. 5 CFR 845.305 - Ordinary and necessary living expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Ordinary and necessary living expenses. 845.305 Section 845... § 845.305 Ordinary and necessary living expenses. An individual's ordinary and necessary living expenses include rent, mortgage...

  10. The Weathering Mineralogy of Ordinary Chondrites from Two Sites in the Atacama Desert, Chile. Evolution with Time and Paleoclimatic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, E. M.; Gattacceca, J.; Munayco, P.; Munayco, J.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Rochette, P.; Jull, T.; Giscard, M.

    2014-09-01

    Meteorites found at two places at Atacama Desert were studied using different techniques, allowing the identification of important variables of weathering process explaining the different patterns found for other deserts, and a new paleoclimatic proxy.

  11. Two Ordinary Chondrites Found by the Chilean Geological Survey (SERNAGEOMIN): Perspective to Include Search Protocol for next Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza, L.; Valenzuela, E. M.; Álvarez, J.; Ramírez de Arellano, C.; Oyarzún, P.; Gattacceca, J.

    2014-09-01

    Two new findings were recovered by two mapping teams of the Chilean Geological Survey in the Atacama Desert. It is highly possible to recover more meteorites in that an others areas. We propose to include a protocol of searching meteorites.

  12. Surface Processes on Small Planetary Bodies: Implications for the Origins of Chondritic Meteorites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Glen Akridge

    1998-01-01

    I have conducted both experimental and theoretical work concerning the formation conditions of chondritic meteorites. This work has focused on the size-sorting of chondrules and metal grains, metal abundance in chondrites, gas phase reactions, and the thermal history of meteorite parent bodies containing substantial regoliths. Although many of the major chondritic properties have been assumed to be the result of

  13. Mn-53-Cr-53 Systematics of R-Chondrite NWA 753

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jogo, K.; Shih, C-Y.; Reese, Y. D.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2006-01-01

    Chondrules and chondrites are interpreted as objects formed in the early solar system, and it is important to study them in order to elucidate its evolution. Here, we report the study of the Mn-Cr systematics of the R-Chondrite NWA753 and compare the results to other chondrite data. The goal was to determine Cr isotopic and age variations among chondrite groups with different O-isotope signatures. The Mn-53-Cr-53 method as applied to individual chondrules [1] or bulk chondrites [2] is based on the assumption that 53Mn was initially homogeneously distributed in that portion the solar nebula where the chondrules and/or chondrites formed. However, different groups of chondrites formed from regions of different O-isotope compositions. So, different types of chondrites also may have had different initial Mn-53 abundances and/or Cr isotopic compositions. Thus, it is important to determine the Cr isotopic systematics among chondrites from various chondrite groups. We are studying CO-chondrite ALH83108 and Tagish Lake in addition to R-Chondrite NWA753. These meteorites have very distinct O-isotope compositions (Figure 1).

  14. Fine structures of mutually normalized rare-earth patterns of chondrites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akimasa Masuda; Noboru Nakamura; Tsuyoshi Tanaka

    1973-01-01

    REE abundances in ten chondrites (nine falls and one find) were determined very accurately by mass-spectrometric stable isotope dilution techniques. All of the chondrites have different relative and absolute REE patterns. Except for Eu and, rarely, for Ce, the REE abundances in chondrites are smoothly fractionated from sample to sample. Notwithstanding differences in the abundances of common REE, four of

  15. Trace element evidence regarding a chondritic component in howardite meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, C.-L.; Boynton, W. V.; Kimberlin, J.; Wasson, J. T.; Bild, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of siderophiles Ni, Ge, Ru, Ir, and Au and volatiles Zn, Ga, Cd, and In in howardite meteorites were determined and are discussed along with similar data for eucrites and diogenites. The concentrations of the chondritic component in howardites are remarkably high. The concentrations in four high-siderophile howardites are comparable to those found in mature soils from the lunar highlands. The amounts of excess volatiles are roughly consistent with those expected if the chondritic component resemble CI, CM, or E4 chondrites. Evidence indicates that the howardite parent body had a radius of several hundred kilometers, and the most probable formation location was 1-2 AU from the sun.

  16. A Weathering Index for CK and R Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Huber, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    We present a new weathering index (wi) for the metallic-Fe-Ni-poor chondrite groups (CK and R) based mainly on transmitted light observations of the modal abundance of crystalline material that is stained brown in thin sections: wi-0, <5 vol%; wi-1, 5-25 vol%; wi-2,25-50 vol%; wi-3,50- 75 vol%; wi-4, 75-95 vol%; wi-5, >95 vol%, wi-6, significant replacement of mafic silicates by phyllosilicates. Brown staining reflects mobilization of oxidized iron derived mainly from terrestrial weathering of Ni-bearing sulfide. With increasing degrees of terrestrial weathering of CK and R chondrites, the sulfide modal abundance decreases, and S, Se, and Ni become increasingly depleted. In addition, bulk Cl increases in Antarctic CK chondrites, probably due to contamination from airborne sea mist.

  17. On the aerodynamic redistribution of chondrite components in protoplanetary disks

    E-print Network

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Fromang, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Despite being all roughly of solar composition, primitive meteorites (chondrites) present a diversity in their chemical, isotopic and petrographic properties, and in particular a first-order dichotomy between carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous chondrites. We investigate here analytically the dynamics of their components (chondrules, refractory inclusions, metal/sulfide and matrix grains) in protoplanetary disks prior to their incorporation in chondrite parent bodies. We find the dynamics of the solids, subject to gas drag, to be essentially controlled by the "gas-solid decoupling parameter" $S\\equiv \\textrm{St}/\\alpha$, the ratio of the dimensionless stopping time to the turbulence parameter. The decoupling of the solid particles relative to the gas is significant when $S$ exceeds unity. $S$ is expected to increase with time and heliocentric distance. On the basis of (i) abundance of refractory inclusions (ii) proportion of matrix (iii) lithophile element abundances and (iv) oxygen isotopic composition of chon...

  18. Are C1 chondrites chemically fractionated - A trace element study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebihara, M.; Wolf, R.; Anders, E.

    1982-01-01

    Six C1 chondrite samples and a C2 xenolith from the Plainview H5 chondrite were analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation for a large variety of elements, including rare earths. The sample processing is described, including the irradiation, chemical procedure, rare earths separation, counting techniques, radiochemical purity check, and chemical yields. The results of consistency checks on a number of elements are discussed. Abundances for siderophiles, volatiles, and rare earths are presented and discussed. Tests are presented for fractionation of rare earths and other refractories, compositional uniformity of C1's, and interelement correlations. There is no conclusive evidence for nebular fractionation affecting C1's. Three fractionation-prone rare earths have essentially the same relative abundances in C1's and all other chondrite classes, and hence are apparently not fractionated in C1's.

  19. Barium sulphate in a Saharan CV chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ash, R. D.

    1994-07-01

    Acfer 086 (CV3) was recovered from the Sahara in 1989. A thin section was studied for weathering products. During routine microprobe analysis a phase was found containing Ba and S in approximate 1:1 atomic ratio. The only other element detected at more than trace level was Fe (less than 2%), possibly from surrounding Fe-rich phases. It is concluded that the only likely mineral with this chemistry is barytes, BaSO4. The barytes occurs as isolated, 1-10-micron, irregularly shaped grains. It is present exclusively in inclusions, both metal/C-rich and chondrules and chondrule fragments. None were observed in the matrix. At its highest the barytes density reached greater than 50 grains in an area measuring 300 x 200 microns. At present, whether the barytes is terrestrial or meteoritic remains unclear. Reasons for both cases are given and discussed. While it is an intriguing possibility that the barytes in Acfer 086 may be a primary meteoritic mineral, and considerable evidence would support this view, it must be treated with great caution. Although texturally it is unlike a secondary phase and there are difficulties with the introduction of barytes by groundwater, this cannot be dismissed. The high and variable Ba contents of the Acfer/El Djouf Saharan CR chondrites are strong evidence for the formation of secondary barytes during residence on the desert floor. If terrestrial, the presence and distribution pattern of barytes in Acfer 086 has potentially important consequences for chemical and isotopic analyses of many elements in both bulk and inclusions of meteorite finds from the deserts of the world.

  20. The Aqueous Alteration of CR Chondrites: Experiments and Geochemical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perronnet, M.; Berger, G.; Zolensky, M. E.; Toplis, M. J.; Kolb, V. M.; Bajagic, M.

    2007-01-01

    CR carbonaceous chondrites are of major interest since they contain some of the most primitive organic matter known. However, aqueous alteration has more or less overprinted their original features in a way that needs to be assessed. This study was initiated by comparing the mineralogy and modal abundances of the most altered CR1 chondrite, GRO 95577, to a less altered CR2. Calculated element distributions imply that GRO 95577 may result from aqueous alteration of Renazzo by an isochemical process on their parent asteroid, whose mineralogical composition was estimated ( Unaltered CR shown included table).

  1. Identification and characterization of extraterrestrial non-chondritic interplanetary dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. F.; Fleming, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are among the most pristine and primitive extraterrestrial materials available for direct study. Most of the stratospheric particles selected for study from the JSC Curatorial Collection were chondritic in composition (major element abundances within a factor of two of chondritic meteorites) because this composition virtually ensures that the particle is from an extraterrestrial source. It is likely that some of the most interesting classes of IDP's have not been recognized simply because they are not chondritic or do not fit established criteria for extraterrestrial origin. Indeed, mass spectroscopy data from the Giotto Flyby of comet Halley indicate that a substantial fraction of the dust is in the submicron size range and that a majority of these particles contain C, H, O, and/or N as major elements. The preponderance of CHON particles in the coma of Halley implies that similar particles may exist in the JSC stratospheric dust collection. However, the JSC collection also contains a variety of stratospheric contaminants from terrestrial sources which have these same characteristics. Because established criteria for extraterrestrial origin may not apply to such particles in individual cases, and integrated approach is required in which a variety of analysis techniques are applied to the same particle. Non-chondritic IDP's, like their chondritic counterparts, can be used to elucidate pre- and early solar system processes and conditions. The study of non-chondritic IDP's may additionally yield unique information which bears on the nature of cometary bodies and the processing of carbonaceous and other low atomic number materials. A suite of complementary techniques, including Low Voltage Scanning Electron Microscopy (LVSEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDX), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) isotope-ratio imaging and Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM), were utilized to accomplish the following two objectives: (1) to develop criteria for the unequivocal identification of extraterrestrial non-chondritic IDP's; and (2) to infer IDP parent body, solar nebula, and pre-solar conditions through the study of phases, textures, and components contained within non-chondritic IDP's. The general approach taken is designed to maximize the total information obtained from each particle. Techniques will be applied in order from least destructive to most destructive.

  2. The Kramer Creek, Colorado meteorite - A new L4 chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Lange, D. E.; Keil, K.; Schmidt, T. E.; Rhodes, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Results of bulk chemical analyses and mineralogical and petrographic studies of a chondrite found at Kramer Creek, Colorado, are reported. The meteorite has been classified as an L-group chondrite on the basis of its bulk chemistry, the fayalite content of its olivine (21.7%) and the ferrosilicate content of its pyroxene (18.3%). The presence of interstitial glass and the iron oxide percent mean deviations for olivine and low-Ca pyroxene (2.4 and 4.6%) place the specimen in petrologic group 4 of the Van Schmus and Wood classification (1967)

  3. Petrology of Two Itokawa Particles: Comparison with Equilibrated LL Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, M.; Mikouchi, T.; Arai, T.; Fagan, T. J.; Zolensky, M.; Hagiya, K.; Ohsumi, K.; Karouji, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A strong link between Itokawa particles and LL chondrites was confirmed by preliminary examinations of Hayabusa particles [e.g., 1, 2]. Both poorly equilibrated and highly equilibrated particles have been found among the grains returned from Itokawa [1], and it is suggested that they correspond to LL4 and LL5-6, respectively. Here we report the petrography of two Itokawa particles and TEM study of one, and compare them to Antarctic LL chondrites with variable petrologic types (LL4-LL7) in order to understand the metamorphic history of asteroid Itokawa.

  4. Pyroxene structures, cathodoluminescence and the thermal history of the enstatite chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Huang, Shaoxiong; Schneider, Diann; Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.; DeHart, John M.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to explore the thermal history of enstatite chondrites, we examined the cathodoluminescence (CL) and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 15 EH chondrites and 21 EL chondrites, including all available petrographic types, both textural types 3-6 and mineralogical types alpha-delta. The CL properties of EL3(alpha) and EH3(alpha) chondrites are similar. Enstatite grains high in Mn and other transition metals display red CL, while enstatite with low concentrations of these elements show blue CL. A few enstatite grains with greater than 5 wt% FeO display no CL. In contrast, the luminescent properties of the metamorphosed EH chondrites are very different from those of metamorphosed EL chondrites. While the enstatites in metamorphosed EH chondrites display predominantly blue CL, the enstatites in metamorphosed EL chondrites display a distinctive magenta CL with blue and red peaks of approximately equal intensity in their spectra. The TL sensitivities of the enstatite chondrites correlate with the intensity of the blue CL and, unlike other meteorite classes, are not simply related to metamorphism. The different luminescent properties of metamorphosed EH and EL chondrites cannot readily be attributed to compositional differences. But x-ray diffraction data suggests that the enstatite in EH5(gamma),(delta) chondrites is predominantly disordered orthopyroxene, while enstatite in EL6(beta) chondrites is predominantly ordered orthopyroxene. The difference in thermal history of metamorphosed EL and EH chondrites is so marked that the use of single 'petrographic' types is misleading, and separate textural and mineralogical types are preferable. Our data confirm earlier suggestions that metamorphosed EH chondrites underwent relatively rapid cooling, and the metamorphosed EL chondrites cooled more slowly and experienced prolonged heating in the orthopyroxene field.

  5. Breakup and structure of an H-chondrite parent body - The H-chondrite flux over the last million years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Two distinct groups of H chondrites are identified which have respectively induced thermoluminescence peak temperatures above 190 C (AC) and below 190 C (BC). Metallographic cooling rate determinations confirm that the AC group cools at very high rates relative to the latter group. The AC group members have cosmic ray exposure ages of about 8 Myr. Antarctic meteorite of the BC group have cosmic ray exposure ages greater than 20 Myr. Modern H-chondrite falls, which are all of the BC group, have cosmic ray exposure ages of 8 and above 20 Myr. The data show that the abundance of the AC group is directly related to terrestrial age. It is suggested that both the AC group and part of BC group were produced by an impact event at approximately 8 Myr and that the small sizes of the AC group made them prone to destruction, allowing the BC group to dominate the modern H-chondrite flux.

  6. Carbonaceous chondrites. I - Characterization and significance of carbonaceous chondrite /CM/ xenoliths in the Jodzie howardite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Chang, S.; Frick, U.; Neil, J.; Moreland, G.

    1979-01-01

    Mineralogical, chemical, textural, and isotopic studies of the abundant carbonaceous inclusions in the Jodzie howardite which are consistent with carbonaceous chondrite (CM) characteristics are examined. These CM xenoliths show regolith alteration comparable to the Murray and Murchison meteorites but less than Nogoya, flow-oriented development of phyllosilicates and 'poorly characterized phases', and partial oxidation of sulfides. Temperature-programmed pyrolysis mass spectrometry indicates that gas release patterns of volatiles and hydrocarbons, and N, C, and S contents are typical of CM meteorites. The fact that the Ne content is typical for 'solar' values and the isotopic structure of Xe is 'planetary' indicates that these gases were entrapped by different mechanisms, and cosmic ray exposure ages for the xenoliths agree with the reported exposure age for the eucritic host.

  7. Annuities: Ordinary? Due? What do I do?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wachowicz, John M., Jr.

    Created and maintained by John M. Wachowicz, Jr., Professor of Finance at the University of Tennessee, Annuities: Ordinary? Due? What do I do? is a wonderful tutorial that will help students of finance "better identify, understand, and calculate future and present values of both ordinary annuities and annuities due." The tutorial begins by citing resources found on the Internet, including online lectures and tutorials to start building users's basic knowledge of annuities. The second page covers the definitions of "annuity," "ordinary annuity," and "annuity due," and leads users through calculations to figure out what kind of annuities they are dealing with. The final page offers a multiple choice quiz, complete with a detailed answer key.

  8. Nondiagonal production of singlet and ordinary quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Beilin, V.A.; Vereshkov, G.M.; Kuksa, V.I. [Rostov State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1995-05-01

    The nondiagonal production of singlet and ordinary quarks is analyzed in the model involving the mixing of the down singlet quark with ordinary quarks. Estimates of the cross sections for the reactions e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}, ep, and p{bar p} are obtained under the assumption that quark masses are generated through the see-saw mechanism. The authors` predictions are compared with the results obtained in the Standard Model. The possibility of detecting effects associated with the h quark in experiments is demonstrated. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Metamorphism of CO3 Chondrites: A Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, J.; Arden, J. W.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1992-07-01

    Our previous work involving carbon and nitrogen abundance and isotopic composition of Ornans group chondrites (1) has shown that these measurements have the potential for investigating parent body metamorphism, and we now expand this study. The HF/HCl residues of Colony, Kainsaz, Ornans, Lance and Acfer 094 show unimodal carbon yield profiles. The peak yields are seen to increase as a function of temperature according to known petrologic subtype (2), revealing a concordant increase in the crystallinity of the amorphous carbon with progressive metamorphism. Only the least metamorphosed Colony and Acfer 094 residues display any evidence of presolar silicon carbide. The inference here is that silicon carbide is destroyed during only mild metamorphism. Chromic and perchloric acid residues have revealed that CO3 diamonds are characterized by delta^13C minima of between -34.3o/oo and -40.3o/oo and delta^15N minima of -342+-9.2o/oo, consistent with similar work on other chondrites (3). C/N ratios of diamonds have been used as indicators of relative metamorphic grade (3,4), as nitrogen-rich diamonds are presumed to be lost progressively during metamorphism (5). On this basis, Colony has undergone a much lesser degree of metamorphism than Kainsaz or Lance which are less distinguishable on a C/N plot. An experiment on Ornans which provided only incomplete data suggests that its C/N plateau lies slightly above that of Colony, in agreement with its subtype. The diamond contents of these meteorites are 135 ppm (Colony), 61 ppm (Kainsaz) and 59 ppm (Lance), showing that diamond is present to moderate grades of metamorphism. Carbon data for silicon carbide has been acquired for Colony, Kainsaz and Lance from high temperature experiments on the diamond residues. The amount of SiC in Colony is now established as about 1 ppm of the whole-rock. Neither Kainsaz nor Lance show evidence of silicon carbide, although both show a heavy carbon component combusting around 800 degrees C. There is about 26 times as much of this component in Kainsaz as there is in Lance, and an unresolvable amount in Colony. A precombusted HF/HCl residue of Acfer 094 has demonstrated a SiC content of around 7 ppm, equivalent to values expected for CM2's and further questioning the legitimacy of assigning Acfer 094 to the CO3 group. The data acquired so far shows that these meteorites contain diamond with nitrogen concentrations which range between CV3 and CM2 averages. Only the 3.0 subtypes contain silicon carbide. There seems to be a hiatus between subtypes 3.0 and 3.1, where silicon carbide is completely destroyed, and the diamond content is halved. This is analagous to the discontinuity between ordinary chondrite subtypes 3.4 and 3.5 (4), although at a higher metamorphic grade and suggests that silicon carbide is more susceptible to metamorphic destruction under the oxidizing conditions of the CO3 group than diamond. The effect is still not yet understood, but is likely to be an important parameter in distinguishing nebular and parent body effects. The fact that Indarch, a highly reduced enstatite chondrite, shows the opposite effect, i.e. a high SiC-to-diamond ratio clearly has implications for understanding the destruction of presolar grains by metamorphism under different conditions. References 1. Newton, J. et al. (1992) LPSC XXIII 985-986. 2. Scott, E.R.D. & Jones, R.H. (1990) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 54 2485-2502. 3. Russell, S.S. et al. (1990) Science 254 1188-1191. 4. Huss, G.R. (1990) Nature 347 159-162. 5. Russell, S.S. et al. (1992) LPSC XXIII 1187-1188.

  10. Hydrogen isotope evidence for the origin and evolution of the carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiler, John M.; Kitchen, Nami

    2004-03-01

    We present new hydrogen isotope data for separated matrix, hydrated chondrules, and other hydrated coarse silicate fragments from nine carbonaceous chondrites. These data were generated using a micro-analytical method involving stepped combustion of tens to hundreds of micrograms of hydrous solids. We also re-evaluate hydrogen isotope data from previous conventional stepped combustion experiments on these and other carbonaceous chondrites. Hydrogen isotope compositions of matrix and whole-rock samples of CM chondrites are correlated with oxygen isotope indices, major and minor-element abundances, and abundance and isotope ratios of other highly volatile elements. These correlations include a monotonic decrease in ?D with increasing extent of aqueous alteration and decreasing abundances of highly volatile elements (including C, N and Ar), between extremes of ˜0‰ (least altered, most volatile rich) and -200‰ (most altered, least volatile rich). In plots involving only abundances and/or isotope ratios of highly volatile elements, CI chondrites fall on the high-?D, volatile rich end of the trends defined by CM chondrites; i.e., CI chondrites resemble the least altered CM chondrites in these respects. These trends suggest the protoliths of the CM chondrites (i.e., before aqueous alteration) contained an assemblage of volatiles having many things in common with those in the CI chondrites. If so, then the volatile-element inventory of the CI chondrites was a more widespread component of early solar system objects than suggested by the scarcity of recognized CI meteorites. Differences in volatile-element chemistry between the CI and average CM chondrites can be attributed to aqueous alteration of the latter. Previous models of carbonaceous chondrite aqueous alteration have suggested: (1) the protoliths of the CM chondrites are volatile poor objects like the CO or CV chondrites; and (2) the CI chondrites are more altered products of the same process producing the CM chondrites. Both suggestions appear to be inconsistent with hydrogen isotope data and other aspects of the volatile-element geochemistry of these rocks. We present a model for aqueous alteration of the CM chondrites that reconciles these inconsistencies and suggests revised relationships among the major subtypes of carbonaceous chondrites. Our model requires, among other things, that the water infiltrating CM chondrites had a ?D value of ˜-158‰, consistent with initial accretion of CM parent bodies at ˜4 AU.

  11. On the chemical evolution of the carbonaceous chondrites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Dufresne; Edward Anders

    1962-01-01

    X-ray diffraction microtechnique has been applied to nine carbonaceous chondrites, so that a definite knowledge of their mineral composition has been obtained. The existence of magnesium sulphate, elemental sulphur and a magnetic spinel containing Fe 3+ ion, has been confirmed. However, troilite is rare, and absent in many cases. Dolomite has been observed in meteorites for the first time, and

  12. Metastable carbon in two chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1986-01-01

    An understanding of carbonaceous matter in primitive extraterrestrial materials is an essential component of studies on dust evolution in the interstellar medium and the early history of the Solar System. Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) on carbonaceous material in two Chondritic Porous (CP) aggregrates is presented. The study suggests that a record of hydrocarbon carbonization may also be preserved in these materials.

