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1

Forsteritic Olivine Grains in Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites: Additional Evidence for a Link Between Ordinary and Carbonaceous Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report mineral-chemical and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) oxygen-isotopic studies of forsteritic olivine grains from various Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites (UOCs). Our studies provide additional evidence for a genetic link between ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites and between various lithologies in these meteorites.

Ruzicka, A.; Hiyagon, H.; Prinz, M.; Taylor, L. A.

2000-01-01

2

Thermoluminescence Sensitivity and Thermal History of Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites: Review and Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on the induced thermoluminescence (TL) data for 102 unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. We discuss these data in terms of pairing, weathering, and parent body thermal history. We identify ten possible meteorites of petrologic types 3.0-3.1.

Benoit, P. H.; Ninagawa, K.; Sears, D. W. G.

2000-01-01

3

Widespread hydrothermal alteration minerals in the fine-grained matrices of the Tieschitz unequilibrated ordinary chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineralogic, textural, and compositional studies of black and white matrices in the unequilibrated ordinary chondrite Tieschitz (H/L, 3.6) show, for the first time in an ordinary chondrite, the presence of widespread, randomly distributed geode-like voids and veins. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies show that these voids and veins are partially or completely filled by sodic-calcic amphiboles (winchite and barroisite). The occurrence of amphiboles provides unequivocal evidence of the involvement of fluids in the metamorphic evolution of the parent body of Tieschitz. The presence of amphiboles as the main hydrous phases, rather than phyllosilicates, indicates that aqueous fluids were present at or close to the peak of thermal metamorphism, rather than during the waning stages of the cooling history of the parent body. In addition, ferrous olivine crystals, in association with the amphibole, also establish an important link between thermal metamorphism and hydrous phases formed at high temperatures. Mineralogic and textural evidence suggests that the white matrix and amphibole formed contemporaneously from the same hydrous fluid, prior to the formation of ferrous olivine crystals. Additionally, a dark inclusion identified in the host chondrite has mineralogic, petrologic, and bulk chemical characteristics that are similar to the black matrix of host Tieschitz, suggesting that this dark inclusion was emplaced before or during parent body metamorphism.

Dobric?, E.; Brearley, A. J.

2014-08-01

4

Fine, nickel-poor Fe-Ni grains in the olivine of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel-poor Fe-Ni grains smaller than 2.0 microns are common inclusions in ordinary, unequilibrated chondrites' porphyritic chondrule olivine, where the olivine grains seem to be relicts that survived chondrule formation without melting. This 'dusty' metal, whose most common occurrence is in the core of olivine grains having clear, Fe-poor rims, appears to be the product of the in situ reduction of FeO from the host olivine, with H2 or carbonaceous matter being the most likely reductants. H2 may have been implanted by solar wind or solar flare irradiation, but this requires the dissipation of nebular gas before the end of the chondrule formation process. Carbonaceous matter may have been implanted by shock. The large relict olivine grains may be nebular condensates or fragments broken from earlier chondrule generations.

Rambaldi, E. R.; Wasson, J. T.

1982-06-01

5

Trace elements in primitive meteorites—VII Antarctic unequilibrated ordinary chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report RNAA results for Co, Au, Sb, Ga, Rb, Cs, Se, Ag, Te, Zn, In, Bi, Tl and Cd (in increasing order of metamorphic mobility) in 22 Antarctic unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOC). This brings to 38 the number of UOC for which data for highly volatile elements are known. For elements of lesser mobility (Co to Se, omitting Cs) overall variability in UOC are low, relative standard deviations (one sigma) being no more than a factor of two. For Ag, Te and Zn, relative standard deviations are 2-4×, while for Cs and the four most volatile elements, the variabilities are 8-110×. Elemental abundances do not vary with chemical type (H, L and LL) nor with UOC subtype (3.0-3.9). Contents of all elements reach levels up to, even exceeding, cosmic and all but Cd and the two alkalis, seem unaffected by post-accretionary processes. Contents of highly volatile elements are consistent with the idea that source regions producing contemporary falls and older Antarctic UOC differed in thermal histories. The presence or absence of carbide magnetite assemblages (CMA) generally accords with high or low Cd contents, respectively. This relationship accords with the prior suggestion that CMA formed by alteration of Fe-Ni metal by C-O-H-containing fluids at temperatures <700 K, generated by thermal metamorphism in parent body interiors. The absence of CMA in most UOC (and OC), may indicate that they were subsequently destroyed as metamorphic intensity increased. The high, often supercosmic, Rb and Cs levels in UOC may result from their high solubility in liquid water signalling their redistribution by C-O-H-containing fluid while in the liquid water field. Because of its uniquely high mobility, Cd could have been enriched by the C-O-H fluids and should have been lost from parent regions during later, higher temperature anhydrous metamorphism at temperatures in the 500-600 °C range.

Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.

2007-02-01

6

Aqueous Alteration and Hydrogen Generation on Parent Bodies of Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites: Thermodynamic Modeling for the Semarkona Composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ordinary chondrites are the most abundant class of meteorites that could represent rocky parts of solar system bodies. However, even the most primitive unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOC) reveal signs of mild alteration that affected the matrix and peripheral zones of chondrules. Major chemical changes include oxidation of kamacite, alteration of glass, removal of alkalis, Al, and Si from chondrules, and formation of phases enriched in halogens, alkalis, and hydrogen. Secondary mineralogical changes include formation of magnetite, ferrous olivine, fayalite, pentlandite, awaruite, smectites, phosphates, carbonates, and carbides. Aqueous alteration is consistent with the oxygen isotope data for magnetite. The presence of secondary magnetite, Ni-rich metal alloys, and ferrous silicates in UOC implies that H2O was the oxidizing agent. However, oxidation by H2O means that H2 is produced in each oxidative pathway. In turn, production of H2, and its redistribution and possible escape should have affected total pressure, as well as the oxidation state of gas, aqueous and mineral phases in the parent body. Here we use equilibrium thermodynamic modeling to explore water-rock reactions in UOC. The chemical composition of gas, aqueous, and mineral phases is considered.

Zolotov, M. Y.; Mironenko, M. V.; Shock, E. L.

2005-01-01

7

The Lu-Hf isotopic composition of CHUR and BSE: Tighter constraints from unequilibrated chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lu-Hf isotopic system has been used increasingly in geochemistry as a chronometer and tracer of mantle and crust processes since the development of MC-ICPMS techniques [1]. Although a consensus has emerged on the value of the 176Lu decay constant, in contrast, the Lu and Hf isotopic compositions of the Chondrite Uniform Reservoir (CHUR) and Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) have not been as well constrained. Lu-Hf isotopic compositions vary dramatically between the chondrite classes and petrologic types of the specimens that have been analyzed [1-3], which hampers a choice of Lu-Hf CHUR parameters. Chondrites are classified in three main petrologic groups: carbonaceous (CC), ordinary (OC) and enstatite chondrites (EC). They represent distinct chemical and isotopic compositions, which can be associated with reservoirs in the protoplanetary disk where the respective parent bodies have formed. They also have been subjected to various degrees of aqueous alteration (types 1 and 2) or thermal metamorphism (types 3-6) that has potentially affected their initial chemical and mineralogical characteristics. Despite the fact that numerous OCs (~50) have been analyzed for their Lu-Hf isotopic composition, nearly all of these have been equilibrated types 4-6; only 5 finds of types 3.6-3.8 unequilibrated OC have been analyzed. We have analyzed 20 new chondrites for Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics including (i) 13 H, L, and LL OC of types 3.0- 3.8, where their low degree of metamorphism limits the growth of phosphate (main carrier of REE) compared to the equilibrated OC; and (ii) 7 CC of types 1-3 (CI, CV, CO and CK groups). We obtained mean values (2??SE) of 176Lu/177Hf = 0.0337 ± 3, 176Hf/177Hf = 0.282802 ± 23, 147Sm/144Nd = 0.1961 ± 6, and 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512629 ± 16 from the types 1-3 OC and CC from this study and [2]. Our Lu-Hf values are higher than the previous estimates of [3] and are our best estimates for CHUR. The CC alone give higher mean values of 176Lu/177Hf = 0.0339 ± 4, 176Hf/177Hf = 0.282816 ± 32, 147Sm/144Nd = 0.1966 ± 10, and 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512639 ± 28. These last values are concordant with the Sm-Nd CHUR and BSE parameters that are currently widely used [4]. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopic systems involve refractory and lithophile elements, so that the composition of BSE should coincide with that of the CHUR. The Lu/Hf chondrite range in unequilibrated OC and CC is now constrained by ~7%, equivalent to what is found for the paired Sm-Nd system. To refine the Lu-Hf BSE estimate, we need to determine which chondrites are the best representative of BSE. For Sm-Nd isotope systematics, there is wide overlap between the chondrite groups. In constrast, CC have significantly higher Lu/Hf than OC. If we compare with other refractory and lithophile elements, CV, CK, CM and CO chondrites represent the closest composition with Earth's mantle [5]. From O and Cr isotope constraints [6], EC share a common reservoir of formation with the Earth. We will refine the BSE composition based on these observations and also present supplementary data on CI, CR and unequilibrated EC. [1] Blichert-Toft and Albarède, 1997. EPSL, 148, 243-258. [2] Patchett et al., 2004. EPSL, 222, 29-41. [3] Bizzarro et al., 2003. Nature, 421, 931-933. [4] Jacobsen and Wasserburg, 1980. EPSL, 50, 139-155. [5] Palme, 2001. Philo. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., 359, 2061-2075. [6] Trinquier et al., 2007. APJ, 655, 1179-1185.

Bouvier, A.; Vervoort, J. D.; Patchett, J.

2007-12-01

8

Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

1990-01-01

9

Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements of 244Pu fission Xe, U, Th, and light REE (LREE) abundances, along with modal petrographic determinations of phosphate abundances, were carried out on equilibrated ordinary chondrites in order to define better the solar system Pu abundance and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. Our data permit comparison of the directly measured Pu/ U ratio with that determined indirectly as (Pu/Nd) ?? (Nd/U) assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. Except for Guaren??a, and perhaps H chondrites in general, Pu concentrations are similar to that determined previously for St. Se??verin, although less precise because of higher trapped Xe contents. Trapped 130Xe 136Xe ratios appear to vary from meteorite to meteorite, but, relative to AVCC, all are similar in the sense of having less of the interstellar heavy Xe found in carbonaceous chondrite acid residues. The Pu/U and Pu/Nd ratios are consistent with previous data for St. Se??verin, but both tend to be slightly higher than those inferred from previous data on Angra dos Reis. Although significant variations exist, the distribution of our Th/U ratios, along with other precise isotope dilution data for ordinary chondrites, is rather symmetric about the CI chondrite value; however, actinide/(LREE) ratios are systematically lower than the CI value. Variations in actinide or LREE absolute and relative abundances are interpreted as reflecting differences in the proportions and/or compositions of more primitive components (chondrules and CAI materials?) incorporated into different regions of the ordinary chondrite parent bodies. The observed variations of Th/U, Nd/U, or Ce/U suggest that measurements of Pu/U on any single equilibrated ordinary chondrite specimen, such as St. Se??verin, should statistically be within ??20-30% of the average solar system value, although it is also clear that anomalous samples exist. ?? 1990.

Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T.J.; Podosek, F.A.; Johnson, M.L.; Burnett, D.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

1990-01-01

10

Shock metamorphism of ordinary chondrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes a revised petrographic classification of progressive stages of shock metamorphism of 26 ordinary chondrites. Six stages of shock (S1 to S6) are defined on the basis of shock effects in olivine and plagioclase as recognized by thin section microscopy, and the characteristic shock effects of each shock stage are described. It is concluded that shock effects and

Dieter Stoeffler; Klaus Keil; Edward R. D. Scott

1991-01-01

11

KINETICS AND VOLATILIZATION OF SiC AND SiO2: IMPLICATIONS FOR METAMORPHISM OF UNEQUILIBRATED ORDINARY CHONDRITES; R.A. Mendybaev1,3, J.R. Beckett3, L. Grossman1,2, and E.  

E-print Network

of Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) -SiC, single crystal -SiC and fused silica glass with typical sizes of 6x3x0KINETICS AND VOLATILIZATION OF SiC AND SiO2: IMPLICATIONS FOR METAMORPHISM OF UNEQUILIBRATED the possibility of a more direct indicator based on the observation [1, 2] that abundances of diamond and SiC

Grossman, Lawrence

12

Incompletely compacted equilibrated ordinary chondrites  

SciTech Connect

We document the size distributions and locations of voids present within five highly porous equilibrated ordinary chondrites using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray microtomography ({mu}CT) and helium pycnometry. We found total porosities ranging from {approx}10 to 20% within these chondrites, and with {mu}CT we show that up to 64% of the void space is located within intergranular voids within the rock. Given the low (S1-S2) shock stages of the samples and the large voids between mineral grains, we conclude that these samples experienced unusually low amounts of compaction and shock loading throughout their entire post accretionary history. With Fe metal and FeS metal abundances and grain size distributions, we show that these chondrites formed naturally with greater than average porosities prior to parent body metamorphism. These materials were not 'fluffed' on their parent body by impact-related regolith gardening or events caused by seismic vibrations. Samples of all three chemical types of ordinary chondrites (LL, L, H) are represented in this study and we conclude that incomplete compaction is common within the asteroid belt.

Sasso, M.R.; Macke, R.J.; Boesenberg, J.S.; Britt, D.T.; Rovers, M.L.; Ebel, D.S.; Friedrich, J.M.; (Fordham)

2010-01-22

13

Metallic copper in ordinary chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallic Cu of moderately high purity (approximately 985 mg/g Cu, approximately 15 mg/g Ni) occurs in at least 66% of ordinary chondrites (OC) as heterogeneously distributed, small (typically less than or equal to 20 micrometers) rounded to irregular grains. The mean modal abundance of metallic Cu in H, L and LL chondrites is low: 1.0 to 1.4 x 10-4 vol%, corresponding to only 4 - 5 % of the total Cu in OC whole rocks. In more than 75% of the metallic-Cu-bearing OC, at least some metallic Cu occurs at metallic-Fe-Ni-troilite grain boundaries. In some cases it also occurs within troilite, within metallic Fe-Ni, or at the boundaries these phases form with silicates or chromite. Ordinary chondrites that contain a relatively large number of occurrences of metallic Cu/sq mm have a tendency to have experienced moderately high degrees of shock. Shock processes can cause local melting and transportation of metallic Fe-Ni and troilte; because metallic Cu is mainly associated with these phases, it also gets redistributed during shock events. In the most common petrographic assemblage containing metallic Cu, the Cu is adjacent to small irregular troilite grains surrounded by taenite plus tetrataenite; this assemblage resembles fizzed troilite and may have formed by localized shock melting or remelting of a metal-troilite assemblage.

Rubin, A. E.

1994-01-01

14

Metallic copper in ordinary chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallic Cu of moderately high purity (approximately 985 mg/g Cu, approximately 15 mg/g Ni) occurs in at least 66% of ordinary chondrites (OC) as heterogeneously distributed, small (typically less than or equal to 20 micrometers) rounded to irregular grains. The mean modal abundance of metallic Cu in H, L and LL chondrites is low: 1.0 to 1.4 x 10(exp -4) vol%, corresponding to only 4 - 5 % of the total Cu in OC whole rocks. In more than 75% of the metallic-Cu-bearing OC, at least some metallic Cu occurs at metallic-Fe-Ni-troilite grain boundaries. In some cases it also occurs within troilite, within metallic Fe-Ni, or at the boundaries these phases form with silicates or chromite. Ordinary chondrites that contain a relatively large number of occurrences of metallic Cu/sq mm have a tendency to have experienced moderately high degrees of shock. Shock processes can cause local melting and transportation of metallic Fe-Ni and troilte; because metallic Cu is mainly associated with these phases, it also gets redistributed during shock events. In the most common petrographic assemblage containing metallic Cu, the Cu is adjacent to small irregular troilite grains surrounded by taenite plus tetrataenite; this assemblage resembles fizzed troilite and may have formed by localized shock melting or remelting of a metal-troilite assemblage.

Rubin, Alan E.

1994-01-01

15

Multiple and Fast: The Accretion of Ordinary Chondrite Parent Bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although petrologic, chemical, and isotopic studies of ordinary chondrites and meteorites in general have largely helped establish a chronology of the earliest events of planetesimal formation and their evolution, there are several questions that cannot be resolved via laboratory measurements and/or experiments alone. Here, we propose the rationale for several new constraints on the formation and evolution of ordinary chondrite parent bodies (and, by extension, most planetesimals) from newly available spectral measurements and mineralogical analysis of main-belt S-type asteroids (83 objects) and unequilibrated ordinary chondrite meteorites (53 samples). Based on the latter, we suggest that spectral data may be used to distinguish whether an ordinary chondrite was formed near the surface or in the interior of its parent body. If these constraints are correct, the suggested implications include that: (1) large groups of compositionally similar asteroids are a natural outcome of planetesimal formation and, consequently, meteorites within a given class can originate from multiple parent bodies; (2) the surfaces of large (up to ~200 km) S-type main-belt asteroids mostly expose the interiors of the primordial bodies, a likely consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system; (3) the duration of accretion of the H chondrite parent bodies was likely short (instantaneous or in less than ~105 yr, but certainly not as long as 1 Myr); (4) LL-like bodies formed closer to the Sun than H-like bodies, a possible consequence of the radial mixing and size sorting of chondrules in the protoplanetary disk prior to accretion.

Vernazza, P.; Zanda, B.; Binzel, R. P.; Hiroi, T.; DeMeo, F. E.; Birlan, M.; Hewins, R.; Ricci, L.; Barge, P.; Lockhart, M.

2014-08-01

16

Semarkona meteorite: first recorded occurrence of smectite in an ordinary chondrite, and its implications  

SciTech Connect

Semarkona is an unshocked unequilibrated ordinary chondrite. Much of the interchondrule matrix and the mesostases of some chondrules and clasts have been hydrothermally altered. Analyses of altered materials and opaque matrix are presented. Ca and Fe have been redistributed from primary, anhydrous phases into calcite and Na, Fe smectite, respectively. In Semarkona the process possibly requires open system behavior inconsistent with the conventional view of metamorphism of the ordinary chondrites. The low petrologic type previously assigned to Semarkona is the result of retrograde metamorphism, under aqueous conditions, of a higher temperature mineral assemblage. Semarkona, and possibly Bishunpur, should be assigned to petrologic type 2.

Hutchison, R.; Alexander, C.M.O.; Barber, D.J.

1987-07-01

17

Fossil records of high level of 60Fe in chondrules from unequilibrated chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The short-lived now-extinct nuclide (SLN) 60Fe, which decays to 60Ni with a half-life of 2.62 Ma, is uniquely of stellar origin. Hence, its Solar System initial abundance yields information about the source of SLNs and the astrophysical environment in which the Solar System was born. Only a few chondrules (?19) from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites have reported resolved 60Ni excesses using in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry implying Fe60/Fe56>?0.6×10-7 in the early Solar System, and among these very few (3) have higher excesses implying Fe60/Fe56?7×10-7 (Mishra et al., 2010; Mishra and Goswami, 2014; Telus et al., 2012). At variance, multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer studies of bulk samples and mineral separates from differentiated meteorites, angrites, achondrites, and chondrules suggest a low abundance of 60Fe/56Fe of ?1.4×10-8 which would rule out the need for an external seeding of the early Solar with stellar 60Fe (Quitté et al., 2011; Tang and Dauphas, 2012). Two Semarkona chondrules and one Efremovka chondrule analyzed in the present study have mass fractionation corrected excess of up to ?75 permil (‰) and give 60Fe isochrons with initial 60Fe/56Fe ratios of (7.8±3.7)×10-7, (3.8±1.6)×10-7, and (2.2±1.1)×10-7 (2?), for Efremovka Ch 1, Semarkona Ch 12, and Semarkona Ch J5 respectively. The higher values of 60Fe/56Fe ratios seen in the chondrules of these least altered meteorites samples concur with and lend greater credence to the suggestion of a massive star as the source of 60Fe, and possibly of other short-lived nuclides, to the early Solar System. However, no definitive explanation (e.g. sample bias, effects of metamorphism, 60Fe heterogeneity) to the apparent disagreement with studies of bulk chondrules and chondrule fragments has been found.

Mishra, Ritesh Kumar; Chaussidon, Marc

2014-07-01

18

Extinct Radionuclides in the Early Solar System: The Initial Solar System Abundance of Iron-60 from Angrites and Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites and Aluminum-26-Magnesium-26 Chronology of Ungrouped Achondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of a number of extinct radionuclides in the early Solar System (SS) is known from geochemical and isotopic studies of meteorites and their components. The half-lives of these isotopes are short relative to the age of the SS, such that they have now decayed to undetectable levels. They can be inferred to exist in the early SS from the presence of their daughter nuclides in meteoritic materials that formed while they were still extant. The extinct radionuclides are particularly useful as fine-scale chronometers for events in the early SS. They can also be used to help constrain the astrophysical setting of the formation of the SS because their short half-lives and unique formation environments yield information about the sources and timing of delivery of material to the protoplanetary disk. Some extinct radionuclides are considered evidence that the Sun interacted with a massive star (supernova) early in its history. The abundance of 60Fe in the early SS is particularly useful for constraining the astrophysical environment of the Sun's formation because, if present in sufficient abundance, its only likely source is injection from a nearby supernova. The initial SS abundance of 60Fe is poorly constrained at the present time, with estimates varying by 1-2 orders of magnitude. I have determined the 60Fe-60Ni isotope systematics of ancient, well-preserved meteorites using high-precision mass spectrometry to better constrain the initial SS abundance of 60Fe. I find identical estimates of the initial 60Fe abundance from both differentiated basaltic meteorites and from components of primitive chondrites formed in the Solar nebula, which suggest a lower 60Fe abundance than other recent estimates. With recent improved meteorite collection efforts there are more rare ungrouped meteorites being found that hold interesting clues to the origin and evolution of early SS objects. I use the 26Al-26 Mg extinct radionuclide chronometer to constrain the ages of several recently recovered meteorites that sample previously unknown asteroid lithologies, including the only know felsic meteorite from an asteroid and two other ungrouped basaltic achondrites. These results help broaden our understanding of the timescales involved in igneous differentiation processes in the early SS.

Spivak-Birndorf, Lev

19

Portales Valley: Not Just Another Ordinary Chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soon after the Portales Valley meteorite fell in 1998, it was classified as one of the most common types of meteorites, an H6 ordinary chondrite. Although researchers quickly recognized that Portales Valley is not a typical H6 chondrite, there was little agreement about how the meteorite formed. A recent study of Portales Valley by Ruzicka and colleagues suggests that the textures, mineralogy, and chemistry of the meteorite are best explained as the first good example of a metallic melt breccia. This meteorite represents a transitional stage between chondrites and various classes of differentiated meteorites, and offers clues as to how differentiation occurred in early-formed planetary bodies.

Ruzicka, A.; Hutson, M.

2005-09-01

20

{sup 60}Fe AND {sup 26}Al IN CHONDRULES FROM UNEQUILIBRATED CHONDRITES: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

The presence of about a dozen short-lived nuclides in the early solar system, including {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al, has been established from isotopic studies of meteorite samples. An accurate estimation of solar system initial abundance of {sup 60}Fe, a distinct product of stellar nucleosynthesis, is important to infer the stellar source of this nuclide. Previous studies in this regard suffered from the lack of exact knowledge of the time of formation of the analyzed meteorite samples. We present here results obtained from the first combined study of {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al records in early solar system objects to remove this ambiguity. Chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites belonging to low petrologic grades were analyzed for their Fe-Ni and Al-Mg isotope systematics. The Al-Mg isotope data provide the time of formation of the analyzed chondrules relative to the first solar system solids, the Ca-Al-rich inclusions. The inferred initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe values of four chondrules, combined with their time of formation based on Al-Mg isotope data, yielded a weighted mean value of (6.3 {+-} 2) x 10{sup -7} for solar system initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe. This argues for a high-mass supernova as the source of {sup 60}Fe along with {sup 26}Al and several other short-lived nuclides present in the early solar system.

Mishra, R. K.; Goswami, J. N.; Rudraswami, N. G. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad-380009 (India); Tachibana, S. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Huss, G. R., E-mail: goswami@prl.res.i [Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2010-05-10

21

The evolution of enstatite and chondrules in unequilibrated enstatite chondrites: Evidence from iron-rich pyroxene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FeO-rich (Fs(sub 6)-34) pyroxene lacking cathodoluminescence (CL), hereafter black pyroxene, is a major constituent of some of the chondrules and fragments in unequilibrated (type 3) enstatite chondrites (UECs). It contains structurally oriented zones of Cr-, Mn-, V-rich, FeO-poor enstatite with red CL, associated with mm-sized blebs of low-Ni, Fe-metal and, in some cases, silica. These occurrences represent clear evidence of pyroxene reduction. The black pyroxene is nearly always rimmed by minor element (Cr, Mn, V)-poor enstatite having a blue CL. More commonly, red and blue enstatites, unassociated with black pyroxene, occur as larger grains in chondrules and fragments, and these constitute the major silicate phases in UECs. The rare earth element (REE) abundance patterns of the black pyroxene are LREE-depleted. The blue enstatite rims, however, have a near-flat to LREE-enriched pattern, approx. 0.5-4x chondritic. The petrologic and trace element data indicate that the black pyroxene is from an earlier generation of chondrules that formed in a nebular region that was more oxidizing than that of the enstatite chondrites. Following solidification, these chondrules experienced a more reducing nebular environment and underwent reduction. Some, perhaps most, of the red enstatite that is common throughout the UECs may be the product of solid-state reduction of black pyroxene. The blue enstatite rims grew onto the surfaces of the black pyroxene and red enstatite as a result of condensation from a nebular gas. The evolutionary history of some of the enstatite and chondrules in enstatite chondrites can be expressed in a four-stage model that includes: Stage 1. Formation of chondrules in an oxidizing nebular environment. Stage 2. Solid-state reduction of the more oxidized chondrules and fragments to red enstatite in a more reducing nebular environment. Stage 3. Formation of blue enstatite rims on the black pyroxene as well as on the red enstatite. Stage 4. Reprocessing, by various degrees of melting, of many of the earlier-formed materials.

Weisberg, Michael K.; Prinz, Martin; Fogel, Robert A.

1994-01-01

22

A comparison of FeO-rich, porphyritic olivine chondrules in unequilibrated chondrites and experimental analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimentally produced analogues of porphyritic olivine (PO) chondrules in ordinary chondrites provide an important insight into chondrule formation processes. We have studied experimental samples with PO textures grown at three different cooling rates (2, 5 and 100 C/h), and samples that have been annealed at high temperatures (1000-1200 C) subsequent to cooling. These are compared with natural chondrules of similar composition and texture from the ordinary chondrites Semarkona (LL3.0) and ALH 81251 (LL3.3). Zoning properties of olivine grains indicate that the Semarkona chondrules cooled at comparable rates to the experiments. Zoning in olivine from chondrules in ALH 81251 is not consistent with cooling alone but indicates that the chondrules underwent an annealing process. Chromium loss from olivine is very rapid during annealing and calculated diffusion coefficients for Cr in olivine are very similar to those of Fe-Mg interdiffusion coefficients under the same conditions. Annealed experimental samples contain an aluminous, low-Ca pyroxene which forms by reaction of olivine and liquid. No similar reaction texture is observed in ALH 81251 chondrules, and this may be evidence that annealing of the natural samples took place at considerably lower temperatures than the experimental analogues. The study supports the model of chondrule formation in a cool nebula and metamorphism of partly equilibrated chondrites during reheating episodes on the chondrite parent bodies.

Jones, R. H.; Lofgren, G. E.

1993-06-01

23

Primitive ultrafine matrix in ordinary chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrafine matrix material has been concentrated by sieving and filtering disaggregated samples of six ordinary chondrites of different classes. This component(s), 'Holy Smoke' (HS), is enriched in both volatile, e.g. Na, K, Zn, Sb, and Pb, as well as refractory elements, e.g. W and REE; however, the element ratios vary greatly among the different chondrites. SEM studies show that HS contains fragile crystals, differing in composition, and apparently in gross disequilibrium not only among themselves but also with the major mineral phases and consequently thermodynamic equilibration did not occur. Thus HS must have originated from impacting bodies and/or was inherent in the 'primitive' regolith. Subsequent impact brecciation and reheating appears to have altered, to varying degrees, the original composition of this ultrafine matrix material. Recent 'cosmic dust' studies may indicate that HS still exists in the solar system. Survival of such delicate material must be considered in all theories for the origin of chondrites.

Rambaldi, E. R.; Fredriksson, B. J.; Fredriksson, K.

1981-01-01

24

Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites - VI: siderophile elements in ordinary chondrites  

SciTech Connect

The abundances of Fe, Ni, Co, Au, Ir, Ga, As and Mg have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in 38 type 3 ordinary chondrites (10 of which may be paired) and 15 equilibrated chondrites. Classification of type 3 ordinary chondrites into the H, L and LL classes using oxygen isotopes and parameters which reflect oxidation state (Fa and Fs in the olivine and pyroxene, and Co in kamacite) is difficult or impossible. Bulk compositional parameters, based on the equilibrated chondrites, have therefore been used to classify the type 3 chondrites. The distribution of the type 3 ordinary chondrites over the classes is very different from that of the equilibrated chondrites, the LL chondrites being more heavily represented. The type 3 ordinary chondrites contain 5 to 15% lower abundances of siderophile elements, and a compilation of the present data and literature data indicates a small, systematic decrease in siderophile element concentration with decreasing petrologic type. The type 3 ordinary chondrites have, like the equilibrated ordinary chondrites, suffered a fractionation of their siderophile elements, but the loss of Ni in comparison with Au and Ir is greater for the type 3 chondrites. These siderophile element trends were established at the nebula phase of chondritic history and the co-variation with petrologic type implies onion-shell structures for the ordinary chondrite parent bodies. It is also clear that the relationship between the type 3 and the equilibrated ordinary chondrites involves more than simple, closed-system metamorphism.

Sears, D.W.G.; Weeks, K.S.

1986-12-01

25

Penecontemporaneous metamorphism, fragmentation, and reassembly of ordinary chondrite parent bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal histories of ordinary chondrites and the canonical internal heating or onion shell models, which predict an inverse relation between the petrologic type of chondrites and the metallographic cooling rate, are reviewed. The thermal and accretional requirements of the 'metamorphosed planetesimal' model proposed by Scott and Rajan (1981) are analyzed, and an alternative model consistent with the metallographic cooling rate constraints is suggested in which ordinary chondrite parent bodies are collisionally fragmented and then rapidly reassembled before metamorphic heat has been dissipated.

Grimm, R. E.

1985-01-01

26

Chromium on Eros: Further Evidence of Ordinary Chondrite Composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface major element composition of the near-earth asteroid 433-Eros has been determined by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRS) on the NEAR-Shoemaker spacecraft [1]. The abundances of Mg, Al, Si, Ca and Fe match those of ordinary chondrites [1]. However, the observation that Eros appears to have a sulfur abundance at least a factor of two lower than ordinary chondrites, suggests either sulfur loss from the surface of Eros by impact and/or radiation processes (space weathering) or that its surface is comprised of a somewhat more differentiated type of material than an ordinary chondrite [1]. A definitive match for an ordinary chondrite parent body has very rarely been made, despite the conundrum that ordinary chondrites are the most prevalent type of meteorite found on Earth. Furthermore, Eros is classified as an S(IV) type asteroid [2] and being an S, it is the second most prevalent type of asteroid in the asteroid belt [3].

Foley, C. N.; Nittler, L. R.; Brown, M. R. M.; McCoy, T. J.; Lim, L. F.

2005-01-01

27

A hydrogen isotope study of CO3 type carbonaceous chondrites; comparison with type 3 ordinary chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorites of the Ornans type 3 carbonaceous chondrites exhibit a range in degree of equilibration, attributed to differing amounts of thermal metamorphism. These differences have been used to split the CO3 chondrites into petrologic sub-types from 3.0, least equilibrated, to 3.7, being most equilibrated. This is similar to the system of assigning the type 3 ordinary chondrites into petrologic sub-types 3.0 to 3.9 based upon thermoluminescence (TL) and other properties; however, the actual range of thermal metamorphism experienced by CO3 chondrites is much less than that of the type 3 ordinary chondrites. The least equilibrated ordinary chondrites show evidence of aqueous alteration and have high D/H ratios possibly due to a deuterium-rich organic carrier. The aim of this study was to determine whether the CO3 chondrites, which have experienced similar secondary conditions to the type 3 ordinary chondrites, also contain a similar deuterium-rich carrier. To date a total of 5 CO3 meteorites, out of a set of 11 for which carbon and nitrogen isotopic data are available, have been analyzed. Ornans has not been analyzed yet, because it does not appear to fit in with the metamorphic sequence exhibited by the other CO3 chondrites; it also has an extremely high delta-D value of +2150 percent, unusual for such a comparatively equilibrated meteorite (type 3.4). Initial results indicate that the more equilibrated CO3's tend to have lower delta-D values, analogous to the higher petrologic type ordinary chondrites. However this is complicated by the effects of terrestrial weathering and the small data-set.

Morse, A. D.; Newton, J.; Pillinger, C. T.

1993-03-01

28

A hydrogen isotope study of CO3 type carbonaceous chondrites; comparison with type 3 ordinary chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteorites of the Ornans type 3 carbonaceous chondrites exhibit a range in degree of equilibration, attributed to differing amounts of thermal metamorphism. These differences have been used to split the CO3 chondrites into petrologic sub-types from 3.0, least equilibrated, to 3.7, being most equilibrated. This is similar to the system of assigning the type 3 ordinary chondrites into petrologic sub-types 3.0 to 3.9 based upon thermoluminescence (TL) and other properties; however, the actual range of thermal metamorphism experienced by CO3 chondrites is much less than that of the type 3 ordinary chondrites. The least equilibrated ordinary chondrites show evidence of aqueous alteration and have high D/H ratios possibly due to a deuterium-rich organic carrier. The aim of this study was to determine whether the CO3 chondrites, which have experienced similar secondary conditions to the type 3 ordinary chondrites, also contain a similar deuterium-rich carrier. To date a total of 5 CO3 meteorites, out of a set of 11 for which carbon and nitrogen isotopic data are available, have been analyzed. Ornans has not been analyzed yet, because it does not appear to fit in with the metamorphic sequence exhibited by the other CO3 chondrites; it also has an extremely high delta-D value of +2150 percent, unusual for such a comparatively equilibrated meteorite (type 3.4). Initial results indicate that the more equilibrated CO3's tend to have lower delta-D values, analogous to the higher petrologic type ordinary chondrites. However this is complicated by the effects of terrestrial weathering and the small data-set.

Morse, A. D.; Newton, J.; Pillinger, C. T.

1993-01-01

29

Multiple parent bodies of ordinary chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal histories of chondrite parent bodies are calculated from an initial state with material in a powder-like form, taking into account the effect of consolidation state on thermal conductivity. The very low thermal conductivity of the starting materials makes it possible for a small body with a radius of less than 100 km to be heated by several hundred degrees even if long-lived radioactive elements in chondritic abundances are the only source of heat. The maximum temperature is determined primarily by the temperature at which sintering of the constituent materials occurs. The thermal state of the interior of a chondrite parent body after sintering has begun is nearly isothermal. Near the surface, however, where the material is unconsolidated and the thermal conductivity is much lower, the thermal gradient is quite large. This result contradicts the conventional 'onion-shell' model of chondrite parent bodies. But because the internal temperature is almost constant through the whole body, it supports a 'multiple-parent bodies' model, according to which each petrologic type of chondrite comes from a different parent body.

Yomogida, K.; Matsui, T.

1984-01-01

30

The mineralogy of ordinary chondrites and implications for asteroid spectrophotometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Published data from bulk chemical analyses of 94 ordinary chondrites are compiled in a table of normative mineralogy and discussed in detail. Significant variations in olivine, pyroxene, and metal abundance ratios are found within each chondrite class and attributed to redox processes superimposed on initial differences in metal/silicate ratios. The use of the diagrams constructed here to predict the mineralogic characteristics of asteroids on the basis of spectrophotometric observations is suggested.

Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Bennett, Marvin E., III; Jarosewich, Eugene

1991-01-01

31

The mineralogy of ordinary chondrites and implications for asteroid spectrophotometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Published data from bulk chemical analyses of 94 ordinary chondrites are compiled in a table of normative mineralogy and discussed in detail. Significant variations in olivine, pyroxene, and metal abundance ratios are found within each chondrite class and attributed to redox processes superimposed on initial differences in metal/silicate ratios. The use of the diagrams constructed here to predict the mineralogic characteristics of asteroids on the basis of spectrophotometric observations is suggested.

McSween, H. Y.; Bennett, M. E.; Jarosewich, E.

1991-03-01

32

An unequilibrated inclusion in the Romero (H3-4) chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the chondritic matrix of Romero (H3-4) is a metal-poor inclusion consisting largely of olivines showing quench textures, minor low-Ca pyroxene and rare metal and sulfide. The olivines within this inclusion have the dominant composition Fa8 with a range Fa(7.5-17). The matrix (Romero host) olivines are, in the main, equilibrated with an average composition of Fa18, but are lower in CaO and Cr2O3 than the inclusion olivines. The high chromium content of the inclusion olivines suggests that they formed under conditions different from those represented by the other olivines in Romero.

Graham, A. L.

1983-03-01

33

Redox Controls of Fe-Mn-Mg in Ordinary Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If the Fe/Mn ratio of CI chondrites (~95) is an average for the solar system, then the variation of Fe/Mn ratios (50-150) among other chondritic meteorites reflects processing of the prechondritic material. The known, moderate volatility of Mn is often invoked to explain these variations [1], but CI normalized abundance data for O and C chondrites [2] reveals that although carbonaceous chondrites are indeed depleted in Mn, as reflected in their high Fe/Mn ratios, the ordinary chondrites are essentially undepleted. Relative to CI, however, the ordinary chondrites have variable Fe abundances and this is reflected in their bulk Fe/Mn (atom) ratios. The low Fe/Mn ratios of ordinary chondrites are, therefore, not a reflection of Mn enrichment relative to CI but of Fe depletion. In detail, ordinary chondrites also reveal evidence of processing prior to their assembly as O-chondrites. Figure 1 shows the variation of Fe, Mn, and Mg in ordinary chondrites relative to CI. The line shows the trace of iron loss or addition relative to Orgueil [2]. Both bulk and silicate fractions of OCs fall on or close to this line, confirming that they are related to the CI average by Fe loss. The order of increasing Fe loss (H-L-LL) reflects the general classification of these meteorites. However, the silicate-only fraction of the OC [3] shows the opposite trend (LL-L-H) with Fe loss, reflecting the metal/silicate fractionation present in the meteorites. The variation of bulk OC Fe/Mn reflects the removal of Fe metal from the OC precursors by a reduction reaction presumably of the type FeO(silicate) + CO(nebula) = Fe(metal) + C02 (gas). Clearly H-chondrites show little of this metal removal in bulk. L and LL chondrite precursors, however, have been progressively depleted in Fe resulting in lower bulk Fe/Mn ratios. In contrast, the metal rich H-chondrites have the most reduced silicates (lowest silicate Fe/Mn) although much of the metal fraction is still present in the meteorites. The LL chondrites contain the least evidence of in situ reduction, as their silicates have Fe/Mn ratios close to their bulk Fe/Mn. The reaction that reduced the FeO to metal was probably controlled by in situ carbon rather than nebular CO. Since the lowering of Fe/Mn in the bulk OCs reflects nebular reduction by CO, other evidence of that reduction should be sought. The progressive shift of the oxygen isotope ratios in sequence H-L-LL toward heavier oxygen probably reflects this reduction reaction with a gas reservoir enriched in heavy oxygen as suggested by [4]. The removal of Fe metal prior to the assembly of OC meteorites, therefore provides a link to the undifferentiated iron meteorites. The fractionation of the silicates in OCs relative to the bulk meteorites may reflect either in situ reaction of FeO with C in the chondritic host, or incomplete separation of metal formed by nebular reaction. Correlation of the Fe-Mn-Mg results for chondrules from UOCs with their oxygen isotope signature should provide a measure of these competing effects, although the effects of Mn volatility may obscure the data at the scale of a chondrule. References: [1] Ganapathy and Anders (1977) Proc. LPSC 8th. [2] Wasson and Kallemeyn (1988) Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A235. [3] Jarosewich (1990) Meteoritics, 25. [4] Clayton and Mayeda (1992) Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. Acknowledgment: NAG9-304

Delaney, J. S.

1993-07-01

34

Classification of a second group of ordinary chondrites from Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on optical microscopy and electron microprobe analyses of mafic minerals, six previously undescribed or poorly known ordinary chondrites from Texas were classified into compositional groups, petrologic types, and shock facies. These meteorites are Junction, L5d; Anton, H5b; Venus, H4d; Dalhart, H5a; Rosebud, H5c; and Cranfills Gap, H6c.

Ehlmann, A. J.; Keil, K.

1987-03-01

35

Rapid Classification of Ordinary Chondrites Using Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classification of ordinary chondrites is typically done through measurements of the composition of olivine and pyroxenes. Historically, this measurement has usually been performed via electron microprobe, oil immersion or other methods which can be costly through lost sample material during thin section preparation. Raman microscopy can perform the same measurements but considerably faster and with much less sample preparation allowing for faster classification. Raman spectroscopy can facilitate more rapid classification of large amounts of chondrites such as those retrieved from North Africa and potentially Antarctica, are present in large collections, or are submitted to a curation facility by the public. With development, this approach may provide a completely automated classification method of all chondrite types.

Fries, M.; Welzenbach, L.

2014-01-01

36

Carbon in weathered ordinary chondrites from Roosevelt County  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A suite of Roosevelt County ordinary chondrites of known terrestrial age have been analyzed for carbon content and isotopic composition. Initial results indicate that significant carbon contamination is evident only in samples with a terrestrial age greater than 40 ka. These samples are of weathering grade D and E and contain three times more carbon than the less weathered samples. The soil in which they were preserved has a carbon content of ca. 1.5 percent. Over 200 meteorites have been recovered from a series of soil depleted areas of New Mexico and West Texas. Most have been recovered from blowouts near Clovis in Roosevelt County (RC) on the high plains of New Mexico. The mineralogical and petrologic Al effects of weathering upon these samples have been studied previously and show that the degree of weathering is largely depend ant upon the terrestrial residence time. The study was undertaken to determine the effects of prolonged exposure to the soil and climate of Roosevelt County upon ordinary chondrites in the hope that this will enable a better understanding of the problems associated with the collection of meteoritic falls. A suite of ten grade 4 to 6 H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites were analyzed for carbon content and isotopic composition.

Ash, R. D.; Pillinger, C. T.

1993-01-01

37

Did Ordinary Chondrite Impactors Deliver Olivine to Vesta?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope observations of asteroid Vesta suggested the presence of olivine. However, subsequent analysis of data from NASA’s Dawn mission proved that this “olivine-bearing unit”, identified as Oppia crater and its ejecta blanket, was composed of HED impact melt rather than olivine. The lack of widespread olivine in the 19 km deep Rheasilvia basin on the South Pole suggests that the crust-mantle boundary was not breached during the formation of the basin, and that Vesta’s crust is thicker than originally anticipated. Recently, local-scale olivine units have been reported in the walls and ejecta of two craters, Arruntia and Bellicia, located in the northern hemisphere of Vesta, 350-430 km from the Rheasilvia basin (Ammannito et al., 2013). These units were interpreted as exposed plutons by Clenet et al. (2014) rather than of mantle origin excavated during the formation of the Rheasilvia basin. We explored alternative sources for these olivine-rich units by reanalyzing the data published by Ammannito et al. (2013). Our mineralogical analysis gives olivine abundance between 70-80 vol.% consistent with those obtained previously (>60%). The pyroxene ferrosilite content and olivine abundance of the olivine-rich units are similar to ordinary chondrites. Meteoritic evidence suggests contamination of HEDs by several ordinary chondrite impactors including H, L and LL chondrites. This includes howardite JaH 556, which contains ~20 vol.% H chondrite material mixed with HED impact melt. Based on the non-diagnostic curve match and detailed mineralogical analysis using diagnostic spectral band parameters, we conclude that the olivine units in the northern hemisphere of Vesta could be explained by the delivery of exogenic H/L chondrite material rather than being a product of planetary differentiation.

Le Corre, Lucille; Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan A.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Izawa, Matthew R.; Mann, Paul

2014-11-01

38

Petrology of nine ordinary chondrite falls from China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine twentieth-century ordinary chondrite falls from China are described and classified. They include: Nantong (H6), Zaoyang (H5), Zhaodong (L4), Qidong (L-LL5), Raoyang (L6), Sheyang (L6), Guangnan (L6), Suizhou (L6) and Nan Yang Pao (L6). Kamacite in Qidong is rare and contains much more Co (15 mg/g) than is characteristic of L-group chondrites; Qidong may be a member of a chondrite group intermediate in its properties between L and LL. Zhaodong, Qidong, Raoyang, Sheyang and Suizhou have several olivine and/or low-Ca pyroxene grains with aberrant Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratios; it is probable that these five chondrites are fragmental breccias. The lack of correlation between shock facies and occurrence of aberrant silicate grains suggests that breccia lithification caused only minimal shock effects in many meteorites. Alternatively, postshock annealing may have resulted in the recrystallization of shock-indicating phases, leading to assignment of a shockfacies that is lower than that present immediately after the shock event.

Wang, D.; Rubin, A. E.

1987-03-01

39

The onset of metamorphism in ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites of the lowest petrologic types were surveyed by X-ray mapping techniques. A variety of metamorphic effects were noted and subjected to detailed analysis using electron microprobe, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and cathodoluminescence (CL) methods. The distribution of Cr in FeO-rich olivine systematically changes as metamorphism increases between type 3.0 and type 3.2. Igneous zoning patterns are replaced by complex ones and Cr-rich coatings develop on all grains. Cr distributions in olivine are controlled by the exsolution of a Cr-rich phase, probably chromite. Cr in olivine may have been partly present as tetrahedrally coordinated Cr3+. Separation of chromite is nearly complete by petrologic type 3.2. The abundance of chondrules showing an inhomogeneous distribution of alkalis in mesostasis also increases with petrologic type. TEM shows this to be the result of crystallization of albite. Residual glass compositions systematically change during metamorphism, becoming increasingly rich in K. Glass in type I chondrules also gains alkalis during metamorphism. Both types of chondrules were open to an exchange of alkalis with opaque matrix and other chondrules. The matrix in the least metamorphosed chondrites is rich in S and Na. The S is lost from the matrix at the earliest stages of metamorphism due to coalescence of minute grains. Progressive heating also results in the loss of sulfides from chondrule rims and increases sulfide abundances in coarse matrix assemblages as well as inside chondrules. Alkalis initially leave the matrix and enter chondrules during early metamorphism. Feldspar subsequently nucleates in the matrix and Na re-enters from chondrules. These metamorphic trends can be used to refine classification schemes for chondrites. Cr distributions in olivine are a highly effective tool for assigning petrologic types to the most primitive meteorites and can be used to subdivide types 3.0 and 3.1 into types 3.00 through 3.15. On this basis, the most primitive ordinary chondrite known is Semarkona, although even this meteorite has experienced a small amount of metamorphism. Allan Hills (ALH) A77307 is the least metamorphosed CO chondrite and shares many properties with the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094. Analytical problems are significant for glasses in type II chondrules, as Na is easily lost during microprobe analysis. As a result, existing schemes for chondrule classification that are based on the alkali content of glasses need to be revised. ?? The Meteorological Society, 2005.

Grossman, J.N.; Brearley, A.J.

2005-01-01

40

Stable Isotope Fractionation of Cr in Carbonaceous and Ordinary Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Difficulties with chemical separation and mass spectrometry combined with little expectation of isotopic fractionation at high temperature left the stable isotope geochemistry of Cr almost unknown [1]. The search for ^{53}Cr excess resulting from the decay of the radioactive nuclide ^{53}Mn (T1/2 = 3.5 My) was very successful but the small amount of data produced to date attests to the particularly difficult measurement by TIMS. This preliminary report describes evidence of mass-dependent fractionation of the stable Cr isotopes 50, 52, and 53 as measured by MC-ICPMS in meteorites relative to SRM 979 Cr standard. Cr was purified using cation-exchange chemistry. The yield is ~100 %. The samples were run on the Nu- Plasma HR of UC Davis in pseudo high-resolution mode. The absence of isotopic fractionation induced by the chemical purification has been double checked by 1) processing the standard through the column and 2) running the same sample several times through the columns. In both cases, we observe no difference in the measured isotopic ratio. The external reproducibility, estimated from 13 replicates of Bjurbole, is 50 ppm. The range of the fractionation per mass unit among 7 carbonaceous chondrites (CI, CM, CO, CV and CK) and 5 ordinary chondrites (H, L and LL) is 0.3 ‰. Individual chondrules from Chainpur and Bjurbole have a wider range (0.6 ‰). All the chondrites analyzed so far are isotopically lighter than the bulk silicate earth (? ^{50/52}Cr=0, [1]). As for Zn [2], Cr isotopes seem to be heavier in ordinary chondrites (-0.23 ‰) than in carbonaceous chondrites (-0.35 ‰). Also as for Zn and Cu [2-3], Cr stable isotopes in carbonaceous chondrites are correlated with ? 17O, suggesting a mixing between an isotopically heavy component and an isotopically light one. The correlation between mass-dependent fractionation of Cr and non-mass-dependent ? 17O requires attention and adequate interpretation. References: [1] Johnson and Bullen, 2004, Review in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. [2] Luck et al., 2005 GCA. [3] Luck et al., 2003 GCA.

Moynier, F.; Jacobsen, B.; Yin, Q.

2006-12-01

41

Metallographic cooling rates of L-group ordinary chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shock metamorphism appears to be a ubiquitous feature in L-group ordinary chondrites. Brecciation and heterogeneous melting obscure much of the early history of this meteorite group and have caused confusion as to whether L chondrites have undergone thermal metamorphism within onion-shell or rubble-pile parent bodies. Employing the most recent shock criteria, we have examined 55 Antarctic and 24 non-Antarctic L chondrites in order to identify those which have been least affected by post-accretional shock. Six low-shock samples (those with shock grade less than S4) of petrographic types L3-L5 were selected from both populations and metallographic cooling rates were obtained following the technique of Willis and Goldstein. All non-Antarctic L6 chondrites inspected were too heavily shocked to be included in this group. However, 4 shocked L6 chondrites were analyzed in order to determine what effects shock may impose on metallographic cooling rates. Metallographic cooling rates were derived by analyzing the cores of taenite grains and then measuring the distance to the nearest grain edge. Taenites were identified using backscatter imaging on a Cameca SX-50 electron microprobe. Using backscatter we were able to locate homogeneous, rust-free, nearly spherical grains. M-shaped profiles taken from grain traverses were also used to help locate the central portions of selected grains. All points which contained phosphorus above detection limits were discarded. Plots of cooling-rate data are summarized and data from the high-shock samples are presented. The lack of coherency of cooling rates for individual samples is indicative of heterogeneous cooling following shock. The data confirms the statement expressed by numerous workers that extreme care must be taken when selecting samples of L chondrites for cooling-rate studies. Data for the 6 non-Antarctic low-shock samples are also presented. The samples display a general trend in cooling rates. The lowest metamorphic grade yielded the slowest cooling rates and an increase in grade follows an increase in cooling rate. This is the opposite relationship to that predicted by the onion-shell model.

Bennett, Marvin E.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

1993-01-01

42

Fe-Ni metal in primitive chondrites: Indicators of classification and metamorphic conditions for ordinary and CO chondrites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report the results of our petrological and mineralogical study of Fe-Ni metal in type 3 ordinary and CO chondrites, and the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094. Fe-Ni metal in ordinary and CO chondrites occurs in chondrule interiors, on chondrule surfaces, and as isolated grains in the matrix. Isolated Ni-rich metal in chondrites of petrologic type lower than type 3.10 is enriched in Co relative to the kamacite in chondrules. However, Ni-rich metal in type 3.15-3.9 chondrites always contains less Co than does kamacite. Fe-Ni metal grains in chondrules in Semarkona typically show plessitic intergrowths consisting of submicrometer kamacite and Ni-rich regions. Metal in other type 3 chondrites is composed of fine- to coarse-grained aggregates of kamacite and Ni-rich metal, resulting from metamorphism in the parent body. We found that the number density of Ni-rich grains in metal (number of Ni-rich grains per unit area of metal) in chondrules systematically decreases with increasing petrologic type. Thus, Fe-Ni metal is a highly sensitive recorder of metamorphism in ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites, and can be used to distinguish petrologic type and identify the least thermally metamorphosed chondrites. Among the known ordinary and CO chondrites, Semarkona is the most primitive. The range of metamorphic temperatures were similar for type 3 ordinary and CO chondrites, despite them having different parent bodies. Most Fe-Ni metal in Acfer 094 is martensite, and it preserves primary features. The degree of metamorphism is lower in Acfer 094, a true type 3.00 chondrite, than in Semarkona, which should be reclassified as type 3.01. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2008.

Kimura, M.; Grossman, J.N.; Weisberg, M.K.

2008-01-01

43

Total Mass of Ordinary Chondrite Matter Originally Present in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, I reported the discovery of a new fundamental relationship of the major elements (Fe, Mg, Si) of chondrites that admits the possibility that ordinary chondrite meteorites are derived from two components, a relatively oxidized and undifferentiated, primitive component and a somewhat differentiated, planetary component, with oxidation state like the highly reduced enstatite chondrites, which I suggested was identical to

J. Marvin Herndon

2004-01-01

44

Aluminum-, Calcium- And Titanium-Rich Oxide Stardust In Ordinary Chondrite Meteorites  

E-print Network

We report isotopic data for a total of 96 presolar oxide grains found in residues of several unequilibrated ordinary chondrite meteorites. Identified grain types include Al2O3, MgAl2O4, hibonite (CaAl12O19) and Ti oxide. This work greatly increases the presolar hibonite database, and is the first report of presolar Ti oxide. O-isotopic compositions of the grains span previously observed ranges and indicate an origin in red giant and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of low mass (<2.5 MSun) for most grains. Cool bottom processing in the parent AGB stars is required to explain isotopic compositions of many grains. Potassium-41 enrichments in hibonite grains are attributable to in situ decay of now-extinct 41Ca. Inferred initial 41Ca/40Ca ratios are in good agreement with model predictions for low-mass AGB star envelopes, provided that ionization suppresses 41Ca decay. Stable Mg and Ca isotopic ratios of most of the hibonite grains reflect primarily the initial compositions of the parent stars and are generally consistent with expectations for Galactic chemical evolution, but require some local interstellar chemical inhomogeneity. Very high 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg ratios suggest an origin for some grains in binary star systems where mass transfer from an evolved companion has altered the parent star compositions. A supernova origin for the hitherto enigmatic 18O-rich Group 4 grains is strongly supported by multi-element isotopic data for two grains. The Group 4 data are consistent with an origin in a single supernova in which variable amounts of material from the deep 16O-rich interior mixed with a unique end-member mixture of the outer layers. The Ti oxide grains primarily formed in low-mass AGB stars. They are smaller and rarer than presolar Al2O3, reflecting the lower abundance of Ti than Al in AGB envelopes.

Larry R. Nittler; Conel M. O'D. Alexander; Roberto Gallino; Peter Hoppe; Ann N. Nguyen; Frank J. Stadermann; Ernst K. Zinner

2008-04-17

45

Igneous rock from Severnyi Kolchim (H3) chondrite: Nebular origin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discovery of lithic fragments with compositions and textures similar to igneous differentiates in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOC's) and carbonaceous chondrites (CC's) has been interpreted as to suggest that planetary bodies existed before chondrites were formed. As a consequence, chondrites (except, perhaps CI chondrites) cannot be considered primitive assemblages of unprocessed nebular matter. We report about our study of an igneous clast from the Severnyi Kolchim (H3) chondrite. The results of the study are incompatible with an igneous origin of the clast but are in favor of a nebular origin similar to that of chondrules.

Nazarov, M. A.; Brandstaetter, F.; Kurat, G.

1993-01-01

46

Volatile element chemistry during metamorphism of ordinary chondritic material and some of its implications for the composition of asteroids  

E-print Network

Volatile element chemistry during metamorphism of ordinary chondritic material and some of its to model thermal metamorphism of ordinary chondritic material as a function of temperature, pressure metamorphism of ordinary chondrite parent bodies. We com- piled trace element abundances in H-, L-, and LL

Fegley Jr., Bruce

47

Ordinary chondrite metallography: Part 2 Formation of zoned and unzoned metal particles in relatively unshocked H, L, and LL chondrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the metallography of Fe-Ni metal particles in 17 relatively unshocked ordinary chondrites and interpreted their microstructures using the results of P-free, Fe-Ni alloy cooling experiments (described in Reisener and Goldstein 2003). Two types of Fe-Ni metal particles were observed in the chondrites: zoned taenite + kamacite particles and zoneless plessite particles, which lack systematic Ni zoning and consist

R. J. Reisener; J. I. Goldstein

2003-01-01

48

Linking Ordinary and Enstatite Chondrites: Experimental Deformation Results Under Very Reducing Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In reduced deformation experiments on an ordinary H6 chondrite, we observe niningerite and oldhamite, which are found only in enstatite chondrites. The association of the reduced metal in shear zones suggests that deformation can enhance reaction. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Rushmer, T.; Gaetani, G.; Jones, J. H.

2002-01-01

49

Metal phases in ordinary chondrites: Magnetic hysteresis properties and implications for thermal history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic properties are sensitive proxies to characterize FeNi metal phases in meteorites. We present a data set of magnetic hysteresis properties of 91 ordinary chondrite falls. We show that hysteresis properties are distinctive of individual meteorites while homogeneous among meteorite subsamples. Except for the most primitive chondrites, these properties can be explained by a mixture of multidomain kamacite that dominates the induced magnetism and tetrataenite (both in the cloudy zone as single-domain grains, and as larger multidomain grains in plessite and in the rim of zoned taenite) dominates the remanent magnetism, in agreement with previous microscopic magnetic observations. The bulk metal contents derived from magnetic measurements are in agreement with those estimated previously from chemical analyses. We evidence a decreasing metal content with increasing petrologic type in ordinary chondrites, compatible with oxidation of metal during thermal metamorphism. Types 5 and 6 ordinary chondrites have higher tetrataenite content than type 4 chondrites. This is compatible with lower cooling rates in the 650-450 °C interval for higher petrographic types (consistent with an onion-shell model), but is more likely the result of the oxidation of ordinary chondrites with increasing metamorphism. In equilibrated chondrites, shock-related transient heating events above approximately 500 °C result in the disordering of tetrataenite and associated drastic change in magnetic properties. As a good indicator of the amount of tetrataenite, hysteresis properties are a very sensitive proxy of the thermal history of ordinary chondrites, revealing low cooling rates during thermal metamorphism and high cooling rates (e.g., following shock reheating or excavation after thermal metamorphism). Our data strengthen the view that the poor magnetic recording properties of multidomain kamacite and the secondary origin of tetrataenite make equilibrated ordinary chondrites challenging targets for paleomagnetic study.

Gattacceca, J.; Suavet, C.; Rochette, P.; Weiss, B. P.; Winklhofer, M.; Uehara, M.; Friedrich, Jon M.

2014-04-01

50

Ion microprobe magnesium isotope analysis of plagioclase and hibonite from ordinary chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion and electron microprobes were used to examine Mg-26 excesses from Al-26 decay in four Al-rich objects from the type 3 ordinary hibonite clast in the Dhajala chondrite. The initial Al-26/Al-27 ratio was actually significantly lower than Al-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites. Also, no Mg-26 excesses were found in three plagioclase-bearing chondrules that were also examined. The Mg-26 excesses in the hibonite chondrites indicated a common origin for chondrites with the excesses. The implied Al-26 content in a proposed parent body could not, however, be confirmed as a widespread heat source in the early solar system.

Hinton, R. W.; Bischoff, A.

1984-01-01

51

Physical propoerties of incompletely compacted equilibrated ordinary chondrites: Implications for asteroidal structure and impact processing  

SciTech Connect

Aside from robotic exploration, meteorites are our primary source of information about the asteroids that they sample. Although there are some discrepancies, there are dynamical, spectral, and compositional evidence for an S-type asteroid connection to the ordinary chondrite meteorites. Reconciling the measured bulk density of chondrites with that of asteroids can yield important inferences about the internal structure of asteroids. For example, the bulk density of S-type asteroids is typically much less than the bulk density of chondrites, leading to the inference that asteroids contain a significant quantity of macroporosity. We have identified several unusual ordinary chondrites that have been incompletely compacted relative to petrologically similar but much less porous chondrites. Although these are equilibrated chondrites, they have extreme amounts of pore spaces between mineral grains. Here, we detail our efforts quantifying the nature of the pore spaces in these chondrites and we examine the implications for the structure and mechanical processing of the asteroids from which these chondrites originate. Our pore size distribution data may also provide constraints for the modeling of heat flow and shock waves within primordial chondritic parent bodies.