  13. Kinetics of volatile extraction from carbonaceous chondrites: Dehydration of talc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Kunal; Ganguly, Jibamitra

    1991-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are believed to be the primary constituents of near-Earth asteroids and Phobos and Deimos, and are potential resources of fuels that may be exploited for future planetary missions. Calculations of equilibrium phase relations suggest that talc (Ta) and antigorite (Ant) are likely to be the major hydrous phases in the C1 and C2 meteorites (Ganguly and Saxena, 1989), which constitute the most volatile rich classes of carbonaceous chondrites. The dehydration kinetics of talc are studied as a function of temperature, grain size, composition and fluid fugacity, as part of a systematic study of the reaction kinetics of the volatile bearing phases that are either known or likely to be present in carbonaceous chondrites. The dehydration kinetics were investigated at 1 bar, 775 to 875 C by monitoring the in-situ weight loss as a function of time of a natural talc. The talc platelets had a dimension of 0.8 to 1 micron. The run durations varied from 233.3 hours at 775 C (48 percent dehydration) to 20.8 hours at 875 C (80 pct. dehydration). The results can be adequately represented by a given rate equation. Theoretical analysis suggests that the reduction in the concentration of H2O in the environment of dehydrating talc, as would be encountered in processing chondritic materials, will have negligible effect on the rate of dehydration, unless there is a change of reaction mechanism owing to the presence of other volatile species.

  14. Highly Siderophile Elements in Shocked and Unshocked Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, M. F.; Walker, R. J.; Rubin, A. E.

    2001-01-01

    High precision abundances of Re, Os, Pt, Ir, Ru, and Pd are combined with Re-Os isotopic data to demonstrate that HSE provide a distinctive fingerprint for each of the chondrite groups. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. L Chondrite meteorites: A compilation and preliminary analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silliman, A.

    1984-01-01

    A compilation of those meteorites currently recognized as being L chondrites, exclusive of the numerous Antarctica finds, was made and is known as the L Chondrite Register. Data for these 576 meteorites was collected from a variety of sources, primarily the British Museum's Catalogue of Meteorites and the Appendix to the Catalogue of Meteorites. Also used was the Revised Cambridge Chondrite Compendium, which provided a convenient listing of L chondrites; other sources include Chinese Meteorites, Meteorites, by Wasson (1974), and the Meteoritical Bulletin of Meteoritics. This last source provided data for most recent falls and was referenced through March of 1982. All such data were recorded on a computer data file with a HP 2647A terminal, so that information could easily be retrieved and manipulated. For each meteorite, the petrographic class, location of find, fall date and hour, mass, mole per cent fayalite, weight per cent Fe, SiO2/MgO ratio, shock class, metal class, 4He abundance, UTh-H3 gas retention age, K-Ar gas retention age, and 21Ne cosmic ray exposure age, was recorded when known.

  16. Establishing a molecular relationship between chondritic and cometary organic solids

    PubMed Central

    Cody, George D.; Heying, Emily; Alexander, Conel M. O.; Nittler, Larry R.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Sandford, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Multidimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy is used to refine the identification and abundance determination of functional groups in insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from a carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison, CM2). It is shown that IOM is composed primarily of highly substituted single ring aromatics, substituted furan/pyran moieties, highly branched oxygenated aliphatics, and carbonyl groups. A pathway for producing an IOM-like molecular structure through formaldehyde polymerization is proposed and tested experimentally. Solid-state 13C NMR analysis of aqueously altered formaldehyde polymer reveals considerable similarity with chondritic IOM. Carbon X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy of formaldehyde polymer reveals the presence of similar functional groups across certain Comet 81P/Wild 2 organic solids, interplanetary dust particles, and primitive IOM. Variation in functional group concentration amongst these extraterrestrial materials is understood to be a result of various degrees of processing in the parent bodies, in space, during atmospheric entry, etc. These results support the hypothesis that chondritic IOM and cometary refractory organic solids are related chemically and likely were derived from formaldehyde polymer. The fine-scale morphology of formaldehyde polymer produced in the experiment reveals abundant nanospherules that are similar in size and shape to organic nanoglobules that are ubiquitous in primitive chondrites. PMID:21464292

  17. Friday, March 16, 2007 METAL-RICH CHONDRITES

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    isotopes of metal separates and silicate fractions in CB chondrites are reviewed. 2:30 p.m. Petaev M. I Isotopic Compositions of Calcium-Aluminum-rich Inclusions and Chondrules in the CB/CH-like Carbonaceous. 2:15 p.m. Zipfel J. * Weyer S. In Situ Analyses of Fe Isotopes in Zoned Metal Grains of Hammadah Al

  18. Petrology of enstatite chondrites and anomalous enstatite achondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Niekerk, Deon

    2012-01-01

    Chondrites are meteorites that represent unmelted portions of asteroids. The enstatite chondrites are one class of chondrites. They consist of reduced mineral assemblages that formed under low oxygen fugacity in the solar nebula, prior to accretion into asteroids. There are two groups of enstatite chondrites---EH and EL. I studied EL3 meteorites, which are understood to be unmetamorphosed and thus to only preserve primitive nebular products. I show in a petrographic study that the EL3s are in fact melt--breccias in which impact-melting produced new mineral assemblages and textures in portions of the host chondrites, after accretion. I document meta- land sulfide assemblages that are intergrown with silicate minerals (which are often euhedral), and occur outside chondrules; these assemblages probably represent impact-melting products, and are different from those in EH3 chondrites that probably represent nebular products. In situ siderophile trace element compositions of the metal in EL3s, obtained by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are consistent with an impact-melting hypothesis. The trace element concentrations show no clear volatility trend, and are thus probably not the result of volatile-driven petrogenetic processes that operated in the solar nebula. Trace element modeling suggests that the character of the trace element patterns together with deviations from the mean bulk EL metal pattern is consistent with metal that crystallized in a coexisting liquid-solid metal system in which dissolved carbon influenced element partitioning. I also conducted a petrographic and mineral-chemistry study of several anomalous enstatite meteorites. These have igneous textures, but unfractionated mineralogy similar to unmelted chondrites. I show that with the exception of one, the meteorites are related to each other, and probably formed by crystallization from an impact melt instead of metamorphism through the decay of short lived radionuclides. The broad importance of these studies lies in documenting the petrology of extraterrestrial materials that reveal the geological history of the young solar system prior to the existence of planets. Furthermore, they serve to identify which mineral assemblages record nebular processes and which record processes on asteroids, so that future studies may select the correct material to address particular questions.

  19. Coding Chinese Characters on an Ordinary Typewriter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gledhill, Donald F.; Wu, C. K.

    Presented in this paper is an illustration of the Lantran Chincode System for coding the Chinese language on ordinary English language typewriters or computer terminal keyboards. The key element of the Lantran coding is the use of the Pinyin phonetic romanization which has been officially standard in Communist China for the past 10 years. The end…

  20. Regular Functions Satisfying Irregular Ordinary Differential Equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill Guerra; Harold S. Shapiro

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with entire solutions to linear ordinary differential equations in the complex domain. We show that certain entire solutions to singular equations, cannot satisfy any normalized equation without singularities. We provide two proofs of this result, one based on the indicial equation and the other using the Frobenius notion of irreducibility. Our examples include the entire Bessel function.

  1. An Ordinary but Surprisingly Powerful Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Being a mathematician, the author started to wonder if there are any theorems in mathematics that seem very ordinary on the outside, but when applied, have surprisingly far reaching consequences. The author thought about this and came up with the following unlikely candidate which follows immediately from the definition of the area of a rectangle…

  2. Nonlinear interaction between three ordinary electromagnetic modes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Munoz; S. Dagach

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers the resonant interaction among three modified ordinary electromagnetic waves which propagate perpendicular to a constant magnetic field. It is shown that for the modified mode to be a normal mode, the unperturbed current must be equal to zero. The averaged Lagrangian method is used to calculate the coupling coefficient for the resonant interaction among three of these

  3. Ordinary Differential Equations Concepts, Methods, and Models

    E-print Network

    Becker, Leigh C.

    Ordinary Differential Equations Concepts, Methods, and Models Leigh C. Becker 2012­2013 Edition of Partial Differential Equations . . . . . . . . 26 1.2.4 Basic Integration Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4 Numerical Methods for First-Order Equations 93 4.1 Tangent Line Approximations

  4. I-Xe Dating: The Time Line of Chondrule Formation and Metamorphism in LL Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdivtseva, O. V.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Meshik, A. P.

    2005-01-01

    Refractory inclusions, considered to be the oldest solids formed in the solar nebula. (4567.2 0.6 Ma) [1], are common in many carbonaceous and in some ordinary and enstatite chondrites. High-precision Pb- Pb ages for CAI s and chondrules (from different meteorites) suggested that chondrule formation appeared to have started about 2 Ma later than that of CAIs [1]. However, recent 26Al/26Mg data suggest simultaneous formation of CAI s and chondrules in Allende [2]. The I-Xe ages of CAI s in Allende are about 2 Ma younger than the I-Xe ages of Allende chondrules [3] but, like all chronometers, the I-Xe system records closure time of its particular host phase. In the case of Allende CAI s, the major iodine-bearing phase is sodalite, a secondary phase presumably formed by aqueous alteration, so I-Xe reflects the post-formational processes in these objects. In chondrules the iodine host phases vary and can reflect formation and/or alteration but, to put chondrule ages on a quantative basis, some problems should first be addressed.

  5. Lithification opf gas-rich chondrite regolith breccias by grain boundary and localized shock melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, A.; Rubin, A. E.; Keil, K.; Stoeffler, D.

    1983-12-01

    The fine-grained matrices (less than 150 microns) of 14 gas-rich ordinary chondrile regolith breccias were studied in an attempt to decipher the nature of the lithification process that converted loose regolith material into consolidated breccias. It is found that there is a continuouos gradation in matrix textures from nearly completely clastic (class A) to highly cemented (class C) breccias in which the remining clasts are completely surrounded by interstitial, shock-melted material. It is concluded that this interstitial material is formed by shock melting in the porous regolith. In general, the abundances of solar-wind-implanted He-4 and Ne-20 are inversely correlated with the abundance of intenstitial, shock-melted, feldspathic material. Chondrites with the highest abundance of interstitial, melted material (class C) experienced the highest shock pressures and temperatures and suffered the most extensive degassing. It is this interstitial, feldspathic melt that lithifies and cements the breccias together; those breccias with very little interstitial melt (class A) are the most porous and least consolidated.

  6. Lithification opf gas-rich chondrite regolith breccias by grain boundary and localized shock melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bischoff, A.; Rubin, A. E.; Keil, K.; Stoeffler, D.

    1983-01-01

    The fine-grained matrices (less than 150 microns) of 14 gas-rich ordinary chondrile regolith breccias were studied in an attempt to decipher the nature of the lithification process that converted loose regolith material into consolidated breccias. It is found that there is a continuouos gradation in matrix textures from nearly completely clastic (class A) to highly cemented (class C) breccias in which the remining clasts are completely surrounded by interstitial, shock-melted material. It is concluded that this interstitial material is formed by shock melting in the porous regolith. In general, the abundances of solar-wind-implanted He-4 and Ne-20 are inversely correlated with the abundance of intenstitial, shock-melted, feldspathic material. Chondrites with the highest abundance of interstitial, melted material (class C) experienced the highest shock pressures and temperatures and suffered the most extensive degassing. It is this interstitial, feldspathic melt that lithifies and cements the breccias together; those breccias with very little interstitial melt (class A) are the most porous and least consolidated.

  7. Non-chondritic sulphur isotope composition of the terrestrial mantle.

    PubMed

    Labidi, J; Cartigny, P; Moreira, M

    2013-09-12

    Core-mantle differentiation is the largest event experienced by a growing planet during its early history. Terrestrial core segregation imprinted the residual mantle composition by scavenging siderophile (iron-loving) elements such as tungsten, cobalt and sulphur. Cosmochemical constraints suggest that about 97% of Earth's sulphur should at present reside in the core, which implies that the residual silicate mantle should exhibit fractionated (34)S/(32)S ratios according to the relevant metal-silicate partition coefficients, together with fractionated siderophile element abundances. However, Earth's mantle has long been thought to be both homogeneous and chondritic for (34)S/(32)S, similar to Canyon Diablo troilite, as it is for most siderophile elements. This belief was consistent with a mantle sulphur budget dominated by late-accreted chondritic components. Here we show that the mantle, as sampled by mid-ocean ridge basalts from the south Atlantic ridge, displays heterogeneous (34)S/(32)S ratios, directly correlated to the strontium and neodymium isotope ratios (87)Sr/(86)Sr and (143)Nd/(144)Nd. These isotope trends are compatible with binary mixing between a low-(34)S/(32)S ambient mantle and a high-(34)S/(32)S recycled component that we infer to be subducted sediments. The depleted end-member is characterized by a significantly negative ?(34)S of -1.28?±?0.33‰ that cannot reach a chondritic value even when surface sulphur (from continents, altered oceanic crust, sediments and oceans) is added. Such a non-chondritic (34)S/(32)S ratio for the silicate Earth could be accounted for by a core-mantle differentiation record in which the core has a (34)S/(32)S ratio slightly higher than that of chondrites (?(34)S = +0.07‰). Despite evidence for late-veneer addition of siderophile elements (and therefore sulphur) after core formation, our results imply that the mantle sulphur budget retains fingerprints of core-mantle differentiation. PMID:24005324

  8. Paleomagnetism of a new magnetite-rich carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Gounelle, M.; Bonal, L.; Weiss, B. P.; Sonzogni, C.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies of CV carbonaceous chondrites have led to the conclusion that their parent body was partially differentiated and possessed a convecting core [1]. This possibility has been validated by modeling of asteroid accretion [2]. Were partially differentiated chondritic asteroid the rule or the exception? We will present petrographic and paleomagnetic data obtained on an unusual carbonaceous chondrite that we discovered in 2011 in the Atacama desert. This meteorite is a fully crusted stone with a total weight of 2.4 g. Although classification is still ongoing, its petrography, and oxygen isotopes (d18O=-1.74‰, d17O=-5.15‰, D17O=-4.25‰) point to a C2 ungrouped chondrite. Preliminary Raman spectroscopy data confirm that it has not suffered thermal metamorphism. Magnetic properties show that the meteorite contains ~13 wt.% of pseudo-single domain magnetite, making it a rock with remarkable paleomagnetic recorder. Indeed, this is the most magnetic magnetite-bearing chondrite ever described. Paleomagnetic measurements show that the meteorite possesses a uniform and unidirectional stable component of magnetization unblocked up to 120 mT during alternating field demagnetization. Paleointensity is estimated to a few ?T using normalization techniques [3]. The nature of the magnetizaiton, and the origin of the magnetizing field will be discussed. [1] Carporzen et al., 2011. Proc. National Acad. Sci., 108, 6386-6389. [2] Elkins-Tanton et al., 2011. Earth Planet . Sci. Lett., 305, 1-10. [3] Gattacceca and Rochette P. 2004 Earth Planet . Sci. Lett., 227, 377-393.

  9. Fayalite Formation in Some Primitive Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, X.; Buseck, P. R.

    1993-07-01

    Fayalite (up to Fa(sub)99.9) occurs in the Kaba and Mokoia CV3 carbonaceous chondrites. The grains can reach up to 100 micrometers in diameter and are commonly associated with magnetite and sulfides. Since the fayalite is essentially pure, it must have formed in an environment where Mg is absent. We believe it formed by a two-step gas-solid reaction: (i) the decomposition of enstatite to release SiO (g); (ii) reaction of SiO (g) with magnetite or sulfides to form fayalite. Production of SiO (g) occurs via a reaction such as: 2 MgSiO3 (s) + H2 (g) = Mg2SiO4 (s) + SiO (g) + H2O (g) (1) for which the equilibrium constant is K = the equation which appears here in the hard copy. Using the JANAF tables, we can calculate Delta G for different temperatures, followed by a calculation of PSiO for various H2O/H2 ratios: equation appears here. For fayalite formation, we considered the following reactions: 2 Fe3O4 (s) + 3 SiO (g) + H2O (g) = 3 Fe2SiO4 (s) + H2 (g), and (2) 2 FeS (s) + SiO (g) +3 H2O = Fe2SiO4 (s) + H2(g) + 2 H2S (g) (3) Since sulfides will first react with H2O to form magnetite, reaction (3) will proceed via reaction (2), so our calculation is only for reaction (2). Following the same procedure as for reaction (1), we obtain: the equation, which appears here in the hard copy. After plotting the P(sub)SiO vs. temperature for different H2O/H2 ratios we found: (i) If the H2O/H2 ratio is 5.1 X 10^-4 (solar), fayalite starts to form at a temperature of 300 K, at which the vapor pressure of SiO is only 10^-86 atm. We presume under these conditions the reaction is kinetically prohibited. (ii) If H2O/H2 = 100, fayalite forms above 3000 K, which is also unlikely, because at such a high temperature all silicates will decompose. (iii) If H2O/H2 = 1, the formation temperature of fayalite is ~ 640 K, and the vapor pressure of SiO is 10^-36 atm. (iv) If H2O/H2 = 10, fayalite begins to form at 1100 K, and the vapor pressure of SiO is 10^-19 atm. After taking the reaction rates into consideration, we prefer the combination of H2O/H2 = 10 and starting temperature of 1100 K, because for these conditions P(sub)SiO is 17 orders of magnitude greater than that at ~640 K. If we put additional constraints on the temperature based on the coexistence of magnetite, then a maximum temperature of 1200 K for the reaction can also be determined [1] (Fig 4), because above this temperature magnetite is not stable when the H2O/H2 ratio equals 10. In an environment with H2O/H2 = 10 atm and T = 1100 or 1200 K, the vapor pressure of SiO released from the evaporation of enstatite is 10^-17 and 10^-14.8, respectively. The decomposition of forsterite under identical conditions will be negligible [2 log P(sub)Mgo + log P(sub)SiO = 10^-57.4 (at 1100 K) and 10^-50.3 (at 1200 K)]. References: [1] Larimer J. W. (1967) GCA, 1215-1238; JANAF Thermodunamical Tables (1971).

  10. LEW85332: A C2 Chondrite in the CR Clan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinz, M.; Weisberg, M. K.; Brearley, A.; Grady, M. M.; Pillinger, C.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.

    1992-07-01

    Introduction. LEW85332 was described as a unique C3 chondrite [1] and we undertook this study to learn more about its relationship to other carbonaceous chondrites. We find it to be a C2 chondrite with significant similarites to CR2 chondrites. This linkage extends to the ALH85085 [2] and Acfer 182 [3,4] chondrites, although there are some important differences among them. Petrologic and isotopic similarities define the CR clan, which consists of CR chondrites and their three relatives noted above (and Bencubbin). Some differences are due to major component abundances (chondrules, matrix, metal), and some to minor differences between components, but the similarities are greater and define the clan. Results. Petrogically, LEW85332 has over 60% (vol) chondrules, about 30% matrix and matrix clasts, and about 4-7% metal. Extensive weathering makes modal abundances uncertain. Chondrules are anhydrous, about 170 micrometers wide [1] and of all textural types. ALH85085 chondrules average 20 micrometers and are mainly pyroxene-rich, whereas Acfer 182 is more like LEW85332. Matrix is hydrous and occurs as interstitial matrix, matrix clasts, and chondrule rims [5]. The matrix contains phyllosilicates and magnetite framboids. Matrix clasts are not foreign [1], but part of the chondrite, making it C2. This is also the case for Acfer 182 [3], and perhaps ALH85085. Phyllosilicates are mainly saponite and serpentine [5], and their composition is similar to that in CR chondrites. The water/rock ratio was low. Metal abundances in LEW85332 [1] are lower than in Acfer 182 (9.3 vol%) [4] and ALH85085 (22%) [6]. However, FeNi composition is the same, with a positive Ni-Co trend equivalent to the solar abundance ratio. This is the same as that in CR chondrites [7]. LEW85332 contains 0.5% carbon, combusting between 200 and 500 degrees C, indicating fine-grained, poorly crystalline carbon, or organic material. It contains 259 ppm nitrogen with delta^15N = +249o/oo. Most nitrogen is released between 200 and 500 degrees C, but at 325 C the delta^15N reaches +306o/oo indicating at least two N-bearing components with differing C/N atomic ratios. The LEW85332 nitrogen isotopic composition is intermediate between ALH85085, Acfer 182 and CR chondrites, closer to CR. The extremely heavy, high- temperature component found in ALH85085 is absent (or nearly so) in LEW85332. Nitrogen abundance is similar to ALH85085, but lower than in CRs. The oxygen isotopic composition of LEW85332 is delta^18O = -0.92, delta^17O = -1.93. This, plus ALH85085 and Acfer 182 define a line (figure) identical to that of the CR chondrite mixing line (slope = 0.7) [7]. The composition of LEW85332 is close to that of unaltered olivine and pyroxene in Renazzo and Al Rais. Conclusions. (1) The important similarities between components in LEW85332 and CR2 chondrites put it in the CR clan. (2) Recognition of LEW85332, Acfer 182, and ALH85085 as relatives in the CR clan indicates that carbonaceous chondrites can no longer be classified only into coherent groups with highly similar characteristics. Recognition of clan relationships will be needed for IDPs and micrometeorites. (3) LEW85332, Acfer 182, and ALH85085 contain hydrous matrices and anhydrous chondrules, and the implications of this observation requires further study. References. [1] Rubin, A.E. and Kallemeyn, G.W. (1990) Meteoritics 25, 215-225. [2] Weisberg, M.K. et al. (1990) Meteoritics 25, 269-279. [3] Prinz, M. and Weisberg, M.K. (1992) LPSCXXIII, 1109-1110. [4] Bischoff, A. et al. (1992) Acfer 182 ms. GCA (in press). [5] Brearley, A.J. (1992) LPSCXXIII, 155-156. [6] Weisberg, M.K. et al. (1988) EPSL 91, 19-32. [7] Weisberg, M.K. et al. (1992) CR chondrite ms. GCA (in press).

  11. Program for solution of ordinary differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sloate, H.

    1973-01-01

    A program for the solution of linear and nonlinear first order ordinary differential equations is described and user instructions are included. The program contains a new integration algorithm for the solution of initial value problems which is particularly efficient for the solution of differential equations with a wide range of eigenvalues. The program in its present form handles up to ten state variables, but expansion to handle up to fifty state variables is being investigated.