Sasso, M.R.; Macke, R.J.; Britt, D.T.; Rivers, M.L.; Ebel, D.S.; Friedrich, J.M. (Central Florida); (AMNH); (UC); (Fordham)

2009-03-19

52

Bleached chondrules: Evidence for widespread aqueous processes on the parent asteroids of ordinary chondrites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present the first detailed study of a population of texturally distinct chondrules previously described by Kurat (1969), Christophe Michel-Levy (1976), and Skinner et al. (1989) that are sharply depleted in alkalis and Al in their outer portions. These 'bleached' chondrules, which are exclusively radial pyroxene and cryptocrystalline in texture, have porous outer zones where mesostasis has been lost. Bleached chondrules are present in all type 3 ordinary chondrites and are present in lower abundances in types 4-6. They are most abundant in the L and LL groups, apparently less common in H chondrites, and absent in enstatite chondrites. We used x-ray mapping and traditional electron microprobe techniques to characterize bleached chondrules in a cross section of ordinary chondrites. We studied bleached chondrules from Semarkona by ion microprobe for trace elements and H isotopes, and by transmission electron microscopy. Chondrule bleaching was the result of low-temperature alteration by aqueous fluids flowing through fine-grained chondrite matrix prior to thermal metamorphism. During aqueous alteration, interstitial glass dissolved and was partially replaced by phyllosilicates, troilite was altered to pentlandite, but pyroxene was completely unaffected. Calcium-rich zones formed at the inner margins of the bleached zones, either as the result of the early stages of metamorphism or because of fluid-chondrule reaction. The mineralogy of bleached chondrules is extremely sensitive to thermal metamorphism in type 3 ordinary chondrites, and bleached zones provide a favorable location for the growth of metamorphic minerals in higher petrologic types. The ubiquitous presence of bleached chondrules in ordinary chondrites implies that they all experienced aqueous alteration early in their asteroidal histories, but there is no relationship between the degree of alteration and metamorphic grade. A correlation between the oxidation state of chondrite groups and their degree of aqueous alteration is consistent with the source of water being either accreted ices or water released during oxidation of organic matter. Ordinary chondrites were probably open systems after accretion, and aqueous fluids may have carried volatile elements with them during dehydration. Individual radial pyroxene and cryptocrystalline chondrules were certainly open systems in all chondrites that experienced aqueous alteration leading to bleaching.

Grossman, J.N.; Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Wang, J.; Brearley, A.J.

2000-01-01

53

The Cooling History and Structure of the Ordinary Chondrite Parent Bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most major meteorite classes exhibit significant ranges of metamorphism. The effects of metamorphism have been extensively characterized, but the heat source(s) and the metamorphic environment are unknown. Proposed beat sources include Al-26, Fe-60, electromagnetic induction, and impact. It is typically assumed that metamorphism occurred in parent bodies of some sort, but it uncertain whether these bodies were highly structured ("onion skins") or were chaotic mixes of material ("rubble piles"). The lack of simple trends of metallographic cooling rates with petrologic type has been considered supportive of both concepts. In this study, we use induced thermoluminescence (TL) as an indicator of thermal history. The TL of ordinary chondrites is produced by sodic feldspar, and the induced TL peak temperature is related to its crystallographic order/disorder. Ordered feldspar has TL peak temperatures of approx. 120 C, and disordered feldspar has TL peak temperatures of approx. 220 C. While ordered feldspar can be easily disordered in the laboratory by heating above 650 C and is easily quenched in the disordered form, producing ordered feldspar requires cooling at geologic cooling rates. We have measured the induced TL properties of 101 equilibrated ordinary chondrites, including 49 H, 29 L, and 23 LL chondrites. For the H chondrites there is an apparent trend of decreasing induced TL peak temperature with increasing petrologic type. H4 chondrites exhibit a tight range of TL peak temperatures, 190 C - 200 C, while H6 chondrites exhibit TL peak temperatures between 180 C and 190 C. H5 chondrites cover the range between H4 and H6, and also extend up to 210 C. Similar results are obtained for LL chondfiles and most L6 chondrites have lower induced TL peak temperatures than L5 chondrites.

Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

1996-01-01

54

Partial melting of ordinary chondrites: Lost City (H) and St. Severin (LL)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eucrites and diogenites are examples of asteroidal basalts and orthopyroxenites, respectively. As they are found intermingled in howardites, which are inferred to be regolith breccias, eucrites and diogenites are thought to be genetically related. But the details of this relationship and of their individual origins remain controversial. Work by Jurewicz et al. showed that 1170-1180 C partial melts of the (anhydrous) Murchison (CM) chondrite have major element compositions extremely similar to primitive eucrites, such as Sioux County. However, the MnO contents of these melts were about half that of Sioux County, a problem for the simple partial melting model. In addition, partial melting of Murchison could not produce diogenites, because residual pyroxenes in the Murchison experiments were too Fe- and Ca-rich and were minor phases at all but the lowest temperatures. A parent magma for diogenites needs an expanded low-calcium pyroxene field. In their partial melting study of an L6 chondrite, Kushiro and Mysen found that ordinary chondrites did have an expanded low-Ca pyroxene field over that of CV chondrites (i.e., Allende), probably because ordinary chondrites have lower Mg/Si ratios. This study expands that of both Kushiro and Mysen and Jurewicz et al. to the Lost City (H) and St. Severin (LL) chondrites at temperatures ranging from 1170 to 1325 C, at an fO2 of one log unit below the iron-wuestite buffer (IW-1).

Jurewicz, Amy J. G.; Jones, John H.; Weber, Egon T.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

1993-01-01

55

Hysteresis properties of ordinary chondrites and implications for their thermal history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a large dataset of magnetic hysteresis properties of ordinary chondrite falls. We show that hysteresis properties are distinctive of individual meteorites while homogeneous among meteorite subsamples. Except for the most primitive chondrites, these properties can be explained by a mixture of multidomain kamacite and tetrataenite (both in the cloudy zone and as larger grains in plessite and in the rim of zoned taenite). Kamacite dominates the induced magnetism whereas tetrataenite dominates the remanent magnetism, in agreement with previous microscopic magnetic observations. Type 5 and 6 chondrites have higher tetrataenite content than type 4 chondrites, suggesting they have lower cooling rates at least in the 650-450 °C interval, consistent with an onion-shell model. In equilibrated chondrites, shock-related transient heating events above ~500 °C result in the disordering of tetrataenite and associated drastic change in magnetic properties. As a good indicator of the amount of tetrataenite, hysteresis properties are a very sensitive proxy of the thermal history of ordinary chondrites, revealing low cooling rates during thermal metamorphism, and high cooling rates following shock reheating or excavation after thermal metamorphism.

Gattacceca, J.; Suavet, C. R.; Rochette, P.; Weiss, B. P.; Winklhofer, M.; Uehara, M.; Friedrich, J. M.

2013-12-01

56

The chemistry and origin of the ordinary chondrites Implications from refractory-lithophile and siderophile elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty-eight ordinary chondrites (17 H, 20 L, and 1 LL) have been analyzed for major and selected trace elements. These data indicate that the lithophile elements Mg, Ca, Al, Cr, and V normalized to Si are in higher abundance in the H than in the L chondrites. The siderophile elements Ni, Co, and Fe show very good correlation within, as well as between, the two major ordinary chondrite groups. Twenty-four of the analyses are of Antarctic finds, while ten are samples of falls. Comparing the Antarctic data with the fall data reveals no evidence that any of the elements studied here have been mobilized by terrestrial weathering processes. Within the H and L chondrite groups there is little chemical variation, indicating that the source of these samples is remarkably homogeneous. Equilibrium condensate fractionation from a nebula of CI composition can result in the observed ordinary chondrite compositions. The fractionation of metal at about 1440 K (and 0.001 atm) into high and low iron groups, followed by a gas-solid fractionation at about 1380 K with the H group losing more solids than the L, will produce the observed H and L compositions and intragroup trends.

Fulton, C. R.; Rhodes, J. M.

1984-02-01

57

Redox effects in ordinary chondrites and implications for asteroid spectrophotometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sensitivity of reflectance spectra to mean ferrous iron content and olivine and pyroxene proportion enhancements in the course of metamorphic oxidation is presently used to examine whether metamorphically-induced ranges in mineralogy, and corresponding spectral parameters, may explain the observed variations in S-asteroid rotational spectra. The predicted spectral variations within any one chondrite class are, however, insufficient to account for S-asteroid rotational spectra, and predicted spectral-range slopes have a sign opposite to the rotational measurements. Metamorphic oxidation is found unable to account for S-asteroid rotational spectra.

Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

1992-01-01

58

Effects of Metamorphism on the Valence and Coordination of Titanium in Ordinary Chondrites  

SciTech Connect

Despite years of study, the conditions under which ordinary chondrites were metamorphosed from grade 3 to grade 6 are not well defined. Wide ranges of peak temperature are inferred for each grade. The long-popular 'onion shell' model, in which higher metamorphic grade is attributed to greater depths of origin, implies a corresponding decrease in cooling rate with increasing grade, and there is disagreement as to whether or not this is observed. Redox conditions during chondrite metamorphism are also not well understood. Some workers have reported evidence for reduction, presumably by carbon, with increase in grade from 3-4, followed by oxidation during metamorphism to higher grades, but other work indicates little variation in fO{sub 2} as a function of metamorphic grade. During our investigation of the valence of Ti in planetary materials, we found high proportions of Ti{sup 3+} in olivine and pyroxene in chondrules in Semarkona (LL3.0) and low proportions in New Concord (L6) olivine, suggesting that Ti was oxidized during ordinary chondrite metamorphism. We have undertaken a study of L and LL chondrites of grades 3-6 to see how Ti valence and coordination vary with grade and to see if the variations can be used to constrain conditions of chondrite metamorphism.

Simon, S.B.; Sutton, S.R.; Grossman, L. (UC)

2012-04-02

59

Non-Destructive Classification Approaches for Equilbrated Ordinary Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classification of meteorites is most effectively carried out by petrographic and mineralogic studies of thin sections, but a rapid and accurate classification technique for the many samples collected in dense collection areas (hot and cold deserts) is of great interest. Oil immersion techniques have been used to classify a large proportion of the US Antarctic meteorite collections since the mid-1980s [1]. This approach has allowed rapid characterization of thousands of samples over time, but nonetheless utilizes a piece of the sample that has been ground to grains or a powder. In order to compare a few non-destructive techniques with the standard approaches, we have characterized a group of chondrites from the Larkman Nunatak region using magnetic susceptibility and Moessbauer spectroscopy.

Righter, K.; Harrington, R.; Schroeder, C.; Morris, R. V.

2013-01-01

60

Analysis of ordinary chondrites using powder X-ray diffraction: 1. Modal mineral abundances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used to quantify the modal abundances (in wt%) of 18 H, 17 L, and 13 LL unbrecciated ordinary chondrite falls, which represents the complete petrologic range of equilibrated ordinary chondrites (types 4-6). The XRD technique presents an effective alternative to traditional methods for determining modal abundances, such as optical point counting and electron microprobe phase (EMP) mapping. The majority of chondrite powders in this study were previously prepared for chemical characterization from 8 to 20g of material, which is consistent with the suggested mass (10g) necessary to provide representative sampling of ordinary chondrites. Olivine and low-Ca pyroxene are the most abundant phases present, comprising one-half to three-fourths of total abundances, while plagioclase, high-Ca pyroxene, troilite, and metal comprise the remaining XRD-measured mineralogy. Pigeonite may also be present in some samples, but it is fitted using a high-Ca pyroxene standard, so exact abundances cannot be measured directly using XRD. Comparison of XRD-measured abundances with calculated Cross, Iddings, Pirsson, Washington (CIPW) normative abundances indicates that systematic discrepancies exist between these two data sets, particularly in olivine and high-Ca pyroxene. This discrepancy is attributed to the absence of pigeonite as a possible phase in the CIPW normative mineralogy. Oxides associated with pigeonite are improperly allocated, resulting in overestimated normative olivine abundances and underestimated normative high-Ca pyroxene abundances. This suggests that the CIPW norm is poorly suited for determining mineralogical modal abundances of ordinary chondrites.

Dunn, Tasha L.; Cressey, Gordon; McSween, Harry Y. _jr., Jr.; McCoy, Timothy J.

2010-01-01

61

Composition and formation of metal nodules and veins in ordinary chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five large metal nodules, a composite sample of five small metal nodules, one troilite nodule, and two metal veins from five ordinary chondrites were analyzed by electron microprobe and neutron activation analysis. Metal nodules and veins in H chondrites generally consist of large single crystals of kamacite, whereas L nodules contain significant taenite. Most nodules and veins are depleted by large factors ranging up to 240 in refractory siderophiles (Re, Os, Ir, Pt). Tungsten (normally a refractory siderophile) and Au, As, and Ga (volatile siderophiles) have abundance ratios similar to those of the common siderophiles Fe, Co and Ni. It is proposed that the metal with extremely low refractory-element contents was produced by shock-induced vaporization of chondritic material. The refractory elements condensed near the point of vaporization and were not transported with the vapor. Because the shock-generated gas was mildly oxidizing, W formed volatile oxides.

Widom, E.; Rubin, A. E.; Wasson, J. T.

1986-09-01

62

Preliminary AEM study of the microstructure and composition of metal particles in ordinary chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study is to examine the microstructure and composition of the metal particles in ordinary chondrites using analytical electron microscopy (AEM) techniques. Since the phases produced within the metal particles are very fine, the application of various AEM techniques for structural and chemical characterization is critical. However, thin specimen preparation for AEM study has proven very difficult because of the matrix silicate which is present. This is the first AEM study of the metal particles in chondrites. A type 6 chondrite, Saint Severin (LL6), was selected for examination because the metal phases have been reheated into the single phase taenite region (greater than 700 C), and cooled slowly to lower temperatures. A combination of electron optical instruments was employed including a field emission gun (FEG) JEOL 840F high resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM), a JEOL 6300F FEG-HRSEM, a Philips 400T AEM, and a JEOL 733 electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA).

Yang, C. W.; Williams, D. B.; Goldstein, J. I.

1993-01-01

63

Experimental Space Weathering of Ordinary Chondrites by Nanopulse Laser: TEM Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of ordinary chondrite meteorites has been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser to simulate the effects of micrometeorite bombardment. Three meteorites, an H (Ehole), L (Chateau Renard - CR), and LL (Appley Bridge - AB) were lasered following the method of Sasaki et al [1]. Near IR spectra were taken before and after exposure to examine the optical changes induced and the samples were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) to understand the physical changes.

Noble, S. K.; Hiroi, T.; Keller, L. P.; Pieters, C. M.

2011-01-01

64

Ordinary chondrite metallography: Part 1 Fe-Ni taenite cooling experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooling rate experiments were performed on P-free Fe-Ni alloys that are compositionally similar to ordinary chondrite metal to study the taenite taenite + kamacite reaction. The role of taenite grain boundaries and the effect of adding Co and S to Fe-Ni alloys were investigated. In P-free alloys, kamacite nucleates at taenite\\/taenite grain boundaries, taenite triple junctions, and taenite grain corners.

R. J. Reisener; J. I. Goldstein

2003-01-01

65

The Orbits of Ordinary Chondrite Meteoroid Bodies Contributing to the Meteoritic Flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orbits of meteoroid bodies are our best source of information regarding the placement of their parent bodies in the solar system. In view of the absence of direct observational data of meteoroid bodies in space, the connection between meteoroid bodies and large Earth-crossing or -approaching asteroids being at best tenuous [1], our knowledge of the orbits of meteoroid bodies contributing to the meteorite flux is largely limited to indirect measurements. With the exception of four photographed meteorite falls [2], the database is limited to the less constrained data of about fifty visually observed meteorite falls and the large dataset of photographed fireballs and meteors, which almost certainly contains many non-meteoritic objects [e.g., 3]. The time-of-fall ("AM/PM distributions") of large groups of meteorites can also be of some use in constraining their general orbital distribution [4]. In this paper we use natural thermoluminescence (TL) measurements on modern falls among the equilibrated ordinary chondrites to constrain one orbital element, namely perihelion, for individual meteorites and hence individual meteoroid bodies. Natural TL levels of modern falls reflect the degree of heating they have experienced while in space, usually from solar heating but in some cases possibly from impact heating [5]. Natural TL levels reaches "equilibrium" levels fairly rapidly (~10^5 years) and can thus be considered saturated in view of the long cosmic ray exposure ages of most ordinary chondrites. We have assembled a database of 120 L, LL, and H chondrites. We find that, as a whole, ordinary chondrites among the modern falls exhibit a single major peak in their TL distribution. Using realistic assumptions for albedoes of meteoroid bodies, we can calculate the approximate "average" perihelion of each meteorite in our database. We find that most meteorite bodies had perihelia of approximately 1 AU, with only a small fraction (about 15%) having orbits with perihelia <0.85 AU, consistent with other direct and indirect databases [1,3]. There are no strong differences in the TL distributions of H, L, and LL chondrites. There is also no apparent difference in natural TL levels between AM and PM falls for ordinary chondrites as a whole. If we confine our analysis to only equilibrated H chondrites however, we find differences in natural TL distributions of AM and PM falls (Fig. 1). While the PM H chondrite falls show a broad spread of natural TL levels between 10 to 100 krad (corresponding to perihelia between 0.85 to 1.2 AU), the AM falls show a very tight cluster, with a mean TL level of 45 krad, corresponding to a perihelion of about 0.95 AU. One possible interpretation of these data is that, while the PM meteorites come from a number of different sources reflecting different degrees of orbital evolution, most of the AM H chondrites are derived from an Earth-crossing asteroid(s). Wetherill performed orbital calculations for fragments from some current Earth-crossing asteroids and found that their fragments should reach Earth predominantly in the AM [4]. These data accentuate other data which find evidence for individual stochastic events in the H chondrites, such as the suggestions of "streams" in the modern flux [6] and evidence for changes over the 100,000 years represented by the Antarctic meteorite collection [7]. References: [1] Olsson-Steel D. (1988) Icarus, 75, 64; Cruikshank et al. (1991) Icarus, 89, 1. [2] Wetherill and Chapman (1988) in Meteorites and the Early Solar System, 35; Brown et al. (1994) Nature, 367, 624. [3] Wetherill and ReVelle (1981) Icarus, 48, 308; Wetherill G. W. (1985) Meteoritics, 20, 1. [4] Wetherill G. W. (1968) Science, 159, 79. [5] Benoit et al. (1991) Icarus, 94, 311. [6] Michlovich et al. (1995) JGR, 100, 3317. [7] Benoit and Sears (1992) Science, 255, 1685; Wolf and Lipschutz (1995) JGR, 100, 3335.

Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

1995-09-01

66

Minor element evidence that Asteroid 433 Eros is a space-weathered ordinary chondrite parent body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NEAR mission to 433 Eros provided detailed data on the geology, mineralogy, and chemistry of this S-class asteroid [McCoy, T.J., Robinson, M.S., Nittler, L.R., Burbine, T.H., 2002. Chem. Erde 62, 89-121; Cheng, A.F., 1997. Space Sci. Rev. 82, 3-29] with a key science goal of understanding the relationship between asteroids and meteorites [Cheng, A.F., 1997. Space Sci. Rev. 82, 3-29; Gaffey, M.J., Burbine, T.H., Piatek, J.L., Reed, K.L., Chaky, D.A., Bell, J.F., Brown, R.H., 1993a. Icarus 106, 573-602]. Previously reported major element data revealed a bulk surface similar to that of ordinary chondrites, with the notable exception of sulfur, which was highly depleted [Trombka, J.I., and 23 colleagues, 2000. Science 289, 2101-2105; Nittler, L.R., and 14 colleagues, 2001. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 36, 1673-1695]. The origin of this sulfur deficiency, and hence the fundamental nature of the asteroid's surface, has remained controversial. We report a new analysis of NEAR X-ray spectrometer data, indicating that Eros has Cr/Fe, Mn/Fe, and Ni/Fe ratios similar to ordinary chondrite meteorites of type LL or L. Chondritic levels of Cr, Mn, and Ni argue strongly against a partial melting explanation for the sulfur depletion. Instead, our results provide definitive evidence that Eros is a primitive body with composition and mineralogy similar to ordinary chondrites, but with a surface heavily modified by interactions with the solar wind and micrometeorites, processes collectively termed space weathering.

Foley, C. N.; Nittler, L. R.; McCoy, T. J.; Lim, L. F.; Brown, M. R. M.; Starr, R. D.; Trombka, J. I.

2006-10-01

67

The Iodine-Xenon System in Outer and Inner Portions of Chondrules from the Unnamed Antarctic LL3 Chondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alteration processes may affect I-Xe system in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. It was shown that at the edges, where a contribution is made by matrix material around the rim, *Xe-129/Xe-128 values are generally lower (later apparent ages) than in the main chondrule mass. In this work we attempted to investigate whether thermal metamorphism can affect the I-Xe system in LL3 chondrites which did not experienced aqueous alteration.

Meshik, A. P.; Pravdivtseva, O. V.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Amelin, Y.

2004-01-01

68

Raman spectroscopic study of four Spanish shocked ordinary chondrites: Cañellas, Olmedilla de Alarcón, Reliegos and Olivenza.  

PubMed

Shock metamorphism in chondritic parent bodies produces typical textures, visible under the microscope, which are a consequence of structural deformation of the crystals. Such deformations can be studied with Raman spectroscopy. The vibrational characteristics of olivines and pyroxenes, structurally deformed by weak-to-moderate shock metamorphism, have been determined on four Spanish ordinary chondrites (Cañellas, Olmedilla de Alarcón, Reliegos and Olivenza). Such deformations would affect, in principle, the band positions and widths of the Raman spectra peaks. The measured band positions and relative intensities are consistent with chemical composition for olivines and pyroxenes, but show little influence on the degree of shock. However, the full spectral band width of the silicate internal modes shows some dependence on the impact grade, which could be attributed to inhomogeneous effects produced by the impacts. PMID:20529952

Rull, F; Muñoz-Espadas, M J; Lunar, R; Martínez-Frías, J

2010-07-13

69

Distribution of rare earth elements and uranium in various components of ordinary chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare earth elements (REE) and uranium were studied for their distributions in various component phases of four ordinary chondrites. Kesen (H4), Richardton (H5), Bruderheim (L6), and Saint Severin (LL6). A selective dissolution method was applied for the phase fractionation. The REE were analysed by neutron activation analysis, and U was determined by neutron-induced fission tracks. The present study revealed that both REE and U are highly enriched in the Ca-phosphate minerals with different enrichment factors, implying chemical fractionation between them. The phosphates seem to be responsible for more than 80 percent of the light REE in all chondrites. On the other hand, only 20-40 percent of the total U resides in the Ca-phosphates. This difference in enrichments might have been caused through the levels of metamorphic activity on the meteoritic parent bodies.

Ebihara, M.; Honda, M.

1984-06-01

70

Volatile Element Chemistry during Metamorphism of Ordinary Chondritic Material and Some of its Implications for the Composition of Asteroids  

E-print Network

We used chemical equilibrium calculations to model thermal metamorphism of ordinary chondritic material as a function of temperature, pressure, and trace element abundance and use our results to discuss volatile mobilization during thermal metamorphism of ordinary chondrite parent bodies. The calculations include ~1,700 solids and gases of 40 elements. We compiled trace element abundances in H-, L-, and LL-chondrites for the elements Ag, As, Au, Bi, Cd, Cs, Cu, Ga, Ge, In, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sn, Te, Tl, and Zn, and identified abundance trends as a function of petrographic type within each class. We found that abundance patterns within the H- and L- chondrites are consistent with mobilization of volatile elements in an onionshell-type parent body. LL-chondrites have more complex abundance patterns that may support a rubble-pile model for the LL-chondrite parent body. We calculated volatility sequences for the trace elements in the ordinary chondritic material, which differs significantly from the solar nebula vol...

Schaefer, Laura

2008-01-01

71

Evidence for a late thermal event of unequilibrated enstatite chondrites: a Rb-Sr study of Qingzhen and Yamato 6901 (EH3) and Khairpur (EL6)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Rb-Sr whole rock and internal systematics of two EH3 chondrites, Qingzhen and Yamato 6901, and of one EL6 chondrite, Khairpur, were determined. The internal Rb-Sr systematics of the EH3 chondrites are highly disturbed. Fractions corresponding to sulfide phases show excess 87Sr, while other fractions corresponding to silicate phases produce a linear trend on a Rb-Sr evolution diagram. If these linear relations are interpreted as isochrons, the ages of the silicate phases are 2.12?? 0.23 Ga and 2.05 ??0.33 Ga with the initial Sr isotopic ratios of 0.7112 ?? 0.0018 and 0.7089 ?? 0.0032, for Qingzhen and Yamato 6901, respectively. The Rb-Sr results are interpeted as indicative of a late thermal event about 2Ga ago on the parent bodies of these EH3 chondrites. These ages agree well with previously published K-Ar ages. An older isochron age of 4.481 ?? 0.036 Ga with a low initial Sr isotopic ratio of 0.69866 ?? 0.00038 was obtained for the data from silicate fractions of Khairpur, indicating early petrological equilibrium on the parent body of EL6 chondrites. -from Authors

Torigoye, N.; Shima, M.

1993-01-01

72

The Cali Meteorite: Luminescence of a recently fallen H/L ordinary chondrite  

SciTech Connect

The Cali meteorite fall occurred on 6 July 2007 at 21h33m+-1m UTC. Some specimens were recovered just after their fall so they are extremely fresh materials. Mineral analysis and bulk chemistry revealed that the measured abundances for most elements closely match the values recorded for other ordinary chondrites classified as H/L. We present here thermoluminescence studies of this recently fallen meteorite in order to get additional information on the radiation environment, and the thermal history of this meteorite. Such information is revealed to be complementary with the range of orbital elements deduced from eyewitness reports of the fireball.

Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M. [Institute of Space Sciences (CSIC-IEEC). Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-p2. 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Llorca, J. [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB. 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Sears, D. W. G. [Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States)

2009-08-17

73

The natural thermoluminescence of meteorites. V - Ordinary chondrites at the Allan Hills ice fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Natural thermoluminescence (TL) data have been obtained for 167 ordinary chondrites from the ice fields in the vicinity of the Allan Hills in Victoria Land, Antarctica, in order to investigate their thermal and radiation history, pairing, terrestrial age, and concentration mechanisms. Natural TL values for meteorites from the Main ice field are fairly low, while the Farwestern field shows a spread with many values 30-80 krad, suggestive of less than 150-ka terrestrial ages. There appear to be trends in TL levels within individual ice fields which are suggestive of directions of ice movement at these sites during the period of meteorite concentration. These directions seem to be confirmed by the orientations of elongation preserved in meteorite pairing groups. The proportion of meteorites with very low natural TL levels at each field is comparable to that observed at the Lewis Cliff site and for modern non-Antarctic falls and is also similar to the fraction of small perihelia orbits calculated from fireball and fall observations. Induced TL data for meteorites from the Allan Hills confirm trends which show that a select group of H chondrites from the Antarctic experienced a different extraterrestrial thermal history to that of non-Antarctic H chondrites.

Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Hazel; Sears, Derek W. G.

1993-01-01

74

The Natural Thermoluminescence of Meteorites. Part 5; Ordinary Chondrites at the Allan Hills Ice Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Natural thermoluminescence (TL) data have been obtained for 167 ordinary chondrites from the ice fields in the vicinity of the Allan Hills in Victoria Land, Antarctica, in order to investigate their thermal and radiation history, pairing, terrestrial age, and concentration mechanisms. Using fairly conservative criteria (including natural and induced TL, find location, and petrographic data), the 167 meteorite fragments are thought to represent a maximum of 129 separate meteorites. Natural TL values for meteorites from the Main ice field are fairly low (typically 5-30 krad, indicative of terrestrial ages of approx. 400 ka), while the Far western field shows a spread with many values 30-80 krad, suggestive of less then 150-ka terrestrial ages. There appear to be trends in TL levels within individual ice fields which are suggestive of directions of ice movement at these sites during the period of meteorite concentration. These directions seem to be confirmed by the orientations of elongation preserved in meteorite pairing groups. The proportion of meteorites with very low natural TL levels (less then 5 krad) at each field is comparable to that observed at the Lewis Cliff site and for modern non-Antarctic falls and is also similar to the fraction of small perihelia (less then 0.85 AU) orbits calculated from fireball and fall observations. Induced TL data for meteorites from the Allan Hills confirm trends observed for meteorites collected during the 1977/1978 and 1978/1979 field seasons which show that a select group of H chondrites from the Antarctic experienced a different extraterrestrial thermal history to that of non-Antarctic H chondrites.

Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Hazel; Sears, Derek W. G.

1993-01-01

75

Contemporaneous Formation of Chondrules in the Al-26-MG-26 System for Ordinary and CO Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chronometer using the short-lived extinct-nuclide (26)Al has been applied to chondrules in order to obtain of their formation ages. Previous studies were mostly performed on Al-rich chondrules, which constitute only 1% of all chondrules, because of their high Al/Mg ratios. Recently, (26)Al ages of major ferromagnesian chondrules in least equilibrated ordinary chondrites (OC) have been obtained. However, (26)Al ages of ferromagnesian chondrules in least equilibrated carbonaceous chondrites (CC) are very limited. Particularly, age data of FeO-poor (Type I) chondrules in CC have been scarcely obtained, because of their fine textures and lack of phases with high Al/Mg (>100) ratios. In order to clarify the origin and formation processes of chondrules, we started systematic investigations on Type I chondrules in the most pristine CC (CO3.0 Yamato-81020), by examining textures, bulk chemical compositions, (26)Al ages and oxygen isotopic compositions. We find Type I chondrules in CC formed contemporaneously with ferromagnesian chondrules in OC.

Kurahashi, E.; Kita, N. T.; Nagahara, H.; Morishita, Y.

2004-01-01

76

The cali meteorite fell: A new H/L ordinary chondrite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fall of the Cali meteorite took place on 6 July 2007 at 16 h 32 ?? 1 min local time (21 h 32 ?? 1 min UTC). A daylight fireball was witnessed by hundreds of people in the Cauca Valley in Colombia from which 10 meteorite samples with a total mass of 478 g were recovered near 3??24.3'N, 76??30.6'W. The fireball trajectory and radiant have been reconstructed with moderate accuracy. From the computed radiant and from considering various plausible velocities, we obtained a range of orbital solutions that suggest that the Cali progenitor meteoroid probably originated in the main asteroid belt. Based on petrography, mineral chemistry, magnetic susceptibility, fhermoluminescence, and bulk chemistry, the Cali meteorite is classified as an H/L4 ordinary chondrite breccia.

Rodriguez, J.M.T.; Llorca, J.; Rubin, A.E.; Grossman, J.N.; Sears, D.W.G.; Naranjo, M.; Bretzius, S.; Tapia, M.; Sepulveda, M.H.G.

2009-01-01

77

The Danebury Iron Age meteorite—An H5 ordinary chondrite "find" from Hampshire, England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What remains of a 30 g sample, first recognized as a meteorite in 1989 during characterization of metalworking debris from Danebury, an Iron Age hillfort, in Hampshire, England, has been classified as an H5 ordinary chondrite. Its arrival on Earth has been dated as 2350 ± 120 yr BP, making it contemporary with the period of maximum human activity at the recovery site. Despite its considerable terrestrial residence age, the interior of the specimen is remarkably fresh with a weathering index of W1/2. There is, however, no evidence of human intervention in its preservation. Its near-pristine state is explained in terms of its serendipitous burial during the back-fill of a pit dug into chalk by prehistoric people for the storage of grain. This chance discovery has interesting ramifications for the survival of meteorites in areas having a high pH because of a natural lime content arising as a result of the local geology.

Pillinger, C. T.; Pillinger, J. M.; Johnson, D.; Greenwood, R. C.; Tindle, A. G.; Jull, A. J. T.; Allen, D. H.; Cunliffe, B.

2014-06-01

78

Climate and rock weathering: a study of terrestrial age dated ordinary chondritic meteorites from hot desert regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ordinary chondrites (OC) recovered from the desert areas of Roosevelt County, New Mexico, the Nullarbor Region of Western Australia, and the Algerian and Libyan Sahara, for which 14C terrestrial ages have been determined, were examined by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. OC were chosen as a standard sample to investigate weathering processes as their well constrained trace and bulk element chemistry, normative

P. A. Bland; A. S. Sexton; A. J. T. Jull; A. W. R. Bevan; F. J. Berry; D. M. Thornley; T. R. Astin; D. T. Britt; C. T. Pillinger

1998-01-01

79

Chemical and physical studies of chondrites: 10. Cathodoluminescence and phase composition studies of metamorphism and nebular processes in chondrules of type 3 ordinary chondrites  

SciTech Connect

The cathodoluminescence (CL) properties of eight type 3 ordinary chondrites and one L5 chondrite have been determined, and phenocryst and mesostasis compositions have been analyzed in the chondrules of four of them (Semarkona, type 3.0; Krymka, 3.1; Allan Hills A77214, 3.5; and Dhajala, 3.8) in order to investigate their origins and metamorphic history. In the present study, the authors discuss the CL properties of nine ordinary chondrites of a variety of petrologic types with particular emphasis on detailed studies of the compositions of the relevant phases in four of these: Semarkona (3.0), Krymka (3.1), Allan Hills A77214 (3.5), and Dhajala (3.8). They describe a means of classifying chondrules that is based on the composition of their two major components, the mesostasis and phenocrysts. The system is applicable to > 90-95% off the chondrules in a given meteorite and it describes the range of material produced by nebular material and of the effect of metamorphism on the chondrules. They also discuss the relevance of the results for the origin of the nine chondrite classes.

DeHart, J.M.; Lu Jie; Benoit, P.H.; Sears, D.W.G. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States)); Lofgren, G.E. (NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States))

1992-10-01

80

Chrome-spinel Inclusions in Ordinary Chondrites: Mineralogy, Chemistry and Petrogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We surveyed 270 ordinary chondrites (115 H, 116 L and 39 L/LL and LL) for chrome-spinel (Cr-Sp) chondrules and inclusions and Cr- Sp-rich mafic silicate chondrules. Here we discuss Cr-Sp inclusions. These inclusions are most common among H (52) chondrites and 3-4X less common in L (15) and L/LL+LL (5) chondrites. We divide the inclusions into two types chiefly on the basis of Cr/(Cr+Al) in the Cr-Sp: high (>0.84) in type I, low (<0.84) and, in many cases, variable in type II. Type I inclusions are irregularly shaped aggregates of Cr-Sp grains embedded in or surrounded by plagioclase mesostasis (Pl), and having merrillite (Mrl) and/or chlorapatite (Apt) rims. Some contain Mrl/Apt in the cores. Most rims are framed by low-Al and low-Ti clinopyroxene (Px). A few inclusions show core-to-rim changes in modal composition: cores consisting of Pl, Px and/or olivine (Ol) are surrounded by a Cr-Sp-rich zone and a Pl rim. Cr-Sp is uniform in composition with a Cr/(Cr+Al) ratio of 0.84- 0.86. Plagioclase occurs as coexisting Na- and K-rich varieties, the K-rich Pl generally occurring in cores. Type II inclusions are also irregularly shaped; they consist of a Pl core or fine- grained Pl+Cr-Sp with accessory ilmenite (Ilm), a surrounding Cr-Sp-rich zone and a rim of Pl and Px enclosed by Mrl. Some type-II inclusions consist of compact Cr-Sp cores surrounded by Pl and Mrl rims. One inclusion contains a Mg-Ca-Na-Si phase in the core. Cr-Sp has a uniform or slightly variable composition within the individual inclusions but has significant grain-to- grain variability in Cr/(Cr+Al): ~0.29-0.80, increasing from core to rim. Pl is igneously zoned: cores have higher Ca than rims. Cr-Sp inclusions have >10 wt% bulk Al2O3 and differ from Al-rich objects in ordinary chondrites by having high contents of Cr2O3 and FeO, and low contents of SiO2 and MgO. Models for the formation of Cr-Sp inclusions include the following: (1) The similarity in mineralogy and chemistry of Cr- Sp inclusions and chondrules and the occurrence of both within the same meteorite suggest a genetic relationship. The formation of Cr-Sp chondrules was explained by Krot et al. (1992) as having involved melting and incomplete evaporation of presolar lumps, perhaps during infall into the nebula; this resulted in enrichment of the residue in Cr and Al. Subsequent melting and fractional crystallization produced the high Cr/Al ratios. Differences between Cr-Sp chondrules and inclusions indicate that either (a) inclusions formed by lower degrees of melting than chondrules, (b) inclusions formed by chondrule disruption, or (c) inclusions are relicts of nebular precursors. (2) The presence of phosphates within some Cr-Sp inclusions and the presence of inclusions within metal suggest formation of Cr-Sp inclusions from oxidized precursor materials that originally consisted of Cr-P-Si-rich metal. Melting of oxidized metal grains together with an alkali-rich nebular component resulted in the formation of immiscible Cr-P-rich silicate and metal melts. (3) Based on the similarity of textures and mineralogy of Cr-Sp and Sp inclusions in ordinary chondrites, A. Bischoff (pers. comm.) proposed that Cr-Sp objects were formed by alteration of Sp inclusions during parent-body metamorphism; Sp was replaced by Cr-Sp, perovskite by Ilm, and anorthite by Na-Pl. The occurrence of Cr-Sp of variable composition in equilibrated ordinary chondrites implies low diffusion rates in Cr-Sp, inconsistent with this model; nebular reaction between Sp- and Cr-rich phases is still less likely. (4) The presence of shock veins and melt pockets having mineralogy similar to those of Cr-Sp inclusions suggests a shock origin. However, this seems unlikely because (a) Cr-Sp inclusions and melt pockets have different textures, (b) Cr-Sp within melt pockets has high Cr/(Cr+Al) ~0.86, similar to matrix chromite, and (c) most of the chondrites containing Cr- Sp inclusions are of low shock stage (S1-S3). References: Krot A., Ivanova M.A., and Wasson J.T. (1992) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., submitted.

Krot, A. N.; Ivanova, M. A.; Wasson, J. T.

1992-07-01

81

Silica-bearing objects in the Dengli H3.8 and Gorlovka H3-4 chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silica-bearing objects are enigmatic components of the olivine-normative ordinary chondrites. Several papers have been devoted to the study of these objects in various chondrite types. While a relatively large body of information has been collected, the origin of these objects is still controversial. Here we report new data on silica-bearing objects in the unequilibrated H-chondrites Dengli and Gorlovka. The crystallization history of these objects could be explained on the basis of the phase diagram of the Q-Ol-Pl (Al2O3) system, but the origin of the silica-rich liquids remains unclear.

Ivanova, M. A.; Kononkova, N. N.; Petaev, M. I.

1993-01-01

82

The Origin of Silica-Rich Chondrules and Clasts in Ordinary and Carbonaceous Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chondrules and clasts containing a silica mineral or a silica glass are a minor but important constituent in many ordinary (Planner, 1983; Brigham et al., 1986) and some carbonaceous (Olsen, 1983) chondrites, and have been considered somewhat enigmatic. The recent discovery of a large, silica-rich igneous clast in the Bovedy (L3) chondrite (Ruzicka and Boynton, 1992) sheds light on the possible origin of other silica-rich objects. As discussed in Ruzicka and Boynton (1992), the Bovedy clast probably crystallized from an Lchondrite silicate magma in a relatively large magma body that had previously undergone olivine fractionation. The existence of similar fractionating magmas can also account for the origin of other silica-rich objects, as shown below. Pyroxene-silica objects. Chondrules (drop-formed objects) and clasts (irregularly shaped objects) consisting essentially of a mixture of orthopyroxene (opx) and a silica mineral (SiO2) have been found in various ordinary chondrites (Brigham et al., 1986). Brigham and coworkers (1986) proposed that these objects could be condensates. However, fractional crystallization of a liquid similar in composition to the Bovedy clast (Ruzicka and Boynton, 1992) will produce (Morse, 1980) the following solids: (a) orthopyroxenite, (b) an opx + SiO2 rock, and (c) a feldspar, SiO2 and pyroxene rock. Brecciation or remelting of rock (b), which lies on the opx-SiO2 join in the cristobalite primary crystallization field, could have produced the pyroxene-silica objects of Brigham et al. (1986) and Planner (1983). Fayalite-silica clasts. These clasts consist of SiO2, olivine (ol, Fa(sub)63-96), and highly variable amounts of opx and clinopyroxene (Brigham et al., 1986). Brigham et al. (1986) discussed various origins for these objects and concluded that none were entirely satisfactory, but that an accidental mixture of the various phases in them was probably the best hypothesis. However, a rock mainly containing SiO2 and fayalitic ol (Fa(sub)>59) can form as a late-stage differentiate of a melt of any ol + opx or opx + SiO2 mixture (Bowen and Schairer, 1935). The presence of some opx in these objects suggests disequilibrium and incomplete removal of opx from the fractionating liquids. The absence of appreciable feldspar in the fayalite-silica objects may indicate that the parent melt formed from an opx or opx + SiO2 cumulate. Murchison chondrules. Olsen (1983) described two chondrules in Murchison that contain opx (En(sub)99-97Wo(sub)O.5-0.7) set in a groundmass of feldspar or feldspathic glasses, Mgclinopyroxene, and pods of silica glass. Cr-bearing metal also occurs in the chondrules. Olsen (1983) proposed that the two chondrules experienced a nearly equilibrium cooling history from a melt composition projecting in the opx primary crystallization field. These melt compositions are best explained as the result of ol and opx fractionation from a magma of CM-like composition. CM-chondrites have a high bulk CaAl2Si2O7:SiO2 ratio compared to L-chondrites, and this can account for the more feldspathic compositions of the Murchison chondrules compared to that of the Bovedy clast (Ruzicka and Boynton, 1992). Remelting of the differentiate produced by ol and opx fractionation could have formed the two objects. Their Mg-rich pyroxene compositions imply either that the initial magmatic or that the chondrule-forming event was accompanied by reduction. References Bowen N.L. and Schairer J.F. (1935) The system MgO-FeO-SiO2. Am. J. Sci., 5th ser., 29, 151-217. Brigham C.A., H. Yabuki, Z. Ouyang, M.T. Murrell, A. El Goresy and D.S. Burnett (1986) Silica-bearing chondrules and clasts in ordinary chondrites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 50, 1655-1666. Morse S.A. (1980) Basalts and Phase Diagrams. An Introduction to the Quantitative Use of Phase Diagrams in Igneous Petrology. Springer-Verlag. 493 pp. Olsen E.J. (1983) SiO2-bearing chondrules in the Murchison meteorite. In Chondrules and Their Origins (ed. E.A. King), pp. 223-234. Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston. Planner H.N. (1983) Phase separation in

Ruzicka, A.; Boynton, W. V.

1992-07-01

83

Space Weathering of Ordinary Chondrite Parent Bodies, Its Impact on the Method of Distinguishing H, L, and LL Types and Implications for Itokawa Samples Returned by the Hayabusa Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the most abundance meteorites in our collections, ordinary chondrites potentially have very important implications on the origin and formation of our Solar System. In order to map the distribution of ordinary chondrite-like asteroids through remote sensing, the space weathering effects of ordinary chondrite parent bodies must be addressed through experiments and modeling. Of particular importance is the impact on distinguishing different types (H/L/LL) of ordinary chondrites. In addition, samples of asteroid Itokawa returned by the Hayabusa spacecraft may re veal the mechanism of space weathering on an LLchondrite parent body. Results of space weathering simulations on ordinary chondrites and implications for Itokawa samples are presented here.

Hiroi, T.; Sasaki, S.; Noble, S. K.; Pieters, C. M.

2011-01-01

84

Partial melting of the St. Severin (LL) and Lost City (H) ordinary chondrites: One step backwards and two steps forward  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study looks at partial melting in H and LL chondrites at nearly one atmosphere of total pressure as part of a continuing study of the origins of basaltic achondrites. Previously, melting experiments on anhydrous CM and CV chondrites showed that, near its solidus, the CM chondrite produced melts having major element chemistries similar to the Sioux County eucrite; but, the pyroxenes in the residuum were too iron-rich to form diogenites. Our preliminary results from melting experiments on ordinary (H, LL) chondrites suggested that, although the melts did not look like any known eucrites, pyroxenes from these charges bracketed the compositional range of pyroxenes found in diogenites. We had used the Fe/Mg exchange coefficients calculated for olivine, pyroxene, and melt in these charges to evaluate the approach to equilibrium, which appeared to be excellent. Unfortunately, mass balance calculations later indicated to us that, unlike our CM and CV charges, the LL and H experimental charges had lost significant amounts of iron to their (Pt or PtRh) supports. Apparently, pyroxene stability in chondritic systems is quite sensitive to the amount of FeO, and it was this unrecognized change in the bulk iron content which had stabilized the high temperature, highly magnesian pyroxenes. Accordingly, this work reinvestigates the phase equilibria of ordinary chondrites, eliminating iron and nickel loss, and reports significant differences. It also looks closely at how the iron and sodium in the bulk charge affect the stability of pyroxene, and it comments on how these new results apply to the problems of diogenite and eucrite petrogenesis.

Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Jones, J. H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

1994-01-01

85

A shock-metamorphic model for silicate darkening and compositionally variable plagioclase in CK and ordinary chondrites  

SciTech Connect

Silicate darkening in ordinary chondrites (OC) is caused by tiny grains of metallic Fe-Ni and troilite occurring mainly within curvilinear trails that traverse silicate interiors and decorate or, in some cases, cut across silicate grain boundaries. Highly shocked OC tend to have greater degrees of silicate darkening than lightly shocked OC; this indicates that silicate darkening is probably a result of shock metamorphism. The low Fe-FeS eutectic temperature (988C) renders metal and troilite susceptible to melting and mobilization during shock heating. Unshocked OC tend to have plagioclase with uniform compositions; shocked OC tend to have plagioclase with more variable (albeit still stoichiometric) compositions. The low impedance of plagioclase to shock compression makes it particularly susceptible to melting and mobilization; this is consistent with the molten appearance of plagioclase in highly shocked OC (e.g., Rose City and Paragould). CK chondrites also have compositionally variable plagioclase. The common association of silicate darkening with compositionally variable plagioclase is consistent with the hypothesis that both are products of shock metamorphism. Some CK and OC chondrites exhibit light shock effects in olivine that are consistent with equilibrium peak shock pressures that are too low to account for the silicate darkening or opaque shock veins in these meteorites. Therefore, the olivine in these chondrites may have been annealed after intense shock produced these effects. A few CK chondrites that contain olivine with undulose or mosaic extinction (e.g., LEW87009 and EET83311) may have been shocked again, after annealing.

Rubin, A.E. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

1992-04-01

86

Total Mass of Ordinary Chondrite Matter Originally Present in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, I reported the discovery of a new fundamental relationship of the\\u000amajor elements (Fe, Mg, Si) of chondrites that admits the possibility that\\u000aordinary chondrite meteorites are derived from two components, a relatively\\u000aoxidized and undifferentiated, primitive component and a somewhat\\u000adifferentiated, planetary component, with oxidation state like the highly\\u000areduced enstatite chondrites, which I suggested was identical to

J. Marvin Herndon

2004-01-01

87

Using the U-Pb system's dual decay scheme towards reconstructing the thermal histories and origins of ordinary chondrites (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordinary chondrites provide a record of planetary formation through the accretion of the Solar System's earliest forming solids. Despite the critical importance these samples have for understanding Solar System history, the origin of chondrites as well as the size and histories of their parent bodies remains unclear. The antiquity of chondrules permit chondrite accretion prior to the extinction of the 26Al short-lived radionuclide and the possibility of parent body melting and differentiation due to radioactive heating. Yet this antiquity and the overall abundance of chondrites has raised questions concerning the origin of chondrules and the conditions leading to the preservation of their primordial geochemical signatures, accretion textures and ancient inclusions. In short, if these bodies accreted early in the history of the solar system, how has this material avoided melting by radioactive heating? Different models for the size and structure of the chondrite parent bodies as well as for chondrule formation exist to explain how chondrites survive or avoid early radiogenic heating. Here we propose to evaluate these scenarios through comparison between modeled thermal histories and thermal histories reconstructed using U-Pb thermochronology of chondritic phosphates. Detailed thermal histories are reconstructed by exploiting the U-Pb system's dual decay scheme, where two parent isotopes, 238U and 235U, decay to two daughter isotopes 206Pb and 207Pb respectively. The difference in decay rates between parent isotopes imposes a time-variant parent and instantaneous daughter isotopic composition for any point in Solar System history. This new thermochronologic methodology works to capture this isotopic evolution using the variation in the time of Pb retention between both: 1) chondrites from different parent body depths or metamorphic grades, where variations in the timescale of cooling result from the thermal gradient within a conductively cooling body, and; 2) crystals of different size, where volume diffusion behavior, in particular for slowly cooled systems, result in larger crystals retaining Pb at higher temperatures and over longer and older timescales in comparison to smaller crystals. The differences in 207Pb/206Pb among samples from different depths and within each sample--between grains of different size -- can be used to reconstruct the long-term chondrite thermal histories. Here we will present 207Pb-206Pb data for phosphates from over 10 ordinary chondrites with samples from: 1) H, L and LL chondrites, 2) metamorphic grades Type 4-6, and 3) a range of shock grades. Preliminary phosphate (U-Th)/He data from the same samples provide a means to understand whether the U-Pb system has been influenced by subsequent heating events. The combined data are used to constrain parent body thermal histories--and in doing so constrain the size and structure of the chondrite parent bodies.

Blackburn, T. J.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Carlson, R. W.; Alexander, C. M.; Hourigan, J. K.

2013-12-01

88

Magnetic properties of the LL5 ordinary chondrite Chelyabinsk (fall of February 15, 2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we characterize the magnetic properties of the Chelyabinsk chondrite (LL5, S4, W0) and constrain the composition, concentration, grain size distribution, and mineral fabric of the meteorite's magnetic mineral assemblage. Data were collected from 10 to 1073 K and include measurements of low-field magnetic susceptibility (?0), the anisotropy of ?0, hysteresis loops, first-order reversal curves, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray microtomography. The REM and REM' paleointensity protocols suggest that the only magnetizations recorded by the chondrite are components of the Earth's magnetic field acquired during entry into our planet's atmosphere. The Chelyabinsk chondrite consists of light and dark lithologies. Fragments of the light lithology show log?0 = 4.57 ± 0.09 (s.d.) (n = 135), while the dark lithology shows 4.65 ± 0.09 (n = 39) (where ?0 is in 10-9 m3 kg-1). Thus, Chelyabinsk is three times more magnetic than the average LL5 fall, but is similar to a subgroup of metal-rich LL5 chondrites (Paragould, Aldsworth, Bawku, Richmond) and L/LL5 chondrites (Glanerbrug, Knyahinya). The meteorite's room-temperature magnetization is dominated by multidomain FeNi alloys taenite and kamacite (no tetrataenite is present). However, below approximately 75 K remanence is dominated by chromite. The metal contents of the light and dark lithologies are 3.7 and 4.1 wt%, respectively, and are based on values of saturation magnetization.

Bezaeva, Natalia S.; Badyukov, Dmitry D.; Nazarov, Mikhail A.; Rochette, Pierre; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Markov, Gennadiy P.; Borschneck, Daniel; Demory, FrançOis; Gattacceca, JéRôMe; Borisovskiy, Sergey E.; Skripnik, Anna Ya

2014-06-01

89

Distribution of the U, Th-He, and K-Ar Ages of Ordinary Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

U,Th-He and K-Ar ages of over 700 H, L and LL chondrites were calculated.The noble gas data were taken from [1].The distributions of the ages of all chondrites and,independently, of chondrites having t(sub)3/t(sub)21 <1 within each chemical group were studied (t(sub)3 and t(sub)21 are the 3He and 21Ne cosmic ray exposure ages, respectively). Analysis of the distribution of the 4He and 3He contents in L-chondrites showed the parent body of these meteorites underwent the catastrophic collision in space 350+/-30 Myr ago [2]. This event stipulated the high abundance of L chondrites having low gas-retention ages. As a whole,ages of non-Antarctic finds are less than ages of falls most probably due to losses of noble gases during terrestrial weathering. However,the parameters of the age distributions of Antarctic finds are close to those of falls: storage of meteorites inside ice do not lead to essential losses of gases. Not only L but also H chondrites having low U,Th-He ages tend to have low cosmic-ray exposure ages. Apparently,the most outgassing took place in the events that ejected the meteorites from their parent bodies. The large impacts may produce more outgassing and greater acceleration, leading to a shorter transit time to the Earth [3,4]. The possible difference of thermal history between Antarctic and non-Antarctic meteorites is found. References: [1] Schultz L. and Kruse H. (1989) Meteoritics, 24, 155-172; Schultz L.(1994) personal communication. [2] Alexeev V. A. (1995) LPS XXVI,19-20; Astronom. Vestnik (in Russian), in press. [3] Waenke H. (1966) Fortschr. Chem. Forsch., 7, 322-408. [4] Hintenberger H. et al. (1966) Z. Naturforsch., 21A, 1147-1159.

Alexeev, V. A.

1995-09-01

90

The thermoluminescence sensitivity-metamorphism relationship in ordinary chondrites - Experimental data on the mechanism and implications for terrestrial systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal annealing experiments have been performed on samples of the Sharps meteorite in order to investigate the mechanism responsible for the metamorphism-related, 10-to-the-5th-fold range in the thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivity in ordinary chondrites. Duplicate 50 mg samples of meteorite were annealed under the following conditions: (1) 168 h at 785 C and 1 kbar; (2) the same time, temperature and pressure, but with 2 wt pct water; (3) 174 h at 855 C and 0.77 kbar with 2 wt pct water and 2 molal sodium disilicate (NadiSi); (4) the same time, temperature and pressure as the preceding samples, but with 10 wt pct H2O and 2 molal NadiSi. Samples annealed under the first three sets of conditions showed little or no change in their TL sensitivities, however the samples annealed with 10 wt pct water and 2 molal NadiSi showed a three-fold to 10-fold increase in TL sensitivity, and the temperature of the TL peak was suggestive of feldspar in the high-temperature form. It is suggested that these data are consistent with the TL sensitivity-metamorphism relationship in ordinary chondrites being due to the formation of the TL phosphor, feldspar, by the crystallization of chondrule glass.

Guimon, R. K.; Sears, D. W. G.; Lofgren, G. E.

1986-09-01

91

Troilite in the Chondrules of Type-3 Ordinary Chondrites: Implications for Chondrule Formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presence of primary troilite in chondrules requires that nebular temperatures were <650 K (the 50% condensation temperature of S) at the time of chondrule formation and that chondrules were molten for periods short enough (less than or equal to 10 s) to avoid significant volatilization of S. We examined 226 intact chondrules of all textural types from eight unshocked to weakly shocked ordinary chondrite falls of low petrologic type to determine the origin of troilite in chondrules; 68 chondrules are from LL3.0 Semarkona. There is a high probability that troilite is primary (i.e , was present among the chondrule precursors) if it is completely embedded in a mafic silicate phenocryst, located within one-half radius of the apparent chondrule center and is part of an opaque assemblage with an igneous texture Based on these criteria, 13% of the chondrules in Semarkona and in the set as a whole contain primary troilite. Most of the remaining chondrules contain troilite that is probably primary, but does not meet all three criteria. Troilite occurs next to tetratacnite in some opaque spherules within low-FeO chondrules in Semarkona, implying that the Ni required to form the tetrataenite came from the troilite Troilite can accommodate 5 mg/g Ni at high temperatures (> 1170 K) but much less Ni at lower temperatures; because this is far higher than the metamorphic temperature inferred for Semarkona (approx. 670 K), the troilite must be primary Primary troilite fitting the three criteria occurs in a smaller fraction of low-FeO [FeO/(FeO + MgO) in olivine and/or low-Ca pyroxene not greater than 0.0751 than high-FeO porphyritic chondrules in Semarkona (9% vs 33%) Coarse-grained low-FeO porphyritic chondrules appear to contain somewhat more troilite on average than those of medium grain size We found a few troilite-free, metallic-Fe-Ni-bearing, low-FeO chondrules that contain Na2O-bearing augite and Na2O- and K2O-rich mesostasis; these chondrules were probably formed after ambient nebular temperatures cooled below 910 K (the 50% condensation temperature of Na) and before they reached 650 K Literature reports of rare fayalitic microchondrules in the rims around a few normal-size chondrules suggest that chondrule formation persisted until nebular temperatures cooled below 500 K Secondary troilite occurs in a few percent of Semarkona chondrules as thin veins mobilized by shock; troilite or pyrrhotite in the outer portions of some chondrules occur within opaque assemblages containing magnetite, carbide, Ni-rich sulfide, awaruite, and Co-rich kamacite produced by parent-body hydrothermal alteration.

Rubin, Alan E.; Sailer, Alan L.; Wasson, John T.

1999-01-01

92

Weathering of ordinary chondrites from the Atacama Desert, Chile, by Mössbauer spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some terrestrial areas have climatic and geomorphologic features that favor the preservation, and therefore, accumulation of meteorites. The Atacama Desert in Chile is among the most important of such areas, known as DCA. This desert is the driest on Earth, one of the most arid, uninhabitable localities with semiarid, arid, and hyper-arid conditions. The meteorites studied here were collected from within the DCA of San Juan and Pampa de Mejillones, located, respectively, in the Central Depression and the Coastal Range of the Atacama Desert. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for quantitative analysis of the degree of weathering of the meteorites, through the determination of the proportions of the various Fe-bearing phases and in particular the amount of oxidized iron in terrestrial alteration products. The abundance of ferric ions in weathered chondrites can be related to specific precursor compositions and to the level of terrestrial weathering. The aim of the study was the identification, quantification, and differentiation of the weathering products in the ordinary chondrites found in the San Juan and the Pampa de Mejillones areas of the Atacama Desert. The 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy study was complemented by synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The results allow a clear differentiation of the rate of weathering in meteorite samples collected from the San Juan versus the Pampa de Mejillones areas of the Atacama Desert.

Munayco, Pablo; Munayco, Jimmy; Avillez, Roberto R.; Valenzuela, Millarca; Rochette, Pierre; Gattacceca, JéRôMe; Scorzelli, Rosa B.

2013-03-01

93

Metal size distributions in EH and EL chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EL chondrites exhibit larger average metal grain sizes than EH chondrites, a difference attributed by Easton [1983] to metamorphic coarsening, as most EL chondrites are equilibrated, and most EH chondrites are unequilibrated. In this paper, we present metal grain size data for three unequilbrated EL3 chondrites (PCA 91020; ALH 85119; MAC 88180) , and three EH3 chondrites (ALH 84170; PCA 91085; PCA 91238). We find that EL3 chondrites have larger average metal grain sizes than EH3 chondrites, and that grain sizes of the unequilibrated enstatite chondrites are similar to those of equilibrated chondrites of the same class. We thus interpret the metal size distributions of enstatite chondrites as primarily reflecting their pre-metamorphic distributions. Shock processing appears to have had only minor influence on metal grain size distributions in these meteorites.

Schneider, D. M.; Benoit, P. H.; Kracher, A.; Sears, D. W. G.

2003-04-01

94

Partitioning of Nd, Tb, Lu, and Hf Between Garnet and Ordinary Chondrite Melt at 5 to 9 GPa: Applications to Martian Differentiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One explanation for Al and REE depletions in SNC meteorites is early majorite fractionation in a deep martian magma ocean. We report initial results from an experimental investigation of partitioning between majoritic garnet and ordinary chondrite liquid. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Draper, D. S.; Chabot, N. L.; Xirouchakis, D.; Wasserman, A. A.; Agee, C. B.

2001-01-01

95

Lavras do Sul: A New Equilibrated Ordinary L5 Chondrite from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new Brazilian chondrite, Lavras do Sul, was found in 1985 at Lavras do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State-Brazil (33°30'48?S; 53°54'65?W). It consists of a single mass weighing about 1 kg, covered by a black fusion crust with grayish interior. Four polished thin sections were prepared from a slice weighing 67 g on deposit at the Museu Nacional/UFRJ. It consists mostly of chondrules and chondrule fragments dispersed in a recrystallized matrix. Most chondrules are poorly defined and range in size from 300 to 2,000 ?m, although some of them show distinct outlines, particularly when viewed under cross-polarized transmitted and reflected light. The texture of chondrules varies from non-porphyritic (e.g., barred-olivine, radial-pyroxene) to porphyritic ones (e.g., granular olivine as well as olivine-pyroxene). The meteorite contains mainly olivine (Fa24.9), low-Ca pyroxene (Fs22.6) and metal phases, with minor amounts of plagioclase, chromite and magnetite. Mössbauer Spectroscopy studies indicate that the metal phase is kamacite, tetrataenite and antitaenite. Veins of secondary iddingsite crosscut the thin section and some ferromagnesian silicates. The chemical composition indicates that Lavras do Sul is a member of the low iron L chondrite group. The poorly delineated chondritic texture with few well-defined chondrules, the occurrence of rare clinopyroxene and plagioclase (and maskelynite) with apparent diameters ranging from 5 to 123 ?m led us to classify Lavras do Sul as an equilibrated petrologic type 5. The shock features of some minerals suggest a shock stage S3, and the presence of a small amount of secondary minerals such as iddingsite and goethite, a degree of weathering W1. The meteorite name was approved by the Nomenclature Committee (Nom Com) of the Meteoritical Society (Meteoritic Bulletin Nº99).

Zucolotto, M. E.; Antonello, L. L.; Varela, M. E.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Ludka, Isabel P.; Munayco, P.; dos Santos, E.

2012-03-01

96

Ortho- and clinopyroxene compositions in ordinary chondrites and related blander model calculation procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical analyses of the orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene compositions in chondrites are reported. Standard microprobe techniques to 15 kilovolts, 0.03 microamperes, and 40 second counting time were employed. Duplicate analyses were conducted on three grains of each opx and cpx together with two different raw data correction methods as checks on analytical precision and correction procedures. Only those analytical summations of between 99.20 and 100.80 weight percent, and cation summations between 3.980 and 4.020 (based on 6 oxygens) were used.

Bunch, T. E.; Olsen, E.

1973-01-01

97

Terrestrial weathering of Antarctic stone meteorites - Formation of Mg-carbonates on ordinary chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented on the mineralogy, chemistry, and origin of white efflorescences on the surface of Lewis Cliff (Antarctica) 85320 (H5) chondrite (LEW 85320). Particular attention is given to determining the sources of the cations and anions of the evaporite, in order to establish the relative importance of the meteoritic element distribution and terrestrial contamination in the evaporite formation during the weathering process. The data on Na, K, Ca, and Rb abundances in efflorescence from LEW 85320 suggest that cations in evaporite minerals on Antarctic meteorites are not the products of contamination by terrestrial (marine) salts. It is suggested that the Mg in efflorescence on LEW 85320 originated from weathering of meteoritic olivine.

Velbel, M. A.; Long, D. T.; Gooding, J. L.

1991-01-01

98

Trace-Element Constraints on Origin of SiO2-bearing Clasts in Ordinary Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silica-rich igneous-textured clasts are found in OC [1-6]. The SiO2-bearing clasts found in the Parnallee (LL3.6) and Farmington (L5) chondrites are isotopically unique [4-6]. They plot on a mixing line defined between UOC chondrules and an 16(sub)O-depleted end member in the oxygen three isotope diagram. We analyzed trace elements including REE by MSID technique for SiO2-bearing clasts (CB1, CB4, CB7, and CB8) from Parnallee. Some major and minor elements of CB8 were determined by AA or ICP-AES. The CI-chondrite normalized REE patterns of the clasts are shown in Fig. 1. CB8 has a high Si/Mg ratio (2.5), although its bulk Mg/(Mg + Fe) and Fe/Mn ratios (0.79 and 51, respectively) are within the range of chondritic values. Refractory elements Ca and Al are highly fractionated in CB8; the clast is enriched in Ca (3 x CI) but depleted in Al (0.7 x CI). CB1, CB4, and CB7 also show Ca enrichment (3-7 x CI). CB8 is depleted in moderately volatile lithophiles Mn, Na, K, and Rb (0.18-0.71 x CI), siderophile elements Fe, Co, and Ni (0.0041-0.39 x CI), and chalcophile element Zn (0.076 x CI). The SiO2-bearing clasts analyzed exhibit a gradual depletion from LREE to HREE (CI-normalized La/Lu ratios vary from 1.6 to 18) and a large positive Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*=2.4-14) along with a depletion of La. This LREE/HREE fractionation is inversely correlated with SiO2 contents of the clasts. Abundance of Sr is parallel to that of Eu in CB8. However, Sr is depleted compared with Eu in the other clasts. These abundance patterns are quite different from those of typical ferromagnesian chondrules in UOCs, SiO2-bearing pyroxene-rich clast in Hedjaz (L3.7) [3], and silica-rich orthopyroxenite Bo-1 in Bovedy (L3) [7]. Absence of metal and sulfide, low abundances of siderophile and chalcophile elements in the clasts imply that metal and sulfide were removed from precursor material before or during clast formation. General REE patterns of SiO2-bearing clasts from Parnallee suggest that they were produced by igneous fractionation controlled by the plagioclase component. Extensive olivine extraction followed plagioclase crystallization from the residua may be able to explain the REE pattern of CB8 [5, 6]. However, simple fractional crystallization or extraction of partial melting liquid from a chondritic source could explain neither large fractionation of La/Lu nor enrichment of Eu relative to Sr observed in CB1, CB4, and CB7. Detailed fractionation processes occurred on a parent body still remain unsolved. References: [1] Olsen E. J. et al. (1981) EPSL, 56, 82-88. [2] Brigham C. A. et al. (1986) GCA, 50, 1655-1666. [3] Nakamura N. et al. (1990) EPSL, 99, 290-302. [4] Bridges J. C. et al. (1993) Meteoritics, 28, 329-330. [5] Bridges J. C. et al. (1994) Meteoritics, 29, 448-449. [6] Bridges J. C. et al. (1995) Meteoritics, submitted. [7] Ruzicka A. et al. (1995) Meteoritics, 30, 57-70.

Misawa, K.; Kanazawa, M.; Bridges, J. C.; Nakamura, N.; Hutchison, R.

1995-09-01

99

An Ordinary Chondrite Impactor Composition for the Bosumtwi Impact Structure, Ghana, West Africa: Discussion of Siderophile Element Contents and Os and Cr Isotope Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Osmium isotope data had shown that Ivory Coast tektites contain an extraterrestrial component, but do not allow distinction between chondritic and iron meteorite contamination. PGE abundances of Ivory Coast tektites and impactites and target rocks from the Bosumtwi crater, the source crater of the Ivory Coast tektites, were all relatively high and did not allow to resolve the presence, or identify the nature, of the meteoritic component. However, Cr isotope analyses of an Ivory Coast tektite yielded a distinct 53Cr excess of 0.30+/-0.06, which indicates that the Bosumtwi impactor was an ordinary chondrite.

Koeberl, Christian; Shukolyukov, Alex; Lugmair, Guenter

2004-01-01

100

Impact Melting of Ordinary Chondrite Regoliths and the Production of Fine-grained Fe(sup 0)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detailed study of individual lunar soil grains provides evidence that the major optical properties of the lunar surface are primarily related to the production of fine-grained (< 20 nm, super-paramagnetic) Fe-particles in agglutinitic impact melts and to iron-rich vapor deposits on the surfaces of individual grains. These Fe-rich materials are derived from oxidized species due to high post-shock temperatures in the presence of solar-wind derived H2; part of the Fe-rich grain surfaces may also be due to sputtering processes. Identical processes were recently suggested for the optical maturation of S-type asteroid surfaces, the parent objects of ordinary chondrites (OCs). OCs, however, do not contain impact-produced soil melts, and should thus also be devoid of impact-triggered vapor condensates. The seeming disparity can only be understood if all OCs resemble relatively immature impact debris, akin to numerous lunar highland breccias. It is possible to assess this scenario by evaluating experimentally whether impact velocities of 5- 6 km/s, typical for the present day asteroid belt, suffice to produce both impact melts and fine-grained metallic iron. We used 125-250 m powders of the L6 chondrite ALH85017. These powders were aliquots from fines that were produced by collisionally disrupting a single, large (461g) chunk of this meteorite during nine impacts and by subjecting the resulting rubble to an additional 50 impacts. As a consequence, the present shock-recovery experiments employ target materials of exceptional fidelity (i.e., a real chondrite that was impact pulverized). The target powders were packed into tungsten-alloy containers to allow for the potential investigation of freshly produced, fine-grained iron and impacted by stainless-steel and tungsten flyer plates; the packing density varied between 38 and 45% porosity. Peak pressures ranged from 14.5 to 67 GPa and were attained after multiple reverberations of the shock wave at the interface of the silicate powder and metal container. Pressures in the 50 to 70 GPa range should be fairly typical for asteroid impacts at approx. 5-6 km/s, yet we note that these pressures refer to those at the projectile/target interface only and that most crater ejecta on OC parent-bodies will have experienced much lower stresses.

Hoerz, Friedrich; Cintala, Mark J.; See, Thomas H.

2003-01-01

101

The natural thermoluminescence of meteorites. 7: Ordinary chondrites from the Elephant Moraine region, Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report natural and induced thermoluminescence (TL) measurements for meteorites from the Elephant Moraine region (76 deg 17 min S, 157 deg 20 min E) of Antarctica. We use our data to identify fragmented meteorites (i.e., 'pairings'); our dataset of 107 samples represents at most 73 separate meteorite falls. Pairing groups are generally confined to single icefields, or to adjacent icefields, but a small proportion cross widely separated icefields in the region, suggesting that the fields can be considered as a single unit. Meteorites from this region have high natural TL levels, which indicates that they have small terrestrial surface exposure ages (less than 12,500 years). There do not appear to be significant differences in natural TL levels (and hence surface exposure ages) between individual blue icefields in the region. The proportion of reheated meteorites from the Elephant Moraine region is similar to that of other Antarctic sites and modern falls, consistent with the uniformity of the meteoritic flux in this regard. An unusual subset of H-chondrites, with high induced TL peak temperatures, is absent among the data for meteorites collected in the Elephant Moraine region, which stresses their similarity to modern falls. We suggest that the Elephant Moraine region, which stresses their similarity to modern falls. We suggest that the Elephant Moraine icefields formed through shallow ablation of the ice. Unlike the Allan Hills sites to the south, lateral transport is probably less important relative to the infall of meteorites in concentrating meteorites on these icefields.

Benoit, P. H.; Roth, J.; Sears, H.; Sears, D. W. G.

1994-01-01

102

A Quantitative NMR Analysis of Phosphorus in Carbonaceous and Ordinary Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phosphorus is important in a number of biochemical molecules, from DNA to ATP. Early life may have depended on meteorites as a primary source of phosphorus as simple dissolution of crustal apatite may not produce the necessary concentration of phosphate. Phosphorus is found in several mineral phases in meteorites. Apatite and other Ca- and Mg phosphate minerals tend to be the dominant phosphorus reservoir in stony meteorites, whereas in more iron-rich or reduced meteorites, the phosphide minerals schreibersite, (Fe, Ni)3P, and perryite, (Ni, Fe)5(Si, P)2 are dominant. However, in CM chondrites that have experienced significant aqueous alteration, phosphorus has been detected in more exotic molecules. A series of phosphonic acids including methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butyl- phosphonic acids were observed by GC-MS in Murchison. Phosphorian sulfides are in Murchison and Murray. NMR spectrometry is capable of detecting multiple substances with one experiment, is non-destructive, and potentially quantitative, as discussed below. Despite these advantages, NMR spectrometry is infrequently applied to meteoritic studies due in large part to a lack of applicability to many compounds and the relatively high limit of detection requirements. Carbon-13 solid-state NMR has been applied to macromolecular carbon in Murchison. P-31 NMR has many advantages over aqueous carbon-13 NMR spectrometry. P-31 is the only isotope of phosphorus, and P-31 gives a signal approximately twice as strong as C-13. These two factors together with the relative abundances of carbon and phosphorus imply that phosphorus should give a signal approximately 20 as strong as carbon in a given sample. A discussion on the preparation of the quantitative standard and NMR studies are presented

Pasek, M. A.; Smith, V. D.; Lauretta, D. S.

2004-01-01

103

Fe-Ni metal and sulfide minerals in CM chondrites: An indicator for thermal history  

USGS Publications Warehouse

CM chondrites were subjected to aqueous alteration and, in some cases, to secondary metamorphic heating. The effects of these processes vary widely, and have mainly been documented in silicate phases. Herein, we report the characteristic features of Fe-Ni metal and sulfide phases in 13 CM and 2 CM-related chondrites to explore the thermal history of these chondrites. The texture and compositional distribution of the metal in CM are different from those in unequilibrated ordinary and CO chondrites, but most have similarities to those in highly primitive chondrites, such as CH, CR, and Acfer 094. We classified the CM samples into three categories based on metal composition and sulfide texture. Fe-Ni metal in category A is kamacite to martensite. Category B is characterized by pyrrhotite grains always containing blebs or lamellae of pentlandite. Opaque mineral assemblages of category C are typically kamacite, Ni-Co-rich metal, and pyrrhotite. These categories are closely related to the degree of secondary heating and are not related to degree of the aqueous alteration. The characteristic features of the opaque minerals can be explained by secondary heating processes after aqueous alteration. Category A CM chondrites are unheated, whereas those in category B experienced small degrees of secondary heating. CMs in category C were subjected to the most severe secondary heating process. Thus, opaque minerals can provide constraints on the thermal history for CM chondrites. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2011.

Kimura, M.; Grossman, J.N.; Weisberg, M.K.

2011-01-01

104

"Sweating meteorites"—Water-soluble salts and temperature variation in ordinary chondrites and soil from the hot desert of Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The common appearance of hygroscopic brine ("sweating") on ordinary chondrites (OCs) from Oman during storage under room conditions initiated a study on the role of water-soluble salts on the weathering of OCs. Analyses of leachates from OCs and soils, combined with petrography of alteration features and a 11-month record of in situ meteorite and soil temperatures, are used to evaluate the role of salts in OC weathering. Main soluble ions in soils are Ca2+, SO42-, HCO3-, Na+, and Cl-, while OC leachates are dominated by Mg2+ (from meteoritic olivine), Ca2+ (from soil), Cl- (from soil), SO42- (from meteoritic troilite and soil), and iron (meteoritic). "Sweating meteorites" mainly contain Mg2+ and Cl-. The median Na/Cl mass ratio of leachates changes from 0.65 in soils to 0.07 in meteorites, indicating the precipitation of a Na-rich phase or loss of an efflorescent Na-salt. The total concentrations of water-soluble ions in bulk OCs ranges from 600 to 9000 ?g g-1 (median 2500 ?g g-1) as compared to 187-14140 ?g g-1 in soils (median 1148 ?g g-1). Soil salts dissolved by rain water are soaked up by meteorites by capillary forces. Daily heating (up to 66.3 °C) and cooling of the meteorites cause a pumping effect, resulting in a strong concentration of soluble ions in meteorites over time. The concentrations of water-soluble ions in meteorites, which are complex mixtures of ions from the soil and from oxidation and hydrolysis of meteoritic material, depend on the degree of weathering and are highest at W3. Input of soil contaminants generally dominates over the ions mobilized from meteorites. Silicate hydrolysis preferentially affects olivine and is enhanced by sulfide oxidation, producing local acidic conditions as evidenced by jarosite. Plagioclase weathering is negligible. After completion of troilite oxidation, the rate of chemical weathering slows down with continuing Ca-sulfate contamination.

Zurfluh, Florian J.; Hofmann, Beda A.; Gnos, Edwin; Eggenberger, Urs

2013-10-01

105

Carbon-rich Chondritic Clast PV1 from the Plainview H-chondrite Regolith Formation from H3 Chondrite Material by Possible Cometary Impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chondritic clast PV1 from the Plainview H-chondrite regolith breccia is a subrounded, 5-mm diameter unequilibrated chondritic fragment that contains 13 wt% C occurring mainly within irregularly shaped 30-400-micron-size opaque patches. The clast formed from H3 chondrite material as indicated by the mean apparent chondrule diameter (310 micron vs. approximately 300 micron in H3 chondrites), the mean Mg-normalized refractory lithophile abundance ratio (1.00 +/- 0.09 XH), the previously determined 0-isotopic composition (Delta O-17 = 0.66% vs. 0.68 +/- 0.04%0 in H3 chondrites and 0.73 +/- 0.09% in H4-6 chondrites), the heterogeneous olivine compositions in grain cores (with a minimum range of Fal-19), and the presence of glass in some chondrules. Although the clast lacks the fine-grained, ferroan silicate matrix material present in type 3 ordinary chondrites, PV1 contains objects that appear to be recrystallized clumps of matrix material. Similarly, the apparent dearth of radial pyroxene and cryptocrystalline chondrules in PV1 is accounted for by the presence of some recrystallized fragments of these chondrule textural types. All of the chondrules in PV1 are interfused indicating that temperatures must have briefly reached approximately 1100C (the approximate solidus temperature of H-chondrite silicate). The most likely source of this heating was by an impact. Some metal was lost during impact heating as indicated by the moderately low abundance of metallic Fe-Ni in PV1 (approximately 14 wt%) compared to that in mean H chondrites (approximately 18 wt%). The carbon enrichment of the clast may have resulted from a second impact event, one involving a cometary projectile, possibly a Jupiter-family comet. As the clast cooled, it experienced hydrothermal alteration at low water/rock ratios as evidenced by the thick rims of ferroan olivine around low-FeO olivine cores. The C-rich chondritic clast was later incorporated into the H-chondrite parent-body regolith and extensively fractured and faulted.

Rubin, Alan E.; Trigo-Rodriguez, Josep M.; Kunihiro, Takuya; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.; Wasson, John T.

2006-01-01

106

Chromite-Plagioclase Assemblages as a New Shock Indicator; Implications for the Shock and Thermal Histories of Ordinary Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chromite in ordinary chondrites (OC) can be used as a shock indicator. A survey of 76 equilibrated H, L and LL chondrites shows that unshocked chromite grains occur in equant, subhedral and rounded morphologies surrounded by silicate or intergrown with metallic Fe-Ni and/or troilite. Some unmelted chromite grains are fractured or crushed during whole-rock brecciation. Others are transected by opaque veins; the veins form when impacts cause localized heating of metal-troilite intergrowths above the Fe-FeS eutectic (988 C), mobilization of metal-troilite melts, and penetration of the melt into fractures in chromite grains. Chromite-plagioclase assemblages occur in nearly every shock-stage S3-S6 OC; the assemblages range in size from 20-300 microns and consist of 0.2-20-micron-size euhedral, subhedral, anhedral and rounded chromite grains surrounded by plagioclase or glass of plagioclase composition. Plagioclase has a low impedance to shock compression. Heat from shock-melted plagioclase caused adjacent chromite grains to melt; chromite grains crystallized from this melt. Those chromite grains in the assemblages that are completely surrounded by plagioclase are generally richer in Al2O3, than unmelted, matrix chromite grains in the same meteorite. Chromite veinlets (typically 0.5-2 microns thick and 10-300 microns long) occur typically in the vicinity of chromite-plagioclase assemblages. The veinlets formed from chromite-plagioclase melts that were injected into fractures in neighboring silicate grains; chromite crystallized in the fractures and the residual plagioclase-rich melt continued to flow, eventually pooling to form plagioclase-rich melt pockets. Chromite-rich chondrules (consisting mainly of olivine, plagioclase-normative mesostasis, and 5-15 vol.% chromite) occur in many shocked OC and OC regolith breccias but they are absent from primitive type-3 OC. They may have formed by impact melting chromite, plagioclase and adjacent mafic silicates during higher-energy shock events. The melt was jetted from the impact site and formed droplets due to surface tension. Crystallization of these droplets may have commenced in flight, prior to landing on the parent-body surface. Chromite-plagioclase assemblages and chromite veinlets occur in 25 out of 25 shock-stage S1 OC of petrologic type 5 and 6 that I examined. Although these rocks contain unstrained olivine with sharp optical extinction, most possess other shock indicators such as extensive silicate darkening, numerous occurrences of metallic Cu, polycrystalline troilite, and opaque veins. It seems likely that these rocks were shocked to levels at least as high as shock-stage S3 and then annealed by heat generated during the shock event. During annealing, the olivine crystal lattices healed but other shock indicators survived. Published Ar-Ar age data for some SI OC indicate that many shock and annealing events occurred very early in the history of the parent asteroids. The common occurrence of shocked and annealed OC is consistent with collisions being a major mechanism responsible for metamorphosing OC.

Rubin, Alan E.

2006-01-01

107

Using the Fe/Mn Ratio of FeO-Rich Olivine In WILD 2, Chondrite Matrix, and Type IIA Chondrules to Disentangle Their Histories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Stardust Mission returned a large abundance of impactors from Comet 81P/Wild2 in the 5-30 m range. The preliminary examination of just a limited number of these particles showed that the collection captured abundant crystalline grains with a diverse mineralogy [1,2]. Many of these grains resemble those found in chondrite matrix and even contain fragments of chondrules and CAIs [1-3]. In particular, the olivine found in Wild 2 exhibits a wide compositional range (Fa0-97) with minor element abundances similar to the matrix olivine found in many carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs). Despite the wide distribution of Fa content, the olivine found in the matrices of CCs, UOCs, and Wild 2 can be roughly lumped into two types based solely on fayalite content. In fact, in some cases, a distinct bi-modal distribution is observed.

Frank, David R.; Le, L.; Zolensky, M. E.

2012-01-01

108

Platinum-group elements in the Morokweng impact structure, South Africa: Evidence for the impact of a large ordinary chondrite projectile at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary^1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiometric dating of melt rocks at impact craters has revealed that some giant impacts appear to overlap in time with major boundaries in Earth history [e.g., the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) and Jurassic-Cretaceous (J/K) boundaries]. The Morokweng impact crater in South Africa is coincident in age with the J/K boundary. However, the types of objects that generate large craters are poorly known because it is difficult to unambiguously identify the projectile from the signature it imparts into the impact rocks. Meteorites are highly enriched in the platinum-group elements (PGE), which have been widely used as a tool for identifying the presence of a meteorite signature. Here we present new PGE analyses from the Morokweng impact melt sheet. Our data reveal high PGE concentrations and high degree of PGE correlation through the melt sheet. Regression analysis was used to determine the projectile PGE signature and constrain input from the terrestrial target rocks. The closest match to Morokweng is the PGE signature of ordinary (L or LL) chondrite meteorites, which is broadly in agreement with the results of an earlier Cr isotope study. The results of these independent studies provide strong evidence that a large, ordinary chondrite projectile struck the area of Morokweng in the late Jurassic.

McDonald, I.; Andreoli, M. A. G.; Hart, R. J.; Tredoux, M.

2001-01-01

109

Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites. IX. Thermoluminescence and hydrothermal annealing experiments and their relationship to metamorphism and aqueous alteration in type < 3. 3 ordinary chondrites  

SciTech Connect

Samples of four type 3 chondrites have been annealed at 400-850/sup 0/C and 0.77-1 kbar for 10-500 h in the presence of various amounts of water (0-10 wt.%) and sodium disilicate (0-2 molal) and their thermoluminescence properties measured. After annealing for > 20 h at temperatures > 600/sup 0/C, the TL sensitivity of the samples increased by factors of up to 40. After annealing at < 600/sup 0/C for 10-500 h, or relatively short periods at high temperatures (e.g., less than or equal to 20 h at 850/sup 0/C), the TL sensitivity of the samples decreased by up to 2 orders of magnitude (depending on the original value). The TL peak temperatures observed in the present experiments are consistent with a low form of feldspar (the TL phosphor) being produced at < 800/sup 0/C and a high form being produced at > 800/sup 0/C. When both high and low forms were present originally, the low-form was destroyed preferentially. The authors suggest that these data are consistent with the TL-metamorphism trends observed in type > 3.2 chondrites, being due to the formation of feldspar by the devitrification of chondrule glass during metamorphism. For types < 3.2, the TL data are equally consistent with these types experiencing lower levels of metamorphism than the higher types, or with type 3.0 being produced from higher types by aqueous alteration. The presence of water with non-terrestrial D/H ratios, and petrographic evidence for aqueous alteration in Semarkona, lead to favoring the aqueous alteration hypothesis.

Guimon, R.K.; Lofgren, G.E.; Sears, D.W.G.

1988-01-01

110

Cooling rate of chondrules in ordinary chondrites revisited by a new geospeedometer based on the compensation rule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several decades efforts to constrain chondrite cooling rates from diffusion zoning in olivine gave rise to a range of values from 5 to 8400 K/h (Desch, S.J., Connolly Jr., H.C., 2002. A model for the thermal processing of particles in solar nebula shocks: application to cooling rates of chondrules. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 37, 183-208; Greeney, S., Ruzicka, A., 2004. Relict forsterite in chondrules: implications for cooling rates. Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXV, abstract # 1246.). Such large uncertainties directly reflect the variability of diffusion data. Alternatively, from this variability results a compensation rule, log D0 = a + bE (diffusion coefficients are written D = D0 exp(- E/ RT)). We test a new geospeemetry approach, based on this rule, on cooling of chondrules in chondrites, Sahara-97210 LL 3.2 and Wells LL 3.3. Greeney and Ruzicka (2004) matched Fe-Mg diffusion profiles in olivine from these chondrites with cooling rates between 200 and 6000 K/h. In our geospeedometry model, the use of the compensation rule greatly reduces the uncertainties by avoiding the choice of one diffusion coefficient among many. The cooling rates we found are between 700 and 3600 K/h for Sahara and 700-1600 K/h for Wells. Finally, we discuss the influence of our analytical model parameters on our cooling rate estimates.

Béjina, Frédéric; Sautter, Violaine; Jaoul, Olivier

2009-01-01

111

Thermal history of type-3 chondrites in the NASA antarctic collection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chondrites are the most primitive meteorites. However, they were all modified in some ways by post-accretion geological processes operating on their asteroidal parent bodies. Hence, to decipher the formation(s) and origin(s) of their components, we must first understand how chondritic materials were modified in their asteroidal parent bodies. The modifications induced by secondary processes should not be underestimated and have to be precisely estimated before any interpretation of chondrite properties in terms of cosmochemistry. In particular, all chondrites contain some organic components that were potentially chemically and physically modified through post-accretion processes. A thin understanding of the induced evolution is required to allow for pertinent comparisons with other primitive extraterrestrial materials, such as cometary grains, to finally address questions such as the origin of organics in the Solar System. Type 3 chondrites experienced thermal metamorphism on their asteroidal parent body due to the radioactive decay of elements such as ^{26}Al. Temperatures higher than 300 °C were experienced on timescales of several thousands of years. Still, type 3 chondrites remain as unequilibrated rocks and common mineralogical thermometers cannot be applied. The polyaromatic carbonaceous matter is sensitive to thermal episodes (of long and short duration) experienced by the host meteorite. In particular, its structural order directly reflects the thermal history experienced on their parent bodies. The structural modification of the aromatic carbonaceous matter towards a higher order is irreversible, and independent of the mineralogy and degree of aqueous alteration. It is mainly controlled by the peak metamorphic temperature. Moreover, under the assumption of fairly similar organic precursors among chondrites of distinct groups, the structural order of polyaromatic organic matter allows for a direct comparison of their metamorphic grades. It is then possible to evaluate the metamorphic grade of the objects and to assign a petrologic type along a unique petrologic scale [1-4]. This technique has been successfully applied to type 3 Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites [1], carbonaceous CV chondrites [2], and CO chondrites [3]. The interpretation of the structural order of the polyaromatic carbonaceous matter in terms of thermal history is thus reliable. Raman spectroscopy enables the determination of the degree of structural order of the polyaromatic organic matter present in the matrix of chondrites. Both falls and finds, from Antarctica [4] and elsewhere, have been analyzed. It does not require a large amount of samples and is relatively easy to implement. Raman spectroscopy is particularly sensitive to the lowest petrologic types (3.0-3.2). The present NASA collection of Antarctic meteorites represents an incredible source of precious samples for our community. The present work finely characterizes the thermal history of most of the type 3 chondrites (UOCs, CVs, and COs) from that collection. At the present time, the objectives are threefold: (i) determination of reliable petrologic types indispensable for our community; (ii) identification of the most primitive type 3 chondrites (petrologic type ? 3.1); and (iii) identification of potential ''anomalous'' samples having experienced a slightly different thermal history. The JSC Meteorite Working Group generously allocated us with more than 150 chondrites (UOCs, CVs, and COs). The following points summarize the main results. (i) At the present time, the thermal histories of more than 100 samples have been characterized. (ii) The terrestrial weathering experienced by several chondrites (˜25 chondrites) has been too pervasive for the method to be applied. For these meteorites, as signatures of oxide minerals dominate Raman spectra of the matrix, the organic matter might have been significantly altered through oxidation. (iii) Real discrepancies with the preliminary JSC petrologic type attributions were found for several chondrites with mostly underestimations of the

Bonal, L.; Quirico, E.; Montagnac, G.

2014-07-01

112

The formation of weathering products on the LEW 85320 ordinary chondrite - Evidence from carbon and oxygen stable isotope compositions and implications for carbonates in SNC meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isotopic analysis of nesquehonite recovered from the surface of the LEW 85320 H5 ordinary chondrite shows that the delta C-13 and delta O-18 values of the two generations of bicarbonate (Antarctic and Texas) are different: delta C-13 = + 7.9 per mil and + 4.2 per mil; delta O-18 = + 17.9 per mil and + 12.1 per mil, respectively. Carbon isotopic compositions are consistent with equilibrium formation from atmospheric carbon dioxide at - 2 + or - 4 C (Antarctic) and + 16 + or - 4 C (Texas). Oxygen isotopic data imply that the water required for nesquehonite precipitation was derived from atmospheric water vapor or glacial meltwater which had locally exchanged with silicates, either in the meteorite or in underlying bedrock. Although carbonates with similar delta C-13 values have been identified in the SNC meteorites EETA 79001 and Nakhla, petrographic and temperature constraints argue against their simply being terrestrial weathering products.

Grady, Monica M.; Wright, I. P.; Pillinger, C. T.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

1989-01-01

113

Textural properties of iron-rich phases in H ordinary chondrites and quantitative links to the degree of thermal metamorphism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The textural characteristics of opaque iron-rich phases (kamacite-taenite and troilite) have been quantified in the eight H-chondrites (two H4, three H5 and three H6) that have been the subject of previous thermo-chronological studies. These samples are of interest as they have temperature-time paths during cooling that have been shown to be consistent with radiogenic heating by 26Al on a single parent-body, thus offering the possibility to quantitatively link textural characteristics to thermal history. In addition to these eight samples, two other H5 samples (Forest City & Misshof) and two primitive achondrites (Acapulco & Lodran) were studied for comparison. The textural characteristics measured include: (i) phase proportions, (ii) the length of metal-sulphide contacts, (iii) dihedral angle at contacts with silicate grains, (iv) grain shape and circularity, (v) grain size and size distributions. The absolute and relative proportions of metals and sulphides are found to be approximately constant in all studied H chondrites, consistent with evolution in a chemically closed system. With increasing degree of thermal metamorphism, H-chondrites are found to show evidence for separation of metal and sulphide phases, increasing grain circularity, increasing grain size, and modification of size distributions characterized by the elimination of small grains. Variations of these parameters are found to be almost identical for sulphides and metals suggesting similar growth mechanisms for these two phases. Furthermore, trends between samples place them consistently in the same order: Sainte Marguerite (H4), Forest Vale (H4), Nadiabondi (H5), Richardton (H5), Forest City (H5), Misshof (H5), Allegan (H5), Kernouvé (H6), Guareña (H6) and Estacado (H6). In all cases Acapulco and Lodran extend the trends observed among the H-chondrites. In general, it is found that characteristics requiring material transport over shorter length scales (i.e. within grains) show greater variation for low petrographic type (H4/H5) and reach textural equilibrium earlier in the sequence than characteristics which require transport over larger distances (i.e. between grains). In the latter case (e.g. slopes of crystal size distribution), variations are most marked for H6 samples, trends that are significantly extended by Acapulco and Lodran, highlighting the role of silicate melt on variations in textural properties. Crystal size distributions imply normal grain growth (NGG) for both metals and sulphides, possibly controlled by grain boundary migration of olivine and/or pyroxene. Comparison of these results with geochemically constrained thermal models of the H-chondrite parent body shows an excellent correlation between average crystal sizes, and inferred depths in the original parent body, consistent with expectations based on thermal modelling. This study highlights the potential of grain-size as a quantitative marker of the degree of thermal metamorphism, although further work on a wider set of samples will be required to explore the limits of this approach.

Guignard, J.; Toplis, M. J.

2015-01-01

114

CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION FOR THERMALLY UNEQUILIBRATED PHASES  

E-print Network

CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION FOR THERMALLY UNEQUILIBRATED PHASES R. A. Marcus1 , A. V. Fedkin2-K) equation for the rate of condensation of a gas or evaporation of a solid or liquid is used for systems, Tg, differs from that of the condensed phase, Ts . Here, we modify the H-K equation for this case

Grossman, Lawrence

115

Calibration of cosmogenic noble gas production in ordinary chondrites based on 36Cl-36Ar ages. Part 1: Refined produced rates for cosmogenic 21Ne and 38Ar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the concentrations and isotopic compositions of He, Ne, and Ar in bulk samples and metal separates of 14 ordinary chondrite falls with long exposure ages and high metamorphic grades. In addition, we measured concentrations of the cosmogenic radionuclides 10Be, 26Al, and 36Cl in metal separates and in the nonmagnetic fractions of the selected meteorites. Using cosmogenic 36Cl and 36Ar measured in the metal separates, we determined 36Cl-36Ar cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) ages, which are shielding-independent and therefore particularly reliable. Using the cosmogenic noble gases and radionuclides, we are able to decipher the CRE history for the studied objects. Based on the correlation 3He/21Ne versus 22Ne/21Ne, we demonstrate that, among the meteorites studied, only one suffered significant diffusive losses (about 35%). The data confirm that the linear correlation 3He/21Ne versus 22Ne/21Ne breaks down at high shielding. Using 36Cl-36Ar exposure ages and measured noble gas concentrations, we determine 21Ne and 38Ar production rates as a function of 22Ne/21Ne. The new data agree with recent model calculations for the relationship between 21Ne and 38Ar production rates and the 22Ne/21Ne ratio, which does not always provide unique shielding information. Based on the model calculations, we determine a new correlation line for 21Ne and 38Ar production rates as a function of the shielding indicator 22Ne/21Ne for H, L, and LL chondrites with preatmospheric radii less than about 65 cm. We also calculated the 10Be/21Ne and 26Al/21Ne production rate ratios for the investigated samples, which show good agreement with recent model calculations.

Dalcher, N.; Caffee, M. W.; Nishiizumi, K.; Welten, K. C.; Vogel, N.; Wieler, R.; Leya, I.

2013-10-01

116

Organic Analysis of Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Products and Ordinary Chondrite Meteorites by Stepwise Pyrolysis-GCMS: Organics in the Early Solar Nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abiotic generation of complex organic compounds, in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system, is hypothesized by some to occur via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. In its simplest form, FT synthesis involves the low temperature (<300degC) catalytic reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases to form more complex hydrocarbon compounds, primarily n-alkanes, via reactive nano-particulate iron, nickel, or cobalt, for example. Industrially, this type of synthesis has been utilized in the gas-to-liquid process to convert syngas, produced from coal, natural gas, or biomass, into paraffin waxes that can be cracked to produce liquid diesel fuels. In general, the effect of increasing reaction temperature (>300degC) produces FT products that include lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. We have begun to experimentally investigate FT synthesis in the context of abiotic generation of organic compounds in the early solar nebula. It is generally thought that the early solar nebula included abundant hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases and nano-particulate matter such as iron and metal silicates that could have catalyzed the FT reaction. The effect of FT reaction temperature, catalyst type, and experiment duration on the resulting products is being investigated. These solid organic products are analyzed by thermal-stepwise pyrolysis-GCMS and yield the types and distribution of hydrocarbon compounds released as a function of temperature. We show how the FT products vary by reaction temperature, catalyst type, and experimental duration and compare these products to organic compounds found to be indigenous to ordinary chondrite meteorites. We hypothesize that the origin of organics in some chondritic meteorites, that represent an aggregation of materials from the early solar system, may at least in part be from FT synthesis that occurred in the early solar nebula.

Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.

2014-01-01

117

Micron-scale D/H heterogeneity in chondrite matrices: a signature of the pristine solar system water?  

E-print Network

Organic matter and hydrous silicates are intimately mixed in the matrix of chondrites and in-situ determination of their individual D/H ratios is therefore challenging. Nevertheless, the D/H ratio of each pure component in this mixture should yield a comprehensible signature of the origin and evolution of water and organic matter in our solar system. We measured hydrogen isotope ratios of organic and hydrous silicates in the matrices of two carbonaceous chondrites (Orgueil CI1 and Renazzo CR2) and one unequilibrated ordinary chondrite (Semarkona, LL3.0). A novel protocol was adopted, involving NanoSIMS imaging of H isotopes of monoatomatic ($H^-$) and molecular ($OH^-$) secondary ions collected at the same location. This allowed the most enriched component with respect to D to be identified in the mixture. Using this protocol, we found that in carbonaceous chondrites the isotopically homogeneous hydrous silicates are mixed with D-rich organic matter. The opposite was observed in Semarkona. Hydrous silicates i...

Piani, Laurette; Remusat, Laurent

2015-01-01

118

Zn and Cu isotopic variations in chondrites and iron meteorites: Early solar nebula reservoirs and parent-body processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-precision Zn isotopic variations are reported for carbonaceous chondrites (CC), equilibrated (EOC) and unequilibrated (UOC) ordinary chondrites, iron meteorites from the IAB-IIICD (nonmagmatic) and IIIA (magmatic) groups, and metal from the Brenham pallasite. For irons, ? 65Cu values are also reported. Data have also been obtained on a coarse-grained type-B calcium-, aluminum-rich refractory inclusion (CAI) from Allende and on acid leaches of Allende (CV3), Krymka (LL3), and Charsonville (H6). Variations expressed as ? 66Zn (deviation in parts per thousand of 66Zn/ 64Zn in samples relative to a standard) spread over a range of 0.3‰ for carbonaceous chondrites, 2‰ for ordinary chondrites, and 4‰ for irons. The measured 66Zn/ 64Zn, 67Zn/ 64Zn, and 68Zn/ 64Zn ratios vary linearly with mass difference and define a common isotope fractionation line with terrestrial samples, which demonstrates that Zn was derived from an initially single homogeneous reservoir. The ? 66Zn values are correlated with meteorite compositions and slightly decrease in the order CI, CM, CV-CO, and to UOC. The isotopically light Zn of Allende CAI and the acid-resistant residues of Allende and Krymka show that the light component is associated with refractory material, presumably minerals from the spinel-group. This, together with the reverse correlation between relative abundances of light Zn isotopes and volatile element abundances, suggests that Zn depletion in planetary bodies with respect to CI cannot be ascribed to devolatilization of CI-like material. These observations rather suggest that refractory material reacted with a gas phase enriched in the lighter Zn isotopes. Alternatively, chondrules with their associated rims should carry a light Zn isotopic signature. The ? 66Zn values of unequilibrated chondrites are rather uniform, whereas equilibrated chondrites show distinctly more isotopic variability. The values of ? 65Cu-? 66Zn in irons define two trends. The moderate and positively correlated Cu and Zn isotope variations in IIIA and pallasite samples probably reflect crystallization of silicate, sulfide, and solid metal from the liquid metal. The range of ? 66Zn values of the IAB-IIICD group is large (>3‰) and contrasts with the moderate fractionation of Cu isotopes. We interpret this feature and the negative ? 66Zn-? 65Cu correlation as reflecting mixing, possibly achieved by percolation, between metals from a regolith devolatilized at low temperature (enriched in heavy zinc) and metallic liquids formed within the parent body.

Luck, Jean-Marc; Othman, Dalila Ben; Albarède, Francis

2005-11-01

119

Intrinsic oxygen fugacity measurements on seven chondrites, a pallasite, and a tektite and the redox state of meteorite parent bodies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Intrinsic oxygen-fugacity (fO2) measurements were made on five ordinary chondrites, a carbonaceous chondrite, an enstatite chondrite, a pallasite, and a tektite. Results are of the form of linear log fO2 - 1 T plots. Except for the enstatite chondrite, measured results agree well with calculated estimates by others. The tektite produced fO2 values well below the range measured for terrestrial and lunar rocks. The lowpressure atmospheric regime that is reported to follow large terrestrial explosions, coupled with a very high temperature, could produce glass with fO2 in the range measured. The meteorite Salta (pallasite) has low fO2 and lies close to Hvittis (E6). Unlike the other samples, results for Salta do not parallel the iron-wu??stite buffer, but are close to the fayalite-quartz-iron buffer in slope. Minor reduction by graphite appears to have taken place during metamorphism of ordinary chondrites. fO2 values of unequilibrated chondrites show large scatter during early heating suggesting that the constituent phases were exposed to a range of fO2 conditions. The samples equilibrated with respect to fO2 in relatively short time on heating. Equilibration with respect to fO2 in ordinary chondrites takes place between grades 3 and 4 of metamorphism. Application of P - T - fO2 relations in the system C-CO-CO2 indicates that the ordinary chondrites were metamorphosed at pressures of 3-20 bars, as it appears that they lay on the graphite surface. A steep positive thermal gradient in a meteorite parent body lying at the graphite surface will produce thin reduced exterior, an oxidized near-surface layer, and an interior that is increasingly reduced with depth; a shallow thermal gradient will produce the reverse. A body heated by accretion on the outside will have a reduced exterior and oxidized interior. Meteorites from the same parent body clearly are not required to have similar redox states. ?? 1984.

Brett, R.; Sato, M.

1984-01-01

120

The Natural Thermoluminescence Survey of Antarctic Meteorites: Ordinary Chondrites at the Grosvenor Mountains, Macalpine Hills, Pecora Escarpment and Queen Alexandra Range, and New Data for the Elephant Moraine, Ice Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The natural TL (Thermoluminescence) survey of Antarctic meteorites was started in 1987 at the request of the Antarctic Meteorite Working Group in order to provide an initial description of radiation and thermal histories. It was intended to be a complement to the mineralogical and petrographic surveys performed at the Johnson Space Center and the Smithsonian Institution. All ANSMET (Antarctic Search for Meteorites) samples recovered since then, besides those that were heated throughout by atmospheric passage, have been measured. To date this amounts to about 1200 samples. As the data for each ice field reaches a significant level, we have been conducting a thorough examination of the data for that field with a view to identifying pairing, providing an estimate of terrestrial age and residence time on the ice surface, looking for differences in natural TL between ice fields, looking for variations in natural TL level with location on the ice, looking for meteorites with natural TL levels outside the normal range. Pairing is a necessary first step in ensuring the most productive use of the collection, while geographical variations could perhaps provide clues to concentration mechanisms. Samples with natural TL values outside the normal range are usually inferred to have had either small perihelia or recent changes in orbital elements. In addition, induced TL data have enabled us to look for evidence for secular variation in the nature of the flux of meteorites to Earth, and look for petrologically unusual meteorites, such as particularly primitive ordinary chondrites, heavily shocked meteorites, or otherwise anomalous meteorites. To date we have published studies of the TL properties of 167 ordinary chondrites from Allan Hills, 107 from Elephant Moraine and 302 from Lewis Cliff and we have discussed the TL properties of fifteen H chondrites collected at the Allan Hills by Euromet after a storm during the 1988 season. We now have additional databases for a reasonable number of ordinary chondrites from Grosvenor Mountains (39 meteorites), MacAlpine Hills (70 meteorites), Pecora Escarpment (60 meteorites), and Queen Alexandra Range (173 meteorites) and we have data for a further 101 samples from Elephant Moraine. The results are summarized. We also have fairly minimal databases (10-15 meteorites) for Dominion Range, Graves Nunataks, Reckling Peak and Wisconsin Range that will not be discussed here.

Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

1999-01-01

121

The Natural Thermoluminescence Survey of Antarctic Meteorites: Ordinary Chondrites at the Grosvenor Mountains, MacAlpine Hills, Pecora Escarpment and Queen Alexandra Range, and New Data New Data for the Elephant Moraine, Ice Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The natural TL survey of Antarctic meteorites was started in 1987 at the request of the Antarctic Meteorite Working Group in order to provide an initial description of radiation and thermal histories. It was intended to be a complement to the mineralogical and petrographic surveys performed at the Johnson Space Center and the Smithsonian Institution. All ANSMET samples recovered since then, besides those that were heated throughout by atmospheric passage, have been measured. To date this amounts to about 1200 samples. As the data for each ice field reaches a significant level, we have been conducting a thorough examination of the data for that field with a view to (1) identifying pairing, (2) providing an estimate of terrestrial age and residence time on the ice surface, (3) looking for differences in natural TL between ice fields, (4) looking for variations in natural TL level with location on the ice, (5) looking for meteorites with natural TL levels outside the normal range. Pairing is a necessary first step in ensuring the @ost productive use of the collection, while geographical variations could perhaps provide clues to concentration mechanisms. Samples with natural TL values outside the normal range are usually inferred to have had either small perihelia or recent changes in orbital elements. In addition, induced TL data have enabled us to (5) look for evidence for secular variation in the nature of the flux of meteorites to Earth, and (6) look for petrologically unusual meteorites, such as particularly primitive ordinary chondrites, heavily shocked meteorites, or otherwise anomalous meteorites. To date we have published studies of the TL properties of 167 ordinary chondrites from Allan Hills, 107 from Elephant Moraine and 302 from Lewis Cliff and we have discussed the TL properties of fifteen H chondrites collected at the Allan Hills by Euromet after a storm during the 1988 season. We now have additional databases for a reasonable number of ordinary chondrites from Grosvenor Mountains (39 meteorites), MacAlpine Hills (70 meteorites), Pecora Escarpment (60 meteorites), and Queen Alexandra Range (173 meteorites) and we have data for a further 101 samples from Elephant Moraine. The results are summarized in Table 1. We also have fairly minimal databases (10-15 meteorites) for Dominion Range, Graves Nunataks, Reckling Peak and Wisconsin Range that will not be discussed here.

Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

2000-01-01

122

The effect of aqueous alteration and metamorphism in the survival of presolar silicate grains in chondrites  

E-print Network

Relatively small amounts (typically between 2-200 parts per million) of presolar grains have been preserved in the matrices of chondritic meteorites. The measured abundances of the different types of grains are highly variable from one chondrite to another, but are higher in unequilibrated chondrites that have experienced little or no aqueous alteration and/or metamorphic heating than in processed meteorites. A general overview of the abundances measured in presolar grains (particularly the recently identified presolar silicates) contained in primitive chondrites is presented. Here we will focus on the most primitive chondrite groups, as typically the highest measured abundances of presolar grains occur in primitive chondrites that have experienced little thermal metamorphism. Looking at the most aqueously altered chondrite groups, we find a clear pattern of decreasing abundance of presolar silicate grains with increasing level of aqueous alteration. We conclude that the measured abundances of presolar grains...

Trigo-Rodriguez, Josep M

2009-01-01

123

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Concerning Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV session entitled "Concerning Chondrites" includes the following topics: 1) Petrology and Raman Spectroscopy of Shocked Phases in the Gujba CB Chondrite and the Shock History of the CB Parent Body; 2) The Relationship Between CK and CV Chondrites: A Single Parent Body Source? 3) Samples of Asteroid Surface Ponded Deposits in Chondritic Meteorites; 4) Composition and Origin of SiO2-rich Objects in Carbonaceous and Ordinary Chondrites; 5) Re-Os Systematics and HSE distribution in Tieschitz (H3.6); Two Isochrons for One Meteorite; 6) Loss of Chromium from Olivine During the Metamorphism of Chondrites; 7) Very Short Delivery Times of Meteorites After the L-Chondrite Parent Body Break-Up 480 Myr Ago; and 8) The Complex Exposure History of a Very Large L/LL5 Chondrite Shower: Queen Alexandra Range 90201.

2004-01-01

124

A partial melting study of an ordinary (H) chondrite composition with application to the unique achondrite Graves Nunataks 06128 and 06129  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melting experiments of a synthesized, alkali-bearing, H-chondrite composition were conducted at ambient pressure with three distinct oxygen fugacity conditions (IW-1, IW, and IW+2). Oxygen fugacity conditions significantly influence the compositions of partial melts. Partial melts at IW-1 are distinctly enriched in SiO2 relative to those of IW and IW+2 melts. The silica-enriched, reduced (IW-1) melts are characterized by high alkali contents and have silica-oversaturated compositions. In contrast, the silica-depleted, oxidized (?IW) melts, which are also enriched in alkali contents, have distinctly silica-undersaturated compositions. These experimental results suggest that alkali-rich, felsic, asteroidal crusts as represented by paired achondrites Graves Nunataks 06128 and 06129 should originate from a low-degree, relatively reduced partial melt from a parent body having near-chondritic compositions. Based on recent chronological constraints and numerical considerations as well as our experimental results, we propose that such felsic magmatism should have occurred in a parent body that is smaller in size and commenced accreting later than those highly differentiated asteroids having basaltic crusts and metallic cores.

Usui, Tomohiro; Jones, John H.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

2015-01-01

125

Osmium isotope evidence for an s-process carrier in primitive chondrites.  

PubMed

Osmium extracted from unequilibrated bulk chondrites has isotope anomalies consistent with an insoluble s-process carrier, termed Os(i) here. Osmium from metamorphosed bulk chondrites does not have isotope anomalies, implying that the Os(i) carrier was destroyed by metamorphism. The isotopic homogeneity of metamorphosed bulk chondrites is consistent with extremely effective mixing of presolar grains from varied sources in the nebula. Osmium in the Os(i) carrier is likely from nucleosynthetic sites with a neutron density about two to four times as high as that of the average solar s-process Os. PMID:16109878

Brandon, A D; Humayun, M; Puchtel, I S; Leya, I; Zolensky, M

2005-08-19

126

Formation of niningerite by silicate sulfidation in EH3 enstatite chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unequilibrated EH chondrites contain silica-bearing chondrules with abundant niningerite [(Mg,Fe,Mn)S] and troilite (FeS), distinguishing them from the silica-bearing chondrules in ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites. The conventional explanation for the origin of niningerite and oldhamite (CaS) is that they are condensates from C-rich nebular gas. However, models of condensation from a solar gas with an elevated C/O ratio predict mineralogy that is inconsistent with petrographic observations. We report petrographic and chemical evidence from 45 silica-bearing chondrules from the EH3 chondrites Sahara 97072 and Alan Hills 84170 for formation of niningerite and oldhamite by sulfidation of ferromagnesian silicates. The results indicate extensive thermal processing of the chondrules including melting before, during, and after sulfidation. Bulk compositions of chondrules exhibiting varied degrees of sulfidation suggest that depletion of Mg and enrichment of Fe, Mn, and Na accompany the reactions. Sulfidation of FeO-bearing silicates, which formed at oxidizing conditions (at least IW-3), can occur with exposure to a H-poor, C- and S-rich gaseous reservoir 6-8 fO2 log units below the IW buffer at temperatures high enough for partial melting of silicates. Physicochemical analysis of mineral reactions inferred from sulfidized chondrules suggests a melted metal-sulfide assemblage (in a H-poor environment) is capable of generating sufficient S vapor to drive sulfidation. The reaction of silicates with the S gas will result in progressive extraction of Fe, Ca, and Mg into sulfides, with the stoichiometric amounts of silica either reacting with olivine to form enstatite or, when olivine is exhausted, precipitating as free silica. The sulfidation environment drastically increases Mg volatility, resulting in evaporative loss until saturation in the ambient gas is reached. The newly formed Mg-rich niningerite will tend to reach equilibrium composition by losing Mg and gaining Fe plus Mn from the ambient gas, consistent with the observed chemical fractionation in the sulfidized chondrules. Therefore, sulfidation of ferromagnesian silicates can also explain the low bulk Mg/Si ratios of the enstatite chondrites if the sulfidizing gas was lost before accretion of the enstatite chondrite parent body.

Lehner, S. W.; Petaev, M. I.; Zolotov, M. Yu.; Buseck, P. R.

2013-01-01

127

Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk, Part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The papers discussed the following: The Formation Process of Adhering and Consorting Compound Chondrules Inferred Their Petrology and Major-Element Composition. The Prospect of High-Precision Pb Isotopic Dating of Meteorites. Evolution of UV-Irradiated Protoplanetary Disks. A Model for the Formation of E Chondrites. Oxygen Isotopic Diffusion and Exchange Experiments on Olivine and Chondrule Melts: Preliminary Results. Shock Heating: Origin of Shock Waves in the Protoplanetary Disk. Thermal Structures of Protoplanetary Disks. Meteoritical Astrophysics: A New Subdiscipline. Origin and Thermal History of FeNi-Metal in Primitive Chondrites. The Collisions of Chondrules Behind Shock Waves. Primary Signatures of the Nebular Dust Preserved in Accretionary Rims and Matrices of CV Chondrites. History of Thermally Processed Solids in the Protoplanetary Disk: Reconciling Theoretical Models and Meteoritical. Evidence Evaporation and Condensation During CAI and Chondrule Formation. Shock Heating: Effects on Chondritic Material. Rhounite-bearing Inclusions E201 and E202 from Efremovka: Constraints from Trace. Element Measurements Element Mapping in Anhydrous IDPs: Identification of the Host Phases of Major/Minor Elements as a Test of Nebula Condensation Models. Theoretical Studies of Disk Evolution Around Solar Mass Stars. Chemical Effects of High-Temperature Processing of Silicates. I-Xe and the Chronology of the Early Solar System. The Effects of X-Rays on the Gas and Dust in Young Stellar Objects. Origin of Short-lived Radionuclides in the Early Solar System. On Early Solar System Chronology: Implications of an Initially Heterogeneous Distribution of Short-lived Radionuclides. The Origin of Short-lived Radionuclides and Early Solar System Irradiation. Disequilibrium Melting and Oxygen Isotope Exchange of CAIs and Chondrules in the Solar Nebula. Mineralogy and Chemistry of Fine-grained Matrices, Rims, and Dark Inclusions in the CR Carbonaceous Chondrites Acfer/El Djouf 001 and the Ungrouped Carbonaceous Chondrites Acfer 094 and Adelaide. Oxygen Isotopes of Aluminum-rich Chondrules from Unequilibrated Enstatite Chondrites.

2004-01-01

128

Establishment of redox conditions during planetary collisions as an origin of chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collisions between a 'cometlike' body (mixtures of chondritic materials and ice) and a slightly differentiated body were proposed for shock origin of ordinary chondrites. In this model, chondrules were formed with shock melting, and matrices were formed both by fracturing of materials and by recondensation of evaporated materials. This model can explain different redox conditions of chondrite formations by ice evaporation. Although this model was originally proposed for ordinary chondrites, we assume here that the model can be extended to chondrite formation in general. In this paper, redox conditions during chondrite formation by collisions will be discussed in the light of phase diagrams for solid-vapor equilibria.

Tsuchiyama, A.; Kitamura, M.

1994-01-01

129

The behavior of actinides, phosphorus, and rare earth elements during chondrite metamorphism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineralogical distribution of U in the Nadiabondi meteorite has been determined, and U and Pu results for a group of unequilibrated H-chondrites are reported. The experimental technique is summarized and results are given for U in Ca-phosphates, U in chondrule mesostasis, and Pu-244 distribution. A discussion is presented of the chemistry of P, U, Pu, and REE in chondrites, the mechanism of Pu-REE formation, chronologies of Pu-244/U-238, Pu-Nd, and Pu/P, and of the solar system Pu/U.

Murrell, M. T.; Burnett, D. S.

1983-11-01

130

Discovery of Hg-Cu-bearing metal-sulfide assemblages in a primitive H-3 chondrite: Towards a new insight in early solar system processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here the discovery of a novel meteoritic paragenesis consisting of sub-micrometric HgS, Cu sulfides, and Hg metal, associated with polycrystalline fine-grained native Cu in opaque mineral aggregates heterogeneously distributed in the matrix of the H-3 Tieschitz unequilibrated ordinary chondrite (UOC). The systematic association of Hg with Cu in Tieschitz chondrite provides a unique opportunity to place robust constraints on the origin of these assemblages either by condensation and sulfidation in a local nebular reservoir of non-solar composition, followed by gentle and fast accretion, or by sublimation of Hg from the hot interior of the asteroid and recondensation in its cold outer regions. The sulfide phase relations support low temperature conditions (<300 °C), implying that subsequent to accretion indigenous hydrothermal processing, oxidation/sulfidation, transportation, or shock-induced thermal processing of the assemblage on the parent body earlier proposed are very unlikely and unrealistic. Origin of HgS by sublimation of Hg from the hotter asteroid interior and precipitation as cinnabar in the colder surface regions is discrepant with our findings and can be ruled out because cinnabar occurs only in Tieschitz matrix in alternating rhythmic intergrowth with Cu-sulfide. The sublimation scenario calls for co-evaporation of both the highly volatile Hg as HgS and Hg metal and the moderately volatile Cu both as Cu metal, or their sulfides and deposition as sulfides in alternating episodes. Our findings provide further ample evidence refuting the repeated claim of formation of native copper in chondritic metal by shock-induced impact melting. Cold accretion is the only reasonable possibility to preserve the delicate accretionary intergrowth textures, the polycrystallinity of FeNi-metal, native Cu, Hg-Cu-sulfides and native Hg globules and the high Hg concentration retained in this meteorite. Our findings strongly suggest that Tieschitz resided near the cold surface of the parent asteroid.

Caillet Komorowski, Catherine; El Goresy, Ahmed; Miyahara, Masaaki; Boudouma, Omar; Ma, Chi

2012-10-01

131

I-Xe systematics in LL chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stepwise heating analysis of Ar and Xe data from five neutron-irradiated whole rock LL chondrites (Soko Banja, Alta Ameen, Tuxtuac, Guidder, and Olivenza) is presented, emphasizing the complicated thermal history of ordinary chondrites. None of the present meteorites show a well-defined (Ar-40)-(Ar-39) apparent age plateau comprised of more than two release fractions. Most of the samples are found to yield well-defined high-temperature correlations between Xe-129/Xe-130 and Xe-128/Xe-130, and thus determinations of I-129/I-127 and Xe-129/Xe-130 at the time of isotopic closure for Xe. As in the case of other ordinary chondrites, the I-Xe systematics for LL chondrites correlate neither with a metamorphic grade nor with chronologies based opon other methods.

Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Swindle, T. D.; Honda, M.

1988-05-01

132

Glass Veins in the Unequilibrated Eucrite Yamato 82202  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unequilibrated eucrite Yamato 82202 (Y82202) contains a network of glass veins, which are relatively thick (up to 1 mm in width) and are not devitrified. The host of the meteorite represents volcanic rock that crystallized >4.3 Gyr ago, probably as a lava flow on the surface of 4 Vesta. The impact event that formed the glass veins occurred at approx. 3.9 Gyr under conditions of low effective fo2 and very rapid cooling. A S-rich vapor probably was generated by impact vaporization of sulfides. The impact melt was not superheated and it retains some disordered structural characteristics of the original pyroxene and feldspar of the eucritic target lithology. The unequilibrated pyroxenes of this eucrite and the pristine character of the glass indicate that the meteorite experienced no significant metamorphism after initial crystallization. Hence, it was not buried to a significant depth or covered by a lava flow or hot layer of impact ejecta. The meteorite resided at a shallow level (though not at the surface) on 4 Vesta or on one of the vestoids until it was ejected and traveled to Earth, probably with other HED materials that have Ar-36 exposure ages of approx. 13 Myr.

Bogard, Donald; Buchanan, Paul; Noguchi, T.; Katavama, Ikuo

2004-01-01

133

Metasomatic Processes in the Early Solar System: The Record from Chondritic Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chondritic meteorites are among the oldest solar system materials available for study in the laboratory. These unique samples contain a complex record of processes that occurred during the earliest stages of solar system evolution, including evidence of metasomatism. The effects of metasomatism are variably among the different chondrite groups, being most well developed in the CV group, with more limited effects in the CO3 and unequilibrated ordinary chondrite groups. Unlike most metasomatized terrestrial rocks, the chondrite metasomatism has not caused detectable changes in the bulk chondrite composition. Instead, it occurs at a highly localized scale and has involved elemental exchange between the different chondrite components - chondrules, matrix and Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) with vastly differing mineralogies. These components respond in different ways to metasomatism and the resultant alteration assemblages are largely dependent on the local bulk composition/mineralogy of the objects that are being metasomatized. As a consequence, there is remarkable diversity in the alteration mineralogy on the scale of 10-100?m. In CV chondrites, the secondary alteration is characterized by the introduction of alkalis, Cl and Fe into metasomatized chondrules and CAIs and the loss of Ca from these objects into the matrix. Chondrule glass has been replaced by nepheline, sodalite and other minor phases, forsteritic olivine phenocrysts have developed overgrowths of ferroan olivine, clinoenstatite is replaced by ferroan olivine and metal/sulfide nodules have been replaced by magnetite, Ni-rich metal and Fe,Ni-carbides. In CAIs, the main refractory phases, melilite, Al-Ti-rich pyroxene, anorthite, spinel and perovskite show variable degrees of alteration with the formation of a large number of secondary phases including grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, wadalite Di-Hd pyroxenes, kushiroite, wollastonite, monticellite, ilmenite and, in some cases, minor amounts of phyllosilicates such as margarite, clintonite and kaolinite. The fine-grained matrix mineralogy has been extensively modified to form platy ferroan olivine associated with lesser amounts of Di-Hd pyroxenes, andradite, wollastonite, nepheline, sodalite etc. The environment in which metasomatism occurred has been the subject of extensive debate. Several studies have argued for high-temperature (>1000°C) gas-solid interactions in the solar nebula prior to asteroidal accretion, but more recent work has provided a body of evidence favoring fluid-mineral interactions below 300°C in an asteroidal environment. These include (a) in situ oxygen-isotope measurements of secondary minerals showing large mass-dependent fractionation effects of minerals precipitating from aqueous solutions, indicative of low-temperature formation, (2) dating of secondary minerals using 26Al-Mg and 53Mn-53Cr short-lived isotope chronologies suggesting late-stage alteration, several Myr after CAIs, and (3) evidence of mass transfer between CAIs and matrix and lithic clasts (dark inclusion) and Allende host, indicative of in situ alteration.