  12. Childhood disability: ordinary lives for extraordinary families.

    PubMed

    Heywood, Janet

    2010-04-01

    Government reports, campaigning groups and parents all value the goal that families with disabled children should live 'ordinary lives'. Yet evidence of the impact of childhood disability on finances, housing, relationships, family life and mental health all points to barriers that families face to achieving this. With numbers of disabled children rising significantly, increasing numbers of families are living with disabled children and experiencing a life that feels very far from ordinary. Support services, both within health and the local authority, may use a medical model of disability that fails to acknowledge some of these challenges. This paper aims to raise awareness of some of the issues faced by families with disabled children and argues for a more holistic, social model of disability that takes account of the needs of the whole family when considering support needs, not only the needs of the disabled child.This has the potential to reduce the social and practical cost of supporting disabled children, improve outcomes for the whole family, and enable families to enjoy their children within a family life that feels something much closer to'ordinary'. PMID:20441096

  13. Chemical fractionation in the solar nebula. [carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, L.

    1974-01-01

    The sequence of condensation of minerals from a cooling gas of solar composition has been calculated from thermodynamic data assuming complete chemical equilibrium is maintained. The results suggest that the Ca-Al-rich inclusions in Allende and other carbonaceous chondrites are aggregates of the highest temperature condensates. Complete condensation of these elements is followed 100 deg later, by the onset of the crystallization of nickel-iron, forsterite and enstatite. Transport of Ca-Al-rich refractory condensates from one part of the nebula to another before the condensation of these lower-temperature phases may have been responsible for the refractory element fractionations between the different classes of chondrites and possibly for the inferred refractory element enrichment of the moon.

  14. New Titanium Monosulfide Mineral Phase in Yamato 691 Enstatite Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K; Clemett, S. J.; Rubin, A. E.; Choi, B.-G.; Zhang, S.; Rahman, Z.; Oikawa, K.; Keller, L. P.

    2011-01-01

    Yamato 691, an EH3 enstatite chondrite, was among the first meteorites discovered by chance in Antarctica by the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) team in 1969. This discovery led to follow-up searches for meteorites in Antarctica [1]. These international searches have been very successful recovering over 40,000 total specimens (and still counting), including martian and lunar meteorites. Titanium is partly chalcophile in enstatite-rich meteorites. Previous occurrences of Ti-bearing sulfides include troilite, daubrelite and ferroan alabandite in enstatite chondrites and aubrites [2], and heideite with 28.5 wt% Ti in the Bustee aubrite [3]. Here we report a new mineral from Yamato 691, ideally stoichiometric TiS, titanium monosulfide, a simple two-element mineral phase, yet with a very unique crystal structure that, to our knowledge, has not been observed previously in nature.

  15. Glanggang and Selakopi - Two new paired Indonesian chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredriksson, K.; Peretsman, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    The Indonesian meteorites Selakopi, and H-5 chondrite, and Glanggang, a breccia with H-6 fragments in an H-5 chondritic matrix, were recovered on the same day from sites only 50 km apart. The textures and compositions of Selakopi and the H-5 portion of Glanggang are very similar, indicating that they are closely related. The bulk chemistry of the H-6 portion of Glanggang is also very similar to that of the samples mentioned. It has therefore been concluded that Selakopi and the Glanggang breccia fragments were derived from the same source area and were probably ejected at the same time. Minor differences in bulk composition and texture among the three samples may be attributed to local variations on the parent body. However, for reasons stipulated in the conclusion, it is recommended that separate names be maintained for these meteorites until further, more definitive investigations have been made.

  16. Chemical characterization of a unique chondrite - Allan Hills 85085

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, D. C.; Laul, J. C.

    1990-06-01

    Allan Hills 85085 is a new and very important addition to the growing list of unique carbonaceous chondrites because of its unique chemical and mineralogical properties. This chemical study provides more precise data on the major, minor, and trace element characteristics of ALH85085. ALH85085 has compositional, petrological, and isotopic affinities to AL Rais and Renazzo, and to Bencubbin-Weatherford. The similarities to Al Rais and Renazzo suggest similar formation locations and thermal processing, possibly in the vicinity of CI chondrites. Petrologic, compositional and isotopic studies indicate that the components that control the abundance of the various refractory and volatile elements were not allowed to equilibrate with the nebula as conditions changed, explaining the inconsistencies in the classification of these meteorites using known taxonomic parameters.

  17. Vein formation in the C1 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    Veins in the C1 chondrites Orgueil, Alais, and Ivuna have been deposited during an extended period of impact brecciation and leaching. At least three generations of mineralization, dominated successively by carbonates, calcium sulfate, and magnesium sulfate, can be recognized. Vein minerals are derived locally by closed-system reactions between matrix phyllosilicates and an aqueous fluid, with the result that few, if any, primitive mineral phases still exist in the C1s.

  18. Chondritic models of 4 Vesta: Comparison of data from the Dawn mission with predicted internal structure and surface composition/mineralogy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toplis, M. J.; Mizzon, H.; Forni, O.; Monnereau, M.; Barrat, J. A.; Prettyman, T. H.; McSween, H. Y.; McCoy, T. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-04-01

    While the HEDs provide an extremely useful basis for interpreting data from the Dawn mission, there is no guarantee that they provide a complete vision of all possible crustal (and possibly mantle) lithologies that are exposed at the surface of Vesta. With this in mind, an alternative approach is to identify plausible bulk compositions and use mass-balance and geochemical modelling to predict possible internal structures and crust/mantle compositions and mineralogies. While such models must be consistent with known HED samples, this approach has the potential to extend predictions to thermodynamically plausible rock types that are not necessarily present in the HED collection. Nine chondritic bulk compositions are considered (CI, CV, CO, CM, H, L, LL, EH, EL). For each, relative proportions and densities of the core, mantle, and crust are quantified. This calculation is complicated by the fact that iron may occur in metallic form (in the core) and/or in oxidized form (in the mantle and crust). However, considering that the basaltic crust has the composition of Juvinas and assuming that this crust is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the residual mantle, it is possible to calculate a single solution to this problem for a given bulk composition. Of the nine bulk compositions tested, solutions corresponding to CI and LL groups predicted a negative metal fraction and were not considered further. Solutions for enstatite chondrites imply significant oxidation relative to the starting materials and these solutions too are considered unlikely. For the remaining bulk compositions, the relative proportion of crust to bulk silicate is typically in the range 15 to 20% corresponding to crustal thicknesses of 15 to 20 km for a porosity-free Vesta-sized body. The mantle is predicted to be largely dominated by olivine (>85%) for carbonaceous chondrites, but to be a roughly equal mixture of olivine and pyroxene for ordinary chondrite precursors. All bulk compositions have a significant core, but the relative proportions of metal and sulphide can be widely different. Using these data, total core size (metal+ sulphide) and average core densities can be calculated, providing a useful reference frame within which to consider geophysical/gravity data of the Dawn mission. Further to these mass-balance calculations, the MELTS thermodynamic calculator has been used to assess to what extent chondritic bulk compositions can produce Juvinas-like liquids at relevant degrees of partial melting/crystallization. This work will refine acceptable bulk compositions and predict the mineralogy and composition of the associated solid and liquid products over wide ranges of partial melting and crystallization, providing a useful and self-consistent reference frame for interpretation of the data from the VIR and GRaND instruments onboard the Dawn spacecraft.

  19. Carbon isotope relationships in winonaites and forsterite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, M. M.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1986-02-01

    Carbon content and C-isotope composition studies were conducted on the stone meteorites Winona, Mt. Morris (WI), Pontlyfni, Acapulco, and Kakangari, and on a chondritic inclusion from the Cumberland Falls aubrite, to search for similarities that might exist between these meteorites. To compare the C-release profiles, the samples were subjected to step combustion in the 200-1200 C range. The isotopic composition of released C gas was measured with a mass spectrometer. Samples from Winona, Mt. Morris, Pontlyfni, and the Cumberland Falls chondrite behave in a common fashion during combustion, with graphite being the major indigenous carbon component. Similar delta-C-13 values, which were close to the range reported for enstatite chondrites and IAB irons, indicated commonality in the origin of all these samples. Acapulco has a slightly different C distribution, with more of the element possibility still in the metal than as graphite. Both the graphite and the C in metal are isotopically lighter in the Acapulso sample than in the first meteorite group. Kakangari showed no relation to any of the other meteorites, supporting the view that this meteorite might be unique.

  20. Determining the relative extent of alteration in CM chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, Lauren B.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Zolensky, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The aqueous alteration of CM chondrites provides a record of the processes attending the earliest stages of parent body evolution. However, resolving the alteration pathways of chondritic evolution requires a means for distinguishing the relative extent of alteration that individual samples have experienced. Three new indices for gauging the relative degree of alteration in CM chondrites based on modal and compositional analyses of 7 CM falls were proposed. The proposed alteration parameters are consistent with the basic tenets of several previous models and correlate with additional indices to produce an integrated method for determining the relative extent of alteration. The model predicts the following order of progressive alteration: Murchison (MC) is less than or equal to Bells (BL) is less than Murray (MY) is less than Cochabamba (CC) is less than Mighei (MI) is less than Nogoya (NG) is less than or equal to Cold Bokkeveld (CB). The broad range of CM phyllosilicate compositions observed within individual meteorites is fundamental to the characterization of the aqueous alteration process. Chemical analyses of CM phyllosilicates suggest that these phases became systematically enriched in Mg and depleted in Fe with increasing alteration.

  1. Determining the relative extent of alteration in CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Lauren B.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.; Zolensky, Michael

    1993-03-01

    The aqueous alteration of CM chondrites provides a record of the processes attending the earliest stages of parent body evolution. However, resolving the alteration pathways of chondritic evolution requires a means for distinguishing the relative extent of alteration that individual samples have experienced. Three new indices for gauging the relative degree of alteration in CM chondrites based on modal and compositional analyses of 7 CM falls were proposed. The proposed alteration parameters are consistent with the basic tenets of several previous models and correlate with additional indices to produce an integrated method for determining the relative extent of alteration. The model predicts the following order of progressive alteration: Murchison (MC) is less than or equal to Bells (BL) is less than Murray (MY) is less than Cochabamba (CC) is less than Mighei (MI) is less than Nogoya (NG) is less than or equal to Cold Bokkeveld (CB). The broad range of CM phyllosilicate compositions observed within individual meteorites is fundamental to the characterization of the aqueous alteration process. Chemical analyses of CM phyllosilicates suggest that these phases became systematically enriched in Mg and depleted in Fe with increasing alteration.

  2. Quantization of minisuperspaces as ordinary gauge systems

    E-print Network

    Claudio Simeone

    2001-08-30

    Simple cosmological models are used to show that gravitation can be quantized as an ordinary gauge system if the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the model under consideration is separable. In this situation, a canonical transformation can be performed such that in terms of the new variables the model has a linear and homogeneous constraint, and therefore canonical gauges are admissible in the path integral. This has the additional practical advantage that gauge conditions that do not generate Gribov copies are then easy to choose.

  3. The ethics of an ordinary medical technology.

    PubMed

    van Manen, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Some routinely applied hospital technologies may have unintended consequences for patients and their families. The neonatal cardiorespiratory monitor, a computer-like display used to show an infant's vital functions, is one such technology that may become part of a parent's day-to-day being with his or her hospitalized child. In this phenomenological study, I explored how the monitor may mediate parental sensibilities, reshaping the contact of parent and child. This exploration speaks to understanding the relational ethics of even the seemingly most ordinary of medical technologies in clinical contexts. PMID:25296652

  4. Exploring ordinary childhood occupations through community partnerships.

    PubMed

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss an innovative assignment, The Occupational Outline and Disability Status Report, and to describe how a community-academic partnership was formed. Community-academic collaborations provide students with the opportunity to observe children in natural environments. This partnership facilitates the development of clinical reasoning skills necessary for pediatric practice in community settings. Through observation of ordinary childhood occupations at a children's museum and a written assignment, students identify the significance of play and social participation while hypothesizing about the influence of impairments on performance. PMID:23926968

  5. Petrofabric of Zag and Pu?tusk Meteorites: Implications for Impact Conditions on the H Chondrite Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzesi?ska, A.; Gattacceca, J.; Friedrich, J. M.; Rochette, P.

    2014-09-01

    Petrofabric of H chondrites is characterized by combining tomographic reconstruction of metal grains, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and petrographic observations. The chondrites possess foliation but also well defined lineation.

  6. Petrofabrics in Fine-Grained Rims of Vigarano CV3 Chondrite: Insights from EBSD and AFM Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulié, C.; Ildefonse, B.; Libourel, G.

    2013-09-01

    EBSD and AFM analyses were used to characterize the petrofabric of fayalitic olivines in the matrix and chondrule fine-grained rims of Vigarano CV3 chondrite and to compare them with other CV chondrites.

  7. CB CHONDRITES COULD HAVE FORMED IN AN IMPACT PLUME. A. V. Fedkin1 , L. Grossman1,2

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Lawrence

    metal/gm H chondrite. Residual nebular gas was assumed to be complementary to H chondrite, so the dust, & Atmospheric Science, and National High Magnetic Field Lab, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310(avf@uchicago.edu). Introduction: Petaev et al. [1] proposed that zoned metal grains in the CBb chondrite QUE 94411 (hereaf- ter

  8. REFRACTORY INCLUSIONS IN A NEW SECTION OF THE UNIQUE CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITE ACFER

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Lawrence

    REFRACTORY INCLUSIONS IN A NEW SECTION OF THE UNIQUE CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITE ACFER 094. S. B. Simon1 unusual suite of refractory inclusions has been compared to those of CO and CR chondrites [1, 2]. Recently, unlike those in CMs, many refractory objects in Acfer 094 encountered a nebular region where melilite

  9. REFRACTORY INCLUSIONS FROM THE CM2 CHONDRITE LEW85311. S. B. Simon1

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Lawrence

    REFRACTORY INCLUSIONS FROM THE CM2 CHONDRITE LEW85311. S. B. Simon1 , C. G. Keaton2 , and L to be an effective technique for recovery of refractory inclusions from CM chondrites [1]; yet, few meteorites have refractory inclusion population and to compare it to that of the well-studied Murchison. We selected

  10. Accretionary dust mantles in CM chondrites - Evidence for solar nebula processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Metzler; A. Bischoff; D. Stoeffler

    1992-01-01

    The origin of the various components of 14 carbonaceous chondrites of the CM group, and the evolution of their parent body (or bodies) were examined by studying the texture and the model composition of these chondrites. Evidence is presented for the existence of preaccretionary aqueous alteration of anhydrous primary products in the solar nebula. Based on the results of textural,

  11. Trace element content of chondritic cosmic dust: Volatile enrichments, thermal alterations, and the possibility of contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Bajt, S.

    1993-01-01

    Trace element abundances in 51 chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDP's) were measured by Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence (SXRF). The data allow us to determine an average composition of chondritic IDP's and to examine the questions of volatile loss during the heating pulse experienced on atmospheric entry and possible element addition due to contamination during atmospheric entry, stratospheric residence, and curation.

  12. Trace element content of chondritic cosmic dust: Volatile enrichments, thermal alterations, and the possibility of contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Bajt, S.

    1993-03-01

    Trace element abundances in 51 chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDP's) were measured by Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence (SXRF). The data allow us to determine an average composition of chondritic IDP's and to examine the questions of volatile loss during the heating pulse experienced on atmospheric entry and possible element addition due to contamination during atmospheric entry, stratospheric residence, and curation.

  13. In Situ Measurement of Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Magnetite in the Allende CV3 Chondrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B.-G. Choi; C. D. Coath; L. Leshin; J. Wang; K. D. McKeegan; J. T. Wasson

    1995-01-01

    Magnetite is relatively abundant in the oxidized CV chondrites. This study was undertaken to examine possible origins in nebular or in parent-body processes. Magnetite in Allende has several distinct characteristics compared to that of the other CV chondrites. Unlike Mokoia and Vigarano, magnetite in Allende is almost exclusively found in chondrules, where it typically forms spherical nodules often associated with

  14. Carbonate compositions in CM and CI chondrites, and implications for aqueous alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. A.; Prinz, M.

    1993-06-01

    Carbonate minerals in fourteen CM chondrites and two CI chondrites have been analyzed by electron microprobe to provide a better understanding of the aqueous processes that affected carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies. Calcites in CM chondrites and dolomites and magnesites in CI chondrites display the compositions expected of stable phases formed at low temperatures. Dolomites in CM chondrites, identified here for the first time in five members of the group, have small amounts of excess Ca which may reflect metastable growth. The distribution of Fe between dolomite and coexisting serpentine differs in the two chondrite groups. If the distributions reflect an approach to chemical equilibrium, then the difference implies higher alteration temperatures for the CI group than the CM group in agreement with the results of previously published oxygen isotope thermometry and mineral solubility modeling of the alteration process. Dolomite Fe contents are relatively uniform in the two chondrite groups. Dolomite Mn contents, by contrast, vary widely. The variations may reflect transport-controlled coprecipitation of Mn resulting from a heterogeneous distribution of the element in the anhydrous precursor material. If this interpretation is correct, then the altering fluids were essentially immobile white hydration reactions proceeded on the meteorite parent bodies. The near closed-system character of the alteration process, long known from bulk chemical analyses of the meteorites, is a direct consequence of the limited mobility of dissolved species.

  15. Application of an Equilibrium Vaporization Model to the Ablation of Chondritic and Achondritic Meteoroids

    E-print Network

    Laura Schaefer; Bruce Fegley Jr

    2005-06-01

    We modeled equilibrium vaporization of chondritic and achondritic materials using the MAGMA code. We calculated both instantaneous and integrated element abundances of Na, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe, Si, Ti, and K in chondritic and achondritic meteors. Our results are qualitatively consistent with observations of meteor spectra.

  16. Origin and history of impact-melt rocks of enstatite chondrite parentage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. McCoy; Klaus Keil; Donald D. Bogard; Daniel H. Garrison; Ignacio Casanova; Marilyn M. Lindstrom; Adrian J. Brearley; Karl Kehm; Robert H. Nichols; Charles M. Hohenberg

    1995-01-01

    We have conducted petrologic, chemical, and isotopic studies of two impact-produced rocks of enstatite chondrite parentage. Ilafegh 009 is a total impact-melt rock with no residual lithic clasts. Formation on the EL chondrite parent body is suggested by its mineralogy and mineral compositions. Cooling of the impact melt was rapid at melt temperatures and decreased at subsolidus temperatures. In contrast

  17. Evaluating the thermal metamorphism of CM chondrites by using the pyrolytic behavior of carbonaceous macromolecular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajima, Fumio; Nakamura, Tomoki; Takaoka, Nobuo; Murae, Tatsushi

    2002-01-01

    The degrees of thermal metamorphism of 10 CM chondrites and of the Allende CV3 chondrite were evaluated from the viewpoint of "graphitization" of the carbonaceous macromolecular matter by means of flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography (GC). The unheated chondrites, Yamato- (Y-) 791198, Murray and Cold Bokkeveld, yielded larger amounts and wider varieties of pyrolyzates than the chondrites strongly heated in the parent asteroids, Y-82054, Y-86695, and Belgica- (B-) 7904, and Asuka- (A-) 881334 (more strongly heated than Y-793321, which has been weakly heated, but lesser than the other strongly heated meteorites). The weakly heated chondrites, Y-793321 and A-881458, showed intermediate features. The data indicate that graphitization of the carbonaceous matter is most extreme in the strongly heated chondrites and that during graphitization, the matter has lost its labile portion, which can generate pyrolyzates such as naphthalene. In order to establish a new method for the evaluation of the degree of graphitization of chondritic carbonaceous matter, a diagram was developed to show the relationship between the total amounts of pyrolyzates with retention times later than 5 min (=S RT>5) and the ratio of the amount of naphthalene, a pyrolysis product, to S RT>5 (=S N/S RT>5). The diagram indicates a possible evolutionary pathway of graphitization of the carbonaceous matter in carbonaceous chondrites.

  18. CR chondrites: Shock, aqueous alteration and terrestrial weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, N. M.

    2012-12-01

    CR chondrite are a group asteroidal meteorites, whose importance lies in the exotic organic and presolar material [1] found in its most pristine members and in the broad range of alteration features represented in the remaining specimens in this group [2]. This FE-SEM, EMPA, FIB/TEM study takes advantage of the CR's mineralogical diversity to define different trends of secondary alteration, by comparing the CR3s to the Antarctic CRs: MIL 07525, MIL 07513, GRA 06100, LAP 04516, GRO 03116, GRO 95577, and EET 96259. Collisions and subsequent annealing have affected MIL 07513, GRA 06100, and GRO 03116. Shock stages are often assigned based on progressive changes in the textures of olivines and feldspars. However, the large olivines in shocked CRs do not appear to record these process. Opaques, on the other hand, preserve hallmark signatures of impacts, such as crystalline metal/sulfide veins. Opaque nodules in MIL 07513, GRA 06100, GRO 03116 consist of intergrowths of ?m-sub ?m FeNi-rich metal, kamacite, Fe-sulfides, Fe-oxides, nm-sized metallic Cu and CuFe (~85 wt.% Cu, 14 wt.% Fe ± < 1wt.% Co, Ni, S) alloys. MIL 07525, GRO 03116, EET 96259, LAP 04516, and GRO 95577 show increasing signs of aqueous alteration, such as increasing amounts of ordered phyllosilicates. Although most phyllosilicates are intergrowths of Fe-rich serpentine and saponite, LAP 04516 also contains large (?m-sized), interpenetrating, Fe-rich (cronstedtite-like) phyllosilicates packages with 14Å basal spacings, similar to those observed in CI chondrites by [3]. Heterogeneously interspersed within phyllosilicates are amorphous Fe-rich silicates and small grains (<50nm) of Fe-rich sulfides, partly oxidized sulfides, and in LAP 04516, tochilinite. Tochilinite shows consistent enrichments in Si (~5 wt.%), suggesting that this meteorite has undergone similar pathways of aqueous alteration as CM chondrites [e.g., 4-5]. Despite the myriad of mineralogical changes triggered by secondary and tertiary process affecting the CRs, the relationship between the average S and Fe contents of matrices are good indicators of the alteration histories of these chondrites. The average S versus Fe contents of CR matrices follow a roughly linear trend. The most aqueously altered CRs (e.g., LAP 04516) have the lowest Fe and the highest S content. The matrices in shocked CRs, MIL 07513, GRA 06100, GRO 03116, have the lowest S content of the studied CRs. They are also the most Fe-rich. The CR3 chondrites fall somewhere in the middle of the S vs. Fe plot. Terrestrial weathering creates some scattering due to its contribution to the Fe-content of the matrix. If the precursor materials of the shocked CRs composi-tionally resemble CR3 chondrites, low S content of shocked CR matrices probably resulted from volatile losses driven by shock and annealing. Whereas increasing Fe-contents are probably linked to impact-driven hydrothermal mobilization of Fe from kamacite nodules. References: [1] Floss et al. 2009. Ap. J. 697: 1242-1255. [2] Abreu N. M. 2007. [3] Tomeoka K. & Buseck P. R. 1988. GCA 52: 1627-1640. [4] Tomeoka K. & Buseck P. R. 1985. GCA 49: 21-49-2163. [5] Rubin A. et al. 2007. GCA 71: 2361-2382. Acknowledgements: Funded by NNX11AH10G grant and conducted at Penn State and ARES-JSC. Meteorite kindly pro-vided by the JSC Antarctic meteorite curators.

  19. Ubiquitous interstellar diamond and SiC in primitive chondrites - Abundances reflect metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, Gary R.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown here that interstellar diamond and SiC were incorporated into all groups of chondrite meteorites. Abundances rapidly go to zero with increasing metamorphic grade, suggesting that metamorphic destruction is responsible for the apparent absence of these grains in most chondrites. In unmetamorphosed chondrites, abundances normalized to matrix content are similar for different classes. Diamond samples from chondrites of different classes have remarkably similar noble-gas constants and isotropic compositions, although constituent diamonds may have come from many sources. SiC seems to be more diverse, partly because grains are large enough to measure individually, but average characteristics seem to be similar from meteorite to meteorite. These observations suggest that various classes of chondritic meteorites sample the same solar system-wide reservoir of interstellar grains.