Brearley, A. J.; Krot, A.

2012-12-01

134

Thermal Histories of CO3 Chondrites: Constraints on Parent Body Size and Time of Accretion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallographic cooling rates were determined for three CO3 chondrites using the Wood technique. Rates of 2°–5°C/Myr are consistent with other data for type 3 ordinary chondrites and imply a parent body radius for the CO3 chondrites of 50 km or more.

Krot, T. V.; Scott, E. R. D.; Goldstein, J. I.

2014-09-01

135

The Effects of Saharan Weathering on Light Element Contents of Various Primitive Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the Sahara Desert, particularly the Acfer region, has proven itself a rich source of meteoritic material, with over 400 samples from North Africa now residing in research laboratories. Among the samples retrieved has been a number of primitive chondrites, including CVs, CRs, COs, an odd CM/CO specimen, and several fragments similar to the "unique" chondrite ALH 85085 and a type 3.0-3.2 ordinary chondrite. Samples of each of these have been analyzed for carbon content and delta^13C and some for nitrogen and hydrogen content, delta^5N and deltaD. Each of these elements shows a lower concentration in the Saharan samples than those determined for non-Saharan, including Antarctic samples of the same group. Carbon. The carbon content of the Saharan carbonaceous chondrites analyzed were between 25 and 50% of the mean of the non-Saharan members of the group (the one exception is Allende, which is known to have a lower carbon content that any other members of the CV group). Stepped combustion showed that a low organic carbon content of these samples was the cause of the overall carbon depletion. Nitrogen. The nitrogen contents of the Acfer region CR chondrites was substantially lower than that of their non-Saharan equivalents. The nitrogen of the CR chondrites is isotopically distinct from terrestrial samples and from other carbonaceous chondrites in that it is highly enriched in ^15N. The isotopic composition of the Saharan samples shows no gross difference in the delta^15N, but there is some internal variation, due to differential weathering and the rusting of metal leading to the presence of trapped atmospheric nitrogen and consequently the delta^15N becoming variably lighter. Hydrogen. The hydrogen contents of the Saharan CR chondrites and the 3.0-3.2 ordinary chondrite Adrar 003 were found to be lower than the non-Saharan counterparts: The deltaD of the samples were isotopically normal quite unlike their non-Saharan counterparts, which are known to be the most enriched in deltaD known. The stepped combustion of the whole-rock Saharan chondrites shows that organic contamination is minimal, but evaporitic carbonate occurs in some samples with ca. 1200 ppm in the most affected. This is a localized feature as some possibly paired meteorites from the same fall sometimes show no evidence for the presence of terrestrial carbonates. Given the range of meteorites over which the observations are made it it necessary to question whether the difference in abundance and isotopic composition are primary effects. Perhaps the data are more easily explained by the destruction of macromolecular carbon as a result of extreme weathering conditions, a temperature cycle of over 150 degrees C and desiccation followed by rehydration. Such circumstances may lead to the volatilization of side chains, the degradation and removal of the organic material. The most important implication of the effects may be in terms of identifying the site of the heavy hydrogen in the CR (Kolodny et al., 1980) and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (Robert et al., 1979; McNaughton et al., 1981, 1982) as it appears to be in a form that can be easily exchanged with terrestrial water or destroyed by mild but prolonged heating. It would seem to preclude a phyllosilicate carrier as exchange of waters of hydration occurs only above 200 degrees C, thus supporting the labile side chains of the macromolecular species or soluble organic material as the major carrier of the deuterium anomaly. References: Kolodny, Y., Kerridge, J.F., and Kaplan I.R. (1980) EPSL, 46, 149-158. McNaughton, N.J., Fallick, A.E., and Pillinger, C.T. (1982) J. Geophys. Res. 87, A297-302. McNaughton, N.J., Borthwick, J., Fallick A.E., and Pillinger, C.T. (1981) Nature 294, 639-641. Robert, F., Melivat, L., and Javoy, M. (1979) Nature 282, 785-789.

Ash, R. D.; Pillinger, C. T.

1992-07-01

136

Cosmogenic Radionuclides in Chondrite Shower from Otway Massif, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmogenic radionuclides in ordinary chondrites from the first strewnfield identified in Antarctica indicate that the strewnfield was preserved since its fall ~15 kyr ago, while cautioning that not all meteorites in the strewnfield area represent the same fall.

Welten, K. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Leclerc, M. D.; Jull, A. J. T.

2009-03-01

137

New kind of type 3 chondrite with a graphite-magnetite matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four clasts in three ordinary-chondrite regolith breccias are discovered which are a new kind of type 3 chondrite. As with ordinary and carbonaceous type 3 chondrites, they have distinct chondrules, some of which contain glass, highly heterogeneous olivines and pyroxenes, and predominantly monoclinic low-Ca pyroxenes. Instead of the usual, fine-grained, Fe-rich silicate matrix, however, the clasts have a matrix composed largely of aggregates of micron- and submicron-sized graphite and magnetite. The bulk compositions of the clasts, as well as the types of chondrules (largely porphyritic), are characteristic of type 3 ordinary chondrites, although chondrules in the clasts are somewhat smaller (0.1-0.5 mm). A close relationship with ordinary chondrites is also suggested by the presence of similar graphite-magnetite aggregates in seven type 3 ordinary chondrites. It is thought that this new kind of chondrite is probably the source of the abundant graphite-magnetite inclusions in ordinary-chondrite regolith breccias and that it may be more common than indicated by the absence of whole meteorites made of chondrules and graphite-magnetite.

Scott, E. R. D.; Rubin, A. E.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

1981-01-01

138

Coarse-grained chondrule rims in type 3 chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coarse-grained rims composed of olivine, with or without low-Ca pyroxene, occur around all types of chondrules and compound chondrules in type 3 carbonaceous chondrites and around ordinary chondrites. The dark zoned chondrules and coarse grained rims were formed by the heating of clumps of opaque matrix material to subsolidus-subliquidus temperatures in the solar nebula. The most likely source of the heat that formed the coarse grained rims is the mechanism responsible for chondrule formation. CV chondrites may have formed in a region where the chondrule formation mechanism was less efficient, probably at greater solar distances than the ordinary chondrites. Alternatively, CV chondrules may have suffered fewer particle collisions prior to agglomeration.

Rubin, A. E.

1984-09-01

139

Occurrence of oxidized components in Qingzhen enstatite chondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the most unequilibrated enstatite chondrite, Qingzhen, contains a population of enstatite grains which appear to have formed under more oxidizing nebular conditions than the bulk of the meteorite, which is highly reduced. These grains are black in transmitted light because of the presence of micron-sized inclusions of Ni-poor, Cr-rich metal, and occur either isolated within the matrix or in chondrule interiors. The textural occurrence of these grains argues against their having been introduced during collision of Qingzhen with an oxidized meteorite. Most likely, they originated in the same general nebular neighborhood of the reduced bulk Qingzhen material and were subsequently transported into the reducing environment either before or during the process of chondrule formation. The discovery of this once-oxidized material in Qingzhen posed significant constraints on existing models of formation of reduced matter in the solar system.

Rambaldi, E. R.; Rajan, R. S.; Housley, R. M.

1984-01-01

140

Occurrence of oxidized components in Qingzhen enstatite chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the most unequilibrated enstatite chondrite, Qingzhen, contains a population of enstatite grains which appear to have formed under more oxidizing nebular conditions than the bulk of the meteorite, which is highly reduced. These grains are black in transmitted light because of the presence of micron-sized inclusions of Ni-poor, Cr-rich metal, and occur either isolated within the matrix or in chondrule interiors. The textural occurrence of these grains argues against their having been introduced during collision of Qingzhen with an oxidized meteorite. Most likely, they originated in the same general nebular neighborhood of the reduced bulk Qingzhen material and were subsequently transported into the reducing environment either before or during the process of chondrule formation. The discovery of this once-oxidized material in Qingzhen posed significant constraints on existing models of formation of reduced matter in the solar system.

Rambaldi, E. R.; Housley, R. M.; Rajan, R. S.

1984-09-01

141

Primitive material surviving in chondrites - Matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A logical place to search for surviving pristine nebular material is in the fine-grained matrices of ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites of petrographic type 3. Unfortunately, many of these chondrites have experienced brecciation, thermal metamorphism, and aqueous alteration, so that interpreting individual features in terms of specific nebular conditions and/or processes is difficult. It follows that the origin and evolutionary history of such matrix phases are controversial, and a consensus is difficult to define. In this chapter, therefore, after summarizing the salient mineralogical, petrographic, chemical, and isotopic features of matrix in apparently primitive chondrites, an attempt is made to provide an overview both of areas of agreement and of topics that are currently in dispute.

Scott, E. R. D.; Barber, D. J.; Alexander, C. M.; Hutchinson, R.; Peck, J. A.

1988-01-01

142

Thermoluminescence and Metamorphism in CV Chondrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the effects of metamorphism in meteorites is the production of feldspar, a thermoluminescence (TL) phosphor, through the devitrification of primary chondrule glass [1]. The 105-fold variation in TL sensitivity among the ordinary chondrites reflects this process and has been used successfully to subdivide the petrographic type 3 meteorites into types 3.0-3.9 [2]. Although less pronounced, the variability exhibited

S. J. K. Symes; R. K. Guimon; P. H. Benoit; D. W. G. Sears

1993-01-01

143

Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk, Part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: On the Dynamical Evolution of a Nebula and Its Effect on Dust Coagulation and the Formation of Centimeter-sized Particles. The Mineralogy and Grain Properties of the Disk Surfaces in Three Herbig Ae/Be Stars. Astrophysical Observations of Disk Evolution Around Solar Mass Stars. The Systematic Petrology of Chondrites: A Consistent Approach to Assist Classification and Interpretation. Understanding Our Origins: Formation of Sun-like Stars in H II Region Environments. Chondrule Crystallization Experiments. Formation of SiO2-rich Chondrules by Fractional Condensation. Refractory Forsterites from Murchison (CM2) and Yamato 81020 (CO3.0) Chondrites: Cathodoluminescence, Chemical Compositions and Oxygen Isotopes. Apparent I-Xe Cooling Rates of Chondrules Compared with Silicates from the Colomera Iron Meteorite. Chondrule Formation in Planetesimal Bow Shocks: Physical Processes in the Near Vicinity of the Planetesimal. Genetic Relationships Between Chondrules, Rims and Matrix. Chondrite Fractionation was Cosmochemical; Chondrule Fractionation was Geochemical. Chondrule Formation and Accretion of Chondrite Parent Bodies: Environmental Constraints. Amoeboid Olivine Aggregates from the Semarkona LL3.0 Chondrite. The Evolution of Solids in Proto-Planetary Disks. New Nickel Vapor Pressure Measurements: Possible Implications for Nebular Condensates. Chemical, Mineralogical and Isotopic Properties of Chondrules: Clues to Their Origin. Maximal Size of Chondrules in Shock-Wave Heating Model: Stripping of Liquid Surface in Hypersonic Rarefied Gas Flow. The Nature and Origin of Interplanetary Dust: High Temperature Components. Refractory Relic Components in Chondrules from Ordinary Chondrites. Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and CAIs from Short-lived and Long-lived Radionuclides. The Genetic Relationship Between Refractory Inclusions and Chondrules. Contemporaneous Chondrule Formation Between Ordinary and Carbonaceous Chondrites. Chondrules and Isolated Grains in the Fountain Hills Bencubbinite. Implications of Chondrule Formation in a Gas of Solar Composition. Implications of Meteoritic Cl-36 Abundance for the Origin of Short-lived Radionuclides in the Early Solar System. Size Sorting and the Chondrule Size Spectrum. Comparative Study of Refractory Inclusions from Different Groups of Chondrites. In Situ Investigation of Mg Isotope Distributions in an Allende CAI by Combined LA-ICPMS and SIMS Analyses Photochemical Speciation of Oxygen Isotopes in the Solar Nebula.

2004-01-01

144

PRINT ONLY: CHONDRITES Cole K. J. Schultz L. Sipiera P. P. Welten K. C.  

E-print Network

Mineralogy in Ordinary Chondrites: A Comparative Study Between Chemical Analysis, EPMA, XRD, Mössbauer, FTIR obtained by chemical analysis and EPMA with band areas obtained by XRD, Mössbauer, FTIR, and Raman

Rathbun, Julie A.

145

Thermal metamorphism of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites - An internal heating model  

SciTech Connect

Infrared diffuse reflectance spectra were measured for several thermally metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites with CI-CM affinities which were recently found from Antarctica. Compared with other CI or CM carbonaceous chondrites, these Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites show weaker absorption bands near 3 microns due to hydrous minerals, and weaker absorption bands near 6.9 microns due to carbonates, interpreted as thermal metamorphic features. These absorption bands also disappear in the spectra of samples of the Murchison (CM) carbonaceous chondrite heated above 500 C, implying that the metamorphic temperatures of the Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites considered here were higher than about 500 C. Model calculations were performed to study thermal metamorphism of carbonaceous chondrites in a parent body internally heated by the decay of the extinct nuclide Al-26. The maximum temperature of the interior of a body more than 20 km in radius is 500-700 C for the bulk Al contents of CI and CM cabonaceous chondrites, assuming a ratio of Al-26/Al-27 = 5 {times} 10 to the -6th which has been previously proposed for an ordinary-chondrite parent body. The metamorphic temperatures experienced by the Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites considered here may be attainable by an internally heated body with an Al-26/Al-27 ratio similar to that inferred for an ordinary-chondrite parent body. 30 refs.

Miyamoto, M. (Tokyo, University (Japan))

1991-06-01

146

Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites - VIII: Thermoluminescence and metamorphism in the CO chondrites  

SciTech Connect

The thermoluminescence properties of nine CO chondrites have been measured. With the exception of Colony and Allan Hills A77307 (ALHA 77307), whose maximum induced TL emission is at approximately 350{degree}C, CO chondrites exhibit two TL peaks, one at 124 {plus minus} 7{degree}C (130{degree}C peak) and one at 252 {plus minus} 7{degree}C (250{degree}C peak). The 130{degree}C peak shows a 100-fold range in TL sensitivity and correlates with various metamorphism-related phenomena, such as silicate heterogeneity, metal composition and McSween's metamorphic subtypes. The peak at 250{degree}C does not show these correlations and, Colony excepted, varies little throughout the class. Mineral separation experiments, and a series of annealing experiments on Isna, suggest that the TL properties for CO chondrites reflect the presence of feldspar in two forms, (1) a form produced during metamorphism, and analogous to the dominant form of feldspar in type 3 ordinary chondrites, and (2) a primary, metamorphism-independent form, perhaps associated with the amoeboid inclusions. If this interpretation is correct, then the CO chondrites have not experienced temperatures above the order/disorder temperature for feldspar (500-600{degree}C) and they cooled more slowly than comparable type 3 ordinary chondrites. Colony and ALHA 77307 have atypical TL properties, including very low TL sensitivity, suggesting that phosphors other than feldspar are important. They have apparently experienced less metamorphism than the others, and may have also been aqueously altered.

Keck, B.D.; Sears, D.W.G. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (USA))

1987-11-01

147

Petrology and bulk chemistry of Yamato-82094, a new type of carbonaceous chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonaceous chondrites are classified into several groups. However, some are ungrouped. We studied one such ungrouped chondrite, Y-82094, previously classified as a CO. In this chondrite, chondrules occupy 78 vol%, and the matrix is distinctly poor in abundance (11 vol%), compared with CO and other C chondrites. The average chondrule size is 0.33 mm, different from that in C chondrites. Although these features are similar to those in ordinary chondrites, Y-82094 contains 3 vol% Ca-Al-rich inclusions and 5% amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs). Also, the bulk composition resembles that of CO chondrites, except for the volatile elements, which are highly depleted. The oxygen isotopic composition of Y-82094 is within the range of CO and CV chondrites. Therefore, Y-82094 is an ungrouped C chondrite, not similar to any other C chondrite previously reported. Thin FeO-rich rims on AOA olivine and the mode of occurrence of Ni-rich metal in the chondrules indicate that Y-82094 is petrologic type 3.2. The extremely low abundance of type II chondrules and high abundance of Fe-Ni metal in the chondrules suggest reducing condition during chondrule formation. The depletion of volatile elements indicates that the components formed under high-temperature conditions, and accreted to the parent body of Y-82094. Our study suggests a wider range of formation conditions than currently recorded by the major C chondrite groups. Additionally, Y-82094 may represent a new, previously unsampled, asteroidal body.

Kimura, M.; Barrat, J. A.; Weisberg, M. K.; Imae, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; Kojima, H.

2014-03-01

148

The Origin of Chondrules and Refractory Inclusions in Chondritic Meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examples of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) surrounded by thick chondrule mantles have been found in chondritic meteorites and cast doubt on the conventional belief that CAIs and chondrules possessed different spacetime origins in the primitive solar nebula. We study specific processes by which such objects, and the more common ordinary CAIs and chondrules, might have formed by flare heating of primitive

Hsien Shang; Matthieu Gounelle; Alfred E. Glassgold; Typhoon Lee

2001-01-01

149

The Olton, Texas, H chondrite regolith breccia - Paired with Dimmitt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Olton ordinary chondrites (two stones found in 1948) are H group, solar wind-bearing regolith breccias. The proximity of the recovery site to the Dimmitt strewnfield, and the similarity in texture, composition, noble gas contents and isotopic ratios to Dimmitt indicate that Olton is paired with Dimmitt.

Keil, Klaus; Ehlmann, A. J.; Wieler, Rainer

1990-01-01

150

Experimental Impacts into Chondritic Targets. Part 1; Disruption of an L6 Chondrite by Multiple Impacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fragment of an L6 chondrite (ALH 85017,13) with an initial mass (M(sub 0)) of 464.1 g was the target in a series of experimental impacts in which the largest remaining fragment (M(sub R)) after each shot was impacted by a 3.18-mm ceramic sphere at a nominal speed of 2 km/s. This continued until the mass of the largest remaining piece was less than half the mass of the target presented to that shot (M(sub S)). Two chunks of Bushveldt gabbro with similar initial masses were also impacted under the same conditions until M(sub R) was less than half M(sub 0). The two gabbro targets required a total of 1.51x10(exp 7) and 1.75x10(exp 7) erg/g to attain 0.27 and 0.33 M(sub R)/M(sub 0), respectively; the chondrite, however, was considerably tougher, reaching 0.40 and 0.21 M(sub R)/M(sub 0) only after receiving 2.37x10(exp 7) and 3.10x10(exp 7) erg g-1, respectively. The combined ejecta and spallation products from the gabbro impacts were coarser than those from the chondrite and in sufficient quantities that the new surface areas exceeded those from the meteorite until the fifth shot in the chondrite series, which was the number of impacts required to disrupt each gabbro target (i.e., MR/M0 = 0.5). Unlike the behavior shown in previous regolith-evolution series, neither gabbro target produced an enhancement in the size fraction reflecting the mean size of the crystals composing the rock (about 3 mm), an effect possibly related to the width of the shock pulse. The original chondrite was so fine-grained and fractured, and the variance in its grain-size distribution so large, that effects related to grain-size were relegated to the <63- m fraction. Impacts into ALH 85017 produced abundant, fine-grained debris, but otherwise the slopes of its size distributions were comparable to those from other experiments involving natural and fabricated terrestrial targets. The characteristic slopes of the chondrite's size distributions, however, were notably more constant over the entire nine-impact series than those from any of the terrestrial targets, a testament to the control over comminution apparently exerted by pre-existing fractures and other, microscopic damage in the meteorite. The enhancement in the finer fraction of debris from ALH 85017 indicates that ordinary chondrites in solar orbit would be very efficient contributors to the cosmic-dust complex. At the same time, the greater resistance to disruption displayed by ordinary chondrites relative to that exhibited by igneous rocks indicates that a selection effect could be operative between the annealed, ordinary-chondritic breccias and relatively weaker, differentiated meteorites. Preferential survival from their time in the regoliths of their parent bodies through their transit to Earth and passage through the atmosphere suggests that meteorite collections could be biased in favor of the ordinary chondrites.

Cintala, Mark J.; Horz, Friedrich

2007-01-01

151

Young Pb-Isotopic Ages of Chondrules in CB Carbonaceous Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CB (Bencubbin-type) carbonaceous chondrites differ in many ways from more familiar CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites and from ordinary chondrites. CB chondrites are very rich in Fe-Ni metal (50-70 vol%) and contain magnesian silicates mainly as angular to sub-rounded clasts (or chondrules) with barred olivine (BO) or cryptocrystalline (CC) textures. Both metal and silicates appear to have formed by condensation. The sizes of silicate clasts vary greatly between the two subgroups of CB chondrites: large (up to one cm) in CB(sub a) chondrites, and typically to much much less than 1 mm in CB(sub b) chondrites. The compositional and mineralogical differences between these subgroups and between the CB(sub s) and other types of chondrites suggest different environment and possibly different timing of chondrule formation. In order to constrain the timing of chondrule forming processes in CB(sub s) and understand genetic relationship between their subgroups, we have determined Pb-isotopic ages of silicate material from the CB(sub a) chondrite Gujba and CB(sub b) chondrite Hammadah al Hamra 237 (HH237 hereafter).

Amelin, Yuri; Krot, Alexander N.

2005-01-01

152

Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites 12: The metamorphic history of CV chondrites and their components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The induced thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 16 CV and CV-related chondrites, four CK chondrites and Renazzo (CR2) have been measured in order to investigate their metamorphic history. The petrographic, mineralogical and bulk compositional differences among the CV chondrites indicate that the TL sensitivity of the approximately 130 C TL peak is reflecting the abundance of ordered feldspar, especially in chondrule mesostasis, which in turn reflects parent-body metamorphism. The TL properties of 18 samples of homogenized Allende powder heated at a variety of times and temperatures, and cathodoluminescence mosaics of Axtell and Coolidge, showed results consistent with this conclusion. Five refractory inclusions from Allende, and separates from those inclusions, were also examined and yielded trends reflecting variations in mineralogy indicative of high peak temperatures (either metamorphic or igneous) and fairly rapid cooling. The CK chondrites are unique among metamorphosed chondrites in showing no detectable induced TL, which is consistent with literature data that suggests very unusual feldspar in these meteorites. Using TL sensitivity and several mineral systems and allowing for the differences in the oxidized and reduced subgroups, the CV and CV-related meteorites can be divided into petrologic types analogous to those of the ordinary and CO type 3 chondrites. Axtell, Kaba, Leoville, Bali, Arch and ALHA81003 are type 3.0-3.1, while ALH84018, Efremovka, Grosnaja, Allende and Vigarano are type 3.2-3.3 and Coolidge and Loongana 001 are type 3.8. Mokoia is probably a breccia with regions ranging in petrologic type from 3.0 to 3.2. Renazzo often plots at the end of the reduced and oxidized CV chondrite trends, even when those trends diverge, suggesting that in many respects it resembles the unmetamorphosed precursors of the CV chondrites. The low-petrographic types and low-TL peak temperatures of all samples, including the CV3.8 chondrites, indicates metamorphism in the stability field of low feldspar (i.e., less than 800 C) and a metamorphic history similar to that of the CO chondrites but unlike that of the ordinary chondrites.

Guimon, R. Kyle; Symes, Steven J. K.; Sears, Derek W. G.

1995-01-01

153

Chondrites as samples of differentiated planetesimals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chondritic meteorites are unmelted, variably metamorphosed samples of the earliest solids of the solar system. A recent paleomagnetic study of CV chondrites suggests that their parent body was internally differentiated and produced a core magnetic dynamo (Carporzen et al., submitted, and this session). Here we show that a parent body that accreted to >250 km in radius by ~1.7 Ma after the formation of CAIs could retain a solid undifferentiated crust overlying a differentiated interior, and would be consistent with formational and evolutionary constraints on the CV parent body. Further, this body could have produced a magnetic field lasting more than 10 Ma. CV chondritic meteorites contain the oldest known solids: calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). The variety of metamorphic textures in ordinary chondrites motivated the "onion shell" model in which chondrites originated at varying depths within a parent body heated primarily by the short-lived radioisotope 26Al, with the highest metamorphic grade originating nearest the center. The large abundances and sizes of CAIs in CV chondrites have long suggested an early parent body accretion age. New Pb-Pb and Al-Mg ages of chondrules in CVs are consistent with the CV parent body having largely completed accretion by the youngest chondrule age of ~1.7-3 Ma. The CV chondrite parent body likely reached peak metamorphic temperatures around 7 to 10 Ma after CAIs, based on I-Xe chronometry for Allende and Mn-Cr chronometry for Mokoia. Bodies that accreted to more than >~20 km radius before ~1.3 to 3 Ma after the formation of CAIs likely contained sufficient 26Al to melt internally from the insulated cumulative effects of radiogenic heating. These early-accreting bodies will melt from the interior out, sometimes forming an interior magma ocean under a solid, conductive, undifferentiated shell. This shell would consist of the same chondritic material that made up the bulk accreting body before melting began. The presence of talc and the absence of serpentine indicate peak temperatures of ~300-350°C. Subsequent to the analysis of natural remanent magnetization in angrites, Carporzen et al. (2009, submitted, and this conference) have described how unidirectional magnetization in Allende is consistent with a long-lived internally generated field. The metamorphic, magnetic, and exposure age data collectively indicate a new model for the CV chondrite parent body in which interior melting is incomplete and the magma ocean remains capped by an undifferentiated chondritic shell. This conductive lid insulates the internal magma ocean, slowing its cooling and solidification by orders of magnitude while still allowing sufficient heat flux out of the core to produce a dynamo with intensities consistent with magnetization in Allende. Materials in the undifferentiated lid experienced varying metamorphic conditions. Bodies that are internally differentiated in the manner described here may well exist undetected in the asteroid belt. The shapes and masses of the two largest asteroids, 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas, can be consistent with differentiated interiors, conceivably with small iron cores with hydrated silicate or ice-silicate mantles. Other asteroids may have lost their hydrostatic shapes through later impacts, and their surfaces may never have been covered with erupted basalt; surfaces of these bodies may have remained chondritic throughout this process. Such surfaces will therefore be irregular, space-weathered primitive material, perhaps with highly altered or even differentiated material at the bottoms of the largest craters and in crater ejecta. This scenario can explain the mismatch between the enormous diversity (> 130) of parent bodies represented by achondrites and the paucity (< 10) of basaltic asteroids.

Elkins-Tanton, Linda; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Zuber, Maria T.

2010-05-01

154

Comparative 187Re-187Os systematics of chondrites: Implications regarding early solar system processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A suite of 47 carbonaceous, enstatite, and ordinary chondrites are examined for Re-Os isotopic systematics. There are significant differences in the 187Re/188Os and 187Os/188Os ratios of carbonaceous chondrites compared with ordinary and enstatite chondrites. The average 187Re/188Os for carbonaceous chondrites is 0.392 ?? 0.015 (excluding the CK chondrite, Karoonda), compared with 0.422 ?? 0.025 and 0.421 ?? 0.013 for ordinary and enstatite chondrites (1?? standard deviations). These ratios, recast into elemental Re/Os ratios, are as follows: 0.0814 ?? 0.0031, 0.0876 ?? 0.0052 and 0.0874 ?? 0.0027 respectively. Correspondingly, the 187Os/188Os ratios of carbonaceous chondrites average 0.1262 ?? 0.0006 (excluding Karoonda), and ordinary and enstatite chondrites average 0.1283 ?? 0.0017 and 0.1281 ?? 0.0004, respectively (1?? standard deviations). The new results indicate that the Re/Os ratios of meteorites within each group are, in general, quite uniform. The minimal overlap between the isotopic compositions of ordinary and enstatite chondrites vs. carbonaceous chondrites indicates long-term differences in Re/Os for these materials, most likely reflecting chemical fractionation early in solar system history. A majority of the chondrites do not plot within analytical uncertainties of a 4.56-Ga reference isochron. Most of the deviations from the isochron are consistent with minor, relatively recent redistribution of Re and/or Os on a scale of millimeters to centimeters. Some instances of the redistribution may be attributed to terrestrial weathering; others are most likely the result of aqueous alteration or shock events on the parent body within the past 2 Ga. The 187Os/188Os ratio of Earth's primitive upper mantle has been estimated to be 0.1296 ?? 8. If this composition was set via addition of a late veneer of planetesimals after core formation, the composition suggests the veneer was dominated by materials that had Re/Os ratios most similar to ordinary and enstatite chondrites. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Walker, R.J.; Horan, M.F.; Morgan, J.W.; Becker, H.; Grossman, J.N.; Rubin, A.E.

2002-01-01

155

Crustal structure and igneous processes in a chondritic Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid sulfur can form when metal-free C1 or C2 chondrites are heated. It may be obtained either by direct melting of native sulfur in disequilibrated C1 or C2 chondrites or by incongruent melting of pyrite and other sulfides in thermodynamically equilibrated rocks of the same composition. Hence, Lewis considered C2 chondrites to be the best meteoritic analog for Io's bulk composition. Metal-bearing C3 and ordinary chondrites are too chemically reduced to yield liquid sulfur and are not thought to represent plausible analogs of Io's bulk composition. An important aspect of Lewis' work is that CaSO4 and MgSO4 are predicted to be important in Io. Real C1 and C2 chondrites contain averages of, respectively, 11 percent and 3 percent by mass of salts (plus water of hydration). The most abundant chondritic salts are magnesium and calcium sulfates, but other important components include sulfates of sodium, potassium, and nickel and carbonates of magnesium, calcium, and iron. It is widely accepted that chondritic salts are formed by low-temperature aqueous alteration. Even if Io originally did not contain salts, it is likely that aqueous alteration would have yielded several percent sulfates and carbonates. In any event, Io probably contains sulfates and carbonates. This report presents the results of a model of differentiation of a simplified C2 chondrite-like composition that includes 1.92 percent MgSO4, 0.56 percent CaSO4, 0.53 percent CaCO3, and 0.094 percent elemental sulfur. The temperature of the model is gradually increased; ensuing fractional melting results in these components extruding or intruding at gravitationally stable levels in Io's crust. Relevant phase equilibria were reviewed. A deficiency of high-pressure phase equilibria renders the present model qualitative.

Kargel, J. S.

1993-01-01

156

Crustal structure and igneous processes in a chondritic Io  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid sulfur can form when metal-free C1 or C2 chondrites are heated. It may be obtained either by direct melting of native sulfur in disequilibrated C1 or C2 chondrites or by incongruent melting of pyrite and other sulfides in thermodynamically equilibrated rocks of the same composition. Hence, Lewis considered C2 chondrites to be the best meteoritic analog for Io's bulk composition. Metal-bearing C3 and ordinary chondrites are too chemically reduced to yield liquid sulfur and are not thought to represent plausible analogs of Io's bulk composition. An important aspect of Lewis' work is that CaSO4 and MgSO4 are predicted to be important in Io. Real C1 and C2 chondrites contain averages of, respectively, 11 percent and 3 percent by mass of salts (plus water of hydration). The most abundant chondritic salts are magnesium and calcium sulfates, but other important components include sulfates of sodium, potassium, and nickel and carbonates of magnesium, calcium, and iron. It is widely accepted that chondritic salts are formed by low-temperature aqueous alteration. Even if Io originally did not contain salts, it is likely that aqueous alteration would have yielded several percent sulfates and carbonates. In any event, Io probably contains sulfates and carbonates. This report presents the results of a model of differentiation of a simplified C2 chondrite-like composition that includes 1.92 percent MgSO4, 0.56 percent CaSO4, 0.53 percent CaCO3, and 0.094 percent elemental sulfur. The temperature of the model is gradually increased; ensuing fractional melting results in these components extruding or intruding at gravitationally stable levels in Io's crust. Relevant phase equilibria were reviewed. A deficiency of high-pressure phase equilibria renders the present model qualitative.

Kargel, J. S.

1993-03-01

157

In-Situ Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Tagish Lake: An Ungrouped Type 2 Carbonaceous Chondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have measured the oxygen isotopic composition of several components of Tagish Lake by ion microprobe. This meteorite constitutes the best preserved sample of C2 matter presently available for study. It presents two different lithologies (carbonate-poor and -rich) which have fairly comparable oxygen isotopic composition, with regard to both the primary or secondary minerals. For the olivine and pyroxene grains, their delta O-18 values range from - 10.5% to + 7.4% in the carbonate-poor lithology, with a mean Delta O-17 value of - 3.7 2.4%. In the carbonate-rich lithology, delta O-18 varies from - 7.9% to + 3.3%, and the mean Delta O-17 value is - 4.7 +/- 1.4%. Olivine inclusions (Fo(sub >99)) with extreme O-16-enrichment were found in both lithologies: delta O-18 = - 46.1 %, delta O-187= - 48.3% and delta O-18 = - 40.6%, delta O-17 = - 41.2% in the carbonate-rich lithology; delta O-18 = - 41.5%, delta O-17 = -43.4%0 in the carbonate-poor lithology. Anhydrous minerals in the carbonate-poor lithology are slightly more O-16-rich than in the carbonate-rich one. Four low-iron manganese-rich (LIME) olivine grains do not have an oxygen isotopic composition distinct from the other "normal" olivines. The phyllosilicate matrix presents the same range of oxygen isotopic compositions in both lithologies: delta O-18 from approximately 11 % to approximately 6%, with an average Delta. O-17 approximately 0%. Because the bulk Tagish Lake oxygen isotopic composition given by Brown et al. is on the high end of our matrix analyses, we assume that this "bulk Tagish Lake" composition probably only represents that of the carbonate-rich lithology. Calcium carbonates have delta O-18 values up to 35%, with Delta O-17 approximately 0.5%0. Magnetite grains present very high Delta O-17 values approximately + 3.4%0 +/- 1.2%. Given our analytical uncertainties and our limited carbonate data, the matrix and the carbonate seem to have formed in isotopic equilibrium. In that case, their large isotopic fractionation would argue for a low temperature (CM-like, T approximately 0 deg) formation. Magnetite probably formed during a separate event. Tagish Lake magnetite data is surprisingly compatible with that of R-chondrites and unequilibrated ordinary (LL3) chondrites. Our oxygen isotope data strongly supports the hypothesis of a single precursor for both lithologies. Drastic mineralogical changes between the two lithologies not being accompanied with isotopic fractionation seem compatible with the alteration model presented by Young et aI. Tagish Lake probably represents the first well preserved large sample of the C2 matter that dominates interplanetary matter since the formation of the solar system.

Zolensky, Michael E.; Engrand, Cecile; Gounelle, Matthieu; Zolensky, Mike E.

2001-01-01

158

Artificial Weathering of the H5 Ordinary Chondrite Fall, Allegan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: We conducted experiments to induce weathering in the Allegan H5 fall by immersion in aerated water, using: (i) de-ionized ice water - experiment A (ii) de-ionized water at room temperature - experiment B (iii) water at room temperature with a 0.2 molar solution of NaCl - experiment C. Water was changed at regular intervals. In each case, oxidation as

P. A. Bland; F. J. Berry; C. T. Pillinger

1995-01-01

159

The Wold Cottage meteorite: Not just any ordinary chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wold Cottage meteorite (fell, 1795), as is well known, played an important part in meteorites being accepted as stones from the sky. In most cases, the very select group of people who have been privileged to witness any meteorite fall, let alone one as important as Wold Cottage, enjoy a moment's fame but then disappear into obscurity. In this respect, Wold Cottage is very different; Edward Topham, the man who reported the fall and who became the meteorite's publicist, was already very well known for many other reasons. This fact contributed substantially to the evidence provided by his workmen being accepted, following two public exhibitions of the meteorite, the second after sworn testimonies were obtained. Here we explore Topham's background in order to reveal his character, particularly the value he placed on truth. When he passed the meteorite over to a public museum, he did so in the belief that he was acting for the benefit of posterity. At a time when the idea of meteorites being extraterrestrial was still controversial, the Wold Cottage stone vitally prompted the observation that specimens from different parts of the globe closely resembled each other, thus stimulating the crucial chemical analyses which verified that they were indeed related. During its first twenty years on Earth, the Wold Cottage meteorite was a prized specimen, a public attraction and sought after for scientific teaching purposes. In researching Wold Cottage, we have been able to discover information about many of the personalities who were involved in providing and studying the first few meteorites to become available for scientific research. The Wold Cottage story gives an interesting perspective on the cultural scene at the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth centuries when there was no clear distinction between the arts and sciences, and meteoritics was the prerogative of often rather flamboyant gentlemen.

Pillinger, C. T.; Pillinger, J. M.

1996-09-01

160

The unique cosmic-ray history of the Malakal chondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cosmogenic radionuclides, including Na-22, Al-26, and Mn-54, were measured in a sample of the recently-fallen Malakal hypersthene chondrite. The high Al-26 activity, 79 plus or minus 2 dpm/kg, greatly exceeds the levels expected from elemental production rates, shielding considerations, or comparisons with other ordinary chondrites, and can only be explained by exposure to a uniquely high cosmic-ray flux. Calculations including noble gas, H-3, and Mn-53 data from other laboratories require a two-stage irradiation. Malakal's most probable history is: exposure in excess of 4 m.y. to an effective cosmic-ray flux approximately three times that experienced by other chondrites, an orbit change (very possibly caused by a collision), and a final period of about 2 m.y. during which it was exposed to a normal cosmic-ray flux.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.; Rancitelli, L. A.

1974-01-01

161

Chondrites - Initial strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios and the early history of the solar system.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sodium-poor, calcium-rich inclusion in the carbonaceous chondrite Allende had a Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio at the time of its formation of 0.69880, as low a value as that found in any other meteorite. The higher Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios found in ordinary chondrites indicate that their formation or isotopic equilibration occurred tens of millions of years later.

Wetherill, G. W.; Mark, R.; Lee-Hu, C.

1973-01-01

162

A database of chondrite analyses including platinum group elements, Ni, Co, Au, and Cr: Implications for the identification of chondritic projectiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siderophile elements have been used to constrain projectile compositions in terrestrial and lunar impact melt rocks. To obtain a better knowledge of compositional differences between potential chondritic projectile types, meteorite analyses of the elements Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt, Cr, Co, Ni, and Au were gathered into a database. The presented compilation comprises 806 analyses of 278 chondrites including new ICP-MS analyses of Allende and two ordinary chondrites. Each data set was evaluated by comparing element ratios of meteorites from the same chondrite group. Characteristic element abundances and ratios were determined for each group. Features observed in the element abundance patterns can be linked directly to the presence of certain components, such as the abundance of refractory elements Os, Ir, and Ru correlating with the occurrence of refractory inclusions in CV, CO, CK, and CM chondrites. The refined characteristic element ratios appear to be representative not only for meteorites, but also for related asteroidal bodies. Chondrite element ratios were compared to previously published values from impact melt rocks of the Popigai and Morokweng impact structures confirming that an identification of the specific type of projectile (L and LL chondrite, respectively) is possible. The assessment for Morokweng is supported by the recent discovery of an LL chondrite fragment in the impact melt rocks. Ultimately, the database provides valuable information for understanding processes in the solar nebula as they are recorded in chondrites. A new type of complementarity between element patterns of CK and EH chondrites is suggested to be the result of condensation, redox, and transportation processes in the solar nebula.

Tagle, Roald; Berlin, Jana

2008-03-01

163

Silica-rich orthopyroxenite in the Bovedy chondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large (greater than 4.5 x 7 x 4 mm), igneous-textured clast in the Bovedy (L3) chondrite is notable for its high bulk SiO2 content (is approximately equal to 57.5 wt%). The clast consists of normally zoned orthopyroxene (83.8 vol%), tridymite (6.2%), an intergrowth of feldspar (5.8%) and sodic glass (3.1%), pigeonite (1.0%), and small amounts of chromite (0.2%), augite, and Fe,Ni-metal; it is best described as a silica-rich orthopyroxenite. The oxygen-isotopic composition of the clast is similar, but not identical, to Bovedy and other ordinary chondrites. The clast has a superchondritic Si/Mg ratio, but has Mg/(Mg + Fe) and Fe/Mn ratios that are similar to ordinary chondrite silicate. The closest chemical analogues to the clast are radial-pyroxene chondrules, diogenites, pyroxene-silica objects in ordinary chondrites, and silicates in the IIE iron meteorite Weekeroo Station. The clast crystallized from a siliceous melt that cooled fast enough to prevent complete attainment of equilibrium but slow enough to allow nearly complete crystallization. The texture, form, size and composition of the clast suggestion that it is an igneous differentiate from an asteroid or planetesimal that formed in the vicinity of ordinary chondrites. The melt probably cooled in the near-surface region of the parent object. It appears that in the source region of the clast, metallic and silicate partial melt were largely-to-completely lost during a relatively low degree of melting, and that during a higher degree of melting, olivine and low-Ca pyroxene separated from the remaining liquid, which ultimately solidified to form the clast. While these fractionation steps could not have all occurred at the same temperature, they could have been accomplished in a single melting episode, possibly as a result of heating by radionuclides or by electromagnetic induction. Fractionated magmas can also account for other Si-rich objects in chondrites.

Ruzicka, Alex; Kring, David A.; Hill, Dolores H.; Boynton, William V.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.

1995-01-01

164

Heterogeneous distribution of 26Al at the birth of the Solar System: Evidence from corundum-bearing refractory inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the mineralogy, petrology, and in situ oxygen- and magnesium-isotope measurements using secondary ion mass spectrometry of 10 corundum-bearing calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the Adelaide (ungrouped), Murray and Murchison (CM) carbonaceous chondrites. We also measured in situ oxygen-isotope compositions of several isolated corundum grains in the matrices of Murray and Murchison. Most of the corundum-bearing objects studied are uniformly 16O-rich [?17O values range from -17‰ to -28‰ (2? = ±2.5‰) (?17Oavr = -23 ± 5‰)], suggesting that they formed in a 16O-rich gas of approximately solar composition and largely avoided subsequent thermal processing in an 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. There is a large spread of the initial 26Al/27Al ratio [(26Al/27Al)0] in the corundum-bearing CAIs. Two Adelaide CAIs show no resolvable excess of radiogenic 26Mg (?26Mg?): the inferred (26Al/27Al)0 are (0.6 ± 2.0) × 10-6 and (-0.9 ± 1.2) × 10-6, respectively. Slopes of the model 26Al-26Mg isochrons in five CAIs from Murray and Murchison are (4.4 ± 0.2) × 10-5, (3.3 ± 0.3) × 10-5, (4.1 ± 0.3) × 10-5, (3.9 ± 0.4) × 10-5, and (4.0 ± 2.0) × 10-6, respectively. These values are lower than the canonical (26Al/27Al)0 ratio of (5.23 ± 0.13) × 10-5 inferred from the whole-rock magnesium-isotope measurements of the CV CAIs, but similar to the (26Al/27Al)0 ratio of (4.1 ± 0.2) × 10-5 in the corundum-bearing CAI F5 from Murray. Five other previously studied corundum-bearing CAIs from Acfer 094 (ungrouped) and CM carbonaceous chondrites showed no resolvable ?26Mg?. We conclude that the corundum-bearing CAIs, as well as the solar corundum grains from matrices and acid-resistant residues of unequilibrated ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites, recorded heterogeneous distribution of 26Al in the Solar System during an epoch of CAI formation. The 26Al-rich and 26Al-poor corundum-bearing CAIs and solar corundum grains represent different generations of refractory objects formed during this epoch. As a result, its duration cannot be inferred from 26Al-26Mg systematics of CAIs. Oxygen-isotope composition of the protoplanetary disk was probably heterogeneous during this time reflecting either initial differences in oxygen isotopic compositions of the solid and gaseous reservoirs in the early Solar System or rapid isotopic evolution of these reservoirs in the protoplanetary disk with time. We suggest that 26Al was injected into the protosolar molecular cloud core, possibly by a wind from a neighboring massive star or by or a low-mass asymptotic giant branch star, prior to formation of CAIs and refractory grains, and was subsequently homogenized through the protoplanetary disk by radial mixing.

Makide, Kentaro; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Hellebrand, Eric; Petaev, Michail I.

2013-06-01

165

Temperature and Oxygen Fugacity Constraints on CK and R Chondrites and Implications for Water and Oxidation in the Early Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent chondritic meteorite finds in Antarctica have included CB, CH, CK and R chondrites, the latter two of which are among the most oxidized materials found in meteorite collections. In this study we present petrographic and mineralogic data for a suite of CK and R chondrites, and compare to previous studies of CK and R, as well as some CV chondrites. In particular we focus on the opaque minerals magnetite, chromite, sulfides, and metal as well as unusual silicates hornblende, biotite, and plagioclase. Several mineral thermometers and oxy-barometers are utilized to calculate temperatures and oxygen fugacities for these unusual meteorites compared to other more common chondrite groups. R and CK chondrites show lower equilibrium temperatures than ordinary chondrites, even though they are at similar petrologic grades (e.g., thermal type 6). Oxygen fugacity calculated for CV and R chondrites ranges from values near the iron-wustite (IW) oxygen buffer to near the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. In comparison, the fO2 recorded by ilmenite-magnetite pairs from CK chondrites are much higher, from FMQ+3.1 to FMQ+5.2. The latter values are the highest recorded for materials in meteorites, and place some constraints on the formation conditions of these magnetite-bearing chondrites. Differences between mineralogic and O isotopic compositions of CK and R chondrites suggest two different oxidation mechanisms, which may be due to high and low water: rock ratios during metamorphism, or to different fluid compositions, or both.

Righter, K.; Neff, K. E.

2007-01-01

166

Cat Mountain: A meteoritic sample of an impact-melted chondritic asteroid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although impact cratering and collisional disruption are the dominant geologic processes affecting asteroids, samples of impact melt breccias comprise less than 1 percent of ordinary chondritic material and none exist among enstatite and carbonaceous chondrite groups. Because the average collisional velocity among asteroids is sufficiently large to produce impact melts, this paucity of impact-melted material is generally believed to be a sampling bias, making it difficult to determine the evolutionary history of chondritic bodies and how impact processes may have affected the physical properties of asteroids (e.g., their structural integrity and reflectance spectra). To help address these and related issues, the first petrographic description of a new chondritic impact melt breccia sample, tentatively named Cat Mountain, is presented.

Kring, David A.

1993-01-01

167

Petrogenesis of complex veins in the Chantonnay /L6f/ chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two cross-cutting veins in the Chantonnay (L6f) chondrite illustrate different patterns of fractionation of total chondritic shock melts. The earlier vein, which is dark-colored and bears abundant host rock xenoliths, is strongly reduced and sodium-poor relative to the bulk meteorite. It resembles and may be cogenetic with melt pockets in Chantonnay. The later vein, which is lighter-colored and somewhat vesicular, lacks evidence of either Na loss or reduction but shows modest internal differentation. Its metal and total iron contents (26.5 wt.%) are higher than normal for L-group chondrites. The trend of chemical fractionation recorded in the earlier Chantonnay vein resembles that reported for chondrules in ordinary chondrites, suggesting that chemical variations among chondrules in part reflect variations among their parental shock melts.

Dodd, R. T.; Jarosewich, E.; Hill, B.

1982-07-01

168

Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of collisional events in chondrite parent bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ar-40/Ar-39 age dating of a number of shocked ordinary chondrites is interpreted in terms of collisional degassing events of meteorite parent bodies, probably in the asteroid belt. Examples of L, H, and at least one LL chondrite show episodic degassing. Degassing ages suggest several distinct events ranging from about 0.03 aeon to 0.7 aeon and probably higher. All specimens of either the H or L chondrites are not consistent with a single age event. A direct correlation exists between the degree of shock heating and the fraction of argon lost during degassing. However, no chondrite yet analyzed shows complete degassing of its high-temperature phase. Consequently, whole rock K-Ar ages are not accurate monitors of the time of the shock event.

Bogard, D. D.; Wright, R. J.; Husain, L.

1976-01-01

169

On the Relationship between Cosmic Ray Exposure Ages and Petrography of CM Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonaceous (C) chondrites are potentially the most primitive among chondrites because they mostly escaped thermal metamorphism that affected the other chondrite groups. C chondrites are chemically distinguished from other chondrites by their high Mg/Si ratios and refractory elements, and have experienced various degrees of aqueous alteration. They are subdivided into eight subgroups (CI, CM, CO, CV, CK, CR, CB and CH) based on major element and oxygen isotopic ratios. Their elemental ratios vary over a wide range, in contrast to those of ordinary and enstatite chondrites which are relatively uniform. It is critical to know how many separate bodies are represented by the C chondrites. In this study we defined 4 distinct cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age groups of CMs and systematically characterized the petrography in each of the 4 CRE age groups to determine whether the groups have significant petrographic differences with such differences probably reflecting different parent body (asteroid) geological processing, or multiple original bodies. We have reported the results of a preliminary grouping at the NIPR Symp. in 2013 [3], however, we revised the grouping and here report our new results.

Takenouchi, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M.; Velbel, M. A.; Ross, K.; Zolensky, A.; Lee, L.; Imae, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.

2014-01-01

170

Thermal evolution model for the H chondrite asteroid-instantaneous formation versus protracted accretion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model of the thermal evolution of asteroids. Assuming an onion shell model for the H chondrite parent body we obtain constraints for the H chondrite asteroid parameters by fitting empirical H chondrite cooling ages of Estacado, Guareña, Kernouvé, Mt. Browne, Richardton, Allegan, Nadiabondi, Ste. Marguerite, and Forest Vale by using a genetic algorithm for parameter optimisation. The model improves previous calculations on the thermal history calculated in the instantaneous accretion approximation considering sintering and porosity dependent heat conduction. The model is extended to include a finite growth time of the parent body to study whether the meteoritic record constrains the duration of the growth phase of the parent body where it assembles most of its mass. It is found that only short accretion times of up to 0.1 Ma are compatible with the empirical data on H chondrite cooling histories. Best fit models yield excellent agreement with the cooling age data. Particularly, they indicate that (i) 26Al was the major heat source driving metamorphism, while 60Fe contributed rather marginally, (ii) maximum temperatures remained below partial melting temperatures throughout the body, indicating that no partial differentiation occurred on the H chondrite parent asteroid, (iii) the H chondrite asteroid formed 2 Ma after CAIs, briefly after most ordinary chondrite chondrules formed (if 26Al abundance defines a chronological sequence).

Henke, S.; Gail, H.-P.; Trieloff, M.; Schwarz, W. H.

2013-09-01

171

Photographic observations of Neuschwanstein, a second meteorite from the orbit of the Príbram chondrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photographic observations of meteoroids passing through the atmosphere provide information about the population of interplanetary bodies in the Earth's vicinity in the size range from 0.1m to several metres. It is extremely rare that any of these meteoroids survives atmospheric entry to be recovered as a meteorite on the ground. Príbram was the first meteorite (an ordinary chondrite) with a

Pavel Spurný; Jürgen Oberst; Dieter Heinlein

2003-01-01

172

Pyroxene Microstructures as Recorders of the Thermal Histories of Unequilibrated and Equilibrated Eucrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been widely recognized that the non-cumulate eucrites consist of two groups, which reflect different degrees of post- crystallization equilibration. The unequilibrated eucrites, exemplified by Pasamonte, retain clear evidence of primary igneous zoning in pyroxenes, while equilibrated eucrites such as Stannern and Juvinas have lost their primary magmatic mineral compositions. Although some petrographic observations have been made, the details of the thermal histories of unequilibrated and equilibrated eucrites remain unclear [e.g., 1,2]. We have begun a systematic study of pyroxene mineral chemistry and microstructures in Pasamonte, Stannern, and Juvinas to examine this problem in detail. In Pasamonte pigeonites show strong Mg-Fe zoning from core to rim and contain very thin exsolution lamellae. TEM observations show that lamellae of augite have exsolved primarily parallel to (001), but rare, extremely thin (100) lamellae are also present. The average width of the lamellae is 120 nm with a wavelength of 270 nm in the rims and 70 nm with a wavelength of 200 nm in the Mg-rich cores. The compositions of the existing lamellae determined by AEM show that as the bulk pigeonite composition becomes more Ca and Fe-rich (i.e. towards the rims), the exsolved augite lamellae decrease in Ca content. The relationship is consistent with experimental data for the subsolidus phase relations of augite and pigeonite, which show that equilibration of the lamellae occurred between 800-850 degrees C [3], indicating rapid cooling. The microstructures present in Stannern pigeonites are significantly different from Pasamonte. Exsolution has occurred exclusively on (001) pigeonite and the lamellae have extremely variable widths, ranging from 70 nm up to a maximum of 1 micrometer. In any one area [30 x 30 micrometers) the lamellae widths are all similar, but there is considerable variation in the mean lamella width from region to region. The compositions of coexisting pigeonite and augite lamellae show that extreme unmixing of the two phases has occurred and that equilibration of coexisting lamellae occurred at temperatures between 500 and 600 degrees C [3]. As reported by [1] we have found chromites exsolved within the Stannern pyroxenes, but no ilmenite or metal particles have been observed. Chromite has exsolved exclusively within augite lamellae and appears to have nucleated coherently at pigeonite-augite interfaces. AEM of augite lamellae in Stannern shows that they are depleted in Cr and Al relative to augite in Pasamonte consistent with exsolution of chromite. Cr contents in both pigeonite and augite in Stannern are essentially zero, showing that the Cr systematics measured by electron microprobe are the result of the presence of fine-grained exsolved chromite. For Pasamonte an initial rapid cooling stage is indicated by the small wavelength of the exsolution lamellae in pigeonite cores. Cooling in the subsolidus region slowed after exsolution in the Mg-rich cores had occurred. The thermal history of Stannern appears to be more complex. The variability in the thickness and wavelength for exsolution lamellae in Stannern strongly indicates that there were compositional gradients in the crystal while exsolution was occurring, i.e. in the subsolidus region. Therefore equilibration could not have taken place above the solvus. The magma may have been emplaced into a hot environment such as the base of a thick flow and cooled slowly producing thick exsolution lamellae. After significant exsolution had occurred cooling slowed, perhaps as a result of burial under additional flows. During this period compositional equilibration of pyroxene occurred, but the spatial distribution of exsolution lamellae was preserved. Alternatively a second separate reheating event could be invoked, perhaps as a result of contact metamorphism by other, later intrusive rocks. In the latter scenario the exsolution of opaque phases is probably associated with this reheating event. Funded by NASA grant NAGW-3347 to J. J. Papike (P.I.). References: [1] Duke M. B. and S

Brearley, A. J.; Spilde, M. N.; Papike, J. J.

1993-07-01

173

Formation and Processing of Amorphous Silicates in Primitive Carbonaceous Chondrites and Cometary Dust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) exhibit strongly heterogeneous and unequilibrated mineralogy at sub-micron scales, are enriched in carbon, nitrogen and volatile trace elements, and contain abundant presolar materials [1-4]. These observations suggest that CP IDPs have largely escaped the thermal processing and water-rock interactions that have severely modified or destroyed the original mineralogy of primitive meteorites. CP IDPs are believed to represent direct samples of the building blocks of the Solar System - a complex mixture of nebular and presolar materials largely unperturbed by secondary processing. The chemical and isotopic properties of CP IDPs and their atmospheric entry velocities are also consistent with cometary origins. GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains are a major silicate component of CP IDPs. GEMS grains are < 0.5 microns in diameter objects that consist of numerous 10 to 50 nm-sized Fe-Ni metal and Fe-Ni sulfide grains dispersed in a Mg-Si-Al-Fe amorphous silicate matrix [2, 5]. Based on their chemistry and isotopic compositions, most GEMS appear to be non-equilibrium condensates from the early solar nebula [2]. If GEMS grains are a common nebular product, then they should also be abundant in the matrices of the most physically primitive chondritic meteorites. Although amorphous silicates are common in the most primitive meteorites [6-9], their relationship to GEMS grains and the extent to which their compositions and microstructure have been affected by parent body processing (oxidation and aqueous alteration) is poorly constrained. Here we compare and contrast the chemical, microstructural and isotopic properties of amorphous silicates in primitive carbonaceous chondrites to GEMS grains in IDPs.

Keller, Lindsay P.; Messenger, S.

2012-01-01

174

Chondrules and other components in C, O, and E chondrites Similarities in their properties and origins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of chondrules are described that are common to H3, LL3, CM2, CO3, and CV3 chondrites. Low- and high-FeO, porphyritic olivine chondrules contain olivine with Fa0.3-8 and Fa5-50 respectively, and can easily be distinguished petrographically. Poikilitic pyroxene chondrules have 1-20 vol pct olivine (Fa0.2-8) enclosed by low-Ca pyroxene (Fs0.5-7), and also occur in E chondrites. These three types formed in separate nebular regions which had dimensions and spacings such that a few percent of the chondrules that collided to form compound chondrules were of different types. Sorting of chondrule precursor material and mixing of chondrule types probably account for most variations in bulk and mineral chemistry among chondrite groups. Metallic Fe,Ni grains containing 0.1-1 percent Cr, Si, and P are present in low-FeO olivine chondrules from all type 2 and least metamorphosed type 3 chondrites. Metal compositions reflect reduction during chondrule formation in the nebula, not nebular condensation. Opaque matrices in type 3 ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites are somewhat similar in composition and mineralogy, and probably have related origins. It is concluded that chondrules in all known chondrite groups share similar nebular origins.

Scott, E. R. D.; Taylor, G. J.

1983-11-01

175

Studies of kamacite, perryite and schreibersite in E-chondrites and aubrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bulk composition of metal (kamacite plus perryite) was determined in eleven E-chondrites and eight aubrites. The data are compatible with the subdivision of the E-chondrites into two groups (Yavnel, 1963; Anders, 1964), St Mark's and St Sauveur belonging to type I (Easton, 1985). The Ni content of kamacite plus perryite in Kota Kota (5.49 percent) is within the range covered by the remaining E-chondrites. Normative perryite constitutes 2.1 percent of Kota Kota and 2.7 percent of South Oman. The Ni content in the bulk metal of Aubres, Bishopville, Norton County and Pena Blanca Spring is about half the average Ni content in the metal of E-chondrites or the remaining aubrites (Bustee, Khor Temiki, Mayo Belwa and Shallowater). High Ga/Ni ratios distinguish the metal in E-chondrites and aubrites from that in ordinary chondrites. The composition of both bulk metal and individual grains in aubrites makes it unlikely that they represent residual metal trapped during magmatic differentation and/or fractional crystallization of E6 material. Compositional differences between metal grains strongly indicate that the aubrites are polymict breccias.

Easton, A. J.

1986-03-01

176

The compositional classification of chondrites. II - The enstatite chondrite groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The compositional classification of chondrites is investigated to determine whether the enstatite chondrites form a compositional continuum or two discrete compositional populations. New neutron activation data on four enstatite chondrites are reported, including St. Sauveur. Two sets are determined, in which one set has abundances of nonrefractory siderophiles and moderately volatile chalcophiles and alkalis that are 1.5 to 2.0 times higher than in the other. Cosmic ray ages for the high-Fe, high siderophile group (EH) are 0.5-7.0 Ma, while those for the low-Fe, low siderophile group (EL) are 4-18 Ma. Within the EH group no correlation is observed between petrologic type and abundance of nonrefractory siderophiles or moderately volatiles or alkalis, and it is suggested that the EH and EL groups formed separate bodies at similar distances from the sun. Two strongly recrystallized silicate-rich meteorites containing greater than 40 mg/g Fe-Ni are discussed.

Sears, D. W.; Kallemeyn, G. W.; Wasson, J. T.

1982-04-01

177

Traces of an H chondrite in the impact-melt rocks from the Lappajärvi impact structure, Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present the results of a geochemical study of the projectile component in impact-melt rocks from the Lappajärvi impact structure, Finland. Main- and trace-element analyses, including platinum group elements (PGEs), were carried out on twenty impact-melt rock samples from different locations and on two shocked granite fragments. The results clearly illustrate that all the impact melt rocks are contaminated with an extraterrestrial component. An identification of the projectile type was performed by determining the projectile elemental ratios and comparing the corresponding element ratios in chondrites. The projectile elemental ratios suggest an H chondrite as the most likely projectile type for the Lappajärvi impact structure. The PGE composition of the highly diluted projectile component (˜0.05 and 0.7 wt% in the impact-melt rocks) is similar to the recent meteorite population of H chondrites reaching Earth. The relative abundance of ordinary chondrites, including H, L, and LL chondrites, as projectiles at terrestrial impact structures is most likely related to the position of their parent bodies relative to the main resonance positions. This relative abundance of ordinary chondrites suggests a strong bias of the impactor population toward inner Main Belt objects.

Tagle, R.; Öhman, T.; Schmitt, R. T.; Erzinger, J.; Claeys, P. H.

178

Magnetite-sulfide chondrules and nodules in CK carbonaceous chondrites - Implications for the timing of CK oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CK carbonaceous chondrites contain rare (about 0.1 vol pct) magnetite-sulfide chondrules that range from about 240 to 500 microns in apparent diameter and have ellipsoidal to spheroidal morphologies, granular textures, and concentric layering. They resemble the magnetite-sulfide nodules occurring inside mafic silicate chondrules in CK chondrites. It seems likely that the magnetite-sulfide chondrules constitute the subset of magnetite-sulfide nodules that escaped as immiscible droplets from their molten silicate chondrule hosts during chondrule formation. The intactness of the magnetite-sulfide chondrules and nodules implies that oxidation of CK metal occurred before agglomeration. Hence, the pervasive silicate darkening of CK chondrites was caused by the shock mobilization of magnetite and sulfide, not metallic Fe-Ni and sulfide as in shock-darkened ordinary chondrites.