  20. Petrology and In Situ Trace Element Chemistry of a Suite of R Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Torrano, Z. A.

    2015-01-01

    Rumuruti (R) chondrites are characterized by low chondrule/matrix modal ratios, high oxidation state, small mean chondrule size, abundant sulfides and low metal contents, and are of petrologic types 3 to 6 [1, 2]. LAP 04840 (R5, [3]) and MIL 11207 (R6), contain the high-T hydrous phases amphibole and mica [3, 4]; not all equilibrated R chondrites contain these [2]. R chondrites thus can provide evidence on whether there are compositional effects caused by high-T, high-fluid metamorphism of nebular materials. We are investigating a suite of R chondrites of diverse petrologic grades to further understand the nature of the metamorphic processes that engendered them [5]. We report on our petrological studies, plus preliminary in situ analyses of trace elements in amphibole-bearing R chondrites.

  1. The negligible chondritic contribution in the lunar soils water.

    PubMed

    Stephant, Alice; Robert, François

    2014-10-21

    Recent data from Apollo samples demonstrate the presence of water in the lunar interior and at the surface, challenging previous assumption that the Moon was free of water. However, the source(s) of this water remains enigmatic. The external flux of particles and solid materials that reach the surface of the airless Moon constitute a hydrogen (H) surface reservoir that can be converted to water (or OH) during proton implantation in rocks or remobilization during magmatic events. Our original goal was thus to quantify the relative contributions to this H surface reservoir. To this end, we report NanoSIMS measurements of D/H and (7)Li/(6)Li ratios on agglutinates, volcanic glasses, and plagioclase grains from the Apollo sample collection. Clear correlations emerge between cosmogenic D and (6)Li revealing that almost all D is produced by spallation reactions both on the surface and in the interior of the grains. In grain interiors, no evidence of chondritic water has been found. This observation allows us to constrain the H isotopic ratio of hypothetical juvenile lunar water to ?D ? -550‰. On the grain surface, the hydroxyl concentrations are significant and the D/H ratios indicate that they originate from solar wind implantation. The scattering distribution of the data around the theoretical D vs. (6)Li spallation correlation is compatible with a chondritic contribution <15%. In conclusion, (i) solar wind implantation is the major mechanism responsible for hydroxyls on the lunar surface, and (ii) the postulated chondritic lunar water is not retained in the regolith. PMID:25288758

  2. The negligible chondritic contribution in the lunar soils water

    PubMed Central

    Stephant, Alice; Robert, François

    2014-01-01

    Recent data from Apollo samples demonstrate the presence of water in the lunar interior and at the surface, challenging previous assumption that the Moon was free of water. However, the source(s) of this water remains enigmatic. The external flux of particles and solid materials that reach the surface of the airless Moon constitute a hydrogen (H) surface reservoir that can be converted to water (or OH) during proton implantation in rocks or remobilization during magmatic events. Our original goal was thus to quantify the relative contributions to this H surface reservoir. To this end, we report NanoSIMS measurements of D/H and 7Li/6Li ratios on agglutinates, volcanic glasses, and plagioclase grains from the Apollo sample collection. Clear correlations emerge between cosmogenic D and 6Li revealing that almost all D is produced by spallation reactions both on the surface and in the interior of the grains. In grain interiors, no evidence of chondritic water has been found. This observation allows us to constrain the H isotopic ratio of hypothetical juvenile lunar water to ?D ? ?550‰. On the grain surface, the hydroxyl concentrations are significant and the D/H ratios indicate that they originate from solar wind implantation. The scattering distribution of the data around the theoretical D vs. 6Li spallation correlation is compatible with a chondritic contribution <15%. In conclusion, (i) solar wind implantation is the major mechanism responsible for hydroxyls on the lunar surface, and (ii) the postulated chondritic lunar water is not retained in the regolith. PMID:25288758

  3. A few remarks on ordinary differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, B. [Universite Paris Dauphine (France)

    1996-12-31

    We present in this note existence and uniqueness results for solutions of ordinary differential equations and linear transport equations with discontinuous coefficients in a bounded open subset {Omega} of R{sup N} or in the whole space R{sup N} (N {ge} 1). R.J. Di Perna and P.L. Lions studied the case of vector fields b with coefficients in Sobolev spaces and bounded divergence. We want to show that similar results hold for more general b: we assume in the bounded autonomous case that b belongs to W{sup 1,1}({Omega}), b.n = 0 on {partial_derivative}{Omega}, and that there exists T{sub o} > O such that exp(T{sub o}{vert_bar}div b{vert_bar}) {element_of} L{sup 1}({Omega}). Furthermore, we establish results on transport equations with initial values in L{sup p} spaces (p > 1). 9 refs.

  4. Gamma Ray Signatures from Ordinary Cosmic Strings

    E-print Network

    Jane H. MacGibbon; Robert H. Brandenberger

    1992-06-19

    We calculate the flux of ultra high energy photons from individual ordinary (i.e. non-superconducting) cosmic strings and compare the results with the sensitivity of current and proposed TeV and EeV telescopes. Our calculations give only upper limits for the gamma ray flux, since the source of the photons, jets from particle production at cusps, may be weakened by back reaction effects. For the usual cosmic distribution of strings, the predicted bursts from strings with the value of mass per unit length associated with galaxy formation or light strings may just be detectable. A diffuse gamma ray background from light strings may also be seen by the Fly's Eye detector at above $7 \\times 10^{10}$ GeV.

  5. Nonlocal ordinary magnetoresistance in indium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pan.; Yuan, Zhonghui.; Wu, Hao.; Ali, S. S.; Wan, Caihua.; Ban, Shiliang.

    2015-07-01

    Deflection of carriers by Lorentz force results in an ordinary magnetoresistance (OMR) of (?B)2 at low field. Here we demonstrate that the OMR in high mobility semiconductor InAs could be enhanced by measurement geometry where two probes of voltmeter were both placed on one outer side of two probes of current source. The nonlocal OMR was 3.6 times as large as the local one, reaching 1.8×104% at 5 T. The slope of the linear field dependence of the nonlocal OMR was improved from 12.6 T-1 to 45.3 T-1. The improvement was ascribed to polarity-conserved charges accumulating on boundaries in nonlocal region due to Hall effect. This InAs device with nonlocal geometry could be competitive in B-sensors due to its high OMR ratio, linear field dependence and simple structure.

  6. Comments on D/H ratios in chondritic organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. W.; Rigby, D.

    1981-06-01

    D/H ratios in chondritic organic matter are investigated. Demineralized organic residues obtained from previous experiments were dried in a quartz reaction vessel under vacuum for 60 minutes at 250-300 C and then combusted in oxygen for 20 minutes at 850 C. The apparatus is described and the results of the experiments such as D/H ratios in water and measurements on total carbon dioxide are given. Atomic H/C ratios calculated directly from the quantities of carbon dioxide and water recovered, are reported according to Standard Mean Ocean Water and Pee Dee Belemnite, using the customary notation.

  7. ACFER 094, a uniquely primitive carbonaceous chondrite from the Sahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, J.; Bischoff, A.; Arden, J. W.; Franchi, I. A.; Geiger, T.; Greshake, A.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1995-01-01

    The Saharan meteorite Acfer 094 is a unique type of carbonaceous chondrite. Mineralogical and petrological considerations and O isotopes are unable to distinguish unambiguously between a CO3 vs. CM2 classification. The other important light elements, C and N, have systematics that do not match any previously recognized meteorite group. Particularly important in this respect is the very low C/N ratio and delta C-13 of the macromolecular C. Acfer 094 has more diamond and SiC, especially X type grains, than any other specimen studied, suggesting minimal thermal or aqueous processing to decrease its very primitive status.

  8. Enstatite Chondrites, their Origin and the Composition of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, S. B.; Petaev, M. I.; Huang, S.

    2012-12-01

    The nearly identical O isotopic compositions of the enstatite chondrites (EC), Earth's mantle, and Moon have been used to argue that the EC provide the best Solar System material for estimating the chemical composition of the Earth. A possible link between the EC and Earth is further supported by recent observations that EC and Earth have the same isotopic compositions for both major and minor elements (O, Ca, Ti, Cr) which exhibit substantial variations among different chondrite groups, with Si being the only exception. However, there is a huge mismatch in chemical compositions between the EC and Earth. For example, the EC have much too high Rb/Sr and K/U ratios and are depleted in FeO and refractory lithophile elements compared to the composition of Earth's mantle deduced from terrestrial rocks. This discrepancy could be resolved by assuming that the Earth and EC had a common nebular precursor but they have experienced different chemical evolution. Such an assumption is supported by the mineralogy and O isotopic data for the most primitive EH3 chondrites. The abundant FeO-bearing silicates, compositionally similar to those in other classes of chondrites, are well documented in ECs, with most silicates having O isotopic compositions of the bulk EC values. Recent studies showed that the chalcophile behaviour of Ca, Mg, Na, and other elements in EC is due to secondary processing of FeO-bearing silicates in an H-poor environment with high fS2 (Fe-FeS buffer) and fO2 close to the CO-CO2 buffer. We suggest that a nebular reservoir that produced the precursor material for EC has also produced the building blocks for the Earth, chemically similar to the widely accepted Earth's composition derived from mantle peridotites. It is possible that the EC precursors initially formed in an isotopically homogeneous inner terrestrial planet region (Mercury, Venus, Earth) by the disruption of a planetesimal and then were scattered to an isotopically heterogeneous outer terrestrial planet region (Mars and the asteroid belt).

  9. New phyllosilicate types in a carbonaceous chondrite matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackinnon, I. D. R.; Buseck, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of new types of layer silicates in the crystalline regions of the matrix of a carbonaceous chondrite are reported. Ion-thinned sections of the Murchison meteorite were observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Images obtained of patterns of fringe spacings of 4.9 and 7.3 A are interpreted as resulting from ordered and disordered sequences of brucite-like and serpentine-like layers, respectively. The temperature and pressure conditions of phyllosilicate formation in the Murchison matrix are discussed in light of the suggested crysotile serpentine and brucite layers and evidence of Fe and Al in the layered intergrowths.

  10. Pathwise Taylor schemes for random ordinary differential equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnulf Jentzen; Peter E. Kloeden

    2009-01-01

    Random ordinary differential equations (RODEs) are ordinary differential equations which contain a stochastic process in their\\u000a vector fields. They can be analyzed pathwise using deterministic calculus, but since the driving stochastic process is usually\\u000a only Hölder continuous in time, the vector field is not differentiable in the time variable. Traditional numerical schemes\\u000a for ordinary differential equations thus do not achieve

  11. Regge trajectories of ordinary and non-ordinary mesons from their scattering poles

    E-print Network

    J. Nebreda; J. A. Carrasco; J. T. Londergan; J. R. Pelaez; A. P. Szczepaniak

    2014-12-18

    Our results on obtaining the Regge trajectory of a resonance from its pole in a scattering process and from analytic constraints in the complex angular momentum plane are presented. The method, suited for resonances that dominate an elastic scattering amplitude, has been applied to the $\\rho(770)$, $f_2(1270)$, $f_2'(1525)$ and $f_0(500)$ resonances. Whereas for the first three we obtain linear Regge trajectories, characteristic of ordinary quark-antiquark states, for the latter we find a non-linear trajectory with a much smaller slope at the resonance mass. We also show that if a linear trajectory with a slope of typical size is imposed for the $f_0(500)$, the corresponding amplitude is at odds with the data. This provides a strong indication of the non-ordinary nature of the sigma meson.

  12. Zoology of condensed matter: Framids, ordinary stuff, extra-ordinary stuff

    E-print Network

    Nicolis, Alberto; Piazza, Federico; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We classify condensed matter systems in terms of the spacetime symmetries they spontaneously break. In particular, we characterize condensed matter itself as any state in a Poincar\\'e-invariant theory that spontaneously breaks Lorentz boosts while preserving at large distances some form of spatial translations, time-translations, and possibly spatial rotations. Surprisingly, the simplest, most minimal system achieving this symmetry breaking pattern---the "framid"---does not seem to be realized in Nature. Instead, Nature usually adopts a more cumbersome strategy: that of introducing internal translational symmetries---and possibly rotational ones---and of spontaneously breaking them along with their space-time counterparts, while preserving unbroken diagonal subgroups. This symmetry breaking pattern describes the infrared dynamics of ordinary solids, fluids, superfluids, and---if they exist---supersolids. A third, "extra-ordinary", possibility involves replacing these internal symmetries with other symmetries ...

  13. Delivery of Dark Material to Vesta via Carbonaceous Chondritic Impacts

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Vishnu; O'Brien, David P; Nathues, Andreas; Cloutis, Edward A; Durda, Daniel D; Bottke, William F; Bhatt, Megha U; Nesvorny, David; Buczkowski, Debra; Scully, Jennifer E C; Palmer, Elizabeth M; Sierks, Holger; Mann, Paul J; Becker, Kris J; Beck, Andrew W; Mittlefehldt, David; Li, Jian-Yang; Gaskell, Robert; Russell, Christopher T; Gaffey, Michael J; McSween, Harry Y; McCord, Thomas B; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Blewett, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft observations of asteroid (4) Vesta reveal a surface with the highest albedo and color variation of any asteroid we have observed so far. Terrains rich in low albedo dark material (DM) have been identified using Dawn Framing Camera (FC) 0.75 {\\mu}m filter images in several geologic settings: associated with impact craters (in the ejecta blanket material and/or on the crater walls and rims); as flow-like deposits or rays commonly associated with topographic highs; and as dark spots (likely secondary impacts) nearby impact craters. This DM could be a relic of ancient volcanic activity or exogenic in origin. We report that the majority of the spectra of DM are similar to carbonaceous chondrite meteorites mixed with materials indigenous to Vesta. Using high-resolution seven color images we compared DM color properties (albedo, band depth) with laboratory measurements of possible analog materials. Band depth and albedo of DM are identical to those of carbonaceous chondrite xenolith-rich howar...

  14. Layer silicates in a chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Analytical electron microscopy on individual grains from a portion of a chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle (aggregate W7029C1 from the NASA Johnson Space Center Cosmic Dust Collection) shows that layer silicates compose 50 percent of the silicate fraction examined. These layer silicates can be classified into two distinct crystallochemical groups: (1) fine-grained, polycrystalline smectite minerals; and (2) well-ordered, single crystals of kaolinite and Mg-poor talc. The layer silicates in this portion of sample W7029(asterisk)A are dissimilar to those described in other chondritic porous aggregates. The predominant layer silicate assemblage in W7029(asterisk)A indicates that heating of the aggregate during atmospheric entry was brief and probably to a temperature less than 300 C. Comparison with terrestrial phyllosilicate occurrences suggests that some layer silicates in aggregate W7029(asterisk)A may have been formed by alteratiton from preexisting silicate minerals at low temperatures (less than 25 C) after aggregate formation.

  15. Exposure history of the Sutter's Mill carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Hamajima, Y.; Reedy, R. C.; Welten, K. C.

    2014-11-01

    The Sutter's Mill (SM) carbonaceous chondrite fell in California on April 22, 2012. The cosmogenic radionuclide data indicate that Sutter's Mill was exposed to cosmic rays for 0.082 ± 0.008 Myr, which is one of the shortest ages for C chondrites, but overlaps with a small cluster at approximately 0.1 Myr. The age is significantly longer than proposed ages that were obtained from cosmogenic noble gas concentrations, which have large uncertainties due to trapped noble gas corrections. The presence of neutron-capture 60Co and 36Cl in SM indicates a minimum preatmospheric radius of approximately 50 cm, and is consistent with a radius of 1-2 m, as derived from the fireball observations. Although a large preatmospheric size was proposed, one fragment (SM18) contains solar cosmic ray-produced short-lived radionuclides, such as 56Co and 51Cr. This implies that this specimen was less than 2 cm from the preatmospheric surface of Sutter's Mill. Although this conclusion seems surprising, it is consistent with the observation that the meteoroid fragmented high in the atmosphere. The presence of SCR-produced nuclides is consistent with the high SCR fluxes observed during the last few months before the meteorite's fall, when its orbit was less than 1 AU from the Sun.

  16. Ce isotope abundance in chondritic and HED meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Asahara, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Lee, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    138La, 136Ce and 138Ce are p-process nuclides, and their isotopic abundances are generally low due to their modes of nucleosynthesis compared with other isotopes of La and Ce (139La, 140Ce and 142Ce). Tanimizu et al. (2004) mentioned that, using the 140Ce/142Ce ratio as the normalizing value, 136Ce isotope abundance could be acted as an indicator of p-process nuclide anomaly for extra-terrestrial materials to understand the nucleosynthetic origins of solar system matter. Then, meteoritic primordial composition of Ce isotope provides useful information related with 138La decay system. Especially, combined Ce/Nd isotope data in geological and cosmological materials enable us the modeling of the light REE profiles of the source material. We measured Ce isotope ratio for fifteen meteorites, using 140Ce/142Ce=7.941 as the normalizing value, in order to compare Ce isotope abundance between chondritic and HED meteorites. Of them, Ce isotope abundances from two chondritic meteorites were deviated from the average abundances of other 13 meteorites. In this report, we will discuss cosmochemical significance of Ce isotope anomaly.

  17. Plausible asteroidal analogs for enstatite chondrites and mesosiderites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Brunetto, R.; Binzel, R. P.; Perron, C.; Fulvio, D.; Strazzulla, G.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2009-04-01

    We present new irradiation experiments performed on the enstatite chondrite Eagle (EL6) and the mesosiderite Vaca Muerta. These experiments were performed with the aims of (a) quantifying the spectral effect of the solar wind on their parent asteroid surfaces and (b) identifying their parent bodies within the asteroid belt. For Vaca Muerta we observe a reddening and darkening of the reflectance spectrum with progressive irradiation, consistent with what is observed in the cases of silicates and silicate-rich meteorites such as OCs and HEDs. For Eagle we observe little spectral variation, and therefore we do not expect to observe a significant spectral difference between EC meteorites and their parent bodies. We evaluated possible parent bodies for both meteorites by comparing their VNIR spectra (before and after irradiation) with those of ~400 main-belt asteroids. We found that 21 Lutetia (Rosetta's forthcoming fly-by target) and 97 Klotho have physical properties compatible with those of enstatite chondrite meteorites while 201 Penelope, 250 Bettina and 337 Devosa are compatible with the properties of mesosiderites.

  18. The Oro Grande, New Mexico, chondrite and its lithic inclusion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fodor, R. V.; Keil, K.; Jarosewich, E.

    1972-01-01

    The Oro Grande, New Mexico, U.S.A., chondrite was found in 1971. Electron microprobe analyses and microscopic examination show the following mineralogy: olivine (Fa 19.3 mole %), orthopyroxene (Fs 16.2 mole %), diopside, feldspar (An 13.6 mole %), chlorapatite, whitlockite, kamacite, taenite, troilite, chromite, and an iron-bearing terrestrial weathering product. A bulk chemical analysis of the meteorite shows the following results (weight %): Fe 0.84, Ni 1.46, Co 0.07, FeS 3.62, SiO2 34.18, TiO2 0.14, Al2O3 1.83, Cr2O3 0.55, Fe2O3 21.25, FeO 9.13, MnO 0.31, MgO 21.52, CaO 1.72, Na2O 0.70, K2O 0.08, P2O5 0.25, H2O(+) 2.14, H2O(-) 0.40, C 0.22, sum 100.41. On the basis of composition and texture the Oro Grande meteorite is classified as an H5 chondrite.

  19. Density, porosity, and magnetic susceptibility of carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macke, Robert J.; Consolmagno, Guy J.; Britt, Daniel T.

    2011-12-01

    We report physical properties (bulk and grain density, magnetic susceptibility, and porosity) measured using nondestructive and noncontaminating methods for 195 stones from 63 carbonaceous chondrites. Grain densities over the whole population average 3.44 g cm-3, ranging from 2.42 g cm-3 (CI1 Orgueil) to 5.66 g cm-3 (CB Bencubbin). Magnetic susceptibilities (in log units of 10-9 m3 kg-1) averaged log ? = 4.22, ranging from 3.23 (CV3 Axtell) to 5.79 (CB Bencubbin). Porosities averaged 17%, ranging from 0 (for a number of meteorites) to 41% (for one stone of the CO Ornans). Notably, we found significant differences in porosity between the oxidized and reduced CV subgroups, with the porosities of CVo averaging approximately 20% and CVr porosities approximately 4%. Overall, porosities of carbonaceous chondrite falls trend with petrographic type, from type 1 (CI) near 35%, type 2 (CM, CR) averaging 23%, type 3 (CV, CO) 21%, to type 4 (CK and some CO) averaging 15%. There is also a significant decrease in porosity between meteorites of shock stage S1 and those of S2, indicative of shock compression.

  20. Raman Spectra of Orthopyroxene in Two Natural Shocked H Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Xie, X.

    1992-07-01

    Yanzhuang (H6) and Jilin (H5) are two chondrites subjected to impact processes in space. The highest pressure and temperature of collision experienced by the Jilin was about 20 GPa and 500 degrees C (1), and that by the Yanzhuang was >100 GPa and 2000 degrees C (2). The shock effects of the orthopyroxenes (mostly bronzite) have been investigated by means of Raman microprobe spectra, using Jobin Yvon U-1000 system with an incident 488 nm green laser light. Raman spectra of orthopyroxenes collected from the two chondrites are shown in Fig. 1. For orthopyroxene of the Jilin, a very intense band near 1010 cm^-1, three intense bands in range of 660682 cm^-1 and 338 cm^-1 are shown. For orthopyroxene of the Yanzhuang bands in 1116 cm^-1, 1010 cm^-1, 800-850 cm^-1, 660-682 cm^-1 and 334 cm^-1 are revealed. The 1116 cm^-1 and 800-850 cm^-1 bands are two new-found Raman bands which did not appear in the orthopyroxenes of Jilin and other chondrites. The features of Raman spectra of orthopyroxenes in the Jilin are similar to those of unshocked orthopyroxene. The band near 1010 cm^-1 corresponds to symmetric stretching vibration of the Si-O Tetrahedron with two bridging oxygen. The bands in 660-682 cm^-1 are associated with the presence of inter-tetrahedral Si-O-Si linkages. These features show that, for moderately shocked Jilin chondrite (20 GPa and 500 degrees C), the crystal structure of orthopyroxene remains intact. The bands near 1050-1100 cm^-1 and 800-850 cm^-1 found in the Yanzhuang are attributed to symmetric stretching vibrations of Si-O Tetrahedron with respectively one and four non-bridging oxygen (3). Therefore, the presence of the two new bands indicates the crystal structure of orthopyroxene had been severely damaged due to very intense shock event (>100 GPa and 2000 degrees C). Here, we deduce that (a) The bridging oxygen in some Si-O Tetrahedron chains had been broken and some isolated Si-O Tetrahedron with four non-bridging oxygen was formed. In Raman spectra, the damaged structure is reflected by a broad band in 800-850 cm^-1. (b) Some SiO Tetrahedron are highly polymerized into network structure--a shock melt glass. In Raman spectra, the glass structure is reflected by the intense band at 1100 cm^-1. References: (1) XIE Xiande et al. (1991) Chinese Journal of Geochemistry Vol.10, 109-119. (2) CHEN Ming and XIE Xiande (1992), Acta Mineralogical Sinica, in press. (3) Paul McMillan (1984), America Mineralogist, Vol.69, 622-644. Figure 1, which in the hard copy appears here, shows Raman spectra of orthopyroxenes in the Jilin (A) and Yanzhuang (B) chondrite.