Rubin, A. E.

1993-03-01

179

Origin and chronology of chondritic components: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineralogical observations, chemical and oxygen-isotope compositions, absolute 207Pb- 206Pb ages and short-lived isotope systematics ( 7Be- 7Li, 10Be- 10B, 26Al- 26Mg, 36Cl- 36S, 41Ca- 41K, 53Mn- 53Cr, 60Fe- 60Ni, 182Hf- 182W) of refractory inclusions [Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) and amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs)], chondrules and matrices from primitive (unmetamorphosed) chondrites are reviewed in an attempt to test (i) the x-wind model vs. the shock-wave model of the origin of chondritic components and (ii) irradiation vs. stellar origin of short-lived radionuclides. The data reviewed are consistent with an external, stellar origin for most short-lived radionuclides ( 7Be, 10Be, and 36Cl are important exceptions) and a shock-wave model for chondrule formation, and provide a sound basis for early Solar System chronology. They are inconsistent with the x-wind model for the origin of chondritic components and a local, irradiation origin of 26Al, 41Ca, and 53Mn. 10Be is heterogeneously distributed among CAIs, indicating its formation by local irradiation and precluding its use for the early solar system chronology. 41Ca- 41K, and 60Fe- 60Ni systematics are important for understanding the astrophysical setting of Solar System formation and origin of short-lived radionuclides, but so far have limited implications for the chronology of chondritic components. The chronological significance of oxygen-isotope compositions of chondritic components is limited. The following general picture of formation of chondritic components is inferred. CAIs and AOAs were the first solids formed in the solar nebula ˜4567-4568 Myr ago, possibly within a period of <0.1 Myr, when the Sun was an infalling (class 0) and evolved (class I) protostar. They formed during multiple transient heating events in nebular region(s) with high ambient temperature (at or above condensation temperature of forsterite), either throughout the inner protoplanetary disk (1-4 AU) or in a localized region near the proto-Sun (<0.1 AU), and were subsequently dispersed throughout the disk. Most CAIs and AOAs formed in the presence of an 16O-rich (? 17O ˜ -24 ± 2‰) nebular gas. The 26Al-poor [( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 < 1 × 10 -5], 16O-rich (? 17O ˜ -24 ± 2‰) CAIs - FUN (fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects) CAIs in CV chondrites, platy hibonite crystals (PLACs) in CM chondrites, pyroxene-hibonite spherules in CM and CO chondrites, and the majority of grossite- and hibonite-rich CAIs in CH chondrites—may have formed prior to injection and/or homogenization of 26Al in the early Solar System. A small number of igneous CAIs in ordinary, enstatite and carbonaceous chondrites, and virtually all CAIs in CB chondrites are 16O-depleted (? 17O > -10‰) and have ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 similar to those in chondrules (<1 × 10 -5). These CAIs probably experienced melting during chondrule formation. Chondrules and most of the fine-grained matrix materials in primitive chondrites formed 1-4 Myr after CAIs, when the Sun was a classical (class II) and weak-lined T Tauri star (class III). These chondritic components formed during multiple transient heating events in regions with low ambient temperature (<1000 K) throughout the inner protoplanetary disk in the presence of 16O-poor (? 17O > -5‰) nebular gas. The majority of chondrules within a chondrite group may have formed over a much shorter period of time (<0.5-1 Myr). Mineralogical and isotopic observations indicate that CAIs were present in the regions where chondrules formed and accreted (1-4 AU), indicating that CAIs were present in the disk as free-floating objects for at least 4 Myr. Many CAIs, however, were largely unaffected by chondrule melting, suggesting that chondrule-forming events experienced by a nebular region could have been small in scale and limited in number. Chondrules and metal grains in CB chondrites formed during a single-stage, highly-energetic event ˜4563 Myr ago, possibly from a gas-melt plume produced by collision between planetary embryos.

Krot, A. N.; Amelin, Y.; Bland, P.; Ciesla, F. J.; Connelly, J.; Davis, A. M.; Huss, G. R.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Makide, K.; Nagashima, K.; Nyquist, L. E.; Russell, S. S.; Scott, E. R. D.; Thrane, K.; Yurimoto, H.; Yin, Q.-Z.

2009-09-01

180

Petrography, stable isotope compositions, microRaman spectroscopy, and presolar components of Roberts Massif 04133: A reduced CV3 carbonaceous chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we report the mineralogy, petrography, C-N-O-stable isotope compositions, degree of disorder of organic matter, and abundances of presolar components of the chondrite Roberts Massif (RBT) 04133 using a coordinated, multitechnique approach. The results of this study are inconsistent with its initial classification as a Renazzo-like carbonaceous chondrite, and strongly support RBT 04133 being a brecciated, reduced petrologic type >3.3 Vigarano-like carbonaceous (CV) chondrite. RBT 04133 shows no evidence for aqueous alteration. However, it is mildly thermally altered (up to approximately 440 °C); which is apparent in its whole-rock C and N isotopic compositions, the degree of disorder of C in insoluble organic matter, low presolar grain abundances, minor element compositions of Fe,Ni metal, chromite compositions and morphologies, and the presence of unequilibrated silicates. Sulfides within type I chondrules from RBT 04133 appear to be pre-accretionary (i.e., did not form via aqueous alteration), providing further evidence that some sulfide minerals formed prior to accretion of the CV chondrite parent body. The thin section studied contains two reduced CV3 lithologies, one of which appears to be more thermally metamorphosed, indicating that RBT 04133, like several other CV chondrites, is a breccia and thus experienced impact processing. Linear foliation of chondrules was not observed implying that RBT 04133 did not experience high velocity impacts that could lead to extensive thermal metamorphism. Presolar silicates are still present in RBT 04133, although presolar SiC grain abundances are very low, indicating that the progressive destruction or modification of presolar SiC grains begins before presolar silicate grains are completely unidentifiable.

Davidson, Jemma; Schrader, Devin L.; Alexander, Conel M. O'd.; Lauretta, Dante S.; Busemann, Henner; Franchi, Ian A.; Greenwood, Richard C.; Connolly, Harold C.; Domanik, Kenneth J.; Verchovsky, Alexander

2014-12-01

181

RAS Ordinary Meeting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here are summarized talks from the February and March RAS Ordinary Meetings. The February meeting also enjoyed the Eddington Lecture from Prof. Lisa Kewley (Australian National University) on galaxy evolution in 3D.

2014-08-01

182

Igneous Graphite in Enstatite Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Igneous graphite. a rare constituent in terrestrial mafic and ultramafic rocks. occurs in three EH and one EL enstatite chondrite impact-melt breccias as 2-150 Ilm long euhedrallaths. some with pyramidal terminations. In contrast. graphite in most enstatite chondrites exsolved from metallic Fe-Ni as polygonal. rounded or irregular aggregates. Literature data for five EH chondrites on C combusting at high temperatures show that Abee contains the most homogeneous C isotopes (i.e. delta(sup 13)C = -8.1+/-2.1%); in addition. Abee's mean delta(sup l3)C value is the same as the average high-temperature C value for the set of five EH chondrites. This suggests that Abee scavenged C from a plurality of sources on its parent body and homogenized the C during a large-scale melting event. Whereas igneous graphite in terrestrial rocks typically forms at relatively high pressure and only moderately low oxygen fugacity (e.g., approx. 5 kbar. logfO2, approx. -10 at 1200 C ). igneous graphite in asteroidal meteorites formed at much lower pressures and oxygen fugacities.

Rubin, Alan E.

1997-01-01

183

Aqueous activity and sources of water on the chondrite parent asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ages of aqueous alteration of asteroids: Most chondrite parent asteroids experienced aqueous alteration resulting in the formation of secondary minerals, including phyllosilicates, magnetite, Fe,Ni-sulfides, carbonates [(Ca,Mg,Fe,Mn)CO_3)], and fayalite [(Fe,Mn)_2SiO_4] [1]. Mineralogical observations and thermodynamic analysis suggest that the alteration of the various chondrite groups occurred under different physico-chemical conditions (temperature, redox conditions, pH, water/rock ratio). The chronology of aqueous activity on the chondrite parent asteroids can be inferred from ^{53}Mn-^{53}Cr dating (^{53}Mn decays to ^{53}Cr with half-life of 3.7 Myr) of aqueously-formed carbonates and fayalite measured with secondary ion mass-spectrometry. Recently reported ^{53}Mn-^{53}Cr ages of carbonates in CM [2,3], CI [4], CR [5] chondrites, and fayalite in CV [6], CO [6], and LL [7] chondrites indicate that aqueous alteration on the ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite (CC) parent asteroids occurred nearly contemporaneously, ˜3-5 Myr after formation of Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs), the earliest Solar System solids dated [8]. Accretion ages of chondrite parent asteroids: Assuming uniform distribution of a short-lived radionuclide ^{26}Al (decays to ^{26}Mg with half-life of ˜0.7 Myr) in the disk at the canonical level (^{26}Al/^{27}Al ˜5×10^{-5}), the timing of aqueous alteration combined with estimates of peak metamorphic temperatures and thermal modelling of the ordinary and CC parent asteroids suggest that these bodies accreted ˜2-3 Myr after CAI formation [2,3,7]. The inferred accretion ages of ordinary and CC parent asteroids are generally consistent with average ^{26}Al-^{26}Mg ages (^{26}Al decays to ^{26}Mg with half-life of ˜0.7 Myr) of their chondrules [9,10], suggesting that chondrule formation was rapidly followed by accretion and that ^{26}Al was the major heating source of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism on these bodies. The observed variations in the degree of aqueous alteration within a chondrite group may indicate that water ices accreted heterogeneously or that there was a fluid flow in their parent bodies. Sources of water on the chondrite parent asteroids: According to the Grand Tack and Nice models, the extensively hydrated (C-, D-, and P-type) asteroids formed between and beyond the giant planets and were scattered into the main asteroid belt during a period of giant planet migration [11,12]. Bulk D/H ratio of chondrite water ices can potentially be used for testing this model, but cannot be measured directly. Alexander et al. [13] used the bulk hydrogen and carbon isotopic compositions of chondrites to estimate the water D/H ratio for a number of chondrite groups. The estimated D/H ratio of water in the extensively hydrated CI, CM, CR and ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Tagish Lake (spectrally similar to D-type asteroids) are significantly lower than in the measured comets from Oort Cloud comets; the D/H ratio of water in CRs, however, is similar to that in the Jupiter Family Comet Hartley 2 [14]. Alexander et al. [13] concluded that CC parent asteroids accreted ˜3-7 au from the Sun. These data provide important constraints on the Grand Tack and Nice models.

Krot, A.; Alexander, C.; Nagashima, K.; Ciesla, F.; Fujiya, W.

2014-07-01

184

Magnetite-Pentlandite Chondrules in CK Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Opaque-mineral-rich chondrules are among the least common chondrule types and have received scant attention since their discovery by Gustav Rose in 1864. This category includes chondrules comprised principally of metallic Fe-Ni (Tschermak, 1885; Gooding and Keil, 1981) or chrome-spinel (Ramdohr, 1967; Krot et al., 1992). Here I report the occurrence of seven magnetite-pentlandite chondrules in Karoonda (CK4), PCA82500 (CK4/5) and EET90007 (CK5). The chondrules range in size from 225x255 micrometers to 440x570 micrometers and have ellipsoidal or spheroidal morphologies. All are concentrically layered: five of the chondrules have 20-60-micrometer-thick magnetite rims surrounding pentlandite-rich cores or mantles; two of the chondrules have thin pentlandite rims surrounding magnetite-rich cores and mantles. One chondrule from Karoonda has four distinct alternating layers of magnetite and pentlandite. Accessory phases, which occur in one or more of the chondrules, include pyrrhotite, chlorapatite, ilmenite, and chalcopyrite. The chondrules have finely to coarsely granular textures; in the center of one chondrule from PCA82500 there is a 25x100 micrometers subhedral crystal of pentlandite. All of the chondrules appear to be recrystallized, presumably due to metamorphism of their host rocks. The magnetite-pentlandite chondrules are very similar to the magnetite-pentlandite-rich nodules within mafic silicate chondrules in CK chondrites. I examined four nodules that range in size from 58x64 micrometers to 400x670 micrometers and have ellipsoidal or spheroidal morphologies. All but one are concentrically layered; one nodule from a Karoonda chondrule has four concentric layers of magnetite+-pentlandite. The nodules probably formed from immiscible sulfide-oxide droplets within their molten silicate chondrule hosts during chondrule formation. Upon cooling, magnetite and monosulfide solid solution (Mss) precipitated during cotectic crystallization; the Mss transformed into pentlandite after cooling below 610 degrees C. Dense immiscible liquid droplets tend to get expelled from the equators of their spinning molten spheroidal hosts if they do not happen to be located in the molten spheroids' centers where the centrifugal forces are minimal. This phenomenon also affected the four magnetite-pentlandite nodules: one nodule is near the margin and three are at the centers of their host silicate chondrules. The similarities in size, shape, mineralogy, and texture between the magnetite-pentlandite chondrules and nodules indicate that these chondrules constitute the set of immiscible nodule droplets that were lost to their mafic silicate chondrule hosts after melting. The occurrence of magnetite-pentlandite chondrules and nodules has important implications for the timing of CK chondrite oxidation. If oxidation had occurred after agglomeration and transformed metallic Fe-Ni into magnetite, the large (factor of 2) increase in molar volume would have disrupted the nodules and chondrules and destroyed the evidence for rhythmic layering. The intactness of the chondrules and nodules implies that the oxidation of fine-grained metallic Fe-Ni into magnetite probably occurred before agglomeration, either during chondrule formation in a region of high fo(sub)2 or within porous chondrule-precursor dust clumps after nebular temperatures cooled below ~130 degrees C. Hence, the pervasive silicate darkening of CK chondrites (Kallemeyn et al., 1991; Rubin, 1992) was caused by the shock mobilization of magnetite and pentlandite, not metallic Fe-Ni and troilite as in shock-darkened ordinary chondrites. References: Gooding J.L. and Keil K. (1981) Meteoritics 16, 17- 43; Kallemeyn G.W., Rubin A.E. and Wasson J.T. (1991) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 881-892; Krot A., Ivanova M.A. and Wasson J.T. (1992) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., submitted; Ramdohr P. (1967) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 31, 1961-1967; Rubin A.E. (1992) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 56, 1705-1714; Tschermak G. (1885) Die Mikroskopische Beschaffenheit der Meteoriten. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagshandlung, Stuttga

Rubin, A. E.

1992-07-01

185

Carbonates in the Kaidun chondrite. [Abstract only  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kaidun is a remarkable chondrite breccia fall containing lithic clasts that span a wide range of chondrite groups including C and E chondrites, as well as having clasts with characteristics not yet found in existing chondrite samples. The dominant lithology in Kaidun appears to be CR chondritic, consonant with recent O isotope data. The carbonates in Kaidun are presented as one mineralogical basis for comparing it to the other hydrated chondrites and to better understand its relative alteration history. The four polished thin sections of Kaidun studied contained a variety of lithologies that we classified into four groups -- CR, E, CM-like, and dark inclusions (DIs). DIs contain sulfide and magnetite morphologies that superficially resemble CI chondrites, and some of the previously reported CI lithologies in Kaidun may be what we term DIs. Carbonates were found in all lithologies studied. Carbonates in Kaidun are similar in composition to those in CR chondrites. Some of the DIs in Kaidun, previously characterized as CI, have carbonates similar to those in CR chondrites and are unlike those in CI or CM chondrites. Most carbonates in Kaidun and CR chondrites are calcites, some of which formed at temperatures above 250 C. Dolomite is less common and some may be metastable. Alteration temperatures in the Renazzo CR chondrite were estimated to be approximately 300 C, based on O isotope fractionation between phyllosilicates and magnetite. Temperatures of up to 450 C were proposed for the alteration of a CR-like dark inclusion in Kaidun, based on the presence of hydrothermal pentlandite veins. The alteration temperatures for Kaidun and the other CR chondrites are considerably higher than those suggested for CI or CM parent bodies.

Weisberg, M. K.; Prinz, M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ivanov, A. V.

1994-01-01

186

Rare-earth abundances in chondritic meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fifteen chondrites, including eight carbonaceous chondrites, were analyzed for rare earth element abundances by isotope dilution. Examination of REE for a large number of individual chondrites shows that only a small proportion of the analyses have flat unfractionated REE patterns within experimental error. While some of the remaining analyses are consistent with magmatic fractionation, many patterns, in particular those with positive Ce anomalies, can not be explained by known magmatic processes. Elemental abundance anomalies are found in all major chondrite classes. The persistence of anomalies in chondritic materials relatively removed from direct condensational processes implies that anomalous components are resistant to equilibrium or were introduced at a late stage of chondrite formation. Large-scale segregation of gas and condensate is implied, and bulk variations in REE abundances between planetary bodies is possible.

Evensen, N. M.; Hamilton, P. J.; Onions, R. K.

1978-01-01

187

Celebrating the Ordinary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Memento. Memoir. Memorable. Memory. Memorial. Commemorate. In Memoriam. These words may remind a person of stone monuments, or larger-than-life heroes and loved ones far distanced by space and time. The act of remembering, though, also belongs in the world of the everyday and the ordinary, and has a valuable place in an art classroom. In this…

Horst, Carol

2010-01-01

188

Calcium-48 isotopic anomalies in bulk chondrites and achondrites: Evidence for a uniform isotopic reservoir in the inner protoplanetary disk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) was used to measure the calcium isotopic compositions of carbonaceous, ordinary, enstatite chondrites as well as eucrites and aubrites. We find that after correction for mass-fractionation by internal normalization to a fixed 42Ca/44Ca ratio, the 43Ca/44Ca and 46Ca/44Ca ratios are indistinguishable from terrestrial ratios. In contrast, the 48Ca/44Ca ratios show significant departure from the terrestrial composition (from -2 ? in eucrites to +4 ? in CO and CV chondrites). Isotopic anomalies in ?48Ca correlate with ?50Ti: ? 48Ca=(1.09±0.11)×? 50Ti+(0.03±0.14). Further work is needed to identify the carrier phase of 48Ca-50Ti anomalies but we suggest that it could be perovskite and that the stellar site where these anomalies were created was also responsible for the nucleosynthesis of the bulk of the solar system inventory of these nuclides. The Earth has identical 48Ca isotopic composition to enstatite chondrites (EH and EL) and aubrites. This adds to a long list of elements that display nucleosynthetic anomalies at a bulk planetary scale but show identical or very similar isotopic compositions between enstatite chondrites, aubrites, and Earth. This suggests that the inner protoplanetary disk was characterized by a uniform isotopic composition (IDUR for Inner Disk Uniform Reservoir), sampled by enstatite chondrites and aubrites, from which the Earth drew most of its constituents. The terrestrial isotopic composition for 17O, 48Ca, 50Ti, 62Ni, and 92Mo is well reproduced by a mixture of 91% enstatite, 7% ordinary, and 2% carbonaceous chondrites. The Earth was not simply made of enstatite chondrites but it formed from the same original material that was later modified by nebular and disk processes. The Moon-forming impactor probably came from the same region as the other embryos that made the Earth, explaining the strong isotopic similarity between lunar and terrestrial rocks.

Dauphas, Nicolas; Chen, James H.; Zhang, Junjun; Papanastassiou, Dimitri A.; Davis, Andrew M.; Travaglio, Claudia

2014-12-01

189

The compositional classification of chondrites. V - The Karoonda (CK) group of carbonaceous chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Karoonda, or 'CK' group of carbonaceous chondrites, all normal members are metamorphosed and, while some contain shock veins, all exhibit various degrees of blackening due to fine sulfide and magnetite particle dispersions in silicates. The elemental abundance patterns in CK chondrites are similar to those in CO chondrites, and rather more similar to those in CV chondrites; CK refractory siderophile abundances are intermediate between CV and CO levels. The exceptional abundance of CK chondrites in Antarctica is accounted for in light of the fragmentation of the CK parent objects, which produced a greater proportion of small micrometeoroids.

Kallemeyn, G. W.; Rubin, A. E.; Wasson, J. T.

1991-03-01

190

New component of the Mezo-Madaras breccia - a microchondrule- and carbon-bearing L-related chondrite  

SciTech Connect

Microchondrules with apparent diameters 2-150 microns are found in a black carbon-bearing inclusion in Mazo-Madaras. Some are homogeneous (glassy or microcrystalline); others show two phases (mainly silica and pyroxene-rich glass). The bulk chemical composition of the inclusion is related to the host chondrite, in which silica-pyroxene chondrules are ubiquitous. Small black lumps of the same kind are dispersed in bulk Mezo-madaras. This L-related carbon-bearing material may represent a new specimen of C-rich ordinary chondrite. 13 references.

Michel-Levy, M.C.

1988-03-01

191

Rare Gases in the Chondrite Renazzo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed analysis of the rare gas content of the chondrite Renazzo is presented. Fractions of different isotopic composition are separated by heating the sample to successively higher temperatures. The abundance and isotopic composition of the gases is similar to that in the carbonaceous chondrite Murray, with a high percentage of so-called primordial gas. For the light rare gases this

J. H. Reynolds; G. Turner

1964-01-01

192

Vacuum ultraviolet spectra of carbonaceous chondrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, the vacuum ultraviolet reflection spectra of carbonaceous chondrite polished thin-section and powder are compared in terms of the energy-gap (Eg) value within the region from 5 to 14 eV. The comparison is carried out for the Essebi, Isna, Vigarano, Karoonda, Orgueil, and Allende chondrites and for meteoritic fassites, fayelites, and forsteritic peridot crystals.

A. J. Cohen; J. K. Wagner; B. W. Hapke; W. D. Partlow

1978-01-01

193

Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk, Part 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics discussed include: Cosmochemical fractionations, Chondritic meteorites and their components, Jet flows: Formation and thermal processing of solids in protoplanetary disks, A Search for Solar-System processing signatures in presolar grains, Experimental study of iron metal condensation, The chondrite types and their origins, Spinel-rich spherules from murchison, etc.

2004-01-01

194

Oxygen Isotope Systematics of Chondrules from the Least Equilibrated H Chondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxygen isotope compositions of bulk chondrules and their mineral separates in type 3 ordinary chondrites (UOC) show several % variability in the oxygen three isotope diagram with slope of approx.0.7 [1]. In contrast, ion microprobe analyses of olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts in ferromagnesian chondrules from LL 3.0-3.1 chondrites show mass dependent isotopic fractionation as large as 5% among type I (FeO-poor) chondrules, while type II (FeO-rich) chondrules show a narrow range (less than or equal to 1%) of compositions [2]. The .Delta(exp 17)O (=delta(exp 17)O-0.52xdelta(exp 18)O) values of olivine and pyroxene in these chondrules show a peak at approx.0.7% that are systematically lower than those of bulk chondrule analyses as well as the bulk LL chondrites [2]. Further analyses of glass in Semarkona chondrules show .17O values as high as +5% with highly fractionated d18O (max +18%), implying O-16-poor glass in chondrules were altered as a result of hydration in the parent body at low temperature [3]. Thus, chondrules in LL3.0-3.1 chondrites do not provide any direct evidence of oxygen isotope exchange between solid precursor and O-16-depleted gas during chondrule melting events. To compare the difference and/or similarity between chondrules from LL and H chondrites, we initiated systematic investigations of oxygen isotopes in chondrules from Yamato 793408 (H3.2), one of the least equilibrated H chondrite [4]. In our preliminary study of 4 chondrules, we reported distinct oxygen isotope ratios from dusty olivine and refractory forsterite (RF) grains compared to their host chondrules and confirmed their relict origins [5].

Kita, N. T.; Kimura, M.; Ushikubo, T.; Valley, J. W.; Nyquist, L. E.

2008-01-01

195

Micro-Scale Distributions of Major and Trace Elements in Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hayabusa spacecraft has successfully returned to Earth after two touchdowns on the surface of Asteroid 25143 Itokawa. This asteroid is classified as an S-type and inferred to consist of materials similar to ordinary chondrites or primitive achondrites [1]. More than 1500 particles have been identified consisting of olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, Fe sulfide and Fe metal, with compositions consistent with being of LL origin. While the chondritic components are familiar to us, the level of detail to which the Itokawa samples will be exposed to will be unprecedented given that the samples are reasonably large and accessible to a wide variety of techniques. In many ways, we expect that our knowledge base of the comparator chondrites will be found to be wanting. Chondrites are the building blocks of the solar system. However, these rocks are essentially breccias and they are quite variable in bulk element compositions as well as compositions of the individual components. We have initiated a program of analysis for chondrites focusing on major and trace element distributions between the mineral components and the matrix. The issues to be addressed include the homogeneity of matrix and chondrule components and the representivity of any given sample to the bulk meteorite. This may be particularly important given the limited numbers of Itokawa grains that may be available for a specific analysis. As an initial study, we have taken thin sections of carbonaceous chondrites to study the representivity of the matrix compositions. Spot locations were constrained to limited regions of the sections so as to assess the variability of a local scale. Further work will be required to assess variability over a centimeter scale.

Ireland, T. R.; Zolensky, M.

2011-01-01

196

Impact melt products of chondritic material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large variety of objects in chondritic meteorites formed as a result of impact melting: shock veins, metal-troilite mixtures, metal and sulfide nodules, melt pockets, vugs, agglutinates, glassy and crystalline spherules, and numerous types of melt-rock clasts. The type of object produced in an impact event is related to the interaction of the shock waves with the particular target rock. Impact melting has also affected large portions of several chondrite breccias. Some workers have suggested that various iron meteorites were formed from individual impact melt pools in chondritic regoliths. The Eagle Station Trio pallasites and several ungrouped meteorites may have formed from impact-melted chondritic material. It is also possible that the parent magmas of ureilites were derived from impact-melted metal-rich cabonaceous chondrite material.

Rubin, A. E.

1985-08-01

197

Formation of the first oxidized iron in the solar system Lawrence GROSSMAN1,2  

E-print Network

of the planetesimals and/or in hot, dense, water-rich vapor plumes generated by impacts on them. This would imply years, and systems enriched in water by a factor of ten relative to solar composition, 1 lm radius of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Even 10 lm olivine crystals could reach 30 mole% fayalite above 1100 K

Grossman, Lawrence

198

What Are Space Exposure Histories Telling Us about CM Carbonaceous Chondrites?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chondrites are chemically primitive and carbonaceous (C) chondrites are potentially the most primitive among them because they mostly escaped thermal metamor-phism that affected the other chondrite groups and ratios of their major, non-volatile and most of the volatile elements are similar to those of the Sun. Therefore, C chondrites are ex-pected to retain a good record of the origin and early history of the solar system. Carbonaceous chondrites are chemically differentiated from other chondrites by their high Mg/Si ratios and refractory elements, and have experienced various degrees of aqueous alteration. They are subdivided into eight subgroups (CI, CM, CO, CV, CK, CR, CB and CH) based on major element and oxygen isotopic ratios. Their elemental ratios spread over a wide range though those of ordinary and enstatite chondrites are relatively uniform. It is critical to know how many sepa-rate bodies are represented by the C chondrites. In this study, CM chondrites, the most abundant carbona-ceous chondrites, are examined. They are water-rich, chon-drule- and CAI-bearing meteorites and most of them are brec-cias. High-temperature components such as chondrules, iso-lated olivine and CAIs in CMs are frequently altered and some of them are replaced by clay minerals and surrounded by sul-fides whose Fe was derived from mafic silicates. On the basis of degrees of aqueous alteration, CMs have been classified into subtypes from 1 to 2, although Rubin et al. [1] assigned subtype 1 to subtype 2 and subtype 2 to subtype 2.6 using various petrologic properties. The classification is based on petrographic and mineralogic properties. For example, though tochilinite (2[(Fe, Mg, Cu, Ni[])S] 1.57-1.85 [(Mg, Fe, Ni, Al, Ca)(HH)2]) clumps are produced during aqueous alteration, they disappear and sulfide appears with increasing degrees of aqueous alteration. Cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age measurements of CM chondrites reveal an unusual feature. Though CRE ages of other chondrite groups range from several Myr to tens of Myr, CMs exposure ages are not longer than 7 Myr with one-third of the CM having less than 1 Myr CRE age. For those CM chondrites that have CRE ages <1 Myr, there are two discern-able CRE peaks. Because a CRE age reflects how long a me-teorite is present as a separate body in space, the peaks pre-sumably represent collisional events on the parent body (ies) [2]. In this study we defined 4 distinct CRE age groups of CMs and systematically characterized the petrography in each of the 4 CRE age groups to determine whether the groups have significant petrographic differences, with such differences probably reflecting different parent body (asteroid) geological processing, or multiple original bodies.

Takenouchi, A.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M.; Velbel, M. A.; Ross, K.; Zolensky, P.; Le, L.; Imae, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.

2013-01-01

199

Evidence for a source of H chondrites in the outer main asteroid belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: In this paper we report near-infrared spectroscopic observations of one of the largest potentially hazardous asteroids, (214869) 2007 PA8. Mineralogical analysis of this object was followed by the investigation of the dynamical delivery mechanism from its probable source region, based on long-term numerical integrations. Methods: The spectrum of (214869) 2007 PA8 was analysed using the positions of 1 ?m and 2 ?m bands and by curve-matching with RELAB meteorites spectra. Its dynamical evolution was investigated by means of a 200 000-year numerical integration in the past of 1275 clones followed to the source region. Results: (214869) 2007 PA8 has a very young surface with a composition more akin to H chondrites than to any other type of ordinary chondrite. It arrived from the outer Main Belt in the near-Earth space via the 5:2 mean motion resonance with Jupiter by eccentricity pumping. Identification of its source region far from (6) Hebe raises the possibility of the existence of a second parent body of the H chondrites that has a radically different post-accretion history. Future spectroscopic surveys in the 5:2 resonance region will most likely discover other asteroids with an H chondrite composition. Figure 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Nedelcu, D. A.; Birlan, M.; Popescu, M.; B?descu, O.; Pricopi, D.

2014-07-01

200

H/L chondrite LaPaz Icefield 031047 ? A feather of Icarus?  

SciTech Connect

Antarctic meteorite LAP 031047 is an ordinary chondrite composed of loosely consolidated chondritic fragments. Its petrography, oxygen isotopic composition and geochemical inventory are ambiguous and indicate an intermediate character between H and L chondrites. Petrographic indicators suggest LAP 031047 suffered a shock metamorphic overprint below {approx}10 GPa, which did not destroy its unusually high porosity of {approx}27 vol%. Metallographic textures in LAP 031047 indicate heating above {approx}700 C and subsequent cooling, which caused massive transformation of taenite to kamacite. The depletion of thermally labile trace elements, the crystallization of chondritic glass to microcrystalline plagioclase of unusual composition, and the occurrence of coarsely crystallized chondrule fragments is further evidence for post-metamorphic heating to {approx}700-750 C. However, this heating event had a transient character because olivine and low-Ca pyroxene did not equilibrate. Nearly complete degassing up to very high temperatures is indicated by the thorough resetting of LAP 031047's Ar-Ar reservoir {approx}100 {+-} 55 Ma ago. A noble gas cosmic-ray exposure age indicates it was reduced to a meter-size fragment at < 0.5 Ma. In light of the fact that shock heating cannot account for the thermal history of LAP 031047 in its entirety, we test the hypothesis that this meteorite belonged to the near-surface of an Aten or Apollo asteroid that underwent heating during orbital passages close to the Sun.

Wittmann, Axel; Friedrich, Jon M.; Troiano, Julianne; Macke, Robert J.; Britt, Daniel T.; Swidle, Timothy D.; Weirich, John R.; Rumble III, Douglas; Lasue, Jeremie; King, David A. (Central Florida); (Lunar and Planetary Institute); (CIW); (Ariz); (Fordham); (LANL)

2011-10-28

201

Origin and history of chondrite regolith, fragmental and impact-melt breccias from Spain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six ordinary chondrite breccias from the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid (Spain), are described and classified as follows: the solar gas-rich regolith breccia Oviedo (H5); the premetamorphic fragmental breccias Cabezo de Mayo (type 6, L-LL), and Sevilla (LL4); the fragmental breccias Canellas (H4) and Gerona (H5); and the impact melt breccia, Madrid (L6). It is confirmed that chondrites with typical light-dark structures and petrographic properties typical of regolith breccias may (Oviedo) or may not (Canellas) be solar gas-rich. Cabezo de Mayo and Sevilla show convincing evidence that they were assembled prior to peak metamorphism and were equilibrated during subsequent reheating. Compositions of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene in host chondrite and breccia clasts in Cabezo de Mayo are transitional between groups L and LL. It is suggested, based on mineralogic and oxygen isotopic compositions of host and clasts, that the rock formed on the L parent body by mixing, prior to peak metamorphism. This was followed by partial equilibrium of two different materials: the indigenous L chondrite host and exotic LL melt rock clasts.

Casanova, I.; Keil, K.; Wieler, R.; San Miguel, A.; King, E. A.

1990-01-01

202

Porosity and Permeability of Chondritic Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have investigated the porosity of a large number of chondritic interplanetary dust particles and meteorites by three techniques: standard liquid/gas flow techniques, a new, non-invasive ultrasonic technique, and image processing of backscattered images . The latter technique is obviously best suited to sub-kg sized samples. We have also measured the gas and liquid permeabilities of some chondrites by two techniques: standard liquid/gas flow techniques, and a new, non-destructive pressure release technique. We find that chondritic IDP's have a somewhat bimodal porosity distribution. Peaks are present at 0 and 4% porosity; a tail then extends to 53%. These values suggest IDP bulk densities of 1.1 to 3.3 g/cc. Type 1-3 chondrite matrix porosities range up to 30%, with a peak at 2%. The bulk porosities for type 1-3 chondrites have the same approximate range as exhibited by matrix, indicating that other components of the bulk meteorites (including chondrules and aggregates) have the same average porosity as matrix. These results reveal that the porosity of primitive materials at scales ranging from nanogram to kilogram are similar, implying similar accretion dynamics operated through 12 orders of size magnitude. Permeabilities of the investigated chondrites vary by several orders of magnitude, and there appears to be no simple dependence of permeability with degree of aqueous alteration, or chondrite type.

Zolensky, Michael E.; Corrigan, Catherine M.; Dahl, Jason; Long, Michael

1996-01-01

203

Carbonaceous chondrite clasts in the Kapoeta howardite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A petrographic and mineralogical study of a number of carbonaceous chondrite clasts in the Kapoeta howardite has been carried out. Most of the clasts have mineralogical and chemical properties which link them to the CM carbonaceous chondrites. Some clasts contain chondrules which often have well-developed fine-grained rims, but many have been extensively brecciated. PCP-rich objects are common and pentlandite and pyrrhotite also occur. Calcite has also been found. The remainder of the clasts are extremely fine-grained and appear to be closely related to CI carbonaceous chondrites. In these clasts magnetite framboids are common and finegrained sulfides and magnetite occur disseminated throughout the matrix.

Brearley, Adrian J.; Papike, J. J.

1993-01-01

204

Origin of rapidly solidified metal-troilite grains in chondrites and iron meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative evidence is adduced by cooling rate calculations for the impact melting, on the surface of a parent body, of troilite and metallic Fe, Ni inclusions found on 12 ordinary chondrites rather than their formation at depth from an internally derived melt. In the case of the Shaw and Rose City breccias of unmelted and melted material, their melted metal need not have cooled through 1000 C within a few meters of the surface. Shock-melted, fine-grained, irregular intergrowths of metal and troilite form in situ in many irons and some chondrites by rapid solidification at cooling rates greater than 100,000 C/sec, so that their kamacite and taenite compositions may result from annealing of metallic glass or very fine quench products at about 250 C.

Scott, E. R. D.

1982-05-01

205

Evidence for primitive nebular components in chondrules from the Chainpur chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of the fact that the least equilibrated ordinary chondrites contain chondrules that have changed little since the time of their formation in the early solar system, and are therefore excellent indicators of the physical and chemical nature of the solar nebula, 36 chondrules were separated from the Chainpur chondrite and analyzed for 20 elements and petrographic properties. The dominant nebular components found are: (1) a mixture of metal and sulfide whose composition is similar to whole rock metal and sulfide, (2) Ir-rich metal, (3) olivine-rich silicates, (4) pyroxene-rich silicates, and possibly (5) a component containing the more volatile lithophiles. Although etching experiments confirm that chondrule rims are enriched in metal, troilite and moderately volatile elements relative to the bulk chondrules, a large fraction of the volatiles remains in the unetched interior.

Grossman, J. N.; Wasson, J. T.

1982-06-01

206

Cathodoluminescence of Enstatite in E-Chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have clarified luminescence centers of extraterrestrial enstatite and comparatively discuss the CL of terrestrial and extraterrestrial enstatite in meteorites (E-chondrite; Dar al Gani 734, Sahara 97096 and Yamato 86004).

Ohgo, S. O.; Mishima, M. M.; Nishido, H. N.; Ninagawa, K. N.

2014-09-01

207

Properties of chondrules in EL3 chondrites, comparison with EH3 chondrites, and the implications for the formation of enstatite chondrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of chondrules provides information about processes occurring in the early solar system. In order to ascertain to what extent these processes played a role in determining the properties of the enstatite chondrites, the physical and chemical properties of chondrules from three EL3 chondrites and three EH3 chondrites have been examined by optical, cathodoluminescence (CL), and electron microprobe techniques.

D. M. Schneider; S. J. K. Symes; P. H. Benoit; D. W. G. Sears

2002-01-01

208

Chondritic models of 4 Vesta: Implications for geochemical and geophysical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple mass-balance and thermodynamic constraints are used to illustrate the potential geochemical and geophysical diversity of a fully differentiated Vesta-sized parent body with a eucrite crust (e.g., core size and density, crustal thickness). The results of this analysis are then combined with data from the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) meteorites and the Dawn mission to constrain Vesta's bulk composition. Twelve chondritic compositions are considered, comprising seven carbonaceous, three ordinary, and two enstatite chondrite groups. Our analysis excludes CI and LL compositions as plausible Vesta analogs, as these are predicted to have a negative metal fraction. Second, the MELTS thermodynamic calculator is used to show that the enstatite chondrites, the CV, CK and L-groups cannot produce Juvinas-like liquids, and that even for the other groups, depletion in sodium is necessary to produce liquids of appropriate silica content. This conclusion is consistent with the documented volatile-poor nature of eucrites. Furthermore, carbonaceous chondrites are predicted to have a mantle too rich in olivine to produce typical howardites and to have Fe/Mn ratios generally well in excess of those of the HEDs. On the other hand, an Na-depleted H-chondrite bulk composition is capable of producing Juvinas-like liquids, has a mantle rich enough in pyroxene to produce abundant howardite/diogenite, and has a Fe/Mn ratio compatible with eucrites. In addition, its predicted bulk-silicate density is within 100 kg m-3 of solutions constrained by data of the Dawn mission. However, oxidation state and oxygen isotopes are not perfectly reproduced and it is deduced that bulk Vesta may contain approximately 25% of a CM-like component. Values for the bulk-silicate composition of Vesta and a preliminary phase diagram are proposed.

Toplis, M. J.; Mizzon, H.; Monnereau, M.; Forni, O.; McSween, H. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; McCoy, T. J.; Prettyman, T. H.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

2013-11-01

209

Mineralogy and possible origin of an unusual Cr-rich inclusion in the Los Martinez (L6) chondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During a petrological study of the previously unclassified ordinary chondrite Los Martinez a highly unusual Cr-rich inclusion is found which is unique in both extraterrestrial and terrestrial mineralogy. Detailed SEM and TEM studies show that the inclusion consists of a highly zoned single crystal of plagioclase intergrown with chromium-rich spinel which indicates that it is the product of exsolution. The Cr-rich precursors of the inclusion probably have close affinities to the chronite-plagioclase chrondrules observed by Ramdohr (1967) in several ordinary chondrites. Based on the zoning in the inclusion it is suggested that it is the product of fractional crystallization from a melt, which may have formed as a liquid condensate, or by melting of solid condensates, in the solar nebula. Subsequent cooling of this melt condensate resulted in crystallization of the unidentified phase. After crystallization, the inclusion was probably incorporated into a parent body where it underwent metamorphism and was probably shocked to some degree. During this period of parent body metamorphism, exsolution and decomposition of the unknown precursor occurred to produce the observed intergrowth of plagioclase and chromite. Los Martinez is classified as an L6 ordinary chondrite breccia.

Brearley, Adrian J.; Casanova, Ignacio; Miller, Mark L.; Keil, Klaus

1991-01-01

210

Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites. VIII - Thermoluminescence and metamorphism in the CO chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A possible relationship between the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of CO chondrites and their metamorphic history was investigated by measuring the TL properties of seven normal CO chondrites and of the Colony and the Allan Hills A77307 (ALHA 77307) CO-related chondrites. With the exception of Colony and ALHA 77307, whose maximum induced TL emission is at approximately 350 C, the CO chondrites were found to exhibit two TL peaks: a 130 C and a 250 C peaks. Among the CO chondrites, the 130 C peak showed a 100-fold range in TL sensitivity and was found to correlate with various metamorphism-related phenomena, such as silicate heterogeneity, metal composition, and McSween's metamorphic subtypes. The peak at 250 did not show these correlations and, with exception of Colony, showed little variation.

Keck, Bradly D.; Sears, Derek W. G.

1987-01-01

211

Progressive aqueous alteration of CR carbonaceous chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wide range in the degree of aqueous alteration of CR chondrites prompted us to formulate a numerical sequence for these rocks that ranges from petrologic type 2.0 to 2.8. (Hypothetical CR3.0 chondrites should be completely free of aqueous alteration effects.) About 70% of CR chondrites are slightly altered, type-2.8 rocks that exhibit heterogeneous alteration; these meteorites contain moderately abundant metallic Fe-Ni, no magnetite, and generally, a few chondrules with clear glassy mesostases. None of the chondrules in these rocks shows evidence of alteration of mafic silicate phenocrysts, but several chondrules are surrounded by phyllosilicate-rich rims that appear “smooth” when viewed by back-scattered-electron imaging. Matrix regions in slightly altered CR chondrites contain high S (?3 wt.%), but some matrix patches in the same thin sections record alteration effects and contain appreciably less S (<1.5 wt.%). In CR chondrites that have been more-significantly altered (e.g., Renazzo and Al Rais), metallic Fe-Ni has been partially replaced by magnetite ± sulfide; mafic silicates have been partly altered to phyllosilicates, particularly along edges, fractures and twin boundaries. One of the most-altered CR chondrites (type-2.0 GRO 95577) contains abundant magnetite, additional oxide phases, iron carbonate, only very rare metallic Fe-Ni and essentially no mafic silicate grains. The whole-rock O-isotopic compositions of CR chondrites correlate with the degree of aqueous alteration: ?17O ranges from ?-2.6‰ in type-2.8 samples to ?-0.4‰ in type 2.0.

Harju, Ellen R.; Rubin, Alan E.; Ahn, Insu; Choi, Byeon-Gak; Ziegler, Karen; Wasson, John T.

2014-08-01

212

Silicate sulfidation and chemical differences between enstatite chondrites and Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic similarity between the Earth-Moon system and enstatite chondrites (ECs) led to the idea that ECs were Earth's building blocks [1-3]. However, compared to Earth's mantle, ECs have low Fe0/Fe ratios, are enriched in volatile elements, and depleted in refractory lithophile elements and Mg [4]. Therefore, deriving Earth composition from ECs requires a loss of volatiles during or prior to accretion and sequestering a large fraction of Si in the deep Earth. Alternatively, the isotopic similarity between the Earth and ECs is explained by their formation from a common precursor that experienced different evolutionary paths resulting in the chemical difference [4]. The vestiges of such a precursor are still present in the unequilibrated ECs as FeO-rich silicates with O isotopic compositions identical to bulk ECs and Earth [5]. Conversion of such a precursor into the characteristic EC mineral assemblage requires high-temperature processing in an H-poor environment with high fS2 and fO2 close to that of the classic solar nebula [6], consistent with redox conditions inferred from Ti4+/Ti3+ ratios in EC pyroxene [7]. Under such conditions reaction of FeO-rich silicates with S-rich gas results in their replacement by the assemblage of FeO-poor silicates; Fe, Mg, Ca sulfides; free silica; and Si-bearing Fe,Ni metal alloy. The progressive sulfidation of ferromagnesian silicates in chondrules results in loss of Mg and addition of Fe, Mn, S, Na, K and, perhaps, other volatiles [6]. At the advanced stages of silicate sulfidation recorded in the metal-sulfide nodules [8], a portion of Si is reduced and dissolved in the Fe,Ni metal. This process is known to fractionate Si isotopes [9,10] and would explain the differences between the ECs and Earth's mantle [11]. The sulfidation of silicates also produces porous S-rich silica, a peculiar phase observed so far only in the ECs. It consists of a sinewy SiO2-rich framework enclosing numerous vesicles filled with beam-sensitive material and contains minor elements such as Na, Ca, Mg, or Fe, which also occur in the adjacent minerals. Its high S content and vesicular nature point to formation by quenching of a high-temperature melt saturated with a gaseous phase. The porous silica occurs in ~50% of chondrules [12], metal-sulfide nodules, and as inter-chondrule clasts, suggesting it is a good tracer of silicate sulfidation. Refs: [1] Javoy M. (1995) GRL 22: 2219-2222. [2] Javoy M. et al. (2010) EPSL 293: 259-268. [3] Kaminski E. & Javoy M. (2013) EPSL 365: 97-107. [4] Jacobsen S.B. et al. (2013) LPSC 44: #2344. [5] Weisberg M.K. et al. (2011) GCA 75: 6556-6569. [6] Lehner S.W. et al. (2013) GCA 101: 34-56. [7] Simon S.B. et al. (2013) LPSC 44: #2270. [8] Lehner S.W. et al. (2012) LPSC 43: #2252. [9] Shahar A. et al. (2011) GCA 75: 7688-7697. [10] Kempl J. et al. (2013) EPSL 368: 61-68. [11] Fitoussi C. & Bourdon B. (2012) Science 335: 1477-1480. [12] Piani L. et al. (2013) MetSoc 76: # 5178.

Lehner, S. W.; Petaev, M. I.; Buseck, P. R.

2013-12-01

213

Effects of Microsecond Pulse Laser Irradiation on Vis-NIR Reflectance Spectrum of Carbonaceous Chondrite Simulant: Implications for Martian Moons and Primitive Asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goal of this study is to make a progress in understanding the optical effects of space weathering on small bodies believed to be similar in composition to carbonaceous chondrites: C, G, B, F, T, D, and P asteroids and possibly Martian satellites Phobos and Deimos. The companion work focuses on petrological and mineralogical aspects of this process. One of the main factors of space weathering is meteorite and micrometeorite bombardment leading, in particular, to impact melting of components of the regolith. Studies of lunar regolith and laboratory experiments simulating impact melting show that the melting products differ from the unmelted material in mineralogy and distribution of chemical components among different phases that results in spectral changes. We simulate impact melting of CM chondrite by pulse laser irradiation of an artificial analog of such a meteorite. The analog is a mixture of 46 wt.% non-magnetic fraction of L5 ordinary chondrite Tsarev, 47 wt.% serpentine, 5 wt.% kerite, and 2 wt.% calcite. It simulates rather well bulk chemistry, including volatiles such as H2O and CO2, and only approximately the CM chondrite mineralogy. Thus, we do not expect the mixture to be spectrally similar to CM chondrites, but expect the laser melting products to be similar to those formed by impact melting of natural CM chondrites.

Hiroi, T.; Moroz, L. V.; Shingareva, T. V.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Pieters, M.

2003-01-01

214

Petrologic evidence for collisional heating of chondritic asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The identification of the mechanism(s) responsible for heating asteroids is among the major problems in planetary science. Because of difficulties with models of electromagnetic induction and the decay of short-lived radionuclides, it is worthwhile to evaluate the evidence for collisional heating. New evidence for localized impact heating comes from the high proportion of relict type-6 material among impact-melt-bearing ordinary chondrites (OC). This relict material was probably metamorphosed by residual heat within large craters. Olivine aggregates composed of faceted crystals with 120 deg triple junctions occur within the melted regions of the Chico and Rose City OC melt rocks; the olivine aggregates formed from shocked, mosaicized olivine grains that underwent contact metamorphism. Large-scale collisional heating is supoorted by the correlation in OC between petrologic type and shock stage; no other heating mechanism can readily account for this correlation. The occurrence of impact-melt-rock clasts in OC that have been metamorphosed along with their whole rocks indicates that some impact events preceded or accompanied thermal metamorphism. Such impacts events, occurring during or shortly after accretion, are probably responsible for substantially melting approximately 0.5% of OC. These events must have heated a larger percentage of OC to subsolidus temperatures sufficient to have caused significant metamorphism. If collisional heating is viable, then OC parent asteroids must have been large; large OC asteroids in the main belt may include those of the S(IV) spectral subtype. Collisional heating is inconsistent with layered ('onion-shell') structures in OC asteroids (wherein the degree of metamorphism increases with depth), but the evidence for such structures is weak. It seems likely that collisional heating played an important role in metamorphosing chondritic asteroids.

Rubin, Alan E.

1995-01-01

215

Significance of Fe/Mg Ratios in Chondritic Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fe/Mg ratios of most chondritic meteorites are close to solar, although Fe and Mg are very differently distributed among chondrites phases. Chondrules, matrix and metal must have formed from a single approximately solar reservoir.

Palme, H.; Friend, P.; Hezel, D.; Bischoff, A.

2014-09-01

216

Depth Profiles of Cosmogenic Noble Gases in the Chondrite Knyahinya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations and isotopic ratios of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe have been analyzed in 5-g size samples from different positions within the L5 chondrite Knyahinya. A previous work [1] has shown that Knyahinya experienced a single-stage exposure history (duration 40.5 Ma) as a meteoroid of approximately spherical shape (radius 45 cm). For these reasons, this meteorite represents a very interesting object to study depth profiles of cosmogenic nuclide concentrations and to test and improve model calculations of production rates. The procedure of extraction of noble gases adopted for this work, includes two pyrolyses respectively at about 450 degrees C and 650 degrees C, followed by a combustion step in pure O2 (15-25 torr pressure) at 650 degrees C before the complete melting of the sample [2]. This procedure allows a low-temperature extraction of a significant fraction of the Kr and Xe trapped noble gas component, leading to an enrichment of the cosmogenic component during the last temperature step. Concentration of trapped Ar, Kr, and Xe is 2-3 times lower than expected for a type 5 chondrite. The isotopic composition of the trapped Xe component analyzed in the combustion step is identical with the OC- Xe composition measured in Forest Vale [3]. Preliminary results show that concentration of cosmogenic 83Kr increases by 16% from the surface to the center when the ratio of cosmogenic 78Kr to 83Kr decreases from 0.157 to 0.136. The concentration of 81Kr has been measured in each sample. It increases from 0.0220 10^-12 cm^3 STP/g near the surface to 0.0255 10^-12 cm^3 STP/g at the center, in excellent agreement with the variations measured by Eugster [4] in other ordinary chondrites. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by C.N.R.S., by IN2P3 and by INSU (Programme National de Planetologie). References: [1] Graf Th. et al. (1990) GCA, 54, 2511-2520. [2] Gilabert E. and Lavielle B. (1991) Meteoritics, 26, 337. [3] Lavielle B. and Marti K. (1992) JGR, 97, 20875-20881. [4] Eugster O. (1988) GCA, 52, 1649-1662.

Toe, S.; Lavielle, B.; Gilabert, E.; Simonoff, G. N.

1993-07-01

217

Mobile trace element contents in Jilin chondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A determination is conducted of ppm-ppt levels of Co, Se, Ga, Rb, Cs, Te, Bi, Ag, In, Tl, Zn and Cd (arranged empirically in order of increasing mobility at 1000 C) by radiochemical neutron activation analysis in eight Jilin samples of known Ar-40 content and a large vein from one of these. The trace element contents of the vein do not differ markedly from those of Jilin whole-rock samples. Only Rb correlates with Ar-40, possibly due to chance. All elements but Cd are present at levels similar to thdse in H4-6 chondrites with long K/Ar age (i.e., presumably mildly shocked). These levels are low relative to those in analogous L4-6 chondrites suggesting that H chondrites formed and/or evolved under higher pre-shock temperatures than did mildly shocked L chondrites. Time-temperature conditions during shock-loading of Jilin parent material were mild relative to those in strongly shocked L chondrites, being sufficient at most only to mobilize Cd.

Sakuragi, Y.; Lipschutz, M. E.

1985-01-01

218

Extraterrestrial Nucleobases in Carbonaceous Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleobases in Carbonaceous Chondrites Z. Martins (1), O. Botta (2), M. L. Fogel (3), M. A. Sephton (4), D. P. Glavin (2), J. S. Watson (5), J. P. Dworkin (2), A. W. Schwartz (6) and P. Ehrenfreund (1,6). (1) Astrobiology Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden, The Netherlands, (2) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard Center for Astrobiology, Greenbelt, MD, USA, (3) GL, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC, USA, (4) Impacts and Astromaterials Research Centre, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College, London, UK, (5) Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, UK, (6) Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. E-mail: z.martins@chem.leidenuniv.nl/Phone:+31715274440 Nucleobases are crucial compounds in terrestrial biochemistry, because they are key components of DNA and RNA. Carbonaceous meteorites have been analyzed for nucleobases by different research groups [1-5]. However, significant quantitative and qualitative differences were observed, leading to the controversial about the origin of these nucleobases. In order to establish the origin of these compounds in carbonaceous chondrites and to assess the plausibility of their exogenous delivery to the early Earth, we have performed formic acid extraction of samples of the Murchison meteorite [6], followed by an extensive purification procedure, analysis and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV absorption detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our results were qualitatively consistent with previous results [3, 4], but showed significant quantitative differences. Compound specific carbon isotope values were obtained, using gas chromatography-combustion- isotope ratio mass spectrometry. A soil sample collected in the proximity of the Murchison meteorite fall site was subjected to the same extraction, purification and analysis procedure. Our stable carbon isotope measurements clearly demonstrate that the nucleobases in the Murchison meteorite are indigenous to the meteorite, and clearly differ from the values determined for the terrestrial nucleobases measured in the soil collected at the impact site. These results support the hypothesis that nucleobases were exogenously delivered to the early Earth, and may have been important for the prebiotic chemistry on our young planet. With regard to the detection of traces of life on other planets such as Mars it is essential to characterize organic materials that have been exogenously delivered to the early planets. The analysis of the composition and isotopic fractionation of extraterrestrial material using complementary techniques can provide crucial insights into the formation of our Solar System, extraterrestrial delivery processes and subsequent addition and incorporation into the carbonaceous material available on the young planets. Ultimately, these parameters form an essential reference point for interpreting biosignatures that may be left in the ancient rock record on a planetary body. References: [1] Hayatsu R. et al. 1975. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 39: 471- 488. [2] Folsome C. E. et al. 1971. Nature 232: 108-109. [3] Stoks P. G. & Schwartz A. W. 1979. Nature 282: 709-710. [4] Stoks P.G. & Schwartz A. W. 1981. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 45: 563-569. [5] Shimoyama A. et al. 1990. Geochemical Journal 24: 343-348. [6] Martins Z. et al. 2004. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39: A5145. 2

Martins, Z.; Botta, O.; Fogel, M.; Sephton, M.; Glavin, D.; Watson, J.; Dworkin, J.; Schwartz, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.

219

A three-dimensional study of metal grains in equilibrated, ordinary chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal particles in Guarena (H6), Colby (L6) and St. Severin (LL6) were studied by optical microscopy and by electron microprobe analysis. Observations from successive polished sections through the metal particles show that kamacite and taenite grains, which often appear to be isolated particles, are connected directly or by intervening sulfides. Also tetrataenite rims are widest when adjacent to sulfide or kamacite. These observations indicate that transfer of Ni during cooling when kamacite-taenite phase growth takes place does not occur through the silicate phases but proceeds through metal and sulfide phases or along grain boundaries. By utilizing the central Ni content of taenite grains from successive sections, metallographic cooling rates were determined more precisely than by using one arbitrary section. Cooling rates determined in this manner for Guarena, Colby, and St. Severin are 4.3 K, 4.0 K, and 1.0 K per million years, respectively.

Willis, J.; Goldstein, J. I.

1983-11-01

220

Origin of spinel-rich chondrules and inclusions in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaluation of three models of the origin of spinel-rich chondrules and inclusions presented here includes new calculations of the major-element refractory mineral condensation sequence from a gas of solar composition over a wide pressure interval. Condensation calculations show that spinel-rich chondrules did not crystallize from metastable liquid condensates, and that spinel-rich inclusions are not aggregates of refractory nebular condensates. It is proposed that spinel-rich objects are fractionated distillation residues of small aggregates of primitive dust that lost Ca, Si-rich partial melts by evaporation, ablation, or splashing during collisions. This model also explains why spinel-rich chondrules and inclusions (1) are usually smaller than melilite-rich chondrules and inclusions; (2) often have highly fractionated trace-element compositions; and (3) usually do not contain Pt-metal nuggets even when they are more enriched in the Pt-group metals than nugget-bearing melilite-rich objects.

Kornacki, A. S.; Fegley, B.

1984-02-01

221

Cosmogenic Records in 18 Ordinary Chondrites from the Dar Al Gani Region, Libya. 1; Noble Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the last decade thousands of meteorites have been recovered from hot deserts in the Sahara and Oman. One of the main meteorite concentration surfaces in the Sahara is the Dar al Gani plateau in Libya, which covers a total area of 8000 km2. More than 1000 meteorites have been reported from this area. The geological setting, meteorite pairings and the meteorite density of the Dar al Gani (DaG) field are described in more detail in [1]. In this work we report concentrations of the noble gas isotopes of He, Ne, Ar as well as 84Kr and 132Xe in 18 DaG meteorites. In a separate paper we will report the cosmogenic radionuclides [2]. We discuss the thermal history and cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) history of these meteorites, and evaluate the effects of the hot desert environment on the noble gas record.

Schultz, L.; Franke, L.; Welten, K. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Jull, A. J. T.

2003-01-01

222

Fusion crust and the measurement of surface ages of Antarctic ordinary chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miono et al. (1995) generated a reasonable agreement between terrestrial ages calculated using the thermoluminescence (TL) of fusion crust and those calculated from the abundance of cosmogenic nuclides. In Cunningham et al. (1996) it was shown that this relationship could be improved if the ages were calculated using an equation that accounted for the decay of natural TL as well as build up. With these corrections Miono et al.'s data seem to suggest that the natural TL of the fusion crust would be useful in determining the terrestrial ages of meteorites between 40 and 200 ka. Their data were also consistent with meteorite temperatures on the order of 0 C. The equivalent doses exhibited by a suite of Antarctic meteorites, studied in our laboratory, seem to suggest that the surface of the meteorites reached temperatures on the order of 10-15 C. This temperature range limits the use of fusion crust to those meteorites with surface ages less than 20 ka.

Akridge, Janette M. C.; Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

1997-03-01

223

Heterogeneous distribution of solar and cosmogenic noble gases in CM chondrites and implications for the formation of CM parent bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distribution of solar, cosmogenic, and primordial noble gases in thin slices of Murchison, Murray, and Nogoya CM carbonaceous chondrites was determined by the laser microprobe analysis so as to put some constraints on the parent-body processes in the CM chondrite formation. The main lithological units of the three meteorite slices were located by electron microscope observations and classified into clastic matrix and clasts of primary accretionary rocks (PARs) based on the classification scheme of texture of CM chondrites. All sample slices contain both clastic matrix and PARs. Clastic matrix shows a comminuted texture formed by fragmentation and mechanical mixing of rocks due to impacts, whereas PARs preserve the original textures prior to the mechanical disruption. Solar-type noble gases are detected in all sample slices. They are located preferentially in clastic matrix. The distribution of solar gases is similar to that in ordinary chondrites where these gases reside in clastic dark portions of these meteorites. The heterogeneous distribution of solar gases in CM chondrites suggests that these gases were acquired not in a nebular accretion process but in parent body processes. Solar energetic particles (SEP) are predominant in CM chondrites. The low abundance of low energy solar wind (SW) component relative to SEP suggests preferential loss of SW from minerals comprising the clastic matrix, due to aqueous alteration in the parent bodies. Cosmogenic noble gases are also enriched in some portions in clastic matrix, indicating that some parts of clastic matrix were exposed to solar and galactic cosmic rays prior to the final consolidation of the CM parent bodies. Primordial noble gases are rich in fine-grained rims around chondrules in all three meteorites. However, average concentrations of heavy primordial gases in the rims differ among meteorites and correlate inversely to the degree of aqueous alteration that the meteorites have experienced. This appears to have been caused by aqueous alteration reactions between fluids and carbonaceous carrier phases of noble gases.