  1. Carbonaceous Chondrite-Rich Howardites; The Potential for Hydrous Lithologies on the HED Parent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrin, J. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Cartwright, J. A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Ross, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    Howardites, eucrites, and diogenites, collectively referred to as the "HED's", are a clan of meteorites thought to represent three different lithologies from a common parent body. Collectively they are the most abundant type of achondrites in terrestrial collections. Eucrites are crustal basalts and gabbros, diogenites are mostly orthopyroxenites and are taken to represent lower crust or upper mantle materials, and howardites are mixed breccias containing both lithologies and are generally regarded as derived from the regolith or near-surface. The presence of exogenous chondritic material in howardite breccias has long been recognized. As a group, howardites exhibit divergence in bulk chemistry from what would be produced by mixing of diogenite and eucrite end-members exclusively, a phenomenon most evident in elevated concentrations of siderophile elements. Despite this chemical evidence for chondritic input in howardite breccias, chondritic clasts have only been identified in a minority of samples, and typically at levels of only a few percent. Three recent Antarctic howardite finds, the paired Mt. Pratt (PRA) 04401 and PRA 04402 and Scott Glacier (SCO) 06040, are notable for their high proportion of carbonaceous chondrite clasts. PRA 04401 is particularly well-endowed, with large chondritic clasts occupying more than half of the modal area of the sections we examined. Previously only a few percent chondritic clasts had been observed to occur in howardites. PRA 04401 is the most chondrite-rich howardite known

  2. Localized Chemical Redistribution During Aqueous Alteration in CR2 Carbonaceous Chondrites EET 87770 and EET 92105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Paul V.; Brearley, Adrian J.

    2005-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are primitive meteorites that are valuable because they preserve evidence of processes that occurred in the solar nebula and on asteroidal parent bodies. Among the carbonaceous chondrite groups, the CR group appears to contain a particularly pristine record of early solar system processes. Distinguishing characteristics of CR2 chondrites include a high abundance of chondrules (50-60 vol.%) and Fe, Ni metal (5-8 vol. %). These meteorites preserve evidence for varying degrees of aqueous alteration, manifested by progressive replacement of chondrule mesostasis by phyllosilicates. Recent studies have suggested that even in weakly altered chondrites, mass transfer occurred between chondrules and fine-grained matrices, implying that aqueous alteration must have followed lithification of the final meteorite parent body. Although petrographic characteristics of alteration in CR chondrites have been documented, mechanisms of alteration are still only poorly understood. For example, the relative rates and scales of elemental mobility as well as the sources and sinks for key elements are currently not constrained. An improved knowledge of these issues will contribute to an increased understanding of aqueous alteration reactions on meteorite parent bodies. This study expands on research conducted on Type IIA chondrules and chondrule fragments from two CR2 chondrites, EET 87770 and EET 92105. These chondrites have been weakly altered; chondrule mesostases show incipient alteration primarily where they are in direct contact with fine-grained matrices.

  3. Solving Ordinary Differential Equations by Simplex Integrals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongxiong Zhou; Shuhuang Xiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the proper discrete solution for ordinary differential equations, especially to oscillating solution.\\u000a In contrast to Lipschitz condition, we define a new condition following that \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a |ò<\\/font\\u000a>t0t1f(t)dt| £<\\/font\\u000a> Rmaxx<\\/font\\u000a>1,x<\\/font\\u000a>2 Î<\\/font\\u000a> [t0,t1] |<\\/font\\u000a>f(x<\\/font\\u000a>1)-<\\/font\\u000a>f(x<\\/font\\u000a>2)|<\\/font\\u000a>\\\\left|\\\\int_{t_{0}}^{t_{1}}f(t)dt\\\\right|\\\\leq R\\\\max\\\\limits_{\\\\xi_{1},\\\\xi_{2}\\\\in [t_{0},t_{1}]} |f(\\\\xi_{1})-f(\\\\xi_{2})|\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a with small R for all t\\u000a 0, t\\u000a 1 in the correlative

  4. Genetic Relationships Among Type I and II Chondrules and Matrix of Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagahara, H.

    1992-07-01

    It is now being accepted that chondrules were formed from pre- existing solids through complete or incomplete melting and that chondrules and fine-grained matrix materials were formed in oxidizing conditions where olivine solid solution was stable and not in the solar nebula of the average composition. As has been pointed out (e.g. 1-3), chondrules and matrix should have been genetically related because of constant bulk composition of chondrites in spite of various chondrule/matrix ratios. The recently calculated phase diagram of the olivine solid solution system (4) well explains their genetic relationships. At pressures above the triple point of forsterite (4x10^-4 bar, 1890 degrees C), the phase diagrams are the same as that at 1 bar. At pressures between the triple points of forsterite and fayalite (5x10^-8 bar, 1205 degrees C), liquid-bearing fields lie below the gas and solid field in the Fe-rich portion of the system. At pressures below the triple point of fayalite, the phase diagram has a gas-solid loop with a large Mg/Fe difference between coexisting solid and gas (5). X(sub)Mg of chondrules in ordinary chondrites ranges from 0.7 to 0.95 and that in carbonaceous chondrites from 0.5 to 1.0, and mostly between 0.8 and 0.90 for both C and O chondrites. Although chondrules are of multi-component, their compositions can be roughly shown by the olivine system. At pressures of 10^-4-10^-5 bar, olivine (X(sub)Mg<0.9) melts to become magnesian olivine and iron-rich liquid when heated, and X(sub)Mg of olivine and liquid are not so largely different. In this case, vaporization hardly takes place because olivine and liquid are below the vaporous curves of the system. Type I were formed in such a condition. At higher temperatures or lower pressures, liquid is not stable and highly magnesian olivine and gas with highly ferrous olivine composition are stable. Vaporization of the fayalite component takes place in this condition, resulted in remaining highly magnesian olivine. Therefore, Type II were formed at higher temperature or lower pressure than Type I. The present model does not require reduction for the formation of Type I (3,6). Difference in pressure is due to the degree of enrichment of the dust component relative to hydrogen gas. This model is consistent with the facts that (a) olivines in Type I chondrules are weakly zoned but those in Type II are strongly zoned, (b) liquid (groundmass of chondrules) in Type I is essentially FeO-free of which Mg/Fe distribution between olivine and liquid is often smaller than equilibrium value, but liquid in Type II is rich in FeO of which Mg/Fe distribution is in equilibrium, and (c) liquid in Type I chondrules are rich in refractory elements (Al, Ca, Ti, and Cr) but that in Type II is rich in mildly volatile elements (Fe, Mn, and alkalis) (6,7). Presence of alkalis in some Type I chondrules may be due to phase diagram of complex systems. Matrix olivine (mainly Fo(sub)50) are thought to be condensates from gas originated from partial evaporation of the olivine component at high temperatures responsible for formation of Type I chondrules. Condensation of iron-rich olivine from gas with iron-rich olivine composition has been experimentally shown (8). This model well explains the fine- grained but euhedral nature of matrix olivine. References: (1) Anders, E. (1987) Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A323, 287-304. (2) Nagahara, H. (1990) Meteoritics 25, 389-390. (3) Grossman, J. N. (1991) Meteoritics 26, 340-341. (4) Nagahara, H. et al. (1992) LPSC XXIII, 959-960. (5) Nagahara, H. et al. (1991) Meteoritics 26, 376. (6) Jones, R. (1990) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 54, 1785-1802. (7) Jones, R. (1989) Proc. 19th Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., 523-536. (8) Nagahara, H. et al. (1989) Nature, 315, 516-518.

  5. Composition of Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (214869) 2007 PA8: An H Chondrite from the Outer Asteroid Belt

    E-print Network

    Sanchez, Juan A; Dykhuis, Melissa; Lindsay, Sean; Corre, Lucille Le

    2015-01-01

    Potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) represent a unique opportunity for physical characterization during their close approaches to Earth. The proximity of these asteroids makes them accessible for sample-return and manned missions, but could also represent a risk for life on Earth in the event of collision. Therefore, a detailed mineralogical analysis is a key component in planning future exploration missions and developing appropriate mitigation strategies. In this study we present near-infrared spectra (0.7-2.55 microns) of PHA (214869) 2007 PA8 obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility during its close approach to Earth on November 2012. The mineralogical analysis of this asteroid revealed a surface composition consistent with H ordinary chondrites. In particular, we found that the olivine and pyroxene chemistries of 2007 PA8 are Fa18(Fo82) and Fs16, respectively. The olivine-pyroxene abundance ratio was estimated to be 47%. This low olivine abundance and the measured band parameters, close to t...

  6. High Possil and Strathmore - A study of two L6 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevan, A. W. R.; Hutchison, R.; Easton, A. J.; Durant, G. P.; Farrow, C. M.

    1985-09-01

    The results of bulk chemical analyses, electron microprobe analyses and petrographic and metallographic studies of the oldest and the last meteorites known to have fallen in Scotland are reported. The first object fell in 1804 and the last in 1917. The olivine compositions and Fe fractions identified the objects as L-group chondrites. Abundant plagioclase feldspar designated the chondrites in the petrologic type-6 category. Both objects were judged to have been heavily shocked, and displayed evidence of metal and troilite melting, the first such occurrence ever recorded in an L-chondrite. The melting is judged to have happened in the temperature range 800-1000 C.

  7. Composition of matrix in the CR chondrite LAP 02342

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.; Rubin, Alan E.

    2009-03-01

    We report evidence of interchondrule matrix heterogeneity on a scale of ˜50 ?m in the well-preserved CR2 chondrite LAP 02342. Despite minor effects resulting from asteroidal aqueous alteration, the matrix in this CR chondrite seems to preserve much of the compositional record of nebular fines. We carried out electron-microprobe studies using a 3-?m-diameter beam; we analyzed 10 elements in 36- or 49-point grids on 11 ca. 50 × 50-?m rectangular areas of matrix. Each grid area has a distinct composition, inconsistent with a simple model of matrix material having a uniform composition throughout the nebular formation region of the CR chondrites. On S-Fe, Mg-Si, K-Na and K-Al scatter diagrams, the grid areas (i.e., different matrix patches) are largely separated from each other; plots of means with 95% confidence limits demonstrate that the compositions are resolvable. Five matrix areas were analyzed again in duplicate runs; excellent agreement was observed between duplicate studies. LAP 02342 experienced two forms of mild aqueous alteration - as patchy enrichments in Ca (inferred to reflect CaCO 3) and as regions in which sulfide laths are embedded within phyllosilicates. Despite this evidence of aqueous transport, the effect on the composition of matrix is not resolvable. For example, matrix points that were adjacent to points with high CaCO 3 contents show elemental concentrations similar to those in regions having only one or two points with a Ca enrichment. It appears that secondary minerals are found in areas where there are suitable precursor phases and voids into which new phases could grow unimpeded. Calcium appears to be unique in forming a phase that greatly lowers the Ca ++ content of the aqueous medium, thus enhancing the rate of diffusion. Because chondrules vary widely in bulk composition, the formation of chondrules in small sets (100 or less) could generate "smoke" and mesostasis spray with compositions unique to each set. However, if these nanoparticles were moving independently in the nebula, it would not have been possible to have preserved compositional variations. We therefore infer that the anomalous materials were preserved in small nebular structures, probably as porous chondrules formed by low degrees of melting.

  8. Fine-grained aggregates in L3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, S.; Kitamura, M.; Morimoto, N.

    1987-12-01

    The textures and chemical compositions of the constituent minerals of the fine-grained aggregates (FGAs) of L3 chondrites were studied by the backscattered electron image technique, electron probe microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Plagioclase and glass in the interstices between fine grains of olivine and pyroxene indicate that the FGAs once partly melted. Compositional zoning and decomposition texture of pyroxenes are similar to those observed in chondrules, indicating a common cooling history of the FGAs and chondrules. Therefore, the mechanism that caused melting of the FGAs is considered to be the same as for chondrules. Bulk compositions of the FGAs are within the range of those of chondrules, so some chondrules probably were produced by complete melting of the same precursor materials as those of the FGAs. The precursor materials must have included fine olivine and other grains that probably are condensates.

  9. Composition and origin of enstatite in E chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, S. G.; Scott, E. R. D.; Keil, K.

    1984-02-01

    A petrologic and electron-probe study of enstatite in six EH3, 4, and 5 chondrites, including the previously undescribed Allan Hills A77156, provides no support for Leitch and Smith's (1982) model in which crystals and liquids from two chemically distinct, partially molten planetesimals are mixed. It is found that Cr and Mn concentrations in enstatite grains in matrix and chondrules are not uniquely defined by their cathodoluminescence color. Wide variations in enstatite compositions among chondrules may partly reflect heterogeneities in the precursor material. However, correlated variations of Cr, Mn, and Fe concentrations in enstatite are probably largely due to fractionation during chondrule crystallization. The inverse correlation of petrologic type with minor element concentrations in enstatite appears to be a metamorphic effect.

  10. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in Recently Fallen Chondrites Mihonoseki and Tahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, M.; Honda, M.; Yabuki, S.; Takahashi, K.

    1993-07-01

    Introduction: The chondrite Mihonoseki, L6, 6.38 kg, fell on December 10, 1992 [1]. The other chondrite, Tahara, fell on March 26, 1991, on the deck of car- carrier ship, M.S. Century-Highway No.1 of Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha Ltd., anchored at T-3 berth of Toyota Pier, at Toyohashi harbor, in Tahara-Center, Toyota Motor Corp., Tahara-machi, Atsumi-gun, Aichi-ken, Japan. Although the total mass is estimated to be more than 5 kg, only several fragments were recovered by crews. In fact, this was recognized by the event of Mihonoseki. Tahara was classified as H5 [2]. Gamma-Ray Counting: With whole mass of Mihonoseki, nondestructive gamma-ray countings started on December 15, 1992, using a pure Ge detector (ORTEC), 45 mm x 39 mm, horizontal type. Data collections were performed every day in the beginning and later about every week through February 3, 1993. A sample chamber was shielded with 15-cm-thick lead, 6-cm-thick iron, and 0.5-cm-thick plastic plates. For Tahara, another set (Canberra), 44 mm x 42 mm, coaxial type, was used. The 420-g fragment was mounted in the sample chamber shielded with 15-cm-thick lead, 2-cm-thick iron, 2-cm-thick copper, and 2-cm-thick plastic plates. The counting started in January 1993. The counting efficiencies for gamma rays as a function of energy, ranging between 122 keV (57Co) and 1809 keV (26Al), have been determined using three different standards. A mixed standard solution of nine-species gamma-ray emitters, QCY-44, reference time 12:00 GMT on February 1, 1993, was supplied from Amersham, England. The solution was dropped onto (1) chips of Al-foil, (2) chips of filter paper, or (3) olivine sand. Those standards were mixed thoroughly with mock materials, fine and coarse olivine sand and iron powder, and reagent KCl, standard for 40K, then filled into mock shells of Mihonoseki and Tahara, which were made of hard plastic and aluminum foil with epoxy resin, respectively. For Tahara, mocks with all three types of standards were examined for comparison, while for Mihonoseki only (3) was used. The difficulty was to prepare a suitable mock sample having the same density as chondrites 3.5. Especially for a large sample like Mihonoseki, even when we use about equal fractions of olivine sand and metallic iron, the weight of the mock was about 80%, and when we intend to obtain heavier than 90%, we have to use a larger portion of metallic iron, which causes some reductions in the efficiencies of 20-30%, depending on energies. Results: The contents of 14 gamma emitters were studied as shown in the Table (which appears in the hard copy). Errors quoted are only from counting statistics. The most striking may be to learn that Mihonoseki contains a very low level of 60Co; the content is lower than 1 dpm/kg, which could not be determined accurately by a current-direct gamma counting. This reflects the smaller preatmospheric size of the body, and consistent with other observations such as 22Ne/21Ne = 1.180 [1] and lower activity levels of general products such as 46 dpm 26Al/kg, which is about three-fourths of a common level among L chondrites. Besides, relatively high 56Co in respect to 58Co is also noticed in Mihonoseki. References: [1] Shima M. et al.(1993) LPSC XXIV 1297-1298. [2] Shima M. et al.(1993) Meteoritical Bull., in press.

  11. Nullarbor 018: A new L6 chondrite from Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzicka, Alex

    1995-01-01

    A new meteorite find from the Nullarbor Plain in Australia was studied using optical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron microprobe techniques. The meteorite, Nullarbor 018, is an orthodox L6 chondrite that experienced minor-to-moderate alteration of metal during terrestrial weathering (grade A-B to B). During weathering, trolite was preferentially altered, and roughly 20% of the original complement of S in the meteorite was removed. Shock metamorphic effects corresponding to shock stage S4 (or shock facies d) are found, including the presence of some diaplectic feldspar (maskelynite). The meteorite is not obviously paired with other finds from the Nullarbor region, but the possibility that it is paired cannot be excluded.

  12. Natural Remanent Magnetization in LL6 St. Severin Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Kim, W.; Doh, S.; Min, K.

    2008-12-01

    The natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of LL6 St. Severin chondrite is extremely stable against the alternating-field (AF) demagnetization. Approximately half of the NRM remained undemagnetized even at the highest available peak AF of 100 mT. A suite of rock magnetic tests, low-temperature saturation isothermal remanence cycling, microscopic observations, and electron microprobe analyses were carried out on rock chips and mineral separates of St. Severin. We found that St. Severin contained three different opaque phases: Kamacite, Tetrataenite, Troilite. Kamacite dominantly existed as inclusions within Ca-rich pyroxene. On the other hand, Tetrataenite and Troilite were distributed along the cracked boundaries of silicate minerals. Because Troilite is non-magnetic, abundance of Tetrataenite may suggest that a slowly cooled St. Severin recorded chemical remanent magnetization from the first place. Then, it is likely that a later shock- induced high pressure reset the earlier remanent magnetization, resulting in a remagnetization of St. Severin.

  13. Search for Organic Nanoglobules in Carbonaceous Chondrites Using Microtomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Zolensky, M. E.; Nakano, T.; Uesugi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Primitive solar materials have various organic matters. In recent years, novel organic materials called organic nanoglobules of a few hundred micrometers in typical size were discovered in carbonaceous chondrites, IDPs, and comet 81P/Wild 2. The organic globules are spherical shape and in many cases with hollow structures. Composition of the globules are mainly aromatic carbon. The isotopic anomalies of SD and 6N 15 observed in the globules indicate that they were formed from photochemical reaction to ice particles at very low temperature environment, such as molecular clouds or outer protosolar disk. Aqueous alteration of organic matters and the gamma-ray irradiation to PAH are also suggested as alternative possible formation processes. If the globules are made from organic ice particles, the hollow regions of the globules are suggested to be once filled with volatile H20-rich organic ices, while if they were formed by aqueous alteration, the hollow regions should be filled with a fluid which caused the aqueous alteration. However, fluids in the globules have not been detected so far in the previous studies. If fluids were originally preserved in the hollows, they might be lost during destructive processes of sample separation or preparation for TEM observation. X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a nondestructive method which can determine 3-D internal structures of objects. SR (synchrotron radiation)-based imaging microtomography can give submicron spatial resolution [8] and was applied to micro textures in extraterrestrial materials, such as cometary grains captured by the Stardust mission [9]. If organic globules are observed non-destructively in carbonaceous chondrites by tomography, we can check the presence of fluids in the hollows. If fluids are preserved, we may analyze chemical and isotopic compositions of the fluids. The purpose of this study is to observe organic nanoglobules using imaging tomography for future analysis.

  14. STARDUST INVESTIGATION INTO THE CR CHONDRITE GROVE MOUNTAIN 021710

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Xuchao; Lin Yangting [Key Laboratory of the Earth's Deep Interior, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Beituchengxi Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Floss, Christine [Laboratory for Space Sciences and Physics Department, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Bose, Maitrayee, E-mail: linyt@mail.igcas.ac.cn [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871604, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    We report the presolar grain inventory of the CR chondrite Grove Mountain 021710. A total of 35 C-anomalous grains ({approx}236 ppm) and 112 O-anomalous grains ({approx}189 ppm) were identified in situ using NanoSIMS ion imaging. Of 35 C-anomalous grains, 28 were determined to be SiC grains by Auger spectroscopy. Seven of the SiC grains were subsequently measured for N and Si isotopes, allowing classification as one nova grain, one Y grain, one Z grain, and four mainstream grains. Eighty-nine out of 112 O-anomalous grains belong to Group 1, indicating origins in low-to-intermediate-mass red giant and asymptotic giant branch stars. Twenty-one are Group 4 grains and have origins in supernovae. Auger spectroscopic elemental measurements of 35 O-anomalous grains show that 33 of them are ferromagnesian silicates. They have higher Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios than those reported in other meteorites, suggesting a lower degree of alteration in the nebula and/or asteroid parent bodies. Only two oxide grains were identified, with stoichiometric compositions of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and SiO{sub 2}, respectively. The presolar silicate/oxide ratio of GRV 021710 is comparable with those of the CR3 chondrites (QUE 99177 and MET 00426) and primitive interplanetary dust particles. In order to search for presolar sulfides, the meteorite was also mapped for S isotopes. However, no presolar sulfides were found, suggesting a maximum abundance of 2 ppm. The scarcity of presolar sulfides may be due to their much faster sputtering rate by cosmic rays compared to silicates.

  15. A proposition for the classification of carbonaceous chondritic micrometeorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Classification of interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) should be unambiguous and, if possible, provide an opportunity to interrelate these ultrafine IDP's with the matrices of undifferentiated meteorites. I prefer a scheme of chemical groupings and petrologic classes that is based on primary IDP properties that can be determined without prejudice by individual investigators. For IDP's of 2-50 microns these properties are bulk elemental chemistry, morphology, shape, and optical properties. The two major chemical groups are readily determined by energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis using the scanning or analytical electron microscope. Refinement of chondritic IDP classification is possible using the dominant mineral species, e.g. olivine, pyroxene, and layer silicates, and is readily inferred from FTIR, and automated chemical analysis. Petrographic analysis of phyllosilicate-rich IDP's will identify smectite-rich and serpentine-rich particles. Chondritic IDP's are also classified according to morphology, viz., CP and CF IDP's are aggregate particles that differ significantly in porosity, while the dense CS IDP's have a smooth surface. The CP IDP's are characterized by an anhydrous silicate mineralogy, but small amounts of layer silicates may be present. Distinction between the CP and CF IDP's is somewhat ambiguous, but the unique CP IDP's are fluffy, or porous, ultrafine-grained aggregates. The CP IDP's, which may contain silicate whiskers, are the most carbon-rich extraterrestrial material presently known. The CF IDP's are much less porous that CP IDP's. Using particle type definitions, CP IDP's in the NASA JSC Cosmic Dust Catalogs are approx. 15 percent of all IDP's that include nonchondritic spheres. Most aggregate particles are of the CF type.

  16. Deuterium-Hydrogen Exchange Kinetics: Implications for Early Chemical Evolution of Chondritic Insoluble Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebukawa, Y.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-03-01

    We report D-H exchange kinetics obtained using laboratory synthesized organic polymers, in order to evaluate the D-H exchange between D enriched organic polymers and D depleted water. Our results explain well the known chondritic ?D values.

  17. Parent Bodies of Differentiated Meteorites: Impact Histories and Relationships with Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Goldstein, J. I.

    2013-10-01

    Ureilites, mesosiderites, the Shallowater aubrite, and main group pallasites all provide evidence for early destruction of differentiated planetesimals, possibly inside two AU. Evidence for chondritic crusts on differentiated planetesimals is lacking.

  18. Microscale oxygen isotopic exchange and magnetite formation in the Ningqiang anomalous carbonaceous chondrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byeon-Gak Choi; John T. Wasson

    2003-01-01

    We report in situ measurements of O-isotopic compositions of magnetite, olivine and pyroxene in chondrules of the Ningqiang anomalous carbonaceous chondrite. The petrographic setting of Ningqiang magnetite is similar to those in oxidized-CV chondrites such as Allende, where magnetite is found together with Ni-rich metal and sulfide in opaque assemblages in chondrules. Both magnetite and silicate oxygen data fall close

  19. Textural evidence bearing on the origin of isolated olivine crystals in C2 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, S. M.; Mcsween, H. Y., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    In some cases the mechanical competence of chondrules in carbonaceous chondrites has been reduced by alteration of their mesostasis glass to friable phyllosilicate, providing a mechanism by which euhedral olivines can be separated from chondrules. Morphological features of isolate olivine grains found in carbonaceous chondrites are similar to those of olivine phenocrysts in chondrules. These observations suggest that the isolated olivine grains formed in chondrules, by crystallization from a liquid, rather than by condensation from a vapor.

  20. The Osmium Isotopic Composition of Tagish Lake and Other Chondrites, Implications for Late Terrestrial Planetary Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this investigation are twofold. First, obtain high-precision Os isotope measurements of Tagish Lake and other chondrites by TIMS. Second, measure Re, Os, Pt, and other HSE concentrations by isotope dilution using TIMS and ICPMS. These measurements will determine whether this meteorite does in fact represent C-chondrite material with timeintegrated elevated Re/Os and Pt/Os with the implications to late accretion material characteristics.

  1. An oxidised non-chondritic early Earth with no hidden silicate reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Halliday; K. J. Zahnle

    2006-01-01

    It is well-established that the silicate Earth is non-chondritic in its Si\\/Mg ratio. Some of this may reflect core formation, but the total Earth is also non-chondritic in Mg\\/Fe. Late stage erosion of the outer portions of the Earth or its constituent proto-planets, as is thought to have affected Mercury, could, in principle, produce some such effects, as well as

  2. Noble-Gas Distribution in the Murchison, Murray, Nogoya and Yamato791198 CM Chondrites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Nakamura; K. Metzler; K. Nagao; N. Takaoka

    1996-01-01

    Laser-spot analysis was carried out on the Murchison, Murray, Nogoya, and Yamato (Y)-791198 CM chondrites in order to see microdistribution of noble gases. Primordial noble gases are rich in rims around chondrules in the four meteorites. This suggests that large fractions of the primordial noble-gas carrier phases in the CM chondrites might have accreted on chondrules prior to formation of

  3. On the Behavior of Phosphorus During the Aqueous Alteration of CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, Adrian J.; Chizmadia, Lysa J.

    2005-01-01

    During the earliest period of solar system formation, water played an important role in the evolution of primitive dust, both after accretion of planetesimals and possible before accretion within the protoplanetary disk. Many chondrites show evidence of variable degrees of aqueous alteration, the CM2 chondrites being among the most studied [1]. This group of chondrites is characterized by mineral assemblages of both primary and secondary alteration phases. Hence, these meteorites retain a particularly important record of the reactions that occurred between primary high temperature nebular phases and water. Studies of these chondrites can provide information on the conditions and environments of aqueous alteration and the mobility of elements during alteration. This latter question is at the core of a debate concerning the location of aqueous alteration, i.e. whether alteration occurred predominantly within a closed system after accretion (parent body alteration) or whether some degree of alteration occurred within the solar nebula or on ephemeral protoplanetary bodies prior to accretion. At the core of the parent body alteration model is the hypothesis that elemental exchange between different components, principally chondrules and matrix, must have occurred. chondrules and matrix, must have occurred. In this study, we focus on the behavior of the minor element, phosphorus. This study was stimulated by observations of the behavior of P during the earliest stages of alteration in glassy mesostasis in type II chondrules in CR chondrites and extends the preliminary observations of on Y791198 to other CM chondrites.

  4. Thulium anomalies and rare earth element patterns in meteorites and Earth: Nebular fractionation and the nugget effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphas, Nicolas; Pourmand, Ali

    2015-08-01

    This study reports the bulk rare earth element (REEs, La-Lu) compositions of 41 chondrites, including 32 falls and 9 finds from carbonaceous (CI, CM, CO and CV), enstatite (EH and EL) and ordinary (H, L and LL) groups, as well as 2 enstatite achondrites (aubrite). The measurements were done in dynamic mode using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (MC-ICPMS), allowing precise quantification of mono-isotopic REEs (Pr, Tb, Ho and Tm). The CI-chondrite-normalized REE patterns (LaN/LuN; a proxy for fractionation of light vs. heavy REEs) and Eu anomalies in ordinary and enstatite chondrites show more scatter in more metamorphosed (petrologic types 4-6) than in unequilibrated (types 1-3) chondrites. This is due to parent-body redistribution of the REEs in various carrier phases during metamorphism. A model is presented that predicts the dispersion of elemental and isotopic ratios due to the nugget effect when the analyzed sample mass is limited and elements are concentrated in minor grains. The dispersion in REE patterns of equilibrated ordinary chondrites is reproduced well by this model, considering that REEs are concentrated in 200 ?m-size phosphates, which have high LaN/LuN ratios and negative Eu anomalies. Terrestrial rocks and samples from ordinary and enstatite chondrites display negative Tm anomalies of ?-4.5% relative to CI chondrites. In contrast, CM, CO and CV (except Allende) show no significant Tm anomalies. Allende CV chondrite shows large excess Tm (?+10%). These anomalies are similar to those found in group II refractory inclusions in meteorites but of much smaller magnitude. The presence of Tm anomalies in meteorites and terrestrial rocks suggests that either (i) the material in the inner part of the solar system was formed from a gas reservoir that had been depleted in refractory dust and carried positive Tm anomalies or (ii) CI chondrites are enriched in refractory dust and are not representative of solar composition for refractory elements. A new reference composition relevant to inner solar system bodies (CI?) is calculated by subtracting 0.15% of group II refractory inclusions to CI. The observed Tm anomalies in ordinary and enstatite chondrites and terrestrial rocks, relative to carbonaceous chondrites, indicate that material akin to carbonaceous chondrites must have represented a small fraction of the constituents of the Earth. Tm anomalies may be correlated with Ca isotopic fractionation in bulk planetary materials as they are both controlled by addition or removal of refractory material akin to fine-grained group II refractory inclusions.

  5. LEW 88180, LEW 87119, and ALH 85119: New EH6, EL7, and EL4 Enstatite Chondrites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Zhang; P. H. Benoit; D. W. G. Sears

    1993-01-01

    The EH and EL chondrites formed in a uniquely reducing environment, containing low-Fe pyroxene, abundant metal, and a number of unusual sulphides and other minerals [1]. An important aspect of their history is that while the EL chondrites consist predominantly of metamorphosed meteorites, the EH consist primarily of little-metamorphosed meteorites (e.g., [2]), and yet EL chondrites have lower equilibrium temperatures

  6. The Effects of Parent Body Processes on Amino Acids in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of parent body processes on the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric composition of amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites, the water extracts from nine different powdered Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites were analyzed for amino acids by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-FD/ToF-MS). Four aqueously altered type 1 carbonaceous chondrites including Orgueil (C11), Meteorite Hills (MET) 01070 (CM1), Scott Glacier (SCO) 06043 (CM1), and Grosvenor Mountains (GRO) 95577 (CR1) were analyzed using this technique for the first time. Analyses of these meteorites revealed low levels of two- to five-carbon acyclic amino alkanoic acids with concentrations ranging from -1 to 2,700 parts-per-billion (ppb). The type 1 carbonaceous chondrites have a distinct distribution of the five-carbon (C5) amino acids with much higher relative abundances of the gamma- and delta-amino acids compared to the type 2 and type 3 carbonaceous chondrites, which are dominated by a-amino acids. Much higher amino acid abundances were found in the CM2 chondrites Murchison, Lonewolf Nunataks (LON) 94102, and Lewis Cliffs (LEW) 90500, the CR2 Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042, and the CR3 Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 99177. For example, a-aminoisobutyric acid ((alpha-AIB) and isovaline were approximately 100 to 1000 times more abundant in the type 2 and 3 chondrites compared to the more aqueously altered type 1 chondrites. Most of the chiral amino acids identified in these meteorites were racemic, indicating an extraterrestrial abiotic origin. However, non-racemic isovaline was observed in the aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites Murchison, Orgueil, SCO 06043, and GRO 95577 with L-isovaline excesses ranging from approximately 11 to 19%, whereas the most pristine, unaltered carbonaceous chondrites analyzed in this study had no detectable L-isovaline excesses. These results are consistent with the theory that aqueous alteration played an important role in amplification of small initial left handed isovaline excesses on the parent bodies.

  7. Morphological study of Insoluble Organic Matter from carbonaceous chondrites: Correlation with petrologic grade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changela, Hitesh G.

    2015-06-01

    The major form of organic material delivered to Earth from an extraterrestrial origin is Insoluble Organic Matter (IOM). A morphological study of IOM in the CR (Renazzo-type) and CM (Mighei-type) carbonaceous chondrites was performed in order to constrain its origins and processing history. IOM residues from the following CR chondrites: GRO 95577 (CR1), Al Rais (CR1/2), EET 92042 (CR2), QUE 99177 (CR3) and the CM chondrites: MET 01070 (CM2.2), Cold Bokkeveld (CM2.3), Murchison (CM2.4) and QUE 97990 (CM2.5) were studied using Annular Dark Field STEM imaging. Characteristic features of the IOM, organic nanoglobules, were manually identified and measured for their abundances and size distributions. The IOM residues were also compared holistically for their degree of average 'roughness' or 'coarsening' using fractal image analysis. Manually identified nanoglobules have abundances making up less than 10% of the total IOM, which is consistent with previous studies. Their measured abundances do not correlate with petrologic grade. Thus parent body processing did not systematically deplete their abundances. The IOM is however on average 'smoother' or 'coarser' in the more altered chondrites, demonstrated by a lower fractal dimension using fractal box counting (DB). The DB values for the IOM in the CR chondrites are distinctive: QUE 99177 has the largest DB value (average = 1.54 ± 0.004) and GRO 99577 has the lowest (average = 1.45 ± 0.011). Al Rais and EET 92042 have IOM with average DB values within this range (average, 1.46 ± 0.009 and 1.50 ± 0.006). The CMs record a similar but less distinctive trend in DB, with QUE 97990 having the largest value (1.52 ± 0.004), MET 01070 the lowest (1.45 ± 0.019), and Cold Bokkeveld (1.50 ± 0.011) and Murchison (1.49 ± 0.017) equivalent to one another within error. The identified nanoglobules in the IOM of the CM chondrites are on average larger than those in the CR chondrites. The 'coarsening' or 'smoother' texture of the IOM (lower DB) in the more altered chondrites coupled with a tentative increase in the size of large features (identified nanoglobules) demonstrates that the aqueous processes leading to the lower petrologic types also formed the overall IOM morphology. In addition, observations of fluid-like textures more frequently found in the more altered carbonaceous chondrite residues suggests that organic and aqueous fluids determined at least some of these morphologies. The polymerization of organic solutions is consistent with these morphologies. Their formation conditions are more favorable under the containment of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies.

  8. Ordinary Food Spaces in a Global City: Hong Kong

    E-print Network

    Blake, Megan Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    food consumption and food waste. She is currently working tothe food from the wholesale market, become waste once theirwaste-paper-hits-scavengers Accessed 17/1/2013. Blake, Megan Kathleen. “Ordinary Food

  9. Zoology of condensed matter: Framids, ordinary stuff, extra-ordinary stuff

    E-print Network

    Alberto Nicolis; Riccardo Penco; Federico Piazza; Riccardo Rattazzi

    2015-01-15

    We classify condensed matter systems in terms of the spacetime symmetries they spontaneously break. In particular, we characterize condensed matter itself as any state in a Poincar\\'e-invariant theory that spontaneously breaks Lorentz boosts while preserving at large distances some form of spatial translations, time-translations, and possibly spatial rotations. Surprisingly, the simplest, most minimal system achieving this symmetry breaking pattern---the "framid"---does not seem to be realized in Nature. Instead, Nature usually adopts a more cumbersome strategy: that of introducing internal translational symmetries---and possibly rotational ones---and of spontaneously breaking them along with their space-time counterparts, while preserving unbroken diagonal subgroups. This symmetry breaking pattern describes the infrared dynamics of ordinary solids, fluids, superfluids, and---if they exist---supersolids. A third, "extra-ordinary", possibility involves replacing these internal symmetries with other symmetries that do not commute with the Poincar\\'e group, for instance the galileon symmetry, supersymmetry or gauge symmetries. Among these options, we pick the systems based on the galileon symmetry, the "galileids", for a more detailed study. Despite some similarity, all different patterns produce truly distinct physical systems with different observable properties. For instance, the low-energy $2\\to 2$ scattering amplitudes for the Goldstone excitations in the cases of framids, solids and galileids scale respectively as $E^2$, $E^4$, and $E^6$. Similarly the energy momentum tensor in the ground state is "trivial" for framids ($\\rho +p=0$), normal for solids ($\\rho+p>0$) and even inhomogenous for galileids.

  10. Ar-40/Ar-39 Age of Hornblende-bearing R Chondrite LAP 04840

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Cosca, M.

    2014-01-01

    Chondrites have a complex chronology due to several variables affecting and operating on chondritic parent bodies such as radiogenic heating, pressure and temperature variation with depth, aqueous alteration, and shock or impact heating [1]. Unbrecciated chondrites can record ages from 4.56 to 4.4 Ga that represent cooling in small parent bodies. Some brecciated chondrites exhibit younger ages (<<4 to 4.4 Ga) that may reflect the age of brecciation, disturbance, or shock and impact events (<< 4 Ga). A unique R chondrite was recently found in the LaPaz Icefield of Antarctica - LAP 04840 [2]. This chondrite contains approx.15% hornblende and trace amounts of biotite, making it the first of its kind. Studies have revealed an equigranular texture, mineral equilibria yielding equilibration near 650-700 C and 250-500 bars, hornblende that is dominantly OH-bearing (very little Cl or F), and high D/H ratios [8,9,10]. To help gain a better understanding of the origin of this unique sample, we have measured the Ar-40/Ar-39 age. Age of 4.290 +/- 0.030 Ga is younger than one would expect for a sample that has cooled within a small body [4], and one might instead attribute the age to a younger shock event, On the other hand, there is no evidence for extensive shock in this meteorite (shock stage S2; [3]), so this sample may have been reannealed after the shock event. This age is similar to Ar-Ar ages determined for some other R chondrites

  11. A Cabonaceous Chondrite Dominated Lithology from the HED Parent; PRA 04401

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrin, Jason S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The paired howardite breccias Mt. Pratt (PRA) 04401 and PRA 04402 are notable for their high proportion of carbonaceous chondrite clasts [1]. They consist predominantly of coarse (0.1-7 mm) diogenite (orthopyroxene), eucrite (plagioclase + pyroxene), and carbonaceous chondrite clasts set in a finer grained matrix of these same materials. Coarse C-chondrite clasts up to 7 mm are composed mainly of fine-grained phyllosilicates with lesser sulfides and high-mg# anhydrous magnesian silicates. Most of these clasts appear to be texturally consistent with CM2 classification [1] and some contain relict chondrules. The clasts are angular and reaction or alteration textures are not apparent in the surrounding matrix. PRA 04401 contains about 70 modal% C-chondrite clasts while PRA 04402 contains about 7%. Although many howardites are known to contain abundant C-chondrite clasts [2,3,4], PRA 04401 is, to our knowledge, the most chondrite-rich howardite lithology identified to date. Low EPMA totals from CM2-type clasts in other howardites suggest that they frequently contain 10 wt% or more water [2], a figure consistent with their mineralogy. PRA 04401, therefore, demonstrates the potential for hydrous lithologies with greater than 5 wt% water to occur locally within the nominally anhydrous HED parent body. Since the origin of this water is xenogenic, it might therefore be concentrated in portions of the asteroid surface where it would be more readily observable by remote sensing techniques. We plan to further examine C-chondrite clasts in PRA 04401/2 with the intent of establishing firm chemical classification, estimating water content, and evaluating their relationship with the host breccia. To help place them in context of the HED parent, we will also compare these breccias with other howardites to evaluate which lithologies are likely to be more prevalent on the asteroid surface.

  12. Amino acids in Antarctic CM1 meteorites and their relationship to other carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, Oliver; Martins, Zita; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2007-08-01

    CM2 carbonaceous chondrites are the most primitive material present in the solar system, and some of their subtypes, the CM and CI chondrites, contain up to 2 wt% of organic carbon. The CM2 carbonaceous chondrites contain a wide variety of complex amino acids, while the CI1 meteorites Orgueil and Ivuna display a much simpler composition, with only glycine and ?-alanine present in significant abundances. CM1 carbonaceous chondrites show a higher degree of aqueous alteration than CM2 types and therefore provide an important link between the CM2 and CI1 carbonaceous chondrites. Relative amino acid concentrations have been shown to be indicative for parent body processes with respect to the formation of this class of compounds. In order to understand the relationship of the amino acid composition between these three types of meteorites, we have analyzed for the first time three Antarctic CM1 chondrites, Meteorite Hills (MET) 01070, Allan Hills (ALH) 88045, and LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 02277, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD). The concentrations of the eight most abundant amino acids in these meteorites were compared to those of the CM2s Murchison, Murray, Mighei, Lewis Cliff (LEW) 90500, ALH 83100, as well as the CI1s Orgueil and Ivuna. The total amino acid concentration in CM1 carbonaceous chondrites was found to be much lower than the average of the CM2s. Relative amino acid abundances were compared in order to identify synthetic relationships between the amino acid compositions in these meteorite classes. Our data support the hypothesis that amino acids in CM- and CI-type meteorites were synthesized under different physical and chemical conditions and may best be explained with differences in the abundances of precursor compounds in the source regions of their parent bodies in combination with the decomposition of amino acids during extended aqueous alteration.

  13. Part 1: aspects of lithospheric evolution on Venus. Part 2: thermal and collisional histories of chondrite parent bodies. Ph. D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    The geological evolution of distinctly different kinds of solar system objects is addressed. Venus has been observed over the past decade by orbital radars on both American and Soviet spacecraft. These surface measurements provide clues to the structure and evolution of the lithosphere. The parent bodies of chondritic meteorites, thought to resemble asteroids, represent the other end of the size spectrum of terrestrial objects. Their early thermal and collisional histories may be constrained by the chemical and textural record preserved in meteorite samples. Impact craters on Venus have been observed by the Soviet Venera 15/16 spacecraft. A formalism is presented by which the size-frequency distribution of impact craters may be used to estimate upper bounds on the mean global rates of volcanic resurfacing and lithospheric recycling on that planet over the past several hundred million years. The impact crater density reported from Venera observations, indicates a mean volcanic flux no greater than 2 cu km/y. For the lowest estimated mean crater retention age of the surface of Venus imaged by Venera 15/16, the rate of lithospheric recycling on Venus does not exceed 1.5 sq km/y. Ordinary chondrite meteorites show textural and chemical patterns indicative of varying intensities of thermal metamorphism. The conventional onion-shell model, envisions highly metamorphosed material in the core and less intensely heated rocks near the surface, but none has been observed. A metamorphosed-planetesimal model is devised to explain this discrepancy. Thermal and collisional constraints are examined, and the model is found to be applicable only to highly insulating Al-26-rich planetesimals. An alternative model is presented.

  14. Distinct Distribution of Purines in CM and CR Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Smith, Karen E.; Martin, Mildred G.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of organic molecules and delivered pre biotic organic compounds, including purines and pyrimidines, to the early Earth (and other planetary bodies), seeding it with the ingredients likely required for the first genetic material. We have investigated the distribution of nucleobases in six different CM and CR type carbonaceous chondrites, including fivc Antarctic meteorites never before analyzed for nucleobases. We employed a traditional formic acid extraction protocol and a recently developed solid phase extraction method to isolate nucleobases. We analyzed these extracts by high performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance detection and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV -MS/MS) targeting the five canonical RNAIDNA bases and hypoxanthine and xanthine. We detected parts-per-billion levels of nucleobases in both CM and CR meteorites. The relative abundances of the purines found in Antarctic CM and CR meteorites were clearly distinct from each other suggesting that these compounds are not terrestrial contaminants. One likely source of these purines is formation by HCN oligomerization (with other small molecules) during aqueous alteration inside the meteorite parent body. The detection of the purines adenine (A), guanine (0), hypoxanthine (HX), and xanthine (X) in carbonaceous meteorites indicates that these compounds should have been available on the early Earth prior to the origin of the first genetic material.

  15. Pregraphitic and poorly graphitised carbons in porous chondritic micrometeorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Two forms of crystalline carbon in porous chondritic micrometeorites W7029E5, U2011C2, and U2022C7/C8 are mixed layered pregraphitic carbons with C/(C+H+O+N) (at. pct) about 0.45. This bulk composition is inferred from the presence of three groupings of d(002) basal spacings at 0.45 nm, 0.37 nm, and 0.348 nm. Mixed layered carbons represent incomplete carbonization and graphitization of precursor material. In U2022C7/C8, carbonization mostly involved volatile loss. The formation of pregraphitic carbons indicates a sustained thermal regime in parent bodies of these micrometeorities (i.e., short-period comets, outer-belt asteroids, or protocomet nuclei). Temperatures of the sustained thermal regime remain unspecified, but carbon reactions were probably facilitated by catalytic support from layer silicates in these samples. Poorly graphitized carbon in U2022C7/C8 formed during a transient thermal event which is most likely flash-heating during micrometeoroid deceleration in the earth's atmosphere.