Nakamura, Tomoki; Nagao, Keisuke; Metzler, Knut; Takaoka, Nobuo

1999-01-01

224

Early Solar System hydrothermal activity in chondritic asteroids on 1–10-year timescales  

PubMed Central

Chondritic meteorites are considered the most primitive remnants of planetesimals from the early Solar System. As undifferentiated objects, they also display widespread evidence of water–rock interaction on the parent body. Understanding this history has implications for the formation of planetary bodies, the delivery of water to the inner Solar System, and the formation of prebiotic molecules. The timescales of water–rock reactions in these early objects, however, are largely unknown. Here, we report evidence for short-lived water–rock reactions in the highly metamorphosed ordinary chondrite breccia Villalbeto de la Peña (L6). An exotic clast (d = 2cm) has coexisting variations in feldspar composition and oxygen isotope ratios that can only result from hydrothermal conditions. The profiles were modeled at T = 800 °C and P(H2O) = 1 bar using modified grain-boundary diffusion parameters for oxygen self-diffusion and reaction rates of NaSiCa-1Al-1 exchange in a fumarole. The geochemical data are consistent with hydrothermal activity on the parent body lasting only 1–10 y. This result has wide-ranging implications for the geological history of chondritic asteroids. PMID:23093668

Dyl, Kathryn A.; Bischoff, Addi; Ziegler, Karen; Young, Edward D.; Wimmer, Karl; Bland, Phil A.

2012-01-01

225

Early Solar System hydrothermal activity in chondritic asteroids on 1-10-year timescales.  

PubMed

Chondritic meteorites are considered the most primitive remnants of planetesimals from the early Solar System. As undifferentiated objects, they also display widespread evidence of water-rock interaction on the parent body. Understanding this history has implications for the formation of planetary bodies, the delivery of water to the inner Solar System, and the formation of prebiotic molecules. The timescales of water-rock reactions in these early objects, however, are largely unknown. Here, we report evidence for short-lived water-rock reactions in the highly metamorphosed ordinary chondrite breccia Villalbeto de la Peña (L6). An exotic clast (d = 2cm) has coexisting variations in feldspar composition and oxygen isotope ratios that can only result from hydrothermal conditions. The profiles were modeled at T = 800 °C and P(H(2)O) = 1 bar using modified grain-boundary diffusion parameters for oxygen self-diffusion and reaction rates of NaSiCa(-1)Al(-1) exchange in a fumarole. The geochemical data are consistent with hydrothermal activity on the parent body lasting only 1-10 y. This result has wide-ranging implications for the geological history of chondritic asteroids. PMID:23093668

Dyl, Kathryn A; Bischoff, Addi; Ziegler, Karen; Young, Edward D; Wimmer, Karl; Bland, Phil A

2012-11-01

226

Workshop on Parent-Body and Nebular Modification of Chondritic Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the workshop was to advance our understanding of solar nebula and asteroidal processes from studies of modification features in chondrites and interplanetary dust particles. As reflected in the program contained in this volume, the workshop included five regular sessions, a summary session, and a poster session. Twenty-three posters and 42 invited and contributed talks were presented. Part 1 of this report contains the abstracts of these presentations. The focus of the workshop included: (1) mineralogical, petrologic, chemical, and isotopic observations of the alteration mineralogy in interplanetary dust particles, ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites, and their components (Ca-Al-rich inclusions, chondrules, and matrix) to constrain the conditions and place of alteration; (2) sources of water in chondrites; (3) the relationship between aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism; (4) short-lived radionuclides, AI-26, Mn-53, and I-129, as isotopic constraints on timing of alteration; (5) experimental and theoretical modeling of alteration reactions; and (6) the oxidation state of the solar nebula. There were approximately 140 participants at the workshop, probably due in part to the timeliness of the workshop goals and the workshop location. In the end few new agreements were achieved between warring factions, but new research efforts were forged and areas of fruitful future exploration were highlighted. Judged by these results, the workshop was successful.

Krot, A. N. (Editor); Zolensky, M. E. (Editor); Scott, E. R. D. (Editor)

1997-01-01

227

Mineralogy and matrix composition of CR chondrites Renazzo and EET 87770, and ungrouped chondrites Essebi and MAC 87300  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fine-grained mineralogy of the matrix of two CR chondrites, Renazzo and EET 87770, and the ungrouped (but possible related) Essebi and MAC 87300 chondrites was characterized using standard microprobe (focussed beam) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques (using ultramicrotomed sections). These results are compared to previously obtained results for 31 other carbonaceous chondrites.

Zolensky, Michael E.

1991-01-01

228

I-129/I-127 variations among enstatite chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The iodine isotopic compositions and corresponding I-Xe ages were obtained for eight enstatite chondrites, bringing the total number of enstatite chondrites examined by the I-Xe technique to 11. Iodine isotopic compositions of these 11 chondrites indicate a well-defined hiatus correlated with the hiatus in chemical composition defining the two distinct enstatite groups: EH(4,5) and EL(6). Judging by the I-129/I-127 ratios and assuming that both the EH and EL groups originated from a reservoir with a uniform initial iodine isotopic composition, the EH(4,5) chondrites were estimated to be about 4 mln older than the El chondrites.

Kennedy, B. M.; Hudson, B.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Podosek, F. A.

1988-01-01

229

Pb Pb dating constraints on the accretion and cooling history of chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed the Pb isotopic compositions of whole-rocks and various components (CAIs, chondrules, and/or mineral separates) of two carbonaceous chondrites, Allende (CV3) and Murchison (CM2), and nine ordinary chondrites, Sainte Marguerite (H4), Nadiabondi and Forest City (H5), Kernouvé (H6), Bjurböle (L/LL4), Elenovka and Ausson (L5), Tuxtuac (LL5), and Saint-Séverin (LL6) by MC-ICP-MS. Three CAI fractions from Allende define an isochron with an age of 4568.1 ± 9.4 Ma (MSWD = 0.08) and plot on the same isochron as fragments of the Efremovka inclusion E60 analyzed by Amelin et al. [Amelin, Y., Krot, A. N., Hutcheon, I. D., and Ulyanov, A. A. (2002a). Lead isotopic ages of chondrules and calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions. Science297, 1679-1683]. When these two groups of samples are combined, the isochron yields an age of 4568.5 ± 0.5 (MSWD = 0.90), which is our best estimate of the age of the Solar System. Chondrules and pyroxene-olivine fractions from the ordinary chondrites yield ages that reflect the blocking of Pb isotope equilibration with the nebular gas. The combination of these ages with the corresponding metamorphic phosphate ages provides constraints on the thermal history of the different chondrite parent bodies. Among the H chondrites, Sainte Marguerite cooled to below ˜1100 K within a few My at 4565 Ma and to ˜800 K at 4563 Ma. Nadiabondi appears to have experienced a slightly more protracted cooling history with the corresponding interval lasting from 4559 to 4556 Ma. The data from Forest City and Kernouvé show evidence of late-stage perturbation with resulting U/Pb fractionation. Likewise, Pb isotopes in Tuxtuac (LL5) record a cooling history lasting from ˜4555 to 4544 Ma, which may indicate that the cooling history for the LL parent body was more prolonged than for the H parent body. We suggest a thermal evolution model for the growth of the planetary bodies based on the release of radiogenic heat from 26Al and 60Fe. This model incorporates the accretion rate, which determines the time at which the radiogenic heat becomes efficiently trapped, and the terminal size of the parent body, which controls its overall thermal inertia. The parent bodies of carbonaceous chondrites, which show little indication of metamorphic transformation, collect cooler nebular material at a relatively late stage. Small asteroids of ˜10-50 km radius accreting within 1-3 My could be the parent bodies of H and LL chondrites. The parent body of the L chondrites is likely to be a larger asteroid ( r > 100 km) or possibly the product of collisions of smaller planetary bodies.

Bouvier, Audrey; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Moynier, Frédéric; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.; Albarède, Francis

2007-03-01

230

Petrology and Geochemistry of LEW 88663 and PAT 91501: High Petrologic L Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primitive achondrites (e.g., Acapulco, Lodran) are believed to be highly metamorphosed chondritic materials, perhaps up to the point of anatexis in some types. Low petrologic grade equivalents of these achondrites are unknown, so the petrologic transition from chondritic to achondritic material cannot be documented. However, there are rare L chondrites of petrologic grade 7 that may have experienced igneous processes, and study of these may yield information relevant to the formation of primitive achondrites, and perhaps basaltic achondrites, from chondritic precursors. We have begun the study of the L7 chondrites LEW 88663 and PAT 91501 as part of our broader study of primitive achondrites. Here, we present our preliminary petrologic and geochemical data on these meteorites. Petrology and Mineral Compositions: LEW 88663 is a granular achondrite composed of equant, subhedral to anhedral olivine grains poikilitically enclosed in networks of orthopyroxene and plagioclase. Small grains of clinopyroxene are spatially associated with orthopyroxene. Troilite occurs as large anhedral and small rounded grains. The smaller troilite grains are associated with the orthopyroxene-plagioclase networks. PAT 91501 is a vesicular stone containing centimeter-sized troilite +/- metal nodules. Its texture consists of anhedral to euhedral olivine grains, anhedral orthopyroxene grains (some with euhedral clinopyroxene overgrowths), anhedral to euhedral clinopyroxene, and interstitial plagioclase and SiO2-Al2O3-K2O- rich glass. In some areas, olivine is poikilitically enclosed in orthopyroxene. Fine-grained troilite, metal, and euhedral chromite occur interstitial to the silicates. Average mineral compositions for LEW 88663 are olivine Fo(sub)75.8, orthopyroxene Wo(sub)3.4En(sub)76.2Fs(sub)20.4, clinopyroxene Wo(sub)42.6En(sub)47.8Fs(sub)9.6, plagioclase Ab(sub)75.0An(sub)21.6Or(sub)3.4. Mineral compositions for PAT 91501 are olivine Fo(sub)73.8, orthopyroxene Wo(sub)4.5En(sub)74.8Fs(sub)20.7, clinopyroxene Wo(sub)34.3En(sub)52.4Fs(sub)13.3, plagioclase Ab(sub)81.6An(sub)14.0Or(sub)44. Geochemistry: We have completed INM analysis of LEW 88663 only; analyses of PAT 91501 are in progress. The weighted mean lithophile element (refractory, moderately volatile, and volatile) content of LEW 88663 normalized to average L chondrites [1] is 0.97. The weighted mean siderophile element (excluding Fe) content is only 0.57x L. This supports the suggestion that LEW 88663 lost metal relative to average L chondrites, although not as complete as implied earlier [1]. The mean lithophile-element abundance is that of L chondrites, but the lithophile-element pattern is fractionated. Highly incompatible elements are enriched in LEW 88663 relative to L chondrites (e.g., La 2.6x, Sm 1.9x L chondrites), while the more compatible elements are near L chondrite levels or depleted (e.g., Lu 1.1x, Sc 0.94x, Cr 0.87x L chondrites). Discussion: LEW 88663 and PAT 91501 are texturally similar to the Shaw L7 chondrite [3] and to poikilitic textured clasts in LL chondrites [4]. Several textural and mineralogical characteristics of PAT 91501 indicate that this stone is in part igneous. Large rounded troilite +/- metal nodules imply that melting occurred in the metal-troilite system. Interstitial material consists of euhedral, zoned chromites, euhedral clinopyroxene overgrowths on orthopyroxene, and plagioclase + glass. Olivine often shows euhedral faces in contact with the interstitial regions. These textures indicate that the interstitial regions were molten. The average pyroxene compositions in PAT 91501 indicate equilibration at 1200 degrees C [5], above the ordinary chondrite solidus [6]. Although PAT 91501 is in part igneous in origin, we have yet to determine whether it represents an extension of parent body heating from that of metamorphosed L chondrites, or whether it represents impact melting on the parent body. We will evaluate shock features, cooling rates, and the bulk composition of PAT 91501 in order to investigate this further. Orthopyroxenes in LEW 88663 have a lo

Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Field, S. W.

1993-07-01

231

Siderophile-rich inclusions from the Morokweng impact melt sheet, South Africa: possible fragments of a chondritic meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 870 m thick (diameter ˜30 km) melt sheet associated with the Morokweng impact structure, South Africa, contains Cr-rich silicate inclusions (up to 30 mm in diameter) as well as disseminated Ni-rich sulphides and oxides that commonly occur in mutual intergrowths. Although the silicate inclusions are highly altered, the mineral chemistry and petrographic evidence, along with broadly chondritic Re-Os systematics and platinum-group element (PGE) signatures, all support the view that the silicate inclusions represent relict fragments of an impactor with compositions similar to ordinary chondrites. The Ni-rich sulphides and oxides are significantly enriched (up to 35× chondrites) in PGE, Ni and Cr. Although the bulk PGE signature of the melt sheet is chondritic, the sulphides and oxides display mm and sub-mm scale fractionation of PGE into different inclusion components. A model is presented whereby pieces of the projectile react with the relatively more oxidising impact melt into which they fell, resulting in oxidation and fractionation of the metal-silicate fragments to form the inclusion assemblages. This may be the first reported occurrence of a large melt sheet (300 km 3) contaminated by swarms of discrete pebble-sized fragments of asteroid material. The high proportion of meteorite fragments in the Morokweng melt sheet suggests either that the structure was formed by a relatively low velocity (<18 km/s) impact event, or that the angle of impact was optimum for retaining maximum amounts of meteoritic material within the crater.

Hart, Rodger J.; Cloete, Martinus; McDonald, Iain; Carlson, Richard W.; Andreoli, Marco A. G.

2002-04-01

232

Zaoyang chondrite cooling history from pyroxene Fe(2+)-Mg intracrystalline ordering and exolutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Zaoyang ordinary chondrite fell as a single 14.15-kg mass in Hubey province (China) in October 1984 and was classified as a non-brecciated H5 chondrite, shock facies b. Cooling rate in pyroxenes can be calculated down to about 1000 C by using fine textures and at still lower temperatures (700 to 200 C) by intracrystalline ordering processes. The crystal chemistry of clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene from the matrix of the H5 Zaoyang chondrite has been investigated by X-ray structure refinement and detailed microprobe analysis. By comparison with terrestrial pyroxenes cell and polyhedral volumes in clino- and orthopyroxenes show a low crystallization pressure. Fe(2+) and Mg are rather disordered in M1 and M2 sites of clino- and orthopyroxenes; the closure temperatures of the exchange reaction are 600 and 512 C respectively, which is consistent with a quite fast cooling rate, estimated of the order of one degree per day. The closure temperature for the intercrystalline Ca-Mg exchange reaction for clino- and orthopyroxene showing clinopyroxene lamellae about 10 microns thick. Kinetic evaluations based on the thickness of exolved lamellae give a cooling rate of not more than a few degrees per 10(exp 4) years. The different cooling rates obtained from Fe(2+)-Mg intracrystalline partitioning and exolution lamellae suggest an initial episode of slow cooling at 900 C, followed by faster cooling at temperatures of 600-500 C at low pressure conditions. The most probable scenario of the meteorite history seems that the exolved orthopyroxene entered the parental chondrite body after exolution had taken place at high temperature. Subsequent fast cooling occurred at low temperature after the formation of the body.

Molin, G. M.; Tribaudino, M.; Brizi, E.

1993-01-01

233

Evidence of Microfossils in Carbonaceous Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations have been carried out on freshly broken, internal surfaces of the Murchison, Efremovka and Orgueil carbonaceous chondrites using Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) in Russia and the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) in the United States. These independent studies on different samples of the meteorites have resulted in the detection of numerous spherical and ellipsoidal bodies (some with spikes) similar to the forms of uncertain biogenicity that were designated "organized elements" by prior researchers. We have also encountered numerous complex biomorphic microstructures in these carbonaceous chondrites. Many of these complex bodies exhibit diverse characteristics reminiscent of microfossils of cyanobacteria such as we have investigated in ancient phosphorites and high carbon rocks (e.g. oil shales). Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis and 2D elemental maps shows enhanced carbon content in the bodies superimposed upon the elemental distributions characteristic of the chondritic matrix. The size, distribution, composition, and indications of cell walls, reproductive and life cycle developmental stages of these bodies are strongly suggestive of biology' These bodies appear to be mineralized and embedded within the meteorite matrix, and can not be attributed to recent surface contamination effects. Consequently, we have interpreted these in-situ microstructures to represent the lithified remains of prokaryotes and filamentous cyanobacteria. We also detected in Orgueil microstructures morphologically similar to fibrous kerite crystals. We present images of many biomorphic microstructures and possible microfossils found in the Murchison, Efremovka, and Orgueil chondrites and compare these forms with known microfossils from the Cambrian phosphate-rich rocks (phosphorites) of Khubsugul, Northern Mongolia.

Hoover, Richard B.; Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Zhmur, S. I.; Gorlenko, V. M.

1998-01-01

234

Primordial lightning: Evidence preserved in chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An increasing body of evidence suggests that transient heating events were important in forming or modifying many constituents of chondritic meteorites. For example, chondrule compositions and textures imply high cooling rates (approximately 5 to greater than 2000 C/hr) with only limited exposure to elevated temperatures (greater than 1200 C). Similarly, experimental studies of CAI's exhibiting igneous textures suggest cooling rates from 0.5 to 1000 C/hr, and thermal pulses as short as milliseconds may be responsible for CAI rim formation. Additionally, the spectrum of organic compounds observed in chondrites suggests that transient heating may also have played an important role in their formation. The exact nature of these transient events is less clear. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed (e.g., shock melting, drag heating, volcanism, electric discharges, and magnetic reconnection). However, a consensus is lacking as to which or what combination of these mechanisms was responsible for the range of features we observe in chondrites today. Much of the difficulty lies in the inability to identify features unique to any given process. Here we discuss electric discharges ('lightning') as a transient heat source and describe its unique signature preserved in chondrites.

Eisenhour, D.; Buseck, P. R.

1993-01-01

235

Fall of the Mifflin L5 Chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mifflin meteorite fell as a shower at night on April 14, 2010, in Wisconsin, USA. Petrology, mineral chemistry, and oxygen-isotope data indicate Mifflin is a L5 chondrite showing a brecciated texture of light clasts and a dark matrix.

Kita, N. T.; Valley, J. W.; Spicuzza, M. J.; MacPherson, G. J.; Welzenbach, L.; Davis, A. M.; Heck, P. R.; Nakashima, D.; Tenner, T. J.; Ushikubo, T.

2011-03-01

236

Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk, Part 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: Ca-, Al-Rich Inclusions and Ameoboid Olivine Aggregates: What We Know and Don t Know About Their Origin. Aluminium-26 and Oxygen Isotopic Distributions of Ca-Al-rich Inclusions from Acfer 214 CH Chondrite. The Trapping Efficiency of Helium in Fullerene and Its Implicatiion to the Planetary Science. Constraints on the Origin of Chondritic Components from Oxygen Isotopic Compositions. Role of Planetary Impacts in Thermal Processing of Chondrite Materials. Formation of the Melilite Mantle of the Type B1 CAIs: Flash Heating or Transport? The Iodine-Xenon System in Outer and Inner Portions of Chondrules from the Unnamed Antarctic LL3 Chondrite. Nucleosynthesis of Short-lived Radioactivities in Massive Stars. The Two-Fluid Analysis of the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability in the Dust Layer of a Protoplanetary Disk: A Possible Path to the Planetesimal Formation Through the Gravitational Instability. Shock-Wave Heating Model for Chonodrule Formation: Heating Rate and Cooling Rate Constraints. Glycine Amide Hydrolysis with Water and OH Radical: A Comparative DFT Study. Micron-sized Sample Preparation for AFM and SEM. AFM, FE-SEM and Optical Imaging of a Shocked L/LL Chondrite: Implications for Martensite Formation and Wave Propagation. Infrared Spectroscopy of Chondrites and Their Components: A Link Between Meteoritics and Astronomy? Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of CAI and Their Mineral Components. The Origin of Iron Isotope Fractionation in Chondrules, CAIs and Matrix from Allende (CV3) and Chainpur (LL3) Chondrites. Protoplanetary Disk Evolution: Early Results from Spitzer. Kinetics of Evaporation-Condensation in a Melt-Solid System and Its Role on the Chemical Composition and Evolution of Chondrules. Oxygen Isotope Exchange Recorded Within Anorthite Single Crystal in Vigarano CAI: Evidence for Remelting by High Temperature Process in the Solar Nebula. Chondrule Forming Shock Waves in Solar Nebula by X-Ray Flares. Organic Globules with Anormalous Nitrogen Isotopic Compositions in the Tagish Lake Meteorite: Products of Primitive Organic Reactions. Yet Another Chondrule Formation Scenario. CAIs are Not Supernova Condensates. Microcrystals and Amorphous Material in Comets and Primitive Meteorites: Keys to Understanding Processes in the Early Solar System. A Nearby Supernova Injected Short-lived Radionuclides into Our Protoplanetary Disk. REE+Y Systematics in CC and UOC Chondrules. Meteoritic Constraints on Temperatures, Pressures, Cooling Rates, Chemical Compositions, and Modes of Condensation in the Solar Nebula. The I-Xe Record of Long Equilibration in Chondrules from the Unnamed Antarctic Meteorite L3/LL3. Early Stellar Evolution.

2004-01-01

237

Experimental Data in Support of the 1991 Shock Classification of Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of shock recovery experiments performed on the H6(S1) chondrite Kernouv . These data and new observations on ordinary chondrites confirm the recently proposed classification system [1] and provide additional criteria for determining the shock stage, the shock pressure, and, under certain conditions, also the ambient (pre-shock) temperature during shock metamorphism of any chondrite sample. Two series of experiments at 293 K and 920 K and 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 GPa were made with a high explosive device [2] using 0.5 mm thick disks of the Kernouv chondrite. Shock effects in olivine, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, and troilite and shock-induced melt products were studied by optical [3], electron optical and X-ray diffraction methods. All essential characteristics of the six progressive stages of shock metamorphism (S1 - S6) observed in natural samples of chondrites [1] have been reproduced experimentally except for opaque shock veins and the high pressure polymorphs of olivine and pyroxene (ringwoodite/wadsleyite and majorite), well known from naturally shocked chondrites. This is probably due to the special sample and containment geometry and the extremely short pressure pulses (0.2 - 0.8 microseconds) in the experiments. The shock experiments provided a clear understanding of the shock wave behavior of troilite and of the shock-induced melting, mobilization, and exsolution-recrystallization of composite troilite-metal grains. At 293 K troilite is monocrystalline up to 35 GPa displaying undulatory extinction from 10 to 25 GPa, partial recrystallization from 30 - 45 GPa, and complete recrystallization above 45 GPa. Local melting of troilite/metal grains starts at 30 GPa and composite grains displaying exsolution textures of both phases are formed which get mobilized and deposited into fractures of neighbouring silicate grains above 45 GPa. For a pre-shock temperature of 293 K the pressure at which diagnostic shock effects are formed, is somewhat lower in the experimentally shocked Kernouve than in single crystals [1] (Table 1). Based on the Kernouve calibration and on new observations made in natural samples of shocked chondrites an updated version of the 1991 shock classification system is given in Table 1 which holds for low temperatures. In general, the increase of the pre-shock temperature (e.g., 920 K) leads to a distinct decrease of the pressure at which certain shock effects are produced (Table 1). This effect, most distinct for recrystallization and melting phenomena in olivine and troilite, can be used as a pre-shock thermometer. Provided that a post-shock thermal event can be excluded, an estimate of the pre-shock ambient temperature of chondrites of shock stages S2 - S5 can be made by monitoring the texture of troilite. If troilite is monocrystalline, this temperature was low. Polycrystalline troilite indicates a pre-shock temperature higher than 300 K, probably as high as some 900 K. For chondrites of shock stage S6, the ambient pre-shock temperature exceeded 300 K distinctly if olivine near local melt zones lacks the yellow-brown staining characteristic for shock metamorphism at low temperatures. References: [1] Stoffler D. et al. (1991) GCA, 55, 3845-3867. [2] Stoffler D. and Langenhorst F. (1994) Meteoritics, 29, 155-181. [3] Schmitt R. T. et al. (1993) Meteoritics, 29, 529-530.

Schmitt, R. T.; Stoffler, D.

1995-09-01

238

Csátalja, the largest H4-5 chondrite from Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here for the first time the composition and mineralogical studies on a new meteorite, which was found in August 2012 near the village of Csátalja, Hungary (46°0'21''N; 18°59'27'E). The Csátalja meteorite is classified as a H4-5 ordinary chondrite with shock stage S2 and a degree of weathering W1 and the total mass is 15 kg. The Csátalja meteorite is characterized by well-defined chondrules composed either of olivine or pyroxene. X-ray diffractogram shows the primary phases olivine, pyroxene, kamacite, and albite. Metal particles were extracted from the bulk powdered samples exhibit only kamacite and small amounts of the intergrowth taenite/kamacite. Raman spectra of forsterite indicate that Csátalja meteorite suffered from relatively low shock pressure regime. The texture of chondrules varies from nonporphyritic (e.g., barred olivine, radial pyroxene) to porphyritic ones (e.g., granular olivine as well as olivine pyroxene). The meteorite name has not yet approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the Meteoritical Society.

Kovács, János; Sajó, István; Márton, Zsuzsanna; Jáger, Viktor; Hegedüs, Tibor; Berecz, Tibor; Tóth, Tamás; Gyenizse, Péter; Podobni, András

2015-01-01

239

A Unique Type 4 Chondrite from the Sahara-Acfer 217  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1991 a single stone weighing 174 g was recovered from the Sahara desert, Algeria (27 degrees 36'N, 3 degrees 53'E). From this a 36.83-g fragment was obtained that has 2 sawn surfaces and adjacent surface of partially weathered fusion crust. The sawn surface shows "brownish" weathering products that have generally produced alteration of the matrix in which a few relict chondrules and inclusions are set. One 4 by 5 mm triangular area bordering the fusion crust is dark grey in colour with small inclusions set in it. This may be an area of local shock melt glass. Mineralogy and petrography: In a polished thin section, area 20 mm^2, we found few chondrules, mainly olivine clasts in a weathered olivine-rich matrix, with minor pyroxene. The largest relict chondrule was type "I" (McSween, 1977) with a diameter of 350 micrometers; a 200-micrometer-diameter type "II" (McSween, 1977) barred olivine chondrule showed devitrified glass in the interstices of the olivine. The sample is highly brecciated with fractures cutting the section and offsetting chondrule fragments, but in PTS is only very weakly shocked: olivine shows occasional undulatory extinction, i.e., stage "S2" in the classification of Stoffler et al. (1991). Mineral Chemistry: 95% of olivine is close to Fa(sub)39 but a few grains lie in the range Fa(sub)17 to Fa(sub)43 and one is zoned from a Fa(sub)17 core to a Fa(sub)43 rim. The majority of pyroxene is Ca-rich at a mean composition of Fs(sub)21 Wo(sub)45. Low-Ca pyroxene is also unequilibrated with a mean close to Fs(sub)31 and one has a composition of Fs(sub)10 Wo(sub)2. Plagioclase is a common interstitial phase in the matrix and is variable in composition, but high-Na oligoclase or albite. Minor opaque phases are dominated by Cr-rich (32-38 wt% Cr2O3) spinel, which also contains significant Ti (5.3 wt% TiO2). For charge balance substantial Fe^3+ is required indicating that Fe is partitioned between approximately 13-21 wt% Fe2O3 and 35 wt% FeO. The spinel therefore is a mixture between chromite, magnetite, and ulvospinel. Variation in the composition of this phase is principally in total Fe and Cr, which vary inversely. No Fe-Ni metal was found and troilite is extremely rare; the only analysis has trace Ni. Ni is undetectable in olivine and is depleted in the sample as a whole and this, together with higher mean Fa-values, would tend to rule out a relationship with CK-chondrites (Kallemeyn et al., 1990). Similarly, whilst the fayalite content in olivine might suggest a high-grade CO chondrite the lack of troilite, kamacite, and taenite and the abundance of Cr-rich spinel would tend to preclude this (McSween, 1976). Acfer 217 is a chondrite that is exceptionally poor in metal and sulfide and rich in oxidised Fe. It appears to be unique. Further work will include an oxygen isotope study to determine any relationship with known groups of meteorites. References: Kallemeyn G. W., Rubin A. E. and Wasson J. T. (1990) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 881-892. McSween H. Y. (1976) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 41, 477-491. McSween H. Y. (1977) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 41, 1843-60. Stoffler D., Keil K. and Scott E.R.D. (1991) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 3845-3867.

Bland, P.; Hutchison, R.; Pillinger, C. T.; Bischoff, A.

1992-07-01

240

(Extra)Ordinary Gauge Mediation  

E-print Network

We study models of "(extra)ordinary gauge mediation," which consist of taking ordinary gauge mediation and extending the messenger superpotential to include all renormalizable couplings consistent with SM gauge invariance and an R-symmetry. We classify all such models and find that their phenomenology can differ significantly from that of ordinary gauge mediation. Some highlights include: arbitrary modifications of the squark/slepton mass relations, small mu and Higgsino NLSP's, and the possibility of having fewer than one effective messenger. We also show how these models lead naturally to extremely simple examples of direct gauge mediation, where SUSY and R-symmetry breaking occur not in a hidden sector, but due to the dynamics of the messenger sector itself.

Clifford Cheung; A. Liam Fitzpatrick; David Shih

2007-11-29

241

Reclassification of Villalbeto de la Peña—Occurrence of a winonaite-related fragment in a hydrothermally metamorphosed polymict L-chondritic breccia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Villalbeto de la Peña meteorite that fell in 2004 in Spain was originally classified as a moderately shocked L6 ordinary chondrite. The recognition of fragments within the Villalbeto de la Peña meteorite clearly bears consequences for the previous classification of the rock. The oxygen isotope data clearly show that an exotic eye-catching, black, and plagioclase-(maskelynite)-rich clast is not of L chondrite heritage. Villalbeto de la Peña is, consequently, reclassified as a polymict chondritic breccia. The oxygen isotope data of the clast are more closely related to data for the winonaite Tierra Blanca and the anomalous silicate-bearing iron meteorite LEW 86211 than to the ordinary chondrite groups. The REE-pattern of the bulk inclusion indicates genetic similarities to those of differentiated rocks and their minerals (e.g., lunar anorthosites, eucritic, and winonaitic plagioclases) and points to an igneous origin. The An-content of the plagioclase within the inclusion is increasing from the fragment/host meteorite boundary (approximately An10) toward the interior of the clast (approximately An52). This is accompanied by a successive compositionally controlled transformation of plagioclase into maskelynite by shock. As found for plagioclase, compositions of individual spinels enclosed in plagioclase (maskelynite) also vary from the border toward the interior of the inclusion. In addition, huge variations in oxygen isotope composition were found correlating with distance into the object. The chemical and isotopical profiles observed in the fragment indicate postaccretionary metamorphism under the presence of a volatile phase.

Bischoff, Addi; Dyl, Kathryn A.; Horstmann, Marian; Ziegler, Karen; Wimmer, Karl; Young, Edward D.

2013-04-01

242

Analysis of chondritic interplanetary dust thin-sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chondritic interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are heterogeneous aggregates of predominantly submicron mineral grains and carbonaceous material, whose bulk compositions agree within a factor of two with type CI/CM carbonaceous chondrites. The mineralogy and petrography of 25 such particles were studied by analytical electron microscopic examination of ultramicrotomed thin sections (500-1000 A thick). Four classes of chondritic IDPs were recognized, referred to as pyroxene, olivine, smectite, and serpentine, and their relative abundances were 9:4:10:2, respectively. Quantitative thin-film analyses indicate that pyroxene particles most closely resemble material emitted from comet Halley. Smectite particles may have formed from pyroxene particles by aqueous alteration of glass and enstatite crystals. Serpentine particles are the only class that are similar to the matrices of carbonaceous chondrites, but these are the least abundant chondritic IDPs. Collectively, chondritic particles are a mineralogically diverse group of extraterrestrial materials.

Bradley, J. P.

1988-04-01

243

Trace element geochemistry of CR chondrite metal  

E-print Network

We report trace element analyses by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry of metal grains from 9 different CR chondrites, distinguishing grains from chondrule interior ("interior grains"), chondrule surficial shells ("margin grains") and the matrix ("isolated grains"). Save for a few anomalous grains, Ni-normalized trace element patterns are similar for all three petrographical settings, with largely unfractionated refractory siderophile elements and depleted volatile Au, Cu, Ag, S. All types of grains are interpreted to derive from a common precursor approximated by the least melted, fine-grained objects in CR chondrites. This also excludes recondensation of metal vapor as the origin of the bulk of margin grains. The metal precursors presumably formed by incomplete condensation, with evidence for high-temperature isolation of refractory platinum-group-element (PGE)-rich condensates before mixing with lower temperature PGE-depleted condensates. The rounded shape of the Ni-rich, interior ...

Jacquet, Emmanuel; Alard, Olivier; Kearsley, Anton T; Gounelle, Matthieu

2015-01-01

244

The formation conditions of chondrules and chondrites.  

PubMed

Chondrules, which are roughly millimeter-sized silicate-rich spherules, dominate the most primitive meteorites, the chondrites. They formed as molten droplets and, judging from their abundances in chondrites, are the products of one of the most energetic processes that operated in the early inner solar system. The conditions and mechanism of chondrule formation remain poorly understood. Here we show that the abundance of the volatile element sodium remained relatively constant during chondrule formation. Prevention of the evaporation of sodium requires that chondrules formed in regions with much higher solid densities than predicted by known nebular concentration mechanisms. These regions would probably have been self-gravitating. Our model explains many other chemical characteristics of chondrules and also implies that chondrule and planetesimal formation were linked. PMID:18566282

Alexander, C M O'D; Grossman, J N; Ebel, D S; Ciesla, F J

2008-06-20

245

Extinct I-129 in C3 chondrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight C3 chondrites were examined by the I-129 to Xe-129 dating method to determine whether their initial I-129\\/I-127 ratios, or R(0), correlate with any other properties. The R(0)'s range from 1.60 x 10 to the -4th to 1.09 x 10 to the -4th, corresponding to I to Xe ages from 2.0 Myr before to 6.7 Myr after the Murchison magnetite.

J. Crabb; R. S. Lewis; E. Anders

1982-01-01

246

The meteorite Moss - a rare carbonaceous chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On July 14, 2006, at about 10:20 a.m. local daylight time (UTC+2), a bright fireball travelling SSE-NNV was witnessed from the Baltic Sea to SE Norway. On the east side of the Oslo fiord, around Moss, an explosion and a rumbling sound was heard, and pieces were observed falling. Rapid recovery of meteorite stones gave an opportunity for detailed petrological and geochemical investigations, including analyses of indigenous organic species, and short lived isotopes. The meteorite is a chondritic stone meteorite, with some carbon (0.21-0.25 wt% C). The cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age is 14 Ma, i.e. when Moss was ejected from its parent body. Gas retention ages are approximately 3.95x10^9 yr (U/Th/He) and 4.43x10^9 yr (K/Ar), respectively. The meteorite has the official name Moss, and is classified as carbonaceous chondrite type CO3.6. It was the first witnessed fall of a CO3 chondrite since Kainsaz in Russia in 1937.

Bilet, M.; Roaldset, E.

2014-07-01

247

Carbonate abundances and isotopic compositions in chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the bulk C abundances, and C and O isotopic compositions of carbonates in 64 CM chondrites, 14 CR chondrites, 2 CI chondrites, LEW 85332 (C2), Kaba (CV3), and Semarkona (LL3.0). For the unheated CMs, the total ranges of carbonate isotopic compositions are ?13C ? 25-75‰ and ?18O ? 15-35‰, and bulk carbonate C contents range from 0.03 to 0.60 wt%. There is no simple correlation between carbonate abundance and isotopic composition, or between either of these parameters and the extent of alteration. Unless accretion was very heterogeneous, the uncorrelated variations in extent of alteration and carbonate abundance suggests that there was a period of open system behavior in the CM parent body, probably prior to or at the start of aqueous alteration. Most of the ranges in CM carbonate isotopic compositions can be explained by their formation at different temperatures (0-130 °C) from a single fluid in which the carbonate O isotopes were controlled by equilibrium with water (?18O ? 5‰) and the C isotopes were controlled by equilibrium with CO and/or CH4 (?13C ? -33‰ or -20‰ for CO- or CH4-dominated systems, respectively). However, carbonate formation would have to have been inefficient, otherwise carbonate compositions would have resembled those of the starting fluid. A quite similar fluid composition (?18O ? -5.5‰, and ?13C ? -31‰ or -17‰ for CO- or CH4-dominated systems, respectively) can explain the carbonate compositions of the CIs, although the formation temperatures would have been lower (~10-40 °C) and the relative abundances of calcite and dolomite may play a more important role in determining bulk carbonate compositions than in the CMs. The CR carbonates exhibit a similar range of O isotopes, but an almost bimodal distribution of C isotopes between more (?13C ? 65-80‰) and less altered samples (?13C ? 30-40‰). This bimodality can still be explained by precipitation from fluids with the same isotopic composition (?18O ? -9.25‰, and ?13C ? -21‰ or -8‰ for CO- or CH4-dominated systems, respectively) if the less altered CRs had higher mole fractions of CO2 in their fluids. Semarkona and Kaba carbonates have some of the lightest C isotopic compositions of the meteorites studied here, probably because they formed at higher temperatures and/or from more CO2-rich fluids. The fluids responsible for the alteration of chondrites and from which the carbonates formed were almost certainly accreted as ices. By analogy with cometary ices, CO2 and/or CO would have dominated the trapped volatile species in the ices. The chondrites studied are too oxidized for CO-dominated fluids to have formed in their parent bodies. If CH4 was the dominant C species in the fluids during carbonate formation, it would have to have been generated in the parent bodies from CO and/or CO2 when oxidation of metal by water created high partial pressures of H2. The fact that the chondrite carbonate C/H2O mole ratios are of the order predicted for CO/CO2-H2O ices that experienced temperatures of >50-100 K suggests that the chondrites formed at radial distances of <4-15 AU.

Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Bowden, R.; Fogel, M. L.; Howard, K. T.

2015-01-01

248

Chondrites: A Trace Fossil Indicator of Anoxia in Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trace fossil Chondrites, a highly branched burrow system of unknown endobenthic deposit feeders, occurs in all types of sediment, including those deposited under anaerobic conditions. In some cases, such as the Jurassic Posidonienschiefer Formation of Germany, Chondrites occurs in black, laminated, carbonaceous sediment that was deposited in chemically reducing conditions. In other cases, such as numerous oxic clastic and

Richard G. Bromley; A. A. Ekdale

1984-01-01

249

Protostellar Winds, Jets and Chondritic Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An astrophysical theory is developed toward the origins of chondritic meteorites within a framework built upon the jet phenomena seen around young stars. As the first steps of transforming dust to planets, rock material can be thermally processed, and mechanically transported to inter-planetary distances where they accumulate with cold nebular dust into parent bodies of chondritic meteorites. A semi-analytic approach is developed to model the x-wind that emerges as a result of interaction between a magnetized young star and its accretion disk. The magnetocentrifugally driven flow originates from the inner edge of the disk and diverges to fill space. The streamlines collimate logarithmically toward the pole with cylindrically stratified density contours. When properly lit, the better collimated density structure constitutes the optical image of a jet inside a wide-angle wind. Synthetic images and long-slit spectra are constructed for the x-wind to illustrate such characteristics and the kinematics. The gas-solid coupling in the x-wind can aerodynamically lift the dust particles from the cold, self-shielded disk. Out of the shade, the rock is exposed to full radiation from the protosun and melt. The most refractory solids that cool in hours to days with the expanding wind become the calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions. The refractory silicates that are heated up by flares transiently before launch become the chondrules. Objects that are of mm to cm sizes will fall back to the disk and mix with cold nebular dust to form chondrites. Time variabilities of the star-disk system are capable of producing prolific X-rays, flares and cosmic rays by conversion of the magnetic energies released from the strong magnetic fields. Protons and ions accelerated to MeV energies in impulsive flares can induce spallogenic reactions on bare rocks near the star. Short-lived nuclides thus produced may explain the extinct radioactivities found in meteorites.

Shang, Hsien Sienny

250

The Leedey, Oklahoma, Chondrite: Fall, petrology, chemistry and an unusual Fe,Ni-FeS inclusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Leedey, Oklahoma meteorite shower fell on Nov. 25, 1943, following a fireball which was visible across much of southwestern Oklahoma and north-central Texas. The shower produced 24 stones with a total mass of ~51.5 kg. The stones formed a strewnfield ~18 km in length in the same direction as the observed path of the meteor (N50 W). Leedey is classified as an L6(S3) ordinary chondrite. We report bulk major element chemical analyses from four separate laboratories. Leedey contains an unusual 6 by 8 mm composite Fe,Ni-FeS grain, which is composed of a 3 mm kamacite grain adjacent to a 5 mm troilite grain. A 50-100 micron rim of high-Ni (45-55 wt.%) taenite (tetrataenite) occurs at the boundary between kamacite and troilite. A single, zoned pyrophanite grain is observed at the boundary between the inclusion troilite and host silicates. An origin as a foreign particle incorporated after metamorphism or during impact melting appears unlikely. This particle likely formed by a complex set of processes, including melting in the nebula, parent body metamorphism and reheating by later shock, mirroring the history of the host chondrite.

McCoy, T. J.; Ehlmann, A. J.; Moore, C. B.

1997-01-01

251

Mineral and chemical composition of the Jezersko meteorite—A new chondrite from Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jezersko meteorite is a newly confirmed stony meteorite found in 1992 in the Karavanke mountains, Slovenia. The meteorite is moderately weathered (W2), indicating short terrestrial residence time. Chondrules in partially recrystallized matrix are clearly discernible but often fragmented and have mean diameter of 0.73 mm. The meteorite consists of homogeneous olivine (Fa19.4) and low-Ca pyroxenes (Fs16.7Wo1.2), of which 34% are monoclinic, and minor plagioclase (Ab83An11Or6) and Ca-pyroxene (Fs6Wo45.8). Troilite, kamacite, zoned taenite, tetrataenite, chromite, and metallic copper comprise about 16.5 vol% of the meteorite. Phosphates are represented by merrillite and minor chlorapatite. Undulatory extinction in some olivine grains and other shock indicators suggests weak shock metamorphism between stages S2 and S3. The bulk chemical composition generally corresponds to the mean H chondrite composition. Low siderophile element contents indicate the oxidized character of the Jezersko parent body. The temperatures recorded by two-pyroxene, olivine-chromite, and olivine-orthopyroxene geothermometers are 854 °C, 737-787 °C, and 750 °C, respectively. Mg concentration profiles across orthopyroxenes and clinopyroxenes indicate relatively fast cooling at temperatures above 700 °C. A low cooling rate of 10 °C Myr-1 was obtained from metallographic data. Considering physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties, meteorite Jezersko was classified as an H4 S2(3) ordinary chondrite.

Miler, Miloš; Ambroži?, Bojan; Mirti?, Breda; Gosar, Mateja; Å turm, Sašo.; Dolenec, Matej; Jeršek, Miha

2014-10-01

252

The UThPb age of equilibrated L chondrites and a solution to the excess radiogenic Pb problem in chondrites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

U, Th, and Pb analyses of whole-rock and troilite separates from seven L chondrites suggest that the excess radiogenic Pb relative to U and the large variations in PbPb model ages commonly observed in chondritic meteorites are largely due to terrestrial Pb contamination induced prior to analyses. Using the Pb isotopic composition of troilite separates to calculate the isotopic composition of the Pb contaminants, the whole-rock data have been corrected for pre-analysis terrestrial Pb contamination. Two approaches have been used: (1) the chondrite-troilite apparent initial Pb isotopic compositions were used to approximate the mixture of indigenous intial Pb and terrestrial Pb in the whole-rock sample, and (2) a single-stage (concordant) model was applied using the assumption that the excess radiogenic Pb in these samples was terrestrial. Data for L5 and L6 chondrites yield a 4551 ?? 7 My age using the former correction and a 4550 ?? 5 My age using the latter one. Corrected data for one L4 chondrite, Tennasilm, yield a 4552 ?? 13 My age which is indistinguishable from that of the L5-L6 chondrites. However, the other L4 chondrite, Bjurbo??le, yields a 4590 ?? 6 My. ThUPb data suggest that this older age may be an artifact of the correction procedure, and that some of the discordancy of the Bjurbo??le data is the result of either a recent geologic disturbance to the UThPb system or to terrestrial U loss. Some aliquots of the L5L6 chondrites also show small amounts of discordancy (??? 10%) which are not easily attributable to terrestrial Pb contamination. The data from the L5-L6 chondrites and Tennasilm suggest that there are no more than ??? 15 MY differences in the ages of L24-L6 chondrites. ?? 1982.

Unruh, D.M.

1982-01-01

253

A Second H Chondrite Stream of Falls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier, Dodd et al. [1] described a statistically significant concentration of 17 H4-6 chondrite falls in May between 1855 and 1895, that clustered on a year-day plot, indicating a coorbital meteoroid stream or two closely-related ones. Contents of 10 thermally labile trace elements (Rb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te,Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl, In) determined by RNAA demonstrated that 13 of these H Cluster 1 (hereafter HC1) falls are compositionally distinguishable from another 45 non-H Cluster 1 (non-HC1) falls [1] (as are Antarctic samples with nominal terrestrial ages >50 ky [2,3]). This compositional distinguishability is demonstrable using two standard, model-dependent multivariate statistical tests (linear discriminant analysis LDA or logistic regression LR) or the model-independent, randomization-simulation (R-S) methods of Lipschutz and Samuels [4]. Despite petrographic and cosmic ray exposure age variabilities, like Antarctic suites [2] HC1 meteorites seemingly derive from coorbital meteoroids (from their circumstances of fall) and apparently have a common thermal history (reflected in contents of thermally labile trace elements) distinguishable from those of other H4-6 chondrite falls [1]. Other explanations seem inviable [5]. During days 220-300 when streams of large fireballs [6] and near-Earth asteroids [7] occur several H chondrite concentrations are evident (Fig. 1), particularly if petrographic type becomes a criterion [1]. Here, we focus on H Clusters 2 through 4 (HC2-4) containing, respectively, 10 H4-6, 5 H5 and 12 H6 chondrite members, for which full data sets exist because of the generosity of many colleagues/institutions. H chondrite clusters in the same time-span might include samples derived from related parent regions. Hence, we changed our comparison-base to approximate a random background of falls by including only the 34 non-Cluster H chondrites, HC0; this also simplified our calculations. To establish whether this choice impacts our observations, we compared 13 HC1 with 34 HC0 meteorites (Table 1). As is evident, the LDA, LR and R-S results are nearly identical to those obtained by comparing 13 HC1 with 45 non- HC1 falls [1]. As Table 1 shows, 10 HC2 chondrites are not compositionally distinguishable from 34 HC0 falls by any criterion. However, 12 HC4 falls may be compositionally distinguishable from the HC0 suite using model-dependent LDA and LR techniques. The small HC3 suite seems to lie on an extension of HC4 (Fig. 1) and we compared the 17-member combined suite, HC34, with HC0. Model-dependent or -independent results (Table 1) provide strong evidence for a compositional difference: apparently HC34, like HC1 [1], derive from coorbital meteoroid streams. The oldest and youngest HC34 members are particularly interesting: Borodino fell 5 Sept. 1812 just before the battle there: its fall is unrecorded in military histories of the era [8]. The final orbit of the Peekskill fall in 1992 is particularly well-established [9] linking HC34 to a specific orbit. Acknowledgments: Support from NASA grant NAGW-3396 and DOE grant DE-FG07-80ER1-072SJ. References: [1] Dodd R. T. et al. (1993) JGR, 98, 15105-15118. [2] Michlovich S. et al. (1995) JGR, 100, 3317-3333. [3] Wolf S. F. and Lipschutz M. E. (1995) JGR, 100, 3335-3349. [4] Lipschutz M. E. and Samuels S. M. (1991) GCA, 55, 19-47. [5] Wolf S. F. and Lipschutz M. E. (1995) JGR, 100, 3297-3316. [6] Halliday I. et al. (1990) Meteoritics, 24, 93-99. [7] Drummond J. D. (1991) Icarus, 89, 14-25. [8] Rothenberg G. E., personal communication. [9] Brown P. et al. (1994) Nature, 367, 624-626. Table 1 shows multivariate statistical comparisons of RNAA data for 10 thermally-labile trace elements in various putative suites of H4-6 chondrite falls.

Wolf, S. F.; Wang, M.-S.; Dodd, R. T.; Lipschutz, M. E.

1995-09-01

254

Mineralogy, Reflectance Spectra, and Physical Properties of the Chelyabinsk LL5 Chondrite - Insight Into Shock Induced Changes in Asteroid Regoliths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On February 15, 2013, at 9:22 am, an exceptionally bright and long duration fireball was observed by many eyewitnesses in the Chelyabinsk region, Russia. Two days later the first fragments of the Chelyabinsk meteorite were reported to be found in the area, located approximately 40 km south of Chelyabinsk. We have examined a large number of the recovered Chelyabinsk meteorite fragments. Three lithologies, the light-colored, dark-colored, and impact melt, were found within the recovered meteorites. The light colored lithology is a LL5 ordinary chondrite (Fa 28, Fs 23) shocked to S4 level. The dark colored lithology is of identical LL5 composition (Fa 28, Fs 23). However, it is shocked to higher level (shock-darkened) with fine grained metal and sulfide-rich melt forming a dense network of fine veins impregnating the inter- and intra-granular pore space within crushed silicate grains. The impact melt lithology is a whole-rock melt derived from the same LL5 source material and is present within the light-colored and dark-colored lithology as inter-granular veins. The measured bulk and grain densities and the porosity closely resemble other LL chondrites. Based on the magnetic susceptibility, the Chelyabinsk meteorites are richer in metallic iron as compared to database of other LL chondrites. All three Chelyabinsk lithologies are of identical LL5 composition and origin. Both impact melting and shock darkening cause a decrease in reflectance and a suppression of the silicate absorption bands in the reflectance spectra. Such spectral changes are similar to the space weathering effects observed on asteroids. However, space weathering of chondritic materials is often accompanied with a significant spectral slope change (reddening). In our case, only negligible to minor change in the spectral slope is observed. Thus, it is possible that some dark asteroids with invisible silicate absorption bands may be composed of relatively fresh shock-darkened chondritic material. The main spectral difference of chondritic asteroid surfaces dominated by impact melt, shock darkening, or space weathering, is a significant spectral slope change in the latter case. Thus, shock does not have significant effect on meteorite properties, but causes spectral darkening and suppression of silicate absorption bands.

Gritsevich, Maria; Muinonen, Karri; Kohout, Tomas; Grokhovsky, Victor; Yakovlev, Grigoriy; Haloda, Jakub; Halodova, Patricie; Michallik, Radoslaw; Penttilä, Antti

255

Evidence for differences in the thermal histories of Antarctic and non-Antarctic H chondrites with cosmic-ray exposure ages less than 20 Ma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Antarctic H chondrites show a different range of induced thermoluminescence properties compared with those of H chondrites that have fallen elsewhere in the world. Recent noble gas data of Schultz et al. (1991) show that this difference is displayed most dramatically by meteorites with cosmic-ray exposure ages less than 20 Ma, and they confirm that the differences cannot be attributed to weathering or to the presence of a great many fragments of an unusual Antarctic meteorite. Annealing experiments on an H5 chondrite, and other measurements on a variety of ordinary chondrites, have shown that induced TL properties are sensitive to the thermal histories of the meteorities. It is concluded that the events(s) that released the less than 20 Ma samples, which are predominantly those with exposure ages of 8 + or - 2 Ma, produced two groups with different thermal histories, one that came to earth several 100,000 years ago and that are currently only found in Antarctica, and one that is currently falling on the earth.

Sears, Derek W. G.; Benoit, Paul; Batchelor, J. David

1991-01-01

256

An early solar system magnetic field recorded in CM chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a paleomagnetic study of seven CM carbonaceous chondrites. CM chondrites are believed to be some of the most chemically primitive materials available in our solar system and may sample the continuum of transitional objects between asteroids and comets formed in the outer solar system. As such, CM chondrites can help us to understand primordial aspects of the history of the early solar system including protoplanetary disk and planetesimal magnetism. The ferromagnetic assemblage of CM chondrites is composed of a mixture of primary metallic iron, pyrrhotite, and magnetite. The remanent properties are usually dominated by secondary pyrrhotite. Paleomagnetic analyses using thermal and alternating field demagnetization identified a stable origin-trending component of magnetization in the seven studied CM chondrites. In each meteorite, this component is homogeneous in direction at least at the cm scale and is therefore post-accretional. We interpret this stable component as a pre-terrestrial chemical remanent magnetization acquired during crystallization of magnetite and pyrrhotite during parent body aqueous alteration in a field of at least a few ? T (2 ± 1.5 ? T). Considering the timescale and intensities of primordial magnetic fields, both internally generated fields from a putative dynamo and external fields, generated in the protoplanetary disk, may have been recorded by CM chondrites. It is presently difficult to discriminate between the two hypotheses. Regardless, CM chondrites likely contain the oldest paleomagnetic record yet identified.

Cournede, C.; Gattacceca, J.; Gounelle, M.; Rochette, P.; Weiss, B. P.; Zanda, B.

2015-01-01

257

Quantum States as Ordinary Information  

E-print Network

Despite various parallels between quantum states and ordinary information, quantum no-go-theorems have convinced many that there is no realistic framework that might underly quantum theory, no reality that quantum states can represent knowledge *about*. This paper develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time). By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed "all-at-once" (as in classical action principles). From this perspective, traditional quantum states would represent incomplete information about possible spacetime histories, conditional on the future measurement geometry. Without dynamical laws imposing additional restrictions, those histories can have a classical probability distribution, where exactly one history can be said to represent an underlying reality.

Ken Wharton

2014-03-08

258

Compositions, geochemistry, and shock histories of recrystallized LL chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To examine compositional changes associated with high degrees of apparent thermal metamorphism among the LL chondrites, we have examined seven LL chondrites originally classified as being petrographic type 7. For comparison, we also analyzed the L6/7 chondrite Y-790124. We found that A-880933 is actually an LL4-6 genomict breccia and Y-790124 is best described as an L6 (S3) chondrite. The remaining six chondrites (EET 92013, Uden, Y-74160, Y-790144, Y-791067, Y-82067) are clearly of LL provenance, and each experienced temperatures high enough for them to have been recrystallized. In four of these samples (EET 92013, Uden, Y-74160, Y-790144) we find elemental patterns suggesting Fe(Ni)-FeS mobilization. Others (Y-791067, Y-82067) have compositions identical to average equilibrated LL chondrites. From our compositional data, we infer that EET 92013, Uden, Y-74160, Y-790144 experienced very low degrees of partial melting prior to recrystallization, but Y-791067 and Y-82067 experienced isochemical solid state recrystallization. The heat source responsible for the high degrees of thermal alteration of these meteorites is limited to either the decay of now extinct radionuclides (26Al) or impact-related heating. To evaluate the nature of the heat source, we use 40Ar-39Ar literature data and petrographic examinations to infer the cooling history and shock history of these chondrites. We find that heating due to impact is the most likely heat source for the heating of the recrystallized chondrites. The potential impacts occurred well after the initial stages of LL chondrite thermal metamorphism, but still early in the LL parent body’s history, probably ?4.2-4.3 Ga ago. These rocks experienced mild shock histories following their recrystallization.

Friedrich, Jon M.; Perrotta, Grace C.; Kimura, Makoto

2014-08-01

259

Can Halogen Enrichment in Reduced Enstatite Chondrites Provide Clues to Volatile Accretion in the Early Earth?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how the Earth obtained and ultimately retained its volatiles is important for our overall understanding of large scale planetary evolution. Numerous models exist for the heterogeneous accretion of volatiles to early Earth, but accounting for all elements through accretion of typical planetary building blocks (e.g., CI chondrites) is difficult. Proto-planetary collisions resulting in the accretion of volatile-poor material under reducing conditions followed by accretion of volatile-rich material under oxidizing conditions has been suggested in such models [e.g., 1]. The heavy halogens (Cl, Br and I), a group of moderately volatile elements, are excellent tracers of planetary processing due to their low abundance and incompatible nature. Therefore characterizing halogen abundance and distribution in materials that accreted to form the planets, e.g., primitive meteorites, is crucial. One group of primitive meteorites, the enstatite chondrites (EC's), are amongst the most reduced materials in the solar system as evidenced by their unique mineral assemblage. Yet despite forming under ultra-reducing conditions, they are enriched in the moderately volatile elements, such as the halogens. The ECs are of particular interest owing to their oxygen isotopic composition which plots along the terrestrial fractionation line, linking them isotopically to the Earth-Moon system. These samples can thus potentially provide clues on the accretion of moderately volatile element rich material under reducing conditions, such as it may have existed during the early stages of Earth's accretion. Chlorine, Br and I concentrations in ECs were determined through step-heating small neutron-irradiated samples (0.3 to 3.3 mg) and measured by mass spectrometry using the noble gas proxy isotopes 38ArCl/Cl, 80KrBr/Br and 128XeI/I. The EH chondrites are consistently enriched in the heavy halogens (up to 330 ppm Cl, 2290 ppb Br and 180 ppb I), compared to other ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites measured and have high molar I/Cl (~10-3) and Br/Cl (~10-3) ratios. For comparison, the ordinary chondrites have highly variable halogen concentrations and very low molar I/Cl (~10-6) and Br/Cl (~10-4) ratios. Halogen concentrations in the ECs are up to ~ 8 times higher for Cl, up to ~ 40 times higher for Br and up to ~ 50 times higher for I, when compared to estimates of halogen concentrations in the primitive mantle [2]. Potential halogen carrier phases in the ECs include Cl-rich feldspathic glass in chondrules, enstatite and/or the halogen-bearing sulfide djerfisherite. Accretion of halogen-rich, reduced material such as that observed here with the ECs could support models for heterogeneous accretion. Ongoing analyses of the primitive enstatite achondrites will shed additional light on these issues. [1] Wänke, H. Dreibus, G., Jagoutz E., Archaean Geochemistry, A. Kröner, G. N. Hanson, A. M. Goodwin, Eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1984), pp. 1-24. [2] Newsom, H.E., 1995. Global Earth Physics, A Handbook of Physical Constants, AGU Reference Shelf, vol. 1. American Geophysical Union, Washington.

Clay, P. L.; Burgess, R.; Busemann, H.; Ruzié, L.; Joachim, B.; Ballentine, C.

2013-12-01

260

Yes, Kakangari is a unique chondrite. [meteoritic composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The position of the Kakangari chondrite as the representative of a new class of chondrites is considered, taking into account the results of the analysis of a 17.1-mg piece of Kakangari for 20 elements. Elemental concentration data are compared for Kakangari and other meteorite groups. Data for the most similar groups, C2, C3(V), L, and E4 chondrites are represented in a graph along with Kakangari data. It is found that pronounced differences exist between Kakangari and the other meteorite classes.

Davis, A. M.; Grossman, L.; Ganapathy, R.

1977-01-01

261

First-Order Ordinary Differential Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a First-order ordinary differential equations have some rather special properties, which result for the most part because they\\u000a can only contain a limited number of terms. In fact, all linear first-order ordinary differential equations can easily be\\u000a solved. This is in contrast to higher-order ordinary differential equations that become much more difficult to solve when,\\u000a for example, they contain variable coefficients.

Bill Goodwine

262

Origin of organic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonaceous chondrites, a class of primitive meteorite, have long been known to contain their complement of carbon largely in the form of organic, i.e., hydrocarbon-related, matter. Both discrete organic compounds and an insoluble, macromolecular material are present. Several characteristics of these materials provide evidence for their abiotic origin. The principal formation hypothesis have invoked chemistry occurring either in the solar nebula or on the parent body. However, recent stable isotope analyses of the meteorite carboxylic acids and amino acids indicate that they may be related to interstellar cloud compounds. These results suggest a formation scheme in which interstellar compounds were incorporated into the parent body and subsequently converted to the present suite of meteorite organics by the hydrothermal process believed to have formed the clay minerals of the meteorite matrix.

Cronin, J. R.

263

Behavior of Chromium in Chondritic Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To survey the existence forms and existence patterns of Cr and Ru in high-temperature condensate, we have continued to carry out elemental analyses of primitive meteorites particularly acid insoluble fractions and metal phases from them. In addition, condensation calculation, which assume ideal solid solution in the multicomponent alloy, by using thermodynamic data have been performed. Noting that acid residues would contain the high-temperature condensate component, we considerd chemical compositions of acid residues by relating to the condensation process from the solar nebula. In this paper, we present the representative elemental compositions of some chondritic meteorites and discuss the implications of these data to consider the behavior of Cr in meteoritical samples.

Kano, N.; Matsuzaki, H.; Nogami, K.; Imamura, M.

1996-03-01

264

Semarkona: Lessons for chondrule and chondrite formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the evidence presented by the LL3.0 chondrite Semarkona, including its chondrule fraction, chondrule size distribution and matrix thermal history. We show that no more than a modest fraction of the ambient matrix material in the Solar Nebula could have been melted into chondrules; and that much of the unprocessed matrix material must have been filtered out at some stage of Semarkona's parent body formation process. We conclude that agglomerations of many chondrules must have formed in the Solar Nebula, which implies that chondrules and matrix grains had quite different collisional sticking parameters. Further, we note that the absence of large melted objects in Semarkona means that chondrules must have exited the melting zone rapidly, before the chondrule agglomerations could form. The simplest explanation for this rapid exit is that chondrule melting occurred in surface layers of the disk. The newly formed, compact, chondrules then settled out of those layers on short time scales.

Hubbard, Alexander; Ebel, Denton S.