  16. Calcium-Aluminum-Rich Inclusions in Chondritic Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, G. J.

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are sub-mm- to cm-sized clasts in chondritic meteorites. They are composed almost entirely of CaO-Al2O3-MgO-SiO2-TiO2, and they contain the same minerals predicted by thermodynamic calculations to condense out of a gas of solar composition during cooling from very high temperatures. These features, together with ages of 4.567 Ga, suggest that CAIs are the oldest and most primitive solid objects formed at the time our solar system was born. CAIs possess endemic nuclear anomalies of nucleosynthetic origin, enrichment in 16O relative to other solar system materials, and also radiogenic anomalies from the in situ decay of short-lived nuclides such as 26Al and 10Be that existed when the CAIs (and solar system) formed. CAIs are complex objects whose petrologic and isotopic properties give clues to the events - and chronology of those events - that occurred during the first 1-2 million years of the solar system's existence. Reading that ancient record has been greatly enabled by recent and continuing advances in analytical laboratory instrumentation, and thus interest in CAIs remains very high.

  17. Surface Processes on Small Planetary Bodies: Implications for the Origins of Chondritic Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akridge, David Glen

    I have conducted both experimental and theoretical work concerning the formation conditions of chondritic meteorites. This work has focused on the size-sorting of chondrules and metal grains, metal abundance in chondrites, gas phase reactions, and the thermal history of meteorite parent bodies containing substantial regoliths. Although many of the major chondritic properties have been assumed to be the result of nebula processes, it is suggested here that the release of volatiles in a parent body regolith would cause gas phase reactions indistinguishable from those occurring in the nebula. The escaping volatiles from either radiogenic 26Al or impact heating could create a dynamic surface dust layer on planetesimals leading to the physical separation of regolith grains of differing size and densities. The thermal history of an H-chondrite parent body (Asteroid 6 Hebe) was numerically modeled using 26Al as the primary heat source. The three layer model consisted of an interior of solid rock overlain by a megaregolith and regolith surfaces coverings. Appropriate porosities, bulk densities, and thermal conductivities were used for each zone. Regolith and megaregolith thicknesses were varied to see which numerical run best matched the metamorphic characteristics of H-chondrites. The results show surprisingly shallow burial depths for most H-chondrites. A moderate 2 km regolith insulates the interior so that H3-6 chondrites can all be formed in the regolith or upper megaregolith. Predicted peak temperatures, cooling rates, and formation time intervals agree well with data obtained from H-chondrites. The release of volatiles (primarily water) during parent body heating events could cause fluidization in the regolith if the upward moving gas flow rate reached a minimum critical velocity. At this minimum velocity particulates are free to move with fluid-like behavior and may segregate based on size and density characteristics. Fluidization experiments at atmospheric and reduced pressures using chondritic analogs (quartz sand and iron powder) sieved to the appropriate size range show that iron grains travel upwards in the fluidized bed forming iron-rich surface layers. Size-sorting among quartz grains also occurs with the smaller grains being carried upward in the gas flow. These results suggest that metal-silicate fractionations may have occurred on the parent body rather than in the nebula.

  18. Isotopic anomalies of noble gases in meteorites and their origins. III - LL-chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alaerts, L.; Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.

    1979-01-01

    Nine LL-chondrites were studied by selective etching to characterize the noble gas components in three mineral fractions: HF-HCl-solubles, chromite and carbon. The Ne-20/Ar-36 ratio is considered, noting that chondrites of different petrologic types cannot all be derived from the same volatile rich ancestor, but must have formed over a range of temperatures, with correspondingly different volatile contents. Variations in the carbonaceous chondrite fission (CCFXe) component in LL3, LL5, and LL6 chondrites are discussed, noting that if CCFXe comes from a supernova, then its distribution in LL-chondrites requires three presolar carrier minerals of the right solubility properties, containing three different xenon components. However, if CCFXe comes from fission of a volatile superheavy element, then its decrease from LL3 to LL6 can be attributed to less complete condensation from the solar nebula. Finally, the three types of primordial xenon components which occur in different minerals of the same meteorite are described.

  19. A chemical sequence of macromolecular organic matter in the CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naraoka, Hiroshi; Mita, Hajime; Komiya, Masatoshi; Yoneda, Shigekazu; Kojima, Hideyasu; Shimoyama, Akira

    2004-03-01

    A new organic parameter is proposed to show a chemical sequence of organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites, using carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen concentrations of solvent-insoluble and high-molecular weight organic matter (macromolecules) and the molecular abundance of solvent-extractable organic compounds. The H/C atomic ratio of the macromolecule purified from nine CM chondrites including the Murchison, Sayama, and seven Antarctic meteorites varies widely from 0.11 to 0.72. During the H/C change of ~0.7 to ~0.3, the N/C atomic ratio remains at ~0.04, followed by a sharp decline from ~0.040 to ~0.017 between H/C ratios from ~0.3 to ~0.1. The H/CN/ C sequence shows different degrees of organic matter thermal alteration among these chondrites in which the smaller H/C-N/C value implies higher alteration levels on the meteorite parent body. In addition, solvent-extractable organic compounds such as amino acids, carboxylic acids, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are abundant only in chondrites with macromolecular H/C values >~0.5. These organic compounds were extremely depleted in the chondrites with a macromolecular H/C value of <~0.5. Possibly, most solvent-extractable organic compounds could have been lost during the thermal alteration event that caused the H/C ratio of the macromolecule to fall below 0.4.

  20. Magnetic Paleofield of Avanhandava H4 Chondrite's Matrix and Chondrules - Implications on Magnetic Fields in Early Solar System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, T.; Pesonen, L. J.

    2005-12-01

    The Avanhandava (H4) fall occurred in 1952 in Brazil. A total of 9.33 kg had been preserved after the meteorite brake up during the impact [1]. The meteorite contains large (0.1 - 2.0 mm) chon-drules that have clearly delineated boundaries with matrix. This characteristic allows us to pick up oriented individual chondrules and study their magnetic properties. The chondrules of the Avanhandava meteorite show a low and randomly oriented NRM (10-2 - 10-1 mAm2/kg). In contrast the matrix is strongly (100 - 101 mAm2/kg) and uniformly magnet-ized [2]. Various methods for paleofield determination have been applied on matrix and individual chondrules in order to determine possi-ble magnetizing processes and paleofields in early solar systems.. The laboratory experiments reveal approximate paleofields for matrix similar to present geomagnetic field. The paleofield de-termined for chondrules is approximately one order of magnitude lower comparing to values obtained for matrix. That suggests that chondrules are not magnetically contaminated by geomagnetic or artificial fields and they acquired their NRM prior their aggregation to Avanhandava parent body (random NRM directions). The matrix shows remarkable traces of terres-trial weathering and is uniformly magnetized. The paleofield re-sult for matrix indicates possible remagnetization caused by ter-restrial weathering. The terrestrial weathering of ordinary chon-drites is observed even on falls stored in museums and can sig-nificantly influence meteorite magnetic records [3, 4]. References: [1] Paar W. et al. 1976. Revista Brasileira de Geo-ciencias 6: 201-210. [2] Kohout T. and Pesonen L. J. 2005. 68th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting: 5202. [3] Kohout T. et al. 2004. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 29: 885-897. [4] Lee M. R. and Bland P. A. 2004. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68: 893-916.

  1. Opaque minerals in the matrix of the Bishunpur (LL3.1) chondrite: constraints on the chondrule formation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauretta, Dante S.; Buseck, Peter R.; Zega, Thomas J.

    2001-04-01

    The chemistry and mineralogy of a group of opaque mineral assemblages in the matrix of the Bishunpur LL3.1 ordinary chondrite provide insight into the nebular environment in which they formed. The assemblages consist of a kamacite (Fe,Ni) core that is rimmed by troilite (FeS) and fayalite (Fe 2SiO 4). Accessory phases in the rims include silica (SiO 2), chromite (FeCr 2O 4), whitlockite (Ca 3(PO 4) 2), maricite (FeNaPO 4), magnetite (Fe 3O 4), and tetrataenite (FeNi). We suggest that the metal melted in and equilibrated with an igneous chondrule under high-temperature, reducing conditions. In this environment the molten alloys incorporated varied amounts of Si, Ni, P, Cr, and Co, depending on the oxygen fugacity and temperature of the melt. Some of the metal was subsequently expelled from the chondrule interiors into the surrounding nebular gas. As the temperature dropped, the alloy solidified and volatile elements corroded the metal. The main reaction products were troilite and fayalite. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are used to constrain the conditions under which these two phases can form simultaneously in the solar nebula. Kinetic factors are used to place a lower limit on the formation temperature. We determine that the metal corroded between 1173 and 1261 K at a total pressure in the range of 10 -5.0 to 10 -4.1 bars and a dust/gas ratio of 302 to 355 x relative to solar composition. These conditions are consistent with our model that the metal corroded in a dust-rich region of the solar nebula that was cooling after a chondrule formation event.

  2. Opaque Minerals in the Matrix of the Bishunpur (LL3.1) Chondrite: Constraints on the Chondrule Formation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, D. S.; Buseck, P. R.; Zega, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    The chemistry and mineralogy of a group of opaque mineral assemblages in the matrix of the Bishunpur LL3.1 ordinary chondrite provide insight into the nebular environment in which they formed. The assemblages consist of a kamacite (Fe,Ni) core that is rimmed by troilite (FeS) and fayalite (Fe2Si04). Accessory phases in the rims include silica (Si02), chromite (FeCr204), whitlockite (Ca3(P04)2), maricite (FeNaP04), magnetite (Fe304), and tetrataenite (FeNi). We suggest that the metal melted in and equilibrated with an igneous chondrule under high- temperature, reducing conditions. In this environment the molten alloys incorporated varied amounts of Si, Ni, P, Cr, and Co, depending on the oxygen fugacity and temperature of the melt. Some of the metal was subsequently expelled from the chondrule interiors into the surrounding nebular gas. As the temperature dropped, the alloy solidified and volatile elements corroded the metal. The main reaction products were troilite and fayalite. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are used to constrain the conditions under which these two phases can form simultaneously in the solar nebula. Kinetic factors are used to place a lower limit on the formation temperature. We determine that the metal corroded between 1173 and 1261 K at a total pressure in the range of 1025.0 to 1024.1 bars and a dust/gas ratio of 302 to 355 x relative to solar composition. These conditions are consistent with our model that the metal corroded in a dust- rich region of the solar nebula that was cooling after a chondrule formation event.

  3. Chemical studies of L chondrites. V: compositional patterns for 49 trace elements in 14 L4-6 and 7 LL4-6 falls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jon M.; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    2003-07-01

    To study compositional trends associated with open-system thermal metamorphism and shock-induced collisional breakup of L4-6 chondrite parent(s), we used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and radiochemical neutron activation analysis to determine 49 trace elements in 62 falls. Trends for the 49 elements, especially of the 14 rare earth elements in 5 members of a putative L/LL group (Bjurböle, Cynthiana, Holbrook, Knyahinya, Sultanpur) and 9 additional L chondrites (Aïr, Aumieres, Bachmut, Forksville, Kandahar, Kiel, Milean, Narellan, Santa Isabel) differed markedly from those in the remaining normal 46 samples. Here, we report the data for the 14 L and putative L/LL chondrites and 7 LL (Appley Bridge, Athens, Bandong, Ensisheim, Mangwendi, Olivenza, Soko-Banja), analyzed to test the affinity of the putative L/LL suite to well-characterized LL chondrites. Compositional trends of the 14 atypical L chondrites (including Aïr's unique and possibly contaminated signature) and Mangwendi, an LL6 chondrite, indicate that each is compositionally unrepresentative of well-sampled, whole-rock chondrites. Indeed, half of the unrepresentative chondrites were ? 2-g samples. Compositionally, members of the putative L/LL chondrites demonstrate no affinities to normal LL chondrite falls. To establish compositional trends accompanying open-system, thermal episodes involving the L chondrite parent(s), we should ignore data for the 14 unrepresentative L chondrites reported here.

  4. SULFIDE/SILICATE MELT PARTITIONING DURING ENSTATITE CHONDRITE MELTING. C. Floss1 R.A. Fogel2

    E-print Network

    SULFIDE/SILICATE MELT PARTITIONING DURING ENSTATITE CHONDRITE MELTING. C. Floss1 , R.A. Fogel2 , G their origin remains poorly understood, at least partly because of confusion over the role played by sulfides between sulfides and silicates during melting of natural enstatite chondrite material. Results: Powdered

  5. Matrix mineralogy of the Lance CO3 carbonaceous chondrite - A transmission electron microscope study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Buseck, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on electron microprobe analyses of three CO chondrites, all of which are falls: Lance, Kainsaz, and Warrenton. The TEM mineralogy results of Lance chondrite show that Fe-rich matrix olivines have been altered to Fe-bearing serpentine and Fe(3+) oxide; matrix metal was also altered to produce Fe(3+) oxides, leaving the residual metal enriched in Ni. Olivine grains in Lance's matrix contain channels along their 100-line and 001-line directions; the formation and convergence of such channels resulted in a grain-size reduction of the olivine. A study of Kainsaz and Warrenton showed that these meteorites do not contain phyllosilicates in their matrices, although both contain Fe(3+) oxide between olivine grains. It is suggested that, prior to its alteration, Lance probably resembled Kainsaz, an unaltered CO3 chondrite.

  6. Thermal history of 6 Hebe as the H-chondrite parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akridge, Glen; Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1997-03-01

    We have modeled the thermal history of asteroid 6 Hebe using a finite difference approximation for the radial heat conduction equation. Unlike previous work, our computer code accounts for regolith/megaregolith insulation effects for both 'instantaneous' accretion as well as 'slow' accretion (1-50 m/yr). Thermal conductivity, diffusivity, heat capacity, porosity, and bulk density are all functions of radius and temperature. The heat source used is homogeneously distributed Al-26 and other long-lived nuclides. Impact heating is not considered. The model is constrained primarily by the radius of Hebe, maximum temperatures for H-chondrite petrologic types, and observed cooling rates. The model predicts peak temperatures at the base of a 2.5-km deep regolith to be about 1000 K, equivalent to metamorphic type 5 H-chondrites, whereas, type 6 H-chondrites may sample subregolith regions with peak temperatures of about 1250 K.

  7. Effects of ordinary and superconducting cosmic strings on primordial nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Hardy M.; Turner, Michael S.

    1988-01-01

    A precise calculation is done of the primordial nucleosynthesis constraint on the energy per length of ordinary and superconducting cosmic strings. A general formula is provided for the constraint on the string tension for ordinary strings. Using the current values for the various parameters that describe the evolution of loops, the constraint for ordinary strings is G mu less than 2.2 x 10 to the minus 5 power. Our constraint is weaker than previously quoted limits by a factor of approximately 5. For superconducting loops, with currents generated by primordial magnetic fields, the constraint can be less or more stringent than this limit, depending on the strength of the magnetic field. It is also found in this case that there is a negligible amount of entropy production if the electromagnetic radiation from strings thermalizes with the radiation background.

  8. Experimental shock metamorphism of the Murchison CM carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomeoka, Kazushige; Yamahana, Yasuhiro; Sekine, Toshimori

    1999-11-01

    A series of shock-recovery experiments were carried out on the Murchison CM carbonaceous chondrite by using a single-stage propellant gun. The Murchison samples were shocked in nine experiments at peak pressures from 4 to 49 GPa. The recovered samples were studied in detail by using an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope and an electron-probe microanalyzer. Chondrules are flattened in the plane of the shock front at 4 to 30 GPa. The mean aspect ratio of chondrules increases from 1.17 to 1.57 roughly in proportion to the intensity of shock pressure up to ˜25 GPa. At 25 to 30 GPa, the mean aspect ratio does not increase further, and chondrules show increasingly more random orientations and degrade their preferred orientations, and at ˜35 GPa, they are extensively disrupted. Most coarse grains of olivine and pyroxene are irregularly fractured, fracture density increases with increasing shock pressure and at ˜30 GPa almost all are thoroughly fractured with subgrains of <1 to 5 ?m in size. At ˜20 GPa, subparallel fractures begin to form in the matrix in directions roughly perpendicular to the compression axis and their densities increase with pressure, especially dramatically at 25 to 30 GPa; thus, the sample is increasingly comminuted and becomes fragile. Local shock melting occurs as melt veins and pockets at 20 to 30 GPa. Fracture-filling veins of fine grains of matrix are also produced at 25 to 30 GPa. The melts and the fine grains seem to result mainly from frictional heating due to displacement along fractures. At ˜35 GPa, melting occurs pervasively throughout the matrix. The melts are mainly produced from the matrix; however, they are consistently more enriched in Fe, S, and Ca, which indicates that these elements are selectively incorporated into the melts. The melts contain tiny spherules of Fe-Ni metal, Fe sulfide, and numerous vesicles. At 49 GPa, the matrix is totally melted and coarse grains of olivine are partially melted. The melts contain much larger vesicles (50-300 ?m in diameter) than those in the samples shocked at lower pressures, which indicates that much more intense devolatilization and gas expansion took place. For the purpose of comparing shock thermal effects between the experimentally shocked samples and naturally shocked targets (surface materials in the Murchison parent body), we calculated internal energy increase for compression by multiple shock wave reflections (experimental case) and for compression by a single shock wave (natural case). The results suggest that postshock thermal effects observed at each experiment may be attained by impact on the natural targets at a considerably lower shock pressure than the peak shock pressure. From the results of our experiments and calculations, we conclude that if the Murchison parent body were shocked on the surface at pressures higher than ˜25 GPa, shocked material would probably undergo drastic increase in the degree of comminution and simultaneous generation of strong expansive forces on pressure release. Thus the results support the hypothesis of Scott et al. (1992) that volatile-rich carbonaceous chondrites shocked above 20 to 30 GPa escaped from the parent body and formed particles that are too small to survive as meteorites.

  9. Noble gas study of the Saratov L4 chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Jun-Ichi; Tsukamoto, Hidetomo; Miyakawa, Chie; Amari, Sachiko

    2010-03-01

    We have determined the elemental abundances and the isotopic compositions of noble gases in a bulk sample and an HF/HCl residue of the Saratov (L4) chondrite using stepwise heating. The Ar, Kr, and Xe concentrations in the HF/HCl residue are two orders of magnitude higher than those in the bulk sample, while He and Ne concentrations from both are comparable. The residue contains only a portion of the trapped heavy noble gases in Saratov; 40+/-9% for 36Ar, 58+/-12% for 84Kr, and 48+/-10% for 132Xe, respectively. The heavy noble gas elemental pattern in the dissolved fraction is similar to that in the residue but has high release temperatures. Xenon isotopic ratios of the HF/HCl residue indicate that there is no Xe-HL in Saratov, but Ne isotopic ratios in the HF/HCl residue lie on a straight line connecting the cosmogenic component and a composition between Ne-Q and Ne-HL. This implies that the Ne isotopic composition of Q has been changed by incorporating Ne-HL (Huss et al. 1996) or by being mass fractionated during the thermal metamorphism. However, it is most likely that the Ne-Q in Saratov is intrinsically different from this component in other meteorites. The evidence of this is a lack of correlation between the isotopic ratio of Ne-Q and petrologic types of meteorites (Busemann et al. 2000). A neutron capture effect was observed in the Kr isotopes, and this process also affected the 128Xe/132Xe ratio. The 3He and 21Ne exposure ages for the bulk sample are 33 and 35Ma, respectively.

  10. A Re-Examination of Nucleobases in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Z.; Botta, O.; de Vries, M.; Becker, L.; Ehrenfreund, E.

    The biomolecular building blocks of life, as we know it, are amino acids, purines and pyrimidines. The latter two form the bases of DNA and RNA, molecules that are used in the storage, transcription and translation of genetic information in all terrestrial organisms. A dedicated search for these compounds in meteorites can shed light on the origins of life in two ways: (i) Results can help assess the plausibility of extraterrestrial formation of prebiotic molecules followed by their meteoritic delivery to the early Earth. (ii) Such studies can also provide insights into possible prebiotic synthetic routes. We will search for these compounds in selected carbonaceous chondrites using formic acid extraction and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to isolate specific nucleobases from the bulk meteorite material as previously reported [1,2,3]. We will also use a new technique, resonant two-photon ionization mass spectrometry (R2PI) that can, not only identify organic compounds by their mass, but at the same time by their vibronic spectroscopy [4]. R2PI dramatically enhances the specificity for certain compounds (e.g. amino acids, nucleobases) and allows for distinction of structural isomers, tautomers and enantiomers as well as providing additional information due to isotope shifts. The optical spectroscopy can thus help us to further discriminate between terrestrial and extraterrestrial nucleobases. References: [1] Van Der Velden, W. and Schwarts, A. W. (1977) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 41, 961-968. [2] Stoks, P. G. and Schwartz, A. W. (1979a) Nature, 282, 709-10. [3] Glavin, D. P. and Bada, J. L. (2004) In Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV, Abstract # 1022, Houston. [4] Nir, E., Grace, L. I., Brauer, B. and de Vries, M. S. (1999) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 121, 4896-4897.

  11. Interplanetary material as a guide to the composition of interstellar grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.; Williams, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    A compositional model for interstellar magnesium-iron silicate and iron-containing grains is derived under the constraint of elemental depletions, and using the composition of primitive solar system material as a paradigm of the interstellar particles. The solar system material invoked includes both chondritic porous aggregate interplanetary dust particles and unequilibrated ordinary chondritic meteorites. It is shown that the interstellar silicate grains are olivine rich (olivine-to-pyroxene grain mass ratio of greater than 0.8) and are iron rich (magnesium-to-iron atomic ratio of greater than 0.65). Iron not incorporated into silicates is assumed to be depleted into the iron sulphide pyrrhotite which makes up less than 6 percent of the refractory grain mass. The inclusion of grains of this magnetic sulphide into aggregate interstellar grains can explain the alignment of the grains responsible for the polarization in the visual.

  12. The Oxygen Isotopic Composition of MIL 090001: A CR2 Chondrite with Abundant Refractory Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; McKeegan, K. D.; Sharp, Z. D.

    2012-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (>6 kg) carbonaceous chondrite that was classified as a member of the CV reduced subgroup (CVred) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. Based on the abundance of refractory inclusions and the extent of aqueous alteration, Keller [2] suggested a CV2 classification. Here we report additional mineralogical and petrographic data for MIL 090001, its whole-rock oxygen isotopic composition and ion microprobe analyses of individual phases. The whole rock oxygen isotopic analyses show that MIL 090001 should be classified as a CR chondrite.

  13. The petrogenesis of L-6 chondrites - Insights from the chemistry of minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, D. B.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the major, minor and trace element abundances of the major minerals of the L-6 chondrites Alfianello, Colby (WI) and Leedey are used to investigate the formation mechanisms of L-6 chondrites. Electron microprobe analysis was performed on individual grains of each mineral, and separated minerals were analyzed by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The compositions of the three meteorites are observed to be generally uniform, however different abundances and distributions of rare earth elements and Co and Ni indicate that the meteorites have different petrogenetic histories. Alkali element distributions are found to be incompatible with internal equilibration of a closed system.

  14. Water, Water, Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Glasser

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional phase diagram for ordinary water substance, with its solid, liquid, and vapor phases, based on fitted authentic experimental data is presented. Such an authentic diagram appears not to have been presented for water before, and may improve the understanding of its phase relationships. The nature of the IAPWS-95 equations, fitted to data, is discussed.

  15. The Ordinary Origins of Bias Department of Psychology

    E-print Network

    Mind Bugs: The Ordinary Origins of Bias Fred Smyth Department of Psychology University of Virginia red! A BA BAB MeanPoints Hagemann et al., 2008, Psychological Science #12;An Implicit Bias Mind Bug & Becklen, 1975, Cognitive Psychology Simons & Levin, 1998, Psychonomic Bulletin and Review #12;Stereotypes

  16. Ordinary-language philosophy: Language, logic and philosophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Xenakis

    1959-01-01

    IMy main purpose in this paper is to clarify the nature of what comes under the label Ordinary-Language Philosophy (which should not be confused with Ideal-Language Philosophy 1). It will be seen that, unless I am terribly wrong, the critics of this kind of philosophy, including reviewers of representative anthologies of it, are barking up the wrong tree 2). It

  17. THE ORDINARY CONCEPT OF HAPPINESS (AND OTHERS LIKE IT)

    E-print Network

    Knobe, Joshua

    THE ORDINARY CONCEPT OF HAPPINESS (AND OTHERS LIKE IT) [Forthcoming in Emotion Review] Jonathan The authors provide evidence for a distinction between two fundamentally different kinds of emotion concepts to predict, explain and understand others' behavior. We will argue that this hypothesis is mistaken. Instead

  18. A combinatorial study of multiplexes and ordinary polytopes

    E-print Network

    Bayer, Margaret M.

    Abstract Bisztriczky de#12;nes a multiplex as a generalization of a simplex, and an ordinary polytope, but the e#11;ect of these on the face lattice is quite controlled. Bisztriczky ([6]) de#12;nes a class#12;nes a multiplex as a generalization of a simplex. De#12;nition 1 ([5]) A multiplex is a polytope

  19. The Fourth-Order Type Linear Ordinary Differential Equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. N. Everitt; D. J. Smith; M. van Hoeij

    2006-01-01

    This note reports on the recent advancements in the search for explicit representation, in classical special functions, of the solutions of the fourth-order ordinary differential equations named Bessel-type, Jacobi-type, Laguerre-type, Legendre-type.

  20. The Fourth-Order Type Linear Ordinary Differential Equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. N. Everitt; D. J. Smith; M. van Hoeij

    2006-01-01

    This note reports on the recent advancements in the search for explicit\\u000arepresentation, in classical special functions, of the solutions of the\\u000afourth-order ordinary differential equations named Bessel-type, Jacobi-type,\\u000aLaguerre-type, Legendre-type.

  1. The Making of the Ordinary Child in Preschool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarit Alasuutari; Ann-Marie Markström

    2011-01-01

    The article examines parent–teacher conferences in Finnish and Swedish preschools. Previous research has shown that the conferences are mostly about the evaluation of the child. Based on qualitative data, the article studies how this evaluation is done. It asks how the institutional order regarding children is constructed in parent–teacher conferences and what the ordinary child is like that this order

  2. Shelling and the hvector of the (extra) ordinary polytope

    E-print Network

    Bayer, Margaret M.

    for the h­vector of cubical polytopes.) The definition of the (toric) h­vector for general polytopes (and].) Another issue is the relation of the h­vector of a polytope P to the h­vector of a triangulation of PShelling and the h­vector of the (extra­) ordinary polytope Margaret M. Bayer # Department

  3. "Solid All the Way Through": Margaret Mahy's Ordinary Witches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Alison

    2004-01-01

    In "The Haunting," "The Changeover," and "The Tricksters," Margaret Mahy fuses supernatural iconography of witchcraft and magic with images of ordinary and domestic adolescence. This article argues that Mahy's "fantastic realism" illuminates aspects of female teenage experience through a blend of myth, fairy tale, folklore and history, as well as…

  4. A new method for homoclinic solutions of ordinary differential equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Talay Akyildiz; K. Vajravelu; S.-J. Liao

    2009-01-01

    Consideration is given to the homoclinic solutions of ordinary differential equations. We first review the Melnikov analysis to obtain Melnikov function, when the perturbation parameter is zero and when the differential equation has a hyperbolic equilibrium. Since Melnikov analysis fails, using Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM, see [Liao SJ. Beyond perturbation: introduction to the homotopy analysis method. Boca Raton: Chapman &

  5. Ordinary differential equations associated with the heat equation

    E-print Network

    Victor M. Buchstaber; Elena Yu. Bunkova

    2012-04-17

    This paper is devoted to the one-dimensional heat equation and the non-linear ordinary differential equations associated to it. We consider homogeneous polynomial dynamical systems in the n-dimensional space, n = 0, 1, 2, .... For any such system our construction matches a non-linear ordinary differential equation. We describe the algorithm that brings the solution of such an equation to a solution of the heat equation. The classical fundamental solution of the heat equation corresponds to the case n=0 in terms of our construction. Solutions of the heat equation defined by the elliptic theta-function lead to the Chazy-3 equation and correspond to the case n=2. The group SL(2, C) acts on the space of solutions of the heat equation. We show this action for each n induces the action of SL(2, C) on the space of solutions of the corresponding ordinary differential equations. In the case n=2 this leads to the well-known action of this group on the space of solutions of the Chazy-3 equation. An explicit description of the family of ordinary differential equations arising in our approach is given.

  6. Ordinary Variations in Maternal Caregiving Influence Human Infants' Stress Reactivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amie Ashley Hane; Nathan A. Fox

    2006-01-01

    Wesoughttoextendearlier work byexamining whether there are ordinary variations in human maternal caregiving behavior (MCB) that are related to stress re- activity in infants. We observed 185 mother-infant dyads and used standard coding systems to identify variations in caregiving behavior. We then created two extreme groups and found that infants receiving low-quality MCB showed more fearfulness, less positive joint attention, and

  7. PSpice and project-based learning at ordinary degree level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Tobin

    Abstract– This paper discusses how Orcad, simulation can be a powerful learning tool in project- based learning, contributing greatly to a successfully outcome of an ordinary degree final year project. Projects should be the vehicle whereby students apply theory and practice learned in any program. However, all too often, students find projects difficult not knowing where to start the design

  8. Convergence rates for adaptive approximation of ordinary differential equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyoung-Sook Moon; Anders Szepessy; R a ´ ul Tempone; Georgios E. Zouraris

    2003-01-01

    Summary This paper constructs an adaptive algorithm for ordinary differential equations and analyzes its asymptotic behavior as the error tolerance parameter tends to zero. An adaptive algorithm, based on the error indicators and successive subdivision of time steps, is proven to stop with the optimal number, N, of steps up to a problem independent factor defined in the algorithm. A

  9. The appraisal of ordinary shares by Chinese financial analysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Wang; Jim Haslam; Claire Marston

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into recent financial analysis practice in the Chinese context. The paper aims to examine the approaches pursued and information used by Chinese financial analysts in investment appraisal of ordinary shares. The research seeks to explore influences upon analysts' decision making and how analysts perceived the Chinese investment environment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

  10. Ordinary differential equation techniques for partial differential equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    The application of programs for the automatic solution of ordinary differential equations to the system of equations that arise when the method of lines is applied to a parabolic or hyperbolic partial differential equation is examined. These programs show promise for increasing the speed of solution and decreasing program development costs. 2 figures 5 tables.

  11. Eutectic metal + troilite + Fe-Mn-Na phosphate + Al-free chromite assemblage in shock-produced chondritic melt of the Yanzhuang chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiande; Chen, Ming; Zhai, Shuangmeng; Wang, Fuya

    2014-12-01

    An assemblage with FeNi metal, troilite, Fe-Mn-Na phosphate, and Al-free chromite was identified in the metal-troilite eutectic nodules in the shock-produced chondritic melt of the Yanzhuang H6 meteorite. Electron microprobe and Raman spectroscopic analyses show that a few phosphate globules have the composition of Na-bearing graftonite (Fe,Mn,Na)3(PO4)2, whereas most others correspond to Mn-bearing galileiite Na(Fe,Mn)4(PO4)3 and a possible new phosphate phase of Na2(Fe,Mn)17(PO4)12 composition. The Yanzhuang meteorite was shocked to a peak pressure of 50 GPa and a peak temperature of approximately 2000 °C. All minerals were melted after pressure release to form a chondritic melt due to very high postshock heat that brought the chondrite material above its liquidus. The volatile elements P and Na released from whitlockite and plagioclase along with elements Cr and Mn released from chromite are concentrated into the shock-produced Fe-Ni-S-O melt at high temperatures. During cooling, microcrystalline olivine and pyroxene first crystallized from the chondritic melt, metal-troilite eutectic intergrowths, and silicate melt glass finally solidified at about 950-1000 °C. On the other hand, P, Mn, and Na in the Fe-Ni-S-O melt combined with Fe and crystallized as Fe-Mn-Na phosphates within troilite, while Cr combined with Fe and crystallized as Al-free chromite also within troilite.

  12. Petrologic Locations of Nanodiamonds in Carbonaceous Chondrite Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvie, Laurence

    Nanodiamonds (NDs), with dimensions near two nanometers, are widespread accessory minerals in primitive meteorites. They have been studied extensively in concentrates made from acid-insoluble residues, but surprisingly little is known about their petrologic settings in the meteorites because they have not been studied in situ. Information about such settings is fundamental for determining how they formed and were incorporated into the meteorites. The primary goal of the planned research is to determine and compare the petrologic settings of NDs within matrix of different types of carbonaceous chondrites, with the long-term aim of providing new insights regarding the origin of NDs. This research will also provide new data on the structure and major and trace element compositions of individual NDs and regions within them. Transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) provide uniquely powerful information regarding chemical, bonding, and structural data on the scale needed to solve this problem, assuming the NDs can be located within the host matrix. We have developed methods of observing NDs in situ within the fine-grained matrix of primitive meteorites and will use various TEMs to accomplish that goal for several meteorites. High- resolution imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) will permit determination of both structural and chemical information about the NDs and their adjacent minerals. By the middle of the proposed grant period, two state-of-the-art, aberration-corrected TEMs will have been installed at ASU and will be used to locate heavy elements such as Xe, Te, and Pd within the NDs. These TEMs permit the imaging of individual atoms of heavy elements with annular dark-field (ADF) imaging, and these atoms can be identified using EELS. The result of these new types of measurements will provide information about whether such elements, which have been used to determine whether NDs formed in supernovae, occur within the interiors or on the surfaces of the NDs. The proposed research will contribute to the NASA vision statement and goal to "Advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system ..." (NASA's Strategic Goals, ROSES Table 1A, Strategic Sub-goal 3C) and "Discover the origin, structure, evolution, and destiny of the universe, and search for Earth-like planets" (NASA's Strategic Goals, ROSES Table 1A, Strategic Sub-goal 3D). The proposed research will generate fundamental new knowledge regarding meteoritic NDs and an improved understanding of primitive materials.

  13. (6) Hebe Really is the H Chondrite Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, William; Vokrouhlicky, D.; Nesvorny, D.; Shrbeny, L.

    2010-10-01

    In the 1990's, several authors argued that (6) Hebe, a 200 km diameter asteroid, was the source of the H chondrites (HCs). They favored it over other candidate asteroids because: (i) Hebe has the right spectroscopic signature for HCs (e.g., S (IV) class), (ii) it is located near the J3:1 mean motion and nu6 secular resonances, both key transportation routes for delivering material to Earth, and (iii) Hebe is sufficiently large that cratering events could directly inject HCs into the J3:1 and nu6 resonances. By the 2000's, though, it became increasingly clear that Yarkovsky thermal forces provide sufficient mobility to meteoroids that asteroid families far from key resonances could still dominate the delivery flux. This weakened (ii)-(iii); Hebe has no observed family, and the CRE ages for HCs peak near 7-8 Ma rather than at 1-2 Ma. New collisional, dynamical, and meteoritical work, however, allowed us to re-evaluate the situation. (a) Ar-Ar shock degassing ages are frequently produced by cratering events on large asteroids. The HCs have such ages ranging from nearly today to 4.5 Ga. If the HCs were coming from an asteroid family, few ages should exist between now and the age of the family-forming event. (b) Cratering events on Hebe should produce steep fragment distributions, thereby creating numerous meteoroids without producing an detected family. (c) The 7-8 My CRE age peak among HCs is best explained by Hebe's meteoroids being pummeled by ejecta from the 8.2 Ma Veritas family-forming event. L and LL meteoroids, thought to come from the Gefion and Flora families, respectively, are out of range of Veritas ejecta. (d) Our new meteoroid source predictor model shows of the 6 HC falls with solid orbits, 3 come from the J3:1 and 3 come from the nu6 resonance. These results are consistent with Hebe's location.

  14. Meteorites in meteorites - Evidence for mixing among the asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkening, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    Inclusions of one type of meteorite enclosed in another have been found in several gas-rich meteorites, unequilibrated chondrites and mesosiderites. The inclusions in all but one case are chondritic; a majority are mineralogically and isotopically similar to carbonaceous chondrites. These meteorite mixtures most probably resulted from collisions among asteroids.

  15. Discussion! Measurements on these suites of L and LL chondrites show that internal variation in Ti

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Lawrence

    Discussion! Measurements on these suites of L and LL chondrites show that internal variation in Ti. These results and analyses of chondrules [6] show that the Ti valence of olivine and pyroxene is not easily reset. ! In forsterite, high proportions of tetrahedral Ti4+ have been associated with formation under

  16. Cosmogenic Ne-21 Production Rates in H-Chondrites Based on Cl-36 - Ar-36 Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leya, I.; Graf, Th.; Nishiizumi, K.; Guenther, D.; Wieler, R.

    2000-01-01

    We measured Ne-21 production rates in 14 H-chondrites in good agreement with model calculations. The production rates are based on Ne-21 concentrations measured on bulk samples or the non-magnetic fraction and Cl-36 - Ar-36 ages determined from the metal phase.

  17. High resolution mass spectrometric investigations of the organic constituents of the Murray and Holbrook chondrites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Hayes; K. Biemann

    1968-01-01

    Two methods intended for the rapid preliminary analysis of organic geochemical samples are described. In illustration of the first, samples from a cross sectional core of a fragment of the Murray C2 chondrite were heated in the ion source of a high resolution mass spectrometer and the mass spectra of the vaporising organic material were recorded. The spectra obtained indicate

  18. Re-Os isotopic systematics and platinum group element composition of the Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan D. Brandon; Munir Humayun; Igor S. Puchtel; Michael E. Zolensky

    2005-01-01

    The Tagish Lake meteorite is a primitive C2 chondrite that has undergone aqueous alteration shortly after formation of its parent body. Previous work indicates that if this type of material was part of a late veneer during terrestrial planetary accretion, it could provide a link between atmophile elements such as H, C, N and noble gases, and highly siderophile element

  19. An Alteration Scale for CM Chondrites and Implications for Planetary Noble Gas Abundances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. B. Browning; H. Y. McSween Jr.; M. Zolensky

    1993-01-01

    Three progressive alteration parameters have been identified from the mineralogical and textural analyses of 7 CM chondritic falls. These indices predict the following order of progressive alteration [3]: Murchison (MC)

  20. Origin of a metamorphosed lithic clast in CM chondrite Grove Mountains 021536

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aicheng; Guan, Yunbin; Hsu, Weibiao; Liu, Yang; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2010-02-01

    A metamorphosed lithic clast was discovered in the CM chondrite Grove Mountains 021536, which was collected in the Antarctica by the Chinese Antarctic Research Exploration team. The lithic clast is composed mainly of Fe-rich olivine (Fo62) with minor diopside (Fs9.7-11.1Wo48.3-51.6), plagioclase (An43-46.5), nepheline, merrillite, Al-rich chromite (21.8 wt% Al2O3; 4.43 wt% TiO2), and pentlandite. ?17O values of olivine in the lithic clast vary from -3.9‰ to -0.8‰. Mineral compositions and oxygen isotopic compositions of olivine suggest that the lithic clast has an exotic source different from the CM chondrite parent body. The clast could be derived from strong thermal metamorphism of pre-existing chondrule that has experienced low-temperature anhydrous alteration. The lithic clast is similar in mineral assemblage and chemistry to a few clasts observed in oxidized CV3 chondrites (Mokoia and Yamato-86009) and might have been derived from the interior of the primitive CV asteroid. The apparent lack of hydration in the lithic clast indicates that the clast accreted into the CM chondrite after hydration of the CM components.

  1. LITHIUM ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF CHONDRITIC METEORITES. W. F. McDonough1 , P. B. Tomascak1

    E-print Network

    Mcdonough, William F.

    LITHIUM ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF CHONDRITIC METEORITES. W. F. McDonough1 , F- Z. Teng1 , P. B, Reston, VA 20192. Introduction: Li isotope studies can provide insights into low temperature alteration processes involving aqueous fluids, given the potential solubility of lithium [1]. In this respect, Li

  2. Diffusion of trace elements in FeNi metal: application to zoned metal grains in chondrites

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Andrew

    1 Diffusion of trace elements in FeNi metal: application to zoned metal grains in chondrites K measured diffusion coefficients for P, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Ga, Ge, Ru, Pd, Ir and Au in Fe metal from 1150 to 1400 °C and at 1 bar and 10 kbar. Diffusion couples were prepared from high purity Fe metal and metal

  3. Investigation of pyridine carboxylic acids in CM2 carbonaceous chondrites: Potential precursor molecules for ancient coenzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-07-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We also report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  4. Investigation of Pyridine Carboxylic Acids in CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites: Potential Precursor Molecules for Ancient Coenzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We also report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  5. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY OF REFRACTORY INCLUSIONS IN CV3 CHONDRITES. L. Grossman, Dept. Geophys. Sci. and

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Lawrence

    + anorthite) inclusions in CV3 chondrites match those of the highest temperature condensates (e.g., 1500-1450K, melilite, anorthite and fassaite. Melilite is a solid solution of gehlenite, Ge (Ca2Al2SiO7) and åkermanite in Type Bs show that cooling rates were fast enough, ~ 0.5 to anorthite crystallized after

  6. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL FORMATION OF ORGANIC SOLIDS IN CHONDRITES AND COMETS THROUGH POLYMERIZATION OF INTERSTELLAR FORMALDEHYDE

    SciTech Connect

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Cody, George D. [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5251 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)] [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5251 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); David Kilcoyne, A. L., E-mail: ykebukawa@ciw.edu, E-mail: yoko@ep.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Mail Stop 7R0222, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde, first through the formose reaction and then through subsequent condensation reactions, provides a plausible explanation for how abundant and highly chemically complex organic solids may have come to exist in primitive solar system objects. In order to gain better insight on the reaction, a systematic study of the relationship of synthesis temperature with resultant molecular structure was performed. In addition, the effect of the presence of ammonia on the reaction rate and molecular structure of the product was studied. The synthesized formaldehyde polymer is directly compared to chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from primitive meteorites using solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The molecular structure of the formaldehyde polymer is shown to exhibit considerable similarity at the functional group level with primitive chondritic IOM. The addition of ammonia to the solution enhances the rate of polymerization reaction at lower temperatures and results in substantial incorporation of nitrogen into the polymer. Morphologically, the formaldehyde polymer exists as submicron to micron-sized spheroidal particles and spheroidal particle aggregates that bare considerable similarity to the organic nanoglobules commonly observed in chondritic IOM. These spectroscopic and morphological data support the hypothesis that IOM in chondrites and refractory organic carbon in comets may have formed through the polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde after planetesimal accretion, in the presence of liquid water, early in the history of the solar system.

  7. Tetrataenite in metallic grains of the Antarctic L6 chondrite ALHA 76009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorzelli, R. B.; Azevedo, I. Souza; Funaki, M.

    1994-12-01

    Mössbauer X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy studies revealed that segregation and ordering occurred in the metal particles of the Antarctic L6 chondrite ALHA 76009. The ordered crystal structure of AuCu type (tetrataenite) was detected coexisting with the disordered 50-50 taenite.

  8. Chemical studies of H chondrites. 6: Antarctic/non-Antarctic compositional differences revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen F.; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1995-01-01

    We report data for the trace elements Au, Co, Sb, Ga, Rb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, T1, and In (ordered by putative volatility during nebular condensation and accretion) determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis of 14 additional H5 and H6 chondrite falls. Data for the 10 most volatile elements (Rb to In) treated by the multivariate techniques of linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression in these and 44 other falls are compared with those of 59 H4-6 chondrites from Antarctica. Various populations are tested by the multivariate techniques, using the previously developed method of randomization-simulation to assess significance levels. An earlier conclusion, based on fewer examples, that H4-6 chondrite falls are compositionally distinguishable from the Antarctic suite is verified by the additional data. This distinctiveness is highly significant because of the presence of samples from Victoria Land in the Antarctic population, which differ compositionally from falls beyond any reasonable doubt. However, it cannot be proven unequivocally that falls and Antarctic samples from Queen Maud Land are compositionally distinguishable. Trivial causes (e.g., analyst bias, weathering) cannot explain the Victoria Land (Antarctic)/non-Antarctic compositional difference for paradigmatic H4-6 chondrites. This seems to reflect a time-dependent variation of near-Earth meteoroid source regions differing in average thermal history.

  9. Fractionation of highly siderophile and chalcogen elements in components of EH3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlag, Yogita; Becker, Harry

    2015-07-01

    Abundances of highly siderophile elements (HSE: Re, platinum group elements and Au), chalcogens (Te, Se and S), 187Os/188Os and the major and minor elements Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni and Co were determined in the components of Sahara 97072 (EH3, find) and Kota Kota (EH3, find) in order to understand the element fractionation processes. In a 187Re-187Os isochron diagram, most magnetic components lie close to the 4.56 Ga IIIA iron meteorite isochron, whereas most other components show deviations from the isochron caused by late redistribution of Re, presumably during terrestrial weathering. Metal- and sulfide rich magnetic fractions and metal-sulfide nodules are responsible for the higher 187Os/188Os in bulk rocks of EH chondrites compared to CI chondrites. The HSE and chalcogens are enriched in magnetic fractions relative to slightly magnetic and nonmagnetic fractions and bulk compositions, indicating that Fe-Ni metal is the main host phase of the HSE in enstatite chondrites. HSE abundance patterns indicate mixing of two components, a CI chondrite like end member and an Au-enriched end member. Because of the decoupled variations of Au from those of Pd or the chalcogens, the enrichment of Au in EH metal cannot be due to metal-sulfide-silicate partitioning processes. Metal and sulfide rich nodules may have formed by melting and reaction of pre-existing refractory element rich material with volatile rich gas. A complex condensation and evaporation history is required to account for the depletion of elements having very different volatility than Au in EH chondrites. The depletions of Te relative to HSE, Se and S in bulk EH chondrites are mainly caused by the depletion of Te in metal. S/Se and S/Mn are lower than in CI chondrites in almost all components and predominantly reflect volatility-controlled loss of sulfur. The latter most likely occurred during thermal processing of dust in the solar nebula (e.g., during chondrule formation), followed by the non-systematic loss of S during terrestrial weathering.

  10. Microtextures of Phyllosilicates in the Mokoia CV Chondrite