2015-01-01

265

A CM chondrite cluster and CM streams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An elongate year-day concentration of CM meteoroid falls between 1921 and 1969 is inconsistent with a random flux of CM meteoroids and suggests that most or all such meteorites, and perhaps the Kaidun C-E chondrite breccia, resulted from streams of meteoroids in nearly circular, Earth-like orbits. To establish whether the post-1920 cluster might have arisen from random sampling, we determined the year-day distribution of 14 falls between 1879 and 1969 by treating each as the corner of a cell of specified dimensions (e.g. 30 years x 30 days) and calculated how many falls occurred in that cell. We then compared the CM cell distribution with random distributions over the same range of years. The results show that for 30 x 30 and 45 x 45 cells, fewer than 5 percent of random sets match the CM distribution with respect to maximum cell content and number of one-fall cells.

Dodd, R. T.; Lipschutz, M. E.

1993-01-01

266

Trace element geochemistry of CR chondrite metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report trace element analyses by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of metal grains from nine different CR chondrites, distinguishing grains from chondrule interior ("interior grains"), chondrule surficial shells ("margin grains"), and the matrix ("isolated grains"). Save for a few anomalous grains, Ni-normalized trace element patterns are similar for all three petrographic settings, with largely unfractionated refractory siderophile elements and depleted volatile Au, Cu, Ag, S. All three types of grains are interpreted to derive from a common precursor approximated by the least-melted, fine-grained objects in CR chondrites. This also excludes recondensation of metal vapor as the origin of the bulk of margin grains. The metal precursors were presumably formed by incomplete condensation, with evidence for high-temperature isolation of refractory platinum-group-element (PGE)-rich condensates before mixing with lower temperature PGE-depleted condensates. The rounded shape of the Ni-rich, interior grains shows that they were molten and that they equilibrated with silicates upon slow cooling (1-100 K h-1), largely by oxidation/evaporation of Fe, hence their high Pd content, for example. We propose that Ni-poorer, amoeboid margin grains, often included in the pyroxene-rich periphery common to type I chondrules, result from less intense processing of a rim accreted onto the chondrule subsequent to the melting event recorded by the interior grains. This means either that there were two separate heating events, which formed olivine/interior grains and pyroxene/margin grains, respectively, between which dust was accreted around the chondrule, or that there was a single high-temperature event, of which the chondrule margin records a late "quenching phase," in which case dust accreted onto chondrules while they were molten. In the latter case, high dust concentrations in the chondrule-forming region (at least three orders of magnitude above minimum mass solar nebula models) are indicated.

Jacquet, Emmanuel; Paulhiac-Pison, Marine; Alard, Olivier; Kearsley, Anton T.; Gounelle, Matthieu

2013-10-01

267

Thermomagnetic analysis of meteorites, 2. C2 chondrites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of all eighteen of the known C2 chondrites have been analyzed thermomagnetically. For eleven of these, initial Fe3O4 content is low (generally <1%) and theJs-T curves are irreversible. The heating curves show variable greater (up to 10 times) than it is initially. This behavior is attributed to the production of magnetite from a thermally unstable phase - apparently FeS. Four of the remaining seven C2 chondrites contain Fe3O4 as the only significant magnetic phase: initial magnetite contents range from 4 to 13%. The remaining three C2 chondrites contain iron or nickel-iron in addition to Fe3O4. These seven C2 chondrites show little evidence of the breakdown of a thermally unstable phase. ?? 1975.

Watson, D.E.; Larson, E.E.; Herndon, J.M.; Rowe, M.W.

1975-01-01

268

Ruthenium Isotopic Composition of Terrestrial Materials, Iron Meteorites and Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ru isotopic compositions of magmatic iron meteorites and chondrites overlap with terrestrial Ru at the 0.3 to 0.9 (epsilon) level. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Becker, H.; Walker, R. J.

2002-01-01

269

Oxygen Isotopes and Geothermometry of Secondary Minerals in CR Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report oxygen isotopes measured from secondary calcite and magnetite in QUE 99177, a weakly altered CR chondrite, and discuss implications for temperature and fluid chemistry during aqueous alteration on the CR parent body.

Jilly, C. E.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.; Schrader, D. L.

2014-09-01

270

Barium isotopes in chondritic meteorites: implications for planetary reservoir models.  

PubMed

High-precision barium isotope measurements yielded differences of up to 25 parts per million in the 137Ba/136Ba ratio and 60 parts per million in the 138Ba/136Ba ratio between chondrites and Earth. These differences probably arose from incomplete mixing of nucleosynthetic material in the solar nebula. Chondritic meteorites have a slight excess of supernova-derived material as compared to Earth, demonstrating that the solar nebula was not perfectly homogenized upon formation. PMID:17023611

Ranen, Michael C; Jacobsen, Stein B

2006-11-01

271

Barium Isotopes in Chondritic Meteorites: Implications for Planetary Reservoir Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-precision barium isotope measurements yielded differences of up to 25 parts per million in the 137Ba/136Ba ratio and 60 parts per million in the 138Ba/136Ba ratio between chondrites and Earth. These differences probably arose from incomplete mixing of nucleosynthetic material in the solar nebula. Chondritic meteorites have a slight excess of supernova-derived material as compared to Earth, demonstrating that the solar nebula was not perfectly homogenized upon formation.

Ranen, Michael C.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

2006-11-01

272

The Bloomington (LL6) chondrite and its shock melt glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shock melt glasses of the Bloomington LL-group chondrite were examined using electron-beam microscopy and compared with data from studies of other shock melt glasses. Petrologic and mineralogic characterizations were also performed of the samples. The metal contents of the meteorite were almost wholly Ni-rich martensite. The glasses resembled shock melt glasses in L-group chondrites, and were indicative of isochemical melting during one melt phase, i.e., a very simple history.

Dodd, R.; Olsen, E. J.; Clarke, R. S., Jr.

1985-09-01

273

Cosmogenic Radionuclides in Recently Fallen Chondrites Mihonoseki and Tahara  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The chondrite Mihonoseki, L6, 6.38 kg, fell on December 10, 1992 [1]. The other chondrite, Tahara, fell on March 26, 1991, on the deck of car- carrier ship, M.S. Century-Highway No.1 of Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha Ltd., anchored at T-3 berth of Toyota Pier, at Toyohashi harbor, in Tahara-Center, Toyota Motor Corp., Tahara-machi, Atsumi-gun, Aichi-ken, Japan. Although the total mass

M. Shima; M. Honda; S. Yabuki; K. Takahashi

1993-01-01

274

Variations among chondrite groups: Constraints on nebular processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diverse proportions of the four major ingredients are found in the 13 chondrite groups. Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI) include amoeboid-olivine aggregates, which contain refractory nodules. Matrix material forms aggregates and rims on other constituents and contains micrometer-sized grains and a small, uniform concentration of presolar grains. Fe, Ni grains are mostly derived from hot chondrules. Although bulk nonvolatile chondritic elemental ratios are typically within 30% of solar values, individual CAI and some chondrules shown large deviations.

Scott, E. R. D.; Love, S. G.; Hutcheon, I. D.

1994-01-01

275

The Trace-Element Composition of a Silica-rich Clast in the Bovedy (L3/4) Chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of a ~4 X 4.5 X 7 mm^3, igneous-textured, silica-rich clast in the Bovedy chondrite [1] may have important implications regarding igneous processes that occurred on chondritic parent bodies [1,2]. This clast, designated Bo-1, is comprised of orthopyroxene, a silica polymorph, two feldspars, pigeonite, and minor chromite and trace metal and sulfide [1]. Bulk SEM/EMPA analyses of the clast indicated superchondritic Si/Mg and Si/Fe ratios, which Ruzicka and Boynton [1] proposed was produced by extensive olivine fractionation from a melted L-chondrite precursor. The low Fe/Mn ratio and low metal and sulfide abundances also suggest that the clast is largely missing a chondritic complement of metal and sulfide. To test these hypotheses, we measured the bulk composition of the clast using INAA techniques and found that the siderophile elements were lost in a two-step process and that partial melting also depleted incompatible lithophile elements. Lithophile Elements: Two splits (2.94 and 2.39 mg) of Bo-1 were analyzed. The concentrations of major elements (Ca, Fe, Cr, K, Na) bracket those previously determined by SEM/EMPA [1], suggesting that the two splits are reasonably representative of the bulk clast. If olivine and metal had been removed from an ordinary chondrite melt to produce the clast, then incompatible lithophile trace elements should have been enriched. Contrary to this expectation, however, the REE, Zr, Hf, Th, Sr, Rb, Cs and Br are consistently depleted to a level of 0.5-1.0 X CI abundances, while all of them (except the highly volatile Cs and Br) have concentrations of ~1.0-2.0 X CI abundances in ordinary chondrites. If the clast had been derived from melted ordinary chondrite material, then an additional step that removed incompatible elements, such as the loss of a partial melt, must have occurred. Siderophile Elements: Unlike lithophile trace elements, which are relatively unfractionated, the siderophiles Ni, Co, and Au are dramatically fractionated from Re, Os, Ir, and Ru. Nickel, Co, Au, and the chalcophile element Se are present at approximately 0.004-0.015 X CI abundances, compared to Re, Os, Ir, and Ru at 0.1-0.3 X CI. All the former elements have high affinities for S- rich metallic liquids, while the latter elements prefer solid metal [3], implying that the petrogenesis of Bo-1 included the loss of a S-rich metallic liquid. An equilibrium batch melting model of these trace siderophile elements, using the partition coefficients of [3], was constructed assuming an ordinary chondrite precursor. In these models, the proportion of liquid to solid silicate or of silicate to metal is unimportant, because the siderophile elements partition almost entirely into the metallic phases. The model results suggest that the siderophile trace elements can be adequately accounted for by a two-step process: (1) loss of a S-rich metallic liquid at high degrees of melting; and (2) subsequent loss of much of the remaining solid metal fraction. For an L-chondrite precursor, an optimal model involves the complete removal of metallic liquid generated by 90% partial melting of the metal + sulfide system, followed by the loss of 80% of the remaining 10% of the solids. Together, these two steps remove all but 2% of the initial metal + sulfide complement, consistent with the presence of only trace metal and sulfide in Bo-1. The large fraction of metallic melt involved in the first step implies that metallic liquid segregated from the remainder of the system at relatively high temperatures (~1325 degrees C for an L-chondrite precursor, based on the Fe-S phase diagram of [4]). References: [1] Ruzicka A. and Boynton W. V. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 283. [2] Ruzicka A. and Boynton W. V. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 284. [3] Jones J. H. and Drake M. J. (1986) Nature, 322, 221-228. [4] Kellerud G. and Yoder H. (1959) Econ. Geol., 54, 533-572.

Ruzicka, A.; Kring, D. A.; Hill, D. H.; Boynton, W. V.

1993-07-01

276

Sulfide-rich metallic impact melts from chondritic parent bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sacramento Wash 005 (SaW) 005, Meteorite Hills 00428 (MET) 00428, and Mount Howe 88403 (HOW) 88403 are S-rich Fe,Ni-rich metal meteorites with fine metal structures and homogeneous troilite. We compare them with the H-metal meteorite, Lewis Cliff 88432. Phase diagram analyses suggest that SaW 005, MET 00428, and HOW 88403 were liquids at temperatures above 1350°C. Tridymite in HOW 88403 constrains formation to a high-temperature and low-pressure environment. The morphology of their metal-troilite structures may suggest that MET 00428 cooled the slowest, SaW 005 cooled faster, and HOW 88403 cooled the quickest. SaW 005 and MET 00428 contain H-chondrite like silicates, and SaW 005 contains a chondrule-bearing inclusion that is texturally and compositionally similar to H4 chondrites. The compositional and morphological similarities of SaW 005 and MET 00428 suggest that they are likely the result of impact processing on the H-chondrite parent body. SaW 005 and MET 00428 are the first recognized iron- and sulfide-rich meteorites, which formed by impact on the H-chondrite parent body, which are distinct from the IIE-iron meteorite group. The morphological and chemical differences of HOW 88403 suggest that it is not from the H-chondrite body, although it likely formed during an impact on a chondritic parent body.

Schrader, Devin L.; Lauretta, Dante S.; Connolly, Harold C. _jr., Jr.; Goreva, Yulia S.; Hill, Dolores H.; Domanik, Ken J.; Berger, Eve L.; Yang, Hexiong; Downs, Robert T.

2010-05-01

277

Resonant Problems for Ordinary Dierential Equations  

E-print Network

Resonant Problems for Ordinary Dierential Equations P. Amster, P. De Nápoli and M.C. Mariani Abstract We review some aspects of the theory of resonant ordinary dierential equations, and present some recent results about higher order resonant dierential equations. 1 Introduction In the last years

De Nápoli, Pablo Luis

278

Numerical Methods for Stiff Ordinary Differential  

E-print Network

order differential equation y (x) = f(x, y (x)). Substituting y (x) = z(x), one obtains a first order. The notation of stiffness comes from the consideration of first order systems of ordinary differential equations. There are some connections of such systems to ordinary differential equations of higher order, e

John, Volker

279

Ordinary Differential Equations 1 An Oscillating Pendulum  

E-print Network

Ordinary Differential Equations 1 An Oscillating Pendulum applying the forward Euler method using 1 / 39 #12;Ordinary Differential Equations 1 An Oscillating Pendulum applying the forward Euler Equations 4 October 2013 2 / 39 #12;a simple pendulum Imagine a sphere attached to a massless rod oscilating

Verschelde, Jan

280

FE2713 Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) 1 FE2713 Ordinary Least Squares (OLS)  

E-print Network

FE2713 Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) 1 FE2713 Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) Ordinary least squares (OLS), also known as the method of least squares, is a technique used to determine how one quantity Y relationship that holds between X and Y . OLS provides such a linear relationship that is optimal in a sense

Magdon-Ismail, Malik

281

Phyllosilicates in the Carbonaceous Chondrite Breccia Kaidun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kaidun appears to predominantly be a CR chondrite, containing other diverse components, including enstatite chondrites. Previous observations indicate that the dominant phyllosilicates in Kaidun are serpentine and saponite, suggesting that the Kaidun parent body has undergone aqueous alteration [1]. Phyllosilicates in the smectite group are important in that they act as ion exchangers, which can retain alkali metal, alkaline earth, or ammonium ions in their interlayers in exchangeable form while their structure may contain hydroxyl groups derived from the aqueous alteration process. The purpose of this investigation was to study the layer charge of these smectites and to make an attempt to understand the interlayer chemistry, which was the result of rock-water interaction in its parent body. An alkylammonium method coupled with high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) was used to study layer charge and the electron microprobe was used to study the composition and the interlayer chemistry of phyllosilicates. Ultramicrotomed Kaidun matrix samples (on TEEM grids) were pretreated with C12-alkylammonium solutions [2]. This procedure was performed to expand and stabilize the smectite (e.g., saponite) for HRTEM study and permit characterization of the relative charge density of the interlayer sites. This latter feature is a potentially important indicator of the environment of the Kaidun parent body (probably a hydrous asteroid). Recent work by Ming et al. [2] shows that the basal lattice fringes of C12-alkylammonium treated saponites in Kaidun meteorite are typically 1.3-1.4 nm, which indicates low-charged interlayer sites. However, in this study saponites with much larger layer spacing (1.3-2.6 nm, mostly 2 nm) were observed. suggesting the presence of high-charge interlayer sites. Another distinct feature observed in this study is that saponite is clearly the dominant phyllosilicate phase in some Kaidun matrix lithologies, with serpentine being rarely observed. In contrast, most reported Kaidun and CR lithologies have approximately subequal amounts of saponite and serpentine in matrix. Phyllosilicates in Kaidun are commonly associated with sulfides; no phyllosilicates have been observed as direct overgrowths on olivine or pyroxene. Microprobe analyses of coarse-grained Kaidun saponites indicate that the majority of the exchangeable cations in the saponites studied are Mg2+ and Ca2+, with mior Na+. However, since the results of this study suggest that the saponite in Kaidun has a highly charged interlayer environment, one might speculate that any ammonium (NH4+) if present in the original parent body atmosphere or the reacting solution might be fixed in the interlayers. High- charge smectites are known to fix ammonium ions from solution [3]. There is spectroscopic evidence for ammonium-bearing phases on asteroid Ceres 1 [4]. Most carbonaceous chondrites are known to contain relatively high amounts of nitrogen (up to 3000 ppm) [5]. In order to detect if any of this N is in NH4+ form in the interlayers, we set up our Cameca electron microprobe to detect the nitrogen K-alpha X-ray peak using an ODPB crystal of a wavelength dispersive spectrometer. No nitrogen peak was positively identified on the carbonaceous matrix, nor on any saponites, although it is possible that the electron beam neutralized and evaporated any NH4+ cations before detection. In conclusion, the phyllosilicates in Kaidun are heterogeneously distributed from clast to clast, with highly charged saponite predominating in some clasts; serpentine and saponite are more nearly equally abundant in other clasts. No nitrogen was positively detected in the matrix or in any components in Kaidun by the electron microprobe in this study, although further studies of Kaidun phyllosilicates are in progress. References: [1] Zolensky M. and McSween H. Y. Jr. (1988) in Meteorites and the Early Solar System, Univ. of Arizona, 114-143. [2] Ming D. W. et. al. (1992) LPSC XXIII, 913-914. [3] Krishnamoorthy C. and Overstreet R. (1950) Soil Sci., 69, 41-53. [4] King T.

Yang, S. V.; Zolensky, M.; Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Ivanov, A.

1993-07-01

282

Shock Effects in Olivine from Mocs Chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mocs (syn. Moci) meteorite, classified as L6 chondrite by Van Schmus and Wood [1] and recently reclassified as L5-6 by Miura et al. [2], fell on February 3, 1882, 16.00 hrs. , over a large area (15 km by 3 km) in Transylvania (Cluj District). Olivine from six fragments of the Mocs chondrite was analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis and X-ray powder diffractometry. Olivine occurs as grains in matrix or chondrules: barred olivine chondrules, composed of parallel sets of prismatic olivine crystals and devitrified glass and porphyritic olivine chondrules, which consist mainly of fine-grained olivine crystals and glassy materials of feldspsr composition. In order to determine the mineralogical and chemical effects of shock metamorphism (induced by collisions in space of the Mocs chondrite parent body), in every thin section, ten to twenty of the largest, randomly distributed olivine single crystals were examined by optical polarizing microscope with 20X- or 40X- objectives [3] and with a JEOL JSM-5400 scanning electron microscope for higher magnifications. The mineralogical effects observed are: undulatory extinction, irregular fractures, planar fractures, mosaicism and planar deformation features. These, correlated with the presence of small amounts of maskelynite (An 12-19) indicate that the maximum shock degree this meteorite experienced was S-5 [3]. The quantitative chemical analysis of 77 olivine grains in matrix from all thin sections (6), determined by a JEOL JSM-5400 scanning electron microscope with JED 2001 energy dispersive X-ray analysis at the Yamaguchi University, shows a variation in composition from Fa23 to Fa27 mole % fayalite (Avg. Fa25; PMD 2.3%), indicative of the L-group. The Fayalite content of olivine from chondrules ranges from Fa23 to Fa27 (Avg. Fa25; PMD 1.74%). According to DEER et al. [4], olivine composition can be measured also by X-ray powder diffractometry as Fa (mol per cent) = 100-(4233.91-1494.59 x d130). By using a RIGAKU computer assisted-diffractometer (radiation Cu K alpha = 1.54059) at the Yamaguchi University, the d130 value of olivine from Mocs meteorite was calculated as 2.781 A and the fayalite content as Fa23 mole % fayalite (Forsterite-ferroan as of IMA files, 1993) consistent also with the L-group. The cell parameters and density determined from the X-ray diffraction pattern are: a=4.779; b=10.297; c=6.032; V=296.857 and Dx=3.446 g/cm3. References: [1] Van Schmus W. R. and Wood J. A. (1967) GCA, 31, 747-765. [2] Miura Y. et al. (1995) Proc. NIPR Symp. Antarct. Meteorites, 8, in press. [3] Stoffler D. et al. (1991) GCA, 55, 3845-3867. [4] Deer W. A. et al. (1992) 2nd edition, 4.

Iancu, O. G.; Miura, Y.; Iancu, G.

1995-09-01

283

Amoeboid olivine aggregates from CH carbonaceous chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) in CH carbonaceous chondrites are texturally and mineralogically similar to those in other carbonaceous chondrite groups. They show no evidence for alteration and thermal metamorphism in an asteroidal setting and consist of nearly pure forsterite (Fa<3; in wt%, CaO = 0.1-0.8, Cr2O3 = 0.04-0.48; MnO < 0.5), anorthite, Al-diopside (in wt%, Al2O3 = 0.7-8.1; TiO2 < 1), Fe,Ni-metal, spinel, and, occasionally, low-Ca pyroxene (Fs1Wo2-3), and calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). The CAIs inside AOAs are composed of hibonite, grossite, melilite (Åk13-44), spinel, perovskite, Al,Ti-diopside (in wt%, Al2O3 up to 19.6; TiO2 up to 13.9), and anorthite. The CH AOAs, including CAIs within AOAs, have isotopically uniform 16O-rich compositions (average ?17O = -23.4 ± 2.3‰, 2SD) and on a three-isotope oxygen diagram plot along ?slope-1 line. The only exception is a low-Ca pyroxene-bearing AOA 1-103 that shows a range of ?17O values, from -24‰ to -13‰. Melilite, grossite, and hibonite in four CAIs within AOAs show no evidence for radiogenic 26Mg excess (?26Mg). In contrast, anorthite in five out of six AOAs measured has ?26Mg corresponding to the inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratio of (4.3 ± 0.7) × 10-5, (4.2 ± 0.6) × 10-5, (4.0 ± 0.3) × 10-5, (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10-5, and (3.0 ± 2.6) × 10-6. Anorthite in another AOA shows no resolvable ?26Mg excess; an upper limit on the initial 26Al/27Al ratio is 5 × 10-6. We infer that CH AOAs formed by gas-solid condensation and aggregation of the solar nebula condensates (forsterite and Fe,Ni-metal) mixed with the previously formed CAIs. Subsequently they experienced thermal annealing and possibly melting to a small degree in a 16O-rich gaseous reservoir during a brief epoch of CAI formation. The low-Ca pyroxene-bearing AOA 1-103 may have experienced incomplete melting and isotope exchange in an 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. The lack of resolvable ?26Mg excess in melilite, grossite, and hibonite in CAIs within AOAs reflects heterogeneous distribution of 26Al in the solar nebula during this epoch. The observed variations of the inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios in anorthite of the mineralogically pristine and uniformly 16O-rich CH AOAs could have recorded (i) admixing of 26Al in the protoplanetary disk during the earliest stages of its evolution and/or (ii) closed-system Mg-isotope exchange between anorthite and Mg-rich minerals (spinel, forsterite, and Al-diopside) during subsequent prolonged (days-to-weeks) thermal annealing at high temperature (?1100 °C) and slow cooling rates (?0.01 K h-1) that has not affected their O-isotope systematics. The proposed thermal annealing may have occurred in an impact-generated plume invoked for the origin of non-porphyritic magnesian chondrules and Fe,Ni-metal grains in CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites about 5 Myr after formation of CV CAIs.

Krot, Alexander N.; Park, Changkun; Nagashima, Kazuhide

2014-08-01

284

Distinct Purine Distribution in Carbonaceous Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are known to contain a diverse suite of organic compounds, many of which are essential components of biochemistry. Amino acids, which are the monomers of proteins, have been extensively studied in such meteorites (e.g. Botta and Bada 2002; Pizzarello et aI., 2006). The origin of amino acids in meteorites has been firmly established as extraterrestrial based on their detection typically as racemic mixtures of amino acids, the presence of many non-protein amino acids, and non-terrestrial values for compound-specific deuterium, carbon, and nitrogen isotopic measurements. In contrast to amino acids, nucleobases in meteorites have been far less studied. Nucleobases are substituted one-ring (pyrimidine) or two-ring (purine) nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and serve as the information carriers of nucleic acids and in numerous coenzymes. All of the purines (adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine) and pyrimidines (uracil) previously reported in meteorites are biologically common and could be interpreted as the result of terrestrial contamination (e.g. van del' Velden and Schwartz, 1974.) Unlike other meteoritic organics, there have been no observations of stochastic molecular diversity of purines and pyrimidines in meteorites, which has been a criterion for establishing extraterrestrial origin. Maltins et al. (2008) performed compound-specific stable carbon isotope measurements for uracil and xanthine in the Murchison meteorite. They assigned a non-terrestrial origin for these nucleobases; however, the possibility that interfering indigenous molecules (e.g. carboxylic acids) contributed to the 13C-enriched isotope values for these nucleobases cannot be completely ruled out. Thus, the origin of these meteoritic nucleobases has never been established unequivocally. Here we report on our investigation of extracts of II different carbonaceous chondrites covering various petrographic types (Cl, CM, and CR) and degrees of aqueous alteration (l, 2, and 3) and one ureilite. Analysis via liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray triple-stage mass spectrometry or orbitrap mass spectrometry employed a targeted approach for analysis focused on the five canonical RNA/DNA nucleobases as well as 14 non-canonical pyrimidines and purines, which have bcen observed under plausible prebiotic reactions.

Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Ruzicka, Josef; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; House, Christopher H.; Dworkin, Jason P.

2011-01-01

285

Is the Chondritic Earth model still viable? (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the discovery by Boyet and Carlson in 2005 that the terrestrial 142Nd\\144Nd ratio is about 20 ? units higher than chondrites, papers with four different ideas explaining the observed difference have appeared in the literature. The first idea is that there is an early differentiated hidden reservoir on earth (Boyet & Carlson, 2005, 2006; Andreasen & Sharma, 2006, 2007; Andreasen et al., 2008; Carlson & Boyet, 2008). The second idea is that the solar nebula was isotopically heterogeneous (Ranen and Jacobsen, 2006). The third idea explains the isotope ratio difference as resulting from fractionation between Sm and Nd during condensation of solid materials from a nebula with higher Sm/Nd ratio (Allegre et al., 2008). The fourth idea suggests large-scale rare earth element fractionation following nebular condensation and possibly during the planetary accretionary phase (O’Neill & Palme, 2008; Warren, 2008). This last idea has gained currency as it has been argued that Mars is non-chondritic Sm/Nd ratio (Bourdon et al., 2008; Caro et al, 2008) and therefore the Earth-Moon system is also non-chondritic. All above scenarios, except for the first one imply a non-chondritic earth and therefore change the fundamental benchmark parameters against which we have been assessing the sense and magnitude of terrestrial evolution over thirty years. Is this really needed? How can we test some of the non-chondritic scenarios? If not, should we be seriously considering them even if they appear to be aesthetically appealing? In this paper I will review each of these scenarios and demonstrate why a chondritic earth model still remains attractive and provides testable explanations of the observed excess of 142Nd in terrestrial upper mantle over chondrites.

Sharma, M.

2009-12-01

286

Extinct I-129 in C3 chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight C3 chondrites were examined by the I-129 to Xe-129 dating method to determine whether their initial I-129/I-127 ratios, or R(0), correlate with any other properties. The R(0)'s range from 1.60 x 10 to the -4th to 1.09 x 10 to the -4th, corresponding to I to Xe ages from 2.0 Myr before to 6.7 Myr after the Murchison magnetite. Three C30's have essentially indistinguishable R(0)'s, while a fourth is undatable. Four C3V's show a distinct spread, ranging from 1.60 + or 0.07 x 10 to the -4th to 1.09 + or - 0.10 x 10 to the -4th. These R(0)'s correlate inversely with four other properties: I, Br, and Cd content, olivine composition, both percent mean deviation, and proportion of iron-poor olivine grains. The simplest model that accounts for the correlations with R(0) involves mixing of two iodine components in the solar nebula, associated with gas and grains, respectively. The second, of lower I-129/I-127 ratio, predominated at later times and thus became enriched in late-formed meteorites.

Crabb, J.; Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.

1982-01-01

287

Exposure history of H5 chondrite Gujargaon  

SciTech Connect

Cosmic-ray-produced tracks, He and Ne isotopes, and radionuclides have been studied in the recently fallen H5 chondrite Gujargaon. The results indicate an exposure age of about 7 Ma. The high track production rates of 0.25 to 690,000/sq cm per Ma suggest that the Gujargaon meteoroid had a small size, R(E) = 9-10 cm, in space and suffered 1-3 cm ablation in the atmosphere. The conclusion about the meteoroid size is supported by the low activity of neutron capture isotope Co-60 and high spallogenic Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio of about 1.25. The data on long lived isotopes Be-10, Mn-53, and Al-26 are used to derive production rates of these isotopes in a rock having a radius of 9 cm, and the activity levels of the short lived isotopes Na-22 and Mn-54 are used to estimate the effect of modulation of galactic cosmic rays at the time of solar maximum of 1982. 25 references.

Bhandari, N.; Padia, J.T.; Rao, M.N.; Shukla, P.N.; Suthar, K.M.

1988-06-01

288

Shock Heating: Effects on Chondritic Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the 1994 Conference on Chondrules and the Protoplanetary Disk, shock waves were discussed as mechanisms that may have been responsible for forming chondrules, millimeter-sized igneous spheres which are significant components of chondritic meteorites, and references therein]. At the time, shock waves were appealing because they were thought to be brief, repetitive events that were quantitatively shown to be able to rapidly heat silicates to the appropriate temperatures for chondrule formation. Since that meeting, more detailed models for the thermal processing of material in shock waves have been developed. These models have tracked the thermal evolution of the silicates for longer periods of time and found that their cooling rates are also consistent with what has been inferred for chondrules. In addition to the thermal histories of these particles, shock waves may be able to explain a number of other features observed in primitive meteorites. Here, we review the recent work that has been done in studying the interaction of solids with shock waves in the solar nebula.

Desch, S. J.; Ciesla, F. J.; Hood, L. L.; Nakamoto, T.

2004-01-01

289

Application of an alkylammonium method for characterization of phyllosilicates in CI chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) with primitive compositions contain significant amounts of phyllosilicates, which are generally interpreted as evidence of protoplanetary aqueous alteration at an early period in the solar system. These meteorites are chondrites of the carbonaceous and ordinary varieties. Characterization of phyllosilicates in these materials is important because of the important physico-chemical information they hold, e.g., from well characterized phyllosilicates, thermodynamic stability relations and hence the conditions of formation of phyllosilicates in the parent body of the meteorite can be predicted. Although we are at a rudimentary level of understanding of the minerals resulting from the aqueous alteration in the early solar nebula, we know that the most common phyllosilicates present in chondritic extraterrestrial materials are serpentines, smectites, chlorites, and micas. The characterization of fine grained minerals in meteorites and IDP's rely heavily on electron beam instruments, especially transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Typically, phyllosilicates are identified by a combination of high resolution imaging of basal spacings, electron diffraction analysis, and chemical analysis. Smectites can be difficult to differentiate from micas because the smectites loose their interlayer water and the interlayers collapse to the same basal spacing as mica in the high vacuum of the TEM. In high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) images, smectite basal spacings vary from 1 nm up to 1.5 nm, while micas show 1 or 2 nm basal spacings. Not only is it difficult to differentiate smectites from micas, but there is no way of identifying different classes of smectites in meteorites and IDP's. To differentiate smectites from micas and also to recognize the charge differences among smectites, an alkylammonium method can be employed because the basal spacings of alkylammonium saturated smectites expand as a function of alkylamine chain length and the layer-charge density of the 2:1 expanding phyllosilicate, and the final product is significantly more stable under electron beam examination. Such a method was tested on standard clays and several meteorite samples using four alkylammonium salts.

Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Zolensky, M. E.; Yang, S. V.

1994-01-01

290

Spade: An H Chondrite Impact-melt Breccia that Experienced Post-shock Annealing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The low modal abundances of relict chondrules (1.8 Vol%) and of coarse (i.e. >= 2200 micron-size) isolated mafic silicate grains (1.8 Vol%) in Spade relative to mean H6 chondrites (11.4 and 9.8 vol%, respectively) show Spade to be a rock that has experienced a significant degree of melting. Various petrographic features (e.g., chromite-plagioclase assemblages, chromite veinlets, silicate darkening) indicate that melting was caused by shock. Plagioclase was melted during the shock event and flowed so that it partially to completely surrounded nearby mafic silicate grains. During crystallization, plagioclase developed igneous zoning. Low-Ca pyroxene that crystallized from the melt (or equilibrated with the melt at high temperatures) acquired relatively high amounts of CaO. Metallic Fe-Ni cooled rapidly below the Fe-Ni solws and transformed into martensite. Subsequent reheating of the rock caused transformation of martensite into abundant duplex plessite. Ambiguities exist in the shock stage assignment of Spade. The extensive silicate darkening, the occurrence of chromite-plagioclase assemblages, and the impact-melted characteristics of Spade are consistent with shock stage S6. Low shock (stage S2) is indicated by the undulose extinction and lack of planar fractures in olivine. This suggests that Spade reached a maximum prior shock level equivalent to stage S6 and then experienced post-shock annealing (probably to stage Sl). These events were followed by a less intense impact that produced the undulose extinction in the olivine, characteristic of shock stage S2. Annealing could have occurred if Spade were emplaced near impact melts beneath the crater floor or deposited in close proximity to hot debris within an ejecta blanket. Spade firmly establishes the case for post-shock annealing. This may have been a common process on ordinary chondrites (OC) asteroids.

Rubin, Alan E.; Jones, Rhian H.

2006-01-01

291

NWA 4415 and 4416: Two New Enstatite Chondrites from Northwest Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new enstatite chondrites, NWA 4415 and 4416, have been recovered in Northwest Africa. Recovery, textural and compositional data suggest a classification as enstatite chondrites (EL6) and a possible pairing.

Moggi-Cecchi, V.; Pratesi, G.; Franchi, I. A.; Greenwood, R. C.

2010-03-01

292

Speciation of sulfur in the insoluble organic matter from carbonaceous chondrites by XANES spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Speciation of sulfur in the insoluble organic matter from carbonaceous chondrites by XANES-edge XANES aqueous alteration carbonaceous chondrites oxidation sulfur speciation Sulfur speciation speciation was detected. This suggests tenuous oxidation processes and a low-temperature aqueous alteration

293

The Nature and Extent of the Fusion Crust in Carbonaceous Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to ablate a chondrite depends of its specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity, but both parameters are linked with their bulk properties. We are studying the thermal properties of chondritic materials by different approaches.

Moreno-Ibáñez, M.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.

2014-09-01

294

Ordinary Stoichiometry of Extraordinary Microbes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life on Earth seems to be composed of the same chemical elements in relatively conserved stoichiometric proportions. However, this observation is largely based on observations of biota from habitats spanning a moderate range of temperature and chemical composition (e.g., temperate lakes, forests, grasslands, oceanic phytoplankton). Whether this stoichiometry is conserved in settings that differ radically from such "normal" planetary settings may provide insight into the habitability of environments with radically different stoichiometries, and into possible stoichiometries for putative life beyond Earth. Here we report the first measurements of elemental stoichiometries of microbial extremophiles from hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP). These phototrophic and chemotrophic microbes were collected in locations spanning large ranges of temperature (ambient to boiling) and pH (1 to 9). Microbial biomass was carefully extracted from hot spring sediment substrata following a procedure adapted from [1], which conserves cellular elemental abundances [2]. Their C and N contents were determined by Elemental Analysis Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry, and their P and trace element (Mg, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, and non-biogenic Al and Ti) contents were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Residual mineral contamination was an issue in some samples with low measured C and N; we eliminated these from our results. Even in the remaining samples, contamination sometimes prevented accurate determinations of cellular Mg, Ca, Mn, and Fe abundances; however, the cellular Ni, Cu, Zn, and Mo contents were several-fold above contamination level. Although hot spring water and sediment elemental abundances varied by orders of magnitude, the data showed that the extremophiles have a major and trace element stoichiometry similar to those previously measured in "normal" microbial biomass [3-6]. For example, biomass C:N:P ratios resembled those commonly observed in temperate lakes (e.g., C:P ratios of 260 to 1600 and N:P ratios of 35 to 200) while cellular C:Fe ratios were of a similar magnitude to those of marine phytoplankton. Exceptions were Al and Ti, much higher than previously measured, likely because of contamination from residual sediment. Moreover, the low phosphorus contents (high C:P and N:P ratios) are suggestive of limited P supply. Chemotrophs and phototrophs had similar elemental compositions to one another, although Mg, Mn, Ni, and Zn abundances were higher and nearly constant in phototrophs, due to their importance in phototrophic metabolism. Despite the tremendous physical and chemical diversity of YNP environments, the stoichiometry of life in these settings is surprisingly ordinary. Thus, our study supports the view that the biological stoichiometry of life is heavily constrained by the elemental composition of core biomolecules, and that even life in extreme environments must operate within these constraints. In the frame of life detection in exotic locales, these results suggest a general elemental biosignature for life as we know it. References: [1] Amalfitano and Fazi. 2008. J. Microbiol. Meth. 75:237 [2] Neveu et al. L&O: Meth., in review [3] Ho et al. 2003. J. Phycol. 39:1145 [4] Nuester et al. 2012. Front. Microbiol. 3:150 [5] Sterner and Elser. 2002. Ecological Stoichiometry. Princeton U. Press [6] Twining et al. 2011. Deep-Sea Res. II 58:325

Neveu, M.; Poret-Peterson, A. T.; Anbar, A. D.; Elser, J. J.

2013-12-01

295

Northwest Africa 428: Impact-induced Annealing of an L6 Chondrite Breccia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Northwest Africa (NWA) 428 is an L chondrite that was successively thermally metamorphosed to petrologic type-6, shocked to stage S4-S5, brecciated, and annealed to approximately petrologic type-4. Its thermal and shock history resembles that of the previously studied LL6 chondrite, Miller Range (MIL) 99301, which formed on a different asteroid. The petrologic type-6 classification of NWA 428 is based on its highly recrystallized texture, coarse metal (150 +/- 150 micron), troilite (100 +/- 170 micron), and plagioclase (20-60 micron) grains, and relatively homogeneous olivine (Fa(sub 24.4 +/- 0.6)), low-Ca pyroxene (FS(sub 2.5+/- 0,4) , and plagioclase (Ab(sub 84.2 +/- 0.4) compositions. The petrographic criteria that indicate shock stage S4-S5 include the presence of chromite veinlets, chromite-plagioclase assemblages, numerous occurrences of metallic Cu, irregular troilite grains within metallic Fe-Ni, polycrystalline troilite, duplex plessite, metal and troilite veins, large troilite nodules, and low-Ca clinopyroxene with polysynthetic twins. If the rock had been shocked before thermal metamorphism, low-Ca clinopyroxene produced by the shock event would have transformed into orthopyroxene. Post-shock brecciation is indicated by the presence of recrystallized clasts and highly shocked clasts that form sharp boundaries with the host. Post-shock annealing is indicated by the sharp optical extinction of the olivine grains; during annealing, the damaged olivine crystal lattices healed. If temperatures exceeded those approximating petrologic type-4 (approximately 600-700 C) during annealing, the low-Ca clinopyroxene would have transformed into orthopyroxene. The other shock indicators, likewise, survived the mild annealing. An impact event is the most plausible source of post-metamorphic, post-shock annealing because any A1-26 that may have been present when the asteroid accreted would have decayed away by the time NWA 428 was annealed. The similar inferred histories of NWA 428 (L6) and MIL 99301 (LL6) indicate that impact heating affected more than 1 ordinary chondrite parent body.

Rubin, Alan E.

2006-01-01

296

A collisional origin to Earth's non-chondritic composition?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several lines of evidence indicate a non-chondritic composition for bulk Earth. If Earth formed from the accretion of chondritic material, its non-chondritic composition, in particular the super-chondritic 142Nd /144Nd and low Mg/Fe ratios, might be explained by the collisional erosion of differentiated planetesimals during its formation. In this work we use an N-body code, that includes a state-of-the-art collision model, to follow the formation of protoplanets, similar to proto-Earth, from differentiated planetesimals (>100 km) up to isolation mass (>0.16 M?). Collisions between differentiated bodies have the potential to change the core-mantle ratio of the accreted protoplanets. We show that sufficient mantle material can be stripped from the colliding bodies during runaway and oligarchic growth, such that the final protoplanets could have Mg/Fe and Si/Fe ratios similar to that of bulk Earth, but only if Earth is an extreme case and the core is assumed to contain 10% silicon by mass. This may indicate an important role for collisional differentiation during the giant impact phase if Earth formed from chondritic material.

Bonsor, Amy; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Carter, Philip J.; Elliott, Tim; Walter, Michael J.; Stewart, Sarah T.

2015-02-01

297

Primitive Fine-Grained Matrix in the Unequilbrated Enstatite Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enstatite chondrites (EC) have important implications for constraining conditions in the early solar system and for understanding the evolution of the Earth and other inner planets. They are among the most reduced solar system materials as reflected in their mineral compositions and assemblage. They are the only chondrites with oxygen as well as Cr, Ti, Ni and Zn stable isotope compositions similar to the earth and moon and most are completely dry, lacking any evidence of hydrous alteration; the only exception are EC clasts in the Kaidun breccia which have hydrous minerals. Thus, ECs likely formed within the snow line and are good candidates to be building blocks of the inner planets. Our goals are to provide a more detailed characterization the fine-grained matrix in E3 chondrites, understand its origin and relationship to chondrules, decipher the relationship between EH and EL chondrites and compare E3 matrix to matrices in C and O chondrites as well as other fine-grained solar system materials. Is E3 matrix the dust remaining from chondrule formation or a product of parent body processing or both?

Weisberg, M. K.; Zolensky, M. E.; Kimura, M.; Ebel, D. S.

2014-01-01

298

Consortium study of the unusual H chondrite regolith breccia, Noblesville  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Noblesville meteorite is a genomict, regolith breccia (H6 clasts in H4 matrix). Moessbauer analysis confirms that Noblesville is unusually fresh, not surprising in view of its recovery immediately after its fall. It resembles 'normal' H4-6 chondrites in its chemical composition and induced thermoluminescence (TL) levels. Thus, at least in its contents of volatile trace elements, Noblesville differs from other H chondrite, class A regolith breccias. Noblesville's small pre-atmospheric mass and fall near solar maximum and/or its peculiar orbit (with perihelion less than 0.8 AU as shown by natural TL intensity) may partly explain its levels of cosmogenic radionuclides. Its cosmic ray exposure age of about 44 Ma is long, is equalled or exceeded by less than 3 percent of all H chondrites, and also differs from the 33 +/- 3 Ma mean exposure age peak of other H chondrite regolith breccias. While Noblesville is now among the chondritic regolithic breccias richest in solar gases, elemental ratios indicate some loss, especially of He, perhaps by impacts in the regolith that heated individual grains. While general shock-loading levels in Noblesville did not exceed 4 GPa, individual clasts record shock levels of 5-10 GPa, doubtless acquired prior to lithification of the whole-rock meteoroid.

Lipschutz, Michael E.; Wolf, Stephen F.; Vogt, Stephan; Michlovich, Edward; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Satterwhite, Cecilia; Schultz, Ludolf; Loeken, Thomas

1993-01-01

299

Magnetic evidence for a partially differentiated carbonaceous chondrite parent body  

PubMed Central

The textures of chondritic meteorites demonstrate that they are not the products of planetary melting processes. This has long been interpreted as evidence that chondrite parent bodies never experienced large-scale melting. As a result, the paleomagnetism of the CV carbonaceous chondrite Allende, most of which was acquired after accretion of the parent body, has been a long-standing mystery. The possibility of a core dynamo like that known for achondrite parent bodies has been discounted because chondrite parent bodies are assumed to be undifferentiated. Resolution of this conundrum requires a determination of the age and timescale over which Allende acquired its magnetization. Here, we report that Allende’s magnetization was acquired over several million years (Ma) during metasomatism on the parent planetesimal in a >  ? 20 ?T field up to approximately 9—10 Ma after solar system formation. This field was present too recently and directionally stable for too long to have been generated by the protoplanetary disk or young Sun. The field intensity is in the range expected for planetesimal core dynamos, suggesting that CV chondrites are derived from the outer, unmelted layer of a partially differentiated body with a convecting metallic core.

Carporzen, Laurent; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Shuster, David L.; Ebel, Denton; Gattacceca, Jérôme

2011-01-01

300

A Distinctive Silica-Rich, Sodium-Poor Igneous Clast in the Bovedy (L3) Chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Description of Bo-1. One slab of the Bovedy (L3) chondrite contains a large (~ 4 x 7 mm) white object that in hand specimen resembles the generally chondritic lithic fragment studied by Rubin et al. (1981). However, SEM, and EMPA studies of this object, designated Bo-1, reveal an unusually Si-rich, Na-poor bulk composition that is manifested by the presence of a silica mineral, the complete absence of olivine, and feldspar that is less sodic than usual for ordinary chondrites. The clast is a highly crystalline igneous rock and exhibits a well-defined crystallization sequence. Orthopyroxene (opx) comprises 83.8 vol% of Bo-1 and is zoned from En(sub)92-85 Wo(sub)0.1-0.2 to En(sub)74 Wo(sub)1.9-2.9. The more magnesian, less calcic opx was the first phase to crystallize in Bo-1. A silica mineral (SiO2, 6.2 vol%), probably either tridymite or cristobalite, crystallized next and appears slightly "corroded" (and veined) by clinopyroxene, suggesting minor reaction between the silica mineral and its surroundings. A small amount (1 vol%) of euhedral-subhedral pigeonite (pig) also crystallized about this time. Plagioclase (plag) was the last phase to join the crystallization sequence and consists of a fine-scale, often lamellar, intergrowth of bytownite-labradorite (5.8 vol%, mainly An(sub)70- 75Or(sub)1-03) and oligoclase (3.1 vol%, mainly An(sub)15-24 Or(sub)13-6). The latter deviates from feldspar stoichiometry and may be partly amorphous. Volumetrically insignificant augite (aug) occurs as (exsolution?) patches within opx, as thin veinlets crossing SiO(sub)2 grains, and as thin rims at the interface of SiO(sub)2 and plag. The rimming and veining aug may have crystallized together with plag from the last liquid in the rock. Minor chromite (0.2 vol%) and trace metal and sulfide are also present. Bulk composition of Bo-1. The composition of the clast was determined by combining SEM modal data with EMPA data for each phase. The calculated composition (in wt%) is: SiO2, 57.05, TiO2, 0.04, Al2O3, 3.41, Cr2O3, 0.47, FeO, 11.12, MnO, 0.29, MgO, 25.4, CaO, 1.64, Na2O, 0.47, K2O, 0.07, P2O5, 0.01 and NiO, 0.02. Compared to the host chondrite and to most chondrules in ordinary chondrites, SiO2 is distinctly high and Na2O is very low. TiO2 and especially P2O5 also appear relatively low. Pseudoternary liquidus diagrams given by Morse (1980) may be used to evaluate the petrogenesis of Bo-1. The bulk clast composition projects within the protoenstatite or opx primary crystallization field at T(sub)liquidus ~ 1450-1500 degrees C. Equilibrium crystallization of this melt results in a predicted crystallization sequence that agrees with the observed texture: opx (or protoenstatite) - opx + SiO2 (+ pig) - opx + SiO2 + plag (+ aug). Cooling of the Bo-1 liquid was evidently slow enough to allow an approach to equilibrium but fast enough to prevent complete homogenization of opx. The silicic composition of the clast can be generated by extensive olivine and some opx fractionation from the silicate portion of an extensively melted L-chondrite precursor; the depletion of Na suggests that melting was accompanied by some volatile loss. The heating event involved high temperatures (T ~ 1550-1600 degrees C). Extensive olivine fractionation implies that crystallization occurred in a relatively large magma body and a substantial gravitational field. Crystallization of the residual liquids following olivine fractionation more closely approached equilibrium, probably because of an increase in melt viscosity as the magma cooled and the residual melt became more silicic. Acknowledgement: The writers wish to thank R. Farrell for the generous sample of Bovedy. Morse S.A. (1980) Basalts and Phase Diagrams. An Introduction to the Quantitative Use of Phase Diagrams in Igneous Petrology. Springer-Verlag. 493 pp. Rubin A.E., K. Keil, G.J. Taylor, M.-S. Ma, R.A. Schmitt and D.D. Bogard (1981) Derivation of a heterogeneous lithic fragment in the Bovedy L-group chondrite from impact-melted porphyritic chondrules. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 45, 2213-2228.

Ruzicka, A.; Boynton, W. V.

1992-07-01

301

Fire Classifications Fires involving the ordinary  

E-print Network

Fire Classifications Fires involving the ordinary combustible materials such as wood, cloth, paper, plastics, etc. Fires involving combustible or flammable liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, oils, grease, paints and chemicals. Fires involving energized electrical equipment such as appliances, including

Jia, Songtao

302

Iodine-Xenon Systematics of Mineral Separates from the Ordinary Chondrite Allegan and the Acapulcoite Dhofar 125  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present I-Xe data for mineral separates from Allegan (H5) and Dhofar 125 (acapulcoite). Metals show younger ages (4500–4550 Ma) than silicates (Allegan:4563–4566 Ma and Dhofar 125: 4557.1 ± 0.5 Ma) for both meteorites.

Schönbächler, M.; Theis, K. J.; Crowther, S. A.; Gilmour, J. D.

2014-09-01

303

Chemical fractionations in meteorites--III. Major element fractionations in chondrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some 20 elements, including the major constituents of chondritic matter, are fractionated among the several chondrite classes. We have tried to explain these fractionations on the assumption that they occurred in the solar nebula, starting from material of carbonaceous chondrite composition. 1. (1) Lithophile elements (Al, Ca, Cr, Hf, Mg, Sc, Si, Th, Ti, U, Y, Zr, and lanthanides) may

J. W. Larimer; Edward Anders

1970-01-01

304

A Weathering Index for CK and R Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a new weathering index (wi) for the metallic-Fe-Ni-poor chondrite groups (CK and R) based mainly on transmitted light observations of the modal abundance of crystalline material that is stained brown in thin sections: wi-0, <5 vol%; wi-1, 5-25 vol%; wi-2,25-50 vol%; wi-3,50- 75 vol%; wi-4, 75-95 vol%; wi-5, >95 vol%, wi-6, significant replacement of mafic silicates by phyllosilicates. Brown staining reflects mobilization of oxidized iron derived mainly from terrestrial weathering of Ni-bearing sulfide. With increasing degrees of terrestrial weathering of CK and R chondrites, the sulfide modal abundance decreases, and S, Se, and Ni become increasingly depleted. In addition, bulk Cl increases in Antarctic CK chondrites, probably due to contamination from airborne sea mist.

Rubin, Alan E.; Huber, Heinz

2006-01-01

305

Organic Analysis of Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Type Synthesis Products: Are they Similar to Organics in Chondritic Meteorites?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) synthesis of organic compounds has been hypothesized to occur in the early solar nebula that formed our Solar System. FTT is a collection of abiotic chemical reactions that convert a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen over nano-catalysts into hydrocarbons and other more complex aromatic compounds. We hypothesized that FTT can generate similar organic compounds as those seen in chondritic meteorites; fragments of asteroids that are characteristic of the early solar system. Specific goals for this project included: 1) determining the effects of different FTT catalyst, reaction temperature, and cycles on organic compounds produced, 2) imaging of organic coatings found on the catalyst, and 3) comparison of organic compounds produced experimentally by FTT synthesis and those found in the ordinary chondrite LL5 Chelyabinsk meteorite. We used Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (PY-GCMS) to release organic compounds present in experimental FTT and meteorite samples, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to take images of organic films on catalyst grains.

Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Locke, Darren R.; Johnson, Natasha M.

2014-01-01

306

Petrology and classification of the Garraf, Spain chondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microscopic and electron microprobe studies indicate that the Garraf meteorite is a highly-recrystallized chondrite of petrologic type 6. Olivine (Fa24.7; PMD 1.1) and low-Ca pyroxene (Fs20.9; PMD 1.1) compositions indicate that it belongs to the L-group. Based on contents of noble gases, pervasive fracturing of silicates, common undulose extinction of olivine and plagioclase, and the lack of melt pockets and maskelynite, Garraf is placed into shock facies b. It is concluded that Garraf is a highly recrystallized L6b chondrite that, after recrystallization, was cataclased and comminuted by shock.

Keil, K.; Conrad, G. H.; King, E. A.; San Miguel, A.

1986-01-01

307

Nitrogen and light noble gases in Parsa enstatite chondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar gases have been recently reported in Parsa, an EH3 chondrite. In an effort to check whether solar gases are uniformly distributed throughout Parsa or they are located in specific phases, we analyzed two additional samples of bulk Parsa and one aubritic nodule for N and noble gases. Nitrogen studies are intended for the understanding of the nitrogen components distribution in E-chondrites. The N-systematics of the nodule are entirely different from the bulk samples. The higher N contents in this nodule, as well as its complex delta(sup 15)N structure, as compared to the normal aubrites, is suggestive that the nodule is not a genuine aubrite.

Murty, S. V. S.

1993-01-01

308

Hydrated interplanetary dust particle linked with carbonaceous chondrites?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of transmission electron microscope observations of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle (IDP) containing Fe-, Mg-rich smectite or mica as a major phase are reported. The sheet silicate appears to have formed by alteration of anhydrous silicates. Fassaite, a Ca, Al clinopyroxene, also occurs in this particle, and one of the crystals exhibits solar-flare tracks, clearly indicating that it is extraterrestrial. Fassaite is a major constituent of the Ca-, Al-rich refractory inclusions found in the carbonaceous chondrites, so its presence in this particle suggests that there may be a link between hydrated IDPs and carbonaceous chondrites in the early history of the solar system.

Tomeoka, K.; Buseck, P. R.

1985-01-01

309

Pyroxene structures, cathodoluminescence and the thermal history of the enstatite chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to explore the thermal history of enstatite chondrites, we examined the cathodoluminescence (CL) and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 15 EH chondrites and 21 EL chondrites, including all available petrographic types, both textural types 3-6 and mineralogical types alpha-delta. The CL properties of EL3(alpha) and EH3(alpha) chondrites are similar. Enstatite grains high in Mn and other transition metals display red CL, while enstatite with low concentrations of these elements show blue CL. A few enstatite grains with greater than 5 wt% FeO display no CL. In contrast, the luminescent properties of the metamorphosed EH chondrites are very different from those of metamorphosed EL chondrites. While the enstatites in metamorphosed EH chondrites display predominantly blue CL, the enstatites in metamorphosed EL chondrites display a distinctive magenta CL with blue and red peaks of approximately equal intensity in their spectra. The TL sensitivities of the enstatite chondrites correlate with the intensity of the blue CL and, unlike other meteorite classes, are not simply related to metamorphism. The different luminescent properties of metamorphosed EH and EL chondrites cannot readily be attributed to compositional differences. But x-ray diffraction data suggests that the enstatite in EH5(gamma),(delta) chondrites is predominantly disordered orthopyroxene, while enstatite in EL6(beta) chondrites is predominantly ordered orthopyroxene. The difference in thermal history of metamorphosed EL and EH chondrites is so marked that the use of single 'petrographic' types is misleading, and separate textural and mineralogical types are preferable. Our data confirm earlier suggestions that metamorphosed EH chondrites underwent relatively rapid cooling, and the metamorphosed EL chondrites cooled more slowly and experienced prolonged heating in the orthopyroxene field.

Zhang, Yanhong; Huang, Shaoxiong; Schneider, Diann; Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.; DeHart, John M.; Lofgren, Gary E.

1996-01-01

310

Annuities: Ordinary? Due? What do I do?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by John M. Wachowicz, Jr., Professor of Finance at the University of Tennessee, Annuities: Ordinary? Due? What do I do? is a wonderful tutorial that will help students of finance "better identify, understand, and calculate future and present values of both ordinary annuities and annuities due." The tutorial begins by citing resources found on the Internet, including online lectures and tutorials to start building users's basic knowledge of annuities. The second page covers the definitions of "annuity," "ordinary annuity," and "annuity due," and leads users through calculations to figure out what kind of annuities they are dealing with. The final page offers a multiple choice quiz, complete with a detailed answer key.

Wachowicz, John M., Jr.

311

L Chondrite meteorites: A compilation and preliminary analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compilation of those meteorites currently recognized as being L chondrites, exclusive of the numerous Antarctica finds, was made and is known as the L Chondrite Register. Data for these 576 meteorites was collected from a variety of sources, primarily the British Museum's Catalogue of Meteorites and the Appendix to the Catalogue of Meteorites. Also used was the Revised Cambridge Chondrite Compendium, which provided a convenient listing of L chondrites; other sources include Chinese Meteorites, Meteorites, by Wasson (1974), and the Meteoritical Bulletin of Meteoritics. This last source provided data for most recent falls and was referenced through March of 1982. All such data were recorded on a computer data file with a HP 2647A terminal, so that information could easily be retrieved and manipulated. For each meteorite, the petrographic class, location of find, fall date and hour, mass, mole per cent fayalite, weight per cent Fe, SiO2/MgO ratio, shock class, metal class, 4He abundance, UTh-H3 gas retention age, K-Ar gas retention age, and 21Ne cosmic ray exposure age, was recorded when known.

Silliman, A.

1984-05-01

312

L Chondrite meteorites: A compilation and preliminary analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compilation of those meteorites currently recognized as being L chondrites, exclusive of the numerous Antarctica finds, was made and is known as the L Chondrite Register. Data for these 576 meteorites was collected from a variety of sources, primarily the British Museum's Catalogue of Meteorites and the Appendix to the Catalogue of Meteorites. Also used was the Revised Cambridge Chondrite Compendium, which provided a convenient listing of L chondrites; other sources include Chinese Meteorites, Meteorites, by Wasson (1974), and the Meteoritical Bulletin of Meteoritics. This last source provided data for most recent falls and was referenced through March of 1982. All such data were recorded on a computer data file with a HP 2647A terminal, so that information could easily be retrieved and manipulated. For each meteorite, the petrographic class, location of find, fall date and hour, mass, mole per cent fayalite, weight per cent Fe, SiO2/MgO ratio, shock class, metal class, 4He abundance, UTh-H3 gas retention age, K-Ar gas retention age, and 21Ne cosmic ray exposure age, was recorded when known.

Silliman, A.

1984-01-01

313

Kinetics of volatile extraction from carbonaceous chondrites: Dehydration of talc  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonaceous chondrites are believed to be the primary constituents of near-Earth asteroids and Phobos and Deimos, and are potential resources of fuels that may be exploited for future planetary missions. Calculations of equilibrium phase relations suggest that talc (Ta) and antigorite (Ant) are likely to be the major hydrous phases in the C1 and C2 meteorites (Ganguly and Saxena, 1989), which constitute the most volatile rich classes of carbonaceous chondrites. The dehydration kinetics of talc are studied as a function of temperature, grain size, composition and fluid fugacity, as part of a systematic study of the reaction kinetics of the volatile bearing phases that are either known or likely to be present in carbonaceous chondrites. The dehydration kinetics were investigated at 1 bar, 775 to 875 C by monitoring the in-situ weight loss as a function of time of a natural talc. The talc platelets had a dimension of 0.8 to 1 micron. The run durations varied from 233.3 hours at 775 C (48 percent dehydration) to 20.8 hours at 875 C (80 pct. dehydration). The results can be adequately represented by a given rate equation. Theoretical analysis suggests that the reduction in the concentration of H2O in the environment of dehydrating talc, as would be encountered in processing chondritic materials, will have negligible effect on the rate of dehydration, unless there is a change of reaction mechanism owing to the presence of other volatile species.

Bose, Kunal; Ganguly, Jibamitra

1991-01-01

314

Shock and thermal history of iron and chondritic meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research grant included a study of the shock and thermal history of iron and chondritic meteorites. The important research findings are to be found in the 20 publications that were published as a result of the research support. A complete bibliographic reference to all these papers is given.

Goldstein, Joseph I.

1994-01-01

315

The abundances of arsenic, tin and antimony in chondritic meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundances of arsenic, tin and antimony in various classes of chondritic meteorites have been determined by neutron activation analysis. A simultaneous analytical procedure for As, Sn, and Sb was developed using anion-exchange chromatography in ammonium thiocyanate--hydrochloric acid media and was applied to the determination of these elements in a number of carbonaceous, enstatite, and \\

H. Hamaguchi; N. Onuma; Y. Hirao; H. Yokoyama; S. Bando; M. Furukawa

1969-01-01

316

An H4-6 chondrite - Motta DI Conti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineralogical and chemical compositions of meteorites from the Motta di Conti, Vercelli, Italy, shower (February 29, 1868) have been determined. Microprobe analyses of olivine (Fa19.6) and orthopyroxene (Fs17.8) and the bulk chemical composition, particularly the ratios of SiO2/MgO (1.50), Fe°/Ni° (11.03), Fetotal/SiO2 (0.81), Fe°/Fetotal(0.70)and the content of Fetotal (28.60%) classify the meteorite as an H-group chondrite. The percentage of total metallic nickel-iron (22.06 percent) is somewhat higher than the average in H-group chondrites. The texture of our stone shows evidence of metamorphism. The integration between matrix and chondrules is advanced and may suggest a high petrographic grade, but the identification of several microscopic features (e.g. small grains of monoclinic twinned pyroxene, FeNi-FeS intergrowths, globules and mosaic) leads to the conclusion that a variety of petrographic types (4-6) are present. Metamorphic equilibration in chondrites is discussed and a preliminary hypothesis for H4-6 chondrites is suggested.

Levi-Donati, G. R.; Maras, A.; Sighinolfi, G. P.

1980-09-01

317

Establishing a molecular relationship between chondritic and cometary organic solids  

PubMed Central

Multidimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy is used to refine the identification and abundance determination of functional groups in insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from a carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison, CM2). It is shown that IOM is composed primarily of highly substituted single ring aromatics, substituted furan/pyran moieties, highly branched oxygenated aliphatics, and carbonyl groups. A pathway for producing an IOM-like molecular structure through formaldehyde polymerization is proposed and tested experimentally. Solid-state 13C NMR analysis of aqueously altered formaldehyde polymer reveals considerable similarity with chondritic IOM. Carbon X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy of formaldehyde polymer reveals the presence of similar functional groups across certain Comet 81P/Wild 2 organic solids, interplanetary dust particles, and primitive IOM. Variation in functional group concentration amongst these extraterrestrial materials is understood to be a result of various degrees of processing in the parent bodies, in space, during atmospheric entry, etc. These results support the hypothesis that chondritic IOM and cometary refractory organic solids are related chemically and likely were derived from formaldehyde polymer. The fine-scale morphology of formaldehyde polymer produced in the experiment reveals abundant nanospherules that are similar in size and shape to organic nanoglobules that are ubiquitous in primitive chondrites. PMID:21464292

Cody, George D.; Heying, Emily; Alexander, Conel M. O.; Nittler, Larry R.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Sandford, Scott A.

2011-01-01

318

Regolith breccia consisting of H and LL chondrite mixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Antarctic meteorite Yamato-8424 (Y-8424) is a regolith breccia that is homogenized mixture of H and LL chondrite components. The breccia consists mainly of a fine-grained material with mineral fragments of olivine, pyroxene, and Fe-Ni metal with traces of plagioclase.

Yanai, Keizo; Kojima, Hideyasu

1993-01-01

319

Abee and related EH chondrite impact-melt breccias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Abee EH chondrite is an impact-melt breccia. About 80–90% of the chondrules were melted; many of those that remain have been partly resorbed. Euhedral enstatite phenocrysts are abundant; many have nucleated on the surfaces of relict chondrules and now protrude into kamacite globules. Euhedral laths of graphite, essentially identical to those produced magmatically on Earth, occur throughout the rock.

Alan E. Rubin; Wdward R. D. Scott

1997-01-01

320

Cosmic Ray Exposure Ages of Six Chondritic Almahata Sitta Fragments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages of six chondrite fragments from the Almahata Sitta strewn field do not show any evidence for pre-exposure. All samples but one has 21Ne/26Al-based CRE ages of ~20 Ma. MS-179 (EL-breccia) has a lower CRE age of ~10 Ma.

Riebe, M.; Welten, K. C.; Meier, M. M. M.; Caffee, M. W.; Nishiizumi, K.; Bischoff, A.; Wieler, R.

2014-09-01

321

Axtell, a new CV3 chondrite find from Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a previously unreported meteorite found in Axtell, Texas, in 1943. Based on the mineralogical composition and texture of its matrix and the sizes and abundance of chondrules, we classify it as a CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. The dominant opaque phase in the chondrules is magnetite, and that in refractory inclusions is Ni-rich metal (awaruite). Axtell, therefore, belongs to the

S. B. Simon; L. Grossman; I. Casanova; S. Symes; P. Benoit; D. W. G. Sears; J. F. Wacker

1995-01-01

322

Middle Ordovician chondrite in fossiliferous limestone from Brunflo, central Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first discovery of a fossil chondrite in Ordovician limestone (at Brunflo, Sweden) is reported. The meteorite was detected as a clast about 10 cm across of a metamorphic ultramafic rock in a slab of Ordovician limestone from the continental side of the Brunflo area, which dates from the Aseri Stage of the Middle Ordovician (approximately 463 million years ago).

Per Thorslund; F. E. Wickman

1981-01-01

323

A New CV3 Chondrite Find  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new meteorite find from West Texas, U.S.A., is a CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. The provisional name of Red Bluff has been proposed to the Nomenclature Committee by R. Farrell. Red Bluff consists of chondrules (56.4%), CAIs (8.3%), amoboid olivine aggregates (0.6%), mineral fragments (0.8%), and Ca-Al chondrules (0.4%) in a fine-grained, clay-rich matrix (33.1%). Chondrules in Red Bluff are spherical to irregular in shape, and from 0.25-3.5 mm diameter in thin section; the average diameter is 0.95 mm, with standard deviation of 0.6 mm (69 chondrules). Three of the chondrules are distinctly larger than the rest; without these three, the average diameter is 0.86 mm (s.d. 0.4 mm). The chondrules are almost all of type I (Fe-poor), as shown by cathodoluminescence and chemical analyses; most are also rich in opaques. Compositions of chondrule olivines average Fa1.9+-1.2 (s.d.); compositions of chondrule pyroxenes average Fs3.4+-3.3 (s.d.). Chondrule varieties include porphyritic olivine, microporphyritic olivine, granular olivine, macroporphyritic olivine, barred olivine, and rare extracentroradial pyroxene (0.25 mm diam.) [1,2]. Two calcium-aluminum chondrules were observed. The largest, 1.5 mm diam., contains spinel, plagioclase, and fassaite, and includes a circular spinel palisade [3]. The other Ca-Al chondrule is within a coarse-grained CAI, and could also be a well-developed spinel palisade [3]. Fine- and coarse-grained CAIs are present but have been studied little; most appear to be type B (melilite+pyroxene+plagioclase). Red Bluff's matrix is composed of fine-grained clay, with minor olivine, "limonite," troilite, and Fe metal. Alignment of grains and oxide-rich streaks in the matrix mark a planar fabric that wraps around chondrules and inclusions. Chondrules are commonly surrounded by shells of dark red alteration, darker than the bulk of matrix material. Red Bluff is weathered. It is stained red by oxidized iron minerals, which are most common as veinlets (after Fe metal or troilite?) and as rinds around Fe metal and troilite. The matrix clays may have formed during weathering of an olivine matrix similar to that of Allende. However, Fe metal and troilite remain common, both occluded within silicates and as discrete grains in the matrix. Cracks in Red Bluff are partially filled by minute, euhedral carbonate crystals. Red Bluff's exterior is coated with desert varnish (light-brown anisotropic film composed of many fine laminae); the varnish fills void space in one carbonate-rich veinlet. Classification Red Bluff's petrography, mineralogy, and mineral chemistry fall within the range of known CV3s [4]. Most characteristic are the proportion of matrix (33%) and the size of chondrules (avg ~1 mm), which are consistent with CV and inconsistent with known CI, CO, CM, CR, and CK chondrites. The proportions of CAIs, Ca-Al chondrules, and mineral fragments are also consistent with known CVs. The presence of type 1 and type 2 chondrules, and the variations in olivine compositions among type 1 chondrules implies that Red Bluff is of metamorphic grade 3. Compared to other CV3s, Red Bluff has rather little matrix and rather magnesian silicate minerals [4]. Red Bluff does not appear to be paired with known CV3s, and in fact none are known from West Texas [5]; the closest CV3 fall or find is Leoville (KS) [5]. This work was conducted under an NRC Fellowships to Treiman (senior) and DeHart (regular). We are grateful to R. Farrell for the meteorite sample, data on its source, and its proposed name. [1] Scott E. R. D. and Taylor G. J. (1983) Proc. 14 LPSC, B275. [2] Jones R. (1992) GCA 56, 467. [3] Wark D. A. and Lovering J. F. (1982) GCA 46, 2595. [4] McSween H. Y. Jr. (1977) GCA 71, 1777. [5] Graham et al. (1985) Catalog of Meteorites.

Treiman, A. H.; Dehart, J. M.

1992-07-01

324

Paleomagnetism of a new magnetite-rich carbonaceous chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies of CV carbonaceous chondrites have led to the conclusion that their parent body was partially differentiated and possessed a convecting core [1]. This possibility has been validated by modeling of asteroid accretion [2]. Were partially differentiated chondritic asteroid the rule or the exception? We will present petrographic and paleomagnetic data obtained on an unusual carbonaceous chondrite that we discovered in 2011 in the Atacama desert. This meteorite is a fully crusted stone with a total weight of 2.4 g. Although classification is still ongoing, its petrography, and oxygen isotopes (d18O=-1.74‰, d17O=-5.15‰, D17O=-4.25‰) point to a C2 ungrouped chondrite. Preliminary Raman spectroscopy data confirm that it has not suffered thermal metamorphism. Magnetic properties show that the meteorite contains ~13 wt.% of pseudo-single domain magnetite, making it a rock with remarkable paleomagnetic recorder. Indeed, this is the most magnetic magnetite-bearing chondrite ever described. Paleomagnetic measurements show that the meteorite possesses a uniform and unidirectional stable component of magnetization unblocked up to 120 mT during alternating field demagnetization. Paleointensity is estimated to a few ?T using normalization techniques [3]. The nature of the magnetizaiton, and the origin of the magnetizing field will be discussed. [1] Carporzen et al., 2011. Proc. National Acad. Sci., 108, 6386-6389. [2] Elkins-Tanton et al., 2011. Earth Planet . Sci. Lett., 305, 1-10. [3] Gattacceca and Rochette P. 2004 Earth Planet . Sci. Lett., 227, 377-393.

Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Gounelle, M.; Bonal, L.; Weiss, B. P.; Sonzogni, C.

2012-12-01

325

I-Xe Dating: The Time Line of Chondrule Formation and Metamorphism in LL Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Refractory inclusions, considered to be the oldest solids formed in the solar nebula. (4567.2 0.6 Ma) [1], are common in many carbonaceous and in some ordinary and enstatite chondrites. High-precision Pb- Pb ages for CAI s and chondrules (from different meteorites) suggested that chondrule formation appeared to have started about 2 Ma later than that of CAIs [1]. However, recent 26Al/26Mg data suggest simultaneous formation of CAI s and chondrules in Allende [2]. The I-Xe ages of CAI s in Allende are about 2 Ma younger than the I-Xe ages of Allende chondrules [3] but, like all chronometers, the I-Xe system records closure time of its particular host phase. In the case of Allende CAI s, the major iodine-bearing phase is sodalite, a secondary phase presumably formed by aqueous alteration, so I-Xe reflects the post-formational processes in these objects. In chondrules the iodine host phases vary and can reflect formation and/or alteration but, to put chondrule ages on a quantative basis, some problems should first be addressed.

Pravdivtseva, O. V.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Meshik, A. P.

2005-01-01

326

Ordinary Differential Equations Grant W. Mason  

E-print Network

general linear first-order differential equation is: Equation: dy dx +g(x)y = h(x). Method of solution¨x, is a second order differential equation. In the simplest cases or in the lowest order of approximationOrdinary Differential Equations Grant W. Mason Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young

Hart, Gus

327

Applications of MATLAB: Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE)  

E-print Network

of the 1 #12;unknown function is called an ordinary differential equation, abbreviated as ODE. The order of the equation is determined by the order of the highest derivative. For example, if the first derivative is the only derivative, the equation is called a first-order ODE. In the same way, if the highest derivative

Mullins, Dyche

328

An Ordinary but Surprisingly Powerful Theorem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being a mathematician, the author started to wonder if there are any theorems in mathematics that seem very ordinary on the outside, but when applied, have surprisingly far reaching consequences. The author thought about this and came up with the following unlikely candidate which follows immediately from the definition of the area of a rectangle…

Sultan, Alan

2009-01-01

329

New classification techniques for ordinary differential equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the present paper is to propose an enhanced ordinary differential equations solver by exploitation of the powerful equivalence method ofElie Cartan. This solver returns a target equation equivalent to the equation to be solved and the transformation realizing the equiva- lence. The target ODE is a member of a dictionary of ODE, that are regarded as well-known,

Raouf Dridi; Michel Petitot

2009-01-01

330

New classification techniques for ordinary differential equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the present paper is to propose an enhanced ordinary differential equations solver by exploitation of the powerful equivalence method of \\\\'Elie Cartan. This solver returns a target equation equivalent to the equation to be solved and the transformation realizing the equivalence. The target ODE is a member of a dictionary of ODE, that are regarded as well-known,

Raouf Dridi; Michel Petitot

2007-01-01

331

Thermomagnetic analysis of meteorites, 3. C3 and C4 chondrites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thermomagnetic analysis was made on samples of all known C3 and C4 chondrites in a controlled oxygen atmosphere. Considerable variation was noted in the occurrence of magnetic minerals, comparable to the variation observed earlier in the C2 chondrites. Magnetite was found as the only major magnetic phase in samples of only three C3 chondrites (2-4 wt.%) and the Karoonda C4 chondrite (7.7 wt.%). The magnetite content of these three C3 chondrites is only about one-third that observed in the C1 and C2 chondrites which were found to contain magnetite as the only magnetic phase. Five C3 chondrites were observed to undergo chemical change during heating, producing magnetite: this behavior is characteristic of troilite oxidation. Upper limits on initial magnetite content of about 1-9% were established for these meteorites. Samples of the remaining five C3 chondrites and the Coolidge C4 chondrite were found to contain both magnetite and metallic iron. In two samples, iron containing ???2% Ni was observed, while in the other four, the iron contained 6-8 wt.% Ni. In addition to containing both magnetite and iron metal, three of these samples reacted during heating to form additional magnetite. Variations in the magnetic mineralogy and, hence by inference bulk mineralogy, of C3 and C4 chondrites indicate a more complex genesis than is evident from whole-rock elemental abundance patterns. ?? 1976.

Herndon, J.M.; Rowe, M.W.; Larson, E.E.; Watson, D.E.

1976-01-01

332

A database of chondrite analyses including platinum group elements, Ni, Co, Au, and Cr: Implications for the identification of chondritic projectiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siderophile elements have been used to constrain projectile compositions in terrestrial and lunar impact melt rocks. To obtain a better knowledge of compositional differences between potential chondritic projectile types, meteorite analyses of the elements Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt, Cr, Co, Ni, and Au were gathered into a database. The presented compilation comprises 806 analyses of 278 chondrites including

Roald Tagle; Jana Berlin

2008-01-01

333

Quantitative methods for three-dimensional comparison and petrographic description of chondrites  

SciTech Connect

X-ray computed tomography can be used to generate three-dimensional (3D) volumetric representations of chondritic meteorites. One of the challenges of using collected X-ray tomographic data is the extraction of useful data for 3D petrographic analysis or description. Here, I examine computer-aided quantitative 3D texture metrics that can be used for the classification of chondritic meteorites. These quantitative techniques are extremely useful for discriminating between chondritic materials, but yield little information on the 3D morphology of chondrite components. To investigate the morphology of chondrite minerals such as Fe(Ni) metal and related sulfides, the homology descriptors known as Betti numbers, are examined. Both methodologies are illustrated with theoretical discussion and examples. Betti numbers may be valuable for examining the nature of metal-silicate structural changes within chondrites with increasing degrees of metamorphism.

Friedrich, J.M. (Fordham)

2008-10-20

334

New Titanium Monosulfide Mineral Phase in Yamato 691 Enstatite Chondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yamato 691, an EH3 enstatite chondrite, was among the first meteorites discovered by chance in Antarctica by the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) team in 1969. This discovery led to follow-up searches for meteorites in Antarctica [1]. These international searches have been very successful recovering over 40,000 total specimens (and still counting), including martian and lunar meteorites. Titanium is partly chalcophile in enstatite-rich meteorites. Previous occurrences of Ti-bearing sulfides include troilite, daubrelite and ferroan alabandite in enstatite chondrites and aubrites [2], and heideite with 28.5 wt% Ti in the Bustee aubrite [3]. Here we report a new mineral from Yamato 691, ideally stoichiometric TiS, titanium monosulfide, a simple two-element mineral phase, yet with a very unique crystal structure that, to our knowledge, has not been observed previously in nature.

Nakamura-Messenger, K; Clemett, S. J.; Rubin, A. E.; Choi, B.-G.; Zhang, S.; Rahman, Z.; Oikawa, K.; Keller, L. P.

2011-01-01

335

Axtrell, a new CV3 chondrite find from Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a previously unreported meteorite found in Axtell, Texas, in 1943. Based on the mineralogical composition and texture of its matrix and the sizes and abundance of chondrules, we classify it as a CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. The dominant opaque phase in the chondrules is magnetite, and that in refractory inclusions is Ni-rich metal (awaruite). Axtell, therefore, belongs to the oxidized subgroup of CV3 chondrites, although unlike Allende it escaped strong sulfidation. The meteorite bears a strong textural resemblance to Allende, and its chondrule population and matrix appear to be quite similar to those of Allende, but its refractory inclusions, thermoluminescence properties, and cosmogenic Co-60 abundances are not. Our data are consistent with a terrestrial age for Axtell of approximately 100 years and a metamorphic grade slightly lower than that of Allende.

Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.; Casanova, I.; Symes, S.; Benoit, P.; Sears, D. W. G.; Wacker, J. F.

1995-01-01

336

Comparing Amino Acid Abundances and Distributions Across Carbonaceous Chondrite Groups  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteorites are grouped according to bulk properties such as chemical composition and mineralogy. These parameters can vary significantly among the different carbonaceous chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CR, CH, CB, CV and CK). We have determined the amino acid abundances of more than 30 primary amino acids in meteorites from each of the eight groups, revealing several interesting trends. There are noticeable differences in the structural diversity and overall abundances of amino acids between meteorites from the different chondrite groups. Because meteorites may have been an important source of amino acids to the prebiotic Earth and these organic compounds are essential for life as we know it, the observed variations of these molecules may have been important for the origins of life.

Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.

2012-01-01

337

Cometary evolution: Clues from chondritic interplanetary dust particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cometary and interplanetary dust particles (IDP) are compared, and the mineralogical evolution of comet nuclei is discussed. Chondritic IDP have properties consistent with properties expected for cometary dust. The complex and varied mineralogy of these particles may indicate mineral alteration processes that occur in comet nuclei. Depending on the thermal budget of a comet, the upper few meters of nucleus material may maintain temperatures within regimes of hydrocryogenic (200 to 237 K) and low-temperature aqueous (274 to 400 K) alteration. Thus, layer silicates, carbonates, and sulfates may be important components of cometary dust and, correspondingly are common constituents of chondritic IDPs. Alteration of comet starting materials may be a common occurrence, and depends on the specific physical and chemical properties of each individual comet.

Reitmeijer, F. J. M.; Mackinnon, I. D. R.

1987-01-01

338

A CAI in the Ivuna CI1 Chondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have recently discovered the first well-preserved calcium aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) in a CI1 chondrite (Ivuna). Previously, all CI1 chondrites were thought to be devoid of preserved CAI and chondrules due to the near total aqueous alteration to which their parent body (bodies) have been subjected. The CAI is roughly spherical, but with a slight teardrop geometry and a maximum diameter of 170 microns (fig. 1). It lacks any Wark-Lovering Rim. Incipient aqueous alteration, and probably shock, have rendered large portions of the CAI poorly crystalline. It is extremely fine-grained, with only a few grains exceeding 10 microns. We have performed electron microprobe analyses (EPMA), FEG-SEM imaging and element mapping, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) in order to determine the fundamental characteristics of this apparently unique object.

Frank, David R.; Zolensky, M.; Martinez, J.; Mikouchi, T.; Ohsumi, K.; Hagiya, K.; Satake, W.; Le, L.; Ross, D.; Peslier, A.

2011-01-01

339

A novel symbolic ordinary differential equation solver  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a symbolic ordinary differential equation solver written as a package for the muMATH computer algebra system. The novel features of this solver are:1. Whereas previous ODE solvers generally require the equation to be quasi-linear and generally yield only implicit results, this new solver is highly integrated with an algebraic equation solver before, during and after solution. In

Woon Cheung Chan

1981-01-01

340

Ordinary differential equations solution in kernel space  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method based on the use of an optimization approach along with kernel least mean square (KLMS) algorithm\\u000a for solving ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The new approach in comparison with the other existing methods (such as\\u000a numerical methods and the methods that are based on neural networks) has more advantages such as simple implementation, fast\\u000a convergence,

Hadi Sadoghi Yazdi; Hamed Modaghegh; Morteza Pakdaman

341

Invariants associated with linear ordinary differential equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply a novel method for the equivalence group and its infinitesimal\\u000agenerators to the investigation of invariants of linear ordinary differential\\u000aequations. First, a comparative study of this method is illustrated by an\\u000aexample. Next, the method is used to obtain the invariants of low order linear\\u000aordinary differential equations, and the structure invariance group for an\\u000aarbitrary order

J. C. Ndogmo

2008-01-01

342

Maps between Deformed and Ordinary Gauge Fields  

E-print Network

In this paper, we introduce a map between the q-deformed gauge fields defined on the GL$_{q}(N) $-covariant quantum hyperplane and the ordinary gauge fields. Perturbative analysis of the q-deformed QED at the classical level is presented and gauge fixing $\\grave{a} $ la BRST is discussed. An other star product defined on the hybrid $(q,h) $% -plane is explicitly constructed .

L. Mesref

2005-04-13

343

Compositions and taxonomy of 15 unusual carbonaceous chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used instrumental neutron activation analysis and petrography to determine bulk and phase compositions and textural characteristics of 15 carbonaceous chondrites of uncertain classification: Acfer 094 (type 3.0, ungrouped CM-related); Belgica-7904 (mildly metamorphosed, anomalous, CM-like chondrite, possibly a member of a new grouplet that includes Wisconsin Range (WIS) 91600, Dhofar 225, and Yamato-86720); Dar al Gani (DaG) 055 and its paired specimen DaG 056 (anomalous, reduced CV3-like); DaG 978 (type 3 ungrouped); Dominion Range 03238 (anomalous, magnetite-rich CO3.1); Elephant Moraine 90043 (anomalous, magnetite-bearing CO3); Graves Nunataks 98025 (type 2 or type 3 ungrouped); Grosvenor Mountains (GRO) 95566 (anomalous CM2 with a low degree of aqueous alteration); Hammadah al Hamra (HaH) 073 (type 4 ungrouped, possibly related to the Coolidge-Loongana [C-L] 001 grouplet); Lewis Cliff (LEW) 85311 (anomalous CM2 with a low degree of aqueous alteration); Northwest Africa 1152 (anomalous CV3); Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91008 (anomalous, metamorphosed CM); Queen Alexandra Range 99038 (type 2 ungrouped); Sahara 00182 (type 3 ungrouped, possibly related to HaH 073 and/or to C-L 001); and WIS 91600 (mildly metamorphosed, anomalous, CM-like chondrite, possibly a member of a new grouplet that includes Belgica-7904, Dhofar 225, and Y-86720). Many of these meteorites show fractionated abundance patterns, especially among the volatile elements. Impact volatilization and dehydration as well as elemental transport caused by terrestrial weathering are probably responsible for most of these compositional anomalies. The metamorphosed CM chondrites comprise two distinct clusters on the basis of their ?17O values: approximately -4‰ for PCA 91008, GRO 95566, DaG 978, and LEW 85311, and approximately 0‰ for Belgica-7904 and WIS 91600. These six meteorites must have been derived from different asteroidal regions.

Choe, Won Hie; Huber, Heinz; Rubin, Alan E.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.; Wasson, John T.

2010-04-01

344

Vein formation in the C1 carbonaceous chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Veins in the C1 chondrites Orgueil, Alais, and Ivuna have been deposited during an extended period of impact brecciation and leaching. At least three generations of mineralization, dominated successively by carbonates, calcium sulfate, and magnesium sulfate, can be recognized. Vein minerals are derived locally by closed-system reactions between matrix phyllosilicates and an aqueous fluid, with the result that few, if any, primitive mineral phases still exist in the C1s.

Richardson, S. M.

1978-01-01

345

Metamorphosed calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions in CK carbonaceous chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CK chondrites are the only group of carbonaceous chondrites with petrologic types ranging from 3 to 6. Although CKs are described as calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI)-poor objects, the abundance of CAIs in the 18 CK3-6 we analyzed ranges from zero to approximately 16.4%. During thermal metamorphism, some of the fine-grained CAIs recrystallized as irregular assemblages of plagioclase + Ca-rich pyroxene ± olivine ± Ca-poor pyroxene ± magnetite. Coarse-grained CAIs display zoned spinel, fassaite destabilization, and secondary grossular and spinel. Secondary anorthite, grossular, Ca-rich pyroxene, and spinel derive from the destabilization of melilite, which is lacking in all CAIs investigated. The Al-Mg isotopic systematics measured in fine- and coarse-grained CAIs from Tanezrouft (Tnz) 057 was affected by Mg redistribution. The partial equilibration of Al-Mg isotopic signatures obtained in the core of a coarse-grained CAI (CG1-CAI) in Tnz 057 may indicate a lower peak temperature for Mg diffusion of approximately 540-580 °C, while grossular present in the core of this CAI indicates a higher temperature of around 800 °C for the metamorphic event on the parent body of Tnz 057. Excluding metamorphic features, the similarity in nature and abundance of CAIs in CK and CV chondrites confirms that CVs and CKs form a continuous metamorphic series from type 3 to 6.

Chaumard, NoëL.; Devouard, Bertrand; Bouvier, Audrey; Wadhwa, Meenakshi

2014-03-01

346

EH vs. CI chondrite derived mantle: A geodynamical comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally assumed that the Earth's bulk composition is derived from carbonaceous CI chondrites. However, arguments based on stable isotopes and redox considerations favor another type of material from which the Earth could be derived: the enstatite EH chondrites. The latter implies substantial heterogeneities either in minor and major elements within the mantle which is strongly suggested by seismological observations and further reinforced by noble gas constraints. Here we investigate the geodynamical consequences of CI and EH derived Earth's mantle compositions. Using numerical simulations in cylindrical geometry with an appropriate scaling to approximate the spherical Earth, we compare the evolution of mantles derived from EH and from CI chondrites from 4.5 Gyr B.P. to present day. For both EH and CI models the upper part of the mantle (from which continental crust is extracted) has a pyrolitic-like composition, therefore the differences between the two models are shifted to the lower part of the mantle mantle, implying substantial differences in heat producing elements concentrations and Si, Fe and Mg content. Both models consider the extraction of continental crust, heterogeneous internal heating related to local concentrations of heat producing elements, and the presence of chemically denser material in the lowermost mantle, as suggested by tomographic studies. The thermal and chemical evolution of these two models is therefore compared and the implications on present day mantle heterogeneity in both major and trace elements as well as the consequences on seismological observables are investigated.

Samuel, H.; Farnetani, C. G.; Javoy, M.

2004-12-01

347

Comparing Wild 2 Particles to Chondrites and IDPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We compare the observed composition ranges of olivine, pyroxene and Fe-Ni sulfides in Wild 2 grains, comparing these with chondritic IDPs and chondrite classes to explore whether these data suggest affinities to known hydrous materials in particular. Wild 2 olivine has an extremely wide composition range, from Fo4-100 with a pronounced frequency peak at Fo99. The composition range displayed by the low-calcium pyroxene is also very extensive, from En52 to En100, with a significant frequency peak centered at En95. These ranges are as broad or broader than those reported for any other extraterrestrial material. Wild 2 Fe-Ni sulfides mainly have compositions close to that of FeS, with less than 2 atom % Ni - to date, only two pentlandite grains have been found among the Wild-grains suggesting that this mineral is not abundant. The complete lack of compositions between FeS and pentlandite (with intermediate solid solution compositions) suggests (but does not require) that FeS and pentlandite condensed as crystalline species, i.e. did not form as amorphous phases, which later became annealed. While we have not yet observed any direct evidence of water-bearing minerals, the presence of Ni-bearing sulfides, and magnesium-dominated olivine and low-Ca pyroxene does not rule out their presence at low abundance. We do conclude that modern major and minor element compositions of chondrite matrix and IDPs are needed.

Zolensky, Michael; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Rietmeijer, Frans; Leroux, Hugues; Mikouchi, Takashi; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Simon, Steven; Grossman, Lawrence; Stephan, Thomas; Weisberg, Michael; Velbel, Michael; Zega, Thomas; Stroud, Rhonda; Tomeoka, Kazushige; Ohnishi, Ichiro; Tomioka, Naotaka; Nakamura, Tomoki; Matrajt, Graciela; Joswiak, David; Brownlee, Don; Langenhorst, Falko; Krot, Alexander; Kearsley, Anton; Ishii, Hope; Graham, Giles

2008-01-01

348

Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites  

SciTech Connect

Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

2005-11-16

349

Workshop on Parent-Body and Nebular Modification of Chondritic Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics considered include: thermal Metamorphosed Antarctic CM and CI Carbonaceous Chondrites in Japanese Collections, and Transformation Processes of Phyllosilicates; use of Oxygen Isotopes to Constrain the Nebular and Asteroidal Modification of Chondritic Materials; effect of Revised Nebular Water Distribution on Enstatite Chondrite Formation; interstellar Hydroxyls in Meteoritic Chondrules: Implications for the Origin of Water in the Inner Solar System; theoretical Models and Experimental Studies of Gas-Grain Chemistry in the Solar Nebula; chemical Alteration of Chondrules on Parent Bodies; thermal Quenching of Silicate Grains in Protostellar Sources; an Experimental Study of Magnetite Formation in the Solar Nebula; the Kaidun Meteorite: Evidence for Pre- and Postaccretionary Aqueous Alteration; a Transmission Electron Microscope Study of the Matrix Mineralogy of the Leoville CV3 (Reduced-Group) Carbonaceous Chondrite: Nebular and Parent-Body Features; rubidium-Strontium Isotopic Systematic of Chondrules from the Antarctic CV Chondrites Yamato 86751 and Yamato 86009: Additional Evidence for Late Parent-Body Modification; oxygen-Fugacity Indicators in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Parent-Body Alteration or High-Temperature Nebular Oxidation; thermodynamic Modeling of Aqueous Alteration in CV Chondrites; asteroidal Modification of C and O Chondrites: Myths and Models; oxygen Fugacity in the Solar Nebular; and the History of Metal and Sulfides in Chondrites.

Zolensky, M. E. (Editor); Krot, A. N. (Editor); Scott, E. R. D. (Editor)

1997-01-01

350

Chondrite barium, neodymium, and samarium isotopic heterogeneity and early Earth differentiation.  

PubMed

Isotopic variability in barium, neodymium, and samarium in carbonaceous chondrites reflects the distinct stellar nucleosynthetic contributions to the early solar system. We used 148Nd/144Nd to correct for the observed s-process deficiency, which produced a chondrite 146Sm-142Nd isochron consistent with previous estimates of the initial solar system abundance of 146Sm and a 142Nd/144Nd at average chondrite Sm/Nd ratio that is lower than that measured in terrestrial rocks by 21 +/- 3 parts per million. This result strengthens the conclusion that the deficiency in 142Nd in chondrites relative to terrestrial rocks reflects 146Sm decayand earlyplanetary differentiation processes. PMID:17525335

Carlson, Richard W; Boyet, Maud; Horan, Mary

2007-05-25

351

Pyroxene thermobarometry in LL-group chondrites and implications for parent body metamorphism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geothermometry based on the compositions of clinopyroxenes in type 6 and 7 LL chondrites gives coherent results, but the estimated temperatures from coexisting orthopyroxenes are consistently lower than for clinopyroxenes. Orthopyroxene thermometry is suspect because of compositional effects of polymorphic inversions and/or unknown kinetic factors. Lack of clinopyroxene equilibration precludes accurate estimation of peak metamorphic temperatures for type 4 and 5 chondrites. There is no apparent correlation between Al content (a pressure-dependent variable) and equilibration temperature in chondritic pyroxenes. This finding, which is at variance with a previously published conclusion that temperature and pressure are correlated in metamorphosed chondrites, may have important implications for asteroid thermal models.

Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Patchen, Allan D.

1989-01-01

352

Non-spherical lobate chondrules in CO3.0 Y-81020: General implications for the formation of low-FeO porphyritic chondrules in CO chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-spherical chondrules (arbitrarily defined as having aspect ratios ?1.20) in CO3.0 chondrites comprise multi-lobate, distended, and highly irregular objects with rounded margins; they constitute ˜70% of the type-I (low-FeO) porphyritic chondrules in Y-81020, ˜75% of such chondrules in ALHA77307, and ˜60% of those in Colony. Although the proportion of non-spherical type-I chondrules in LL3.0 Semarkona is comparable (˜60%), multi-lobate OC porphyritic chondrules (with lobe heights equivalent to a significant fraction of the mean chondrule diameter) are rare. If the non-spherical type-I chondrules in CO chondrites had formed from totally molten droplets, calculations indicate that they would have collapsed into spheres within ˜10 -3 s, too little time for their 20-? m-size olivine phenocrysts to have grown from the melt. These olivine grains must therefore be relicts from an earlier chondrule generation; the final heating episode experienced by the non-spherical chondrules involved only minor amounts of melting and crystallization. The immediate precursors of the individual non-spherical chondrules may have been irregularly shaped chondrule fragments whose fracture surfaces were rounded during melting. Because non-spherical chondrules and "circular" chondrules form a continuum in shape and have similar grain sizes, mineral and mesostasis compositions, and modal abundances of non-opaque phases, they must have formed by related processes. We conclude that a large majority of low-FeO chondrules in CO3 chondrites experienced a late, low-degree melting event. Previous studies have shown that essentially all type-II (high-FeO) porphyritic chondrules in Y-81020 formed by repeated episodes of low-degree melting. It thus appears that the type-I and type-II porphyritic chondrules in Y-81020 (and, presumably, all CO3 chondrites) experienced analogous formation histories. Because these two types constitute ˜95% of all CO chondrules, it is clear that chondrule recycling was the rule in the CO chondrule-formation region and that most melting events produced only low degrees of melting. The rarity of significantly non-spherical, multi-lobate chondrules in Semarkona may reflect more-intense heating of chondrule precursors in the ordinary-chondrite region of the solar nebula.

Rubin, Alan E.; Wasson, John T.

2005-01-01

353

HETEROGENEOUS MULTISCALE METHODS FOR STIFF ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS  

E-print Network

HETEROGENEOUS MULTISCALE METHODS FOR STIFF ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS BJORN ENGQUIST- ical approximation of multiscale problems. It is here developed for ordinary differential equations are presented together with numerical tests. The analysis covers some existing methods and the new algorithms

Soatto, Stefano

354

Isotopic Studies of Cr-rich Objects in the Raguli (H3.8) Chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cr-rich objects (chromite-rich inclusions and chondrules) have been documented in several ordinary chondrites in recent years [1]. They are most abundant in H chondrites and the dominant phases in these objects are chromite and sodic plagioclase with ilmenite, pyroxene, and phosphate occurring as accessory phases. The genesis of these objects and their interrelationship are not clearly understood as yet. Condensation from nebular gas of nonsolar composition, gas-phase metasomatism, and oxidation of metal phases are some of the proposed mechanisms for the formation of the chromite phases found in these objects [2]. We have carried out ion microprobe studies of isotopic compositions of magnesium, chromium, and iron in a set of Cr-rich objects in the Raguli (H3.8) chondrite to further address these questions. The measurements were carried out at appropriate mass resolution to resolve hydride and other isobaric interferences. The analyzed phases include two chromite-rich chondrules, one of which contains two large euhedral grains of chromite, two chromite-rich inclusions, and isolated chromite grains in matrix. The magnesium isotopic compositions of plagioclase phases in these objects were measured to look for the possible presence of excess 26Mg. The contribution from chromite toward the magnesium signal made these measurements difficult and a relatively clean signal could be seen only for the plagioclase phase in one of the chondrules (measured 27Al+/24Mg+ = 52). No evidence for excess 26Mg was found. Magnesium (24,25,26), chromium (52,53), and iron (56,57) isotopic compositions of the chromite phases in all the objects were measured to determine isotopic mass fractionation. Terrestrial chromite (USNM 117075) was used as a standard. The measured magnesium isotopic mass fractionation for the chromite phases in the inclusions and in the chondrules are similar and are also close to the measured value (-21.0 +- 0.72 permil/amu) for the terrestrial chromite. The data for the isolated chromite grain in matrix are suggestive of a small intrinsic fractionation (a few per mil per amu) favoring the lighter isotope. The measured chromium isotope mass fractionation for all the chromite phases, including the matrix grain, are similar and again these values are also close to the measured value for the terrestrial standard (-10.3 +- 1.43 permil/amu) There is no hint in the data for an intrinsic mass fractionation favoring either the lighter or heavier isotopes of magnesium and chromium for the chromite phases in both the Cr-rich chondrules and inclusions. The above results suggest that the precursor material from which the Cr-rich objects were formed had nearly unfractionated magnesium and chromium isotopic compositions and also the process(es) leading to the formation of these objects did not result in any detectable isotopic fractionation in the chromite phases. This would argue against the suggestion that the chromite phases in these objects could be of condensation origin. On the other hand, the isotopic data are not incompatible with the suggestion that incomplete melting of chromite-rich inclusions followed by rapid crystallization led to the formation of the chromite-rich chondrules. References: [1] Krot A. N. and Ivanova M. A. (1992) LPSC XXIII, 729-730. [2] Krot A. N. et al. (1992) LPSC XXIII, 731-732.

Sahijpal, S.; Ivanova, M. A.; Goswami, J. N.

1993-07-01

355

Evolutionary Modeling of Ordinary Differential Equations for Dynamic Systems  

E-print Network

a new idea of modeling one- dimensional dynamic systems by higher-order ordinary differential equationEvolutionary Modeling of Ordinary Differential Equations for Dynamic Systems Hongqing Cao1-order ordinary differential equation (HODE) models in stead of by the ARMA Models. We have ever proposed a two

Fernandez, Thomas

356

Evolutionary Modeling of Ordinary Differential Equations for Dynamic Systems  

E-print Network

Evolutionary Modeling of Ordinary Differential Equations for Dynamic Systems Hongqing Cao 1 presents a new idea of modeling one­ dimensional dynamic systems by higher­order ordinary differential­order ordinary differential equation (HODE) models in stead of by the ARMA Models. We have ever proposed a two

Fernandez, Thomas

357

ELSEVIER Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 146 (1999) 165169 An aberrant, helicoidal trace fossil Chondrites Sternberg  

E-print Network

, helicoidal trace fossil Chondrites Sternberg Alfred Uchman a,L , Andreas Wetzel b a Institute of Geological Sternberg from Upper Cretaceous marly flysch in Switzerland is interpreted as a deep-tier trace fossil. Its, but the earlier trace fossil is not preserved. The aberrant Chondrites was formed by the same tracemaker

Wetzel, Andreas

358

Carbonate compositions in CM and CI chondrites, and implications for aqueous alteration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonate minerals in fourteen CM chondrites and two CI chondrites have been analyzed by electron microprobe to provide a better understanding of the aqueous processes that affected carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies. Calcites in CM chondrites and dolomites and magnesites in CI chondrites display the compositions expected of stable phases formed at low temperatures. Dolomites in CM chondrites, identified here for the first time in five members of the group, have small amounts of excess Ca which may reflect metastable growth. The distribution of Fe between dolomite and coexisting serpentine differs in the two chondrite groups. If the distributions reflect an approach to chemical equilibrium, then the difference implies higher alteration temperatures for the CI group than the CM group in agreement with the results of previously published oxygen isotope thermometry and mineral solubility modeling of the alteration process. Dolomite Fe contents are relatively uniform in the two chondrite groups. Dolomite Mn contents, by contrast, vary widely. The variations may reflect transport-controlled coprecipitation of Mn resulting from a heterogeneous distribution of the element in the anhydrous precursor material. If this interpretation is correct, then the altering fluids were essentially immobile white hydration reactions proceeded on the meteorite parent bodies. The near closed-system character of the alteration process, long known from bulk chemical analyses of the meteorites, is a direct consequence of the limited mobility of dissolved species.

Johnson, Craig A.; Prinz, Martin

1993-01-01

359

Accretionary dust mantles in CM chondrites - Evidence for solar nebula processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of the various components of 14 carbonaceous chondrites of the CM group, and the evolution of their parent body (or bodies) were examined by studying the texture and the model composition of these chondrites. Evidence is presented for the existence of preaccretionary aqueous alteration of anhydrous primary products in the solar nebula. Based on the results of textural,

K. Metzler; A. Bischoff; D. Stoeffler

1992-01-01

360

Tuesday, March 24, 2009 POSTER SESSION I: CRASHING CHONDRITES: IMPACT, SHOCK, AND MELTING  

E-print Network

Rate of H-Chondrite Impact Melt Breccia LAP 04751 [#2034] An impact event melted a portion of the H-chondrite parent body, mixing with surviving clastic material. The melt-rich breccia was deposited as a thin unit at a depth breccia lens. Schrader D. L

Rathbun, Julie A.

361

Mineralogy and composition of matrix and chondrule rims in carbonaceous chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The degree of compositional variation of fine-grained minerals displayed by the members within any carbonaceous chondrite group (i.e., CI, CM, CV, CR) is a direct reflection of the range of aqueous alteration assemblages present. Matrix and fine-grained chondrule rims within any particular carbonaceous chondrite are mineralogically nearly identical to one another, but not necessarily similar in bulk elemental composition, even though they have subsequently experienced postaccretional secondary processing (aqueous alteration) under identical conditions. We propose that CO chondrites experienced parent body conditions of low f(O2), low water/rock ratios, and temperatures below 50 C. CR chondrites experienced higher water/rock ratios, potentially higher temperatures (not above 150 C), and a wide range of f(O2). The alteration mineralogy of CV chondrites indicates water/rock ratios at the high end (at least) of the range for CR chondrites, Essebi, and MAC 87300. CM chondrites experienced temperatures below 50 C, low f(O2) and low water/rock ratios, except EET 83334, which probably experienced relatively higher f(O2), and B-7904 and Y-86720, which experienced postalteration temperatures in the range 500-700 C. Most CI chondrites experienced temperatures between 50 and 150 C, relatively high water/rock ratios, and variable f(O2). Y-82162 witnessed postalteration heating, possibly as high as 400 C.

Zolensky, Michael; Barrett, Ruth; Browning, Lauren

1993-01-01

362

MAGNESIUM ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF CAIs AND CHONDRULES FROM CR CHONDRITES. B. , M. Gounelle1  

E-print Network

MAGNESIUM ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF CAIs AND CHONDRULES FROM CR CHONDRITES. B. Mimoun1 , M. Gounelle1. Introduction: The magnesium isotopic composi- tion of primitive extraterrestrial materials is worth measuring.g. 10]. Figure 1: The magnesium isotopic composition of CAIs in CR chondrites. Error bars are 1

Technische Universiteit Delft

363

Shock and annealing in the amphibole- and mica-bearing R chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MIL 11207 (R6) and LAP 04840 (R6) contain hornblende and phlogopite; MIL 07440 (R6) contains accessory titan-phlogopite and no hornblende. All three meteorites have been shocked: MIL 11207 contains extensive sulfide veins, pyroxene that formed from dehydrated hornblende, and an extensive network of plagioclase glass; MIL 07440 contains chromite-plagioclase assemblages, chromite veinlets and blebs, pincer-shaped plagioclase patches, but no sulfide veins; LAP 04840 contains olivine grains with chromite-bleb-laden cores and opaque-free rims, rare grains of pyroxene that formed from dehydrated hornblende, and no sulfide veins. These meteorites appear to have been heated to maximum temperatures of approximately 700-900 °C under conditions of moderately high PH2O (perhaps 250-500 bars). All three samples underwent postshock annealing. During this process, olivine crystal lattices healed (giving the rocks the appearance of shock-stage S1), and diffusion of Fe and S from thin sulfide veins to coarse sulfide grains caused the veins to disappear in MIL 07440 and LAP 04840. This latter process apparently also occurred in most S1-S2 ordinary chondrites of high petrologic type. The pressure-temperature conditions responsible for forming the amphibole and mica in these rocks may have been present at depths of a few tens of kilometers (as suggested in the literature). A giant impact or a series of smaller impacts would then have been required to excavate the hornblende- and biotite-bearing rocks and bring them closer to the surface. It was in that latter location where the samples were shocked, deposited in a hot ejecta blanket of low thermal diffusivity, and annealed.

Rubin, Alan E.

2014-06-01

364

The negligible chondritic contribution in the lunar soils water.  

PubMed

Recent data from Apollo samples demonstrate the presence of water in the lunar interior and at the surface, challenging previous assumption that the Moon was free of water. However, the source(s) of this water remains enigmatic. The external flux of particles and solid materials that reach the surface of the airless Moon constitute a hydrogen (H) surface reservoir that can be converted to water (or OH) during proton implantation in rocks or remobilization during magmatic events. Our original goal was thus to quantify the relative contributions to this H surface reservoir. To this end, we report NanoSIMS measurements of D/H and (7)Li/(6)Li ratios on agglutinates, volcanic glasses, and plagioclase grains from the Apollo sample collection. Clear correlations emerge between cosmogenic D and (6)Li revealing that almost all D is produced by spallation reactions both on the surface and in the interior of the grains. In grain interiors, no evidence of chondritic water has been found. This observation allows us to constrain the H isotopic ratio of hypothetical juvenile lunar water to ?D ? -550‰. On the grain surface, the hydroxyl concentrations are significant and the D/H ratios indicate that they originate from solar wind implantation. The scattering distribution of the data around the theoretical D vs. (6)Li spallation correlation is compatible with a chondritic contribution <15%. In conclusion, (i) solar wind implantation is the major mechanism responsible for hydroxyls on the lunar surface, and (ii) the postulated chondritic lunar water is not retained in the regolith. PMID:25288758

Stephant, Alice; Robert, François

2014-10-21

365

Refractory inclusions in the Kaidun carbonaceous chondrite breccia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kaidun is a unique CR-like chondritic breccia that encloses CI, CM, and E chondrite, and E achondrite clasts. Like CR chondrites, Kaidun contains only rare small Ca-Al rich inclusions (CAIs) that resemble ones in CO3 chondrites. One example, #53.08, is a 300 x 550 micron-sized oblong object consisting of two dissimilar halves. At one end is a compact intergrowth of aluminous melilite and sparse inclusions of spinel. The opposite end of the inclusion is melilite-free, containing instead an unknown Ca-Ti-Al-rich silicate, possibly an unusual pyroxene, that differs in composition both from 'UNK'. Calculated as pyroxene, the stoichiometry suggests that approximately 65% of the Ti is present as Ti(3+). The pyroxene-like phase encloses very abundant spinel and rare hibonite grains. Mantling the melilite-free end is a porous region consisting mostly of spinel. A discontinuous Wark-Lovering-type rim sequence occurs only on the melilite-rich end of 53.08 and consists of spinel and aluminous diopside layers. Different from either of these is #53.07, an approximately 74-micron spheroidal object having a core of spinel, an intermediate zone of diopside, and an outer mantle of spinel, giving the whole a 'bulls-eye'-like aspect. Rare earth elements in 53.08 are mostly unfractionated at approximately 20-30x CI. Melilite has a flat pattern at 10-20x CI with a slight positive Eu anomaly. Such a pattern differs from the Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE)-enriched patterns commonly observed in melt-derived melilites, suggesting that 53.08 did not solidify from a melt. The pyroxene-like silicate has a Heavy Rare Earth Elements (HREE)-enriched pattern that resembles REE patterns seen in pyroxenes from type A inclusions. Rare Earth Elements (REE) in 3.10h are essentially flat at approximately 10-20x CI, with no Eu anomaly but a slight negative Yb anomaly.

MacPherson, G. J.; Davis, A. M.; Ivanov, A.

1994-07-01

366

Comments on D/H ratios in chondritic organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

D/H ratios in chondritic organic matter are investigated. Demineralized organic residues obtained from previous experiments were dried in a quartz reaction vessel under vacuum for 60 minutes at 250-300 C and then combusted in oxygen for 20 minutes at 850 C. The apparatus is described and the results of the experiments such as D/H ratios in water and measurements on total carbon dioxide are given. Atomic H/C ratios calculated directly from the quantities of carbon dioxide and water recovered, are reported according to Standard Mean Ocean Water and Pee Dee Belemnite, using the customary notation.

Smith, J. W.; Rigby, D.

1981-06-01

367

Isotopes in comets - Implications from CR in carbonaceous chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to their chemical composition, rich in volatile compounds, comets are thought to be primitive materials. They may provide prime samples for the study of nucleosynthetic components of the solar system and of the processes occurring during the formation of the outer planets. Their origin is largely a matter of conjecture. Cr isotopic measurements in carbonaceous chondrites illustrate how the nonvolatile part of cometary material can be investigated both for isotopic heterogeneity and for the extinct nuclide Mn-53. Questions like the possible presence of Al-26 as a heat source can also be addressed by these measurements.

Birck, J. L.

1991-04-01

368

Extraterrestrial amino acids identified in metal-rich CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites from Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonaceous chondrites contain numerous indigenous organic compounds and could have been an important source of prebiotic compounds required for the origin of life on Earth or elsewhere. Extraterrestrial amino acids have been reported in five of the eight groups of carbonaceous chondrites and are most abundant in CI, CM, and CR chondrites but are also present in the more thermally altered CV and CO chondrites. We report the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of simple primary amino acids in six metal-rich CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites that have not previously been investigated for amino acids: Allan Hills (ALH) 85085 (CH3), Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91467 (CH3), Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546 (CH3), MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02675 (CBb), Miller Range (MIL) 05082 (CB), and Miller Range (MIL) 07411 (CB). Amino acid abundances and carbon isotopic values were obtained by using both liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fluorescence, and gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The ?13C/12C ratios of multiple amino acids fall outside of the terrestrial range and support their extraterrestrial origin. Extracts of CH chondrites were found to be particularly rich in amino acids (13-16 parts per million, ppm) while CB chondrite extracts had much lower abundances (0.2-2 ppm). The amino acid distributions of the CH and CB chondrites were distinct from the distributions observed in type 2 and 3 CM and CR chondrites and contained elevated levels of ?-, ?-, and ?-amino acids compared to the corresponding ?-amino acids, providing evidence that multiple amino acid formation mechanisms were important in CH and CB chondrites.

Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Hein, Jason E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

2013-03-01

369

Layer silicates in a chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical electron microscopy on individual grains from a portion of a chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle (aggregate W7029C1 from the NASA Johnson Space Center Cosmic Dust Collection) shows that layer silicates compose 50 percent of the silicate fraction examined. These layer silicates can be classified into two distinct crystallochemical groups: (1) fine-grained, polycrystalline smectite minerals; and (2) well-ordered, single crystals of kaolinite and Mg-poor talc. The layer silicates in this portion of sample W7029(asterisk)A are dissimilar to those described in other chondritic porous aggregates. The predominant layer silicate assemblage in W7029(asterisk)A indicates that heating of the aggregate during atmospheric entry was brief and probably to a temperature less than 300 C. Comparison with terrestrial phyllosilicate occurrences suggests that some layer silicates in aggregate W7029(asterisk)A may have been formed by alteratiton from preexisting silicate minerals at low temperatures (less than 25 C) after aggregate formation.

Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Mackinnon, I. D. R.

1985-01-01

370

The Oro Grande, New Mexico, chondrite and its lithic inclusion.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Oro Grande, New Mexico, U.S.A., chondrite was found in 1971. Electron microprobe analyses and microscopic examination show the following mineralogy: olivine (Fa 19.3 mole %), orthopyroxene (Fs 16.2 mole %), diopside, feldspar (An 13.6 mole %), chlorapatite, whitlockite, kamacite, taenite, troilite, chromite, and an iron-bearing terrestrial weathering product. A bulk chemical analysis of the meteorite shows the following results (weight %): Fe 0.84, Ni 1.46, Co 0.07, FeS 3.62, SiO2 34.18, TiO2 0.14, Al2O3 1.83, Cr2O3 0.55, Fe2O3 21.25, FeO 9.13, MnO 0.31, MgO 21.52, CaO 1.72, Na2O 0.70, K2O 0.08, P2O5 0.25, H2O(+) 2.14, H2O(-) 0.40, C 0.22, sum 100.41. On the basis of composition and texture the Oro Grande meteorite is classified as an H5 chondrite.

Fodor, R. V.; Keil, K.; Jarosewich, E.

1972-01-01

371

Exposure history of the Sutter's Mill carbonaceous chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractThe Sutter's Mill (SM) carbonaceous <span class="hlt">chondrite</span> fell in California on April 22, 2012. The cosmogenic radionuclide data indicate that Sutter's Mill was exposed to cosmic rays for 0.082 ± 0.008 Myr, which is one of the shortest ages for C <span class="hlt">chondrites</span>, but overlaps with a small cluster at approximately 0.1 Myr. The age is significantly longer than proposed ages that were obtained from cosmogenic noble gas concentrations, which have large uncertainties due to trapped noble gas corrections. The presence of neutron-capture 60Co and 36Cl in SM indicates a minimum preatmospheric radius of approximately 50 cm, and is consistent with a radius of 1-2 m, as derived from the fireball observations. Although a large preatmospheric size was proposed, one fragment (SM18) contains solar cosmic ray-produced short-lived radionuclides, such as 56Co and 51Cr. This implies that this specimen was less than 2 cm from the preatmospheric surface of Sutter's Mill. Although this conclusion seems surprising, it is consistent with the observation that the meteoroid fragmented high in the atmosphere. The presence of SCR-produced nuclides is consistent with the high SCR fluxes observed during the last few months before the meteorite's fall, when its orbit was less than 1 AU from the Sun.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Hamajima, Y.; Reedy, R. C.; Welten, K. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014M%26PS...49.2038Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Presolar grains in the CM2 <span class="hlt">chondrite</span> Sutter's Mill</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><title type="main">AbstractThe Sutter's Mill (SM) carbonaceous <span class="hlt">chondrite</span> is a regolith breccia, composed predominantly of CM2 clasts with varying degrees of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. An investigation of presolar grains in four Sutter's Mill sections, SM43, SM51, SM2-4, and SM18, was carried out using NanoSIMS ion mapping technique. A total of 37 C-anomalous grains and one O-anomalous grain have been identified, indicating an abundance of 63 ppm for presolar C-anomalous grains and 2 ppm for presolar oxides. Thirty-one silicon carbide (SiC), five carbonaceous grains, and one Al-oxide (Al2O3) were confirmed based on their elemental compositions determined by C-N-Si and O-Si-Mg-Al isotopic measurements. The overall abundance of SiC grains in Sutter's Mill (55 ppm) is consistent with those in other CM <span class="hlt">chondrites</span>. The absence of presolar silicates in Sutter's Mill suggests that they were destroyed by aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid. Furthermore, SM2-4 shows heterogeneous distributions of presolar SiC grains (12-54 ppm) in different matrix areas, indicating that the fine-grained matrix clasts come from different sources, with various thermal histories, in the solar nebula.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhao, Xuchao; Lin, Yangting; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Zhang, Jianchao; Hao, Jialong; Zolensky, Michael; Jenniskens, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030110970&hterms=whole+grain&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dwhole%2Bgrain"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molybdenum Isotopic Composition of Iron Meteorites, <span class="hlt">Chondrites</span> and Refractory Inclusions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent Mo isotopic studies of meteorites reported evidence for differences in isotopic compositions for whole rocks of some primitive and differentiated meteorites relative to terrestrial materials. Enrichments of r- and p-process isotopes of up to 3-4 units (e unit = parts in 10(exp 4) over s-process dominated isotopes are the most prominent features. Certain types of presolar grains show large enrichments in s-process isotopes, however, it was concluded on grounds of mass balance that incomplete digestion of such grains cannot explain the enrichments of r- and p-process isotopes in whole rocks of primitive <span class="hlt">chondrites</span>. If the reported variability in r- and p-process isotope enrichments reflects the true isotopic characteristics of the whole rocks, the implications are quite profound. It would suggest the presence of large scale Mo isotopic heterogeneity within the solar accretion disk with likely collateral effects for other elements. However, such effects were not found for Ru isotopes, nor for Zr isotopes. Another recent Mo isotopic study by multi collector ICP-MS could not confirm the reported deviations in Allende, Murchison or iron meteorites. Here, we present new results for the Mo isotopic composition of iron meteorites, <span class="hlt">chondrites</span> and CAIs obtained by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (NTIMS). We discuss analytical aspects and the homogeneity of Mo isotopic compositions in solar system materials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Becker, H.; Walker, R. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993LPI....24..341C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Separation of spallation and terrestrial C-14 in <span class="hlt">chondrites</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Weathering products and contamination severely hamper our ability to accurately measure the C-14 spallation component in meteorites, but can give insights into a sample's terrestrial history. A procedure was developed to measure the C-14 in these components using CO and CO2 separations from temperature extractions from 200-500 mg of material. The Bruderheim (L6) <span class="hlt">chondrite</span> was chosen as a standard following the practice of previous researchers, crosschecked against Peace River (L6), Abee (EH4), and Juvinas (EUC). Low temperature fractions (less than 900 C) give C-14 signatures consistent with a modern terrestrial C-14 source; melt fractions show elevated levels attesting to a spallogenic origin. Higher yields of CO in the melt fraction are less affected by the low levels of experimental contamination than the CO2. This fraction gave a mean CO:CO2 ratio in Bruderheim of 81.6 +/- 7.7; the ratio of the spallation component is 79.8 +/- 8.1. These values suggest equilibrium release of gases on the olivine-silica-pyroxene-iron buffer. This is corroborated by approximately equal release of the two components at 900 C. The <span class="hlt">chondrites</span> gave an average saturation level of 54.3 +/- 2.9 dpm/kg; the achondrite gave 49.6 +/- 2.0 dpm/kg. No clear correlation with oxygen content is apparent, though shielding effects have yet to be evaluated. A further evaluation of this subject matter is given.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cresswell, R. G.; Beukens, R. P.; Rucklidge, J. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007711&hterms=c-14+standard&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dc-14%2Bstandard"> <span id="translatedtitle">Separation of spallation and terrestrial C-14 in <span class="hlt">chondrites</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Weathering products and contamination severely hamper our ability to accurately measure the C-14 spallation component in meteorites, but can give insights into a sample's terrestrial history. A procedure was developed to measure the C-14 in these components using CO and CO2 separations from temperature extractions from 200-500 mg of material. The Bruderheim (L6) <span class="hlt">chondrite</span> was chosen as a standard following the practice of previous researchers, crosschecked against Peace River (L6), Abee (EH4), and Juvinas (EUC). Low temperature fractions (less than 900 C) give C-14 signatures consistent with a modern terrestrial C-14 source; melt fractions show elevated levels attesting to a spallogenic origin. Higher yields of CO in the melt fraction are less affected by the low levels of experimental contamination than the CO2. This fraction gave a mean CO:CO2 ratio in Bruderheim of 81.6 +/- 7.7; the ratio of the spallation component is 79.8 +/- 8.1. These values suggest equilibrium release of gases on the olivine-silica-pyroxene-iron buffer. This is corroborated by approximately equal release of the two components at 900 C. The <span class="hlt">chondrites</span> gave an average saturation level of 54.3 +/- 2.9 dpm/kg; the achondrite gave 49.6 +/- 2.0 dpm/kg. No clear correlation with oxygen content is apparent, though shielding effects have yet to be evaluated. A further evaluation of this subject matter is given.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cresswell, R. G.; Beukens, R. P.; Rucklidge, J. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15973403"> <span id="translatedtitle">Timescales of shock processes in <span class="hlt">chondritic</span> and martian meteorites.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The accretion of the terrestrial planets from asteroid collisions and the delivery to the Earth of martian and lunar meteorites has been modelled extensively. Meteorites that have experienced shock waves from such collisions can potentially be used to reveal the accretion process at different stages of evolution within the Solar System. Here we have determined the peak pressure experienced and the duration of impact in a <span class="hlt">chondrite</span> and a martian meteorite, and have combined the data with impact scaling laws to infer the sizes of the impactors and the associated craters on the meteorite parent bodies. The duration of shock events is inferred from trace element distributions between coexisting high-pressure minerals in the shear melt veins of the meteorites. The shock duration and the associated sizes of the impactor are found to be much greater in the <span class="hlt">chondrite</span> (approximately 1 s and 5 km, respectively) than in the martian meteorite (approximately 10 ms and 100 m). The latter result compares well with numerical modelling studies of cratering on Mars, and we suggest that martian meteorites with similar, recent ejection ages (10(5) to 10(7) years ago) may have originated from the same few square kilometres on Mars. PMID:15973403</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beck, P; Gillet, Ph; El Goresy, A; Mostefaoui, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-06-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/aw4k803108157320.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pathwise Taylor schemes for random <span class="hlt">ordinary</span> differential equations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Random <span class="hlt">ordinary</span> differential equations (RODEs) are <span class="hlt">ordinary</span> differential equations which contain a stochastic process in their\\u000a vector fields. They can be analyzed pathwise using deterministic calculus, but since the driving stochastic process is usually\\u000a only Hölder continuous in time, the vector field is not differentiable in the time variable. Traditional numerical schemes\\u000a for <span class="hlt">ordinary</span> differential equations thus do not achieve</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arnulf Jentzen; Peter E. Kloeden</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050167042&hterms=epma&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Depma"> <span id="translatedtitle">Localized Chemical Redistribution During Aqueous Alteration in CR2 Carbonaceous <span class="hlt">Chondrites</span> EET 87770 and EET 92105</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical