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Sample records for unfolded protein response

  1. Translation Attenuation Mechanism in Unfolded Protein Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusina, Ala; Papa, Feroz; Tang, Chao

    Endoplasmic Reticulum is a cellular organelle where membrane and extracellular proteins are folded with the help of chaperons. Insulin is one example of such extracellular proteins. Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is a cell response to an increased level of unfolded proteins in ER. In pancreatic β-cells failure in UPR leads to accumulation of unfolded insulin in Endoplasmic reticulum and eventual cell death. This is thought to be one of the causes of type two diabetes.

  2. The unfolded protein response in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Sarrabeth; Lin, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) occurs in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER. The UPR is comprised of three signaling pathways that promote cytoprotective functions to correct ER stress; however, if ER stress cannot be resolved the UPR results in apoptosis of affected cells. The UPR is an important feature of various human diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent studies have shown several components of the UPR are upregulated in the multiple cell types in MS lesions, including oligodendrocytes, T cells, microglia/macrophages, and astrocytes. Data from animal model studies, particularly studies of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and the cuprizone model, imply an important role of the UPR activation in oligodendrocytes in the development of MS. In this review we will cover current literature on the UPR and the evidence for its role in the development of MS. PMID:26283904

  3. Signaling the Mitochondrial Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Mark W.; Nargund, Amrita M.; Haynes, Cole M.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are compartmentalized organelles essential for numerous cellular functions including ATP generation, iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, nucleotide and amino acid metabolism as well as apoptosis. To promote biogenesis and proper function, mitochondria have a dedicated repertoire of molecular chaperones to facilitate protein folding and quality control proteases to degrade those proteins that fail to fold correctly. Mitochondrial protein folding is challenged by the complex organelle architecture, the deleterious effects of electron transport chain-generated reactive oxygen species and the mitochondrial genome’s susceptibility to acquiring mutations. In response to the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins beyond the organelle’s chaperone capacity, cells mount a mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt). The UPRmt is a mitochondria-to-nuclear signal transduction pathway resulting in the induction of mitochondrial protective genes including mitochondrial molecular chaperones and proteases to re-establish protein homeostasis within the mitochondrial protein-folding environment. Here, we review the current understanding of UPRmt signal transduction and the impact of the UPRmt on diseased cells. PMID:22445420

  4. Melanoma and the Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, Erin K.; Mactier, Swetlana; Christopherson, Richard I.

    2016-01-01

    The UPR (unfolded protein response) has been identified as a key factor in the progression and metastasis of cancers, notably melanoma. Several mediators of the UPR are upregulated in cancers, e.g., high levels of GRP78 (glucose-regulator protein 78 kDa) correlate with progression and poor outcome in melanoma patients. The proliferative burden of cancer induces stress and activates several cellular stress responses. The UPR is a tightly orchestrated stress response that is activated upon the accumulation of unfolded proteins within the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). The UPR is designed to mediate two conflicting outcomtes, recovery and apoptosis. As a result, the UPR initiates a widespread signaling cascade to return the cell to homeostasis and failing to achieve cellular recovery, initiates UPR-induced apoptosis. There is evidence that ER stress and subsequently the UPR promote tumourigenesis and metastasis. The complete role of the UPR has yet to be defined. Understanding how the UPR allows for adaption to stress and thereby assists in cancer progression is important in defining an archetype of melanoma pathology. In addition, elucidation of the mechanisms of the UPR may lead to development of effective treatments of metastatic melanoma. PMID:26927180

  5. Melanoma and the Unfolded Protein Response.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Erin K; Mactier, Swetlana; Christopherson, Richard I

    2016-01-01

    The UPR (unfolded protein response) has been identified as a key factor in the progression and metastasis of cancers, notably melanoma. Several mediators of the UPR are upregulated in cancers, e.g., high levels of GRP78 (glucose-regulator protein 78 kDa) correlate with progression and poor outcome in melanoma patients. The proliferative burden of cancer induces stress and activates several cellular stress responses. The UPR is a tightly orchestrated stress response that is activated upon the accumulation of unfolded proteins within the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). The UPR is designed to mediate two conflicting outcomtes, recovery and apoptosis. As a result, the UPR initiates a widespread signaling cascade to return the cell to homeostasis and failing to achieve cellular recovery, initiates UPR-induced apoptosis. There is evidence that ER stress and subsequently the UPR promote tumourigenesis and metastasis. The complete role of the UPR has yet to be defined. Understanding how the UPR allows for adaption to stress and thereby assists in cancer progression is important in defining an archetype of melanoma pathology. In addition, elucidation of the mechanisms of the UPR may lead to development of effective treatments of metastatic melanoma. PMID:26927180

  6. The mitochondrial unfolded protein response - synchronizing genomes

    PubMed Central

    Jovaisaite, Virginija; Auwerx, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of the mitochondrial proteome is performed primarily by chaperones, which fold and assemble proteins, and by proteases, which degrade excess damaged proteins. Upon various types of mitochondrial stress, triggered genetically or pharmacologically, dysfunction of the proteome is sensed and communicated to the nucleus, where an extensive transcriptional program, aimed to repair the damage, is activated. This feedback loop, termed the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), synchronizes the activity of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes and as such ensures the quality of the mitochondrial proteome. Here we review the recent advances in the UPRmt field and discuss its induction, signaling, communication with the other mitochondrial and major cellular regulatory pathways and its potential implications on health and lifespan. PMID:25543897

  7. The Unfolded Protein Response and Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Josh J.; Zhang, Sarah X.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy, a common complication of diabetes, is the leading cause of blindness in adults. Diabetes chronically damages retinal blood vessels and neurons likely through multiple pathogenic pathways such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To relieve ER stress, the cell activates an adaptive mechanism known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR coordinates the processes of protein synthesis, protein folding, and degradation to ensure proteostasis, which is vital for cell survival and activity. Emerging evidence suggests that diabetes can activate all three UPR branches in retinal cells, among which the PERK/ATF4 pathway is the most extensively studied in the development of diabetic retinopathy. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) is a major transcription factor in the core UPR pathway and also regulates a variety of genes involved in cellular metabolism, redox state, autophagy, inflammation, cell survival, and vascular function. The exact function and implication of XBP1 in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy remain elusive. Focusing on this less studied pathway, we summarize recent progress in studies of the UPR pertaining to diabetic changes in retinal vasculature and neurons, highlighting the perspective of XBP1 as a potential therapeutic target in diabetic retinopathy. PMID:25530974

  8. The Unfolded Protein Response and Gastrointestinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaser, Arthur; Adolph, Timon Erik; Blumberg, Richard S

    2013-01-01

    As the inner lining of the gastrointestinal tract, the intestinal epithelium serves an essential role in innate immune function at the interface between the host and microbiota. Given the unique environmental challenges and thus physiologic secretory functions of this surface, it is exquisitely sensitive to perturbations that affect its capacity to resolve endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Genetic deletion of factors involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR), which functions in the resolution of ER stress that arises from misfolded proteins, result in spontaneous intestinal inflammation closely mimicking human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This is demonstrated by observations wherein deletion of genes such as Xbp1 and Agr2 profoundly affects the intestinal epithelium and results in spontaneous intestinal inflammation. Moreover, both genes, along with others (e.g. ORDML3) represent genetic risk factors for human IBD, both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Here we review the current mechanistic understanding for how unresolved ER stress can lead to intestinal inflammation, and highlight the findings that implicate ER stress as a genetically affected biological pathway in IBD. We further discuss environmental and microbial factors that might impact on the epithelium’s capacity to resolve ER stress, and which may constitute exogenous factors that may precipitate disease in genetically susceptible individuals. PMID:23588234

  9. [Unfolded protein response: its role in physiology and physiopathology].

    PubMed

    Foufelle, Fabienne; Ferré, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the first compartment in the secretory pathway. In the ER, proteins fold into their native configuration and are modified by post-translational modifications. Perturbations that alter ER homeostasis therefore disrupt folding and lead to the accumulation of unfolded proteins. These perturbations include modifications of Ca2+ homeostasis, increased demand for protein folding due to elevated synthesis of proteins in specialized cells or expression of a mutant misfolded protein. To limit accumulation of unfolded proteins, the cells have developed a specialized pathway : the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR involves the activation of three transmembrane proteins of the ER : the PKR-like ER protein kinase (PERK), the activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and the inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE-1). The activation of all three components of the UPR depends on the dissociation of the luminal chaperone BiP/GRP78 from the luminal part of these proteins. Once activated, these pathways down-regulate protein synthesis through the phosphorylation of eiF2 (eucaryotic translation initiation factor 2) and up-regulate the transcription of genes which encode ER chaperones, protein folding enzymes and components of the ER-associated degradation system (ERAD). Growing evidences indicate that UPR signaling plays critical roles in nutrient sensing, differentiation of secretory cells such as pancreatic b cell and antibody producing plasma cells, glucose homeostasis and in the development of pathologies linked to accumulation of aggregated proteins. PMID:17349291

  10. Emerging functions of the unfolded protein response in immunity

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Sophie; Pulendran, Bali; Lambrecht, Bart N.

    2015-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) has traditionally been viewed as an adaptive response triggered upon accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), aimed at restoring ER function. The UPR can also be an anticipatory response that is activated well before the disruption of protein homeostasis. UPR signaling intersects at many levels with the innate and adaptive immune response. In some immune cell types like dendritic cells and B cells, particular UPR sensors appear constitutively active in the absence of traditional UPR gene program induction, necessary for antigen presentation and immunoglobulin synthesis. The UPR also influences Toll-like receptor signaling and NF-?B activation, and some pathogens subvert the UPR. This review summarizes these emerging non-canonical functions of the UPR in immunity. PMID:25232821

  11. A Review of the Mammalian Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Anirikh; Chen, Aaron W.; Varner, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Proteins requiring post-translational modifications such as N-linked glycosylation are processed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A diverse array of cellular stresses can lead to dysfunction of the ER and ultimately to an imbalance between protein-folding capacity and protein-folding load. Cells monitor protein folding by an inbuilt quality control system involving both the ER and the Golgi apparatus. Unfolded or misfolded proteins are tagged for degradation via ER associated degradation (ERAD) or sent back through the folding cycle. Continued accumulation of incorrectly folded proteins can also trigger the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). In mammalian cells, UPR is a complex signaling program mediated by three ER transmembrane receptors: activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), inositol requiring kinase 1 (IRE1) and double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK). UPR performs three functions, adaptation, alarm and apoptosis. During adaptation, the UPR tries to reestablish folding homeostasis by inducing the expression of chaperones that enhance protein folding. Simultaneously, global translation is attenuated to reduce the ER folding load while the degradation rate of unfolded proteins is increased. If these steps fail, the UPR induces a cellular alarm and mitochondrial mediated apoptosis program. UPR malfunctions have been associated with a wide range of disease states including tumor progression, diabetes, as well as immune and inflammatory disorders. This review describes recent advances in understanding the molecular structure of UPR in mammalian cells, its functional role in cellular stress, and its pathophysiology. PMID:21809331

  12. Activation of the unfolded protein response by Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Pillich, Helena; Loose, Maria; Zimmer, Klaus-Peter; Chakraborty, Trinad

    2012-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) responds to perturbation of homeostasis with stress. To maintain ER function, a signalling-circuitry has evolved which, when engaged, attempts to reduce a surplus of unfolded proteins by triggering the unfolded protein response (UPR). Several studies have implicated UPR in viral infections, neurodegenerative disorders and metabolic diseases but UPR has not yet been widely linked to bacterial infections. Here we demonstrate that the facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) induces ER expansion and UPR prior to host cell entry. Lm activated protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) evidenced by the phosphorylation of the α-subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 (eIF2α), inositol-requiring protein-1 (IRE1) as shown by detection of spliced X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1) and activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6) as demonstrated by depletion of its inactive form. A mutant LmΔhly strain that did not produce listeriolysin (LLO) lacked the UPR response. Conversely purified LLO activated UPR. Sustained infection with Lm resulted in apoptosis. Induction of ER stress by thapsigargin or tunicamycin reduced intracellular bacterial number. Our findings suggest that UPR plays an important role in the cell autonomous defence responses to bacterial infection. PMID:22321539

  13. ER stress and the unfolded protein response in intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    McGuckin, Michael A; Eri, Rajaraman D; Das, Indrajit; Lourie, Rohan; Florin, Timothy H

    2010-06-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a phenomenon that occurs when excessive protein misfolding occurs during biosynthesis. ER stress triggers a series of signaling and transcriptional events known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR attempts to restore homeostasis in the ER but if unsuccessful can trigger apoptosis in the stressed cells and local inflammation. Intestinal secretory cells are susceptible to ER stress because they produce large amounts of complex proteins for secretion, most of which are involved in mucosal defense. This review focuses on ER stress in intestinal secretory cells and describes how increased protein misfolding could occur in these cells, the process of degradation of misfolded proteins, the major molecular elements of the UPR pathway, and links between the UPR and inflammation. Evidence is reviewed from mouse models and human inflammatory bowel diseases that ties ER stress and activation of the UPR with intestinal inflammation, and possible therapeutic approaches to ameliorate ER stress are discussed. PMID:20338921

  14. Cellular unfolded protein response against viruses used in gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Dwaipayan; Balakrishnan, Balaji; Jayandharan, Giridhara R.

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are excellent vehicles for gene therapy due to their natural ability to infect and deliver the cargo to specific tissues with high efficiency. Although such vectors are usually “gutted” and are replication defective, they are subjected to clearance by the host cells by immune recognition and destruction. Unfolded protein response (UPR) is a naturally evolved cyto-protective signaling pathway which is triggered due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in its lumen. The UPR signaling consists of three signaling pathways, namely PKR-like ER kinase, activating transcription factor 6, and inositol-requiring protein-1. Once activated, UPR triggers the production of ER molecular chaperones and stress response proteins to help reduce the protein load within the ER. This occurs by degradation of the misfolded proteins and ensues in the arrest of protein translation machinery. If the burden of protein load in ER is beyond its processing capacity, UPR can activate pro-apoptotic pathways or autophagy leading to cell death. Viruses are naturally evolved in hijacking the host cellular translation machinery to generate a large amount of proteins. This phenomenon disrupts ER homeostasis and leads to ER stress. Alternatively, in the case of gutted vectors used in gene therapy, the excess load of recombinant vectors administered and encountered by the cell can trigger UPR. Thus, in the context of gene therapy, UPR becomes a major roadblock that can potentially trigger inflammatory responses against the vectors and reduce the efficiency of gene transfer. PMID:24904562

  15. Targeting the unfolded protein response in heart diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Man; Dudley, Samuel C

    2016-01-01

    In neurological disease and diabetes, the unfolded protein response (UPR) has been investigated for years, while its function in heart disease is less well understood. All three branches of the UPR are involved in ischaemia/reperfusion and can either protect or impair heart function. Recently, UPR has been found to play a role in arrhythmogenesis during human heart failure, and blocking UPR has an antiarrhythmic effect. This review will discuss the rationale for and challenges to targeting UPR in heart disease. PMID:24865516

  16. Unfolded protein response in hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Shiu-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus of clinical importance. The virus establishes a chronic infection and can progress from chronic hepatitis, steatosis to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanisms of viral persistence and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Recently the unfolded protein response (UPR), a cellular homeostatic response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, has emerged to be a major contributing factor in many human diseases. It is also evident that viruses interact with the host UPR in many different ways and the outcome could be pro-viral, anti-viral or pathogenic, depending on the particular type of infection. Here we present evidence for the elicitation of chronic ER stress in HCV infection. We analyze the UPR signaling pathways involved in HCV infection, the various levels of UPR regulation by different viral proteins and finally, we propose several mechanisms by which the virus provokes the UPR. PMID:24904547

  17. Unfolded Protein Response Pathways in Bloodstream-Form Trypanosoma brucei?

    PubMed Central

    Tiengwe, Calvin; Brown, Abigail E. N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a stress mechanism to cope with misfolded proteins in the early secretory pathway, the hallmark being transcriptional upregulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperones such as BiP and protein disulfide isomerase. Despite the lack of transcriptional regulation and the absence of the classical UPR machinery, African trypanosomes apparently respond to persistent ER stress by a UPR-like response, including upregulation of BiP, and a related spliced leader silencing (SLS) response whereby SL RNA transcription is shut down. Initially observed by knockdown of the secretory protein translocation machinery, both responses are also induced by chemical agents known to elicit UPR in mammalian cells (H. Goldshmidt, D. Matas, A. Kabi, A. Carmi, R. Hope, S. Michaeli, PLoS Pathog 6:e1000731, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000731). As these findings were generated primarily in procyclic-stage trypanosomes, we have investigated both responses in pathogenic bloodstream-stage parasites. RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of the core translocon subunit Trypanosoma brucei Sec61α (TbSec61α) failed to induce either response. Interestingly, cell growth halted within 16 h of silencing, but sufficient TbSec61α remained to allow full competence for translocation of nascent secretory proteins for up to 24 h, indicating that replication is finely coupled with the capacity to synthesize and transport secretory cargo. Tunicamycin and thapsigargin at concentrations compatible with short-term (4 h) and long-term (24 h) viability also failed to induce any of the indicators of UPR-like or SLS responses. Dithiothreitol (DTT) was lethal at all concentrations tested. These results indicate that UPR-like and SLS responses to persistent ER stress do not occur in bloodstream-stage trypanosomes. PMID:26318397

  18. Oxidative Stress, Unfolded Protein Response, and Apoptosis in Developmental Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kupsco, Allison; Schlenk, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Physiological development requires precise spatiotemporal regulation of cellular and molecular processes. Disruption of these key events can generate developmental toxicity in the form of teratogenesis or mortality. The mechanism behind many developmental toxicants remains unknown. While recent work has focused on the unfolded protein response (UPR), oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the pathogenesis of disease, few studies have addressed their relationship in developmental toxicity. Redox regulation, UPR, and apoptosis are essential for physiological development and can be disturbed by a variety of endogenous and exogenous toxicants to generate lethality and diverse malformations. This review examines the current knowledge of the role of oxidative stress, UPR, and apoptosis in physiological development as well as in developmental toxicity, focusing on studies and advances in vertebrates model systems. PMID:26008783

  19. The unfolded protein response affects readthrough of premature termination codons

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Yifat S; McClure, Michelle L; Rowe, Steven M; Sorscher, Eric J; Bester, Assaf C; Manor, Miriam; Kerem, Eitan; Rivlin, Joseph; Zahdeh, Fouad; Mann, Matthias; Geiger, Tamar; Kerem, Batsheva

    2014-01-01

    One-third of monogenic inherited diseases result from premature termination codons (PTCs). Readthrough of in-frame PTCs enables synthesis of full-length functional proteins. However, extended variability in the response to readthrough treatment is found among patients, which correlates with the level of nonsense transcripts. Here, we aimed to reveal cellular pathways affecting this inter-patient variability. We show that activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) governs the response to readthrough treatment by regulating the levels of transcripts carrying PTCs. Quantitative proteomic analyses showed substantial differences in UPR activation between patients carrying PTCs, correlating with their response. We further found a significant inverse correlation between the UPR and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), suggesting a feedback loop between these homeostatic pathways. We uncovered and characterized the mechanism underlying this NMD-UPR feedback loop, which augments both UPR activation and NMD attenuation. Importantly, this feedback loop enhances the response to readthrough treatment, highlighting its clinical importance. Altogether, our study demonstrates the importance of the UPR and its regulatory network for genetic diseases caused by PTCs and for cell homeostasis under normal conditions. PMID:24705877

  20. Legionella suppresses the host unfolded protein response via multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Treacy-Abarca, Sean; Mukherjee, Shaeri

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, secretes ∼300 effector proteins to modulate the host environment. Given the intimate interaction between L. pneumophila and the endoplasmic reticulum, we investigated the role of the host unfolded protein response (UPR) during L. pneumophila infection. Interestingly, we show that the host identifies L. pneumophila infection as a form of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the sensor pATF6 is processed to generate pATF6(N), a transcriptional activator of downstream UPR genes. However, L. pneumophila is able to suppress the UPR and block the translation of prototypical UPR genes, BiP and CHOP. Furthermore, biochemical studies reveal that L. pneumophila uses two effectors (Lgt1 and Lgt2) to inhibit the splicing of XBP1u mRNA to spliced XBP1 (XBP1s), an UPR response regulator. Thus, we demonstrate that L. pneumophila is able to inhibit the UPR by multiple mechanisms including blocking XBP1u splicing and causing translational repression. This observation highlights the utility of L. pneumophila as a powerful tool for studying a critical protein homeostasis regulator. PMID:26219498

  1. The unfolded protein response: the dawn of a new field.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Originating from cancer research in mammalian cultured cells, the entirely new field of the unfolded protein response (UPR) was born in 1988. The UPR is a transcriptional induction program coupled with intracellular signaling from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the nucleus to maintain the homeostasis of the ER, an organelle which controls the quality of proteins destined for the secretory pathway. Extremely competitive analyses using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that although signaling from both the ER and cell surface is initiated by activation of a transmembrane protein kinase, the mechanism downstream of ER-resident Ire1p, a sensor molecule of the UPR, is unique. Thus, unconventional spliceosome-independent mRNA splicing is utilized to produce the highly active transcription factor Hac1p. This is the autobiographical story of how a young and not yet independent scientist competed with a very famous full professor in the early days of UPR research, which ultimately lead to their sharing Lasker Basic Medical Research Award in 2014. PMID:26560836

  2. The unfolded protein response: the dawn of a new field

    PubMed Central

    MORI, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Originating from cancer research in mammalian cultured cells, the entirely new field of the unfolded protein response (UPR) was born in 1988. The UPR is a transcriptional induction program coupled with intracellular signaling from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the nucleus to maintain the homeostasis of the ER, an organelle which controls the quality of proteins destined for the secretory pathway. Extremely competitive analyses using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that although signaling from both the ER and cell surface is initiated by activation of a transmembrane protein kinase, the mechanism downstream of ER-resident Ire1p, a sensor molecule of the UPR, is unique. Thus, unconventional spliceosome-independent mRNA splicing is utilized to produce the highly active transcription factor Hac1p. This is the autobiographical story of how a young and not yet independent scientist competed with a very famous full professor in the early days of UPR research, which ultimately lead to their sharing Lasker Basic Medical Research Award in 2014. PMID:26560836

  3. The unfolded protein response is required for dendrite morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xing; Howell, Audrey S; Dong, Xintong; Taylor, Caitlin A; Cooper, Roshni C; Zhang, Jianqi; Zou, Wei; Sherwood, David R; Shen, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Precise patterning of dendritic fields is essential for the formation and function of neuronal circuits. During development, dendrites acquire their morphology by exuberant branching. How neurons cope with the increased load of protein production required for this rapid growth is poorly understood. Here we show that the physiological unfolded protein response (UPR) is induced in the highly branched Caenorhabditis elegans sensory neuron PVD during dendrite morphogenesis. Perturbation of the IRE1 arm of the UPR pathway causes loss of dendritic branches, a phenotype that can be rescued by overexpression of the ER chaperone HSP-4 (a homolog of mammalian BiP/ grp78). Surprisingly, a single transmembrane leucine-rich repeat protein, DMA-1, plays a major role in the induction of the UPR and the dendritic phenotype in the UPR mutants. These findings reveal a significant role for the physiological UPR in the maintenance of ER homeostasis during morphogenesis of large dendritic arbors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06963.001 PMID:26052671

  4. Drosophila as a model for unfolded protein response research

    PubMed Central

    Ryoo, Hyung Don

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is an organelle where most secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized, folded, and undergo further maturation. As numerous conditions can perturb such ER function, eukaryotic cells are equipped with responsive signaling pathways, widely referred to as the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). Chronic conditions of ER stress that cannot be fully resolved by UPR, or conditions that impair UPR signaling itself, are associated with many metabolic and degenerative diseases. In recent years, Drosophila has been actively employed to study such connections between UPR and disease. Notably, the UPR pathways are largely conserved between Drosophila and humans, and the mediating genes are essential for development in both organisms, indicating their requirement to resolve inherent stress. By now, many Drosophila mutations are known to impose stress in the ER, and a number of these appear similar to those that underlie human diseases. In addition, studies have employed the strategy of overexpressing human mutations in Drosophila tissues to perform genetic modifier screens. The fact that the basic UPR pathways are conserved, together with the availability of many human disease models in this organism, makes Drosophila a powerful tool for studying human disease mechanisms. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(8): 445-453] PMID:25999177

  5. The unfolded protein response in neurodegenerative diseases: a neuropathological perspective.

    PubMed

    Scheper, Wiep; Hoozemans, Jeroen J M

    2015-09-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a stress response of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to a disturbance in protein folding. The so-called ER stress sensors PERK, IRE1 and ATF6 play a central role in the initiation and regulation of the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded and aggregated proteins is a common characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. With the discovery of the basic machinery of the UPR, the idea was born that the UPR or part of its machinery could be involved in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and prion disease. Over the last decade, the UPR has been addressed in an increasing number of studies on neurodegeneration. The involvement of the UPR has been investigated in human neuropathology across different neurological diseases, as well as in cell and mouse models for neurodegeneration. Studies using different disease models display discrepancies on the role and function of the UPR during neurodegeneration, which can often be attributed to differences in methodology. In this review, we will address the importance of investigation of human brain material for the interpretation of the role of the UPR in neurological diseases. We will discuss evidence for UPR activation in neurodegenerative diseases, and the methodology to study UPR activation and its connection to brain pathology will be addressed. More recently, the UPR is recognized as a target for drug therapy for treatment and prevention of neurodegeneration, by inhibiting the function of specific mediators of the UPR. Several preclinical studies have shown a proof-of-concept for this approach targeting the machinery of UPR, in particular the PERK pathway, in different models for neurodegeneration and have yielded paradoxical results. The promises held by these observations will need further support by clarification of the observed differences between disease models, as well as increased insight obtained from human neuropathology. PMID:26210990

  6. Ethanol Cellular Defense Induce Unfolded Protein Response in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Torrado, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol is a valuable industrial product and a common metabolite used by many cell types. However, this molecule produces high levels of cytotoxicity affecting cellular performance at several levels. In the presence of ethanol, cells must adjust some of their components, such as the membrane lipids to maintain homeostasis. In the case of microorganism as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ethanol is one of the principal products of their metabolism and is the main stress factor during fermentation. Although, many efforts have been made, mechanisms of ethanol tolerance are not fully understood and very little evidence is available to date for specific signaling by ethanol in the cell. This work studied two S. cerevisiae strains, CECT10094, and Temohaya-MI26, isolated from flor wine and agave fermentation (a traditional fermentation from Mexico) respectively, which differ in ethanol tolerance, in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the ethanol stress response and the reasons for different ethanol tolerance. The transcriptome was analyzed after ethanol stress and, among others, an increased activation of genes related with the unfolded protein response (UPR) and its transcription factor, Hac1p, was observed in the tolerant strain CECT10094. We observed that this strain also resist more UPR agents than Temohaya-MI26 and the UPR-ethanol stress correlation was corroborated observing growth of 15 more strains and discarding UPR correlation with other stresses as thermal or oxidative stress. Furthermore, higher activation of UPR pathway in the tolerant strain CECT10094 was observed using a UPR mCherry reporter. Finally, we observed UPR activation in response to ethanol stress in other S. cerevisiae ethanol tolerant strains as the wine strains T73 and EC1118. This work demonstrates that the UPR pathway is activated under ethanol stress occurring in a standard fermentation and links this response to an enhanced ethanol tolerance. Thus, our data suggest that there is a room for ethanol tolerance improvement by enhancing UPR response. PMID:26925053

  7. Ethanol Cellular Defense Induce Unfolded Protein Response in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Tapia, Elisabet; Nana, Rebeca K; Querol, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol is a valuable industrial product and a common metabolite used by many cell types. However, this molecule produces high levels of cytotoxicity affecting cellular performance at several levels. In the presence of ethanol, cells must adjust some of their components, such as the membrane lipids to maintain homeostasis. In the case of microorganism as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ethanol is one of the principal products of their metabolism and is the main stress factor during fermentation. Although, many efforts have been made, mechanisms of ethanol tolerance are not fully understood and very little evidence is available to date for specific signaling by ethanol in the cell. This work studied two S. cerevisiae strains, CECT10094, and Temohaya-MI26, isolated from flor wine and agave fermentation (a traditional fermentation from Mexico) respectively, which differ in ethanol tolerance, in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the ethanol stress response and the reasons for different ethanol tolerance. The transcriptome was analyzed after ethanol stress and, among others, an increased activation of genes related with the unfolded protein response (UPR) and its transcription factor, Hac1p, was observed in the tolerant strain CECT10094. We observed that this strain also resist more UPR agents than Temohaya-MI26 and the UPR-ethanol stress correlation was corroborated observing growth of 15 more strains and discarding UPR correlation with other stresses as thermal or oxidative stress. Furthermore, higher activation of UPR pathway in the tolerant strain CECT10094 was observed using a UPR mCherry reporter. Finally, we observed UPR activation in response to ethanol stress in other S. cerevisiae ethanol tolerant strains as the wine strains T73 and EC1118. This work demonstrates that the UPR pathway is activated under ethanol stress occurring in a standard fermentation and links this response to an enhanced ethanol tolerance. Thus, our data suggest that there is a room for ethanol tolerance improvement by enhancing UPR response. PMID:26925053

  8. The unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway in Cryptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Seon Ah; Jung, Kwang-Woo; Bahn, Yong-Sun; Kang, Hyun Ah

    2014-01-01

    Unique and evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways allow an organism to sense, respond to, and adapt to internal and external environmental cues at its biological niche. In eukaryotic cells, the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway regulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis upon exposure to environmental changes causing ER stress. The UPR pathway of Cryptococcus neoformans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, which causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals, consists of the evolutionarily conserved Ire1 kinase, a unique bZIP transcription factor, Hxl1, and the ER-resident molecular chaperone Kar2/BiP. Although the Cryptococcus UPR pathway regulates ER stress, antifungal drug resistance, and virulence in an Ire1/Hxl1-dependent manner, Ire1 has Hxl1-independent roles in capsule biosynthesis and thermotolerance. In this review, we highlight the conserved and unique features of the Cryptococcus UPR pathway compared with other fungal UPR systems and its importance in the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis and discuss future challenges in this field. PMID:24504058

  9. The role of the unfolded protein response in axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Judith A

    2016-06-01

    Susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis is highly genetic, with a heritability greater than 90 %. Presence of the HLA-B27 MHC class I allele remains the greatest genetic risk factor identified to date. Beyond its nominal role in antigen presentation, HLA-B27 displays interesting and possibly unique biochemical characteristics which may contribute to disease pathogenesis. During its biosynthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), HLA-B27 folds very slowly and misfolds, inducing ER stress. Herein, we describe a major outcome of ER stress, the unfolded protein response (UPR), as well as consequences of the UPR for inflammation and autophagy. The ability of the UPR to augment inflammatory cytokine production is particularly intriguing given the centrality of cytokines in spondyloarthritis. Evidence for the relevance of an HLA-B27-related UPR to spondyloarthritis pathogenesis in animal models and human subjects will be reviewed. As greater pharmacologic capacity to modulate ER stress becomes available, improved understanding of the role of the UPR in spondyloarthritis may yield new therapeutic targets. PMID:26567900

  10. Induction of the Unfolded Protein Response by Constitutive G-protein Signaling in Rod Photoreceptor Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian; Chen, Jeannie

    2014-01-01

    Phototransduction is a G-protein signal transduction cascade that converts photon absorption to a change in current at the plasma membrane. Certain genetic mutations affecting the proteins in the phototransduction cascade cause blinding disorders in humans. Some of these mutations serve as a genetic source of “equivalent light” that activates the cascade, whereas other mutations lead to amplification of the light response. How constitutive phototransduction causes photoreceptor cell death is poorly understood. We showed that persistent G-protein signaling, which occurs in rod arrestin and rhodopsin kinase knock-out mice, caused a rapid and specific induction of the PERK pathway of the unfolded protein response. These changes were not observed in the cGMP-gated channel knock-out rods, an equivalent light condition that mimics light-stimulated channel closure. Thus transducin signaling, but not channel closure, triggers rapid cell death in light damage caused by constitutive phototransduction. Additionally, we show that in the albino light damage model cell death was not associated with increase in global protein ubiquitination or unfolded protein response induction. Taken together, these observations provide novel mechanistic insights into the cell death pathway caused by constitutive phototransduction and identify the unfolded protein response as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25183010

  11. The Unfolded Protein Response Is Triggered by a Plant Viral Movement Protein1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Changming; Dickman, Martin B.; Whitham, Steven A.; Payton, Mark; Verchot, Jeanmarie

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Potato virus X (PVX) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants leads to increased transcript levels of several stress-related host genes, including basic-region leucine zipper 60 (bZIP60), SKP1, ER luminal binding protein (BiP), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), calreticulin (CRT), and calmodulin (CAM). bZIP60 is a key transcription factor that responds to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induces the expression of ER-resident chaperones (BiP, PDI, CRT, and CAM). SKP1 is a component of SCF (for SKP1-Cullin-F box protein) ubiquitin ligase complexes that target proteins for proteasomal degradation. Expression of PVX TGBp3 from a heterologous vector induces the same set of genes in N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves. Virus-induced gene silencing was employed to knock down the expression of bZIP60 and SKP1, and the number of infection foci on inoculated leaves was reduced and systemic PVX accumulation was altered. Silencing bZIP60 led to the suppression of BiP and SKP1 transcript levels, suggesting that bZIP60 might be an upstream signal transducer. Overexpression of TGBp3 led to localized necrosis, but coexpression of TGBp3 with BiP abrogated necrosis, demonstrating that the unfolded protein response alleviates ER stress-related cell death. Steady-state levels of PVX replicase and TGBp2 (which reside in the ER) proteins were unaltered by the presence of TGBp3, suggesting that TGBp3 does not contribute to their turnover. Taken together, PVX TGBp3-induced ER stress leads to up-regulation of bZIP60 and unfolded protein response-related gene expression, which may be important to regulate cellular cytotoxicity that could otherwise lead to cell death if viral proteins reach high levels in the ER. PMID:21474436

  12. Unfolded protein response to autophagy as a promising druggable target for anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hee Seung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Song, Yong Sang

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is responsible for protein processing. In rapidly proliferating tumor cells, the ER tends to be overloaded with unfolded and misfolded proteins due to high metabolic demand. With the limited protein-folding capacity of the ER, tumor cells often suffer from more ER stress than do normal cells. Thus, cellular stress responses to cope with ER stress, such as the unfolded protein response (UPR) and autophagy, might be more activated in cancer cells than in normal cells. The complex signaling pathways from the UPR to autophagy provide promising druggable targets; a number of UPR/autophagy-targeted anticancer agents are currently in development in preclinical and clinical studies. In this short review we will discuss the potential anticancer efficacy of modulators of cellular stress responses, especially UPR and autophagy, on the basis of their signaling pathways. In addition, the current developmental status of the UPR/autophagy-targeted agents will be discussed. PMID:23050960

  13. Protein Unfolding: Rigidity Lost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rader, Andrew; Hespenheide, Brandon M.; Kuhn, Leslie A.; Thorpe, M. F.

    2003-03-01

    We present a study of protein unfolding using the FIRST software (which determines the rigid and flexible regions within a protein) on a set of structurally diverse proteins[1,2]. The proteins are modeled as networks of covalent bonds and non-covalent interactions including hydrogen bonds, salt bridges, and hydrophobic tethers. These flexible hydrophobic tethers between non-polar atoms model the hydrophobic effect, which drives protein folding. Breaking the hydrogen bonds and salt bridges according to their relative strength reduces the mean atomic coordination, < r >, and simulates the process of unfolding by thermal denaturation. As the mean coordination decreases, we observe the emergence of flexible regions from the rigid core. The transition state is determined from the peak in the fluctuations in the number of independent bond-rotational degrees of freedom (floppy modes) with respect to the mean coordination. As the protein denatures, it loses rigidity at the transition state: going from structurally stable, with the majority of the atoms in the rigid core, to completely flexible and unfolded. This transition occurs at a critical mean coordination of 2.405 for most proteins, the same mean coordination as the transition point for network glasses. Such universal behavior identifies the mean coordination as the relevant structural parameter, or reaction coordinate, for protein unfolding. [1] D. J. Jacobs, A.J. Rader, Leslie A. Kuhn, and M.F. Thorpe Protein Flexibility Prediction Using Graph Theory. Proteins, 44, 150-165, 2001. [2] A.J. Rader, B.M. Hespenheide, L.K. Kuhn, and M.F. Thorpe Protein Unfolding: Rigidity Lost. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 97, 3540-3545, 2002.

  14. The Unfolded Protein Response and the Role of Protein Disulfide Isomerase in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Perri, Emma R.; Thomas, Colleen J.; Parakh, Sonam; Spencer, Damian M.; Atkin, Julie D.

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance and regulation of proteostasis is a critical function for post-mitotic neurons and its dysregulation is increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Despite having different clinical manifestations, these disorders share similar pathology; an accumulation of misfolded proteins in neurons and subsequent disruption to cellular proteostasis. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important component of proteostasis, and when the accumulation of misfolded proteins occurs within the ER, this disturbs ER homeostasis, giving rise to ER stress. This triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), distinct signaling pathways that whilst initially protective, are pro-apoptotic if ER stress is prolonged. ER stress is increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, and emerging evidence highlights the complexity of the UPR in these disorders, with both protective and detrimental components being described. Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI) is an ER chaperone induced during ER stress that is responsible for the formation of disulfide bonds in proteins. Whilst initially considered to be protective, recent studies have revealed unconventional roles for PDI in neurodegenerative diseases, distinct from its normal function in the UPR and the ER, although these mechanisms remain poorly defined. However, specific aspects of PDI function may offer the potential to be exploited therapeutically in the future. This review will focus on the evidence linking ER stress and the UPR to neurodegenerative diseases, with particular emphasis on the emerging functions ascribed to PDI in these conditions. PMID:26779479

  15. Pancreatic adaptive responses in alcohol abuse: Role of the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Lugea, Aurelia; Waldron, Richard T; Pandol, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    The majority of those who drink excessive amounts of alcohol do not develop pancreatic disease. One overarching hypothesis is that alcohol abuse requires additional risk factors, either environmental or genetic, for disease to occur. However, another reason be a result of alcohol-induced activation of adaptive systems that protect the pancreas from the toxic effects of alcohol. We show that mechanisms within the unfolded protein response (UPR) of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that can lead to protection of the pancreas from pancreatic diseases with alcohol abuse. The remarkable ability of the pancreas to adapt its machinery to alcohol abuse using UPR systems and continue functioning is the likely reason that pancreatitis from alcohol abuse does not occur in the majority of heavy drinkers. These findings indicate that methods to enhance the protective responses of the UPR can provide opportunities for prevention and treatment of pancreatic diseases. PMID:25736240

  16. Unfolding of Proteins: Thermal and Mechanical Unfolding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hur, Joe S.; Darve, Eric

    2004-01-01

    We have employed a Hamiltonian model based on a self-consistent Gaussian appoximation to examine the unfolding process of proteins in external - both mechanical and thermal - force elds. The motivation was to investigate the unfolding pathways of proteins by including only the essence of the important interactions of the native-state topology. Furthermore, if such a model can indeed correctly predict the physics of protein unfolding, it can complement more computationally expensive simulations and theoretical work. The self-consistent Gaussian approximation by Micheletti et al. has been incorporated in our model to make the model mathematically tractable by signi cantly reducing the computational cost. All thermodynamic properties and pair contact probabilities are calculated by simply evaluating the values of a series of Incomplete Gamma functions in an iterative manner. We have compared our results to previous molecular dynamics simulation and experimental data for the mechanical unfolding of the giant muscle protein Titin (1TIT). Our model, especially in light of its simplicity and excellent agreement with experiment and simulation, demonstrates the basic physical elements necessary to capture the mechanism of protein unfolding in an external force field.

  17. Interplay between unfolded protein response and autophagy promotes tumor drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    YAN, MING-MING; NI, JIANG-DONG; SONG, DEYE; DING, MULIANG; HUANG, JUN

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in the quality control of secreted protein via promoting the correct folding of nascent protein and mediating the degradation of unfolded or misfolded protein, namely ER-associated degradation. When the unfolded or misfolded proteins are abundant, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is elicited, an adaptive signaling cascade from the ER to the nucleus, which restores the homeostatic functions of the ER. Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process where cellular long-lived proteins and damaged organelles are engulfed and degraded for recycling to maintain homeostasis. The UPR and autophagy occur simultaneously and are involved in pathological processes, including tumorigenesis, chemoresistance of malignancies and neurodegeneration. Accumulative data has indicated that the UPR may induce autophagy and that autophagy is able to alleviate the UPR. However, the detailed mechanism of interplay between autophagy and UPR remains to be fully understood. The present review aimed to depict the core pathways of the two processes and to elucidate how autophagy and UPR are regulated. Moreover, the review also discusses the molecular mechanism of crosstalk between the UPR and autophagy and their roles in malignant survival and drug resistance. PMID:26622781

  18. Bacteria, the ER and the Unfolded Protein Response: Friends or Foes?

    PubMed Central

    Celli, Jean; Tsolis, Renée M.

    2015-01-01

    The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is a cytoprotective response aimed at restoring cellular homeostasis following physiological stress exerted on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that also invokes innate immune signaling in response to invading microorganisms. While the UPR is modulated by various viruses, recent evidence indicates that it also plays multiple roles during bacterial infections. In this Review, we describe how bacteria adapt to live in the ER and discuss the intricacies of bacterial interactions with the UPR, including how UPR subversion promotes the proliferation of intracellular bacterial pathogens and how the UPR contributes to innate immune responses against invading bacteria. PMID:25534809

  19. Regulation of the Unfolded Protein Response by eIF2Bδ Isoforms*

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Leenus; Kimball, Scot R.; Gardner, Lawrence B.

    2010-01-01

    Cells respond to a variety of stresses, including unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), by phosphorylating a subunit of translation initiation factor eIF2, eIF2α. eIF2α phosphorylation inactivates the eIF2B complex. The inactivation of eIF2B not only suppresses the initiation of protein translation but paradoxically up-regulates the translation and expression of transcription factor ATF-4. Both of these processes are important for the cellular response to ER stress, also termed the unfolded protein response. Here we demonstrate that cellular response resulting from eIF2α phosphorylation is attenuated in several cancer cell lines. The deficiency of the unfolded protein response in these cells correlates with the expression of a specific isoform of a regulatory eIF2B subunit, eIF2Bδ variant 1 (V1). Replacement of total eIF2Bδ with V1 renders cells insensitive to eIF2α phosphorylation; specifically, they neither up-regulate ATF-4 and ATF-4 targets nor suppress protein translation. Expression of variant 2 eIF2Bδ in ER stress response-deficient cells restores the stress response. Our data suggest that V1 does not interact with the eIF2 complex, a requisite for eIF2B inhibition by eIF2α phosphorylation. Together, these data delineate a novel physiological mechanism to regulate the ER stress response with a large potential impact on a variety of diseases that result in ER stress. PMID:20709751

  20. Making ends meet: a role of RNA ligase RTCB in unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Filipowicz, Witold

    2014-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) monitors the protein folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum. One of the UPR branches includes an unusual cytoplasmic splicing reaction leading to removal of an intron from an mRNA encoding a key UPR transcription factor. The cleavage step of the process is well characterized in both yeast and animals, but the animal enzyme responsible for exon ligation has remained a mystery. Recent reports, including a paper in this issue of The EMBO Journal, identify RTCB as the RNA ligase operating during UPR in mammals and C. elegans. PMID:25404664

  1. Spliced X-box binding protein 1 couples the unfolded protein response to hexosamine biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao V; Deng, Yingfeng; Gao, Ningguo; Pedrozo, Zully; Li, Dan L; Morales, Cyndi R; Criollo, Alfredo; Luo, Xiang; Tan, Wei; Jiang, Nan; Lehrman, Mark A; Rothermel, Beverly A; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Lavandero, Sergio; Mammen, Pradeep P A; Ferdous, Anwarul; Gillette, Thomas G; Scherer, Philipp E; Hill, Joseph A

    2014-03-13

    The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) generates uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) for glycan synthesis and O-linked GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc) protein modifications. Despite the established role of the HBP in metabolism and multiple diseases, regulation of the HBP remains largely undefined. Here, we show that spliced X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1s), the most conserved signal transducer of the unfolded protein response (UPR), is a direct transcriptional activator of the HBP. We demonstrate that the UPR triggers HBP activation via Xbp1s-dependent transcription of genes coding for key, rate-limiting enzymes. We further establish that this previously unrecognized UPR-HBP axis is triggered in a variety of stress conditions. Finally, we demonstrate a physiologic role for the UPR-HBP axis by showing that acute stimulation of Xbp1s in heart by ischemia/reperfusion confers robust cardioprotection in part through induction of the HBP. Collectively, these studies reveal that Xbp1s couples the UPR to the HBP to protect cells under stress. PMID:24630721

  2. Spliced X-box Binding Protein 1 Couples the Unfolded Protein Response to Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao V.; Deng, Yingfeng; Gao, Ningguo; Pedrozo, Zully; Li, Dan L.; Morales, Cyndi R.; Criollo, Alfredo; Luo, Xiang; Tan, Wei; Jiang, Nan; Lehrman, Mark A.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Lavandero, Sergio; Mammen, Pradeep P.A.; Ferdous, Anwarul; Gillette, Thomas G.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) generates UDP-GlcNAc (uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine) for glycan synthesis and O-linked GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc) protein modifications. Despite the established role of the HBP in metabolism and multiple diseases, regulation of the HBP remains largely undefined. Here, we show that spliced X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1s), the most conserved signal transducer of the unfolded protein response (UPR), is a direct transcriptional activator of the HBP. We demonstrate that the UPR triggers HBP activation via Xbp1s-dependent transcription of genes coding for key, rate-limiting enzymes. We further establish that this previously unrecognized UPR-HBP axis is triggered in a variety of stress conditions. Finally, we demonstrate a physiologic role for the UPR-HBP axis, by showing that acute stimulation of Xbp1s in heart by ischemia/reperfusion confers robust cardioprotection in part through induction of the HBP. Collectively, these studies reveal that Xbp1s couples the UPR to the HBP to protect cells under stress. PMID:24630721

  3. Differential requirement of unfolded protein response pathway for calreticulin expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dukgyu; Singaravelu, Gunasekaran; Park, Byung-Jae; Ahnn, Joohong

    2007-09-14

    Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, which increases the expression of chaperones to maintain the homeostasis. Calreticulin is a calcium-binding chaperone located in the lumen of endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we show that in response to a UPR inducing reagent, tunicamycin, the expression of calreticulin (crt-1) is specifically up-regulated in Caenorhabditis elegans. Tunicamycin (TM) induced expression of the crt-1 requires IRE-1 and XBP-1 but is ATF-6 and PEK-1 independent. Analysis of the crt-1 promoter reveals a putative XBP-1 binding site at the -284 to -278 bp region, which was shown to be necessary for TM-mediated induction. Genetic analysis of crt-1 mutants and mutants of UPR pathway genes show various degrees of developmental arrest upon TM treatment. Our results suggest that the TM-induced UPR pathway culminates in the up-regulation of crt-1, which protects the worm from deleterious accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER. Knockdown of the crt-1, pdi-2, or pdi-3 increased the crt-1 expression, whereas knockdown of the hsp-3 or hsp-4 did not have any effect on crt-1 expression, indicating the existence of complex compensatory networks to cope up with ER stress. PMID:17651753

  4. Advances and New Concepts in Alcohol-Induced Organelle Stress, Unfolded Protein Responses and Organ Damage

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol is a simple and consumable biomolecule yet its excessive consumption disturbs numerous biological pathways damaging nearly all organs of the human body. One of the essential biological processes affected by the harmful effects of alcohol is proteostasis, which regulates the balance between biogenesis and turnover of proteins within and outside the cell. A significant amount of published evidence indicates that alcohol and its metabolites directly or indirectly interfere with protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causing an accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, which triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) leading to either restoration of homeostasis or cell death, inflammation and other pathologies under severe and chronic alcohol conditions. The UPR senses the abnormal protein accumulation and activates transcription factors that regulate nuclear transcription of genes related to ER function. Similarly, this kind of protein stress response can occur in other cellular organelles, which is an evolving field of interest. Here, I review recent advances in the alcohol-induced ER stress response as well as discuss new concepts on alcohol-induced mitochondrial, Golgi and lysosomal stress responses and injuries. PMID:26047032

  5. Transcriptional and Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Proangiogenic Factors by the Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ethel R.; Liao, Nan; Neale, Geoff A.; Hendershot, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Inadequate extracellular conditions can adversely affect the environment of the ER and impinge on the maturation of nascent proteins. The resultant accumulation of unfolded proteins activates a signal transduction pathway, known as the unfolded protein response, which serves primarily to protect the cell during stress and helps restore homeostasis to the ER. Principal Findings Microarray analysis of the unfolded protein response in a human medulloblastoma cell line treated with thapsigargin revealed that, in addition to known targets, a large number of proangiogenic factors were up-regulated. Real-Time PCR analyses confirmed that four of these factors, VEGFA, FGF2, angiogenin and IL8, were transcriptionally up-regulated in multiple cell lines by various ER stress inducers. Our studies on VEGFA regulation revealed that XBP-1(S), a UPR-inducible transcription factor, bound to two regions on the VEGFA promoter, and analysis of XBP-1 null mouse embryonic fibroblasts revealed that it contributes to VEGFA expression in response to ER stress. ATF4, another UPR-inducible transcription factor, also binds to the VEGFA gene, although its contribution to VEGFA transcription appeared to be fairly modest. We also found that VEGFA mRNA stability is increased in response to UPR activation, via activation of AMP kinase, demonstrating that increased mRNA levels occur at two regulatory points. In keeping with the mRNA levels, we found that VEGFA protein is secreted at levels as high as or higher than that achieved in response to hypoxia. Conclusions and Significance Our results indicate that the UPR plays a significant role in inducing positive regulators of angiogenesis. It also regulates VEGFA expression at transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels and is likely to have widespread implications for promoting angiogenesis in response to normal physiological cues as well as in pathological conditions like cancer. PMID:20824063

  6. The unfolded protein response is triggered following a single, unaccustomed resistance-exercise bout.

    PubMed

    Ogborn, Daniel I; McKay, Bryon R; Crane, Justin D; Parise, Gianni; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2014-09-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress results from an imbalance between the abundance of synthesized proteins and the folding capacity of the ER. In response, the unfolded protein response (UPR) attempts to restore ER function by attenuating protein synthesis and inducing chaperone expression. Resistance exercise (RE) stimulates protein synthesis; however, a postexercise accumulation of unfolded proteins may activate the UPR. Aging may impair protein folding, and the accumulation of oxidized and misfolded proteins may stimulate the UPR at rest in aged muscle. Eighteen younger (n = 9; 21 3 yr) and older (n = 9; 70 4 yr) untrained men completed a single, unilateral bout of RE using the knee extensors (four sets of 10 repetitions at 75% of one repetition maximum on the leg press and leg extension) to determine whether the UPR is increased in resting, aged muscle and whether RE stimulates the UPR. Muscle biopsies were taken from the nonexercised and exercised vastus lateralis at 3, 24, and 48 h postexercise. Age did not affect any of the proteins and transcripts related to the UPR. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and protein kinase R-like ER protein kinase (PERK) proteins were increased at 48 h postexercise, whereas inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha (IRE1?) was elevated at 24 h and 48 h. Despite elevated protein, GRP78 and PERK mRNA was unchanged; however, IRE1? mRNA was increased at 24 h postexercise. Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) mRNA increased at 24 h and 48 h, whereas ATF4, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), and growth arrest and DNA damage protein 34 mRNA were unchanged. These data suggest that RE activates specific pathways of the UPR (ATF6/IRE1?), whereas PERK/eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha/CHOP does not. In conclusion, acute RE results in UPR activation, irrespective of age. PMID:25009220

  7. Activation of the unfolded protein response in vitiligo: the missing link?

    PubMed

    Passeron, Thierry; Ortonne, Jean-Paul

    2012-11-01

    Vitiligo is characterized by a substantial loss of functional melanocytes in the epidermis and sometimes in hair follicles. Genetic and pathophysiological studies have provided strong evidence that vitiligo is a polygenetic, multifactorial disorder. The key roles of oxidative stress within melanocytes and anti-melanocyte immune responses have been addressed in many studies, but the relationship between these mechanisms remains unclear. In this issue, Toosi et al. report the upregulation of IL-6 and IL-8 after the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) following exposure of melanocytes to phenols. Their results shed light on the missing link between oxidative stress and immune responses in vitiligo. PMID:23069909

  8. The Unfolded Protein Response in Retinal Vascular Diseases: Implications and Therapeutic Potential Beyond Protein Folding

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sarah X.; Ma, Jacey H.; Bhatta, Maulasri; Fliesler, Steven J.; Wang, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a complex, step-wise process of new vessel formation that is involved in both normal embryonic development as well as postnatal pathological processes, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Aberrant blood vessel growth, also known as neovascularization, in the retina and the choroid is a major cause of vision loss in severe eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, and central and branch retinal vein occlusion. Yet, retinal neovascularization is causally and dynamically associated with vasodegeneration, ischemia, and vascular remodeling in retinal tissues. Understanding the mechanisms of retinal neovascularization is an urgent unmet need for developing new treatments for these devastating diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests a vital role for the unfolded protein response (UPR) in regulation of angiogenesis, in part through coordinating the secretion of pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as VEGF, and modulating endothelial cell survival and activity. Herein, we summarize current research in the context of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and UPR signaling in retinal angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, highlighting potential implications of targeting these stress response pathways in the prevention and treatment of retinal vascular diseases that result in visual deficits and blindness. PMID:25529848

  9. Stress responses in flavivirus-infected cells: activation of unfolded protein response and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Blzquez, Ana-Beln; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Martn-Acebes, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The Flavivirus is a genus of RNA viruses that includes multiple long known human, animal, and zoonotic pathogens such as Dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, or Japanese encephalitis virus, as well as other less known viruses that represent potential threats for human and animal health such as Usutu or Zika viruses. Flavivirus replication is based on endoplasmic reticulum-derived structures. Membrane remodeling and accumulation of viral factors induce endoplasmic reticulum stress that results in activation of a cellular signaling response termed unfolded protein response (UPR), which can be modulated by the viruses for their own benefit. Concomitant with the activation of the UPR, an upregulation of the autophagic pathway in cells infected with different flaviviruses has also been described. This review addresses the current knowledge of the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum stress, UPR, and autophagy in flavivirus-infected cells and the growing evidences for an involvement of these cellular pathways in the replication and pathogenesis of these viruses. PMID:24917859

  10. Stress responses in flavivirus-infected cells: activation of unfolded protein response and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The Flavivirus is a genus of RNA viruses that includes multiple long known human, animal, and zoonotic pathogens such as Dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, or Japanese encephalitis virus, as well as other less known viruses that represent potential threats for human and animal health such as Usutu or Zika viruses. Flavivirus replication is based on endoplasmic reticulum-derived structures. Membrane remodeling and accumulation of viral factors induce endoplasmic reticulum stress that results in activation of a cellular signaling response termed unfolded protein response (UPR), which can be modulated by the viruses for their own benefit. Concomitant with the activation of the UPR, an upregulation of the autophagic pathway in cells infected with different flaviviruses has also been described. This review addresses the current knowledge of the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum stress, UPR, and autophagy in flavivirus-infected cells and the growing evidences for an involvement of these cellular pathways in the replication and pathogenesis of these viruses. PMID:24917859

  11. Surveillance-Activated Defenses Block the ROS–Induced Mitochondrial Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Runkel, Eva D.; Liu, Shu; Baumeister, Ralf; Schulze, Ekkehard

    2013-01-01

    Disturbance of cellular functions results in the activation of stress-signaling pathways that aim at restoring homeostasis. We performed a genome-wide screen to identify components of the signal transduction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) to a nuclear chaperone promoter. We used the ROS generating complex I inhibitor paraquat to induce the UPRmt, and we employed RNAi exposure post-embryonically to allow testing genes whose knockdown results in embryonic lethality. We identified 54 novel regulators of the ROS–induced UPRmt. Activation of the UPRmt, but not of other stress-signaling pathways, failed when homeostasis of basic cellular mechanisms such as translation and protein transport were impaired. These mechanisms are monitored by a recently discovered surveillance system that interprets interruption of these processes as pathogen attack and depends on signaling through the JNK-like MAP-kinase KGB-1. Mutation of kgb-1 abrogated the inhibition of ROS–induced UPRmt, suggesting that surveillance-activated defenses specifically inhibit the UPRmt but do not compromise activation of the heat shock response, the UPR of the endoplasmic reticulum, or the SKN-1/Nrf2 mediated response to cytosolic stress. In addition, we identified PIFK-1, the orthologue of the Drosophila PI 4-kinase four wheel drive (FWD), and found that it is the only known factor so far that is essential for the unfolded protein responses of both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. This suggests that both UPRs may share a common membrane associated mechanism. PMID:23516373

  12. IRE1?/XBP1-mediated branch of the unfolded protein response regulates osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tohmonda, Takahide; Yoda, Masaki; Iwawaki, Takao; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Horiuchi, Keisuke

    2015-08-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular adaptive mechanism that is activated in response to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. The inositol-requiring protein-1?/X-box-binding protein-mediated (IRE1?/XBP1-mediated) branch of the UPR is highly conserved and has also been shown to regulate various cell-fate decisions. Herein, we have demonstrated a crucial role for the IRE?/XBP1-mediated arm of the UPR in osteoclast differentiation. Using murine models, we found that the conditional abrogation of IRE1? in bone marrow cells increases bone mass as the result of defective osteoclastic bone resorption. In osteoclast precursors, IRE1? was transiently activated during osteoclastogenesis, and suppression of the IRE1?/XBP1 pathway in these cells substantially inhibited the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in vitro. We determined that XBP1 directly binds the promoter and induces transcription of the gene encoding the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1). Moreover, activation of IRE1? was partially dependent on Ca2+ oscillation mediated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors 2 and 3 (ITPR2 and ITPR3) in the endoplasmic reticulum, as pharmacological inhibition or deletion of these receptors markedly decreased Xbp1 mRNA processing. The present study thus reveals an intracellular pathway that integrates the UPR and osteoclast differentiation through activation of the IRE1?/XBP1 pathway. PMID:26193638

  13. IRE1?/XBP1-mediated branch of the unfolded protein response regulates osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tohmonda, Takahide; Yoda, Masaki; Iwawaki, Takao; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Horiuchi, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular adaptive mechanism that is activated in response to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. The inositol-requiring protein-1?/X-boxbinding proteinmediated (IRE1?/XBP1-mediated) branch of the UPR is highly conserved and has also been shown to regulate various cell-fate decisions. Herein, we have demonstrated a crucial role for the IRE?/XBP1-mediated arm of the UPR in osteoclast differentiation. Using murine models, we found that the conditional abrogation of IRE1? in bone marrow cells increases bone mass as the result of defective osteoclastic bone resorption. In osteoclast precursors, IRE1? was transiently activated during osteoclastogenesis, and suppression of the IRE1?/XBP1 pathway in these cells substantially inhibited the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in vitro. We determined that XBP1 directly binds the promoter and induces transcription of the gene encoding the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1). Moreover, activation of IRE1? was partially dependent on Ca2+ oscillation mediated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors 2 and 3 (ITPR2 and ITPR3) in the endoplasmic reticulum, as pharmacological inhibition or deletion of these receptors markedly decreased Xbp1 mRNA processing. The present study thus reveals an intracellular pathway that integrates the UPR and osteoclast differentiation through activation of the IRE1?/XBP1 pathway. PMID:26193638

  14. Role for the Unfolded Protein Response in Heart Disease and Cardiac Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Man; Dudley, Samuel C.

    2015-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) has been extensively investigated in neurological diseases and diabetes, while its function in heart disease is less well understood. Activated UPR participates in multiple cardiac conditions and can either protect or impair heart function. Recently, the UPR has been found to play a role in arrhythmogenesis during human heart failure by affecting cardiac ion channels expression, and blocking UPR has an antiarrhythmic effect. This review will discuss the rationale for and challenges to targeting UPR in heart disease for treatment of arrhythmias. PMID:26729106

  15. Effect of modulation of unfolded protein response pathway on dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Diwaker, Drishya; Mishra, Kamla Prasad; Ganju, Lilly

    2015-12-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cascade of events that helps restoring cellular homeostasis under stressful conditions. It is activated when there is an imbalance in the protein load and protein folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as a result of an increase in the naïve, unfolded, or misfolded protein content of the cell. Dengue virus (DENV) utilizes the host machinery to synthesize viral proteins and replicates in the cell. During DENV infection, up-regulation of viral proteins increases the protein pool of the cell, resulting in the induction of UPR pathway. In this study, we have tried to understand the consequence of UPR induction during DENV infection in human monocytic cells. To fulfill this objective, we have used VER-155008 (VER), a known inhibitor of the 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), which is the master regulator of the UPR pathway. After VER treatment, cells were infected with DENV, and the induction of the UPR elements and their downstream activation was studied by western blotting and RT-PCR analysis. Interestingly, inhibition of GRP78 via VER treatment led to the decreased expression of DENV envelope protein through the activation of the UPR elements, protein kinase-like ER resident kinase, activating transcription factor 6, and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and then led to the activation of innate immune factors such as double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), interferon regulated factor 3 (IRF3), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β). This strategy may be used to decrease viral infection transiently. Thus UPR elements could be important therapeutic targets for decreasing DENV multiplication. PMID:26515795

  16. Modulation of the unfolded protein response by the human hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Catalin; Uta, Mihaela; Branza-Nichita, Norica

    2014-01-01

    During productive viral infection the host cell is confronted with synthesis of a vast amount of viral proteins which must be folded, quality controlled, assembled and secreted, perturbing the normal function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To counteract the ER stress, cells activate specific signaling pathways, designated as the unfolded proteins response (UPR), which essentially increase their folding capacity, arrest protein translation, and degrade the excess of misfolded proteins. This cellular defense mechanism may, in turn, affect significantly the virus life-cycle. This review highlights the current understanding of the mechanisms of the ER stress activation by Human Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a deadly pathogen affecting more than 350 million people worldwide. Further discussion addresses the latest discoveries regarding the adaptive strategies developed by HBV to manipulate the UPR for its own benefits, the controversies in the field and future perspectives. PMID:25191311

  17. The mitochondrial unfolded protein response activator ATFS-1 protects cells from inhibition of the mevalonate pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rauthan, Manish; Ranji, Parmida; Aguilera Pradenas, Nataly; Pitot, Christophe; Pilon, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Statins are cholesterol-lowering drugs that inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol via the mevalonate pathway. This pathway also produces coenzyme Q (a component of the respiratory chain), dolichols (important for protein glycosylation), and isoprenoids (lipid moieties responsible for the membrane association of small GTPases). We previously showed that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is useful to study the noncholesterol effects of statins because its mevalonate pathway lacks the sterol synthesis branch but retains all other branches. Here, from a screen of 150,000 mutagenized genomes, we isolated four C. elegans mutants resistant to statins by virtue of gain-of-function mutations within the first six amino acids of the protein ATFS-1, the key regulator of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response that includes activation of the chaperones HSP-6 and HSP-60. The atfs-1 gain-of-function mutants are also resistant to ibandronate, an inhibitor of an enzyme downstream of HMG-CoA reductase, and to gliotoxin, an inhibitor acting on a subbranch of the pathway important for protein prenylation, and showed improved mitochondrial function and protein prenylation in the presence of statins. Additionally, preinduction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response in wild-type worms using ethidium bromide or paraquat triggered statin resistance, and similar observations were made in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and in a mammalian cell line. We conclude that statin resistance through maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis is conserved across species, and that the cell-lethal effects of statins are caused primarily through impaired protein prenylation that results in mitochondria dysfunction. PMID:23530189

  18. Regulation of the unfolded protein response via S-nitrosylation of sensors of endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Nakato, Ryosuke; Ohkubo, Yu; Konishi, Akari; Shibata, Mari; Kaneko, Yuki; Iwawaki, Takao; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Lipton, Stuart A.; Uehara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Protein S-nitrosylation modulates important cellular processes, including neurotransmission, vasodilation, proliferation, and apoptosis in various cell types. We have previously reported that protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is S-nitrosylated in brains of patients with sporadic neurodegenerative diseases. This modification inhibits PDI enzymatic activity and consequently leads to the accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. Here, we describe S-nitrosylation of additional ER pathways that affect the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cell-based models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). We demonstrate that nitric oxide (NO) can S-nitrosylate the ER stress sensors IRE1α and PERK. While S-nitrosylation of IRE1α inhibited its ribonuclease activity, S-nitrosylation of PERK activated its kinase activity and downstream phosphorylation/inactivation or eIF2α. Site-directed mutagenesis of IRE1α(Cys931) prevented S-nitrosylation and inhibition of its ribonuclease activity, indicating that Cys931 is the predominant site of S-nitrosylation. Importantly, cells overexpressing mutant IRE1α(C931S) were resistant to NO-induced damage. Our findings show that nitrosative stress leads to dysfunctional ER stress signaling, thus contributing to neuronal cell death. PMID:26446798

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response: targeting the Achilles heel of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Vincenz, Lisa; Jäger, Richard; O'Dwyer, Michael; Samali, Afshin

    2013-06-01

    Multiple myeloma is characterized by the malignant proliferating antibody-producing plasma cells in the bone marrow. Despite recent advances in therapy that improve the survival of patients, multiple myeloma remains incurable and therapy resistance is the major factor causing lethality. Clearly, more effective treatments are necessary. In recent years it has become apparent that, as highly secretory antibody-producing cells, multiple myeloma cells require an increased capacity to cope with unfolded proteins and are particularly sensitive to compounds targeting proteostasis such as proteasome inhibitors, which represent one of the most prominent new therapeutic strategies. Because of the increased requirement for dealing with secretory proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum, multiple myeloma cells are heavily reliant for survival on a set of signaling pathways, known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Thus, directly targeting the UPR emerges as a new promising therapeutic strategy. Here, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the UPR signaling in cancer, and outline its important role in myeloma pathogenesis and treatment. We discuss new therapeutic approaches based on targeting the protein quality control machinery and particularly the IRE1α/XBP1 axis of the UPR. PMID:23729400

  20. A new paradigm: innate immune sensing of viruses via the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Smith, Judith A

    2014-01-01

    THE IMMUNE SYSTEM DEPENDS UPON COMBINATIONS OF SIGNALS TO MOUNT APPROPRIATE RESPONSES: pathogen specific signals in the context of co-stimulatory "danger" signals drive immune strength and accuracy. Viral infections trigger anti-viral type I interferon (IFN) responses by stimulating endosomal and cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). However, viruses have also evolved many strategies to counteract IFN responses. Are there intracellular danger signals that enhance immune responses to viruses? During infection, viruses place a heavy demand on the protein folding machinery of the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To survive ER stress, host cells mount an unfolded protein response (UPR) to decrease ER protein load and enhance protein-folding capacity. Viruses also directly elicit the UPR to enhance their replication. Increasing evidence supports an intersection between the host UPR and inflammation, in particular the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I IFN. The UPR directly activates pro-inflammatory cytokine transcription factors and dramatically enhances cytokine production in response to viral PRR engagement. Additionally, viral PRR engagement may stimulate specific pathways within the UPR to enhance cytokine production. Through these mechanisms, viral detection via the UPR and inflammatory cytokine production are intertwined. Consequently, the UPR response is perfectly poised to act as an infection-triggered "danger" signal. The UPR may serve as an internal "co-stimulatory" signal that (1) provides specificity and (2) critically augments responses to overcome viral subterfuge. Further work is needed to test this hypothesis during viral infections. PMID:24904537

  1. Zhangfei/CREB-ZF – A Potential Regulator of the Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Rapin, Noreen; Ying, Zhengxin; Shklanka, Erika; Bodnarchuk, Timothy W.; Verge, Valerie M. K.; Misra, Vikram

    2013-01-01

    Cells respond to perturbations in the microenvironment of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and to the overloading of its capacity to process secretory and membrane-associate proteins, by activating the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). Genes that mediate the UPR are regulated by three basic leucine-zipper (bLZip) motif-containing transcription factors – Xbp1s, ATF4 and ATF6. A failure of the UPR to achieve homeostasis and its continued stimulation leads to apoptosis. Mechanisms must therefore exist to turn off the UPR if it successfully restores normalcy. The bLZip protein Zhangfei/CREBZF/SMILE is known to suppress the ability of several, seemingly structurally unrelated, transcription factors. These targets include Luman/CREB3 and CREBH, ER-resident bLZip proteins known to activate the UPR in some cell types. Here we show that Zhangfei had a suppressive effect on most UPR genes activated by the calcium ionophore thapsigargin. This effect was at least partially due to the interaction of Zhangfei with Xbp1s. The leucine zipper of Zhangfei was required for this interaction, which led to the subsequent proteasomal degradation of Xbp1s. Zhangfei suppressed the ability of Xbp1s to activate transcription from a promoter containing unfolded protein response elements and significantly reduced the ability to Xbp1s to activate the UPR as measured by RNA and protein levels of UPR-related genes. Finally, specific suppression of endogenous Zhangfei in thapsigargin-treated primary rat sensory neurons with siRNA directed to Zhangfei transcripts, led to a significant increase in transcripts and proteins of UPR genes, suggesting a potential role for Zhangfei in modulating the UPR. PMID:24155933

  2. Causal role of oxidative stress in unfolded protein response development in the hyperthyroid state.

    PubMed

    Videla, Luis A; Fernández, Virginia; Cornejo, Pamela; Vargas, Romina; Carrasco, Juan; Fernández, Javier; Varela, Nelson

    2015-12-01

    l-3,3',5-Triiodothyronine (T3)-induced liver oxidative stress underlies significant protein oxidation, which may trigger the unfolded protein response (UPR). Administration of daily doses of 0.1mg T3 for three consecutive days significantly increased the rectal temperature of rats and liver O2 consumption rate, with higher protein carbonyl and 8-isoprostane levels, glutathione depletion, and absence of morphological changes in liver parenchyma. Concomitantly, liver protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase and eukaryotic translation initiator factor 2α were phosphorylated in T3-treated rats compared to controls, with increased protein levels of binding immunoglobulin protein and activating transcription factor 4. In addition, higher mRNA levels of C/EBP homologous protein, growth arrest and DNA damage 34, protein disulfide isomerase, and ER oxidoreductin 1α were observed, changes that were suppressed by N-acetylcysteine (0.5g/kg) given before each dose of T3. In conclusion, T3-induced liver oxidative stress involving higher protein oxidation status has a causal role in UPR development, a response that is aimed to alleviate ER stress and promote cell survival. PMID:26434419

  3. Unfolded protein response is required for Aspergillus oryzae growth under conditions inducing secretory hydrolytic enzyme production.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mizuki; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2015-12-01

    Unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway for adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In yeast UPR, Ire1 cleaves the unconventional intron of HAC1 mRNA, and the functional Hac1 protein translated from the spliced HAC1 mRNA induces the expression of ER chaperone genes and ER-associated degradation genes for the refolding or degradation of unfolded proteins. In this study, we constructed an ireA (IRE1 ortholog) conditionally expressing strain of Aspergillus oryzae, a filamentous fungus producing a large amount of amylolytic enzymes, and examined the contribution of UPR to ER stress adaptation under physiological conditions. Repression of ireA completely blocked A. oryzae growth under conditions inducing the production of hydrolytic enzymes, such as amylases and proteases. This growth defect was restored by the introduction of unconventional intronless hacA (hacA-i). Furthermore, UPR was observed to be induced by amylolytic gene expression, and the disruption of the transcriptional activator for amylolytic genes resulted in partial growth restoration of the ireA-repressing strain. In addition, a homokaryotic ireA disruption mutant was successfully generated using the strain harboring hacA-i as a parental host. These results indicated that UPR is required for A. oryzae growth to alleviate ER stress induced by excessive production of hydrolytic enzymes. PMID:26496881

  4. Sorafenib enhances proteasome inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity via inhibition of unfolded protein response and keratin phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Honma, Yuichi; Harada, Masaru

    2013-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly resistant to conventional systemic therapies and prognosis for advanced HCC patients remains poor. Recent studies of the molecular mechanisms responsible for tumor initiation and progression have identified several potential molecular targets in HCC. Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor shown to have survival benefits in advanced HCC. It acts by inhibiting the serine/threonine kinases and the receptor type tyrosine kinases. In preclinical experiments sorafenib had anti-proliferative activity in hepatoma cells and it reduced tumor angiogenesis and increased apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the cytotoxic mechanisms of sorafenib include its inhibitory effects on protein ubiquitination, unfolded protein response (UPR) and keratin phosphorylation in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Moreover, we show that combined treatment with sorafenib and proteasome inhibitors (PIs) synergistically induced a marked increase in cell death in hepatoma- and hepatocyte-derived cells. These observations may open the way to potentially interesting treatment combinations that may augment the effect of sorafenib, possibly including drugs that promote ER stress. Because sorafenib blocked the cellular defense mechanisms against hepatotoxic injury not only in hepatoma cells but also in hepatocyte-derived cells, we must be careful to avoid severe liver injury. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •We examined the cytotoxic mechanisms of sorafenib in hepatoma cells. •Sorafenib induces cell death via apoptotic and necrotic fashion. •Sorafenib inhibits protein ubiquitination and unfolded protein response. •Autophagy induced by sorafenib may affect its cytotoxicity. •Sorafenib inhibits keratin phosphorylation and cytoplasmic inclusion formation.

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Unfolded Protein Response: Dynamics and Metabolic Integration

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Roberto; Parra, Valentina; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Torrealba, Natalia; Paredes, Felipe; Wang, Zhao V.; Zorzano, Antonio; Hill, Joseph A.; Jaimovich, Enrique; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a dynamic intracellular organelle with multiple functions essential for cellular homeostasis, development, and stress responsiveness. In response to cellular stress, a well-established signaling cascade, the unfolded protein response (UPR), is activated. This intricate mechanism is an important means of reestablishing cellular homeostasis and alleviating the inciting stress. Now, emerging evidence has demonstrated that the UPR influences cellular metabolism through diverse mechanisms, including calcium and lipid transfer, raising the prospect of involvement of these processes in the pathogenesis of disease, including neurodegeneration, cancer, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Here, we review the distinct functions of the ER and UPR from a metabolic point of view, highlighting their association with prevalent pathologies. PMID:23317820

  6. Controlling the unfolded protein response-mediated life and death decisions in cancer.

    PubMed

    Maurel, Marion; McGrath, Eoghan P; Mnich, Katarzyna; Healy, Sandra; Chevet, Eric; Samali, Afshin

    2015-08-01

    Cancer cells are exposed to intrinsic (oncogene) or extrinsic (microenvironmental) challenges, leading to activation of stress response pathways. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is the cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and plays a pivotal role in tumor development. Depending on ER stress intensity and duration, the UPR is either pro-survival to preserve ER homeostasis or pro-death if the stress cannot be resolved. On one hand, the adaptive arm of the UPR is essential for cancer cells to survive the harsh conditions they are facing, and on the other hand, cancer cells have evolved mechanisms to bypass ER stress-induced cell death, thereby conferring them with a selective advantage for malignant transformation. Therefore, the mechanisms involved in the balance between survival and death outcomes of the UPR may be exploited as therapeutic tools to treat cancer. PMID:25814342

  7. Phenyl Acyl Acids Attenuate the Unfolded Protein Response in Tunicamycin-Treated Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zamarbide, Marta; Martinez-Pinilla, Eva; Ricobaraza, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how neural cells handle proteostasis stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is important to decipher the mechanisms that underlie the cell death associated with neurodegenerative diseases and to design appropriate therapeutic tools. Here we have compared the sensitivity of a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5H) to the ER stress caused by an inhibitor of protein glycosylation with that observed in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T) cells. In response to stress, SH-SY5H cells increase the expression of mRNA encoding downstream effectors of ER stress sensors and transcription factors related to the unfolded protein response (the spliced X-box binding protein 1, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, endoplasmic reticulum-localized DnaJ homologue 4 and asparagine synthetase). Tunicamycin-induced death of SH-SY5H cells was prevented by terminal aromatic substituted butyric or valeric acids, in association with a decrease in the mRNA expression of stress-related factors, and in the accumulation of the ATF4 protein. Interestingly, this decrease in ATF4 protein occurs without modifying the phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α. Together, these results show that when short chain phenyl acyl acids alleviate ER stress in SH-SY5H cells their survival is enhanced. PMID:23976981

  8. TULP1 Missense Mutations Induces the Endoplasmic Reticulum Unfolded Protein Response Stress Complex (ER-UPR).

    PubMed

    Lobo, Glenn P; Ebke, Lindsey A; Au, Adrian; Hagstrom, Stephanie A

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the TULP1 gene are associated with early-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP); however, the molecular mechanisms related to the deleterious effects of TULP1 mutations remains unknown. Several studies have shown that misfolded proteins secondary to genetic mutations can accumulate within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), causing activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) complex followed by cellular apoptosis. We hypothesize that TULP1 mutations produce misfolded protein products that accumulate in the ER and induce cellular apoptosis via the UPR. To test our hypothesis, we first performed three in-silico analyses of TULP1 missense mutations (I459K, R420P and F491L), which predicted misfolded protein products. Subsequently, the three mutant TULP1-GFP constructs and wild-type (wt) TULP1-GFP were transiently transfected into hTERT-RPE-1 cells. Staining of cells using ER tracker followed by confocal microscopy showed wt-TULP1 localized predominantly to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. In contrast, all three mutant TULP1 proteins revealed cytoplasmic punctate staining which co-localized with the ER. Furthermore, western blot analysis of cells expressing mutant TULP1 proteins revealed induction of downstream targets of the ER-UPR complex, including BiP/GPR-78, phosphorylated-PERK (Thr980) and CHOP. Our in-vitro analyses suggest that mutant TULP1 proteins are misfolded and accumulate within the ER leading to induction of the UPR stress response complex. PMID:26427415

  9. Unfolded protein response in keratinocytes: impact on normal and abnormal keratinization.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Kazumitsu

    2013-03-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a signaling pathway from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the nucleus that protects cells from stress caused by misfolded or unfolded proteins. As such, ER stress is an ongoing challenge for all cells, given the central biologic importance of secretion as part of normal physiologic functions. Mild UPR is activated by mild ER stress, which occurs under normal conditions. Abnormal UPR is activated by severe ER stress, which occurs under pathological conditions. Abnormal UPR activation is associated with a number of diseases, including diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease. Within skin tissues, keratinocytes in the epidermis are especially dependent upon a mild UPR for normal differentiation in the course of their differentiation into secretory cells in the uppermost granular layers. Association between abnormal UPR activation and hereditary keratoses, including Darier's disease, keratosis linearis with ichthyosis congenita and keratoderma syndrome, erythrokeratoderma variabilis, and ichthyosis follicularis with atrichia and photophobia syndrome, have been elucidated recently. This review describes the UPR in normal and abnormal keratinization and discusses the regulation of abnormal UPR activation by chemical chaperones as a potential treatment for one of the hereditary keratoses. PMID:23352280

  10. A chemical screen to identify inducers of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Rauthan, Manish; Pilon, Marc

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that inhibition of the mevalonate pathway in C. elegans causes inhibition of protein prenylation, developmental arrest and lethality. We also showed that constitutive activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, UPRmt, is an effective way for C. elegans to become resistant to the negative effects of mevalonate pathway inhibition. This was an important finding since statins, a drug class prescribed to lower cholesterol levels in patients, act by inhibiting the mevalonate pathway, and it is therefore possible that some of their undesirable side effects could be alleviated by activating the UPRmt. Here, we screened a chemical library and identified 4 compounds that specifically activated the UPRmt. One of these compounds, methacycline hydrochloride (a tetracycline antibiotic) also protected C. elegans and mammalian cells from statin toxicity. Methacycline hydrochloride and ethidium bromide, a known UPRmt activator, were also tested in mice: only ethidium bromide significantly activate the UPRmt in skeletal muscles. PMID:27123370

  11. Role of Oxidative Stress in Modulating Unfolded Protein Response Activity in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Bazi, Ali; Keramati, Mohammad Reza; Gholamin, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, it has been revealed that tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) act through inducing both oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in chronic myeloid leukemia cells. However, ER stress signaling triggers both apoptotic and survival processes within cells. Nevertheless, mechanisms by which TKIs avoid the pro-survival effects are not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of oxidative stress in activity of unfolded protein response (UPR) survival pathway within K562 cell line. Methods: The expression of UPR survival target genes, Xbp1, and Grp94 (glucose requiring protein 94) was studied in single and combined exposure to oxidative and ER stress in K562 cell line by quantitative and qualitative PCR. Results: The expression of UPR-related survival gene Grp94 was hampered by exposing to oxidative stress in cell induced with ER stress. Conclusion: Interaction of oxidative and ER stress may role as a mediator influencing UPR signaling activity. PMID:26432458

  12. A survival pathway for Caenorhabditis elegans with a blocked unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Urano, Fumihiko; Calfon, Marcella; Yoneda, Takunari; Yun, Chi; Kiraly, Moni; Clark, Scott G.; Ron, David

    2002-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) counteracts stress caused by unprocessed ER client proteins. A genome-wide survey showed impaired induction of many UPR target genes in xbp-1 mutant Caenorhabditis elegans that are unable to signal in the highly conserved IRE1-dependent UPR pathway. However a family of genes, abu (activated in blocked UPR), was induced to higher levels in ER-stressed xbp-1 mutant animals than in ER-stressed wild-type animals. RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) inactivation of a representative abu family member, abu-1 (AC3.3), activated the ER stress marker hsp-4::gfp in otherwise normal animals and killed 50% of ER-stressed ire-1 and xbp-1 mutant animals. Abu-1(RNAi) also enhanced the effect of inactivation of sel-1, an ER-associated protein degradation gene. The nine abu genes encode highly related type I transmembrane proteins whose lumenal domains have sequence similarity to a mammalian cell surface scavenger receptor of endothelial cells that binds chemically modified extracellular proteins and directs their lysosomal degradation. Our findings that ABU-1 is an intracellular protein located within the endomembrane system that is induced by ER stress in xbp-1 mutant animals suggest that ABU proteins may interact with abnormal ER client proteins and this function may be particularly important in animals with an impaired UPR. PMID:12186849

  13. Unfolded protein response-induced ERdj3 secretion links ER stress to extracellular proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Genereux, Joseph C; Qu, Song; Zhou, Minghai; Ryno, Lisa M; Wang, Shiyu; Shoulders, Matthew D; Kaufman, Randal J; Lasmézas, Corinne I; Kelly, Jeffery W; Wiseman, R Luke

    2015-01-01

    The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) indirectly regulates extracellular proteostasis through transcriptional remodeling of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis pathways. This remodeling attenuates secretion of misfolded, aggregation-prone proteins during ER stress. Through these activities, the UPR has a critical role in preventing the extracellular protein aggregation associated with numerous human diseases. Here, we demonstrate that UPR activation also directly influences extracellular proteostasis through the upregulation and secretion of the ER HSP40 ERdj3/DNAJB11. Secreted ERdj3 binds misfolded proteins in the extracellular space, substoichiometrically inhibits protein aggregation, and attenuates proteotoxicity of disease-associated toxic prion protein. Moreover, ERdj3 can co-secrete with destabilized, aggregation-prone proteins in a stable complex under conditions where ER chaperoning capacity is overwhelmed, preemptively providing extracellular chaperoning of proteotoxic misfolded proteins that evade ER quality control. This regulated co-secretion of ERdj3 with misfolded clients directly links ER and extracellular proteostasis during conditions of ER stress. ERdj3 is, to our knowledge, the first metazoan chaperone whose secretion into the extracellular space is regulated by the UPR, revealing a new mechanism by which UPR activation regulates extracellular proteostasis. PMID:25361606

  14. Unfolded protein response-induced ERdj3 secretion links ER stress to extracellular proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Genereux, Joseph C; Qu, Song; Zhou, Minghai; Ryno, Lisa M; Wang, Shiyu; Shoulders, Matthew D; Kaufman, Randal J; Lasmézas, Corinne I; Kelly, Jeffery W; Wiseman, R Luke

    2015-01-01

    The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) indirectly regulates extracellular proteostasis through transcriptional remodeling of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis pathways. This remodeling attenuates secretion of misfolded, aggregation-prone proteins during ER stress. Through these activities, the UPR has a critical role in preventing the extracellular protein aggregation associated with numerous human diseases. Here, we demonstrate that UPR activation also directly influences extracellular proteostasis through the upregulation and secretion of the ER HSP40 ERdj3/DNAJB11. Secreted ERdj3 binds misfolded proteins in the extracellular space, substoichiometrically inhibits protein aggregation, and attenuates proteotoxicity of disease-associated toxic prion protein. Moreover, ERdj3 can co-secrete with destabilized, aggregation-prone proteins in a stable complex under conditions where ER chaperoning capacity is overwhelmed, preemptively providing extracellular chaperoning of proteotoxic misfolded proteins that evade ER quality control. This regulated co-secretion of ERdj3 with misfolded clients directly links ER and extracellular proteostasis during conditions of ER stress. ERdj3 is, to our knowledge, the first metazoan chaperone whose secretion into the extracellular space is regulated by the UPR, revealing a new mechanism by which UPR activation regulates extracellular proteostasis. PMID:25361606

  15. Amyloidogenesis of Natively Unfolded Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2009-01-01

    Aggregation and subsequent development of protein deposition diseases originate from conformational changes in corresponding amyloidogenic proteins. The accumulated data support the model where protein fibrillogenesis proceeds via the formation of a relatively unfolded amyloidogenic conformation, which shares many structural properties with the pre-molten globule state, a partially folded intermediate first found during the equilibrium and kinetic (un)folding studies of several globular proteins and later described as one of the structural forms of natively unfolded proteins. The flexibility of this structural form is essential for the conformational rearrangements driving the formation of the core cross-beta structure of the amyloid fibril. Obviously, molecular mechanisms describing amyloidogenesis of ordered and natively unfolded proteins are different. For ordered protein to fibrillate, its unique and rigid structure has to be destabilized and partially unfolded. On the other hand, fibrillogenesis of a natively unfolded protein involves the formation of partially folded conformation; i.e., partial folding rather than unfolding. In this review recent findings are surveyed to illustrate some unique features of the natively unfolded proteins amyloidogenesis. PMID:18537543

  16. Role of the unfolded protein response, GRP78 and GRP94 in organ homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Genyuan; Lee, Amy S

    2015-07-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular organelle where secretory and membrane proteins, as well as lipids, are synthesized and modified. When cells are subjected to ER stress, an adaptive mechanism referred to as the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is triggered to allow the cells to restore homeostasis. Evidence has accumulated that the UPR pathways provide specialized and unique roles in diverse development and metabolic processes. The glucose regulated proteins (GRPs) are traditionally regarded as ER proteins with chaperone and calcium binding properties. The GRPs are constitutively expressed at basal levels in all organs, and as stress-inducible ER chaperones, they are major players in protein folding, assembly and degradation. This conventional concept is augmented by recent discoveries that GRPs can be actively translocated to other cellular locations such as the cell surface, where they assume novel functions that regulate signaling, proliferation, apoptosis and immunity. Recent construction and characterization of mouse models where the gene encoding for the UPR components and the GRPs is genetically altered provide new insights on the physiological contribution of these proteins in vivo. This review highlights recent progress towards the understanding of the role of the UPR and two major GRPs (GRP78 and GRP94) in regulating homeostasis of organs arising from the endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm. GRP78 and GRP94 exhibit shared and unique functions, and in specific organs their depletion elicits adaptive responses with physiological consequences. PMID:25546813

  17. Domain compatibility in Ire1 kinase is critical for the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Poothong, Juthakorn; Sopha, Pattarawut; Kaufman, Randal J; Tirasophon, Witoon

    2010-07-16

    The unfolded protein response is a mechanism to cope with endoplasmic reticulum stress. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ire1 senses the stress and mediates a signaling cascade to upregulate responsive genes through an unusual HAC1 mRNA splicing. The splicing requires interconnected activity (kinase and endoribonuclease (RNase)) of Ire1 to cleave HAC1 mRNA at the non-canonical splice sites before translation into Hac1 transcription factor. Analysis of the truncated kinase domain from Ire1 homologs revealed that this domain is highly conserved. Characterization by domain swapping indicated that a functional ATP/ADP binding domain is minimally required. However the overall domain compatibility is critical for eliciting its full RNase function. PMID:20541549

  18. Apoptosis, autophagy and unfolded protein response pathways in Arbovirus replication and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Iranpour, Mahmoud; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Yazdi, Mina; Ande, Sudharsana R; Alizadeh, Javad; Wiechec, Emilia; Lindsay, Robbin; Drebot, Michael; Coombs, Kevin M; Ghavami, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Arboviruses are pathogens that widely affect the health of people in different communities around the world. Recently, a few successful approaches toward production of effective vaccines against some of these pathogens have been developed, but treatment and prevention of the resulting diseases remain a major health and research concern. The arbovirus infection and replication processes are complex, and many factors are involved in their regulation. Apoptosis, autophagy and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are three mechanisms that are involved in pathogenesis of many viruses. In this review, we focus on the importance of these pathways in the arbovirus replication and infection processes. We provide a brief introduction on how apoptosis, autophagy and the UPR are initiated and regulated, and then discuss the involvement of these pathways in regulation of arbovirus pathogenesis. PMID:26781343

  19. The polyamine spermine induces the unfolded protein response via the MAPK cascade in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sagor, G. H. M.; Chawla, Pratima; Kim, Dong W.; Berberich, Thomas; Kojima, Seiji; Niitsu, Masaru; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis three basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor genes, bZIP17, bZIP28, and bZIP60, play crucial roles in the unfolded protein response (UPR). Previously we found that bZIP60 is one of the spermine-induced genes. Consequently we further investigated the response of all the three bZIP genes to spermine. Expression of bZIP17, bZIP28, and bZIP60, and also their target genes was activated by spermine application as well as in plants with elevated endogenous spermine levels. Furthermore, spermine activated the splicing of the bZIP60 transcript mediated by the ribonuclease activity of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 and also recruited bZIP17 and bZIP60 proteins from endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus. We therefore propose that spermine is a novel UPR inducer. Moreover, induction of UPR by spermine required calcium-influx to the cytoplasm and the genes for mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 9 (MKK9), mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3) and MPK6. The result indicates that spermine-induced UPR is mediated by the MKK9-MPK3/MPK6 cascade in Arabidopsis. PMID:26442007

  20. The polyamine spermine induces the unfolded protein response via the MAPK cascade in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sagor, G H M; Chawla, Pratima; Kim, Dong W; Berberich, Thomas; Kojima, Seiji; Niitsu, Masaru; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis three basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor genes, bZIP17, bZIP28, and bZIP60, play crucial roles in the unfolded protein response (UPR). Previously we found that bZIP60 is one of the spermine-induced genes. Consequently we further investigated the response of all the three bZIP genes to spermine. Expression of bZIP17, bZIP28, and bZIP60, and also their target genes was activated by spermine application as well as in plants with elevated endogenous spermine levels. Furthermore, spermine activated the splicing of the bZIP60 transcript mediated by the ribonuclease activity of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 and also recruited bZIP17 and bZIP60 proteins from endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus. We therefore propose that spermine is a novel UPR inducer. Moreover, induction of UPR by spermine required calcium-influx to the cytoplasm and the genes for mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 9 (MKK9), mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3) and MPK6. The result indicates that spermine-induced UPR is mediated by the MKK9-MPK3/MPK6 cascade in Arabidopsis. PMID:26442007

  1. Triptolide activates unfolded protein response leading to chronic ER stress in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mujumdar, Nameeta; Banerjee, Sulagna; Chen, Zhiyu; Sangwan, Veena; Chugh, Rohit; Dudeja, Vikas; Yamamoto, Masato; Vickers, Selwyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with a survival rate of <5%. Moreover, pancreatic cancer aggressiveness is closely related to high levels of prosurvival mediators, which can ultimately lead to rapid disease progression. One of the mechanisms that enables tumor cells to evade cellular stress and promote unhindered proliferation is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Disturbances in the normal functions of the ER lead to an evolutionarily conserved cell stress response, the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR initially compensates for damage, but it eventually triggers cell death if ER dysfunction is severe or prolonged. Triptolide, a diterpene triepoxide, has been shown to be an effective compound against pancreatic cancer. Our results show that triptolide induces the UPR by activating the PKR-like ER kinase-eukaryotic initiation factor 2α axis and the inositol-requiring enzyme 1α-X-box-binding protein 1 axis of the UPR and leads to chronic ER stress in pancreatic cancer. Our results further show that glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), one of the major regulators of ER stress, is downregulated by triptolide, leading to cell death by apoptosis in MIA PaCa-2 cells and autophagy in S2-VP10 cells. PMID:24699326

  2. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Induces Apoptosis through the Unfolded Protein Response Activation of EGR1

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Alan; Lundberg, Lindsay; Swales, Danielle; Waybright, Nicole; Pinkham, Chelsea; Dinman, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a previously weaponized arthropod-borne virus responsible for causing acute and fatal encephalitis in animal and human hosts. The increased circulation and spread in the Americas of VEEV and other encephalitic arboviruses, such as eastern equine encephalitis virus and West Nile virus, underscore the need for research aimed at characterizing the pathogenesis of viral encephalomyelitis for the development of novel medical countermeasures. The host-pathogen dynamics of VEEV Trinidad donkey-infected human astrocytoma U87MG cells were determined by carrying out RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of poly(A) and mRNAs. To identify the critical alterations that take place in the host transcriptome following VEEV infection, samples were collected at 4, 8, and 16 h postinfection and RNA-Seq data were acquired using an Ion Torrent PGM platform. Differential expression of interferon response, stress response factors, and components of the unfolded protein response (UPR) was observed. The protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) arm of the UPR was activated, as the expression of both activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and CHOP (DDIT3), critical regulators of the pathway, was altered after infection. Expression of the transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1) was induced in a PERK-dependent manner. EGR1−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) demonstrated lower susceptibility to VEEV-induced cell death than isogenic wild-type MEFs, indicating that EGR1 modulates proapoptotic pathways following VEEV infection. The influence of EGR1 is of great importance, as neuronal damage can lead to long-term sequelae in individuals who have survived VEEV infection. IMPORTANCE Alphaviruses represent a group of clinically relevant viruses transmitted by mosquitoes to humans. In severe cases, viral spread targets neuronal tissue, resulting in significant and life-threatening inflammation dependent on a combination of virus-host interactions. Currently there are no therapeutics for infections cause by encephalitic alphaviruses due to an incomplete understanding of their molecular pathogenesis. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an alphavirus that is prevalent in the Americas and that is capable of infecting horses and humans. Here we utilized next-generation RNA sequencing to identify differential alterations in VEEV-infected astrocytes. Our results indicated that the abundance of transcripts associated with the interferon and the unfolded protein response pathways was altered following infection and demonstrated that early growth response 1 (EGR1) contributed to VEEV-induced cell death. PMID:26792742

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in plants.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shucen; Jiang, Liwen

    2016-05-01

    Being a major factory for protein synthesis, assembly, and export, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a precise and robust ER quality control (ERQC) system monitoring its product line. However, when organisms are subjected to environmental stress, whether biotic or abiotic, the levels of misfolded proteins may overwhelm the ERQC system, tilting the balance between the capacity of and demand for ER quality control and resulting in a scenario termed ER stress. Intense or prolonged ER stress may cause damage to the ER as well as to other organelles, or even lead to cell death in extreme cases. To avoid such serious consequences, cells activate self-rescue programs to restore protein homeostasis in the ER, either through the enhancement of protein-folding and degradation competence or by alleviating the demands for such reactions. These are collectively called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Long investigated in mammalian cells and yeasts, the UPR is also of great interest to plant scientists. Among the three branches of UPR discovered in mammals, two have been studied in plants with plant homologs existing of the ER-membrane-associated activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1). This review discusses the molecular mechanisms of these two types of UPR in plants, as well as the consequences of insufficient UPR, with a focus on experiments using model plants. PMID:26060134

  4. Killing Me Softly: Connotations to Unfolded Protein Response and Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pająk, Beata; Kania, Elżbieta; Orzechowski, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    This review is focused on the possible causes of mitochondrial dysfunction in AD, underlying molecular mechanisms of this malfunction, possible causes and known consequences of APP, Aβ, and hyperphosphorylated tau presence in mitochondria, and the contribution of altered lipid metabolism (nonsterol isoprenoids) to pathological processes leading to increased formation and accumulation of the aforementioned hallmarks of AD. Abnormal protein folding and unfolded protein response seem to be the outcomes of impaired glycosylation due to metabolic disturbances in geranylgeraniol intermediary metabolism. The origin and consecutive fate of APP, Aβ, and tau are emphasized on intracellular trafficking apparently influenced by inaccurate posttranslational modifications. We hypothesize that incorrect intracellular processing of APP determines protein translocation to mitochondria in AD. Similarly, without obvious reasons, the passage of Aβ and tau to mitochondria is observed. APP targeted to mitochondria blocks the activity of protein translocase complex resulting in poor import of proteins central to oxidative phosphorylation. Besides, APP, Aβ, and neurofibrillary tangles of tau directly or indirectly impair mitochondrial biochemistry and bioenergetics, with concomitant generation of oxidative/nitrosative stress. Limited protective mechanisms are inadequate to prevent the free radical-mediated lesions. Finally, neuronal loss is observed in AD-affected brains typically by pathologic apoptosis. PMID:26881014

  5. Effect of earlier unfolded protein response and efficient protein disposal system on cellulase production in Rut C30.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guokun; Zhang, Dongyuan; Chen, Shulin

    2014-10-01

    Trichoderma reesei (T. reesei) has been widely used in production of cellulolytic enzymes and heterologous proteins because of its high secretion capacity. The lack of knowledge on protein secretion mechanisms, however, still hinders rational improvement on cellulase production. The transcript levels of cellulases and components involved in post-transcriptional procedures were compared in this study between two mutants, QM9414 and Rut C30 for evaluating the effects of modification and secretion upon cellulase production. The results showed that cellulase induction by cellulose drastically up-regulated expressions of the sensor of unfolded protein, chaperone and folding-assisted enzymes in endoplasmic reticulum and resulted in unfolded protein response (UPR) and low-grade increase in secretory transporters' expression similar to that of chemical treatment. Rut C30 demonstrated earlier and more sustainable expressions of elements involved in UPR and lower amount of cellular retained cellulase compared to QM9414, indicating that Rut C30 had hypercellulolytic property partially for its earlier and enhanced UPR to more efficiently dispose of protein. Modifying post-translational peptides and enhancing protein flux to avoid protein accumulation during cellulase production may be a feasible approach for strain improvement. PMID:24898179

  6. Identification of Novel Components of the Unfolded Protein Response in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md. Amir; Henríquez-Valencia, Carlos; Gómez-Páez, Marcela; Medina, Joaquín; Orellana, Ariel; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús; Zouhar, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Unfavorable environmental and developmental conditions may cause disturbances in protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that are recognized and counteracted by components of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) signaling pathways. The early cellular responses include transcriptional changes to increase the folding and processing capacity of the ER. In this study, we systematically screened a collection of inducible transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a library of transcription factors for resistance toward UPR-inducing chemicals. We identified 23 candidate genes that may function as novel regulators of the UPR and of which only three genes (bZIP10, TBF1, and NF-YB3) were previously associated with the UPR. The putative role of identified candidate genes in the UPR signaling is supported by favorable expression patterns in both developmental and stress transcriptional analyses. We demonstrated that WRKY75 is a genuine regulator of the ER-stress cellular responses as its expression was found to be directly responding to ER stress-inducing chemicals. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing WRKY75 showed resistance toward salt stress, connecting abiotic and ER-stress responses.

  7. Control of dopaminergic neuron survival by the unfolded protein response transcription factor XBP1

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Pamela; Mercado, Gabriela; Vidal, Rene L.; Molina, Claudia; Parsons, Geoffrey; Court, Felipe A.; Martinez, Alexis; Galleguillos, Danny; Armentano, Donna; Schneider, Bernard L.; Hetz, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Although growing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a hallmark of PD, its exact contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Here we report that developmental ablation of X-Box binding protein 1 (XBP1) in the nervous system, a key regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), protects dopaminergic neurons against a PD-inducing neurotoxin. This survival effect was associated with a preconditioning condition that resulted from induction of an adaptive ER stress response in dopaminergic neurons of the SNpc, but not in other brain regions. In contrast, silencing XBP1 in adult animals triggered chronic ER stress and dopaminergic neuron degeneration. Supporting this finding, gene therapy to deliver an active form of XBP1 provided neuroprotection and reduced striatal denervation in animals injected with 6-hydroxydopamine. Our results reveal a physiological role of the UPR in the maintenance of protein homeostasis in dopaminergic neurons that may help explain the differential neuronal vulnerability observed in PD. PMID:24753614

  8. Tunicamycin-induced Unfolded Protein Response in the Developing Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiping; Wang, Xin; Ke, Zun-Ji; Comer, Ashley L.; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress, resulting in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress and UPR are associated with many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to environmental insults which may cause ER stress. We evaluated the UPR in the brain of postnatal mice. Tunicamycin, a commonly used ER stress inducer, was administered subcutaneously to mice of postnatal day (PD) 4, 12 and 25. Tunicamycin caused UPR in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of mice of PD4 and PD12, which was evident by the upregulation of ATF6, XBP1s, p-eIF2α, GRP78, GRP94 and MANF, but failed to induce UPR in the brain of PD25 mice. Tunicamycin-induced UPR in the liver was observed at all stages. In PD4 mice, tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was observed in layer II of the parietal and optical cortex, CA1-CA3 and the subiculum of the hippocampus, the cerebellar external germinal layer and the superior/inferior colliculus. Tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was also shown on PD12 but to a much lesser degree and mainly located in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, deep cerebellar nuclei and pons. Tunicamycin did not activate caspase-3 in the brain of PD25 mice and the liver of all stages. Similarly, immature cerebellar neurons were sensitive to tunicamycin-induced cell death in culture, but became resistant as they matured in vitro. These results suggest that the UPR is developmentally regulated and the immature brain is more susceptible to ER stress. PMID:25620058

  9. Tunicamycin-induced unfolded protein response in the developing mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haiping; Wang, Xin; Ke, Zun-Ji; Comer, Ashley L.; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2015-03-15

    Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress, resulting in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress and UPR are associated with many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to environmental insults which may cause ER stress. We evaluated the UPR in the brain of postnatal mice. Tunicamycin, a commonly used ER stress inducer, was administered subcutaneously to mice of postnatal days (PDs) 4, 12 and 25. Tunicamycin caused UPR in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of mice of PD4 and PD12, which was evident by the upregulation of ATF6, XBP1s, p-eIF2α, GRP78, GRP94 and MANF, but failed to induce UPR in the brain of PD25 mice. Tunicamycin-induced UPR in the liver was observed at all stages. In PD4 mice, tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was observed in layer II of the parietal and optical cortex, CA1–CA3 and the subiculum of the hippocampus, the cerebellar external germinal layer and the superior/inferior colliculus. Tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was also shown on PD12 but to a much lesser degree and mainly located in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, deep cerebellar nuclei and pons. Tunicamycin did not activate caspase-3 in the brain of PD25 mice and the liver of all stages. Similarly, immature cerebellar neurons were sensitive to tunicamycin-induced cell death in culture, but became resistant as they matured in vitro. These results suggest that the UPR is developmentally regulated and the immature brain is more susceptible to ER stress. - Highlights: • Tunicamycin caused a development-dependent UPR in the mouse brain. • Immature brain was more susceptible to tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress. • Tunicamycin caused more neuronal death in immature brain than mature brain. • Tunicamycin-induced neuronal death is region-specific.

  10. Integration of the Unfolded Protein and Oxidative Stress Responses through SKN-1/Nrf

    PubMed Central

    Glover-Cutter, Kira M.; Lin, Stephanie; Blackwell, T. Keith

    2013-01-01

    The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) maintains homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and defends against ER stress, an underlying factor in various human diseases. During the UPR, numerous genes are activated that sustain and protect the ER. These responses are known to involve the canonical UPR transcription factors XBP1, ATF4, and ATF6. Here, we show in C. elegans that the conserved stress defense factor SKN-1/Nrf plays a central and essential role in the transcriptional UPR. While SKN-1/Nrf has a well-established function in protection against oxidative and xenobiotic stress, we find that it also mobilizes an overlapping but distinct response to ER stress. SKN-1/Nrf is regulated by the UPR, directly controls UPR signaling and transcription factor genes, binds to common downstream targets with XBP-1 and ATF-6, and is present at the ER. SKN-1/Nrf is also essential for resistance to ER stress, including reductive stress. Remarkably, SKN-1/Nrf-mediated responses to oxidative stress depend upon signaling from the ER. We conclude that SKN-1/Nrf plays a critical role in the UPR, but orchestrates a distinct oxidative stress response that is licensed by ER signaling. Regulatory integration through SKN-1/Nrf may coordinate ER and cytoplasmic homeostasis. PMID:24068940

  11. Inhibition of host cell translation elongation by Legionella pneumophila blocks the host cell unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Hempstead, Andrew D.; Isberg, Ralph R.

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the innate immune system recognize bacterial pathogens by detecting common microbial patterns as well as pathogen-specific activities. One system that responds to these stimuli is the IRE1 branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a sensor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Activation of IRE1, in the context of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, induces strong proinflammatory cytokine induction. We show here that Legionella pneumophila, an intravacuolar pathogen that replicates in an ER-associated compartment, blocks activation of the IRE1 pathway despite presenting pathogen products that stimulate this response. L. pneumophila TLR ligands induced the splicing of mRNA encoding XBP1s, the main target of IRE1 activity. L. pneumophila was able to inhibit both chemical and bacterial induction of XBP1 splicing via bacterial translocated proteins that interfere with host protein translation. A strain lacking five translocated translation elongation inhibitors was unable to block XBP1 splicing, but this could be rescued by expression of a single such inhibitor, consistent with limitation of the response by translation elongation inhibitors. Chemical inhibition of translation elongation blocked pattern recognition receptor-mediated XBP1 splicing, mimicking the effects of the bacterial translation inhibitors. In contrast, host cell-promoted inhibition of translation initiation in response to the pathogen was ineffective in blocking XBP1 splicing, demonstrating the need for the elongation inhibitors for protection from the UPR. The inhibition of host translation elongation may be a common strategy used by pathogens to limit the innate immune response by interfering with signaling via the UPR. PMID:26598709

  12. Inhibition of host cell translation elongation by Legionella pneumophila blocks the host cell unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Hempstead, Andrew D; Isberg, Ralph R

    2015-12-01

    Cells of the innate immune system recognize bacterial pathogens by detecting common microbial patterns as well as pathogen-specific activities. One system that responds to these stimuli is the IRE1 branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a sensor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Activation of IRE1, in the context of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, induces strong proinflammatory cytokine induction. We show here that Legionella pneumophila, an intravacuolar pathogen that replicates in an ER-associated compartment, blocks activation of the IRE1 pathway despite presenting pathogen products that stimulate this response. L. pneumophila TLR ligands induced the splicing of mRNA encoding XBP1s, the main target of IRE1 activity. L. pneumophila was able to inhibit both chemical and bacterial induction of XBP1 splicing via bacterial translocated proteins that interfere with host protein translation. A strain lacking five translocated translation elongation inhibitors was unable to block XBP1 splicing, but this could be rescued by expression of a single such inhibitor, consistent with limitation of the response by translation elongation inhibitors. Chemical inhibition of translation elongation blocked pattern recognition receptor-mediated XBP1 splicing, mimicking the effects of the bacterial translation inhibitors. In contrast, host cell-promoted inhibition of translation initiation in response to the pathogen was ineffective in blocking XBP1 splicing, demonstrating the need for the elongation inhibitors for protection from the UPR. The inhibition of host translation elongation may be a common strategy used by pathogens to limit the innate immune response by interfering with signaling via the UPR. PMID:26598709

  13. The loss of LRPPRC function induces the mitochondrial unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Fabian; Müller-Rischart, Anne Kathrin; Conradt, Barbara; Rolland, Stéphane Guy

    2015-09-01

    The inactivation of the LRPPRC gene, which has previously been associated with the neurodegenerative French Canadian Leigh Syndrome, results in a decrease in the production of mitochondria-encoded subunits of complex IV, thereby causing a reduction in complex IV activity. Previously we have shown that reducing complex IV activity triggers a compensatory and conserved mitochondrial hyperfusion response. We now demonstrate that LRPPRC knock-down in mammalian cells leads to an imbalance between mitochondria-encoded and nuclear-encoded subunits of complex IV and that this imbalance triggers the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)). The inactivation of the LRPPRC-like gene mma-1 in C. elegans also induces UPR(mt), which demonstrates that this response is conserved. Furthermore, we provide evidence that mitochondrial hyperfusion and UPR(mt) are coordinated but mediated by genetically distinct pathways. We propose that in the context of LRPPRC mma-1 knock-down, mitochondrial hyperfusion helps to transiently maintain mitochondrial ATP production while UPR(mt) participates in the restoration of mitochondrial proteostasis. Mitochondrial proteostasis is not only critical in pathophysiology but also during aging, as proteotoxic stress has been shown to increase with age. Therefore, we speculate that the coordination of these two mitochondrial stress responses plays a more global role in mitochondrial proteostasis. PMID:26412102

  14. The loss of LRPPRC function induces the mitochondrial unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Barbara; Rolland, Stéphane Guy

    2015-01-01

    The inactivation of the LRPPRC gene, which has previously been associated with the neurodegenerative French Canadian Leigh Syndrome, results in a decrease in the production of mitochondria-encoded subunits of complex IV, thereby causing a reduction in complex IV activity. Previously we have shown that reducing complex IV activity triggers a compensatory and conserved mitochondrial hyperfusion response. We now demonstrate that LRPPRC knock-down in mammalian cells leads to an imbalance between mitochondria-encoded and nuclear-encoded subunits of complex IV and that this imbalance triggers the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt). The inactivation of the LRPPRC-like gene mma-1 in C. elegans also induces UPRmt, which demonstrates that this response is conserved. Furthermore, we provide evidence that mitochondrial hyperfusion and UPRmt are coordinated but mediated by genetically distinct pathways. We propose that in the context of LRPPRC mma-1 knock-down, mitochondrial hyperfusion helps to transiently maintain mitochondrial ATP production while UPRmt participates in the restoration of mitochondrial proteostasis. Mitochondrial proteostasis is not only critical in pathophysiology but also during aging, as proteotoxic stress has been shown to increase with age. Therefore, we speculate that the coordination of these two mitochondrial stress responses plays a more global role in mitochondrial proteostasis. PMID:26412102

  15. Cantharidins induce ER stress and a terminal unfolded protein response in OSCC.

    PubMed

    Xi, Y; Garshott, D M; Brownell, A L; Yoo, G H; Lin, H-S; Freeburg, T L; Yoo, N G; Kaufman, R J; Callaghan, M U; Fribley, A M

    2015-02-01

    Mortality and morbidity associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain unacceptably high with disfiguring treatment options and a death rate of 1 per hour in the United States. The approval of cituximab for advanced OSCC has been the only new treatment for these patients since the 1970s, although it has not significantly increased overall survival. To address the paucity of effective new therapies, we undertook a high-throughput screen to discover small molecules and natural products that could induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and enforce a terminal unfolded protein response (UPR) in OSCC. The terpenoid cantharidin (CNT), previously used to treat various malignancies in culture-specific medical practices for over 2,000 y, emerged as a hit. CNT and its analog, cantharidic acid, potently induced protein and gene expression profiles consistent with the activation of ER stress, the UPR, and apoptosis in OSCC cells. Murine embryonic fibroblasts null for the UPR-associated transcription factors Atf4 or Chop were significantly protected from CNT, implicating a key role for the UPR in the death response. These data validate that our high-throughput screen can identify novel modulators of UPR signaling and that such compounds might provide a new therapeutic approach to treating patients with OSCC. PMID:25425581

  16. Cantharidins Induce ER Stress and a Terminal Unfolded Protein Response in OSCC

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Y.; Garshott, D.M.; Brownell, A.L.; Yoo, G.H.; Lin, H.-S.; Freeburg, T.L.; Yoo, N.G.; Kaufman, R.J.; Callaghan, M.U.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain unacceptably high with disfiguring treatment options and a death rate of 1 per hour in the United States. The approval of cituximab for advanced OSCC has been the only new treatment for these patients since the 1970s, although it has not significantly increased overall survival. To address the paucity of effective new therapies, we undertook a high-throughput screen to discover small molecules and natural products that could induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and enforce a terminal unfolded protein response (UPR) in OSCC. The terpenoid cantharidin (CNT), previously used to treat various malignancies in culture-specific medical practices for over 2,000 y, emerged as a hit. CNT and its analog, cantharidic acid, potently induced protein and gene expression profiles consistent with the activation of ER stress, the UPR, and apoptosis in OSCC cells. Murine embryonic fibroblasts null for the UPR-associated transcription factors Atf4 or Chop were significantly protected from CNT, implicating a key role for the UPR in the death response. These data validate that our high-throughput screen can identify novel modulators of UPR signaling and that such compounds might provide a new therapeutic approach to treating patients with OSCC. PMID:25425581

  17. Exploring the Conserved Role of MANF in the Unfolded Protein Response in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Riitta; Lindholm, Päivi; Kallijärvi, Jukka; Palgi, Mari; Saarma, Mart; Heino, Tapio I.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances in the homeostasis of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) referred to as ER stress is involved in a variety of human diseases. ER stress activates unfolded protein response (UPR), a cellular mechanism the purpose of which is to restore ER homeostasis. Previous studies show that Mesencephalic Astrocyte-derived Neurotrophic Factor (MANF) is an important novel component in the regulation of UPR. In vertebrates, MANF is upregulated by ER stress and protects cells against ER stress-induced cell death. Biochemical studies have revealed an interaction between mammalian MANF and GRP78, the major ER chaperone promoting protein folding. In this study we discovered that the upregulation of MANF expression in response to drug-induced ER stress is conserved between Drosophila and mammals. Additionally, by using a genetic in vivo approach we found genetic interactions between Drosophila Manf and genes encoding for Drosophila homologues of GRP78, PERK and XBP1, the key components of UPR. Our data suggest a role for Manf in the regulation of Drosophila UPR. PMID:26975047

  18. Activation of the unfolded protein response enhances motor recovery after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, V; Collyer, E; Armentano, D; Parsons, G B; Court, F A; Hetz, C

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major cause of paralysis, and involves multiple cellular and tissular responses including demyelination, inflammation, cell death and axonal degeneration. Recent evidence suggests that perturbation on the homeostasis of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is observed in different SCI models; however, the functional contribution of this pathway to this pathology is not known. Here we demonstrate that SCI triggers a fast ER stress reaction (1–3 h) involving the upregulation of key components of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a process that propagates through the spinal cord. Ablation of X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) or activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) expression, two major UPR transcription factors, leads to a reduced locomotor recovery after experimental SCI. The effects of UPR inactivation were associated with a significant increase in the number of damaged axons and reduced amount of oligodendrocytes surrounding the injury zone. In addition, altered microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression were observed in ATF4 deficient mice after SCI. Local expression of active XBP1 into the spinal cord using adeno-associated viruses enhanced locomotor recovery after SCI, and was associated with an increased number of oligodendrocytes. Altogether, our results demonstrate a functional role of the UPR in SCI, offering novel therapeutic targets to treat this invalidating condition. PMID:22337234

  19. Unfolded protein responses in the intestinal epithelium: sensors for the microbial and metabolic environment.

    PubMed

    Rath, Eva; Haller, Dirk

    2012-10-01

    In inflammatory bowel disease, the intestinal microbiota is a key driver of inflammation. Hence, efficient sensing of luminal antigens and subsequent initiation of adequate immune responses is crucial for maintaining homeostasis, particularly in intestinal epithelial cells. Pathways such as Toll-like receptor-mediated signaling and autophagy sense microbial products to activate inflammatory processes and, concomitantly, interact with cellular stress responses such as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Proteostasis is particularly sensitive toward environmental challenges and triggers, such as oxidative stress and metabolic alterations, and impact protein folding in different cellular compartments. In contrast, disturbances in energy supply including impaired mitochondrial function and epithelial ?-oxidation have been suspected to contribute toward intestinal inflammation. Interestingly, the 2 main organelles linking metabolic pathways, inflammatory signaling and pathogen-sensing, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria (mt), can trigger distinct UPRs, and both ER UPR and mt UPR have been shown to be disease-relevant in inflammatory bowel disease. The ER is essential for the coordination of metabolic responses through controlling the synthetic and catabolic pathways of various nutrients and furthermore, ER UPR signaling directly intersects with inflammation-associated NF-?B and Toll-like receptor pathways. Consistently, next to their function in cellular energy supply, mitochondria are increasingly recognized as integrators of immune responses. For instance, mitochondria participate in innate immunity to viral infection through the pattern recognition receptor retinoic acid inducible gene-I and are involved in inflammasome activation. Thus, we hypothesize that a concerted UPR activation might represent an innate mechanism to sense potentially threatening changes of the mucosal metabolic environment and impacts host cellular functions and immune responses. PMID:22955354

  20. The response to unfolded protein is involved in osmotolerance of Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The effect of osmolarity on cellular physiology has been subject of investigation in many different species. High osmolarity is of importance for biotechnological production processes, where high cell densities and product titers are aspired. Several studies indicated that increased osmolarity of the growth medium can have a beneficial effect on recombinant protein production in different host organisms. Thus, the effect of osmolarity on the cellular physiology of Pichia pastoris, a prominent host for recombinant protein production, was studied in carbon limited chemostat cultures at different osmolarities. Transcriptome and proteome analyses were applied to assess differences upon growth at different osmolarities in both, a wild type strain and an antibody fragment expressing strain. While our main intention was to analyze the effect of different osmolarities on P. pastoris in general, this was complemented by studying it in context with recombinant protein production. Results In contrast to the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main osmolyte in P. pastoris was arabitol rather than glycerol, demonstrating differences in osmotic stress response as well as energy metabolism. 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel electrophoresis and microarray analysis were applied and demonstrated that processes such as protein folding, ribosome biogenesis and cell wall organization were affected by increased osmolarity. These data indicated that upon increased osmolarity less adaptations on both the transcript and protein level occurred in a P. pastoris strain, secreting the Fab fragment, compared with the wild type strain. No transcriptional activation of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway was observed at steady state conditions. Furthermore, no change of the specific productivity of recombinant Fab was observed at increased osmolarity. Conclusion These data point out that the physiological response to increased osmolarity is different to S. cerevisiae. Increased osmolarity resulted in an unfolded protein response (UPR) like response in P. pastoris and lead to pre-conditioning of the recombinant Fab producing strain of P. pastoris to growth at high osmolarity. The current data demonstrate a strong similarity of environmental stress response mechanisms and recombinant protein related stresses. Therefore, these results might be used in future strain and bioprocess engineering of this biotechnologically relevant yeast. PMID:20346137

  1. Chemical Induction of Unfolded Protein Response Enhances Cancer Cell Killing through Lytic Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Vibhu; Suomalainen, Maarit; Pennauer, Mirjam; Yakimovich, Artur; Andriasyan, Vardan; Hemmi, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cancer cells are susceptible to oncolytic viruses, albeit variably. Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are widely used oncolytic agents that have been engineered to produce progeny within the tumor and elicit bystander effects. We searched for host factors enhancing bystander effects and conducted a targeted RNA interference screen against guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) of small GTPases. We show that the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is readily inducible in aggressive tumor cells, enhances melanoma or epithelial cancer cell killing upon HAdV infection. UPR was triggered by knockdown of Golgi-specific brefeldin A-resistant guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GBF-1) or the GBF-1 inhibitor golgicide A (GCA) and stimulated HAdV infection. GBF-1 is a GEF for ADP ribosylation factors (Arfs) regulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi apparatus and intra-Golgi apparatus membrane transport. Cells treated with GCA enhanced HAdV-induced cytopathic effects in epithelial and melanoma cancer cells but not normal cells, if the drug was applied several hours prior to HAdV inoculation. This was shown by real-time label-free impedance measurements using the xCELLigence system. GCA-treated cells contained fewer incoming HAdVs than control cells, but GCA treatment boosted HAdV titers and spreading in cancer cells. GCA enhanced viral gene expression or transgene expression from the cytomegalovirus promoter of B- or C-species HAdVs but did not enhance viral early region 1A (E1A) expression in uninfected cell lines or cells transfected with plasmid reporter DNA. The UPR-enhanced cell killing required the nuclease activity of the UPR sensor inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE-1) and X box binding protein 1 (XBP-1), which alleviate ER stress. The collective results show that chemical UPR induction and viruses boost tumor cell killing by enhancing oncolytic viral efficacy. IMPORTANCE Cancer is difficult to combat. A wide range of oncolytic viruses show promise for killing cancer cells, yet the efficacy of oncolytic killing is low. We searched for host factors enhancing adenovirus cancer cell killing and found that the knockdown of Golgi-specific brefeldin A-resistant guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GBF-1) or chemical inhibition of GBF-1 enhanced adenovirus infection by triggering the IRE-1/XBP-1 branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR). IRE-1/XBP-1 promote cell survival and enhanced the levels of the adenoviral immediate early gene product E1A, virus spreading, and killing of cancer cells. Aggressive tumor cells depend on a readily inducible UPR and, hence, present prime targets for a combined strategy involving adenoviruses and small chemicals inducing UPR. PMID:25187554

  2. Insulin demand regulates β cell number via the unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rohit B.; O’Donnell, Amy C.; Stamateris, Rachel E.; Ha, Binh; McCloskey, Karen M.; Reynolds, Paul R.; Arvan, Peter; Alonso, Laura C.

    2015-01-01

    Although stem cell populations mediate regeneration of rapid turnover tissues, such as skin, blood, and gut, a stem cell reservoir has not been identified for some slower turnover tissues, such as the pancreatic islet. Despite lacking identifiable stem cells, murine pancreatic β cell number expands in response to an increase in insulin demand. Lineage tracing shows that new β cells are generated from proliferation of mature, differentiated β cells; however, the mechanism by which these mature cells sense systemic insulin demand and initiate a proliferative response remains unknown. Here, we identified the β cell unfolded protein response (UPR), which senses insulin production, as a regulator of β cell proliferation. Using genetic and physiologic models, we determined that among the population of β cells, those with an active UPR are more likely to proliferate. Moreover, subthreshold endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) drove insulin demand–induced β cell proliferation, through activation of ATF6. We also confirmed that the UPR regulates proliferation of human β cells, suggesting that therapeutic UPR modulation has potential to expand β cell mass in people at risk for diabetes. Together, this work defines a stem cell–independent model of tissue homeostasis, in which differentiated secretory cells use the UPR sensor to adapt organ size to meet demand. PMID:26389675

  3. Insulin demand regulates β cell number via the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rohit B; O'Donnell, Amy C; Stamateris, Rachel E; Ha, Binh; McCloskey, Karen M; Reynolds, Paul R; Arvan, Peter; Alonso, Laura C

    2015-10-01

    Although stem cell populations mediate regeneration of rapid turnover tissues, such as skin, blood, and gut, a stem cell reservoir has not been identified for some slower turnover tissues, such as the pancreatic islet. Despite lacking identifiable stem cells, murine pancreatic β cell number expands in response to an increase in insulin demand. Lineage tracing shows that new β cells are generated from proliferation of mature, differentiated β cells; however, the mechanism by which these mature cells sense systemic insulin demand and initiate a proliferative response remains unknown. Here, we identified the β cell unfolded protein response (UPR), which senses insulin production, as a regulator of β cell proliferation. Using genetic and physiologic models, we determined that among the population of β cells, those with an active UPR are more likely to proliferate. Moreover, subthreshold endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) drove insulin demand-induced β cell proliferation, through activation of ATF6. We also confirmed that the UPR regulates proliferation of human β cells, suggesting that therapeutic UPR modulation has potential to expand β cell mass in people at risk for diabetes. Together, this work defines a stem cell-independent model of tissue homeostasis, in which differentiated secretory cells use the UPR sensor to adapt organ size to meet demand. PMID:26389675

  4. Induction of the Unfolded Protein Response Drives Enhanced Metabolism and Chemoresistance in Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Andrea L.; Dechkovskaia, Anjelika M.; Herring, Matthew; Winston, Benjamin A.; Lencioni, Alex M.; Russell, Rae L.; Madsen, Helen; Nega, Meheret; Dusto, Nathaniel L.; White, Jason; Bigner, Darell D.; Nicchitta, Christopher V.; Serkova, Natalie J.; Graner, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-based cytoprotective mechanism acting to prevent pathologies accompanying protein aggregation. It is frequently active in tumors, but relatively unstudied in gliomas. We hypothesized that UPR stress effects on glioma cells might protect tumors from additional exogenous stress (ie, chemotherapeutics), postulating that protection was concurrent with altered tumor cell metabolism. Using human brain tumor cell lines, xenograft tumors, human samples and gene expression databases, we determined molecular features of glioma cell UPR induction/activation, and here report a detailed analysis of UPR transcriptional/translational/metabolic responses. Immunohistochemistry, Western and Northern blots identified elevated levels of UPR transcription factors and downstream ER chaperone targets in gliomas. Microarray profiling revealed distinct regulation of stress responses between xenograft tumors and parent cell lines, with gene ontology and network analyses linking gene expression to cell survival and metabolic processes. Human glioma samples were examined for levels of the ER chaperone GRP94 by immunohistochemistry and for other UPR components by Western blotting. Gene and protein expression data from patient gliomas correlated poor patient prognoses with increased expression of ER chaperones, UPR target genes, and metabolic enzymes (glycolysis and lipogenesis). NMR-based metabolomic studies revealed increased metabolic outputs in glucose uptake with elevated glycolytic activity as well as increased phospholipid turnover. Elevated levels of amino acids, antioxidants, and cholesterol were also evident upon UPR stress; in particular, recurrent tumors had overall higher lipid outputs and elevated specific UPR arms. Clonogenicity studies following temozolomide treatment of stressed or unstressed cells demonstrated UPR-induced chemoresistance. Our data characterize the UPR in glioma cells and human tumors, and link the UPR to chemoresistance possibly via enhanced metabolism. Given the role of the UPR in the balance between cell survival and apoptosis, targeting the UPR and/or controlling metabolic activity may prove beneficial for malignant glioma therapeutics. PMID:24039668

  5. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Elmets, Craig A.; Robbins, David J.; Matalon, Sadis; Deshane, Jessy S.; Afaq, Farrukh; Bickers, David R.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions.

  6. Borrelidin Induces the Unfolded Protein Response in Oral Cancer Cells and Chop-Dependent Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Alpa; Miller, Justin R; Tripathi, Ashootosh; Garshott, Danielle M; Brownell, Amy L; Chiego, Daniel J; Arevang, Carl; Zeng, Qinghua; Jackson, Leah C; Bechler, Shelby A; Callaghan, Michael U; Yoo, George H; Sethi, Seema; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Callaghan, Joseph H; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Sherman, David H; Kaufman, Randal J; Fribley, Andrew M

    2015-11-12

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common cancer affecting the oral cavity, and US clinics will register about 30,000 new patients in 2015. Current treatment modalities include chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy, which often result in astonishing disfigurement. Cancers of the head and neck display enhanced levels of glucose-regulated proteins and translation initiation factors associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Previous work demonstrated that chemically enforced UPR could overwhelm these adaptive features and selectively kill malignant cells. The threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThRS) inhibitor borrelidin and two congeners were discovered in a cell-based chemical genomic screen. Borrelidin increased XBP1 splicing and led to accumulation of phosphorylated eIF2? and UPR-associated genes, prior to death in panel of OSCC cells. Murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) null for GCN2 and PERK were less able to accumulate UPR markers and were resistant to borrelidin. This study demonstrates that UPR induction is a feature of ThRS inhibition and adds to a growing body of literature suggesting ThRS inhibitors might selectively target cancer cells. PMID:26617965

  7. Activation of the unfolded protein response promotes axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Oñate, Maritza; Catenaccio, Alejandra; Martínez, Gabriela; Armentano, Donna; Parsons, Geoffrey; Kerr, Bredford; Hetz, Claudio; Court, Felipe A.

    2016-01-01

    Although protein-folding stress at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is emerging as a driver of neuronal dysfunction in models of spinal cord injury and neurodegeneration, the contribution of this pathway to peripheral nerve damage remains poorly explored. Here we targeted the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive reaction against ER stress, in mouse models of sciatic nerve injury and found that ablation of the transcription factor XBP1, but not ATF4, significantly delay locomotor recovery. XBP1 deficiency led to decreased macrophage recruitment, a reduction in myelin removal and axonal regeneration. Conversely, overexpression of XBP1s in the nervous system in transgenic mice enhanced locomotor recovery after sciatic nerve crush, associated to an improvement in key pro-regenerative events. To assess the therapeutic potential of UPR manipulation to axonal regeneration, we locally delivered XBP1s or an shRNA targeting this transcription factor to sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia using a gene therapy approach and found an enhancement or reduction of axonal regeneration in vivo, respectively. Our results demonstrate a functional role of specific components of the ER proteostasis network in the cellular changes associated to regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26906090

  8. Activation of the unfolded protein response promotes axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Oñate, Maritza; Catenaccio, Alejandra; Martínez, Gabriela; Armentano, Donna; Parsons, Geoffrey; Kerr, Bredford; Hetz, Claudio; Court, Felipe A

    2016-01-01

    Although protein-folding stress at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is emerging as a driver of neuronal dysfunction in models of spinal cord injury and neurodegeneration, the contribution of this pathway to peripheral nerve damage remains poorly explored. Here we targeted the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive reaction against ER stress, in mouse models of sciatic nerve injury and found that ablation of the transcription factor XBP1, but not ATF4, significantly delay locomotor recovery. XBP1 deficiency led to decreased macrophage recruitment, a reduction in myelin removal and axonal regeneration. Conversely, overexpression of XBP1s in the nervous system in transgenic mice enhanced locomotor recovery after sciatic nerve crush, associated to an improvement in key pro-regenerative events. To assess the therapeutic potential of UPR manipulation to axonal regeneration, we locally delivered XBP1s or an shRNA targeting this transcription factor to sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia using a gene therapy approach and found an enhancement or reduction of axonal regeneration in vivo, respectively. Our results demonstrate a functional role of specific components of the ER proteostasis network in the cellular changes associated to regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26906090

  9. Inhibition of the Unfolded Protein Response by metformin in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Thériault, Jimmy R; Palmer, Helen J; Pittman, Debra D

    2011-06-10

    Metformin (Met), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inducer, is primarily transported by organic cation transporters expressed at the surface of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. However, the implication of Met in renal function remains poorly understood. Interestingly, AICAR, another AMPK inducer, has been shown to inhibit the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) generated by tunicamycin in cardiomyocytes in an AMPK-kinase dependent fashion suggesting metformin may also block the UPR. In this work, we have examined the effect of metformin on the expression of UPR-related markers (GRP94 and CHOP) induced by glucosamine (GlcN), 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) and tunicamycin (TUNI) in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells and in murine mesangial cells. Met attenuated GRP94 and CHOP expression induced by GlcN and 2-DOG, but not TUNI only in renal epithelial cells, even though the AMPK activation was observed in both renal epithelial and mesangial cells. Met did not require the contribution of its AMPK kinase inducing activity to block UPR markers expression. This report has identified a novel inhibitory function of metformin on UPR, which may have a beneficial impact on kidney homeostatic function. PMID:21600878

  10. Unfolded Protein Response Signaling and MAP Kinase Pathways Underlie Pathogenesis of Arsenic-induced Cutaneous Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changzhao; Xu, Jianmin; Li, Fugui; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Weng, Zhiping; Wen, Jianming; Elmets, Craig A.; Ahsan, Habibul; Athar, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic exposure through drinking water is a major global public health problem and is associated with an enhanced risk of various cancers including skin cancer. In human skin, arsenic induces precancerous melanosis and keratosis, which may progress to basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. However, the mechanism by which these pathophysiological alterations occur remains elusive. In this study, we showed that sub-chronic arsenic exposure to SKH-1 mice induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulated by proteins, inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1), PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Arsenic activated all three UPR regulatory proteins in the skin. Arsenic induced IRE1 phosphorylation which resulted in augmented splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) leading to its migration to the nucleus, and also enhanced transcriptional activation of downstream target proteins. Hyperphosphorylation of PERK which induces eukaryotic translation initial factor 2 ? (eIF2?) in a phosphorylation-dependent manner enhanced translation of ATF4, in addition to augmenting proteolytic activation of ATF6 in arsenic-treated skin. A similar increase in the expression of CHOP was observed. Enhanced XBP-1s, ATF4 and ATF6 regulated downstream chaperones GRP94 and GRP78. Additionally, arsenic induced inflammation-related p38/MAPKAPK-2 MAPK signaling and alterations in Th-1/Th-2/Th-17 cytokines/chemokines and their receptors. Antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine blocked arsenic-induced reactive oxygen species, with a concomitant attenuation of UPR and MAPK signaling and pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine signatures. Our results identify novel pathways involved in the pathogenesis of arsenic-mediated cutaneous inflammation which may also be related to enhanced cancer risk in arsenic exposed cohorts. PMID:21911445

  11. Hepatitis B and C virus-induced hepatitis: Apoptosis, autophagy, and unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Yeganeh, Behzad; Rezaei Moghadam, Adel; Alizadeh, Javad; Wiechec, Emilia; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Hashemi, Mohammad; Geramizadeh, Bita; Samali, Afshin; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran; Post, Martin; Peymani, Payam; Coombs, Kevin M; Ghavami, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the co-incidence of apoptosis, autophagy, and unfolded protein response (UPR) in hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infected hepatocytes. METHODS: We performed immunofluorescence confocal microscopy on 10 liver biopsies from HBV and HCV patients and tissue microarrays of HBV positive liver samples. We used specific antibodies for LC3β, cleaved caspase-3, BIP (GRP78), and XBP1 to detect autophagy, apoptosis and UPR, respectively. Anti-HCV NS3 and anti-HBs antibodies were also used to confirm infection. We performed triple blind counting of events to determine the co-incidence of autophagy (LC3β punctuate), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3), and unfolded protein response (GRP78) with HBV and HCV infection in hepatocytes. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software for Windows (Version 16 SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, United States). P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Statistical analyses were performed with Mann-Whitney test to compare incidence rates for autophagy, apoptosis, and UPR in HBV- and HCV-infected cells and adjacent non-infected cells. RESULTS: Our results showed that infection of hepatocytes with either HBV and HCV induces significant increase (P < 0.001) in apoptosis (cleavage of caspase-3), autophagy (LC3β punctate), and UPR (increase in GRP78 expression) in the HCV- and HBV-infected cells, as compared to non-infected cells of the same biopsy sections. Our tissue microarray immunohistochemical expression analysis of LC3β in HBVNeg and HBVPos revealed that majority of HBV-infected hepatocytes display strong positive staining for LC3β. Interestingly, although XBP splicing in HBV-infected cells was significantly higher (P < 0.05), our analyses show a slight increase of XBP splicing was in HCV-infected cells (P > 0.05). Furthermore, our evaluation of patients with HBV and HCV infection based on stage and grade of the liver diseases revealed no correlation between these pathological findings and induction of apoptosis, autophagy, and UPR. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that HCV and HBV infection activates apoptosis, autophagy and UPR, but slightly differently by each virus. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the interconnections between these pathways in relation to pathology of HCV and HBV in the liver tissue. PMID:26715805

  12. Mutations in the unfolded protein response regulator ATF6 cause the cone dysfunction disorder achromatopsia.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Susanne; Zobor, Ditta; Chiang, Wei-Chieh; Weisschuh, Nicole; Staller, Jennifer; Gonzalez Menendez, Irene; Chang, Stanley; Beck, Susanne C; Garcia Garrido, Marina; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Seeliger, Mathias W; Stanzial, Franco; Benedicenti, Francesco; Inzana, Francesca; Héon, Elise; Vincent, Ajoy; Beis, Jill; Strom, Tim M; Rudolph, Günther; Roosing, Susanne; Hollander, Anneke I den; Cremers, Frans P M; Lopez, Irma; Ren, Huanan; Moore, Anthony T; Webster, Andrew R; Michaelides, Michel; Koenekoop, Robert K; Zrenner, Eberhart; Kaufman, Randal J; Tsang, Stephen H; Wissinger, Bernd; Lin, Jonathan H

    2015-07-01

    Achromatopsia (ACHM) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by color blindness, photophobia, nystagmus and severely reduced visual acuity. Using homozygosity mapping and whole-exome and candidate gene sequencing, we identified ten families carrying six homozygous and two compound-heterozygous mutations in the ATF6 gene (encoding activating transcription factor 6A), a key regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. Patients had evidence of foveal hypoplasia and disruption of the cone photoreceptor layer. The ACHM-associated ATF6 mutations attenuate ATF6 transcriptional activity in response to ER stress. Atf6(-/-) mice have normal retinal morphology and function at a young age but develop rod and cone dysfunction with increasing age. This new ACHM-related gene suggests a crucial and unexpected role for ATF6A in human foveal development and cone function and adds to the list of genes that, despite ubiquitous expression, when mutated can result in an isolated retinal photoreceptor phenotype. PMID:26029869

  13. Disruption of the unfolded protein response (UPR) by lead compound selectively suppresses cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hejing; Liu, Huanan; Liu, Changmei; Fan, Lixia; Zhang, Xinwen; Gao, Anhui; Hu, Xiaobei; Zhang, Kunzhi; Cao, Xianchao; Jiang, Kailong; Zhou, Yubo; Hou, Jian; Nan, Fajun; Li, Jia

    2015-05-01

    Identifying chemotherapy candidates with high selectivity against cancer cells is a major challenge in cancer treatment. Tumor microenvironments cause chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) as an adaptive response. Here, one novel small-molecule compound, 17#, was discovered as a potent pan-UPR inhibitor. It exhibited good selection for growth inhibition when cancer cells were cultured in 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), mimicking an in vitro glucose-deprived status. Additionally, 17# alone could mildly suppress the growth of HeLa tumor xenografts, and a synergistic anti-cancer effect was observed when 17# was combined with 2DG. A mechanistic study showed that 17#-induced selective anti-cancer effects were highly dependent on UPR inhibition, and overexpressing GRP78 or XBP1s reversed the 17#-induced growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest, partially by delaying the downregulation of the cell cycle regulator cyclin B1. Furthermore, 17# improved the sensitivity of anti-cancer drugs such as doxorubicin or etoposide. Our study presents evidence that disrupting the UPR has selective therapeutic potential and may enhance drug sensitivity. PMID:25721085

  14. Mutations in the unfolded protein response regulator ATF6 cause the cone dysfunction disorder achromatopsia

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Susanne; Zobor, Ditta; Chiang, Wei-Chieh; Weisschuh, Nicole; Staller, Jennifer; Menendez, Irene Gonzalez; Chang, Stanley; Beck, Susanne C; Garrido, Marina Garcia; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Seeliger, Mathias W; Stanzial, Franco; Benedicenti, Francesco; Inzana, Francesca; Héon, Elise; Vincent, Ajoy; Beis, Jill; Strom, Tim M; Rudolph, Günther; Roosing, Susanne; den Hollander, Anneke I; Cremers, Frans P M; Lopez, Irma; Ren, Huanan; Moore, Anthony T; Webster, Andrew R; Michaelides, Michel; Koenekoop, Robert K; Zrenner, Eberhart; Kaufman, Randal J; Tsang, Stephen H; Wissinger, Bernd; Lin, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Achromatopsia (ACHM) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by color blindness, photophobia, nystagmus and severely reduced visual acuity. Using homozygosity mapping and whole-exome and candidate gene sequencing, we identified ten families carrying six homozygous and two compound-heterozygous mutations in the ATF6 gene (encoding activating transcription factor 6A), a key regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. Patients had evidence of foveal hypoplasia and disruption of the cone photoreceptor layer. The ACHM-associated ATF6 mutations attenuate ATF6 transcriptional activity in response to ER stress. Atf6−/− mice have normal retinal morphology and function at a young age but develop rod and cone dysfunction with increasing age. This new ACHM-related gene suggests a crucial and unexpected role for ATF6A in human foveal development and cone function and adds to the list of genes that, despite ubiquitous expression, when mutated can result in an isolated retinal photoreceptor phenotype. PMID:26029869

  15. Role of Unfolded Protein Response Dysregulation in Oxidative Injury of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Cano, Marisol; Wang, Joshua J.; Li, Jingming; Huang, Chuangxin; Yu, Qiang; Herbert, Terence P.; Handa, James T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a major cause of legal blindness in the elderly, is associated with genetic and environmental risk factors, such as cigarette smoking. Recent evidence shows that cigarette smoke (CS) that contains high levels of potent oxidants preferably targets retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) leading to oxidative damage and apoptosis; however, the mechanisms are poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in CS-related RPE apoptosis. Results: ER stress and proapoptotic gene C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were induced in the RPE/choroid complex from mice exposed to CS for 2 weeks and in human RPE cells treated with hydroquinone, a potent oxidant found at high concentrations in CS. Suppressing ER stress or inhibiting CHOP activation by pharmacological chaperones or genetic approaches attenuated hydroquinone-induced RPE cell apoptosis. In contrast to enhanced CHOP activation, protein level of active X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), a major regulator of the adaptive UPR, was reduced in hydroquinone-treated cells. Conditional knockout of XBP1 gene in the RPE resulted in caspase-12 activation, increased CHOP expression, and decreased antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2. Furthermore, XBP1-deficient RPE cells are more sensitive to oxidative damage induced by hydroquinone or NaIO3, a CS-unrelated chemical oxidant. Conversely, overexpressing XBP1 protected RPE cells and attenuated oxidative stress-induced RPE apoptosis. Innovation and Conclusion: These findings provide strong evidence suggesting an important role of ER stress and the UPR in CS-related oxidative injury of RPE cells. Thus, the modulation of the UPR signaling may provide a promising target for the treatment of AMD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 20912106. PMID:24053669

  16. Localization of GRP78 to mitochondria under the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fang-Chun; Wei, Shou; Li, Chia-Wei; Chang, Yuo-Sheng; Chao, Chih-Chung; Lai, Yiu-Kay

    2006-05-15

    The ubiquitously expressed molecular chaperone GRP78 (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein) generally localizes to the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). GRP78 is specifically induced in cells under the UPR (unfolded protein response), which can be elicited by treatments with calcium ionophore A23187 and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor TG (thapsigargin). By using confocal microscopy, we have demonstrated that GRP78 was concentrated in the perinuclear region and co-localized with the ER marker proteins, calnexin and PDI (protein disulphide-isomerase), in cells under normal growth conditions. However, treatments with A23187 and TG led to diminish its ER targeting, resulting in redirection into a cytoplasmic vesicular pattern, and overlapping with the mitochondrial marker MitoTracker. Cellular fractionation and protease digestion of isolated mitochondria from ER-stressed cells suggested that a significant portion of GRP78 is localized to the mitochondria and is protease-resistant. Localizations of GRP78 in ER and mitochondria were confirmed by using immunoelectron microscopy. In ER-stressed cells, GRP78 mainly localized within the mitochondria and decorated the mitochondrial membrane compartment. Submitochondrial fractionation studies indicated further that the mitochondria-resided GRP78 is mainly located in the intermembrane space, inner membrane and matrix, but is not associated with the outer membrane. Furthermore, radioactive labelling followed by subcellular fractionation showed that a significant portion of the newly synthesized GRP78 is localized to the mitochondria in cells under UPR. Taken together, our results indicate that, at least under certain circumstances, the ER-resided chaperone GRP78 can be retargeted to mitochondria and thereby may be involved in correlating UPR signalling between these two organelles. PMID:16433633

  17. Localization of GRP78 to mitochondria under the unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fang-Chun; Wei, Shou; Li, Chia-Wei; Chang, Yuo-Sheng; Chao, Chih-Chung; Lai, Yiu-Kay

    2006-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed molecular chaperone GRP78 (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein) generally localizes to the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). GRP78 is specifically induced in cells under the UPR (unfolded protein response), which can be elicited by treatments with calcium ionophore A23187 and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor TG (thapsigargin). By using confocal microscopy, we have demonstrated that GRP78 was concentrated in the perinuclear region and co-localized with the ER marker proteins, calnexin and PDI (protein disulphide-isomerase), in cells under normal growth conditions. However, treatments with A23187 and TG led to diminish its ER targeting, resulting in redirection into a cytoplasmic vesicular pattern, and overlapping with the mitochondrial marker MitoTracker. Cellular fractionation and protease digestion of isolated mitochondria from ER-stressed cells suggested that a significant portion of GRP78 is localized to the mitochondria and is protease-resistant. Localizations of GRP78 in ER and mitochondria were confirmed by using immunoelectron microscopy. In ER-stressed cells, GRP78 mainly localized within the mitochondria and decorated the mitochondrial membrane compartment. Submitochondrial fractionation studies indicated further that the mitochondria-resided GRP78 is mainly located in the intermembrane space, inner membrane and matrix, but is not associated with the outer membrane. Furthermore, radioactive labelling followed by subcellular fractionation showed that a significant portion of the newly synthesized GRP78 is localized to the mitochondria in cells under UPR. Taken together, our results indicate that, at least under certain circumstances, the ER-resided chaperone GRP78 can be retargeted to mitochondria and thereby may be involved in correlating UPR signalling between these two organelles. PMID:16433633

  18. The unfolded protein response in melanocytes: activation in response to chemical stressors of the endoplasmic reticulum and tyrosinase misfolding

    PubMed Central

    Manga, Prashiela; Bis, Sabina; Knoll, Kristen; Perez, Beremis; Orlow, Seth J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), comprising three signaling pathways initiated by Ire1, Perk and Atf6 respectively. UPR activation was compared in chemically stressed murine wildtype melanocytes and mutant melanocytes that retain tyrosinase in the ER. Thapsigargin, an ER stressor, activated all pathways in wildtype melanocytes, triggering Caspase 12-mediated apoptosis at toxic doses. Albino melanocytes expressing mutant tyrosinase showed evidence of ER stress with increased Ire1 expression; but the downstream effector, Xbp1, was not activated even following thapsigargin treatment. Attenuation of Ire1 signaling was recapitulated in wildtype melanocytes treated with thapsigargin for eight days, with diminished Xbp1 activation observed after four days. Atf6 was also activated in albino melanocytes, with no response to thapsigargin, while the Perk pathway was not activated and thapsigargin treatment elicited robust expression of the downstream effector CHOP. Thus, melanocytes adapt to ER stress by attenuating two UPR pathways. PMID:20444203

  19. Implication of unfolded protein response in resveratrol-induced inhibition of K562 cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bao-Qin; Gao, Yan-Yan; Niu, Xiao-Fang; Xie, Ji-Sheng; Meng, Xin; Guan, Yifu; Wang, Hua-Qin

    2010-01-01

    Resveratrol (RES), a natural plant polyphenol, is an effective inducer of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a variety of carcinoma cell types. In addition, RES has been reported to inhibit tumorigenesis in several animal models suggesting that it functions as a chemopreventive and anti-tumor agent in vivo. The chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties associated with resveratrol offer promise for the design of new chemotherapeutic agents. However, the mechanisms by which RES mediates its effects are not yet fully understood. In this study, we showed that RES caused cell cycle arrest and proliferation inhibition via induction of unfolded protein response (UPR) in human leukemia K562 cell line. Treatment of K562 cells with RES induced a number of signature UPR markers, including transcriptional induction of GRP78 and CHOP, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2{alpha} (eIF2{alpha}), ER stress-specific XBP-1 splicing, suggesting the induction of UPR by RES. RES inhibited proliferation of K562 in a concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that K562 cells were arrested in G1 phase upon RES treatment. Salubrinal, an eIF2{alpha} inhibitor, or overexpression of dominant negative mutants of PERK or eIF2{alpha}, effectively restored RES-induced cell cycle arrest, underscoring the important role of PERK/eIF2{alpha} branch of UPR in RES-induced inhibition of cell proliferation.

  20. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase promotes hypoxic survival by activating the mitochondrial unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Mao, X R; Kaufman, D M; Crowder, C M

    2016-01-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in the mouse nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase type 1 (Nmnat1) produce two remarkable phenotypes: protection against traumatic axonal degeneration and reduced hypoxic brain injury. Despite intensive efforts, the mechanism of Nmnat1 cytoprotection remains elusive. To develop a new model to define this mechanism, we heterologously expressed a mouse Nmnat1 non-nuclear-localized gain-of-function mutant gene (m-nonN-Nmnat1) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and show that it provides protection from both hypoxia-induced animal death and taxol-induced axonal pathology. Additionally, we find that m-nonN-Nmnat1 significantly lengthens C. elegans lifespan. Using the hypoxia-protective phenotype in C. elegans, we performed a candidate screen for genetic suppressors of m-nonN-Nmnat1 cytoprotection. Loss of function in two genes, haf-1 and dve-1, encoding mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mitoUPR) factors were identified as suppressors. M-nonN-Nmnat1 induced a transcriptional reporter of the mitoUPR gene hsp-6 and provided protection from the mitochondrial proteostasis toxin ethidium bromide. M-nonN-Nmnat1 was also protective against axonal degeneration in C. elegans induced by the chemotherapy drug taxol. Taxol markedly reduced basal expression of a mitoUPR reporter; the expression was restored by m-nonN-Nmnat1. Taken together, these data implicate the mitoUPR as a mechanism whereby Nmnat1 protects from hypoxic and axonal injury. PMID:26913604

  1. Dengue virus serotype infection specifies the activation of the unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Umareddy, Indira; Pluquet, Olivier; Wang, Qing Yin; Vasudevan, Subhash G; Chevet, Eric; Gu, Feng

    2007-01-01

    Background Dengue and Dengue hemorrhagic fever have emerged as some of the most important mosquito-borne viral diseases in the tropics. The mechanisms of pathogenesis of Dengue remain elusive. Recently, virus-induced apoptosis mediated by the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) has been hypothesised to represent a crucial pathogenic event in viral infection. In an attempt to evaluate the contribution of the UPR to virus replication, we have characterized each component of this signalling pathway following Dengue virus infection. Results We find that upon Dengue virus infection, A549 cells elicit an UPR which is observed at the level of translation attenuation (as visualized by the phosphorylation of eIF2alpha) and activation of specific pathways such as nuclear translocation of ATF-6 and splicing of XBP-1. Interestingly, we find that specific serotype of virus modulate the UPR with different selectivity. In addition, we demonstrate that perturbation of the UPR by preventing the dephosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2alpha using Salubrinal considerably alters virus infectivity. Conclusion This report provides evidence that Dengue infection induces and regulates the three branches of the UPR signaling cascades. This is a basis for our understanding of the viral regulation and conditions beneficial to the viral infection. Furthermore, modulators of UPR such as Salubrinal that inhibit Dengue replication may open up an avenue toward cell-protective agents that target the endoplasmic reticulum for anti-viral therapy. PMID:17888185

  2. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase promotes hypoxic survival by activating the mitochondrial unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Mao, X R; Kaufman, D M; Crowder, C M

    2016-01-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in the mouse nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase type 1 (Nmnat1) produce two remarkable phenotypes: protection against traumatic axonal degeneration and reduced hypoxic brain injury. Despite intensive efforts, the mechanism of Nmnat1 cytoprotection remains elusive. To develop a new model to define this mechanism, we heterologously expressed a mouse Nmnat1 non-nuclear-localized gain-of-function mutant gene (m-nonN-Nmnat1) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and show that it provides protection from both hypoxia-induced animal death and taxol-induced axonal pathology. Additionally, we find that m-nonN-Nmnat1 significantly lengthens C. elegans lifespan. Using the hypoxia-protective phenotype in C. elegans, we performed a candidate screen for genetic suppressors of m-nonN-Nmnat1 cytoprotection. Loss of function in two genes, haf-1 and dve-1, encoding mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mitoUPR) factors were identified as suppressors. M-nonN-Nmnat1 induced a transcriptional reporter of the mitoUPR gene hsp-6 and provided protection from the mitochondrial proteostasis toxin ethidium bromide. M-nonN-Nmnat1 was also protective against axonal degeneration in C. elegans induced by the chemotherapy drug taxol. Taxol markedly reduced basal expression of a mitoUPR reporter; the expression was restored by m-nonN-Nmnat1. Taken together, these data implicate the mitoUPR as a mechanism whereby Nmnat1 protects from hypoxic and axonal injury. PMID:26913604

  3. Keratin 12 missense mutation induces the unfolded protein response and apoptosis in Meesmann epithelial corneal dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Edwin H.A.; Courtney, David G.; Atkinson, Sarah D.; Moore, Johnny E.; Mairs, Laura; Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Schiroli, Davide; Maurizi, Eleonora; Cole, Christian; Hickerson, Robyn P.; James, John; Murgatroyd, Helen; Smith, Frances J.D.; MacEwen, Carrie; Enghild, Jan J.; Nesbit, M. Andrew; Leslie Pedrioli, Deena M.; McLean, W.H. Irwin; Moore, C.B. Tara

    2016-01-01

    Meesmann epithelial corneal dystrophy (MECD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by dominant-negative mutations within the KRT3 or KRT12 genes, which encode the cytoskeletal protein keratins K3 and K12, respectively. To investigate the pathomechanism of this disease, we generated and phenotypically characterized a novel knock-in humanized mouse model carrying the severe, MECD-associated, K12-Leu132Pro mutation. Although no overt changes in corneal opacity were detected by slit-lamp examination, the corneas of homozygous mutant mice exhibited histological and ultrastructural epithelial cell fragility phenotypes. An altered keratin expression profile was observed in the cornea of mutant mice, confirmed by western blot, RNA-seq and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Mass spectrometry (MS) and immunohistochemistry demonstrated a similarly altered keratin profile in corneal tissue from a K12-Leu132Pro MECD patient. The K12-Leu132Pro mutation results in cytoplasmic keratin aggregates. RNA-seq analysis revealed increased chaperone gene expression, and apoptotic unfolded protein response (UPR) markers, CHOP and Caspase 12, were also increased in the MECD mice. Corneal epithelial cell apoptosis was increased 17-fold in the mutant cornea, compared with the wild-type (P < 0.001). This elevation of UPR marker expression was also observed in the human MECD cornea. This is the first reporting of a mouse model for MECD that recapitulates the human disease and is a valuable resource in understanding the pathomechanism of the disease. Although the most severe phenotype is observed in the homozygous mice, this model will still provide a test-bed for therapies not only for corneal dystrophies but also for other keratinopathies caused by similar mutations. PMID:26758872

  4. Activation of the unfolded protein response is associated with pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yeager, Michael E; Reddy, Monica B; Nguyen, Cecilia M; Colvin, Kelley L; Ivy, D Dunbar; Stenmark, Kurt R

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Although there is currently no cure, descriptions of defective intracellular trafficking and protein misfolding in vascular cell models of pulmonary hypertension have been recently reported. We tested the hypothesis that activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) would be associated with the development of severe PH. We investigated activation of the UPR in archival tissues from patients with severe PH, and in the monocrotaline-induced rat model of severe PH. We tested the ability of a pharmacologic agent capable of modulating the UPR to prevent and reverse pulmonary hypertension. We found evidence of an active UPR in archival tissue from humans with PH, but not in control lungs. Similarly, monocrotaline-treated rats demonstrated a significant difference in expression of each of the major arms of the UPR compared to controls. Interestingly, the UPR preceded the appearance of macrophages and the development of lung vascular remodeling in the rats. Treatment of monocrotaline rats with salubrinal, a modulator of the PERK arm of the UPR, attenuated PH and was associated with a decrease in lung macrophages. In culture, pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells with UPR induction produced IL-6 and CCL-2/MCP-1, and stimulated macrophage migration. These effects were abolished by pretreatment of cells with salubrinal. These data support the hypothesis that the UPR may play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory vascular remodeling and PH. As such, understanding the functional contributions of the UPR in the setting of PH may have important therapeutic implications. PMID:22837864

  5. Varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein expression differentially induces the unfolded protein response in infected cells.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, John E; Grose, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpesvirus that spreads to children as varicella or chicken pox. The virus then establishes latency in the nervous system and re-emerges, typically decades later, as zoster or shingles. We have reported previously that VZV induces autophagy in infected cells as well as exhibiting evidence of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR): XBP1 splicing, a greatly expanded Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and CHOP expression. Herein we report the results of a UPR specific PCR array that measures the levels of mRNA of 84 different components of the UPR in VZV infected cells as compared to tunicamycin treated cells as a positive control and uninfected, untreated cells as a negative control. Tunicamycin is a mixture of chemicals that inhibits N-linked glycosylation in the ER with resultant protein misfolding and the UPR. We found that VZV differentially induces the UPR when compared to tunicamycin treatment. For example, tunicamycin treatment moderately increased (8-fold) roughly half of the array elements while downregulating only three (one ERAD and two FOLD components). VZV infection on the other hand upregulated 33 components including a little described stress sensor CREB-H (64-fold) as well as ER membrane components INSIG and gp78, which modulate cholesterol synthesis while downregulating over 20 components mostly associated with ERAD and FOLD. We hypothesize that this expression pattern is associated with an expanding ER with downregulation of active degradation by ERAD and apoptosis as the cell attempts to handle abundant viral glycoprotein synthesis. PMID:25071735

  6. Mechanistic rationale for targeting the unfolded protein response in pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kharabi Masouleh, Behzad; Geng, Huimin; Hurtz, Christian; Chan, Lai N.; Logan, Aaron C.; Chang, Mi Sook; Huang, Chuanxin; Swaminathan, Srividya; Sun, Haibo; Paietta, Elisabeth; Melnick, Ari M.; Koeffler, Phillip; Müschen, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, a stress-induced signaling cascade emanating from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), regulates the expression and activity of molecules including BiP (HSPA5), IRE1 (ERN1), Blimp-1 (PRDM1), and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1). These molecules are required for terminal differentiation of B cells into plasma cells and expressed at high levels in plasma cell-derived multiple myeloma. Although these molecules have no known role at early stages of B-cell development, here we show that their expression transiently peaks at the pre–B-cell receptor checkpoint. Inducible, Cre-mediated deletion of Hspa5, Prdm1, and Xbp1 consistently induces cellular stress and cell death in normal pre-B cells and in pre–B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) driven by BCR-ABL1- and NRASG12D oncogenes. Mechanistically, expression and activity of the UPR downstream effector XBP1 is regulated positively by STAT5 and negatively by the B-cell–specific transcriptional repressors BACH2 and BCL6. In two clinical trials for children and adults with ALL, high XBP1 mRNA levels at the time of diagnosis predicted poor outcome. A small molecule inhibitor of ERN1-mediated XBP1 activation induced selective cell death of patient-derived pre-B ALL cells in vitro and significantly prolonged survival of transplant recipient mice in vivo. Collectively, these studies reveal that pre-B ALL cells are uniquely vulnerable to ER stress and identify the UPR pathway and its downstream effector XBP1 as novel therapeutic targets to overcome drug resistance in pre-B ALL. PMID:24821775

  7. Keratin 12 missense mutation induces the unfolded protein response and apoptosis in Meesmann epithelial corneal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Edwin H A; Courtney, David G; Atkinson, Sarah D; Moore, Johnny E; Mairs, Laura; Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Schiroli, Davide; Maurizi, Eleonora; Cole, Christian; Hickerson, Robyn P; James, John; Murgatroyd, Helen; Smith, Frances J D; MacEwen, Carrie; Enghild, Jan J; Nesbit, M Andrew; Leslie Pedrioli, Deena M; McLean, W H Irwin; Moore, C B Tara

    2016-03-15

    Meesmann epithelial corneal dystrophy (MECD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by dominant-negative mutations within the KRT3 or KRT12 genes, which encode the cytoskeletal protein keratins K3 and K12, respectively. To investigate the pathomechanism of this disease, we generated and phenotypically characterized a novel knock-in humanized mouse model carrying the severe, MECD-associated, K12-Leu132Pro mutation. Although no overt changes in corneal opacity were detected by slit-lamp examination, the corneas of homozygous mutant mice exhibited histological and ultrastructural epithelial cell fragility phenotypes. An altered keratin expression profile was observed in the cornea of mutant mice, confirmed by western blot, RNA-seq and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Mass spectrometry (MS) and immunohistochemistry demonstrated a similarly altered keratin profile in corneal tissue from a K12-Leu132Pro MECD patient. The K12-Leu132Pro mutation results in cytoplasmic keratin aggregates. RNA-seq analysis revealed increased chaperone gene expression, and apoptotic unfolded protein response (UPR) markers, CHOP and Caspase 12, were also increased in the MECD mice. Corneal epithelial cell apoptosis was increased 17-fold in the mutant cornea, compared with the wild-type (P < 0.001). This elevation of UPR marker expression was also observed in the human MECD cornea. This is the first reporting of a mouse model for MECD that recapitulates the human disease and is a valuable resource in understanding the pathomechanism of the disease. Although the most severe phenotype is observed in the homozygous mice, this model will still provide a test-bed for therapies not only for corneal dystrophies but also for other keratinopathies caused by similar mutations. PMID:26758872

  8. Mechanistic rationale for targeting the unfolded protein response in pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kharabi Masouleh, Behzad; Geng, Huimin; Hurtz, Christian; Chan, Lai N; Logan, Aaron C; Chang, Mi Sook; Huang, Chuanxin; Swaminathan, Srividya; Sun, Haibo; Paietta, Elisabeth; Melnick, Ari M; Koeffler, Phillip; Mschen, Markus

    2014-05-27

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, a stress-induced signaling cascade emanating from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), regulates the expression and activity of molecules including BiP (HSPA5), IRE1 (ERN1), Blimp-1 (PRDM1), and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1). These molecules are required for terminal differentiation of B cells into plasma cells and expressed at high levels in plasma cell-derived multiple myeloma. Although these molecules have no known role at early stages of B-cell development, here we show that their expression transiently peaks at the pre-B-cell receptor checkpoint. Inducible, Cre-mediated deletion of Hspa5, Prdm1, and Xbp1 consistently induces cellular stress and cell death in normal pre-B cells and in pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) driven by BCR-ABL1- and NRAS(G12D) oncogenes. Mechanistically, expression and activity of the UPR downstream effector XBP1 is regulated positively by STAT5 and negatively by the B-cell-specific transcriptional repressors BACH2 and BCL6. In two clinical trials for children and adults with ALL, high XBP1 mRNA levels at the time of diagnosis predicted poor outcome. A small molecule inhibitor of ERN1-mediated XBP1 activation induced selective cell death of patient-derived pre-B ALL cells in vitro and significantly prolonged survival of transplant recipient mice in vivo. Collectively, these studies reveal that pre-B ALL cells are uniquely vulnerable to ER stress and identify the UPR pathway and its downstream effector XBP1 as novel therapeutic targets to overcome drug resistance in pre-B ALL. PMID:24821775

  9. Varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein expression differentially induces the unfolded protein response in infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, John E.; Grose, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpesvirus that spreads to children as varicella or chicken pox. The virus then establishes latency in the nervous system and re-emerges, typically decades later, as zoster or shingles. We have reported previously that VZV induces autophagy in infected cells as well as exhibiting evidence of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR): XBP1 splicing, a greatly expanded Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and CHOP expression. Herein we report the results of a UPR specific PCR array that measures the levels of mRNA of 84 different components of the UPR in VZV infected cells as compared to tunicamycin treated cells as a positive control and uninfected, untreated cells as a negative control. Tunicamycin is a mixture of chemicals that inhibits N-linked glycosylation in the ER with resultant protein misfolding and the UPR. We found that VZV differentially induces the UPR when compared to tunicamycin treatment. For example, tunicamycin treatment moderately increased (8-fold) roughly half of the array elements while downregulating only three (one ERAD and two FOLD components). VZV infection on the other hand upregulated 33 components including a little described stress sensor CREB-H (64-fold) as well as ER membrane components INSIG and gp78, which modulate cholesterol synthesis while downregulating over 20 components mostly associated with ERAD and FOLD. We hypothesize that this expression pattern is associated with an expanding ER with downregulation of active degradation by ERAD and apoptosis as the cell attempts to handle abundant viral glycoprotein synthesis. PMID:25071735

  10. Compromising the Unfolded Protein Response Induces Autophagy-Mediated Cell Death in Multiple Myeloma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Mondiere, Paul; Taillardet, Morgan; Leverrier, Yann; Genestier, Laurent; Defrance, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) sensors (PERK, ATF6 and IRE-1) can be targeted to promote death of Multiple Myeloma (MM) cells. Methods We have knocked-down separately each UPR stress sensor in human MM cell lines using RNA interference and followed MM cell death by monitoring the membrane, mitochondrial and nuclear alterations. Involvement of caspases in MM cell death consecutive to UPR sensor knock-down was analyzed by western blotting, measurement of their enzymatic activity using fluorigenic substrates and susceptibility to a pan-caspase inhibitor. Activation of the autophagic process was measured directly by detection of autophagosomes (electronic microscopy), monodansylcadaverine staining, production of the cleaved form of the microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B light chain 3 (LC3) and indirectly by analyzing the impact of pharmacological inhibitors of autophagy such as 3MA and bafilomycin A1. Results We show that extinction of a single UPR stress sensor (PERK) induces a non-apoptotic form of cell death in MM cells that requires autophagy for its execution. We also show that this cytotoxic autophagic process represses the apoptosis program by reducing the cytosolic release of the apoptogenic factors Smac/DIABLO and cytochrome c. Interpretation Altogether our findings suggest that autophagy can contribute to execution of death in mammalian cells that are exposed to mild ER stress. They also suggest that the autophagic process can regulate the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by inhibiting production of death effectors by the mitochondria, thus preventing formation of a functional apoptosome. Altogether these findings give credit to the idea that UPR sensors can be envisaged as therapeutic targets for the treatment of MM. PMID:22028791

  11. Regulation of immunoglobulin synthesis, modification, and trafficking by the unfolded protein response a quantitative approach.

    PubMed

    Drori, Adi; Tirosh, Boaz

    2011-01-01

    Plasma cells are professional secretory cells, which function as cellular factories for immunoglobulin synthesis and secretion. Being the sole cell type responsible for antibody secretion they play an essential role in the immune response against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Since plasma cells have a long life span and are able to secrete copious amounts of antibody, their number and repertoire should be tightly regulated. Disruption of their homeostasis may lead to severe diseases, such as immunodeficiency or multiple myeloma. Much of the complications of multiple myeloma are attributed to the antibodies themselves, which accumulate in the bloodstream and lead to kidney and pulmonary insufficiencies. Similar pathologies are common to other plasma cell-related diseases, such as AL amyloidosis and autoimmune diseases, in which Ig molecules accumulate to toxic levels without good means to curtail their production. The process of plasma cell differentiation and maintenance is poorly understood. The discovery that the IRE1/XBP-1 arm of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is necessary to yield full-fledged plasma cells in vivo was a breakthrough in the field. Over the years valuable biochemical information on plasma cell differentiation was obtained by exploring the downstream activities of XBP-1. The most pronounced phenotype of XBP-1 deficiency in plasma cells in vitro is the steep reduction in μ chain synthesis albeit similar levels of its mRNA. Remarkably, the defect is specific to Ig heavy chains as synthesis of other glycoproteins remains normal. Furthermore, when XBP-1 is absent or its mRNA splicing is inhibited the efficiency of protein translocation into the ER is severely impaired. Still, fundamental questions remain unanswered, such as what exactly generates the conditions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that activates the UPR in the developing plasma cells. Another enigma is how lipid biosynthesis and protein synthesis, both dramatically modulated during differentiation, are coordinated. In this chapter, we will provide detailed methodologies for measurements of Ig synthesis and misinsertion into the ER as readout of ER physiology in the course of plasma cell differentiation. PMID:21329807

  12. Maintenance and propagation of a deleterious mitochondrial genome by the mitochondrial unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Fan; Schulz, Anna M; Pellegrino, Mark W; Lu, Yun; Shaham, Shai; Haynes, Cole M

    2016-05-19

    Mitochondrial genomes (mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA) encode essential oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) components. Because hundreds of mtDNAs exist per cell, a deletion in a single mtDNA has little impact. However, if the deletion genome is enriched, OXPHOS declines, resulting in cellular dysfunction. For example, Kearns-Sayre syndrome is caused by a single heteroplasmic mtDNA deletion. More broadly, mtDNA deletion accumulation has been observed in individual muscle cells and dopaminergic neurons during ageing. It is unclear how mtDNA deletions are tolerated or how they are propagated in somatic cells. One mechanism by which cells respond to OXPHOS dysfunction is by activating the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), a transcriptional response mediated by the transcription factor ATFS-1 that promotes the recovery and regeneration of defective mitochondria. Here we investigate the role of ATFS-1 in the maintenance and propagation of a deleterious mtDNA in a heteroplasmic Caenorhabditis elegans strain that stably expresses wild-type mtDNA and mtDNA with a 3.1-kilobase deletion (∆mtDNA) lacking four essential genes. The heteroplasmic strain, which has 60% ∆mtDNA, displays modest mitochondrial dysfunction and constitutive UPR(mt) activation. ATFS-1 impairment reduced the ∆mtDNA nearly tenfold, decreasing the total percentage to 7%. We propose that in the context of mtDNA heteroplasmy, UPR(mt) activation caused by OXPHOS defects propagates or maintains the deleterious mtDNA in an attempt to recover OXPHOS activity by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics. PMID:27135930

  13. Effects of inactivation and constitutive expression of the unfolded- protein response pathway on protein production in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Valkonen, Mari; Penttilä, Merja; Saloheimo, Markku

    2003-04-01

    One strategy to obtain better yields of secreted proteins has been overexpression of single endoplasmic reticulum-resident foldases or chaperones. We report here that manipulation of the unfolded-protein response (UPR) pathway regulator, HAC1, affects production of both native and foreign proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effects of HAC1 deletion and overexpression on the production of a native protein, invertase, and two foreign proteins, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens alpha-amylase and Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase EGI, were studied. Disruption of HAC1 caused decreases in the secretion of both alpha-amylase (70 to 75% reduction) and EGI (40 to 50% reduction) compared to the secretion by the parental strain. Constitutive overexpression of HAC1 caused a 70% increase in alpha-amylase secretion but had no effect on EGI secretion. The invertase levels were twofold higher in the strain overexpressing HAC1. Also, the effect of the active form of T. reesei hac1 was tested in S. cerevisiae. hac1 expression caused a 2.4-fold increase in the secretion of alpha-amylase in S. cerevisiae and also slight increases in invertase and total protein production. Overexpression of both S. cerevisiae HAC1 and T. reesei hac1 caused an increase in the expression of the known UPR target gene KAR2 at early time points during cultivation. PMID:12676684

  14. Inhibition of protein synthesis leading to unfolded protein response is the major event in abrin-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ritu; Kumar, Meenakshi Sundaram; Karande, Anjali A

    2015-05-01

    Abrin obtained from the plant Abrus precatorius inhibits protein synthesis and also triggers apoptosis in cells. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested a link between these two events. Using an active site mutant of abrin A-chain which exhibits 225-fold lower protein synthesis inhibitory activity than the wild-type abrin A-chain, we demonstrate in this study that inhibition of protein synthesis induced by abrin is the major factor triggering unfolded protein response leading to apoptosis. Since abrin A-chain requires the B-chain for internalization into cells, the wild-type and mutant recombinant abrin A-chains were conjugated to native ricin B-chain to generate hybrid toxins, and the toxic effects of the two conjugates were compared. The rate of inhibition of protein synthesis mediated by the mutant ricin B-rABRA (R167L) conjugate was slower than that of the wild-type ricin B-rABRA conjugate as expected. The mutant conjugate activated p38MAPK and caspase-3 similar to its wild-type counterpart although at later time points. Overall, these results confirm that inhibition of protein synthesis is the major event contributing to abrin-mediated apoptosis. PMID:25753921

  15. Statins inhibit protein lipidation and induce the unfolded protein response in the non-sterol producing nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Mörck, Catarina; Olsen, Louise; Kurth, Caroline; Persson, Annelie; Storm, Nadia Jin; Svensson, Emma; Jansson, John-Olov; Hellqvist, Marika; Enejder, Annika; Faergeman, Nils J.; Pilon, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Statins are compounds prescribed to lower blood cholesterol in millions of patients worldwide. They act by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway that leads to the synthesis of farnesyl pyrophosphate, a precursor for cholesterol synthesis and the source of lipid moieties for protein prenylation. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans possesses a mevalonate pathway that lacks the branch leading to cholesterol synthesis, and thus represents an ideal organism to specifically study the noncholesterol roles of the pathway. Inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase in C. elegans using statins or RNAi leads to developmental arrest and loss of membrane association of a GFP-based prenylation reporter. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is also strongly activated, suggesting that impaired prenylation of small GTPases leads to the accumulation of unfolded proteins and ER stress. UPR induction was also observed upon pharmacological inhibition of farnesyl transferases or RNAi inhibition of a specific isoprenoid transferase (M57.2) and found to be dependent on both ire-1 and xbp-1 but not on pek-1 or atf-6, which are all known regulators of the UPR. The lipid stores and fatty acid composition were unaffected in statin-treated worms, even though they showed reduced staining with Nile red. We conclude that inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase or of farnesyl transferases induce the UPR by inhibiting the prenylation of M57.2 substrates, resulting in developmental arrest in C. elegans. These results provide a mechanism for the pleiotropic effects of statins and suggest that statins could be used clinically where UPR activation may be of therapeutic benefit. PMID:19826081

  16. Slow unfolding of monomeric proteins from hyperthermophiles with reversible unfolding.

    PubMed

    Mukaiyama, Atsushi; Takano, Kazufumi

    2009-03-01

    Based on the differences in their optimal growth temperatures microorganisms can be classified into psychrophiles, mesophiles, thermophiles, and hyperthermophiles. Proteins from hyperthermophiles generally exhibit greater stability than those from other organisms. In this review, we collect data about the stability and folding of monomeric proteins from hyperthermophilies with reversible unfolding, from the equilibrium and kinetic aspects. The results indicate that slow unfolding is a general strategy by which proteins from hyperthermophiles adapt to higher temperatures. Hydrophobic interaction is one of the factors in the molecular mechanism of the slow unfolding of proteins from hyperthermophiles. PMID:19399254

  17. Newcastle disease virus NP and P proteins induce autophagy via the endoplasmic reticulum stress-related unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jing-Hua; Sun, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Fan-Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Qiu, Xv-Sheng; Yu, Li-Ping; Wu, Yan-Tao; Ding, Chan

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can replicate and trigger autophagy in human tumor cells. Our previous study confirmed the critical role of autophagy in NDV infection. Here we studied the role of NDV structural proteins in the induction of autophagy through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways. Ectopic expression of the NDV nucleocapsid protein (NP) or phosphoprotein (P) was sufficient to induce autophagy. NP or P expression also altered ER homeostasis. The PERK and ATF6 pathways, but not the XBP1 pathway, all of which are components of the UPR, were activated in both NDV-infected and NP or P-transfected cells. Knockdown of PERK or ATF6 inhibited NDV-induced autophagy and reduced the extent of NDV replication. Collectively, these data suggest not only roles for the NDV NP and P proteins in autophagy, but also offer new insights into the mechanisms of NDV-induced autophagy through activation of the ER stress-related UPR pathway. PMID:27097866

  18. Polynomial algebra reveals diverging roles of the unfolded protein response in endothelial cells during ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Le Pape, Sylvain; Dimitrova, Elena; Hannaert, Patrick; Konovalov, Alexander; Volmer, Romain; Ron, David; Thuillier, Raphaël; Hauet, Thierry

    2014-08-25

    The unfolded protein response (UPR)--the endoplasmic reticulum stress response--is found in various pathologies including ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). However, its role during IRI is still unclear. Here, by combining two different bioinformatical methods--a method based on ordinary differential equations (Time Series Network Inference) and an algebraic method (probabilistic polynomial dynamical systems)--we identified the IRE1α-XBP1 and the ATF6 pathways as the main UPR effectors involved in cell's adaptation to IRI. We validated these findings experimentally by assessing the impact of their knock-out and knock-down on cell survival during IRI. PMID:24945730

  19. Domain compatibility in Ire1 kinase is critical for the Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Poothong, Juthakorn; Sopha, Pattarawut; Kaufman, Randal J.; Tirasophon, Witoon

    2013-01-01

    The unfolded phrotein response is a mechanism to cope with endoplasmic reticulum stress. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ire1 senses the stress and mediates a signaling cascade to upregulate responsive genes through an unusual HAC1 mRNA splicing. The splicing requires interconnected activity (kinase and endoribonuclease) of Ire1 to cleave HAC1 mRNA at the non-canonical splice sites before translation into Hac1 transcription factor. Analysis of the truncated kinase domain from Ire1 homologs revealed that this domain is highly conserved. Characterization by domain swapping indicated that a functional ATP/ADP binding domain is minimally required. However the overall domain compatibility is critical for eliciting its full endoribonuclease function. PMID:20541549

  20. Loss of subcellular lipid transport due to ARV1 deficiency disrupts organelle homeostasis and activates the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Shechtman, Caryn F; Henneberry, Annette L; Seimon, Tracie A; Tinkelenberg, Arthur H; Wilcox, Lisa J; Lee, Eunjee; Fazlollahi, Mina; Munkacsi, Andrew B; Bussemaker, Harmen J; Tabas, Ira; Sturley, Stephen L

    2011-04-01

    The ARV1-encoded protein mediates sterol transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane. Yeast ARV1 mutants accumulate multiple lipids in the ER and are sensitive to pharmacological modulators of both sterol and sphingolipid metabolism. Using fluorescent and electron microscopy, we demonstrate sterol accumulation, subcellular membrane expansion, elevated lipid droplet formation, and vacuolar fragmentation in ARV1 mutants. Motif-based regression analysis of ARV1 deletion transcription profiles indicates activation of Hac1p, an integral component of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Accordingly, we show constitutive splicing of HAC1 transcripts, induction of a UPR reporter, and elevated expression of UPR targets in ARV1 mutants. IRE1, encoding the unfolded protein sensor in the ER lumen, exhibits a lethal genetic interaction with ARV1, indicating a viability requirement for the UPR in cells lacking ARV1. Surprisingly, ARV1 mutants expressing a variant of Ire1p defective in sensing unfolded proteins are viable. Moreover, these strains also exhibit constitutive HAC1 splicing that interacts with DTT-mediated perturbation of protein folding. These data suggest that a component of UPR induction in arv1Δ strains is distinct from protein misfolding. Decreased ARV1 expression in murine macrophages also results in UPR induction, particularly up-regulation of activating transcription factor-4, CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein), and apoptosis. Cholesterol loading or inhibition of cholesterol esterification further elevated CHOP expression in ARV1 knockdown cells. Thus, loss or down-regulation of ARV1 disturbs membrane and lipid homeostasis, resulting in a disruption of ER integrity, one consequence of which is induction of the UPR. PMID:21266578

  1. Loss of Subcellular Lipid Transport Due to ARV1 Deficiency Disrupts Organelle Homeostasis and Activates the Unfolded Protein Response*

    PubMed Central

    Shechtman, Caryn F.; Henneberry, Annette L.; Seimon, Tracie A.; Tinkelenberg, Arthur H.; Wilcox, Lisa J.; Lee, Eunjee; Fazlollahi, Mina; Munkacsi, Andrew B.; Bussemaker, Harmen J.; Tabas, Ira; Sturley, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    The ARV1-encoded protein mediates sterol transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane. Yeast ARV1 mutants accumulate multiple lipids in the ER and are sensitive to pharmacological modulators of both sterol and sphingolipid metabolism. Using fluorescent and electron microscopy, we demonstrate sterol accumulation, subcellular membrane expansion, elevated lipid droplet formation, and vacuolar fragmentation in ARV1 mutants. Motif-based regression analysis of ARV1 deletion transcription profiles indicates activation of Hac1p, an integral component of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Accordingly, we show constitutive splicing of HAC1 transcripts, induction of a UPR reporter, and elevated expression of UPR targets in ARV1 mutants. IRE1, encoding the unfolded protein sensor in the ER lumen, exhibits a lethal genetic interaction with ARV1, indicating a viability requirement for the UPR in cells lacking ARV1. Surprisingly, ARV1 mutants expressing a variant of Ire1p defective in sensing unfolded proteins are viable. Moreover, these strains also exhibit constitutive HAC1 splicing that interacts with DTT-mediated perturbation of protein folding. These data suggest that a component of UPR induction in arv1Δ strains is distinct from protein misfolding. Decreased ARV1 expression in murine macrophages also results in UPR induction, particularly up-regulation of activating transcription factor-4, CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein), and apoptosis. Cholesterol loading or inhibition of cholesterol esterification further elevated CHOP expression in ARV1 knockdown cells. Thus, loss or down-regulation of ARV1 disturbs membrane and lipid homeostasis, resulting in a disruption of ER integrity, one consequence of which is induction of the UPR. PMID:21266578

  2. Wolfram Syndrome protein, Miner1, regulates sulphydryl redox status, the unfolded protein response, and Ca2+ homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Sandra E; Andreyev, Alexander Y; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Karisch, Robert; Perkins, Guy; Wall, Estelle A; van der Geer, Peter; Chen, Yi-Fan; Tsai, Ting-Fen; Simon, Melvin I; Neel, Benjamin G; Dixon, Jack E; Murphy, Anne N

    2013-01-01

    Miner1 is a redox-active 2Fe2S cluster protein. Mutations in Miner1 result in Wolfram Syndrome, a metabolic disease associated with diabetes, blindness, deafness, and a shortened lifespan. Embryonic fibroblasts from Miner1−/− mice displayed ER stress and showed hallmarks of the unfolded protein response. In addition, loss of Miner1 caused a depletion of ER Ca2+ stores, a dramatic increase in mitochondrial Ca2+ load, increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, an increase in the GSSG/GSH and NAD+/NADH ratios, and an increase in the ADP/ATP ratio consistent with enhanced ATP utilization. Furthermore, mitochondria in fibroblasts lacking Miner1 displayed ultrastructural alterations, such as increased cristae density and punctate morphology, and an increase in O2 consumption. Treatment with the sulphydryl anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine reversed the abnormalities in the Miner1 deficient cells, suggesting that sulphydryl reducing agents should be explored as a treatment for this rare genetic disease. PMID:23703906

  3. The unfolded protein response in fission yeast modulates stability of select mRNAs to maintain protein homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Kimmig, Philipp; Diaz, Marcy; Zheng, Jiashun; Williams, Christopher C; Lang, Alexander; Aragón, Tomas; Li, Hao; Walter, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) monitors the protein folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In all organisms analyzed to date, the UPR drives transcriptional programs that allow cells to cope with ER stress. The non-conventional splicing of Hac1 (yeasts) and XBP1 (metazoans) mRNA, encoding orthologous UPR transcription activators, is conserved and dependent on Ire1, an ER membrane-resident kinase/endoribonuclease. We found that the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe lacks both a Hac1/XBP1 ortholog and a UPR-dependent-transcriptional-program. Instead, Ire1 initiates the selective decay of a subset of ER-localized-mRNAs that is required to survive ER stress. We identified Bip1 mRNA, encoding a major ER-chaperone, as the sole mRNA cleaved upon Ire1 activation that escapes decay. Instead, truncation of its 3′ UTR, including loss of its polyA tail, stabilized Bip1 mRNA, resulting in increased Bip1 translation. Thus, S. pombe uses a universally conserved stress-sensing machinery in novel ways to maintain homeostasis in the ER. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00048.001 PMID:23066505

  4. Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) Regulator Cib1 Controls Expression of Genes Encoding Secreted Virulence Factors in Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Hampel, Martin; Jakobi, Mareike; Schmitz, Lara; Meyer, Ute; Finkernagel, Florian; Doehlemann, Gunther; Heimel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR), a conserved eukaryotic signaling pathway to ensure protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), coordinates biotrophic development in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis. Exact timing of UPR activation is required for virulence and presumably connected to the elevated expression of secreted effector proteins during infection of the host plant Zea mays. In the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of UPR target genes is induced upon binding of the central regulator Hac1 to unfolded protein response elements (UPREs) in their promoters. While a role of the UPR in effector secretion has been described previously, we investigated a potential UPR-dependent regulation of genes encoding secreted effector proteins. In silico prediction of UPREs in promoter regions identified the previously characterized effector genes pit2 and tin1-1, as bona fide UPR target genes. Furthermore, direct binding of the Hac1-homolog Cib1 to the UPRE containing promoter fragments of both genes was confirmed by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (qChIP) analysis. Targeted deletion of the UPRE abolished Cib1-dependent expression of pit2 and significantly affected virulence. Furthermore, ER stress strongly increased Pit2 expression and secretion. This study expands the role of the UPR as a signal hub in fungal virulence and illustrates, how biotrophic fungi can coordinate cellular physiology, development and regulation of secreted virulence factors. PMID:27093436

  5. Enhanced sensitivity to DSS colitis caused by a hypomorphic Mbtps1 mutation disrupting the ATF6-driven unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Brandl, Katharina; Rutschmann, Sophie; Li, Xiaohong; Du, Xin; Xiao, Nengming; Schnabl, Bernd; Brenner, David A; Beutler, Bruce

    2009-03-01

    Here, we describe an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced missense error in the membrane-bound transcription factor peptidase site 1 (S1P)-encoding gene (Mbtps1) that causes enhanced susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. S1P cleaves and activates cAMP response element binding protein/ATF transcription factors, the sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), and other proteins of both endogenous and viral origin. Because S1P has a nonredundant function in the ATF6-dependent unfolded protein response (UPR), woodrat mice show diminished levels of major endoplasmic reticulum chaperones GRP78 (BiP) and GRP94 in the colon upon DSS administration. Experiments with bone marrow chimeric mice reveal a requirement for S1P in nonhematopoietic cells, without which a diminished UPR and colitis develop. PMID:19202076

  6. Enhanced sensitivity to DSS colitis caused by a hypomorphic Mbtps1 mutation disrupting the ATF6-driven unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Brandl, Katharina; Rutschmann, Sophie; Li, Xiaohong; Du, Xin; Xiao, Nengming; Schnabl, Bernd; Brenner, David A.; Beutler, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Here, we describe an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced missense error in the membrane-bound transcription factor peptidase site 1 (S1P)-encoding gene (Mbtps1) that causes enhanced susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. S1P cleaves and activates cAMP response element binding protein/ATF transcription factors, the sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), and other proteins of both endogenous and viral origin. Because S1P has a nonredundant function in the ATF6-dependent unfolded protein response (UPR), woodrat mice show diminished levels of major endoplasmic reticulum chaperones GRP78 (BiP) and GRP94 in the colon upon DSS administration. Experiments with bone marrow chimeric mice reveal a requirement for S1P in nonhematopoietic cells, without which a diminished UPR and colitis develop. PMID:19202076

  7. IRE1/bZIP60-Mediated Unfolded Protein Response Plays Distinct Roles in Plant Immunity and Abiotic Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Francisca; Boatwright, Jon Lucas; Moreno, Ignacio; Jordan, Melissa R.; Chen, Yani; Brandizzi, Federica; Dong, Xinnian

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mediated protein secretion and quality control have been shown to play an important role in immune responses in both animals and plants. In mammals, the ER membrane-located IRE1 kinase/endoribonuclease, a key regulator of unfolded protein response (UPR), is required for plasma cell development to accommodate massive secretion of immunoglobulins. Plant cells can secrete the so-called pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins with antimicrobial activities upon pathogen challenge. However, whether IRE1 plays any role in plant immunity is not known. Arabidopsis thaliana has two copies of IRE1, IRE1a and IRE1b. Here, we show that both IRE1a and IRE1b are transcriptionally induced during chemically-induced ER stress, bacterial pathogen infection and treatment with the immune signal salicylic acid (SA). However, we found that IRE1a plays a predominant role in the secretion of PR proteins upon SA treatment. Consequently, the ire1a mutant plants show enhanced susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen and are deficient in establishing systemic acquired resistance (SAR), whereas ire1b is unaffected in these responses. We further demonstrate that the immune deficiency in ire1a is due to a defect in SA- and pathogen-triggered, IRE1-mediated cytoplasmic splicing of the bZIP60 mRNA, which encodes a transcription factor involved in the expression of UPR-responsive genes. Consistently, IRE1a is preferentially required for bZIP60 splicing upon pathogen infection, while IRE1b plays a major role in bZIP60 processing upon Tunicamycin (Tm)-induced stress. We also show that SA-dependent induction of UPR-responsive genes is altered in the bzip60 mutant resulting in a moderate susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen. These results indicate that the IRE1/bZIP60 branch of UPR is a part of the plant response to pathogens for which the two Arabidopsis IRE1 isoforms play only partially overlapping roles and that IRE1 has both bZIP60-dependent and bZIP60-independent functions in plant immunity. PMID:22359644

  8. Sonication-induced unfolding proteins.

    PubMed

    Stepanskiy, Leonard G

    2012-04-01

    The methodology of predicting sonication-induced unfolding proteins (SUP) is presented in this study. The methodology bases on: (a) simulation of SUP by the excessive deviations of protein domains in regime of damped forced vibrations caused by critical level of involved acoustic energy, which is associated with temperature rise and acoustic pressure; (b) simulation of stochasticity of SUP by failures in jobs service in the queueing system with Markovian fluxes. The assessments of probability of SUP accounting the complex of parameters of pulsed ultrasound, biophysical properties of tissue and macromolecular crowding of insonated zone of tissue are considered. PMID:22266660

  9. Myc-Driven Overgrowth Requires Unfolded Protein Response-Mediated Induction of Autophagy and Antioxidant Responses in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Péter; Varga, Ágnes; Pircs, Karolina; Hegedűs, Krisztina; Juhász, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal self-degradation and recycling pathway, plays dual roles in tumorigenesis. Autophagy deficiency predisposes to cancer, at least in part, through accumulation of the selective autophagy cargo p62, leading to activation of antioxidant responses and tumor formation. While cell growth and autophagy are inversely regulated in most cells, elevated levels of autophagy are observed in many established tumors, presumably mediating survival of cancer cells. Still, the relationship of autophagy and oncogenic signaling is poorly characterized. Here we show that the evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Myc (dm), a proto-oncogene involved in cell growth and proliferation, is also a physiological regulator of autophagy in Drosophila melanogaster. Loss of Myc activity in null mutants or in somatic clones of cells inhibits autophagy. Forced expression of Myc results in cell-autonomous increases in cell growth, autophagy induction, and p62 (Ref2P)-mediated activation of Nrf2 (cnc), a transcription factor promoting antioxidant responses. Mechanistically, Myc overexpression increases unfolded protein response (UPR), which leads to PERK-dependent autophagy induction and may be responsible for p62 accumulation. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of UPR, autophagy or p62/Nrf2 signaling prevents Myc-induced overgrowth, while these pathways are dispensable for proper growth of control cells. In addition, we show that the autophagy and antioxidant pathways are required in parallel for excess cell growth driven by Myc. Deregulated expression of Myc drives tumor progression in most human cancers, and UPR and autophagy have been implicated in the survival of Myc-dependent cancer cells. Our data obtained in a complete animal show that UPR, autophagy and p62/Nrf2 signaling are required for Myc-dependent cell growth. These novel results give additional support for finding future approaches to specifically inhibit the growth of cancer cells addicted to oncogenic Myc. PMID:23950728

  10. Proteasome inhibition potentiates antitumor effects of photodynamic therapy in mice through induction of ER stress and unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Szokalska, Angelika; Makowski, Marcin; Nowis, Dominika; Wilczyński, Grzegorz M.; Kujawa, Marek; Wójcik, Cezary; Młynarczuk-Biały, Izabela; Salwa, Pawel; Bil, Jacek; Janowska, Sylwia; Agostinis, Patrizia; Verfaillie, Tom; Bugajski, Marek; Gietka, Jan; Issat, Tadeusz; Głodkowska, Eliza; Mrówka, Piotr; Stoklosa, Tomasz; Hamblin, Michael R; Mróz, Paweł; Jakóbisiak, Marek; Golab, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an approved therapeutic procedure that exerts cytotoxic activity towards tumor cells by inducing production of reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen. PDT leads to oxidative damage of cellular macromolecules, including numerous proteins that undergo multiple modifications such as fragmentation, cross-linking and carbonylation that result in protein unfolding and aggregation. Since the major mechanism for elimination of carbonylated proteins is their degradation by proteasomes, we hypothesized that a combination of PDT with proteasome inhibitors might lead to accumulation of carbonylated proteins in endoplasmatic reticulum (ER), aggravated ER stress and potentiated cytotoxicity towards tumor cells. Indeed, we observed that Photofrin-mediated PDT leads to robust carbonylation of cellular proteins and induction of unfolded protein response (UPR). Pre-treatment of tumor cells with three different proteasome inhibitors, including bortezomib, MG132 and PSI gave increased accumulation of carbonylated and ubiquitinated proteins in PDT-treated cells. Proteasome inhibitors effectively sensitized tumor cells of murine (EMT6 and C-26) as well as human (HeLa) origin to PDT-mediated cytotoxicity. Significant retardation of tumor growth with 60-100% complete responses was observed in vivo in two different murine tumor models (EMT6 and C-26) when PDT was combined with either bortezomib or PSI. Altogether these observations indicate that combination of PDT with proteasome inhibitors leads to potentiated antitumor effects. The results of these studies are of immediate clinical application as bortezomib is a clinically approved drug that undergoes extensive clinical evaluations for the treatment of solid tumors. PMID:19435917

  11. The Unfolded Protein Response Plays a Predominant Homeostatic Role in Response to Mitochondrial Stress in Pancreatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hsin-Yuan; Waldron, Richard T.; Gong, Raymond; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan; Pandol, Stephen J.; Lugea, Aurelia

    2016-01-01

    Activated pancreatic stellate cells (PaSC) are key participants in the stroma of pancreatic cancer, secreting extracellular matrix proteins and inflammatory mediators. Tumors are poorly vascularized, creating metabolic stress conditions in cancer and stromal cells that necessitate adaptive homeostatic cellular programs. Activation of autophagy and the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response (UPR) have been described in hepatic stellate cells, but the role of these processes in PaSC responses to metabolic stress is unknown. We reported that the PI3K/mTOR pathway, which AMPK can regulate through multiple inputs, modulates PaSC activation and fibrogenic potential. Here, using primary and immortalized mouse PaSC, we assess the relative contributions of AMPK/mTOR signaling, autophagy and the UPR to cell fate responses during metabolic stress induced by mitochondrial dysfunction. The mitochondrial uncoupler rottlerin at low doses (0.5–2.5 μM) was added to cells cultured in 10% FBS complete media. Mitochondria rapidly depolarized, followed by altered mitochondrial dynamics and decreased cellular ATP levels. This mitochondrial dysfunction elicited rapid, sustained AMPK activation, mTOR pathway inhibition, and blockade of autophagic flux. Rottlerin treatment also induced rapid, sustained PERK/CHOP UPR signaling. Subsequently, high doses (>5 μM) induced loss of cell viability and cell death. Interestingly, AMPK knock-down using siRNA did not prevent rottlerin-induced mTOR inhibition, autophagy, or CHOP upregulation, suggesting that AMPK is dispensable for these responses. Moreover, CHOP genetic deletion, but not AMPK knock-down, prevented rottlerin-induced apoptosis and supported cell survival, suggesting that UPR signaling is a major modulator of cell fate in PaSC during metabolic stress. Further, short-term rottlerin treatment reduced both PaSC fibrogenic potential and IL-6 mRNA expression. In contrast, expression levels of the angiogenic factors HGF and VEGFα were unaffected, and the immune modulator IL-4 was markedly upregulated. These data imply that metabolic stress-induced PaSC reprogramming differentially modulates neighboring cells in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26849807

  12. Chemical Genomics Identifies the PERK-Mediated Unfolded Protein Stress Response as a Cellular Target for Influenza Virus Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Landeras-Bueno, Sara; Fernández, Yolanda; Falcón, Ana; Oliveros, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A viruses generate annual epidemics and occasional pandemics of respiratory disease with important consequences for human health and the economy. Therefore, a large effort has been devoted to the development of new anti-influenza virus drugs directed to viral targets, as well as to the identification of cellular targets amenable to anti-influenza virus therapy. Here we have addressed the identification of such potential cellular targets by screening collections of drugs approved for human use. We reasoned that screening with a green fluorescent protein-based recombinant replicon system would identify cellular targets involved in virus transcription/replication and/or gene expression and hence address an early stage of virus infection. By using such a strategy, we identified Montelukast (MK) as an inhibitor of virus multiplication. MK inhibited virus gene expression but did not alter viral RNA synthesis in vitro or viral RNA accumulation in vivo. The low selectivity index of MK prevented its use as an antiviral, but it was sufficient to identify a new cellular pathway suitable for anti-influenza virus intervention. By deep sequencing of RNA isolated from mock- and virus-infected human cells, treated with MK or left untreated, we showed that it stimulates the PERK-mediated unfolded protein stress response. The phosphorylation of PERK was partly inhibited in virus-infected cells but stimulated in MK-treated cells. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition of PERK phosphorylation led to increased viral gene expression, while inhibition of PERK phosphatase reduced viral protein synthesis. These results suggest the PERK-mediated unfolded protein response as a potential cellular target to modulate influenza virus infection. PMID:27094326

  13. SCFCdc4-mediated degradation of the Hac1p transcription factor regulates the unfolded protein response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Pal, Bhupinder; Chan, Nickie C; Helfenbaum, Leon; Tan, Kaeling; Tansey, William P; Gething, Mary-Jane

    2007-02-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae basic leucine zipper transcription factor Hac1p is synthesized in response to the accumulation of unfolded polypeptides in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and it is responsible for up-regulation of approximately 5% of all yeast genes, including ER-resident chaperones and protein-folding catalysts. Hac1p is one of the most short-lived yeast proteins, having a half-life of approximately 1.5 min. Here, we have shown that Hac1p harbors a functional PEST degron and that degradation of Hac1p by the proteasome involves the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc3/Cdc34p and the SCF(Cdc4) E3 complex. Consistent with the known nuclear localization of Cdc4p, rapid degradation of Hac1p requires the presence of a functional nuclear localization sequence, which we demonstrated to involve basic residues in the sequence (29)RKRAKTK(35). Two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that the PEST-dependent interaction of Hac1p with Cdc4p requires Ser146 and Ser149. Turnover of Hac1p may be dependent on transcription because it is inhibited in cell mutants lacking Srb10 kinase, a component of the SRB/mediator module of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Stabilization of Hac1p by point mutation or deletion, or as the consequence of defects in components of the degradation pathway, results in increased unfolded protein response element-dependent transcription and improved cell viability under ER stress conditions. PMID:17108329

  14. Virulence Factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Induce Both the Unfolded Protein and Integrated Stress Responses in Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    van ‘t Wout, Emily F. A.; van Schadewijk, Annemarie; van Boxtel, Ria; Dalton, Lucy E.; Clarke, Hanna J.; Tommassen, Jan; Marciniak, Stefan J.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection can be disastrous in chronic lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Its toxic effects are largely mediated by secreted virulence factors including pyocyanin, elastase and alkaline protease (AprA). Efficient functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is crucial for cell survival and appropriate immune responses, while an excess of unfolded proteins within the ER leads to “ER stress” and activation of the “unfolded protein response” (UPR). Bacterial infection and Toll-like receptor activation trigger the UPR most likely due to the increased demand for protein folding of inflammatory mediators. In this study, we show that cell-free conditioned medium of the PAO1 strain of P. aeruginosa, containing secreted virulence factors, induces ER stress in primary bronchial epithelial cells as evidenced by splicing of XBP1 mRNA and induction of CHOP, GRP78 and GADD34 expression. Most aspects of the ER stress response were dependent on TAK1 and p38 MAPK, except for the induction of GADD34 mRNA. Using various mutant strains and purified virulence factors, we identified pyocyanin and AprA as inducers of ER stress. However, the induction of GADD34 was mediated by an ER stress-independent integrated stress response (ISR) which was at least partly dependent on the iron-sensing eIF2α kinase HRI. Our data strongly suggest that this increased GADD34 expression served to protect against Pseudomonas-induced, iron-sensitive cell cytotoxicity. In summary, virulence factors from P. aeruginosa induce ER stress in airway epithelial cells and also trigger the ISR to improve cell survival of the host. PMID:26083346

  15. Blimp-1 controls plasma cell function through the regulation of immunoglobulin secretion and the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Tellier, Julie; Shi, Wei; Minnich, Martina; Liao, Yang; Crawford, Simon; Smyth, Gordon K; Kallies, Axel; Busslinger, Meinrad; Nutt, Stephen L

    2016-03-01

    Plasma cell differentiation requires silencing of B cell transcription, while it establishes antibody-secretory function and long-term survival. The transcription factors Blimp-1 and IRF4 are essential for the generation of plasma cells; however, their function in mature plasma cells has remained elusive. We found that while IRF4 was essential for the survival of plasma cells, Blimp-1 was dispensable for this. Blimp-1-deficient plasma cells retained their transcriptional identity but lost the ability to secrete antibody. Blimp-1 regulated many components of the unfolded protein response (UPR), including XBP-1 and ATF6. The overlap in the functions of Blimp-1 and XBP-1 was restricted to that response, with Blimp-1 uniquely regulating activity of the kinase mTOR and the size of plasma cells. Thus, Blimp-1 was required for the unique physiological ability of plasma cells that enables the secretion of protective antibody. PMID:26779600

  16. Crosstalk between the Unfolded Protein Response and NF-κB-Mediated Inflammation in the Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Gaile L.; Dickhout, Jeffrey G.

    2015-01-01

    The chronic inflammatory response is emerging as an important therapeutic target in progressive chronic kidney disease. A key transcription factor in the induction of chronic inflammation is NF-κB. Recent studies have demonstrated that sustained activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) can initiate this NF-κB signaling phenomenon and thereby induce chronic kidney disease progression. A key factor influencing chronic kidney disease progression is proteinuria and this condition has now been demonstrated to induce sustained UPR activation. This review details the crosstalk between the UPR and NF-κB pathways as pertinent to chronic kidney disease. We present potential tools to study this phenomenon as well as potential therapeutics that are emerging to regulate the UPR. These therapeutics may prevent inflammation specifically induced in the kidney due to proteinuria-induced sustained UPR activation. PMID:25977931

  17. Uterine endoplasmic reticulum stress-unfolded protein response regulation of gestational length is caspase-3 and -7-dependent.

    PubMed

    Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara; Organ, Kenna; Moreci, Rebecca S; Anamthathmakula, Prashanth; Hassan, Sonia S; Caritis, Steve N; Jeyasuria, Pancharatnam; Condon, Jennifer C

    2015-11-10

    We previously identified myometrial caspase-3 (CASP3) as a potential regulator of uterine quiescence. We also determined that during pregnancy, the functional activation of uterine CASP3 is likely governed by an integrated endoplasmic reticulum stress response (ERSR) and is consequently limited by an increased unfolded protein response (UPR). The present study examined the functional relevance of uterine UPR-ERSR in maintaining myometrial quiescence and regulating the timing of parturition. In vitro analysis of the human uterine myocyte hTERT-HM cell line revealed that tunicamycin (TM)-induced ERSR modified uterine myocyte contractile responsiveness. Accordingly, alteration of in vivo uterine UPR-ERSR using a pregnant mouse model significantly modified gestational length. We determined that "normal" gestational activation of the ERSR-induced CASP3 and caspase 7 (CASP7) maintains uterine quiescence through previously unidentified proteolytic targeting of the gap junction protein, alpha 1(GJA1); however, surprisingly, TM-induced uterine ERSR triggered an exaggerated UPR that eliminated uterine CASP3 and 7 tocolytic action precociously. These events allowed for a premature increase in myometrial GJA1 levels, elevated contractile responsiveness, and the onset of preterm labor. Importantly, a successful reversal of the magnified ERSR-induced preterm birth phenotype could be achieved by pretreatment with 4-phenylbutrate, a chaperone protein mimic. PMID:26504199

  18. Mitochondrial Sulfide Quinone Oxidoreductase Prevents Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response in Hydrogen Sulfide.

    PubMed

    Horsman, Joseph W; Miller, Dana L

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced gaseous molecule with important roles in cellular signaling. In mammals, exogenous H2S improves survival of ischemia/reperfusion. We have previously shown that exposure to H2S increases the lifespan and thermotolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans, and improves protein homeostasis in low oxygen. The mitochondrial SQRD-1 (sulfide quinone oxidoreductase) protein is a highly conserved enzyme involved in H2S metabolism. SQRD-1 is generally considered important to detoxify H2S. Here, we show that SQRD-1 is also required to maintain protein translation in H2S. In sqrd-1 mutant animals, exposure to H2S leads to phosphorylation of eIF2α and inhibition of protein synthesis. In contrast, global protein translation is not altered in wild-type animals exposed to lethally high H2S or in hif-1(ia04) mutants that die when exposed to low H2S. We demonstrate that both gcn-2 and pek-1 kinases are involved in the H2S-induced phosphorylation of eIF2α. Both ER and mitochondrial stress responses are activated in sqrd-1 mutant animals exposed to H2S, but not in wild-type animals. We speculate that SQRD-1 activity in H2S may coordinate proteostasis responses in multiple cellular compartments. PMID:26677221

  19. Computational model for protein unfolding simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xu-Hong; Zheng, Ye-Han; Jiao, Xiong; Liu, Cai-Xing; Chang, Shan

    2011-06-01

    The protein folding problem is one of the fundamental and important questions in molecular biology. However, the all-atom molecular dynamics studies of protein folding and unfolding are still computationally expensive and severely limited by the time scale of simulation. In this paper, a simple and fast protein unfolding method is proposed based on the conformational stability analyses and structure modeling. In this method, two structure-based conditions are considered to identify the unstable regions of proteins during the unfolding processes. The protein unfolding trajectories are mimicked through iterative structure modeling according to conformational stability analyses. Two proteins, chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 (CI2) and α -spectrin SH3 domain (SH3) were simulated by this method. Their unfolding pathways are consistent with the previous molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, the transition states of the two proteins were identified in unfolding processes and the theoretical Φ values of these transition states showed significant correlations with the experimental data (the correlation coefficients are >0.8). The results indicate that this method is effective in studying protein unfolding. Moreover, we analyzed and discussed the influence of parameters on the unfolding simulation. This simple coarse-grained model may provide a general and fast approach for the mechanism studies of protein folding.

  20. Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter induces macrophage infiltration, unfolded protein response, and lipid deposition in white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Roberto; Zheng, Ze; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Zhang, Kezhong

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have suggested a link between exposure to ambient air-pollution and susceptibility to metabolic disorders such as Type II diabetes mellitus. Previously, we provided evidence that both short- and long-term exposure to concentrated ambient particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) induces multiple abnormalities associated with the pathogenesis of Type II diabetes mellitus, including insulin resistance, visceral adipose inflammation, brown adipose mitochondrial adipose changes, and hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In this report, we show that chronic inhalation exposure to PM2.5 (10 months exposure) induces macrophage infiltration and Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), an intracellular stress signaling that regulates cell metabolism and survival, in mouse white adipose tissue in vivo. Gene expression studies suggested that PM2.5 exposure induces two distinct UPR signaling pathways mediated through the UPR transducer inositol-requiring 1α (IRE1α): 1) ER-associated Degradation (ERAD) of unfolded or misfolded proteins, and 2) Regulated IRE1-dependent Decay (RIDD) of mRNAs. Along with the induction of the UPR pathways and macrophage infiltration, expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, adipocyte differentiation, and lipid droplet formation was increased in the adipose tissue of the mice exposed to PM2.5. In vitro study confirmed that PM2.5 can trigger phosphorylation of the UPR transducer IRE1α and activation of macrophages. These results provide novel insights into PM2.5-triggered cell stress response in adipose tissue and increase our understanding of pathophysiological effects of particulate air pollution on the development of metabolic disorders. PMID:23573366

  1. Limitation of individual folding resources in the ER leads to outcomes distinct from the unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Eletto, Davide; Maganty, Avinash; Eletto, Daniela; Dersh, Devin; Makarewich, Catherine; Biswas, Chhanda; Paton, James C.; Paton, Adrienne W.; Doroudgar, Shirin; Glembotski, Christopher C.; Argon, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Summary ER stress leads to upregulation of multiple folding and quality control components, known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Glucose Regulated Protein 78 (GRP78) (also known as binding immunoglobulin protein, BiP, and HSPA5) and GRP94 are often upregulated coordinately as part of this homeostatic response. Given that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones have distinct sets of clients, we asked how cells respond to ablation of individual chaperones. The cellular responses to silencing BiP, GRP94, HSP47, PDIA6 and OS-9, were distinct. When BiP was silenced, a widespread UPR was observed, but when GRP94 was either inhibited or depleted by RNA interference (RNAi), the expression of only some genes was induced, notably those encoding BiP and protein disulfide isomerase A6 (PDIA6). Silencing of HSP47 or OS-9 did not lead to any compensatory induction of other genes. The selective response to GRP94 depletion was distinct from a typical ER stress response, both because other UPR target genes were not affected and because the canonical UPR signaling branches were not activated. The response to silencing of GRP94 did not preclude further UPR induction when chemical stress was imposed. Importantly, re-expression of wild-type GRP94 in the silenced cells prevented the upregulation of BiP and PDIA6, whereas re-expression of an ATPase-deficient GRP94 mutant did not, indicating that cells monitor the activity state of GRP94. These findings suggest that cells are able to distinguish among folding resources and generate distinct responses. PMID:22854046

  2. A mathematical model of the unfolded protein stress response reveals the decision mechanism for recovery, adaptation and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a major signalling cascade acting in the quality control of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The cascade is known to play an accessory role in a range of genetic and environmental disorders including neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and kidney diseases. The three major receptors of the ER stress involved with the UPR, i.e. IRE1 α, PERK and ATF6, signal through a complex web of pathways to convey an appropriate response. The emerging behaviour ranges from adaptive to maladaptive depending on the severity of unfolded protein accumulation in the ER; however, the decision mechanism for the switch and its timing have so far been poorly understood. Results Here, we propose a mechanism by which the UPR outcome switches between survival and death. We compose a mathematical model integrating the three signalling branches, and perform a comprehensive bifurcation analysis to investigate possible responses to stimuli. The analysis reveals three distinct states of behaviour, low, high and intermediate activity, associated with stress adaptation, tolerance, and the initiation of apoptosis. The decision to adapt or destruct can, therefore, be understood as a dynamic process where the balance between the stress and the folding capacity of the ER plays a pivotal role in managing the delivery of the most appropriate response. The model demonstrates for the first time that the UPR is capable of generating oscillations in translation attenuation and the apoptotic signals, and this is supplemented with a Bayesian sensitivity analysis identifying a set of parameters controlling this behaviour. Conclusions This work contributes largely to the understanding of one of the most ubiquitous signalling pathways involved in protein folding quality control in the metazoan ER. The insights gained have direct consequences on the management of many UPR-related diseases, revealing, in addition, an extended list of candidate disease modifiers. Demonstration of stress adaptation sheds light to how preconditioning might be beneficial in manifesting the UPR outcome to prevent untimely apoptosis, and paves the way to novel approaches for the treatment of many UPR-related conditions. PMID:23433609

  3. Inhibition of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response by acetylcholine alleviated hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Man; Bi, Xueyuan; He, Xi; Yu, Xiaojiang; Zhao, Ming; Zang, Weijin

    2016-05-18

    The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) is involved in numerous diseases that have the common feature of mitochondrial dysfunction. However, its pathophysiological relevance in the context of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in endothelial cells remains elusive. Previous studies have demonstrated that acetylcholine (ACh) protects against cardiomyocyte injury by suppressing generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS). This study aimed to explore the role of UPR(mt) in endothelial cells during H/R and to clarify the beneficial effects of ACh. Our results demonstrated that H/R triggered UPR(mt) in endothelial cells, as evidenced by the elevation of heat shock protein 60 and LON protease 1 protein levels, and resulted in release of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic proteins, including cytochrome C, Omi/high temperature requirement protein A 2 and second mitochondrial activator of caspases/direct inhibitor of apoptosis-binding protein with low PI, from the mitochondria to cytosol. ACh administration markedly decreased UPR(mt) by inhibiting mtROS and alleviating the mitonuclear protein imbalance. Consequently, ACh alleviated the release of pro-apoptotic proteins and restored mitochondrial ultrastructure and function, thereby reducing the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells. Intriguingly, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide, a type-3 muscarinic ACh receptor (M3AChR) inhibitor, abolished the ACh-elicited attenuation of UPR(mt) and TUNEL positive cells, indicating that the salutary effects of ACh were likely mediated by M3AChR in endothelial cells. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that UPR(mt) might be essential for triggering the mitochondrion-associated apoptotic pathway during H/R. ACh markedly suppressed UPR(mt) by inhibiting mtROS and alleviating the mitonuclear protein imbalance, presumably through M3AChR. PMID:27111378

  4. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Branch-specific Regulation of the Unfolded Protein Response by Nonsense-mediated mRNA Decay.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Jana; Hauer, Christian; Bhuvanagiri, Madhuri; Leicht, Stefan; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Neu-Yilik, Gabriele; Hentze, Matthias W; Kulozik, Andreas E

    2016-05-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) has originally been described as a surveillance mechanism to inhibit the expression of mRNAs with truncated open reading frames (ORFs) and to contribute to the fidelity of gene expression. It is now recognized that NMD also controls the expression of physiological genes with "intact" mRNA. Stress can decrease NMD efficiency and thus increase the mRNA levels of physiological NMD targets. As stress can also inhibit translation, the net outcome for shaping the proteome is difficult to predict. We have thus analyzed de novo protein synthesis in response to NMD inhibition or the induction of mild endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by treatment of cells with the reducing agent dithiotreitol (DTT). For this purpose, we combined pulsed azidohomoalanine (AHA) and stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Labeled proteins were purified by click chemistry-based covalent coupling to agarose beads, trypsinized, fractionated, and analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). We find that mild ER stress up-regulates the de novo synthesis of components of all three branches of the unfolded protein response (PERK, IRE1 and ATF6) without increasing eIF2α phosphorylation or impairing of protein translation. In contrast, inhibition of NMD induces de novo protein synthesis of downstream targets of the PERK and IRE1 pathways, whereas we could not detect regulation of ATF6-responsive genes. These data thus support a model that implicates a positive feedback loop of ER stress inhibiting NMD efficiency which further promotes the ER stress response in a branch-specific manner. PMID:26896796

  5. Identification of an old antibiotic clofoctol as a novel activator of unfolded protein response pathways and an inhibitor of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minghua; Shim, Joong Sup; Li, Ruo-Jing; Dang, Yongjun; He, Qingli; Das, Manisha; Liu, Jun O

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Finding new indications for existing drugs, also known as drug repositioning or repurposing, is a powerful approach to accelerate drug discovery and development. The unfolded protein response pathways have been proposed to be a viable target for developing new anticancer drugs. Experimental Approach We screened the Johns Hopkins Drug Library for inhibitors of prostate cancer cell proliferation to identify new antiprostate cancer treatments among known drugs. We systematically investigated the mechanism underlying the anticancer activity of a hit and assessed its efficacy in blocking prostate tumour growth in a mouse model. Key Results The antibacterial drug clofoctol was identified as a novel inhibitor of prostate cancer cell proliferation. Morphologically, cells treated with clofoctol were found to undergo massive vacuolization, reminiscent of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Indeed, all three unfolded protein response pathways including inositol requiring enzyme 1, double-stranded RNA-activated PK-like ER kinase and activating transcription factor 6 were found to be activated by clofoctol. Activation of unfolded protein response pathways by clofoctol led to the inhibition of protein translation in cells and the induction of G1 cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer cells. Clofoctol also inhibited prostate cancer xenograft growth in vivo without apparent toxicity. Conclusion and Implications Our findings revealed clofoctol as a novel activator of the unfolded protein response pathways and a promising inhibitor of prostate cancer. As clofoctol has been used in the clinic for years, it is ready for clinical evaluation as a novel antiprostate cancer drug candidate. PMID:24903412

  6. Activated AMPK boosts the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling axis—A role for the unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Kristin; Baldinger, Johannes; Mayerhofer, Barbara; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Dirsch, Verena M.; Heiss, Elke H.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the emerging interplay between redox and metabolic signaling pathways we investigated the potential cross talk between nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), central regulators of the cellular redox and energy balance, respectively. Making use of xanthohumol (XN) as an activator of both the AMPK and the Nrf2 signaling pathway we show that AMPK exerts a positive influence on Nrf2/heme oxygenase (HO)-1 signaling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of AMPK blunts Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression by XN already at the mRNA level. XN leads to AMPK activation via interference with mitochondrial function and activation of liver kinase B1 as upstream AMPK kinase. The subsequent AMPK-mediated enhancement of the Nrf2/HO-1 response does not depend on inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin, inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, or altered abundance of Nrf2 (total and nuclear). However, reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress was identified and elaborated as a step in the AMPK-augmented Nrf2/HO-1 response. Overall, we shed more light on the hitherto incompletely understood cross talk between the LKB1/AMPK and the Nrf2/HO-1 axis revealing for the first time involvement of the unfolded protein response as an additional player and suggesting tight cooperation between signaling pathways controlling cellular redox, energy, or protein homeostasis. PMID:25843659

  7. The critical roles of endoplasmic reticulum chaperones and unfolded protein response in tumorigenesis and anti-cancer therapies

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Biquan; Lee, Amy S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer progression is characterized by rapidly proliferating cancer cells that are in need of increased protein synthesis. Therefore, enhanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activity is required to facilitate the folding, assembly and transportation of membrane and secretory proteins. These functions are carried out by ER chaperones. It is now becoming clear that the ER chaperones have critical functions outside of simply facilitating protein folding. For example, cancer progression requires GRP78 for cancer cell survival and proliferation, as well as angiogenesis in the microenvironment. GRP78 can translocate to the cell surface acting as a receptor regulating oncogenic signaling and cell viability. Calreticulin, another ER chaperone, can translocate to the cell surface of apoptotic cancer cells and induce immunogenic cancer cell death and antitumor responses in vivo. Tumor-secreted GRP94 has been shown to elicit antitumor immune responses when used as antitumor vaccines. Protein disulfide isomerase is another ER chaperone that demonstrates pro-oncogenic and pro-survival functions. Due to intrinsic alterations of cellular metabolism and extrinsic factors in the tumor microenvironment, cancer cells are under ER stress, and they respond to this stress by activating the unfolded protein response (UPR). Depending on the severity and duration of ER stress, the signaling branches of the UPR can activate adaptive and pro-survival signals, or induce apoptotic cell death. The PERK signaling branch of the UPR has a dual role in cancer proliferation and survival, and is also required for ER stress-induced autophagy. The activation of the IRE1? branch promotes tumorigenesis, cancer cell survival, and regulates tumor invasion. In summary, perturbance of ER homeostasis plays critical roles in tumorigenesis, and therapeutic modulation of ER chaperones and/or UPR components presents potential antitumor treatments. PMID:22508478

  8. Targeting the unfolded protein response, XBP1, and the NLRP3 inflammasome in fibrosis and cancer.

    PubMed

    Overley-Adamson, Beth; Artlett, Carol M; Stephens, Connie; Sassi-Gaha, Sihem; Weis, Ransome D; Thacker, James D

    2014-04-01

    Increasing health care costs in the US are due in a large part to the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases in an aging population. Current therapeutic strategies for treating chronic diseases alleviate symptoms allowing patients to live longer with these diseases, but they do little, however, to alter the underlying disease course. Recent advances in molecular biology are revealing new drug targets that may significantly alter the course of these diseases and, as a result, offer economic relief from burgeoning health care costs. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated as an underlying pathology in many chronic diseases, and, therefore, the development of therapies designed to ameliorate ER stress may yield novel, effective treatment strategies. Herein, we report that X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) may be one of the earliest proteins engaged in response to ER stress. We show that a new signaling peptide derived from the ER-embedded transient receptor potential calcium channel protein 1 (TRPC1) engages XBP1 upstream of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated maturation and secretion of IL-1?/IL-18. Moreover, we show that a synthetic homolog of this signaling peptide (Naclynamide) administered intravenously twice weekly over a 4-week treatment course induced suppuration and evoked partial or complete resolution of lesions associated with a fibrotic granuloma, a lymphosarcoma, and a colo-rectal carcinoma in canine patients. The mode of action for Naclynamide as a first-in-class anti-cancer drug candidate is discussed. PMID:24496016

  9. Unfolded Protein Response-regulated Drosophila Fic (dFic) Protein Reversibly AMPylates BiP Chaperone during Endoplasmic Reticulum Homeostasis*

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Hyeilin; Woolery, Andrew R.; Tracy, Charles; Stenesen, Drew; Krämer, Helmut; Orth, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila Fic (dFic) mediates AMPylation, a covalent attachment of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) from ATP to hydroxyl side chains of protein substrates. Here, we identified the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone BiP as a substrate for dFic and mapped the modification site to Thr-366 within the ATPase domain. The level of AMPylated BiP in Drosophila S2 cells is high during homeostasis, whereas the level of AMPylated BiP decreases upon the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER. Both dFic and BiP are transcriptionally activated upon ER stress, supporting the role of dFic in the unfolded protein response pathway. The inactive conformation of BiP is the preferred substrate for dFic, thus endorsing a model whereby AMPylation regulates the function of BiP as a chaperone, allowing acute activation of BiP by deAMPylation during an ER stress response. These findings not only present the first substrate of eukaryotic AMPylator but also provide a target for regulating the unfolded protein response, an emerging avenue for cancer therapy. PMID:25395623

  10. p53 antagonizes the unfolded protein response and inhibits ground glass hepatocyte development during endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Dioufa, Nikolina; Chatzistamou, Ioulia; Farmaki, Elena; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Kiaris, Hippokratis

    2012-10-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is triggered during stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and facilitates tissue homeostasis. Considering the role of p53 tumor suppressor gene in the interpretation of stress-inducing stimuli, in this study, we explored whether p53 modulates UPR. We found that p53 ablation resulted in a profound sensitivity to tunicamycin that was associated with liver dysfunction, ground glass hepatocyte (GGH) development and nuclear atypia/dysplasia. Binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP)/glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) chaperone was readily detected in the cytoplasm of GGHs, confirming ER expansion. Tunicamycin administration induced BiP/GRP78 and GRP94 expression more potently in the p53-deficient mice than in controls and elevated phosphatidylcholine, the major lipid of ER, by a p53-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, alternative splicing of XBP1, the transcription factor that executes the UPR, was more efficient in cells which do not express p53. The cytoprotective effects of p53 were confirmed by cell viability studies, indicating that p53 deficiency conferred sensitivity against tunicamycin. Our findings show that p53 protects from the hepatotoxic effects of chronic ER stress. Stimulation of p53 activity when intense UPR is undesirable may possess therapeutic implications. PMID:23038705

  11. Induction of unfolded protein response during neuronal induction of rat bone marrow stromal cells and mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoon Mi; Jang, Yoon-Seong; Jang, Young-Min; Chung, Sang-Mi; Kim, Ho-Shik; Lee, Jeong-Hwa; Jeong, Seong-Whan; Kim, In-Kyung; Kim, Jung Jin; Kim, Kwang-Soo

    2009-01-01

    When we treated rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) with neuronal differentiation induction media, typical unfolded protein response (UPR) was observed. BIP/GRP78 protein expression was time-dependently increased, and three branches of UPR were all activated. ATF6 increased the transcription of XBP1 which was successfully spliced by IRE1. PERK was phosphorylated and it was followed by eIF2α phosphorylation. Transcription of two downstream targets of eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP/GADD153, were transiently up-regulated with the peak level at 24 h. Immunocytochemical study showed clear coexpression of BIP and ATF4 with NeuN and Map2, respectively. UPR was also observed during the neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. Finally, chemical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducers, thapsigargin, tunicamycin, and brefeldin A, dose-dependently increased both mRNA and protein expressions of NF-L, and, its expression was specific to BIP-positive rBMSCs. Our results showing the induction of UPR during neuronal differentiations of rBMSCs and mES cells as well as NF-L expression by ER stress inducers strongly suggest the potential role of UPR in neuronal differentiation. PMID:19322020

  12. Vitiligo-inducing phenols activate the unfolded protein response in melanocytes resulting in upregulation of IL6 and IL8.

    PubMed

    Toosi, Siavash; Orlow, Seth J; Manga, Prashiela

    2012-11-01

    Vitiligo is characterized by depigmented skin patches caused by loss of epidermal melanocytes. Oxidative stress may have a role in vitiligo onset, while autoimmunity contributes to disease progression. In this study, we sought to identify mechanisms that link disease triggers and spreading of lesions. A hallmark of melanocytes at the periphery of vitiligo lesions is dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We hypothesized that oxidative stress results in redox disruptions that extend to the ER, causing accumulation of misfolded peptides, which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). We used 4-tertiary butyl phenol and monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone, known triggers of vitiligo. We show that expression of key UPR components, including the transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1), is increased following exposure of melanocytes to phenols. XBP1 activation increases production of immune mediators IL6 and IL8. Co-treatment with XBP1 inhibitors reduced IL6 and IL8 production induced by phenols, while overexpression of XBP1 alone increased their expression. Thus, melanocytes themselves produce cytokines associated with activation of an immune response following exposure to chemical triggers of vitiligo. These results expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying melanocyte loss in vitiligo and pathways linking environmental stressors and autoimmunity. PMID:22696056

  13. Vitiligo-inducing phenols activate the unfolded protein response in melanocytes resulting in upregulation of IL6 and IL8.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Toosi S; Orlow SJ; Manga P

    2012-11-01

    Vitiligo is characterized by depigmented skin patches caused by loss of epidermal melanocytes. Oxidative stress may have a role in vitiligo onset, while autoimmunity contributes to disease progression. In this study, we sought to identify mechanisms that link disease triggers and spreading of lesions. A hallmark of melanocytes at the periphery of vitiligo lesions is dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We hypothesized that oxidative stress results in redox disruptions that extend to the ER, causing accumulation of misfolded peptides, which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). We used 4-tertiary butyl phenol and monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone, known triggers of vitiligo. We show that expression of key UPR components, including the transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1), is increased following exposure of melanocytes to phenols. XBP1 activation increases production of immune mediators IL6 and IL8. Co-treatment with XBP1 inhibitors reduced IL6 and IL8 production induced by phenols, while overexpression of XBP1 alone increased their expression. Thus, melanocytes themselves produce cytokines associated with activation of an immune response following exposure to chemical triggers of vitiligo. These results expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying melanocyte loss in vitiligo and pathways linking environmental stressors and autoimmunity.

  14. Vitiligo inducing phenols activate the unfolded protein response in melanocytes resulting in upregulation of IL6 and IL8

    PubMed Central

    Toosi, Siavash; Orlow, Seth J.; Manga, Prashiela

    2012-01-01

    Vitiligo is characterized by depigmented skin patches due to loss of epidermal melanocytes. Oxidative stress may play a role in vitiligo onset, while autoimmunity contributes to disease progression. In this study we sought to identify mechanisms that link disease triggers and spreading of lesions. A hallmark of melanocytes at the periphery of vitiligo lesions is dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We hypothesized that oxidative stress results in redox disruptions that extend to the ER, causing accumulation of misfolded peptides, which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). We used 4-tertiary butyl phenol (4-TBP) and monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone (MBEH), known triggers of vitiligo. We show that expression of key UPR components, including the transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), are increased following exposure of melanocytes to phenols. XBP1 activation increases production of immune mediators interleukin-6 (IL6) and IL8. Co-treatment with XBP1 inhibitors reduced IL6 and IL8 production induced by phenols, while over-expression of XBP1 alone increased their expression. Thus, melanocytes themselves produce cytokines associated with activation of an immune response following exposure to chemical triggers of vitiligo. These results expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying melanocyte loss in vitiligo and pathways linking environmental stressors and autoimmunity. PMID:22696056

  15. The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Ekaterina A.; Orekhov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is a complex process involving several metabolic and signalling pathways. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that endoplasmic reticulum stress and associated apoptosis can be induced in the pathological conditions of atherosclerotic lesions and contribute to the disease progression. Notably, they may play a role in the development of vulnerable plaques that induce thrombosis and are therefore especially dangerous. Endoplasmic reticulum stress response is regulated by several signaling mechanisms that involve protein kinases and transcription factors. Some of these molecules can be regarded as potential therapeutic targets to improve treatment of atherosclerosis. In this review we will discuss the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in atherosclerosis development in different cell types and summarize the current knowledge on potential therapeutic agents targeting molecules regulating these pathways and their possible use for anti-atherosclerotic therapy. PMID:26840309

  16. The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Ekaterina A; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is a complex process involving several metabolic and signalling pathways. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that endoplasmic reticulum stress and associated apoptosis can be induced in the pathological conditions of atherosclerotic lesions and contribute to the disease progression. Notably, they may play a role in the development of vulnerable plaques that induce thrombosis and are therefore especially dangerous. Endoplasmic reticulum stress response is regulated by several signaling mechanisms that involve protein kinases and transcription factors. Some of these molecules can be regarded as potential therapeutic targets to improve treatment of atherosclerosis. In this review we will discuss the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in atherosclerosis development in different cell types and summarize the current knowledge on potential therapeutic agents targeting molecules regulating these pathways and their possible use for anti-atherosclerotic therapy. PMID:26840309

  17. The unfolded protein response to endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured astrocytes and rat brain during experimental diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Katrine R.; Ball, Kelly K.; Cruz, Nancy F.; Dienel, Gerald A.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative-nitrosative stress and inflammatory responses are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in diabetic retinopathy, raising the possibility that disturbances in ER protein processing may contribute to CNS dysfunction in diabetics. Upregulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is a homeostatic response to accumulation of abnormal proteins in the ER, and the present study tested the hypothesis that the UPR is upregulated in two models for diabetes, cultured astrocytes grown in 25 mmol/L glucose for up to 4 weeks and brain of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats with diabetes for 1–7 months. Markers associated with translational blockade (phospho-eIF2α) and apoptosis (CHOP), inflammatory response (inducible nitric oxide synthase, iNOS), and nitrosative stress (nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GAPDH) were not detected in either model. Nrf2 was present in nuclei of low- and high-glucose cultures, consistent with oxidative stress. Astrocytic ATF4 expression was not altered by culture glucose concentration, whereas phospho-IRE and ATF6 levels were higher in low-compared with high-glucose cultures. The glucose-regulated chaperones, GRP78 and GRP94, were also expressed at higher levels in low-than high-glucose cultures, probably due to recurrent glucose depletion between feeding cycles. In STZ-rat cerebral cortex, ATF4 level was transiently reduced at 4 months, and p-IRE levels were transiently elevated at 3 months. However, GRP78 and GRP94 expression was not upregulated, and iNOS, amyloid-β, and nuclear accumulation of GAPDH were not evident in STZ-diabetic brain. High-glucose cultured astrocytes and STZ-diabetic brain are relatively resistant to diabetes-induced ER stress, in sharp contrast with cultured retinal Müller cells and diabetic rodent retina. PMID:23411409

  18. Protection of injured retinal ganglion cell dendrites and unfolded protein response resolution after long-term dietary resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, James D; Duong-Polk, Karen X; Hammond, Dustin; Leung, Christopher Kai-Shun; Weinreb, Robert N

    2015-05-01

    Long-term dietary supplementation with resveratrol protects against cardiovascular disease, osteoporesis, and metabolic decline. This study determined how long-term dietary resveratrol treatment protects against retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dendrite loss after optic nerve injury and alters the resolution of the unfolded protein response. Associated changes in markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress in RGCs also were investigated. Young-adult Thy1-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and C57BL/6 mice received either control diet or diet containing resveratrol for approximately 1 year. Both groups then received optic nerve crush (ONC). Fluorescent RGC dendrites in the Thy1-YFP mice were imaged weekly for 4 weeks after ONC. There was progressive loss of dendrite length in all RGC types within the mice that received control diet. Resveratrol delayed loss of dendrite complexity and complete dendrite loss for most RGC types. However, there were variations in the rate of retraction among different RGC types. Three weeks after ONC, cytoplasmic binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) suppression observed in control diet ganglion cell layer neurons was reversed in mice that received resveratrol, nuclear C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) was near baseline in control diet eyes but was moderately increased by resveratrol; and increased nuclear X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1) observed in control diet eyes was reduced in eyes that received resveratrol to the same level as in control diet uncrushed eyes. These results indicate that protection of dendrites by resveratrol after ONC differs among RGC types and suggest that alterations in long-term expression of binding immunoglobulin protein, CHOP, and XBP-1 may contribute to the resveratrol-mediated protection of RGC dendrites after ONC. PMID:25772060

  19. Energy landscape in protein folding and unfolding.

    PubMed

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Vasi, Sebastiano; Vasi, Cirino; Baglioni, Piero; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Stanley, H Eugene

    2016-03-22

    We use(1)H NMR to probe the energy landscape in the protein folding and unfolding process. Using the scheme[Formula: see text]reversible unfolded (intermediate)[Formula: see text]irreversible unfolded (denatured) state, we study the thermal denaturation of hydrated lysozyme that occurs when the temperature is increased. Using thermal cycles in the range[Formula: see text]K and following different trajectories along the protein energy surface, we observe that the hydrophilic (the amide NH) and hydrophobic (methyl CH3and methine CH) peptide groups evolve and exhibit different behaviors. We also discuss the role of water and hydrogen bonding in the protein configurational stability. PMID:26957601

  20. Loss of Oca2 disrupts the unfolded protein response and increases resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress in melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tsing; Orlow, Seth J; Manga, Prashiela

    2013-11-01

    Accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) typically induces stress and initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to facilitate recovery. If homeostasis is not restored, apoptosis is induced. However, adaptation to chronic UPR activation can increase resistance to subsequent acute ER stress. We therefore investigated adaptive mechanisms in Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (Oca2)-null melanocytes where UPR signaling is arrested despite continued tyrosinase accumulation leading to resistance to the chemical ER stressor thapsigargin. Although thapsigargin triggers UPR activation, instead of Perk-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α, in Oca2-null melanocytes, eIF2α was rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment. Dephosphorylation was mediated by the Gadd34-PP1α phosphatase complex. Gadd34-complex inhibition blocked eIF2α dephosphorylation and significantly increased Oca2-null melanocyte sensitivity to thapsigargin. Thus, Oca2-null melanocytes adapt to acute ER stress by disruption of pro-apoptotic Perk signaling, which promotes cell survival. This is the first study to demonstrate rapid eIF2α dephosphorylation as an adaptive mechanism to ER stress. PMID:23962237

  1. The ATF6 branch of unfolded protein response and apoptosis are activated to promote African swine fever virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, I; Hernáez, B; Muñoz-Moreno, R; Cuesta-Geijo, M A; Dalmau-Mena, I; Alonso, C

    2012-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection induces apoptosis in the infected cell; however, the consequences of this activation on virus replication have not been defined. In order to identify the role of apoptosis in ASFV infection, we analyzed caspase induction during the infection and the impact of caspase inhibition on viral production. Caspases 3, 9 and 12 were activated from 16 h post-infection, but not caspase 8. Indeed, caspase 3 activation during the early stages of the infection appeared to be crucial for efficient virus exit. In addition, the inhibition of membrane blebbing reduced the release of virus particles from the cell. ASFV uses the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as a site of replication and this process can trigger ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) of the host cell. In addition to caspase 12 activation, indicators of ER stress include the upregulation of the chaperones calnexin and calreticulin upon virus infection. Moreover, ASFV induces transcription factor 6 signaling pathway of the UPR, but not the protein kinase-like ER kinase or the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 pathways. Thus, the capacity of ASFV to regulate the UPR may prevent early apoptosis and ensure viral replication. PMID:22764100

  2. Loss of Oca2 disrupts the unfolded protein response and increases resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress in melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tsing; Orlow, Seth J.; Manga, Prashiela

    2013-01-01

    Summary Accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) typically induces stress and initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to facilitate recovery. If homeostasis is not restored, apoptosis is induced. However, adaptation to chronic UPR activation can increase resistance to subsequent acute ER stress. We therefore investigated adaptive mechanisms in Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (Oca2)-null melanocytes where UPR signaling is arrested despite continued tyrosinase accumulation leading to resistance to the chemical ER stressor thapsigargin. Although thapsigargin triggers UPR activation, instead of Perk-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α, in Oca2-null melanocytes, eIF2α was rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment. Dephosphorylation was mediated by the Gadd34-PP1α phosphatase complex. Gadd34-complex inhibition blocked eIF2α dephosphorylation and significantly increased Oca2-null melanocyte sensitivity to thapsigargin. Thus, Oca2-null melanocytes adapt to acute ER stress by disruption of proapoptotic Perk signaling, which promotes cell survival. This is the first study to demonstrate rapid eIF2α dephosphorylation as an adaptive mechanism to ER stress. PMID:23962237

  3. Alpha-fetoprotein is a biomarker of unfolded protein response and altered proteostasis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells exposed to sorafenib.

    PubMed

    Houessinon, Aline; Gicquel, Albane; Bochereau, Flora; Louandre, Christophe; Nyga, Rémy; Godin, Corinne; Degonville, James; Fournier, Emma; Saidak, Zuzana; Drullion, Claire; Barbare, Jean-Claude; Chauffert, Bruno; François, Catherine; Pluquet, Olivier; Galmiche, Antoine

    2016-01-28

    Sorafenib is the treatment of reference for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A decrease in the serum levels of Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is reported to be the biological parameter that is best associated with disease control by sorafenib. In order to provide a biological rationale for the variations of AFP, we analyzed the various steps of AFP production in human HCC cell lines exposed to sorafenib. Sorafenib dramatically reduced the levels of AFP produced by HCC cells independently of its effect on cell viability. The mRNA levels of AFP decreased upon sorafenib treatment, while the AFP protein remained localized in the Golgi apparatus. Sorafenib activated the Regulated Inositol-Requiring Enzyme-1α (IRE-1α) and the PKR-like ER Kinase (PERK)-dependent arms of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). The inhibition of IRE-1α partially restored the mRNA levels of AFP upon treatment with sorafenib. The inhibition of both pathways partially prevented the drop in the production of AFP induced by sorafenib. The findings provide new insights on the regulation of AFP, and identify it as a biomarker suitable for the exploration of HCC cell proteostasis in the context of therapeutic targeting. PMID:26546044

  4. RTCB-1 Mediates Neuroprotection via XBP-1 mRNA Splicing in the Unfolded Protein Response Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Arpita; Zhang, Siyuan; Rentas, Courtney; Caldwell, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons and age-dependent formation of protein inclusions that contain the ?-synuclein (?-syn) protein. RNA interference (RNAi) screening using Caenorhabditis elegans identified RTCB-1, an uncharacterized gene product, as one of several significant modifiers of ?-syn protein misfolding. RTCB-1 is the worm ortholog of the human HSPC117 protein, a component of RNA trafficking granules in mammalian neurons. Here we show that RTCB-1 protects C. elegans DA neurons from age-dependent degeneration induced by human ?-syn. Moreover, neuronal-specific RNAi depletion of rtcb-1 enhanced ?-syn-induced degeneration. Similar results were obtained when worms were exposed to the DA neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine. HSPC117 has been characterized recently as an essential subunit of the human tRNA splicing ligase complex. tRNA ligases have alternative functions in RNA repair and nonconventional mRNA splicing events. For example, in yeast, unconventional splicing of HAC1, a transcription factor that controls the unfolded protein response (UPR), is mediated by a tRNA ligase. In C. elegans, we demonstrate that RTCB-1 is necessary for xbp-1 (worm homolog of HAC1) mRNA splicing. Moreover, using a RNA ligase-dead mutant, we determine that the ligase activity of worm RTCB-1 is required for its neuroprotective role, which, in turn, is mediated through XBP-1 in the UPR pathway. Collectively, these studies highlight the mechanistic intersection of RNA processing and proteostasis in mediating neuroprotection. PMID:25429148

  5. RTCB-1 mediates neuroprotection via XBP-1 mRNA splicing in the unfolded protein response pathway.

    PubMed

    Ray, Arpita; Zhang, Siyuan; Rentas, Courtney; Caldwell, Kim A; Caldwell, Guy A

    2014-11-26

    Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons and age-dependent formation of protein inclusions that contain the ?-synuclein (?-syn) protein. RNA interference (RNAi) screening using Caenorhabditis elegans identified RTCB-1, an uncharacterized gene product, as one of several significant modifiers of ?-syn protein misfolding. RTCB-1 is the worm ortholog of the human HSPC117 protein, a component of RNA trafficking granules in mammalian neurons. Here we show that RTCB-1 protects C. elegans DA neurons from age-dependent degeneration induced by human ?-syn. Moreover, neuronal-specific RNAi depletion of rtcb-1 enhanced ?-syn-induced degeneration. Similar results were obtained when worms were exposed to the DA neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine. HSPC117 has been characterized recently as an essential subunit of the human tRNA splicing ligase complex. tRNA ligases have alternative functions in RNA repair and nonconventional mRNA splicing events. For example, in yeast, unconventional splicing of HAC1, a transcription factor that controls the unfolded protein response (UPR), is mediated by a tRNA ligase. In C. elegans, we demonstrate that RTCB-1 is necessary for xbp-1 (worm homolog of HAC1) mRNA splicing. Moreover, using a RNA ligase-dead mutant, we determine that the ligase activity of worm RTCB-1 is required for its neuroprotective role, which, in turn, is mediated through XBP-1 in the UPR pathway. Collectively, these studies highlight the mechanistic intersection of RNA processing and proteostasis in mediating neuroprotection. PMID:25429148

  6. Cavities determine the pressure unfolding of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Julien; Caro, Jose A.; Norberto, Douglas R.; Barthe, Philippe; Roumestand, Christian; Schlessman, Jamie L.; Garcia, Angel E.; García-Moreno E., Bertrand; Royer, Catherine A.

    2012-01-01

    It has been known for nearly 100 years that pressure unfolds proteins, yet the physical basis of this effect is not understood. Unfolding by pressure implies that the molar volume of the unfolded state of a protein is smaller than that of the folded state. This decrease in volume has been proposed to arise from differences between the density of bulk water and water associated with the protein, from pressure-dependent changes in the structure of bulk water, from the loss of internal cavities in the folded states of proteins, or from some combination of these three factors. Here, using 10 cavity-containing variants of staphylococcal nuclease, we demonstrate that pressure unfolds proteins primarily as a result of cavities that are present in the folded state and absent in the unfolded one. High-pressure NMR spectroscopy and simulations constrained by the NMR data were used to describe structural and energetic details of the folding landscape of staphylococcal nuclease that are usually inaccessible with existing experimental approaches using harsher denaturants. Besides solving a 100-year-old conundrum concerning the detailed structural origins of pressure unfolding of proteins, these studies illustrate the promise of pressure perturbation as a unique tool for examining the roles of packing, conformational fluctuations, and water penetration as determinants of solution properties of proteins, and for detecting folding intermediates and other structural details of protein-folding landscapes that are invisible to standard experimental approaches. PMID:22496593

  7. KAT2B Is Required for Pancreatic Beta Cell Adaptation to Metabolic Stress by Controlling the Unfolded Protein Response.

    PubMed

    Rabhi, Nabil; Denechaud, Pierre-Damien; Gromada, Xavier; Hannou, Sarah Anissa; Zhang, Hongbo; Rashid, Talha; Salas, Elisabet; Durand, Emmanuelle; Sand, Olivier; Bonnefond, Amélie; Yengo, Loic; Chavey, Carine; Bonner, Caroline; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Abderrahmani, Amar; Auwerx, Johan; Fajas, Lluis; Froguel, Philippe; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-05-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR(er)) pathway plays an important role in helping pancreatic β cells to adapt their cellular responses to environmental cues and metabolic stress. Although altered UPR(er) gene expression appears in rodent and human type 2 diabetic (T2D) islets, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We show here that germline and β cell-specific disruption of the lysine acetyltransferase 2B (Kat2b) gene in mice leads to impaired insulin secretion and glucose intolerance. Genome-wide analysis of Kat2b-regulated genes and functional assays reveal a critical role for Kat2b in maintaining UPR(er) gene expression and subsequent β cell function. Importantly, Kat2b expression is decreased in mouse and human diabetic β cells and correlates with UPR(er) gene expression in normal human islets. In conclusion, Kat2b is a crucial transcriptional regulator for adaptive β cell function during metabolic stress by controlling UPR(er) and represents a promising target for T2D prevention and treatment. PMID:27117420

  8. Induction of the unfolded protein response in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and association of protein-disulfide isomerase with superoxide dismutase 1.

    PubMed

    Atkin, Julie D; Farg, Manal A; Turner, Bradley J; Tomas, Doris; Lysaght, Judith A; Nunan, Janelle; Rembach, Alan; Nagley, Phillip; Beart, Philip M; Cheema, Surindar S; Horne, Malcolm K

    2006-10-01

    Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are linked to motor neuron death in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by an unclear mechanism, although misfolded SOD1 aggregates are commonly associated with disease. Proteomic analysis of the transgenic SOD1(G93A) ALS rat model revealed significant up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) family members in lumbar spinal cords. Expression of SOD1 mutants (mSOD1) led to an up-regulation of PDI in motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells but not other cell lines. Inhibition of PDI using bacitracin increased aggregate production, even in wild type SOD1 transfectants that do not readily form inclusions, suggesting PDI may protect SOD1 from aggregation. Moreover, PDI co-localized with intracellular aggregates of mSOD1 and bound to both wild type and mSOD1. SOD1 was also found in the microsomal fraction of cells despite being a predominantly cytosolic enzyme, confirming ER-Golgi-dependent secretion. In SOD1(G93A) mice, a significant up-regulation of unfolded protein response entities was also observed during disease, including caspase-12, -9, and -3 cleavage. Our findings therefore implicate unfolded protein response and ER stress-induced apoptosis in the patho-physiology of familial ALS. The possibility that PDI may be a therapeutic target to prevent SOD1 aggregation is also raised by this study. PMID:16847061

  9. Autophagosome Formation during Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection following Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and the Unfolded Protein Response ▿ † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, John E.; Jackson, Wallen; Benetti, Luca; Grose, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a recently recognized component of the life cycle of varicella-zoster virus (VZV). We have documented abundant autophagosome formation in skin vesicles (final site of virion assembly) from randomly selected cases of varicella and zoster. The fact that autophagy was an early event in the VZV replication cycle was documented by finding infected vesicle cells with the VZV IE62 protein confined to the nucleus. Next, we pursued studies in VZV-infected cultured cells to define whether autophagy was preceded by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). First, we demonstrated that autophagosome formation in infected cells closely resembled that seen after treatment of cells with tunicamycin, a potent initiator of ER stress. Second, we demonstrated a marked expansion of ER size in both VZV-infected cells and cells transfected with the predominant VZV glycoprotein complex gE/gI. An enlarged ER is critical evidence of ER stress, which in turn is relieved by the UPR. To this end, we documented the UPR by detecting the alternatively spliced form of the XBP1 protein as well as CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein), both transcriptional activators of other UPR genes in an ER stress-dependent manner. Because VZV does not encode inhibitors of autophagy, the above results suggested that autophagy was a common event in VZV-infected cells and that it was provoked at least in part by ER stress secondary to overly abundant VZV glycoprotein biosynthesis, which led to UPR activation in an attempt to maintain cellular homeostasis. PMID:21752906

  10. Ouabain Targets the Unfolded Protein Response for Selective Killing of HepG2 Cells During Glucose Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, Tulay; Nar, Rukiye; Kilinc, Veli; Salis, Osman; Duzgun, Aynur; Gulten, Sedat; Bedir, Abdulkerim

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ouabain is a cardiotonic steroid and specific inhibitor of the Na+/K+-ATPase. The relationship between ouabain treatment and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cells is not precisely understood. Therefore, we studied the possible effects of ouabain on proliferation, apoptosis, and the UPR. HepG2 cells were cultured overnight and then treated with various concentrations of ouabain (0.75 to 750 nM) in the absence or presence of 10 mM 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) for 48 hours. We also used real-time polymerase chain reaction to obtain quantitative measurements of expression levels of Grp78, Grp94, CHOP, MTJ-1, HKII, MDR-1, MRP-1, HO-1, and Par-4. Cell number, viability, and proliferation of HepG2 cells were monitored with a real-time cell analyzer system (xCELLigence). We show that ouabain modulates the UPR transcription program and induces cell death in glucose-deprived tumor cells. Ouabain at all concentrations showed no cytotoxicity whereas all concentrations were very effective under 2-DG stress conditions. Our findings show that disruption of the UPR during glucose deprivation could be an attractive approach for selective cancer cell killing and could provide a chemical basis for developing UPR-targeting drugs against solid tumors. Ouabain use as an adjunct to conventional cancer therapy also warrants vigorous investigation. PMID:22757644

  11. Carbon ions induce autophagy effectively through stimulating the unfolded protein response and subsequent inhibiting Akt phosphorylation in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaodong; Li, Feifei; Zheng, Xiaogang; Liu, Yan; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Liu, Xiongxiong; Li, Ping; Zhao, Ting; Dai, Zhongying; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Heavy ion beams have advantages over conventional radiation in radiotherapy due to their superb biological effectiveness and dose conformity. However, little information is currently available concerning the cellular and molecular basis for heavy ion radiation-induced autophagy. In this study, human glioblastoma SHG44 and cervical cancer HeLa cells were irradiated with carbon ions of different linear energy transfers (LETs) and X-rays. Our results revealed increased LC3-II and decreased p62 levels in SHG44 and HeLa cells post-irradiation, indicating marked induction of autophagy. The autophagic level of tumor cells after irradiation increased in a LET-dependent manner and was inversely correlated with the sensitivity to radiations of various qualities. Furthermore, we demonstrated that high-LET carbon ions stimulated the unfolded protein response (UPR) and mediated autophagy via the UPR-eIF2α-CHOP-Akt signaling axis. High-LET carbon ions more severely inhibited Akt-mTOR through UPR to effectively induce autophagy. Thus, the present data could serve as an important radiobiological basis to further understand the molecular mechanisms by which high-LET radiation induces cell death. PMID:26338671

  12. Carbon ions induce autophagy effectively through stimulating the unfolded protein response and subsequent inhibiting Akt phosphorylation in tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiaodong; Li, Feifei; Zheng, Xiaogang; Liu, Yan; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Liu, Xiongxiong; Li, Ping; Zhao, Ting; Dai, Zhongying; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Heavy ion beams have advantages over conventional radiation in radiotherapy due to their superb biological effectiveness and dose conformity. However, little information is currently available concerning the cellular and molecular basis for heavy ion radiation-induced autophagy. In this study, human glioblastoma SHG44 and cervical cancer HeLa cells were irradiated with carbon ions of different linear energy transfers (LETs) and X-rays. Our results revealed increased LC3-II and decreased p62 levels in SHG44 and HeLa cells post-irradiation, indicating marked induction of autophagy. The autophagic level of tumor cells after irradiation increased in a LET-dependent manner and was inversely correlated with the sensitivity to radiations of various qualities. Furthermore, we demonstrated that high-LET carbon ions stimulated the unfolded protein response (UPR) and mediated autophagy via the UPR-eIF2α-CHOP-Akt signaling axis. High-LET carbon ions more severely inhibited Akt-mTOR through UPR to effectively induce autophagy. Thus, the present data could serve as an important radiobiological basis to further understand the molecular mechanisms by which high-LET radiation induces cell death. PMID:26338671

  13. Ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress are required for unfolded protein response activation and steatosis in zebrafish with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsedensodnom, Orkhontuya; Vacaru, Ana M.; Howarth, Deanna L.; Yin, Chunyue; Sadler, Kirsten C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Secretory pathway dysfunction and lipid accumulation (steatosis) are the two most common responses of hepatocytes to ethanol exposure and are major factors in the pathophysiology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). However, the mechanisms by which ethanol elicits these cellular responses are not fully understood. Recent data indicates that activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in response to secretory pathway dysfunction can cause steatosis. Here, we examined the relationship between alcohol metabolism, oxidative stress, secretory pathway stress and steatosis using zebrafish larvae. We found that ethanol was immediately internalized and metabolized by larvae, such that the internal ethanol concentration in 4-day-old larvae equilibrated to 160 mM after 1 hour of exposure to 350 mM ethanol, with an average ethanol metabolism rate of 56 μmol/larva/hour over 32 hours. Blocking alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (Cyp2e1), the major enzymes that metabolize ethanol, prevented alcohol-induced steatosis and reduced induction of the UPR in the liver. Thus, we conclude that ethanol metabolism causes ALD in zebrafish. Oxidative stress generated by Cyp2e1-mediated ethanol metabolism is proposed to be a major culprit in ALD pathology. We found that production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased in larvae exposed to ethanol, whereas inhibition of the zebrafish CYP2E1 homolog or administration of antioxidants reduced ROS levels. Importantly, these treatments also blocked ethanol-induced steatosis and reduced UPR activation, whereas hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) acted as a pro-oxidant that synergized with low doses of ethanol to induce the UPR. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress are conserved mechanisms required for the development of steatosis and hepatic dysfunction in ALD, and that these processes contribute to ethanol-induced UPR activation and secretory pathway stress in hepatocytes. PMID:23798569

  14. Activation of unfolded protein response protects osteosarcoma cells from cisplatin-induced apoptosis through NF-κB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Mingming; Ni, Jiangdong; Song, Deye; Ding, Muliang; Huang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to uncover that unfolded protein response (UPR) contributed to the development of cisplatin resistance in osteosarcoma. MG-63 cells and SaOS-2 cells were exposed to cisplatin at presence or absence of 4-phenylbutyrayte (4-pba) and then analyzed by MTT assay and flow cytometry to determine the cell survival rates and apoptosis. Levels of glucose regulated protein 78KD (GRP78), C/EBP homologus protein (CHOP), cytoplasmic and nuclear NF-κB were detected by Western blot. Further, MG-63 cells and SaOS-2 cells were subjected to cisplatin with or without Bay 11-7082, a well-known inhibitor of NF-κB. After that, MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to determine the cell survival rates and apoptosis. Cisplatin and 4-PBA co-treatment significantly enhanced the cell apoptosis. Administration of cisplatin substantially increased the levels of GRP78 and CHOP. Moreover, mechanistic investigation uncovered that cisplatin promoted the levels of nuclear NF-κB whereas 4-PBA administration suppressed the cisplatin-induced accumulation of nuclear NF-κB level in osteosarcoma cells. Cisplatin combined with Bay 11-7082 obviously augmented MG-63 cells and SaOS-2 cells apoptosis when compared to that in osteosarcoma cells treated by cisplatin alone. Taken together, our data show that UPR protects osteosarcoma from cisplatin-mediated apoptosis through activation of NF-κB pathway. Therefore, targeting UPR may be a potential strategy to improve the osteosarcoma therapy. PMID:26617729

  15. Disseminated Tumor Cells Persist in the Bone Marrow of Breast Cancer Patients through Sustained Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response.

    PubMed

    Bartkowiak, Kai; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Buck, Friedrich; Gorges, Tobias M; Nilse, Lars; Assmann, Volker; Andreas, Antje; Mller, Volkmar; Wikman, Harriet; Riethdorf, Sabine; Schlter, Hartmut; Pantel, Klaus

    2015-12-15

    Disseminated tumor cells (DTC), which share mesenchymal and epithelial properties, are considered to be metastasis-initiating cells in breast cancer. However, the mechanisms supporting DTC survival are poorly understood. DTC extravasation into the bone marrow may be encouraged by low oxygen concentrations that trigger metabolic and molecular alterations contributing to DTC survival. Here, we investigated how the unfolded protein response (UPR), an important cytoprotective program induced by hypoxia, affects the behavior of stressed cancer cells. DTC cell lines established from the bone marrow of patients with breast cancer (BC-M1), lung cancer, (LC-M1), and prostate cancer (PC-E1) were subjected to hypoxic and hypoglycemic conditions. BC-M1 and LC-M1 exhibiting mesenchymal and epithelial properties adapted readily to hypoxia and glucose starvation. Upregulation of UPR proteins, such as the glucose-regulated protein Grp78, induced the formation of filamentous networks, resulting in proliferative advantages and sustained survival under total glucose deprivation. High Grp78 expression correlated with mesenchymal attributes of breast and lung cancer cells and with poor differentiation in clinical samples of primary breast and lung carcinomas. In DTCs isolated from bone marrow specimens from breast cancer patients, Grp78-positive stress granules were observed, consistent with the likelihood these cells were exposed to acute cell stress. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that the UPR is activated in DTC in the bone marrow from cancer patients, warranting further study of this cell stress pathway as a predictive biomarker for recurrent metastatic disease. Cancer Res; 75(24); 5367-77. 2015 AACR. PMID:26573792

  16. Multistep protein unfolding during nanopore translocation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Larrea, David; Bayley, Hagan

    2016-01-01

    Cells are divided into compartments and separated from the environment by lipid bilayer membranes. Essential molecules are transported back and forth across the membranes. We have investigated how folded proteins use narrow transmembrane pores to move between compartments. During this process, the proteins must unfold. To examine co-translocational unfolding of individual molecules, we tagged protein substrates with oligonucleotides to enable potential-driven unidirectional movement through a model protein nanopore, a process that differs fundamentally from extension during force spectroscopy measurements. Our findings support a four-step translocation mechanism for model thioredoxin substrates. First, the DNA tag is captured by the pore. Second, the oligonucleotide is pulled through the pore, causing local unfolding of the C terminus of the thioredoxin adjacent to the pore entrance. Third, the remainder of the protein unfolds spontaneously. Finally, the unfolded polypeptide diffuses through the pore into the recipient compartment. The unfolding pathway elucidated here differs from those revealed by denaturation experiments in solution, for which two-state mechanisms have been proposed. PMID:23474543

  17. Unfolded protein response-induced dysregulation of calcium homeostasis promotes retinal degeneration in rat models of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, V; Kotla, P; Strang, C; Gorbatyuk, M

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) in rats is closely associated with a persistently activated unfolded protein response (UPR). If unchecked, the UPR might trigger apoptosis, leading to photoreceptor death. One of the UPR-activated cellular signaling culminating in apoptotic photoreceptor cell death is linked to an increase in intracellular Ca2+. Therefore, we validated whether ADRP retinas experience a cytosolic Ca2+ overload, and whether sustained UPR in the wild-type retina could promote retinal degeneration through Ca2+-mediated calpain activation. We performed an ex vivo experiment to measure intracellular Ca2+ in ADRP retinas as well as to detect the expression levels of proteins that act as Ca2+ sensors. In separate experiments with the subretinal injection of tunicamycin (UPR inducer) and a mixture of calcium ionophore (A231278) and thapsigargin (SERCA2b inhibitor) we assessed the consequences of a sustained UPR activation and increased intracellular Ca2+ in the wild-type retina, respectively, by performing scotopic ERG, histological, and western blot analyses. Results of the study revealed that induced UPR in the retina activates calpain-mediated signaling, and increased intracellular Ca2+ is capable of promoting retinal degeneration. A significant decline in ERG amplitudes at 6 weeks post treatment was associated with photoreceptor cell loss that occurred through calpain-activated CDK5-pJNK-Csp3/7 pathway. Similar calpain activation was found in ADRP rat retinas. A twofold increase in intracellular Ca2+ and up- and downregulations of ER membrane-associated Ca2+-regulated IP3R channels and SERCA2b transporters were detected. Therefore, sustained UPR activation in the ADRP rat retinas could promote retinal degeneration through increased intracellular Ca2+ and calpain-mediated apoptosis. PMID:26844699

  18. Unfolded protein response-induced dysregulation of calcium homeostasis promotes retinal degeneration in rat models of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, V; Kotla, P; Strang, C; Gorbatyuk, M

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) in rats is closely associated with a persistently activated unfolded protein response (UPR). If unchecked, the UPR might trigger apoptosis, leading to photoreceptor death. One of the UPR-activated cellular signaling culminating in apoptotic photoreceptor cell death is linked to an increase in intracellular Ca2+. Therefore, we validated whether ADRP retinas experience a cytosolic Ca2+ overload, and whether sustained UPR in the wild-type retina could promote retinal degeneration through Ca2+-mediated calpain activation. We performed an ex vivo experiment to measure intracellular Ca2+ in ADRP retinas as well as to detect the expression levels of proteins that act as Ca2+ sensors. In separate experiments with the subretinal injection of tunicamycin (UPR inducer) and a mixture of calcium ionophore (A231278) and thapsigargin (SERCA2b inhibitor) we assessed the consequences of a sustained UPR activation and increased intracellular Ca2+ in the wild-type retina, respectively, by performing scotopic ERG, histological, and western blot analyses. Results of the study revealed that induced UPR in the retina activates calpain-mediated signaling, and increased intracellular Ca2+ is capable of promoting retinal degeneration. A significant decline in ERG amplitudes at 6 weeks post treatment was associated with photoreceptor cell loss that occurred through calpain-activated CDK5-pJNK-Csp3/7 pathway. Similar calpain activation was found in ADRP rat retinas. A twofold increase in intracellular Ca2+ and up- and downregulations of ER membrane-associated Ca2+-regulated IP3R channels and SERCA2b transporters were detected. Therefore, sustained UPR activation in the ADRP rat retinas could promote retinal degeneration through increased intracellular Ca2+ and calpain-mediated apoptosis.

  19. HCV induces transforming growth factor β1 through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Chusri, Pattranuch; Kumthip, Kattareeya; Hong, Jian; Zhu, Chuanlong; Duan, Xiaoqiong; Jilg, Nikolaus; Fusco, Dahlene N.; Brisac, Cynthia; Schaefer, Esperance A.; Cai, Dachuan; Peng, Lee F.; Maneekarn, Niwat; Lin, Wenyu; Chung, Raymond T.

    2016-01-01

    HCV replication disrupts normal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function and activates a signaling network called the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR is directed by three ER transmembrane proteins including ATF6, IRE1, and PERK. HCV increases TGF-β1 and oxidative stress, which play important roles in liver fibrogenesis. HCV has been shown to induce TGF-β1 through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p38 MAPK, JNK, ERK1/2, and NFκB-dependent pathways. However, the relationship between HCV-induced ER stress and UPR activation with TGF-β1 production has not been fully characterized. In this study, we found that ROS and JNK inhibitors block HCV up-regulation of ER stress and UPR activation. ROS, JNK and IRE1 inhibitors blocked HCV-activated NFκB and TGF-β1 expression. ROS, ER stress, NFκB, and TGF-β1 signaling were blocked by JNK specific siRNA. Knockdown IRE1 inhibited JFH1-activated NFκB and TGF-β1 activity. Knockdown of JNK and IRE1 blunted JFH1 HCV up-regulation of NFκB and TGF-β1 activation. We conclude that HCV activates NFκB and TGF-β1 through ROS production and induction of JNK and the IRE1 pathway. HCV infection induces ER stress and the UPR in a JNK-dependent manner. ER stress and UPR activation partially contribute to HCV-induced NF-κB activation and enhancement of TGF-β1. PMID:26927933

  20. Unfolded protein response-induced dysregulation of calcium homeostasis promotes retinal degeneration in rat models of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Shinde, V; Kotla, P; Strang, C; Gorbatyuk, M

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) in rats is closely associated with a persistently activated unfolded protein response (UPR). If unchecked, the UPR might trigger apoptosis, leading to photoreceptor death. One of the UPR-activated cellular signaling culminating in apoptotic photoreceptor cell death is linked to an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). Therefore, we validated whether ADRP retinas experience a cytosolic Ca(2+) overload, and whether sustained UPR in the wild-type retina could promote retinal degeneration through Ca(2+)-mediated calpain activation. We performed an ex vivo experiment to measure intracellular Ca(2+) in ADRP retinas as well as to detect the expression levels of proteins that act as Ca(2+) sensors. In separate experiments with the subretinal injection of tunicamycin (UPR inducer) and a mixture of calcium ionophore (A231278) and thapsigargin (SERCA2b inhibitor) we assessed the consequences of a sustained UPR activation and increased intracellular Ca(2+) in the wild-type retina, respectively, by performing scotopic ERG, histological, and western blot analyses. Results of the study revealed that induced UPR in the retina activates calpain-mediated signaling, and increased intracellular Ca(2+) is capable of promoting retinal degeneration. A significant decline in ERG amplitudes at 6 weeks post treatment was associated with photoreceptor cell loss that occurred through calpain-activated CDK5-pJNK-Csp3/7 pathway. Similar calpain activation was found in ADRP rat retinas. A twofold increase in intracellular Ca(2+) and up- and downregulations of ER membrane-associated Ca(2+)-regulated IP3R channels and SERCA2b transporters were detected. Therefore, sustained UPR activation in the ADRP rat retinas could promote retinal degeneration through increased intracellular Ca(2+) and calpain-mediated apoptosis. PMID:26844699

  1. Reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis and impaired unfolded protein response in TRPC3-deficient M1 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Sumeet; Dube, Prabhatchandra R.; Tano, Jean-Yves; Birnbaumer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a prominent mechanism of macrophage apoptosis in advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Recent studies from our laboratory showed that advanced atherosclerotic plaques in Apoe−/− mice with bone marrow deficiency of the calcium-permeable channel Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 3 (TRPC3) are characterized by reduced areas of necrosis and fewer apoptotic macrophages than animals transplanted with Trpc3+/+ bone marrow. In vitro, proinflammatory M1 but not anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages derived from Trpc3−/−Apoe−/− animals exhibited reduced ER stress-induced apoptosis. However, whether this was due to a specific effect of TRPC3 deficiency on macrophage ER stress signaling remained to be determined. In the present work we used polarized macrophages derived from mice with macrophage-specific deficiency of TRPC3 to examine the expression level of ER stress markers and the activation status of some typical mediators of macrophage apoptosis. We found that the reduced susceptibility of TRPC3-deficient M1 macrophages to ER stress-induced apoptosis correlates with an impaired unfolded protein response (UPR), reduced mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis, and reduced activation of the proapoptotic molecules calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. Notably, none of these pathways was altered in TRPC3-deficient M2 macrophages. These findings show for the first time an obligatory requirement for a member of the TRPC family of cation channels in ER stress-induced apoptosis in macrophages, underscoring a rather selective role of the TRPC3 channel on mechanisms related to the UPR signaling in M1 macrophages. PMID:25031020

  2. Unfolded protein response gene GADD34 is overexpressed in rheumatoid arthritis and related to the presence of circulating anti-citrullinated protein antibodies.

    PubMed

    Clavarino, Giovanna; Adriouach, Souad; Quesada, Jean-Louis; Clay, Marine; Chevreau, Maxime; Trocmé, Candice; Grange, Laurent; Gaudin, Philippe; Gatti, Evelina; Pierre, Philippe; Cesbron, Jean-Yves; Dumestre-Pérard, Chantal

    2016-05-01

    Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 34 (GADD34) is an inducible cofactor of protein phosphatase 1, which has an important role in the unfolded protein response. GADD34 has been shown to be necessary for type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokine production in response to viral infection in murine models. We investigate the expression of GADD34 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in which proinflammatory cytokines have an important pathogenic role. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of GADD34 expression as a biomarker in RA patients. We report a case-control study on GADD34 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients (n = 75) with RA and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 25). The study was approved by the relevant local ethics committees. GADD34 gene expression level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured by quantitative PCR and analyzed with Mann-Whitney test. The relation between GADD34 gene overexpression and clinical or biological characteristics was analyzed with univariate and multivariate analysis. GADD34 gene expression was significantly higher in RA patients compared with healthy controls (p ≤ 0.001). Interestingly, GADD34 overexpression in PBMC of patients was related to the presence of circulating anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (p = 0.030). Data of this study strengthen the evidence of an unfolded protein response during the course of RA and provide an insight of the potential interest in GADD34 as a relevant marker for RA. PMID:26829377

  3. Genetic Interactions Due to Constitutive and Inducible Gene Regulation Mediated by the Unfolded Protein Response in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive signaling pathway utilized to sense and alleviate the stress of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In mammals, the UPR is mediated through three proximal sensors PERK/PEK, IRE1, and ATF6. PERK/PEK is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 to inhibit protein synthesis. Activation of IRE1 induces splicing of XBP1 mRNA to produce a potent transcription factor. ATF6 is a transmembrane transcription factor that is activated by cleavage upon ER stress. We show that in Caenorhabditis elegans, deletion of either ire-1 or xbp-1 is synthetically lethal with deletion of either atf-6 or pek-1, both producing a developmental arrest at larval stage 2. Therefore, in C. elegans, atf-6 acts synergistically with pek-1 to complement the developmental requirement for ire-1 and xbp-1. Microarray analysis identified inducible UPR (i-UPR) genes, as well as numerous constitutive UPR (c-UPR) genes that require the ER stress transducers during normal development. Although ire-1 and xbp-1 together regulate transcription of most i-UPR genes, they are each required for expression of nonoverlapping sets of c-UPR genes, suggesting that they have distinct functions. Intriguingly, C. elegans atf-6 regulates few i-UPR genes following ER stress, but is required for the expression of many c-UPR genes, indicating its importance during development and homeostasis. In contrast, pek-1 is required for induction of approximately 23% of i-UPR genes but is dispensable for the c-UPR. As pek-1 and atf-6 mainly act through sets of nonoverlapping targets that are different from ire-1 and xbp-1 targets, at least two coordinated responses are required to alleviate ER stress by distinct mechanisms. Finally, our array study identified the liver-specific transcription factor CREBh as a novel UPR gene conserved during metazoan evolution. PMID:16184190

  4. The unfolded protein response and its potential role in Huntington's disease elucidated by a systems biology approach

    PubMed Central

    Kalathur, Ravi Kiran Reddy; Giner-Lamia, Joaquin; Machado, Susana; Barata, Tania; Ayasolla, Kameshwar R S; Futschik, Matthias E.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington ´s disease (HD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease with a fatal outcome. Although the disease-causing gene (huntingtin) has been known for over 20 years, the exact mechanisms leading to neuronal cell death are still controversial. One potential mechanism contributing to the massive loss of neurons observed in the brain of HD patients could be the unfolded protein response (UPR) activated by accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). As an adaptive response to counter-balance accumulation of un- or misfolded proteins, the UPR upregulates transcription of chaperones, temporarily attenuates new translation, and activates protein degradation via the proteasome. However, persistent ER stress and an activated UPR can also cause apoptotic cell death. Although different studies have indicated a role for the UPR in HD, the evidence remains inconclusive. Here, we present extensive bioinformatic analyses that revealed UPR activation in different experimental HD models based on transcriptomic data. Accordingly, we have identified 53 genes, including RAB5A, HMGB1, CTNNB1, DNM1, TUBB, TSG101, EEF2, DYNC1H1, SLC12A5, ATG5, AKT1, CASP7 and SYVN1 that provide a potential link between UPR and HD. To further elucidate the potential role of UPR as a disease-relevant process, we examined its connection to apoptosis based on molecular interaction data, and identified a set of 40 genes including ADD1, HSP90B1, IKBKB, IKBKG, RPS3A and LMNB1, which seem to be at the crossroads between these two important cellular processes. Remarkably, we also found strong correlation of UPR gene expression with the length of the polyglutamine tract of Huntingtin, which is a critical determinant of age of disease onset in human HD patients pointing to the UPR as a promising target for therapeutic intervention. The study is complemented by a newly developed web-portal called UPR-HD (http://uprhd.sysbiolab.eu) that enables visualization and interactive analysis of UPR-associated gene expression across various HD models. PMID:26949515

  5. Bortezomib-induced unfolded protein response increases oncolytic HSV-1 replication resulting in synergistic, anti-tumor effects

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ji Young; Hurwitz, Brian S; Bolyard, Chelsea; Yu, Jun-Ge; Zhang, Jianying; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah; Rath, Kellie S; He, Shun; Bailey, Zachary; Eaves, David; Cripe, Timothy P; Parris, Deborah S.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Yu, Jianhua; Old, Matthew; Kaur, Balveen

    2014-01-01

    Background Bortezomib is an FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor, and oncolytic HSV-1 (oHSV) is a promising therapeutic approach for cancer. We tested the impact of combining bortezomib with oHSV for anti-tumor efficacy. Methods The synergistic interaction between oHSV and bortezomib was calculated using Chou-Talalay analysis. Viral replication was evaluated using plaque assay and immune fluorescence. Western-blot assays were used to evaluate induction of ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR). Inhibitors targeting Hsp90 were utilized to investigate the mechanism of cell killing. Anti-tumor efficacy in vivo was evaluated using subcutaneous and intracranial tumor xenografts of glioma and head and neck cancer. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves and two-sided log rank test. Results Combination treatment with bortezomib and oHSV, 34.5ENVE, displayed strong synergistic interaction in ovarian cancer, head & neck cancer, glioma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) cells. Bortezomib treatment induced ER stress, evident by strong induction of Grp78, CHOP, PERK and IRE1? (western blot analysis) and the UPR (induction of hsp40, 70 and 90). Bortezomib treatment of cells at both sublethal and lethal doses increased viral replication (p value <0.001), but inhibition of Hsp90 ablated this response, reducing viral replication and synergistic cell killing. The combination of bortezomib and 34.5ENVE significantly enhanced anti-tumor efficacy in multiple different tumor models in vivo. Conclusions The dramatic synergy of bortezomib and 34.5ENVE is mediated by bortezomib- induced UPR and warrants future clinical testing in patients. PMID:24815720

  6. Divergent forms of endoplasmic reticulum stress trigger a robust unfolded protein response in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Brittany A; Hooks, Katarzyna B; McKinstry, Mia; Snow, Jonathan W

    2016-03-01

    Honey bee colonies in the United States have suffered from an increased rate of die-off in recent years, stemming from a complex set of interacting stresses that remain poorly described. While we have some understanding of the physiological stress responses in the honey bee, our molecular understanding of honey bee cellular stress responses is incomplete. Thus, we sought to identify and began functional characterization of the components of the UPR in honey bees. The IRE1-dependent splicing of the mRNA for the transcription factor Xbp1, leading to translation of an isoform with more transactivation potential, represents the most conserved of the UPR pathways. Honey bees and other Apoidea possess unique features in the Xbp1 mRNA splice site, which we reasoned could have functional consequences for the IRE1 pathway. However, we find robust induction of target genes upon UPR stimulation. In addition, the IRE1 pathway activation, as assessed by splicing of Xbp1 mRNA upon UPR, is conserved. By providing foundational knowledge about the UPR in the honey bee and the relative sensitivity of this species to divergent stresses, this work stands to improve our understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings of honey bee health and disease. PMID:26699660

  7. Roles of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response Associated Genes in Seed Stratification and Bud Endodormancy during Chilling Accumulation in Prunus persica

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xi Ling; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Dong Ling; Chen, Min; Tan, Qiu Ping; Li, Ling; De Chen, Xiu; Gao, Dong Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Dormancy mechanisms in seeds and buds arrest growth until environmental conditions are optimal for development. A genotype-specific period of chilling is usually required to release dormancy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. To discover transcriptional pathways associated with dormancy release common to seed stratification and bud endodormancy, we explored the chilling-dependent expression of 11 genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response signal pathways. We propose that endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response impact on seed as well as bud germination and development by chilling-dependent mechanisms. The emerging discovery of similarities between seed stratification and bud endodormancy status indicate that these two processes are probably regulated by common endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response signalling pathways. Clarification of regulatory pathways common to both seed and bud dormancy may enhance understanding of the mechanisms underlying dormancy and breeding programs may benefit from earlier prediction of chilling requirements for uniform blooming of novel genotypes of deciduous fruit tree species. PMID:24999812

  8. Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response associated genes in seed stratification and bud endodormancy during chilling accumulation in Prunus persica.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xi Ling; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Dong Ling; Chen, Min; Tan, Qiu Ping; Li, Ling; De Chen, Xiu; Gao, Dong Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Dormancy mechanisms in seeds and buds arrest growth until environmental conditions are optimal for development. A genotype-specific period of chilling is usually required to release dormancy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. To discover transcriptional pathways associated with dormancy release common to seed stratification and bud endodormancy, we explored the chilling-dependent expression of 11 genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response signal pathways. We propose that endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response impact on seed as well as bud germination and development by chilling-dependent mechanisms. The emerging discovery of similarities between seed stratification and bud endodormancy status indicate that these two processes are probably regulated by common endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response signalling pathways. Clarification of regulatory pathways common to both seed and bud dormancy may enhance understanding of the mechanisms underlying dormancy and breeding programs may benefit from earlier prediction of chilling requirements for uniform blooming of novel genotypes of deciduous fruit tree species. PMID:24999812

  9. Approaches to imaging unfolded secretory protein stress in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Lajoie, Patrick; Fazio, Elena N.; Snapp, Erik L.

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the point of entry of proteins into the secretory pathway. Nascent peptides interact with the ER quality control machinery that ensures correct folding of the nascent proteins. Failure to properly fold proteins can lead to loss of protein function and cytotoxic aggregation of misfolded proteins that can lead to cell death. To cope with increases in the ER unfolded secretory protein burden, cells have evolved the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). The UPR is the primary signaling pathway that monitors the state of the ER folding environment. When the unfolded protein burden overwhelms the capacity of the ER quality control machinery, a state termed ER stress, sensor proteins detect accumulation of misfolded peptides and trigger the UPR transcriptional response. The UPR, which is conserved from yeast to mammals, consists of an ensemble of complex signaling pathways that aims at adapting the ER to the new misfolded protein load. To determine how different factors impact the ER folding environment, various tools and assays have been developed. In this review, we discuss recent advances in live cell imaging reporters and model systems that enable researchers to monitor changes in the unfolded secretory protein burden and activation of the UPR and its associated signaling pathways. PMID:25419521

  10. Role of the Unfolded Protein Response in Regulating the Mucin-Dependent Filamentous-Growth Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Hema; Vadaie, Nadia; Chow, Jacky; Caccamise, Lauren M.; Chavel, Colin A.; Li, Boyang; Bowitch, Alexander; Stefan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling mucins are evolutionarily conserved regulators of signal transduction pathways. The signaling mucin Msb2p regulates the Cdc42p-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that controls filamentous growth in yeast. The cleavage and release of the glycosylated inhibitory domain of Msb2p is required for MAPK activation. We show here that proteolytic processing of Msb2p was induced by underglycosylation of its extracellular domain. Cleavage of underglycosylated Msb2p required the unfolded protein response (UPR), a quality control (QC) pathway that operates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The UPR regulator Ire1p, which detects misfolded/underglycosylated proteins in the ER, controlled Msb2p cleavage by regulating transcriptional induction of Yps1p, the major protease that processes Msb2p. Accordingly, the UPR was required for differentiation to the filamentous cell type. Cleavage of Msb2p occurred in conditional trafficking mutants that trap secretory cargo in the endomembrane system. Processed Msb2p was delivered to the plasma membrane, and its turnover by the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5p and ESCRT attenuated the filamentous-growth pathway. We speculate that the QC pathways broadly regulate signaling glycoproteins and their cognate pathways by recognizing altered glycosylation patterns that can occur in response to extrinsic cues. PMID:25666509

  11. Nodulin 22, a Novel Small Heat-Shock Protein of the Endoplasmic Reticulum, Is Linked to the Unfolded Protein Response in Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Lpez, Jonathan; Martnez-Centeno, Cynthia; Padmanaban, Annamalai; Guilln, Gabriel; Olivares, Juan Elas; Stefano, Giovanni; Lledas, Fernando; Ramos, Fernando; Ghabrial, Said A.; Brandizzi, Federica; Rocha-Sosa, Mario; Daz-Camino, Claudia; Sanchez, Federico

    2014-01-01

    The importance of plant small heat shock proteins (sHsp) in multiple cellular processes has been evidenced by their unusual abundance and diversity; however, little is known about their biological role. Here, we characterized the in vitro chaperone activity and subcellular localization of nodulin 22 of Phaseolus vulgaris (PvNod22; common bean) and explored its cellular function through a virus-induced gene silencingbased reverse genetics approach. We established that PvNod22 facilitated the refolding of a model substrate in vitro, suggesting that it acts as a molecular chaperone in the cell. Through microscopy analyses of PvNod22, we determined its localization in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Furthermore, we found that silencing of PvNod22 resulted in necrotic lesions in the aerial organs of P. vulgaris plants cultivated under optimal conditions and that downregulation of PvNod22 activated the ER-unfolded protein response (UPR) and cell death. We also established that PvNod22 expression in wild-type bean plants was modulated by abiotic stress but not by chemicals that trigger the UPR, indicating PvNod22 is not under UPR control. Our results suggest that the ability of PvNod22 to suppress protein aggregation contributes to the maintenance of ER homeostasis, thus preventing the induction of cell death via UPR in response to oxidative stress during plant-microbe interactions. PMID:24073881

  12. Pleiotropic potential of dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin for NF-κB suppression via reactive oxygen species and unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Shotaro; Kato, Hironori; Gu, Liubao; Takahashi, Shuhei; Johno, Hisashi; Umezawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Masanori

    2013-06-15

    Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ) is a low-m.w. compound that strongly inhibits NF-κB. Previous reports showed that DHMEQ directly binds to specific cysteine residues of NF-κB subunits and thereby inhibits their nuclear translocation and DNA binding. In this work, we describe novel mechanisms by which DHMEQ suppresses cytokine-triggered activation of NF-κB. We found that sustained exposure of renal tubular cells to DHMEQ blocked TNF-α- and IL-1β-induced TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) phosphorylation, a crucial event for NF-κB activation upstream of IκB kinase. This inhibition was mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), because of the following: 1) DHMEQ caused generation of ROS; 2) pretreatment with ROS generator inhibited cytokine-induced TAK1 phosphorylation and NF-κB activation; and 3) scavenging of ROS attenuated the suppressive effects of DHMEQ on TAK1 and NF-κB. We also found that DHMEQ caused the unfolded protein response (UPR) through generation of ROS. Alleviation of the UPR by chemical and genetic chaperones partially attenuated the suppressive effect of DHMEQ on NF-κB. The UPR-mediated inhibition of NF-κB occurred downstream of degradation of IκBα and phosphorylation of p65. Subsequent experiments revealed the following: 1) DHMEQ caused selective induction of C/EBPβ through the UPR; 2) overexpression of C/EBPβ suppressed activation of NF-κB; 3) knockdown of C/EBPβ attenuated the inhibitory effect of DHMEQ; and 4) DHMEQ-induced expression of C/EBPβ did not affect TNF-α-triggered degradation of IκBα and phosphorylation of p65. These results suggest that, in addition to its known effect on nuclear translocation of NF-κB, DHMEQ interferes with the cytokine-induced NF-κB signaling via generation of ROS at both upstream and downstream of the IκB kinase-IκB level. PMID:23690471

  13. Protein production and induction of the unfolded protein response in Trichoderma reesei strain Rut-C30 and its transformant expressing endoglucanase I with a hydrophobic tag.

    PubMed

    Collén, Anna; Saloheimo, Markku; Bailey, Michael; Penttilä, Merja; Pakula, Tiina M

    2005-02-01

    The effect of induction of protein production was studied in bioreactor cultures of T. reesei strain Rut-C30 and its transformant expressing endoglucanase I core domain (EGI, Cel7B) fused with a hydrophobic peptide tag. The tag was previously designed for efficient purification of the fusion protein in aqueous two-phase separation. The fungi were first grown on glucose-containing minimal medium after which rich medium with lactose as a carbon source was added to induce cellulase production. Production of extracellular protein and cellulase activity and the transcript levels of the major cellulase genes were analyzed during the cultivations. Induction of the cellulase genes followed a similar temporal pattern in both strains. The first phase of induction took place after addition of lactose as soon as glucose was depleted, and the second phase after lactose was consumed. Western analysis showed that a decreased amount of fusion protein was produced in the culture medium compared with the endogenous EGI, although the strain harbors several copies of the recombinant gene under the strong cbh1 promoter. The fusion protein appeared to accumulate within the cells, indicating impaired secretion of the protein. The mRNA levels of the UPR (unfolded protein response) target genes, bip1 and pdi1, and the level of the active form of hac1 transcript encoding the UPR transcription factor increased concurrently with induction of the cellulase genes in both strains, indicating increased requirement of the folding machinery under these conditions. However, only a minor increase in bip1 and pdi1 transcript level was observed in the transformant compared with the parental strain. PMID:15619324

  14. Methods to study stromal-cell derived factor 2 in the context of ER stress and the unfolded protein response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Schott, Andrea; Strahl, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    The accumulation of misfolded or unfolded polypeptides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) provokes ER stress and triggers protective signaling pathways termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Stromal cell-derived factor 2 (SDF2)-type proteins are conserved throughout the animal and plant kingdoms. Upon UPR activation transcription of SDF2-type genes is significantly enhanced in metazoan and plants, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved role. However, the precise molecular function of SDF2-type proteins still needs to be established. Most eukaryotes have two SDF2 homologous, whereas the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has a single SDF2, thus representing an ideal model system to study the functional role of SDF2-type proteins. This chapter provides techniques to study SDF2 in the context of ER stress in Arabidopsis. We describe available sdf2 mutants, and methods to evaluate ER stress sensitivity of seedlings. Further, we summarize tools and methods that are helpful to monitor UPR induction in general (e.g., SDF2 promoter-reporter fusion constructs and SDF2-specific antibodies). In Section 6, we provide protocols for the expression and purification of recombinant SDF2 protein that can be used for further biochemical studies. PMID:21266257

  15. Blunted activation of NF-{kappa}B and NF-{kappa}B-dependent gene expression by geranylgeranylacetone: Involvement of unfolded protein response

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Hiramatsu, Nobuhiko; Okamura, Maro; Yao, Jian; Paton, Adrienne W.; Paton, James C.; Kitamura, Masanori

    2008-01-04

    Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), an anti-ulcer agent, has anti-inflammatory potential against experimental colitis and ischemia-induced renal inflammation. However, molecular mechanisms involved in its anti-inflammatory effects are largely unknown. We found that, in glomerular mesangial cells, GGA blocked activation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B and consequent induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) by inflammatory cytokines. It was inversely correlated with induction of unfolded protein response (UPR) evidenced by expression of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and suppression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-responsive alkaline phosphatase. Various inducers of UPR including tunicamycin, thapsigargin, A23187, 2-deoxyglucose, dithiothreitol, and AB{sub 5} subtilase cytotoxin reproduced the suppressive effects of GGA. Furthermore, attenuation of UPR by stable transfection with GRP78 diminished the anti-inflammatory effects of GGA. These results disclosed a novel, UPR-dependent mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory potential of GGA.

  16. Functional analysis of the impact of ORMDL3 expression on inflammation and activation of the unfolded protein response in human airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The gene ORMDL3 was shown to be associated with early-onset asthma susceptibility in multiple independent genome-wide and candidate-gene association studies. Asthmatic patients have elevated expression levels of this gene. ORMDL3 encodes a transmembrane protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that may be involved in ER stress and inflammation. It is essential to validate the genetic associations linking ORMDL3 with asthma through functional studies that confirm the biological relevance of this gene in disease. We investigated the effects of manipulating ORMDL3 expression levels in vitro in airway cells on innate immune inflammatory responses, ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Methods ORMDL3 expression levels were manipulated in airway cells using an overexpression plasmid and siRNA technologies. Successful modulation of ORMDL3 was confirmed at both the gene and protein level. The functional impact of modulation of ORMDL3 expression levels on inflammatory responses and activation of the UPR were quantified using complementary cellular and molecular immunology techniques. Results Cells with altered ORMDL3 levels responded equally well to innate immune stimuli and produced similar levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to wild-type cells. Treatment with ER stress inducers, thapsigargin and tunicamycin, resulted in activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, we observed no difference in UPR activation in cells with ORMDL3 knockdown compared to cells with normal ORMDL3 levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that ORMDL3 variation in the airway epithelium is unlikely to play a significant role in modulating innate immune responses and the UPR in the lung. PMID:23369242

  17. Knockdown of glucose-regulated protein 78 abrogates chemoresistance of hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells to cisplatin induced by unfolded protein in response to severe hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Pi, Lihong; Li, Xiaoming; Song, Qi; Shen, Yupeng; Lu, Xiuying; DI, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Hypoxia renders tumor cells with reduced sensitivity and increased resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. One of the possible mechanisms underlying this unfavorable status is activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) under hypoxic conditions, due to the upregulation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression. GRP78, an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein and a key regulator of the UPR, has been reported to be overexpressed in various types of cancer. However, the role of GRP78 in regulating the cell growth and apoptosis of hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells, with regard to the severity of hypoxia, remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether, and under what circumstances, GRP78 is associated with hypoxia-induced chemoresistance in hypopharyngeal carcinoma. For this purpose, cells from the FaDu human hypopharyngeal carcinoma cell line were cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions for different time periods. No significant changes in GRP78 and C/EBP homology protein (CHOP) protein expression levels were revealed under moderately hypoxic conditions (oxygen concentration, 1%), but these levels were changed over time under severely hypoxic conditions (oxygen concentration, <0.02%). This indicated that severe hypoxia, rather than moderate hypoxia, leads to UPR activation in hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Knockdown of GRP78 with short hairpin RNA inhibited cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis under severely hypoxic conditions, even with cisplatin treatment, indicating that GRP78 confers FaDu cells resistant to chemotherapy in response to severe hypoxia. Furthermore, knockdown of GRP78 resulted in a significant increase in CHOP and Bax expression levels and a decrease in Bcl-2 expression levels with simultaneous increase in the levels of apoptosis under severely hypoxic conditions. It was concluded that severe hypoxia leads to UPR activation and elevation of GRP78 expression, promoting cell survival and inducing chemoresistance. Silencing of GRP78 may block the pro-survival arm of UPR, simultaneously promoting proapoptotic signaling through induction of CHOP. Downregulation of GRP78 may be a promising strategy for overcoming the resistance of hypopharyngeal cancer to chemotherapy. PMID:24527073

  18. Airway mesenchymal cell death by mevalonate cascade inhibition: integration of autophagy, unfolded protein response and apoptosis focusing on Bcl2 family proteins.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Saeid; Sharma, Pawan; Yeganeh, Behzad; Ojo, Oluwaseun O; Jha, Aruni; Mutawe, Mark M; Kashani, Hessam H; Los, Marek J; Klonisch, Thomas; Unruh, Helmut; Halayko, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    HMG-CoA reductase, the proximal rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, is inhibited by statins. Beyond their cholesterol lowering impact, statins have pleiotropic effects and their use is linked to improved lung health. We have shown that mevalonate cascade inhibition induces apoptosis and autophagy in cultured human airway mesenchymal cells. Here, we show that simvastatin also induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in these cells. We tested whether coordination of ER stress, autophagy and apoptosis determines survival or demise of human lung mesenchymal cells exposed to statin. We observed that simvastatin exposure activates UPR (activated transcription factor 4, activated transcription factor 6 and IRE1α) and caspase-4 in primary human airway fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. Exogenous mevalonate inhibited apoptosis, autophagy and UPR, but exogenous cholesterol was without impact, indicating that sterol intermediates are involved with mechanisms mediating statin effects. Caspase-4 inhibition decreased simvastatin-induced apoptosis, whereas inhibition of autophagy by ATG7 or ATG3 knockdown significantly increased cell death. In BAX(-/-)/BAK(-/-) murine embryonic fibroblasts, simvastatin-triggered apoptotic and UPR events were abrogated, but autophagy flux was increased leading to cell death via necrosis. Our data indicate that mevalonate cascade inhibition, likely associated with depletion of sterol intermediates, can lead to cell death via coordinated apoptosis, autophagy, and ER stress. The interplay between these pathways appears to be principally regulated by autophagy and Bcl-2-family pro-apoptotic proteins. These findings uncover multiple mechanisms of action of statins that could contribute to refining the use of such agent in treatment of lung disease. PMID:24637330

  19. Identification of the G13 (cAMP-response-element-binding protein-related protein) gene product related to activating transcription factor 6 as a transcriptional activator of the mammalian unfolded protein response.

    PubMed Central

    Haze, K; Okada, T; Yoshida, H; Yanagi, H; Yura, T; Negishi, M; Mori, K

    2001-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells control the levels of molecular chaperones and folding enzymes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by a transcriptional induction process termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The mammalian UPR is mediated by the cis-acting ER stress response element consisting of 19 nt (CCAATN(9)CCACG), the CCACG part of which is considered to provide specificity. We recently identified the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein ATF6 as a mammalian UPR-specific transcription factor; ATF6 is activated by ER stress-induced proteolysis and binds directly to CCACG. Here we report that eukaryotic cells express another bZIP protein closely related to ATF6 in both structure and function. This protein encoded by the G13 (cAMP response element binding protein-related protein) gene is constitutively synthesized as a type II transmembrane glycoprotein anchored in the ER membrane and processed into a soluble form upon ER stress as occurs with ATF6. The proteolytic processing of ATF6 and the G13 gene product is accompanied by their relocation from the ER to the nucleus; their basic regions seem to function as a nuclear localization signal. Overexpression of the soluble form of the G13 product constitutively activates the UPR, whereas overexpression of a mutant lacking the activation domain exhibits a strong dominant-negative effect. Furthermore, the soluble forms of ATF6 and the G13 gene product are unable to bind to several point mutants of the cis-acting ER stress response element in vitro that hardly respond to ER stress in vivo. We thus concluded that the two related bZIP proteins are crucial transcriptional regulators of the mammalian UPR, and propose calling the ATF6 gene product ATF6alpha and the G13 gene product ATF6beta. PMID:11256944

  20. The unfolded protein response is activated in disease-affected brain regions in progressive supranuclear palsy and Alzheimers disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disorder pathologically characterized by intracellular tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau protein distributed throughout the neocortex, basal ganglia, and brainstem. A genome-wide association study identified EIF2AK3 as a risk factor for PSP. EIF2AK3 encodes PERK, part of the endoplasmic reticulums (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR). PERK is an ER membrane protein that senses unfolded protein accumulation within the ER lumen. Recently, several groups noted UPR activation in Alzheimers disease (AD), Parkinsons disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple system atrophy, and in the hippocampus and substantia nigra of PSP subjects. Here, we evaluate UPR PERK activation in the pons, medulla, midbrain, hippocampus, frontal cortex and cerebellum in subjects with PSP, AD, and in normal controls. Results We found UPR activation primarily in disease-affected brain regions in both disorders. In PSP, the UPR was primarily activated in the pons and medulla and to a much lesser extent in the hippocampus. In AD, the UPR was extensively activated in the hippocampus. We also observed UPR activation in the hippocampus of some elderly normal controls, severity of which positively correlated with both age and tau pathology but not with A? plaque burden. Finally, we evaluated EIF2AK3 coding variants that influence PERK activation. We show that a haplotype associated with increased PERK activation is genetically associated with increased PSP risk. Conclusions The UPR is activated in disease affected regions in PSP and the genetic evidence shows that this activation increases risk for PSP and is not a protective response. PMID:24252572

  1. Chronic ethanol exposure increases cytochrome P-450 and decreases activated in blocked unfolded protein response gene family transcripts in caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Juhani; Aarnio, Vuokko; Heikkinen, Liisa; Lakso, Merja; Wong, Garry

    2013-03-01

    Ethanol is a widely consumed and rapidly absorbed toxin. While the physiological effects of ethanol consumption are well known, the underlying biochemical and molecular changes at the gene expression level in whole animals remain obscure. We exposed the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to 0.2 M ethanol from the embryo to L4 larva stage and assayed gene expression changes in whole animals using RNA-Seq and quantitative real-time PCR. We observed gene expression changes in 1122 genes (411 up, 711 down). Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) gene family members (12 of 78) were upregulated, whereas activated in blocked unfolded protein response (ABU) (7 of 15) were downregulated. Other detoxification gene family members were also regulated including four glutathione-S-transferases and three flavin monooxygenases. The results presented show specific gene expression changes following chronic ethanol exposure in C. elegans that indicate both persistent upregulation of detoxification response genes and downregulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway genes. PMID:23381935

  2. Increase in gene-transcript levels as indicators of up-regulation of the unfolded protein response in spontaneous canine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Elliot, Kirsten; MacDonald-Dickinson, Valerie; Linn, Kathleen; Simko, Elemir; Misra, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR), a conserved cellular response to stressors such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation, is associated with angiogenesis and metastasis in tumor cells. This article discusses a pilot study conducted to determine whether components of the UPR could be identified in spontaneous canine tumors and whether they were up-regulated within tumor tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue. Tissue samples of various spontaneous canine neoplasms were taken from 13 dogs shortly after surgical excision or euthanasia; control samples were taken from adjacent normal tissue. RNA purification and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction were done to measure the expression of 4 genes associated with the UPR (HERP, CHOP, GRP78, and XBP1s). The results indicated that UPR gene expression can be identified in spontaneous canine tumors and that the UPR is up-regulated, as indicated by significantly increased expression of CHOP and GRP78 within the tumor. PMID:24982546

  3. Electrospray Ionization-Induced Protein Unfolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hong; Kitova, Elena N.; Johnson, Margaret A.; Eugenio, Luiz; Ng, Kenneth K. S.; Klassen, John S.

    2012-12-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) measurements were performed under a variety of solution conditions on a highly acidic sub-fragment (B3C) of the C-terminal carbohydrate-binding repeat region of Clostridium difficile toxin B, and two mutants (B4A and B4B) containing fewer acidic residues. ESI-MS measurements performed in negative ion mode on aqueous ammonium acetate solutions of B3C at low ionic strength ( I < 80 mM) revealed evidence, based on the measured charge state distribution, of protein unfolding. In contrast, no evidence of unfolding was detected from ESI-MS measurements made in positive ion mode at low I or in either mode at higher I. The results of proton nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism spectroscopy measurements and gel filtration chromatography performed on solutions of B3C under low and high I conditions suggest that the protein exists predominantly in a folded state in neutral aqueous solutions with I > 10 mM. The results of ESI-MS measurements performed on B3C in a series of solutions with high I at pH 5 to 9 rule out the possibility that the structural changes are related to ESI-induced changes in pH. It is proposed that unfolding of B3C, observed in negative mode for solutions with low I, occurs during the ESI process and arises due to Coulombic repulsion between the negatively charged residues and liquid/droplet surface charge. ESI-MS measurements performed in negative ion mode on B4A and B4B also reveal a shift to higher charge states at low I but the magnitude of the changes are smaller than observed for B3C.

  4. Electrospray ionization-induced protein unfolding.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Kitova, Elena N; Johnson, Margaret A; Eugenio, Luiz; Ng, Kenneth K S; Klassen, John S

    2012-12-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) measurements were performed under a variety of solution conditions on a highly acidic sub-fragment (B3C) of the C-terminal carbohydrate-binding repeat region of Clostridium difficile toxin B, and two mutants (B4A and B4B) containing fewer acidic residues. ESI-MS measurements performed in negative ion mode on aqueous ammonium acetate solutions of B3C at low ionic strength (I < 80 mM) revealed evidence, based on the measured charge state distribution, of protein unfolding. In contrast, no evidence of unfolding was detected from ESI-MS measurements made in positive ion mode at low I or in either mode at higher I. The results of proton nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism spectroscopy measurements and gel filtration chromatography performed on solutions of B3C under low and high I conditions suggest that the protein exists predominantly in a folded state in neutral aqueous solutions with I > 10 mM. The results of ESI-MS measurements performed on B3C in a series of solutions with high I at pH 5 to 9 rule out the possibility that the structural changes are related to ESI-induced changes in pH. It is proposed that unfolding of B3C, observed in negative mode for solutions with low I, occurs during the ESI process and arises due to Coulombic repulsion between the negatively charged residues and liquid/droplet surface charge. ESI-MS measurements performed in negative ion mode on B4A and B4B also reveal a shift to higher charge states at low I but the magnitude of the changes are smaller than observed for B3C. PMID:22993046

  5. Unfolded-protein response-associated stabilization of p27(Cdkn1b) interferes with lens fiber cell denucleation, leading to cataract.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Lei; Whitcomb, Elizabeth A; Jiang, Shuhong; Chang, Min-Lee; Gu, Yumei; Duncan, Melinda K; Cvekl, Ales; Wang, Wei-Lin; Limi, Saima; Reneker, Lixing W; Shang, Fu; Du, Linfang; Taylor, Allen

    2016-03-01

    Failure of lens fiber cell denucleation (LFCD) is associated with congenital cataracts, but the pathobiology awaits elucidation. Recent work has suggested that mechanisms that direct the unidirectional process of LFCD are analogous to the cyclic processes associated with mitosis. We found that lens-specific mutations that elicit an unfolded-protein response (UPR) in vivo accumulate p27(Cdkn1b), show cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-1 inhibition, retain their LFC nuclei, and are cataractous. Although a UPR was not detected in lenses expressing K6W-Ub, they also accumulated p27 and showed failed LFCD. Induction of a UPR in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) also induced accumulation of p27 associated with decreased levels of S-phase kinase-associated protein (Skp)-2, a ubiquitin ligase that regulates mitosis. These cells also showed decreased lamin A/C phosphorylation and metaphase arrest. The suppression of lamin A/C phosphorylation and metaphase transition induced by the UPR was rescued by knockdown of p27. Taken together, these data indicate that accumulation of p27, whether related to the UPR or not, prevents the phosphorylation of lamin A/C and LFCD in maturing LFCs in vivo, as well as in dividing HLECs. The former leads to cataract and the latter to metaphase arrest. These results suggest that accumulation of p27 is a common mechanism underlying retention of LFC nuclei.-Lei, L., Whitcomb, E. A., Jiang, S., Chang, M.-L., Gu, Y., Duncan, M. K., Cvekl, A., Wang, W.-L., Limi, S., Reneker, L. W., Shang, F., Du, L., Taylor, A. Unfolded protein response-associated stabilization of p27(Cdkn1b) interferes with lens fiber cell denucleation, leading to cataract. PMID:26590164

  6. Transcription factor ATF4 directs basal and stress-induced gene expression in the unfolded protein response and cholesterol metabolism in the liver.

    PubMed

    Fusakio, Michael E; Willy, Jeffrey A; Wang, Yongping; Mirek, Emily T; Al Baghdadi, Rana J T; Adams, Christopher M; Anthony, Tracy G; Wek, Ronald C

    2016-05-01

    Disturbances in protein folding and membrane compositions in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) elicit the unfolded protein response (UPR). Each of three UPR sensory proteins-PERK (PEK/EIF2AK3), IRE1, and ATF6-is activated by ER stress. PERK phosphorylation of eIF2 represses global protein synthesis, lowering influx of nascent polypeptides into the stressed ER, coincident with preferential translation of ATF4 (CREB2). In cultured cells, ATF4 induces transcriptional expression of genes directed by the PERK arm of the UPR, including genes involved in amino acid metabolism, resistance to oxidative stress, and the proapoptotic transcription factor CHOP (GADD153/DDIT3). In this study, we characterize whole-body and tissue-specific ATF4-knockout mice and show in liver exposed to ER stress that ATF4 is not required for CHOP expression, but instead ATF6 is a primary inducer. RNA-Seq analysis indicates that ATF4 is responsible for a small portion of the PERK-dependent UPR genes and reveals a requirement for expression of ATF4 for expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response basally and cholesterol metabolism both basally and under stress. Consistent with this pattern of gene expression, loss of ATF4 resulted in enhanced oxidative damage, and increased free cholesterol in liver under stress accompanied by lowered cholesterol in sera. PMID:26960794

  7. Role of partial protein unfolding in alcohol-induced protein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surinder M.; Cabello-Villegas, Javier; Hutchings, Regina L.; Mallela, Krishna M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Proteins aggregate in response to various stresses including changes in solvent conditions. Addition of alcohols has been recently shown to induce aggregation of disease-related as well as non-disease-related proteins. Here we probed the biophysical mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced protein aggregation, in particular the role of partial protein unfolding in aggregation. We have studied aggregation mechanisms due to benzyl alcohol which is used in numerous biochemical and biotechnological applications. We chose cytochrome c as a model protein, for the reason that various optical and structural probes are available to monitor its global and partial unfolding reactions. Benzyl alcohol induced the aggregation of cytochrome c in isothermal conditions and decreased the temperature at which the protein aggregates. However, benzyl alcohol did not perturb the overall native conformation of cytochrome c. Instead, it caused partial unfolding of a local protein region around the methionine residue at position 80. Site-specific optical probes, two-dimensional NMR titrations, and hydrogen exchange all support this conclusion. The protein aggregation temperature varied linearly with the melting temperature of the Met80 region. Stabilizing the Met80 region by heme iron reduction drastically decreased protein aggregation, which confirmed that the local unfolding of this region causes protein aggregation. These results indicate that a possible mechanism by which alcohols induce protein aggregation is through partial rather than complete unfolding of native proteins. PMID:20597088

  8. Biotin Supplementation Decreases the Expression of the SERCA3 Gene (ATP2A3) in Jurkat Cells, thus Triggering Unfolded Protein Response*

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Jacob B.; Rodriguez-Melendez, Rocio; Dode, Leonard; Wuytack, Frank; Zempleni, Janos

    2006-01-01

    Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) depends on Ca2+; uptake of Ca2+ into the ER is mediated by SERCA3. The 5′-flanking region of the SERCA3 gene (ATP2A3) contains numerous binding sites for the transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3. Biotin affects the nuclear abundance of Sp1 and Sp3, which may act as transcriptional activators or repressors. Here we determined whether biotin affects the expression of the SERCA3 gene and, thus, protein folding in human lymphoid cells. Jurkat cells were cultured in media containing 0.025 nmol/L biotin (denoted “deficient”) or 10 nmol/L biotin (“supplemented”). The transcriptional activity of the full-length human SERCA3 promoter was 50% lower in biotin-supplemented cells compared to biotin-deficient cells. Biotin-dependent repressors bind to elements located 731 to 1312 basepairs upstream from the transcription start site in the SERCA3 gene. The following lines of evidence suggest that low expression of SERCA3 in biotin-supplemented cells impaired folding of secretory proteins in the ER, triggering Unfolded Protein Response: (i) sequestration of Ca2+ in the ER decreased by 14–24% in response to biotin supplementation; (ii) secretion of interleukin-2 into the extracellular space decreased by 75% in response to biotin supplementation; (iii) the nuclear abundance of stress-induced transcription factors increased in response to biotin supplementation; and (iv) the abundance of stress-related proteins such UBE1, GADD153, XBP1, and phosphorylated eIF2α increased in response to biotin supplementation. Collectively, this study suggests that supplements containing pharmacological doses of biotin may cause cell stress by impairing protein folding in the ER. PMID:16109482

  9. Treatment with the HIV protease inhibitor nelfinavir triggers the unfolded protein response and may overcome proteasome inhibitor resistance of multiple myeloma in combination with bortezomib: a phase I trial (SAKK 65/08)

    PubMed Central

    Driessen, Christoph; Kraus, Marianne; Joerger, Markus; Rosing, Hilde; Bader, Jürgen; Hitz, Felicitas; Berset, Catherine; Xyrafas, Alexandros; Hawle, Hanne; Berthod, Gregoire; Overkleeft, Hermann S.; Sessa, Christiana; Huitema, Alwin; Pabst, Thomas; von Moos, Roger; Hess, Dagmar; Mey, Ulrich J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Downregulation of the unfolded protein response mediates proteasome inhibitor resistance in multiple myeloma. The Human Immunodeficieny Virus protease inhibitor nelfinavir activates the unfolded protein response in vitro. We determined dose-limiting toxicity and recommended dose for phase II of nelfinavir in combination with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Twelve patients with advanced hematologic malignancies were treated with nelfinavir (2500–5000 mg/day p.o., days 1–14, 3+3 dose escalation) and bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2, days 1, 4, 8, 11; 21-day cycles). A run in phase with nelfinavir monotherapy allowed pharmakokinetic/pharmakodynamic assessment of nelfinavir in the presence or absence of concomittant bortezomib. End points included dose-limiting toxicity, activation of the unfolded protein response, proteasome activity, toxicity and response to trial treatment. Nelfinavir 2×2500 mg was the recommended phase II dose identified. Nelfinavir alone significantly up-regulated expression of proteins related to the unfolded protein response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and inhibited proteasome activity. Of 10 evaluable patients in the dose escalation cohort, 3 achieved a partial response, 4 stable disease for 2 cycles or more, while 3 had progressive disease as best response. In an exploratory extension cohort with 6 relapsed, bortezomib-refractory, lenalidomide-resistant myeloma patients treated at the recommended phase II dose, 3 reached a partial response, 2 a minor response, and one progressive disease. The combination of nelfinavir with bortezomib is safe and shows promising activity in advanced, bortezomib-refractory multiple myeloma. Induction of the unfolded protein response by nelfinavir may overcome the biological features of proteasome inhibitor resistance. PMID:26659919

  10. Treatment with the HIV protease inhibitor nelfinavir triggers the unfolded protein response and may overcome proteasome inhibitor resistance of multiple myeloma in combination with bortezomib: a phase I trial (SAKK 65/08).

    PubMed

    Driessen, Christoph; Kraus, Marianne; Joerger, Markus; Rosing, Hilde; Bader, Jrgen; Hitz, Felicitas; Berset, Catherine; Xyrafas, Alexandros; Hawle, Hanne; Berthod, Gregoire; Overkleeft, Hermann S; Sessa, Christiana; Huitema, Alwin; Pabst, Thomas; von Moos, Roger; Hess, Dagmar; Mey, Ulrich J M

    2016-03-01

    Downregulation of the unfolded protein response mediates proteasome inhibitor resistance in multiple myeloma. The Human Immunodeficieny Virus protease inhibitor nelfinavir activates the unfolded protein response in vitro. We determined dose-limiting toxicity and recommended dose for phase II of nelfinavir in combination with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Twelve patients with advanced hematologic malignancies were treated with nelfinavir (2500-5000 mg/day p.o., days 1-14, 3+3 dose escalation) and bortezomib (1.3 mg/m(2), days 1, 4, 8, 11; 21-day cycles). A run in phase with nelfinavir monotherapy allowed pharmakokinetic/pharmakodynamic assessment of nelfinavir in the presence or absence of concomittant bortezomib. End points included dose-limiting toxicity, activation of the unfolded protein response, proteasome activity, toxicity and response to trial treatment. Nelfinavir 22500 mg was the recommended phase II dose identified. Nelfinavir alone significantly up-regulated expression of proteins related to the unfolded protein response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and inhibited proteasome activity. Of 10 evaluable patients in the dose escalation cohort, 3 achieved a partial response, 4 stable disease for 2 cycles or more, while 3 had progressive disease as best response. In an exploratory extension cohort with 6 relapsed, bortezomib-refractory, lenalidomide-resistant myeloma patients treated at the recommended phase II dose, 3 reached a partial response, 2 a minor response, and one progressive disease. The combination of nelfinavir with bortezomib is safe and shows promising activity in advanced, bortezomib-refractory multiple myeloma. Induction of the unfolded protein response by nelfinavir may overcome the biological features of proteasome inhibitor resistance. PMID:26659919

  11. SCCA1/SerpinB3 promotes oncogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition via the unfolded protein response and IL-6 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sheshadri, Namratha; Catanzaro, Joseph M.; Bott, Alex J.; Sun, Yu; Ullman, Erica; Chen, Emily I.; Pan, Ji-An; Wu, Song; Crawford, Howard C.; Zhang, Jianhua; Zong, Wei-Xing

    2014-01-01

    The serine/cysteine protease inhibitor SCCA1 (Serpin B3) is upregulated in many advanced cancers with poor prognosis, but there is limited information about whether it makes functional contributions to malignancy. Here we show that SCCA1 expression promoted oncogenic transformation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in mammary epithelial cells, and that SCCA1 silencing in breast cancer cells halted their proliferation. SCCA1 overexpression in neu+ mammary tumors increased the unfolded protein response (UPR), IL-6 expression, and inflammatory phenotypes. Mechanistically, SCCA1 induced a prolonged non-lethal increase in the UPR that was sufficient to activate NF-κB and expression of the pro-tumorigenic cytokine IL-6. Overall, our findings established that SCCA1 contributes to tumorigenesis by promoting EMT and a UPR-dependent induction of NF-κB and IL-6 autocrine signaling that promotes a pro-tumorigenic inflammation. PMID:25213322

  12. Autism-associated R451C mutation in neuroligin3 leads to activation of the unfolded protein response in a PC12 Tet-On inducible system.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Lisa; Favaloro, Flores Lietta; Trobiani, Laura; Marchetti, Valentina; Patel, Vruti; Pascucci, Tiziana; Comoletti, Davide; Marciniak, Stefan J; De Jaco, Antonella

    2016-02-15

    Several forms of monogenic heritable autism spectrum disorders are associated with mutations in the neuroligin genes. The autism-linked substitution R451C in neuroligin3 induces local misfolding of its extracellular domain, causing partial retention in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) of expressing cells. We have generated a PC12 Tet-On cell model system with inducible expression of wild-type or R451C neuroligin3 to investigate whether there is activation of the UPR (unfolded protein response) as a result of misfolded protein retention. As a positive control for protein misfolding, we also expressed the mutant G221R neuroligin3, which is known to be completely retained within the ER. Our data show that overexpression of either R451C or G221R mutant proteins leads to the activation of all three signalling branches of the UPR downstream of the stress sensors ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6), IRE1 (inositol-requiring enzyme 1) and PERK [PKR (dsRNA-dependent protein kinase)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase]. Each branch displayed different activation profiles that partially correlated with the degree of misfolding caused by each mutation. We also show that up-regulation of BiP (immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein) and CHOP [C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein)-homologous protein] was induced by both mutant proteins but not by wild-type neuroligin3, both in proliferative cells and cells differentiated to a neuron-like phenotype. Collectively, our data show that mutant R451C neuroligin3 activates the UPR in a novel cell model system, suggesting that this cellular response may have a role in monogenic forms of autism characterized by misfolding mutations. PMID:26621873

  13. Autism-associated R451C mutation in neuroligin3 leads to activation of the unfolded protein response in a PC12 Tet-On inducible system

    PubMed Central

    Ulbrich, Lisa; Favaloro, Flores Lietta; Trobiani, Laura; Marchetti, Valentina; Patel, Vruti; Pascucci, Tiziana; Comoletti, Davide; Marciniak, Stefan J.; De Jaco, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Several forms of monogenic heritable autism spectrum disorders are associated with mutations in the neuroligin genes. The autism-linked substitution R451C in neuroligin3 induces local misfolding of its extracellular domain, causing partial retention in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) of expressing cells. We have generated a PC12 Tet-On cell model system with inducible expression of wild-type or R451C neuroligin3 to investigate whether there is activation of the UPR (unfolded protein response) as a result of misfolded protein retention. As a positive control for protein misfolding, we also expressed the mutant G221R neuroligin3, which is known to be completely retained within the ER. Our data show that overexpression of either R451C or G221R mutant proteins leads to the activation of all three signalling branches of the UPR downstream of the stress sensors ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6), IRE1 (inositol-requiring enzyme 1) and PERK [PKR (dsRNA-dependent protein kinase)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase]. Each branch displayed different activation profiles that partially correlated with the degree of misfolding caused by each mutation. We also show that up-regulation of BiP (immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein) and CHOP [C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein)-homologous protein] was induced by both mutant proteins but not by wild-type neuroligin3, both in proliferative cells and cells differentiated to a neuron-like phenotype. Collectively, our data show that mutant R451C neuroligin3 activates the UPR in a novel cell model system, suggesting that this cellular response may have a role in monogenic forms of autism characterized by misfolding mutations. PMID:26621873

  14. Sestrin2 is induced by glucose starvation via the unfolded protein response and protects cells from non-canonical necroptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Ding, Boxiao; Parmigiani, Anita; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Archer, Kellie; Murphy, Anne N; Budanov, Andrei V

    2016-01-01

    Sestrin2 is a member of a family of stress responsive proteins, which controls cell viability via antioxidant activity and regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin protein kinase (mTOR). Sestrin2 is induced by different stress insults, which diminish ATP production and induce energetic stress in the cells. Glucose is a critical substrate for ATP production utilized via glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration as well as for glycosylation of newly synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi. Thus, glucose starvation causes both energy deficiency and activation of ER stress followed by the unfolding protein response (UPR). Here, we show that UPR induces Sestrin2 via ATF4 and NRF2 transcription factors and demonstrate that Sestrin2 protects cells from glucose starvation-induced cell death. Sestrin2 inactivation sensitizes cells to necroptotic cell death that is associated with a decline in ATP levels and can be suppressed by Necrostatin 7. We propose that Sestrin2 protects cells from glucose starvation-induced cell death via regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:26932729

  15. Sestrin2 is induced by glucose starvation via the unfolded protein response and protects cells from non-canonical necroptotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Boxiao; Parmigiani, Anita; Divakaruni, Ajit S.; Archer, Kellie; Murphy, Anne N.; Budanov, Andrei V.

    2016-01-01

    Sestrin2 is a member of a family of stress responsive proteins, which controls cell viability via antioxidant activity and regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin protein kinase (mTOR). Sestrin2 is induced by different stress insults, which diminish ATP production and induce energetic stress in the cells. Glucose is a critical substrate for ATP production utilized via glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration as well as for glycosylation of newly synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi. Thus, glucose starvation causes both energy deficiency and activation of ER stress followed by the unfolding protein response (UPR). Here, we show that UPR induces Sestrin2 via ATF4 and NRF2 transcription factors and demonstrate that Sestrin2 protects cells from glucose starvation-induced cell death. Sestrin2 inactivation sensitizes cells to necroptotic cell death that is associated with a decline in ATP levels and can be suppressed by Necrostatin 7. We propose that Sestrin2 protects cells from glucose starvation-induced cell death via regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:26932729

  16. Differential unfolded protein response during Chikungunya and Sindbis virus infection: CHIKV nsP4 suppresses eIF2α phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Sindbis (SINV) are arboviruses belonging to the alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae family. They cause frequent epidemics of febrile illness and long-term arthralgic sequelae that affect millions of people each year. Both viruses replicate prodigiously in infected patients and in vitro in mammalian cells, suggesting some level of control over the host cellular translational machinery that senses and appropriately directs the cell’s fate through the unfolded protein response (UPR). The mammalian UPR involves BIP (or GRP78), the master sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) together with the three downstream effector branches: inositol-requiring ser/thr protein kinase/endonuclease (IRE-1), PKR-like ER resident kinase (PERK) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF-6). Through careful analysis of CHIKV and SINV infections in cell culture we found that the former selectively activates ATF-6 and IRE-1 branches of UPR and suppresses the PERK pathway. By separately expressing each of the CHIKV proteins as GFP-fusion proteins, we found that non-structural protein 4 (nsP4), which is a RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase, suppresses the serine-51 phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor, alpha subunit (eIF2α), which in turn regulates the PERK pathway. This study provides insight into a mechanism by which CHIKV replication responds to overcome the host UPR machinery. PMID:23356742

  17. Assessment of the effect of sphingosine kinase inhibitors on apoptosis,unfolded protein response and autophagy of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells; indications for novel therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Evangelisti, Cecilia; Evangelisti, Camilla; Teti, Gabriella; Chiarini, Francesca; Falconi, Mirella; Melchionda, Fraia; Pession, Andrea; Bertaina, Alice; Locatelli, Franco; McCubrey, James A; Beak, Dong Jae; Bittman, Robert; Pyne, Susan; Pyne, Nigel J; Martelli, Alberto M

    2014-09-15

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that is formed by the phosphorylation of sphingosine and catalysed by sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) or sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2). Sphingosine kinases play a fundamental role in many signaling pathways associated with cancer, suggesting that proteins belonging to this signaling network represent potential therapeutic targets. Over the last years, many improvements have been made in the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL); however, novel and less toxic therapies are still needed, especially for relapsing and chemo-resistant patients. Here, we analyzed the therapeutic potential of SKi and ROMe, a sphingosine kinase 1 and 2 inhibitor and SK2-selective inhibitor, respectively. While SKi induced apoptosis, ROMe initiated an autophagic cell death in our in vitro cell models. SKi treatment induced an increase in SK1 protein levels in Molt-4 cells, whereas it activated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway in Jurkat and CEM-R cells as protective mechanisms in a sub-population of T-ALL cells. Interestingly, we observed a synergistic effect of SKi with the classical chemotherapeutic drug vincristine. In addition, we reported that SKi affected signaling cascades implicated in survival, proliferation and stress response of cells. These findings indicate that SK1 or SK2 represent potential targets for treating T-ALL. PMID:25226616

  18. The unfolded protein response and cellular senescence. A review in the theme: cellular mechanisms of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Pluquet, Olivier; Pourtier, Albin; Abbadie, Corinne

    2015-03-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional organelle critical for the proper folding and assembly of secreted and transmembrane proteins. Perturbations of ER functions cause ER stress, which activates a coordinated system of transcriptional and translational controls called the unfolded protein response (UPR), to cope with accumulation of misfolded proteins and proteotoxicity. It results in ER homeostasis restoration or in cell death. Senescence is a complex cell phenotype induced by several stresses such as telomere attrition, DNA damage, oxidative stress, and activation of some oncogenes. It is mainly characterized by a cell enlargement, a permanent cell-cycle arrest, and the production of a secretome enriched in proinflammatory cytokines and components of the extracellular matrix. Senescent cells accumulate with age in tissues and are suspected to play a role in age-associated diseases. Since senescence is a stress response, the question arises of whether an ER stress could occur concomitantly with senescence and participate in the onset or maintenance of the senescent features. Here, we described the interconnections between the UPR signaling and the different aspects of the cellular senescence programs and discuss the implication of UPR modulations in this context. PMID:25540175

  19. Human βA3/A1-crystallin splicing mutation causes cataracts by activating the unfolded protein response and inducing apoptosis in differentiating lens fiber cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhiwei; Yao, Wenliang; Chan, Chi-Chao; Kannabiran, Chitra; Wawrousek, Eric; Hejtmancik, J Fielding

    2016-06-01

    βγ-Crystallins, having a uniquely stable two domain four Greek key structure, are crucial for transparency of the eye lens,. Mutations in lens crystallins have been proposed to cause cataract formation by a variety of mechanisms most of which involve destabilization of the protein fold. The underlying molecular mechanism for autosomal dominant zonular cataracts with sutural opacities in an Indian family caused by a c.215+1G>A splice mutation in the βA3/A1-crystallin gene CRYBA1 was elucidated using three transgenic mice models. This mutation causes a splice defect in which the mutant mRNA escapes nonsense mediated decay by skipping both exons 3 and 4. Skipping these exons results in an in-frame deletion of the mRNA and synthesis of an unstable p.Ile33_Ala119del mutant βA3/A1-crystallin protein. Transgenic expression of mutant βA3/A1-crystallin but not the wild type protein results in toxicity and abnormalities in the maturation and orientation of differentiating lens fibers in c.97_357del CRYBA1 transgenic mice, leading to a small spherical lens, cataract, and often lens capsule rupture. On a cellular level, the lenses accumulated p.Ile33_Ala119del βA3/A1-crystallin with resultant activation of the stress signaling pathway - unfolded protein response (UPR) and inhibition of normal protein synthesis, culminating in apoptosis. This highlights the mechanistic contrast between mild mutations that destabilize crystallins and other proteins, resulting in their being bound by the α-crystallins that buffer lens cells against damage by denatured proteins, and severely misfolded proteins that are not bound by α-crystallin but accumulate and have a direct toxic effect on lens cells, resulting in early onset cataracts. PMID:26851658

  20. A mouse model suggests two mechanisms for thyroid alterations in infantile cystinosis: decreased thyroglobulin synthesis due to endoplasmic reticulum stress/unfolded protein response and impaired lysosomal processing.

    PubMed

    Gaide Chevronnay, H P; Janssens, V; Van Der Smissen, P; Liao, X H; Abid, Y; Nevo, N; Antignac, C; Refetoff, S; Cherqui, S; Pierreux, C E; Courtoy, P J

    2015-06-01

    Thyroid hormones are released from thyroglobulin (Tg) in lysosomes, which are impaired in infantile/nephropathic cystinosis. Cystinosis is a lysosomal cystine storage disease due to defective cystine exporter, cystinosin. Cystinotic children develop subclinical and then overt hypothyroidism. Why hypothyroidism is the most frequent and earliest endocrine complication of cystinosis is unknown. We here defined early alterations in Ctns(-/-) mice thyroid and identified subcellular and molecular mechanisms. At 9 months, T4 and T3 plasma levels were normal and TSH was moderately increased (∼4-fold). By histology, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of most follicles preceded colloid exhaustion. Increased immunolabeling for thyrocyte proliferation and apoptotic shedding indicated accelerated cell turnover. Electron microscopy revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dilation, apical lamellipodia indicating macropinocytic colloid uptake, and lysosomal cystine crystals. Tg accumulation in dilated ER contrasted with mRNA down-regulation. Increased expression of ER chaperones, glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa and protein disulfide isomerase, associated with alternative X-box binding protein-1 splicing, revealed unfolded protein response (UPR) activation by ER stress. Decreased Tg mRNA and ER stress suggested reduced Tg synthesis. Coordinated increase of UPR markers, activating transcription factor-4 and C/EBP homologous protein, linked ER stress to apoptosis. Hormonogenic cathepsins were not altered, but lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 immunolabeling disclosed enlarged vesicles containing iodo-Tg and impaired lysosomal fusion. Isopycnic fractionation showed iodo-Tg accumulation in denser lysosomes, suggesting defective lysosomal processing and hormone release. In conclusion, Ctns(-/-) mice showed the following alterations: 1) compensated primary hypothyroidism and accelerated thyrocyte turnover; 2) impaired Tg production linked to ER stress/UPR response; and 3) altered endolysosomal trafficking and iodo-Tg processing. The Ctns(-/-) thyroid is useful to study disease progression and evaluate novel therapies. PMID:25811319

  1. Characterization of Protein Unfolding with Solid-state Nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiali; Fologea, Daniel; Rollings, Ryan; Ledden, Brad

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we review the process of protein unfolding characterized by a solid-state nanopore based device. The occupied or excluded volume of a protein molecule in a nanopore depends on the protein’s conformation or shape. A folded protein has a larger excluded volume in a nanopore thus it blocks more ionic current flow than its unfolded form and produces a greater current blockage amplitude. The time duration a protein stays in a pore also depends on the protein’s folding state. We use Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a model protein to discuss this current blockage amplitude and the time duration associated with the protein unfolding process. BSA molecules were measured in folded, partially unfolded, and completely unfolded conformations in solid-state nanopores. We discuss experimental results, data analysis, and theoretical considerations of BSA protein unfolding measured with silicon nitride nanopores. We show this nanopore method is capable of characterizing a protein’s unfolding process at single molecule level. Problems and future studies in characterization of protein unfolding using a solid-state nanopore device will also be discussed. PMID:24370259

  2. Anticipatory estrogen activation of the unfolded protein response is linked to cell proliferation and poor survival in estrogen receptor α-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Andruska, N; Zheng, X; Yang, X; Helferich, W G; Shapiro, D J

    2015-07-01

    In response to cell stress, cancer cells often activate the endoplasmic reticulum (EnR) stress sensor, the unfolded protein response (UPR). Little was known about the potential role in cancer of a different mode of UPR activation, anticipatory activation of the UPR prior to accumulation of unfolded protein or cell stress. We show that estrogen, acting via estrogen receptor α (ERα), induces rapid anticipatory activation of the UPR, resulting in increased production of the antiapoptotic chaperone BiP/GRP78, preparing cancer cells for the increased protein production required for subsequent estrogen-ERα-induced cell proliferation. In ERα-containing cancer cells, the estrogen, 17β-estradiol (E2) activates the UPR through a phospholipase C γ (PLCγ)-mediated opening of EnR IP3R calcium channels, enabling passage of calcium from the lumen of the EnR into the cytosol. siRNA knockdown of ERα blocked the estrogen-mediated increase in cytosol calcium and UPR activation. Knockdown or inhibition of PLCγ, or of IP3R, strongly inhibited the estrogen-mediated increases in cytosol calcium, UPR activation and cell proliferation. E2-ERα activates all three arms of the UPR in breast and ovarian cancer cells in culture and in a mouse xenograft. Knockdown of ATF6α, which regulates UPR chaperones, blocked estrogen induction of BiP and strongly inhibited E2-ERα-stimulated cell proliferation. Mild and transient UPR activation by estrogen promotes an adaptive UPR response that protects cells against subsequent UPR-mediated apoptosis. Analysis of data from ERα(+) breast cancers demonstrates elevated expression of a UPR gene signature that is a powerful new prognostic marker tightly correlated with subsequent resistance to tamoxifen therapy, reduced time to recurrence and poor survival. Thus, as an early component of the E2-ERα proliferation program, the mitogen estrogen, drives rapid anticipatory activation of the UPR. Anticipatory activation of the UPR is a new role for estrogens in cancer cell proliferation and resistance to therapy. PMID:25263449

  3. IRE-1/XBP-1 pathway of the unfolded protein response is required for properly localizing neuronal UNC-6/Netrin for axon guidance in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Taro; Ogura, Ken-ichi; Goshima, Yoshio

    2015-03-01

    During developing nervous system, neurons project axons to their targets precisely. In this process, axon guidance molecules provide positional information to the axons. Therefore, the spatially and temporally controlled localization of the axon guidance molecules is required for the proper structure formation of the complex nervous system. In C. elegans, UNC-6/Netrin is a secreted protein that elicits both attractive and repulsive response in axon guidance. UNC-6/Netrin secreted from ventral cells may establish a concentration gradient from the ventral to the dorsal side of the animal, thus providing dorso-ventral positional information. However, the mechanisms specifying positional information of UNC-6/Netrin are largely unknown. Here, we show that the ire-1/xbp-1 pathway of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is required for axonal distribution of UNC-6/Netrin in the ventral neurons. In addition, the ire-1/xbp-1 pathway is also required for dorso-ventral axon guidance mediated by UNC-6/Netrin. Our results suggest that the ire-1/xbp-1 pathway of the UPR is crucial for establishing positional information of UNC-6/Netrin. We propose that the proper secretion of UNC-6/Netrin from the ventral neurons requires the activity of IRE-1. PMID:25469499

  4. The Graded Unfolding Model: A Unidimensional Item Response Model for Unfolding Graded Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James S.; Laughlin, James E.

    Binary or graded disagree-agree responses to attitude items are often collected for the purpose of attitude measurement. Although such data are sometimes analyzed with cumulative measurement models, recent investigations suggest that unfolding models are more appropriate (J. S. Roberts, 1995; W. H. Van Schuur and H. A. L. Kiers, 1994). Advances in…

  5. Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 infection activates the unfolded protein response in MDBK cells, leading to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kouji; Fujihara, Masatoshi; Harasawa, Ryô

    2009-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) strains are divided into cytopathic and non-cytopathic biotypes based on the ablity to induce cytopathic effects in cultured cells. The mechanism of cytopathogenicity of BVDV-2 is not well understood. We examined cytopathogenesis in MDBK cells resulting from BVDV-2 infections by microscopic examinations and microarray analysis. We found that BVDV-2 activates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathways that contribute to apoptosis of infected cells. We also monitored the expression of ER stress marker gene by RT-PCR during BVDV-2 infection and demonstrated that infection of MDBK cells with a cytopathic strain of BVDV-2 induces glucose-regulated protein 78 expression. Infection with BVDV-2 also induces DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 expression and downregulates the lectin-galactoside-binding soluble 1 level. These results show that cytopathic strains of BVDV-2 induce an ER stress response resulting in apoptosis. PMID:19578292

  6. Unfolded protein response regulates yeast small GTPase Arl1p activation at late Golgi via phosphorylation of Arf GEF Syt1p.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jia-Wei; Tang, Pei-Hua; Wang, I-Hao; Liu, Chia-Lun; Chen, Wen-Hui; Tsai, Pei-Chin; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Jung; Yu, Chia-Jung; Lee, Fang-Jen S

    2016-03-22

    ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) GTPases are key regulators of membrane traffic at the Golgi complex. In yeast, Arf guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) Syt1p activates Arf-like protein Arl1p, which was accompanied by accumulation of golgin Imh1p at late Golgi, but whether and how this function of Syt1p is regulated remains unclear. Here, we report that the inositol-requiring kinase 1 (Ire1p)-mediated unfolded protein response (UPR) modulated Arl1p activation at late Golgi. Arl1p activation was dependent on both kinase and endo-RNase activities of Ire1p. Moreover, constitutively active transcription factor Hac1p restored the Golgi localization of Arl1p and Imh1p inIRE1-deleted cells. Elucidating the mechanism of Ire1p-Hac1p axis actions, we found that it regulated phosphorylation of Syt1p, which enhances Arl1p activation, recruitment of Imh1p to the Golgi, and Syt1p interaction with Arl1p. Consistent with these findings, the induction of UPR by tunicamycin treatment increases phosphorylation of Syt1p, resulting in Arl1p activation. Thus, these findings clarify how the UPR influences the roles of Syt1p, Arl1p, and Imh1p in Golgi transport. PMID:26966233

  7. Failure of the Adaptive Unfolded Protein Response in Islets of Obese Mice Is Linked With Abnormalities in β-Cell Gene Expression and Progression to Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jeng Yie; Luzuriaga, Jude; Bensellam, Mohammed; Biden, Trevor J.; Laybutt, D. Ross

    2013-01-01

    The normal β-cell response to obesity-associated insulin resistance is hypersecretion of insulin. Type 2 diabetes develops in subjects with β-cells that are susceptible to failure. Here, we investigated the time-dependent gene expression changes in islets of diabetes-prone db/db and diabetes-resistant ob/ob mice. The expressions of adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) genes were progressively induced in islets of ob/ob mice, whereas they declined in diabetic db/db mice. Genes important for β-cell function and maintenance of the islet phenotype were reduced with time in db/db mice, whereas they were preserved in ob/ob mice. Inflammation and antioxidant genes displayed time-dependent upregulation in db/db islets but were unchanged in ob/ob islets. Treatment of db/db mouse islets with the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid partially restored the changes in several β-cell function genes and transcription factors but did not affect inflammation or antioxidant gene expression. These data suggest that the maintenance (or suppression) of the adaptive UPR is associated with β-cell compensation (or failure) in obese mice. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and a progressive loss of β-cell differentiation accompany diabetes progression. The ability to maintain the adaptive UPR in islets may protect against the gene expression changes that underlie diabetes development in obese mice. PMID:23274897

  8. The bZIP Transcription Factor HAC-1 Is Involved in the Unfolded Protein Response and Is Necessary for Growth on Cellulose in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Larrondo, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    High protein secretion capacity in filamentous fungi requires an extremely efficient system for protein synthesis, folding and transport. When the folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is exceeded, a pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) is triggered, allowing cells to mitigate and cope with this stress. In yeast, this pathway relies on the transcription factor Hac1, which mediates the up-regulation of several genes required under these stressful conditions. In this work, we identified and characterized the ortholog of the yeast HAC1 gene in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We show that its mRNA undergoes an ER stress-dependent splicing reaction, which in N. crassa removes a 23 nt intron and leads to a change in the open reading frame. By disrupting the N. crassa hac-1 gene, we determined it to be crucial for activating UPR and for proper growth in the presence of ER stress-inducing chemical agents. Neurospora is naturally found growing on dead plant material, composed primarily by lignocellulose, and is a model organism for the study of plant cell wall deconstruction. Notably, we found that growth on cellulose, a substrate that requires secretion of numerous enzymes, imposes major demands on ER function and is dramatically impaired in the absence of hac-1, thus broadening the range of physiological functions of the UPR in filamentous fungi. Growth on hemicellulose however, another carbon source that necessitates the secretion of various enzymes for its deconstruction, is not impaired in the mutant nor is the amount of proteins secreted on this substrate, suggesting that secretion, as a whole, is unaltered in the absence of hac-1. The characterization of this signaling pathway in N. crassa will help in the study of plant cell wall deconstruction by fungi and its manipulation may result in important industrial biotechnological applications. PMID:26132395

  9. Monocrotaline pyrrole-induced megalocytosis of lung and breast epithelial cells: Disruption of plasma membrane and Golgi dynamics and an enhanced unfolded protein response

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra; Shah, Mehul; Patel, Kirit; Sehgal, Pravin B. . E-mail: pravin_sehgal@nymc.edu

    2006-03-15

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline (MCT) initiates pulmonary hypertension by inducing a 'megalocytosis' phenotype in target pulmonary arterial endothelial, smooth muscle and Type II alveolar epithelial cells. In cultured endothelial cells, a single exposure to the pyrrolic derivative of monocrotaline (MCTP) results in large cells with enlarged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi and increased vacuoles. However, these cells fail to enter mitosis. Largely based upon data from endothelial cells, we proposed earlier that a disruption of the trafficking and mitosis-sensor functions of the Golgi (the 'Golgi blockade' hypothesis) may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to MCTP-induced megalocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the applicability of the Golgi blockade hypothesis to epithelial cells. MCTP induced marked megalocytosis in cultures of lung A549 and breast MCF-7 cells. This was associated with a change in the distribution of the cis-Golgi scaffolding protein GM130 from a discrete juxtanuclear localization to a circumnuclear distribution consistent with an anterograde block of GM130 trafficking to/through the Golgi. There was also a loss of plasma membrane caveolin-1 and E-cadherin, cortical actin together with a circumnuclear accumulation of clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and {alpha}-tubulin. Flotation analyses revealed losses/alterations in the association of caveolin-1, E-cadherin and CHC with raft microdomains. Moreover, megalocytosis was accompanied by an enhanced unfolded protein response (UPR) as evidenced by nuclear translocation of Ire1{alpha} and glucose regulated protein 58 (GRP58/ER-60/ERp57) and a circumnuclear accumulation of PERK kinase and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). These data further support the hypothesis that an MCTP-induced Golgi blockade and enhanced UPR may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to enlargement of ER and Golgi and subsequent megalocytosis.

  10. A synthetic chalcone, 2'-hydroxy-2,3,5'-trimethoxychalcone triggers unfolded protein response-mediated apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da Hyun; Jung Jung, You; Koh, Dongsoo; Lim, Yoongho; Lee, Young Han; Shin, Soon Young

    2016-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to find novel chemopreventive agents effective against breast cancer. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress can induce apoptosis through the unfolded protein response (UPR). 2'-Hydroxy-2,3,5'-trimethoxychalcone (DK143) is a synthetic flavonoid derivative. The present study provides evidence supporting the role of the UPR in mediating the apoptotic effect of DK143. Treatment with DK143 triggered apoptosis through the activation of the caspase pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells without affecting viability of MCF10A non-transformed breast epithelial cells. Further analysis revealed that DK143 produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MDA-MB-231 cells, but not in MCF10A cells, and upregulated the expression of ER stress sensors, including GRP78/BiP, IRE1α, CHOP, and Bim in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, UPR-related transcription factors, XBP-1 and CHOP, were activated by DK143. Moreover, silencing of IRE1α or CHOP by corresponding siRNA molecules attenuated DK143-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, DK143 suppressed mouse tumor growth in vivo. These results demonstrate that promoting ER stress in breast cancer cells via UPR induction might be a promising strategy for developing new chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive agents for breast cancer. PMID:26742460

  11. The Malat1 long non-coding RNA is upregulated by signalling through the PERK axis of unfolded protein response during flavivirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sankar; Vrati, Sudhanshu

    2015-01-01

    Flavivirus infection causes host cell death by initiation of an unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR is initiated following activation of three ER-membrane resident sensors, PERK, IRE1α and ATF6, which are otherwise kept inactive through association with the ER-chaperone GRP78. Activation precedes cellular and molecular changes that act to restore homeostasis but might eventually initiate apoptosis. These changes involve influencing function of multiple genes by either transcriptional or post-transcriptional or post-translational mechanisms. Transcriptional control includes expression of transcription factor cascades, which influence cognate gene expression. Malat1 is a long non-coding RNA which is over-expressed in many human oncogenic tissues and regulates cell cycle and survival. In this report, for the first time we show activation of Malat1 following infection by two flaviviruses, both of which activate the UPR in host cells. The temporal kinetics of expression was restricted to later time points. Further, Malat1 was also activated by pharmacological inducer of UPR, to a similar degree. Using drugs that specifically inhibit or activate the PERK or IRE1α sensors, we demonstrate that signalling through the PERK axis activates this expression, through a transcriptional mechanism. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an UPR pathway regulating the expression of an lncRNA. PMID:26634309

  12. Role of the unfolded protein response pathway in regulation of INO1 and in the sec14 bypass mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hak J; Jones, Elizabeth W; Henry, Susan A

    2002-01-01

    INO1, encoding inositol 1-phosphate synthase, is the most highly regulated of a class of genes containing the repeated element, UAS(INO), in their promoters. Transcription of UAS(INO)-containing genes is modulated by the availability of exogenous inositol and by signals generated by alteration of phospholipid metabolism. The unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway also is involved in INO1 expression and the ire1Delta and hac1Delta mutants are inositol auxotrophs. We examined the role of the UPR in transmitting a signal generated in response to inositol deprivation and to alteration of phospholipid biosynthesis created in the sec14(ts) cki1Delta genetic background. We report that the UPR is required for sustained high-level INO1 expression in wild-type strains, but not for transient derepression in response to inositol deprivation. Moreover, the UPR is not required for expression or regulation of INO1 in response to the change in lipid metabolism that occurs in the sec14(ts) cki1Delta genetic background. Thus, the UPR signal transduction pathway is not involved directly in transcriptional regulation of INO1 and other UAS(INO)-containing genes. However, we discovered that inactivation of Sec14p leads to activation of the UPR, and that sec14 cki1 strains exhibit defective vacuolar morphology, suggesting that the mechanism by which the cki1Delta mutation suppresses the growth and secretory defect of sec14 does not fully restore wild-type morphology. Finally, synthetic lethality involving sec14 and UPR mutations suggests that the UPR plays an essential role in survival of sec14 cki1 strains. PMID:12242221

  13. The aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza inflata can upregulate unfolded protein response-mediated chaperones to reduce tau misfolding in cell models of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kuo-Hsuan; Chen, I-Cheng; Lin, Hsuan-Yuan; Chen, Hsuan-Chiang; Lin, Chih-Hsin; Lin, Te-Hsien; Weng, Yu-Ting; Chao, Chih-Ying; Wu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Jung-Yaw; Lee-Chen, Guey-Jen; Chen, Chiung-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and several neurodegenerative disorders known as tauopathies are characterized by misfolding and aggregation of tau protein. Although several studies have suggested the potential of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as treatment for neurodegenerative diseases, the role of TCM in treating AD and tauopathies have not been well explored. Materials and methods Tau protein was coupled to the DsRed fluorophore by fusing a pro-aggregation mutant of repeat domain of tau (ΔK280 tauRD) with DsRed. The ΔK280 tauRD-DsRed fusion gene was then used to generate Tet-On 293 and SH-SY5Y cell clones as platforms to test the efficacy of 39 aqueous extracts of TCM in reducing tau misfolding and in neuroprotection. Results Seven TCM extracts demonstrated a significant reduction in tau misfolding and reactive oxidative species with low cytotoxicity in the ΔK280 tauRD-DsRed 293 cell model. Glycyrrhiza inflata and Panax ginseng also demonstrated the potential to improve neurite outgrowth in the ΔK280 tauRD-DsRed SH-SY5Y neuronal cell model. G. inflata further rescued the upregulation of ERN2 (pro-apoptotic) and downregulation of unfolded-protein-response-mediated chaperones ERP44, DNAJC3, and SERP1 in ΔK280 tauRD-DsRed 293 cells. Conclusion This in vitro study provides evidence that G. inflata may be a novel therapeutic for AD and tauopathies. Future applications of G. inflata on animal models of AD and tauopathies are warranted to corroborate its effect of reducing misfolding and potential disease modification. PMID:27013866

  14. Distinct roles of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) in transcription during the mammalian unfolded protein response.

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Hiderou; Akazawa, Rieko; Negishi, Manabu; Mori, Kazutoshi

    2002-01-01

    In response to accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a homoeostatic response, termed the unfolded protein response (UPR), is activated in all eukaryotic cells. The UPR involves only transcriptional regulation in yeast, and approx. 6% of all yeast genes, encoding not only proteins to augment the folding capacity in the ER, but also proteins working at various stages of secretion, are induced by ER stress [Travers, Patil, Wodicka, Lockhart, Weissman and Walter (2000) Cell (Cambridge, Mass.) 101, 249-258]. In the present study, we conducted microarray analysis of HeLa cells, although our analysis covered only a small fraction of the human genome. A great majority of human ER stress-inducible genes (approx. 1% of 1800 genes examined) were classified into two groups. One group consisted of genes encoding ER-resident molecular chaperones and folding enzymes, and these genes were directly regulated by the ER-membrane-bound transcription factor activating transcription factor (ATF) 6. The ER-membrane-bound protein kinase double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK)-mediated signalling pathway appeared to be responsible for induction of the remaining genes, which are not involved in secretion, but may be important after cellular recovery from ER stress. In higher eukaryotes, the PERK-mediated translational-attenuation system is known to operate in concert with the transcriptional-induction system. Thus we propose that mammalian cells have evolved a strategy to cope with ER stress different from that of yeast cells. PMID:12014989

  15. Revisiting volume changes in pressure-induced protein unfolding.

    PubMed

    Royer, Catherine A

    2002-03-25

    It has long been known that the application of hydrostatic pressure generally leads to the unfolding of proteins. Despite a relatively large number of reports in the literature over the past few decades, there has been great confusion over the sign and magnitude as well as the fundamental factors contributing to volume effects in protein conformational transitions. It is the goal of this review to present and discuss the results obtained concerning the sign and magnitude of the volume changes accompanying the unfolding of proteins. The vast majority of cases point to a significant decrease in volume upon unfolding. Nonetheless, there is evidence that, due to differences in the thermal expansivity of the folded and unfolded states of proteins reported in a half dozen manuscripts, that the sign of the volume change may become positive at higher temperatures. PMID:11983396

  16. Employing Multiple Spectroscopic Techniques Simultaneously to Observe Protein Unfolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Michael; Kelty, Ben; Link, Justin

    2015-03-01

    A protein's function is directly related to its native, folded structure. In order to study the structure of proteins, the unfolding process may be characterized. In our study, by using the spectroscopic techniques of circular dichroism (CD), absorption, and fluorescence simultaneously, we examined the unfolding of horse heart cytochrome c, a well-studied, model protein by gradually increasing the concentration of the chemical denaturant, guanidine hydrochloride. The signal changes from these modalities over the course of the unfolding reaction provides some of the thermodynamic properties like Gibbs free energy for insight into the stability of the protein. This allows us to compare the three techniques under the exact same conditions. The objective of this session is to present recent work in developing a protocol to observe the unfolding of cytochrome c using fluorescence, absorbance, and CD simultaneously.

  17. Alzheimer's disease-related peptide PS2V plays ancient, conserved roles in suppression of the unfolded protein response under hypoxia and stimulation of γ-secretase activity.

    PubMed

    Moussavi Nik, Seyyed Hani; Newman, Morgan; Wilson, Lachlan; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Wells, Simon; Musgrave, Ian; Verdile, Giuseppe; Martins, Ralph N; Lardelli, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The PRESENILIN1 and PRESENILIN2 genes encode structurally related proteases essential for γ-secretase activity. Of nearly 200 PRESENILIN mutations causing early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) only the K115Efx10 mutation of PSEN2 causes truncation of the open reading frame. If translated, the truncated product would resemble a naturally occurring isoform of PSEN2 named PS2V that is induced by hypoxia and found at elevated levels in late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. The function of PS2V is largely unexplored. We show that zebrafish possess a PS2V-like isoform, PS1IV, produced from the fish's PSEN1 rather than PSEN2 orthologous gene. The molecular mechanism controlling formation of PS2V/PS1IV was probably present in the ancient common ancestor of the PSEN1 and PSEN2 genes. Human PS2V and zebrafish PS1IV have highly divergent structures but conserved abilities to stimulate γ-secretase activity and to suppress the unfolded protein response (UPR) under hypoxia. The putative protein truncation caused by K115Efx10 resembles PS2V in its ability to increase γ-secretase activity and suppress the UPR. This supports increased Aβ levels as a common link between K115Efx10 early onset AD and sporadic, late onset AD. The ability of mutant variants of PS2V to stimulate γ-secretase activity partially correlates with their ability to suppress the UPR. The cytosolic, transmembrane and luminal domains of PS2V are all critical to its γ-secretase and UPR-suppression activities. Our data support a model in which chronic hypoxia in aged brains promotes excessive Notch signalling and accumulation of Aβ that contribute to AD pathogenesis. PMID:25814654

  18. Modulation of the rate of retinal degeneration in T17M RHO mice by reprogramming the Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Shreyasi; Nashine, Sonali; Bhootada, Yogesh; Kunte, Mansi Motiwale; Gorbatyuk, Oleg; Lewin, Alfred S.; Gorbatyuk, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to validate whether reprogramming of the UPR via modulation of pro-apoptotic caspase-7 and CHOP proteins could be an effective approach to slow down the rate of retinal degeneration in ADRP mice. In order to pursue our goal we created the T17M RHO CASP7 and T17M RHO CHOP mice to study the impact of the CASP7 or CHOP ablations in T17M RHO retina by ERG, SD-OCT, histology and western blot analysis. The scotopic ERG demonstrated that the ablation of the CASP7 in T17M RHO retina leads to significant preservation of the function of photoreceptors compared to control. Surprisingly, the ablation of pro-apoptotic CHOP protein in T17M RHO mice led to a more severe form of retinal degeneration. Results of the SD-OCT and histology were in agreement with the ERG data. The further analysis demonstrated that the preservation of the structure and function or the acceleration of the onset of the T17M RHO photoreceptor degeneration occurred via reprogramming of the UPR. In addition, the CASP7 ablation leads to the inhibition of cJUN mediated apoptosis, while the ablation of CHOP induces an increase in the HDAC. Thus, manipulation with the UPR requires careful examination in order to achieve a therapeutic effect. PMID:24664731

  19. Modulation of the rate of retinal degeneration in T17M RHO mice by reprogramming the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Shreyasi; Nashine, Sonali; Bhootada, Yogesh; Kunte, Mansi Motiwale; Gorbatyuk, Oleg; Lewin, Alfred S; Gorbatyuk, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to validate whether reprogramming of the UPR via modulation of pro-apoptotic caspase-7 and CHOP proteins could be an effective approach to slow down the rate of retinal degeneration in ADRP mice. In order to pursue our goal we created the T17M RHO CASP7 and T17M RHO CHOP mice to study the impact of the CASP7 or CHOP ablations in T17M RHO retina by ERG, SD-OCT, histology and western blot analysis. The scotopic ERG demonstrated that the ablation of the CASP7 in T17M RHO retina leads to significant preservation of the function of photoreceptors compared to control. Surprisingly, the ablation of pro-apoptotic CHOP protein in T17M RHO mice led to a more severe form of retinal degeneration. Results of the SD-OCT and histology were in agreement with the ERG data. The further analysis demonstrated that the preservation of the structure and function or the acceleration of the onset of the T17M RHO photoreceptor degeneration occurred via reprogramming of the UPR. In addition, the CASP7 ablation leads to the inhibition of cJUN mediated apoptosis, while the ablation of CHOP induces an increase in the HDAC. Thus, manipulation with the UPR requires careful examination in order to achieve a therapeutic effect. PMID:24664731

  20. Unfolded protein ensembles, folding trajectories, and refolding rate prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, A.; Sin, B. K.; Mohazab, A. R.; Plotkin, S. S.

    2013-09-01

    Computer simulations can provide critical information on the unfolded ensemble of proteins under physiological conditions, by explicitly characterizing the geometrical properties of the diverse conformations that are sampled in the unfolded state. A general computational analysis across many proteins has not been implemented however. Here, we develop a method for generating a diverse conformational ensemble, to characterize properties of the unfolded states of intrinsically disordered or intrinsically folded proteins. The method allows unfolded proteins to retain disulfide bonds. We examined physical properties of the unfolded ensembles of several proteins, including chemical shifts, clustering properties, and scaling exponents for the radius of gyration with polymer length. A problem relating simulated and experimental residual dipolar couplings is discussed. We apply our generated ensembles to the problem of folding kinetics, by examining whether the ensembles of some proteins are closer geometrically to their folded structures than others. We find that for a randomly selected dataset of 15 non-homologous 2- and 3-state proteins, quantities such as the average root mean squared deviation between the folded structure and unfolded ensemble correlate with folding rates as strongly as absolute contact order. We introduce a new order parameter that measures the distance travelled per residue, which naturally partitions into a smooth "laminar" and subsequent "turbulent" part of the trajectory. This latter conceptually simple measure with no fitting parameters predicts folding rates in 0 M denaturant with remarkable accuracy (r = -0.95, p = 1 10-7). The high correlation between folding times and sterically modulated, reconfigurational motion supports the rapid collapse of proteins prior to the transition state as a generic feature in the folding of both two-state and multi-state proteins. This method for generating unfolded ensembles provides a powerful approach to address various questions in protein evolution, misfolding and aggregation, transient structures, and molten globule and disordered protein phases.

  1. Urea unfolding of peptide helices as a model for interpreting protein unfolding.

    PubMed Central

    Scholtz, J M; Barrick, D; York, E J; Stewart, J M; Baldwin, R L

    1995-01-01

    To provide a model system for understanding how the unfolding of protein alpha-helices by urea contributes to protein denaturation, urea unfolding was measured for a homologous series of helical peptides with the repeating sequence Ala-Glu-Ala-Ala-Lys-Ala and chain lengths varying from 14 to 50 residues. The dependence of the helix propagation parameter of the Zimm-Bragg model for helix-coil transition theory (s) on urea molarity ([urea]) was determined at 0 degree C with data for the entire set of peptides, and a linear dependence of In s on [urea] was found. The results were fitted by the binding-site model and by the solvent-exchange model for the interaction of urea with the peptides. Each of these thermodynamic models is able to describe the data quite well and we are not able to discern any difference between the ability of each model to fit the data. Thus a linear relation, ln s = ln s0 - (m/RT).[urea], fits the data for alpha-helix unfolding, just as others have found for protein unfolding. When the m value determined here for alpha-helix unfolding is multiplied by the number of helical residues in partly helical protein molecules, the resulting values agree within a factor of 2 with observed m values for these proteins. This result indicates that the interaction between urea and peptide groups accounts for a major part of the denaturing action of urea on proteins, as predicted earlier by some model studies with small molecules. PMID:7816813

  2. Signature of protein unfolding in chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging.

    PubMed

    Goerke, Steffen; Zaiss, Moritz; Kunz, Patrick; Klika, Karel D; Windschuh, Johannes D; Mogk, Axel; Bukau, Bernd; Ladd, Mark E; Bachert, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) allows the detection of metabolites of low concentration in tissue with nearly the sensitivity of MRI with water protons. With this spectroscopic imaging approach, several tissue-specific CEST effects have been observed in vivo. Some of these originate from exchanging sites of proteins, such as backbone amide protons, or from aliphatic protons within the hydrophobic protein core. In this work, we employed CEST experiments to detect global protein unfolding. Spectral evaluation revealed exchange- and NOE-mediated CEST effects that varied in a highly characteristic manner with protein unfolding tracked by fluorescence spectroscopy. We suggest the use of this comprehensive spectral signature for the detection of protein unfolding by CEST, as it relies on several spectral hallmarks. As proof of principle, we demonstrate that the presented signature is readily detectable using a whole-body MR tomograph (B0  = 7 T), not only in denatured aqueous protein solutions, but also in heat-shocked yeast cells. A CEST imaging contrast with the potential to detect global protein unfolding would be of particular interest regarding protein unfolding as a marker for stress, ageing, and disease. PMID:26010522

  3. Up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress induced genes of the unfolded protein response in the liver of periparturient dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In dairy cows, the periparturient phase is a stressful period, which is commonly associated with strong metabolic adaptations and the development of pathophysiologic conditions and disorders. Some of the symptoms occurring in the liver, such as the development of fatty liver, are similar to those observed under the condition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Therefore, we hypothesized, that in the liver of dairy cows ER stress is induced during the periparturient phase, which in turn leads to an induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). In order to investigate this hypothesis, we determined relative mRNA concentrations of 14 genes of the ER stress-induced UPR in liver biopsy samples of 13 dairy cows at 3 wk antepartum and 1, 5 and 14 wk postpartum. Results We found, that the mRNA concentrations of 13 out of the 14 genes involved in the UPR in the liver were significantly increased (1.9 to 4.0 fold) at 1 wk postpartum compared to 3 wk antepartum. From 1 wk postpartum to later lactation, mRNA concentrations of all the genes considered were declining. Moreover, at 1 wk postpartum, mRNA concentration of the spliced variant of XBP1 was increased in comparison to 3 wk antepartum, indicating that splicing of XBP1 – a hallmark of ER stress - was induced following the onset of lactation. Conclusion The present study reveals, that ER stress might be induced during the periparturient phase in the liver of dairy cows. We assume that the ER stress-induced UPR might contribute to the pathophysiologic conditions commonly observed in the liver of periparturient cows, such as the development of fatty liver, ketosis or inflammation. PMID:24555446

  4. Cytotoxic activity of the casein kinase 2 inhibitor CX-4945 against T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: targeting the unfolded protein response signaling.

    PubMed

    Buontempo, F; Orsini, E; Martins, L R; Antunes, I; Lonetti, A; Chiarini, F; Tabellini, G; Evangelisti, C; Evangelisti, C; Melchionda, F; Pession, A; Bertaina, A; Locatelli, F; McCubrey, J A; Cappellini, A; Barata, J T; Martelli, A M

    2014-03-01

    Constitutively active casein kinase 2 (CK2) signaling is a common feature of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). CK2 phosphorylates PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) tumor suppressor, resulting in PTEN stabilization and functional inactivation. Downregulation of PTEN activity has an impact on PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, which is of fundamental importance for T-ALL cell survival. These observations lend compelling weight to the application of CK2 inhibitors in the therapy of T-ALL. Here, we have analyzed the therapeutic potential of CX-4945-a novel, highly specific, orally available, ATP-competitive inhibitor of CK2α. We show that CX-4945 treatment induced apoptosis in T-ALL cell lines and patient T lymphoblasts. CX-4945 downregulated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in leukemic cells. Notably, CX-4945 affected the unfolded protein response (UPR), as demonstrated by a significant decrease in the levels of the main UPR regulator GRP78/BIP, and led to apoptosis via upregulation of the ER stress/UPR cell death mediators IRE1α and CHOP. In vivo administration of CX-4945 to a subcutaneous xenotransplant model of human T-ALL significantly delayed tumor growth. Our findings indicate that modulation of the ER stress/UPR signaling through CK2 inhibition could be exploited for inducing apoptosis in T-ALL cells and that CX-4945 may be an efficient treatment for those T-ALLs displaying upregulation of CK2α/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling. PMID:24253024

  5. PERK regulated miR-424(322)-503 cluster fine-tunes activation of IRE1 and ATF6 during Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ananya; Hossain, Muhammad Mosaraf; Read, Danielle E.; Hetz, Claudio; Samali, Afshin; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) responds to changes in intracellular homeostasis through activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR can facilitate the restoration of cellular homeostasis, via the concerted activation of three ER stress sensors, namely IRE1, PERK and ATF6. Global approaches in several cellular contexts have revealed that UPR regulates the expression of many miRNAs that play an important role in the regulation of life and death decisions during UPR. Here we show that expression of miR-424(322)-503 cluster is downregulated during UPR. IRE1 inhibitor (4??8C) and deficiency of XBP1 had no effect on downregulation of miR-424(322)-503 during UPR. Treatment of cells with CCT030312, a selective activator of EIF2AK3/PERK signalling, leads to the downregulation of miR-424(322)-503 expression. The repression of miR-424(322)-503 cluster during conditions of ER stress is compromised in PERK-deficient MEFs. miR-424 regulates the expression of ATF6 via a miR-424 binding site in its 3? UTR and attenuates the ATF6 transcriptional activity during UPR. Further miR-424 had no effect on IRE1-XBP1 axis but enhanced the regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD). Our results suggest that miR-424 constitutes an obligatory fine-tuning mechanism where PERK-mediated downregulation of miR-424(322)-503 cluster regulates optimal activation of IRE1 and ATF6 during conditions of ER stress. PMID:26674075

  6. Exclusion of the Unfolded Protein Response in Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration in the Canine T4R RHO Model of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Marsili, Stefania; Genini, Sem; Sudharsan, Raghavi; Gingrich, Jeremy; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Beltran, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) following acute light damage in the naturally-occurring canine model of RHO-adRP (T4R RHO dog). Methods The left eyes of T4R RHO dogs were briefly light-exposed and retinas collected 3, 6 and 24 hours later. The contra-lateral eyes were shielded and used as controls. To evaluate the time course of cell death, histology and TUNEL assays were performed. Electron microscopy was used to examine ultrastructural alterations in photoreceptors at 15 min, 1 hour, and 6 hours after light exposure. Gene expression of markers of ER stress and UPR were assessed by RT-PCR, qRT-PCR and western blot at the 6 hour time-point. Calpain and caspase-3 activation were assessed at 1, 3 and 6 hours after exposure. Results A brief exposure to clinically-relevant levels of white light causes within minutes acute disruption of the rod outer segment disc membranes, followed by prominent ultrastructural alterations in the inner segments and the initiation of cell death by 6 hours. Activation of the PERK and IRE1 pathways, and downstream targets (BIP, CHOP) of the UPR was not observed. However increased transcription of caspase-12 and hsp70 occurred, as well as calpain activation, but not that of caspase-3. Conclusion The UPR is not activated in the early phase of light-induced photoreceptor cell death in the T4R RHO model. Instead, disruption in rods of disc and plasma membranes within minutes after light exposure followed by increase in calpain activity and caspase-12 expression suggests a different mechanism of degeneration. PMID:25695253

  7. Analysis and Interpretation of Single Molecule Protein Unfolding Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lannon, Herbert; Brujic, Jasna

    2012-02-01

    The kinetics of protein unfolding under a stretching force has been extensively studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) over the past decade [1]. Experimental artifacts at the single molecule level introduce uncertainties in the data analysis that have led to several competing physical models for the unfolding process. For example, the unfolding dynamics of the protein ubiquitin under constant force has been described by probability distributions as diverse as exponential [2,3], a sum of exponentials, log-normal [4], and more recently a function describing static disorder in the Arrhenius model [5]. A new method for data analysis is presented that utilizes maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) combined with other traditional statistical tests to unambiguously rank the consistency of these and other models with the experimental data. These techniques applied to the ubiquitin unfolding data shows that the probability of unfolding is best fit with a stretched exponential distribution, with important implications on the complexity of the mechanism of protein unfolding. [4pt] [1] Carrion-Vazquez, et. al. Springer Series in Biophys. 2006 [0pt] [2] Fernandez et. al. Science 2004 [0pt] [3] Brujic et. al. Nat. Phys 2006 [0pt] [4] Garcia-Manyes et. al. Biophys. J. 2007 [0pt] [5] Kuo et. al. PNAS 2010

  8. Differential activation of placental unfolded protein response pathways implies heterogeneity in causation of early- and late-onset pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Hong Wa; Atkinson, Daniel; Campion-Smith, Tim; Olovsson, Matts; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Burton, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    Based on gestational age at diagnosis and/or delivery, pre-eclampsia (PE) is commonly divided into early-onset (<34 weeks) and late-onset (≥34 weeks) forms. Recently, the distinction between ‘placental’ and ‘maternal’ causation has been proposed, with ‘placental’ cases being more frequently associated with early-onset and intrauterine growth restriction. To test whether molecular placental pathology varies according to clinical presentation, we investigated stress-signalling pathways, including unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways, MAPK stress pathways, heat-shock proteins and AMPKα in placentae delivered by caesarean section for clinical indications at different gestational ages. Controls included second-trimester, pre-term and normal-term placentae. BeWo cells were used to investigate how these pathways react to different severities of hypoxia–reoxygenation (H/R) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Activation of placental UPR and stress-response pathways, including P-IRE1α, ATF6, XBP-1, GRP78 and GRP94, P-p38/p38 and HSP70, was higher in early-onset PE than in both late-onset PE and normotensive controls (NTCs), with a clear inflection around 34 weeks. Placentae from ≥ 34 weeks PE and NTC were indistinguishable. Levels of UPR signalling were similar between second-trimester and term controls, but were significantly higher in pre-term ‘controls’ delivered vaginally for chorioamnionitis and other conditions. Severe H/R (1/20% O2) induced equivalent activation of UPR pathways, including P-eIF2α, ATF6, P-IRE1α, GRP78 and GRP94, in BeWo cells. By contrast, the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β induced only mild activation of P-eIF2α and GRP78. AKT, a central regulator of cell proliferation, was reduced in the < 34 weeks PE placentae and severe H/R-treated cells, but not in other conditions. These findings provide the first molecular evidence that placental stress may contribute to the pathophysiology of early-onset pre-eclampsia, whereas that is unlikely to be the case in the late-onset form of the syndrome. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:24931423

  9. Evidence of unfolded protein translocation through a protein nanopore.

    PubMed

    Pastoriza-Gallego, Manuela; Breton, Marie-France; Discala, Françoise; Auvray, Loïc; Betton, Jean-Michel; Pelta, Juan

    2014-11-25

    Protein nanopores are mainly used to study transport, unfolding, intrinsically disordered proteins, protein-pore interactions, and protein-ligand complexes. This single-molecule sensor for biomedical and biotechnological applications is promising but until now direct proof of protein translocation through a narrow channel is lacking. Here, we report the translocation of a chimera molecule through the aerolysin nanopore in the presence of a denaturing agent, guanidium chloride (1.5 M) and KCl (1 M). The chimera molecule is composed of the recombinant MalE protein with a unique cysteine residue at the C-terminal position covalently linked to a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of chimera molecules that have been effectively translocated from the cis to trans chamber of the set up. Comparing the electrical signature of the chimera related to the protein or oligonucleotide alone demonstrates that each type of molecule displays different dynamics in term of transport time, event frequency, and current blockade. This original approach provides the possibility to study protein translocation through different biological, artificial, and biomimetic nanopores or nanotubes. New future applications are now conceivable such as protein refolding at the nanopore exit, peptides and protein sequencing, and peptide characterization for diagnostics. PMID:25380310

  10. Effect of antimicrobial preservatives on partial protein unfolding and aggregation†

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, Regina L.; Singh, Surinder M.; Cabello-Villegas, Javier; Mallela, Krishna M. G.

    2014-01-01

    One-third of protein formulations are multi-dose. These require antimicrobial preservatives (APs); however, some APs have been shown to cause protein aggregation. Our previous work on a model protein cytochrome c indicated that partial protein unfolding, rather than complete unfolding, triggers aggregation. Here, we examined the relative strength of five commonly used APs on such unfolding and aggregation, and explored whether stabilizing the aggregation “hot-spot” reduces such aggregation. All APs induced protein aggregation in the order m-cresol > phenol > benzyl alcohol > phenoxyethanol > chlorobutanol. All these enhanced the partial protein unfolding that includes a local region which was predicted to be the aggregation “hot-spot”. The extent of destabilization correlated with the extent of aggregation. Further, we show that stabilizing the “hot-spot” reduces aggregation induced by all five APs. These results indicate that m-cresol causes the most protein aggregation, whereas chlorobutanol causes the least protein aggregation. The same protein region acts as the “hot-spot” for aggregation induced by different APs, implying that developing strategies to prevent protein aggregation induced by one AP will also work for others. PMID:23169345

  11. Rosiglitazone induces the unfolded protein response, but has no significant effect on cell viability, in monocytic and vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Caddy, J.; Isa, S.; Mainwaring, L.S.; Adam, E.; Roberts, A.; Lang, D.; Morris, R.H.K.; Thomas, A.W.; Webb, R.

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Rosiglitazone rapidly (30 min) inhibited microsomal Ca{sup 2+}ATPase activity (IC{sub 50} {approx}2 {mu}M). {yields} After 4 h rosiglitazone exposure, the UPR transcription factor XBP-1 was activated. {yields} Within 24-72 h, UPR target genes were upregulated, enhancing ER Ca{sup 2+} sequestration. {yields} Replenishment of ER Ca{sup 2+} stores appeared to restore normal cell physiology. {yields} Monocyte/VSMC viability was not decreased during 2 weeks' rosiglitazone treatment. -- Abstract: Given the safety concerns expressed over negative cardiovascular outcomes resulting from the clinical use of rosiglitazone, and the view that rosiglitazone exerts PPAR{gamma}-independent effects alongside its insulin-sensitising PPAR{gamma}-dependent effects, we hypothesised that rosiglitazone may trigger Unfolded Protein Responses (UPRs) due to disruptions in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} homeostasis within two cardiovascular cell types: monocytic (MM6) and vascular smooth muscle (A7r5) cells. In microsomal samples derived from both cell types, pre-incubation with rosiglitazone rapidly (30 min) brought about concentration-dependent PPAR{gamma}-independent inhibition of Ca{sup 2+}ATPase activity (IC{sub 50} {approx}2 {mu}M). Fluo-3 fluorimetric data demonstrated in intact cells that 1 h treatment with 1 or 10 {mu}M rosiglitazone caused Ca{sup 2+} ions to leak into the cytoplasm. Gene expression analysis showed that within 4 h of rosiglitazone exposure, the UPR transcription factor XBP-1 was activated (likely due to corresponding ER Ca{sup 2+} depletion), and the UPR target genes BiP and SERCA2b were subsequently upregulated within 24-72 h. After 72 h 1 or 10 {mu}M rosiglitazone treatment, microsomal Ca{sup 2+}ATPase activity increased to >2-fold of that seen in control microsomes, while [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} returned to basal, indicating that UPR-triggered SERCA2b upregulation was responsible for enhanced enzymatic Ca{sup 2+} sequestration within the ER. This appeared to be sufficient to replenish ER Ca{sup 2+} stores and restore normal cell physiology, as cell viability levels were not decreased due to rosiglitazone treatment throughout a 2-week study. Thus, incubation with 1-10 {mu}M rosiglitazone triggers the UPR, but does not prove cytotoxic, in cells of the cardiovascular system. This observation provides an important contribution to the current debate over the use of rosiglitazone in the clinical treatment of Type-2 Diabetes.

  12. Protein Unfolding by Biological Unfoldases: Insights from Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowski, Michał; Szymczak, Piotr; Carrión-Vázquez, Mariano; Cieplak, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The molecular determinants of the high efficiency of biological machines like unfoldases (e.g., the proteasome) are not well understood. We propose a model to study protein translocation into the chamber of biological unfoldases represented as a funnel. It is argued that translocation is a much faster way of unfolding a protein than end-to-end stretching, especially in a low-force regime, because it allows for a conformational freedom while concentrating local tension on consecutive regions of a protein chain and preventing refolding. This results in a serial unfolding of the protein structures dominated by unzipping. Thus, pulling against the unfoldase pore is an efficient catalyst of the unfolding reaction. We also show that the presence of the funnel makes the tension along the backbone of the substrate protein nonuniform even when the protein gets unfolded. Hence, the stalling force measured by single-molecule force spectroscopy techniques may be smaller than the traction force of the unfoldase motor. PMID:25296319

  13. Down-modulation of SEL1L, an Unfolded Protein Response and Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation Protein, Sensitizes Glioma Stem Cells to the Cytotoxic Effect of Valproic Acid*

    PubMed Central

    Cattaneo, Monica; Baronchelli, Simona; Schiffer, Davide; Mellai, Marta; Caldera, Valentina; Saccani, Gloria Jotti; Dalpra, Leda; Daga, Antonio; Orlandi, Rosaria; DeBlasio, Pasquale; Biunno, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), an histone deacetylase inhibitor, is emerging as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatments of gliomas by virtue of its ability to reactivate the expression of epigenetically silenced genes. VPA induces the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive pathway displaying a dichotomic yin yang characteristic; it initially contributes in safeguarding the malignant cell survival, whereas long-lasting activation favors a proapoptotic response. By triggering UPR, VPA might tip the balance between cellular adaptation and programmed cell death via the deregulation of protein homeostasis and induction of proteotoxicity. Here we aimed to investigate the impact of proteostasis on glioma stem cells (GSC) using VPA treatment combined with subversion of SEL1L, a crucial protein involved in homeostatic pathways, cancer aggressiveness, and stem cell state maintenance. We investigated the global expression of GSC lines untreated and treated with VPA, SEL1L interference, and GSC line response to VPA treatment by analyzing cell viability via MTT assay, neurosphere formation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress/UPR-responsive proteins. Moreover, SEL1L immunohistochemistry was performed on primary glial tumors. The results show that (i) VPA affects GSC lines viability and anchorage-dependent growth by inducing differentiative programs and cell cycle progression, (ii) SEL1L down-modulation synergy enhances VPA cytotoxic effects by influencing GSCs proliferation and self-renewal properties, and (iii) SEL1L expression is indicative of glioma proliferation rate, malignancy, and endoplasmic reticulum stress statuses. Targeting the proteostasis network in association to VPA treatment may provide an alternative approach to deplete GSC and improve glioma treatments. PMID:24311781

  14. Collapse of unfolded proteins in a mixture of denaturants.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhen; Das, Payel; Shakhnovich, Eugene I; Zhou, Ruhong

    2012-11-01

    Both urea and guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) are frequently used as protein denaturants. Given that proteins generally adopt extended or unfolded conformations in either aqueous urea or GdmCl, one might expect that the unfolded protein chains will remain or become further extended due to the addition of another denaturant. However, a collapse of denatured proteins is revealed using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations when a mixture of denaturants is used. Both hen egg-white lysozyme and protein L are found to undergo collapse in the denaturant mixture. The collapse of the protein conformational ensembles is accompanied by a decreased solubility and increased non-native self-interactions of hydrophobic residues in the urea/GdmCl mixture. The increase of non-native interactions rather than the native contacts indicates that the proteins experience a simple collapse transition from the fully denatured states. During the protein collapse, the relatively stronger denaturant GdmCl displays a higher tendency to be absorbed onto the protein surface due to their stronger electrostatic interactions with proteins. At the same time, urea molecules also accumulate near the protein surface, resulting in an enhanced "local crowding" for the protein near its first solvation shell. This rearrangement of denaturants near the protein surface and crowded local environment induce the protein collapse, mainly by burying their hydrophobic residues. These findings from molecular simulations are then further explained by a simple analytical model based on statistical mechanics. PMID:23057830

  15. [Unfolding chaperone as a prion protein relating molecule].

    PubMed

    Hachiya, Naomi S; Sakasegawa, Yuji; Kaneko, Kiyotoshi

    2003-11-01

    Prion protein exists in two different isoforms, a normal cellular isoform (PrPc) and an abnormal infectious isoform (PrPSc), the latter is a causative agent of prion disease such as mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Amino acid sequences of PrPc and PrPSc are identical, but their conformations are rather different; PrPc rich in non beta-sheet vs. PrPSc rich in beta-sheet isoform. Since the two isoforms have quite different conformation, this host factor might be a molecular chaperone, which enables to override an energy barrier between PrPc and PrPSc. To examine the protein unfolding activities against collectively folded structure exist or not, we constructed an assay system and purified a novel molecular chaperone. Unfolding, from S. cerevisiae. Unfolding consists of oligomeric ring-like structure with the central cavity and has an ATP-dependent protein Unfoldingg activity with broad specificity in vitro, of which targets included PrP in beta-sheet form, alpha-synuclein, and A beta protein. We have also found that mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells contained the activity. Treatment of this factor with an ATP-hydrolyzing enzyme, apyrase, caused the decrease in its protein Unfoldingg activity. It was suggested that the purified protein probably formed homo-oligomer consisting of 4-5 subunits and its activity was ATP-dependent. PMID:15152473

  16. Small-angle neutron scattering study of protein unfolding and refolding.

    PubMed

    Aswal, V K; Chodankar, S; Kohlbrecher, J; Vavrin, R; Wagh, A G

    2009-07-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering has been used to study protein unfolding and refolding in protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) due to perturbation in its native structure as induced by three different protein denaturating agents: urea, surfactant, and pressure. The BSA protein unfolds for urea concentrations greater than 4 M and is observed to be independent of the protein concentration. The addition of surfactant unfolds the protein by the formation of micellelike aggregates of surfactants along the unfolded polypeptide chains of the protein and depends on the ratio of surfactant to protein concentration. We make use of the dilution method to show the refolding of unfolded proteins in the presence of urea and surfactant. BSA does not show any protein unfolding up to the pressure of 450 MPa. The presence of urea and surfactant (for concentrations prior to inducing their own unfolding) has been used to examine pressure-induced unfolding of the protein at lower pressures. The protein unfolds at 200 MPa pressure in the presence of urea; however, no unfolding is observed with surfactant. The protein unfolding is shown to be reversible in all the above denaturating methods. PMID:19658746

  17. Ising Model Reprogramming of a Repeat Protein's Equilibrium Unfolding Pathway.

    PubMed

    Millership, C; Phillips, J J; Main, E R G

    2016-05-01

    Repeat proteins are formed from units of 20-40 aa that stack together into quasi one-dimensional non-globular structures. This modular repetitive construction means that, unlike globular proteins, a repeat protein's equilibrium folding and thus thermodynamic stability can be analysed using linear Ising models. Typically, homozipper Ising models have been used. These treat the repeat protein as a series of identical interacting subunits (the repeated motifs) that couple together to form the folded protein. However, they cannot describe subunits of differing stabilities. Here we show that a more sophisticated heteropolymer Ising model can be constructed and fitted to two new helix deletion series of consensus tetratricopeptide repeat proteins (CTPRs). This analysis, showing an asymmetric spread of stability between helices within CTPR ensembles, coupled with the Ising model's predictive qualities was then used to guide reprogramming of the unfolding pathway of a variant CTPR protein. The designed behaviour was engineered by introducing destabilising mutations that increased the thermodynamic asymmetry within a CTPR ensemble. The asymmetry caused the terminal α-helix to thermodynamically uncouple from the rest of the protein and preferentially unfold. This produced a specific, highly populated stable intermediate with a putative dimerisation interface. As such it is the first step in designing repeat proteins with function regulated by a conformational switch. PMID:26947150

  18. Amino acid substitutions in the non-structural proteins 4A or 4B modulate the induction of autophagy in West Nile virus infected cells independently of the activation of the unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for outbreaks of meningitis and encephalitis. Whereas the activation of autophagy in cells infected with other flaviviruses is well known, the interaction of WNV with the autophagic pathway still remains unclear and there are reports describing opposite findings obtained even analyzing the same viral strain. To clarify this controversy, we first analyzed the induction of autophagic features in cells infected with a panel of WNV strains. WNV was determined to induce autophagy in a strain dependent manner. We observed that all WNV strains or isolates analyzed, except for the WNV NY99 used, upregulated the autophagic pathway in infected cells. Interestingly, a variant derived from this WNV NY99 isolated from a persistently infected mouse increased LC3 modification and aggregation. Genome sequencing of this variant revealed only two non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions when compared to parental NY99 strain. These nucleotide substitutions introduced one amino acid replacement in NS4A and other in NS4B. Using genetically engineered viruses we showed that introduction of only one of these replacements was sufficient to upregulate the autophagic pathway. Thus, in this work we have shown that naturally occurring point mutations in the viral non-structural proteins NS4A and NS4B confer WNV with the ability to induce the hallmarks of autophagy such as LC3 modification and aggregation. Even more, the differences on the induction of an autophagic response observed among WNV variants in infected cells did not correlate with alterations on the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), suggesting an uncoupling of UPR and autophagy during flavivirus infection. The findings here reported could help to improve the knowledge of the cellular processes involved on flavivirus–host cell interactions and contribute to the design of effective strategies to combat these pathogens. PMID:25642225

  19. Backbone-driven collapse in unfolded protein chains.

    PubMed

    Teufel, Daniel P; Johnson, Christopher M; Lum, Jenifer K; Neuweiler, Hannes

    2011-06-01

    Collapse of unfolded protein chains is an early event in folding. It affects structural properties of intrinsically disordered proteins, which take a considerable fraction of the human proteome. Collapse is generally believed to be driven by hydrophobic forces imposed by the presence of nonpolar amino acid side chains. Contributions from backbone hydrogen bonds to protein folding and stability, however, are controversial. To date, the experimental dissection of side-chain and backbone contributions has not yet been achieved because both types of interactions are integral parts of protein structure. Here, we realized this goal by applying mutagenesis and chemical modification on a set of disordered peptides and proteins. We measured the protein dimensions and kinetics of intra-chain diffusion of modified polypeptides at the level of individual molecules using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, thereby avoiding artifacts commonly caused by aggregation of unfolded protein material in bulk. We found no contributions from side chains to collapse but, instead, identified backbone interactions as a source sufficient to form globules of native-like dimensions. The presence of backbone hydrogen bonds decreased polypeptide water solubility dramatically and accelerated the nanosecond kinetics of loop closure, in agreement with recent predictions from computer simulation. The presence of side chains, instead, slowed loop closure and modulated the dimensions of intrinsically disordered domains. It appeared that the transient formation of backbone interactions facilitates the diffusive search for productive conformations at the early stage of folding and within intrinsically disordered proteins. PMID:21497607

  20. Protein Unfolding Coupled to Ligand Binding: Differential Scanning Calorimetry Simulation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celej, Maria Soledad; Fidelio, Gerardo Daniel; Dassie, Sergio Alberto

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical description of thermal protein unfolding coupled to ligand binding is presented. The thermodynamic concepts are independent of the method used to monitor protein unfolding but a differential scanning calorimetry is being used as a tool for examining the unfolding process.

  1. Exploring Early Stages of the Chemical Unfolding of Proteins at the Proteome Scale

    PubMed Central

    Candotti, Michela; Prez, Alberto; Ferrer-Costa, Carles; Rueda, Manuel; Meyer, Tim; Gelp, Josep Llus; Orozco, Modesto

    2013-01-01

    After decades of using urea as denaturant, the kinetic role of this molecule in the unfolding process is still undefined: does urea actively induce protein unfolding or passively stabilize the unfolded state? By analyzing a set of 30 proteins (representative of all native folds) through extensive molecular dynamics simulations in denaturant (using a range of force-fields), we derived robust rules for urea unfolding that are valid at the proteome level. Irrespective of the protein fold, presence or absence of disulphide bridges, and secondary structure composition, urea concentrates in the first solvation shell of quasi-native proteins, but with a density lower than that of the fully unfolded state. The presence of urea does not alter the spontaneous vibration pattern of proteins. In fact, it reduces the magnitude of such vibrations, leading to a counterintuitive slow down of the atomic-motions that opposes unfolding. Urea stickiness and slow diffusion is, however, crucial for unfolding. Long residence urea molecules placed around the hydrophobic core are crucial to stabilize partially open structures generated by thermal fluctuations. Our simulations indicate that although urea does not favor the formation of partially open microstates, it is not a mere spectator of unfolding that simply displaces to the right of the folded??unfolded equilibrium. On the contrary, urea actively favors unfolding: it selects and stabilizes partially unfolded microstates, slowly driving the protein conformational ensemble far from the native one and also from the conformations sampled during thermal unfolding. PMID:24348236

  2. Reversed-phase chromatographic behavior of proteins in different unfolded states.

    PubMed

    Lin, S W; Karger, B L

    1990-01-19

    A series of standard small globular proteins in different unfolded states was studied by gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The retention parameters Z [slope of log capacity factor (k') vs. log molar concentration of organic modifier, 1-propanol, in the mobile phase] and log I (the value of log k' at 1 M 1-propanol) were derived from gradient retention data. Each protein in four different conformational states, i.e., folded, chromatographic surface-unfolded, urea-unfolded and disulfide-bridge reduced-unfolded, showed a variation of 10-fold in Z and up to 10(12)-fold in I values. For the different states of all the proteins studied, the order of Z and I values was as follows: folded much less than surface-unfolded less than urea-unfolded less than reduced-unfolded. The differences in the values of the coefficients suggest, in agreement with literature reports, that proteins with their disulfide bridges cleaved have the largest degree of unfolding. In addition, the Z and I values and solution refolding kinetics all suggest that chromatographic surface-unfolded proteins have a lower degree of unfolding than their urea-unfolded forms. It was also found that an additional chemical cross-link in lysozyme caused a significant decrease in the first-order rate constant of the surface-induced unfolding process. PMID:2324224

  3. Tannin-assisted aggregation of natively unfolded proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchi, D.; Narayanan, T.; Hagenmuller, D.; Baron, A.; Guyot, S.; Cabane, B.; Bouhallab, S.

    2008-06-01

    Tannin-protein interactions are essentially physical: hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond-mediated. We explored the tannin-assisted protein aggregation on the case of β-casein, which is a natively unfolded protein known for its ability to form micellar aggregates. We used several tannins with specified length. Our SAXS results show that small tannins increase the number of proteins per micelle, but keeping their size constant. It leads to a tannin-assisted compactization of micelles. Larger tannins, with linear dimensions greater than the crown width of micelles, lead to the aggregation of micelles by a bridging effect. Experimental results can be understood within a model where tannins are treated as effective enhancers of hydrophobic attraction between specific sites in proteins.

  4. Protein co-translocational unfolding depends on the direction of pulling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Larrea, David; Bayley, Hagan

    2014-09-01

    Protein unfolding and translocation through pores occurs during trafficking between organelles, protein degradation and bacterial toxin delivery. In vivo, co-translocational unfolding can be affected by the end of the polypeptide that is threaded into the pore first. Recently, we have shown that co-translocational unfolding can be followed in a model system at the single-molecule level, thereby unravelling molecular steps and their kinetics. Here, we show that the unfolding kinetics of the model substrate thioredoxin, when pulled through an α-haemolysin pore, differ markedly depending on whether the process is initiated from the C terminus or the N terminus. Further, when thioredoxin is pulled from the N terminus, the unfolding pathway bifurcates: some molecules finish unfolding quickly, while others finish ~100 times slower. Our findings have important implications for the understanding of biological unfolding mechanisms and in the application of nanopore technology for the detection of proteins and their modifications.

  5. The mechanochemistry of copper reports on the directionality of unfolding in model cupredoxin proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beedle, Amy E. M.; Lezamiz, Ainhoa; Stirnemann, Guillaume; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the directionality and sequence of protein unfolding is crucial to elucidate the underlying folding free energy landscape. An extra layer of complexity is added in metalloproteins, where a metal cofactor participates in the correct, functional fold of the protein. However, the precise mechanisms by which organometallic interactions are dynamically broken and reformed on (un)folding are largely unknown. Here we use single molecule force spectroscopy AFM combined with protein engineering and MD simulations to study the individual unfolding pathways of the blue-copper proteins azurin and plastocyanin. Using the nanomechanical properties of the native copper centre as a structurally embedded molecular reporter, we demonstrate that both proteins unfold via two independent, competing pathways. Our results provide experimental evidence of a novel kinetic partitioning scenario whereby the protein can stochastically unfold through two distinct main transition states placed at the N and C termini that dictate the direction in which unfolding occurs.

  6. The mechanochemistry of copper reports on the directionality of unfolding in model cupredoxin proteins

    PubMed Central

    Beedle, Amy E. M.; Lezamiz, Ainhoa; Stirnemann, Guillaume; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the directionality and sequence of protein unfolding is crucial to elucidate the underlying folding free energy landscape. An extra layer of complexity is added in metalloproteins, where a metal cofactor participates in the correct, functional fold of the protein. However, the precise mechanisms by which organometallic interactions are dynamically broken and reformed on (un)folding are largely unknown. Here we use single molecule force spectroscopy AFM combined with protein engineering and MD simulations to study the individual unfolding pathways of the blue-copper proteins azurin and plastocyanin. Using the nanomechanical properties of the native copper centre as a structurally embedded molecular reporter, we demonstrate that both proteins unfold via two independent, competing pathways. Our results provide experimental evidence of a novel kinetic partitioning scenario whereby the protein can stochastically unfold through two distinct main transition states placed at the N and C termini that dictate the direction in which unfolding occurs. PMID:26235284

  7. Preferential binding of an unfolded protein to DsbA.

    PubMed Central

    Frech, C; Wunderlich, M; Glockshuber, R; Schmid, F X

    1996-01-01

    The oxidoreductase DsbA from the periplasm of escherichia coli introduces disulfide bonds into proteins at an extremely high rate. During oxidation, a mixed disulfide is formed between DsbA and the folding protein chain, and this covalent intermediate reacts very rapidly either to form the oxidized protein or to revert back to oxidized DsbA. To investigate its properties, a stable form of the intermediate was produced by reacting the C33A variant of DsbA with a variant of RNase T1. We find that in this stable mixed disulfide the conformational stability of the substrate protein is decreased by 5 kJ/mol, whereas the conformational stability of DsbA is increased by 5 kJ/mol. This reciprocal effect suggests strongly that DsbA interacts with the unfolded substrate protein not only by the covalent disulfide bond, but also by preferential non-covalent interactions. The existence of a polypeptide binding site explains why DsbA oxidizes protein substrates much more rapidly than small thiol compounds. Such a very fast reaction is probably important for protein folding in the periplasm, because the accessibility of the thiol groups for DsbA can decrease rapidly when newly exported polypeptide chains begin to fold. PMID:8617214

  8. Sequence- and Temperature-Dependent Properties of Unfolded and Disordered Proteins from Atomistic Simulations.

    PubMed

    Zerze, Gül H; Best, Robert B; Mittal, Jeetain

    2015-11-19

    We use all-atom molecular simulation with explicit solvent to study the properties of selected intrinsically disordered proteins and unfolded states of foldable proteins, which include chain dimensions and shape, secondary structure propensity, solvent accessible surface area, and contact formation. We find that the qualitative scaling behavior of the chains matches expectations from theory under ambient conditions. In particular, unfolded globular proteins tend to be more collapsed under the same conditions than charged disordered sequences of the same length. However, inclusion of explicit solvent in addition naturally captures temperature-dependent solvation effects, which results in an initial collapse of the chains as temperature is increased, in qualitative agreement with experiment. There is a universal origin to the collapse, revealed in the change of hydration of individual residues as a function of temperature: namely, that the initial collapse is driven by unfavorable solvation free energy of individual residues, which in turn has a strong temperature dependence. We also observe that in unfolded globular proteins, increased temperature also initially favors formation of native-like (rather than non-native-like) structure. Our results help to establish how sequence encodes the degree of intrinsic disorder or order as well as its response to changes in environmental conditions. PMID:26498157

  9. SANS and DLS Studies of Protein Unfolding in Presence of Urea and Surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Aswal, V. K.; Chodankar, S. N.; Wagh, A. G.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Vavrin, R.

    2008-03-17

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) have been used to study conformational changes in protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) during its unfolding in presence of protein denaturating agents urea and surfactant. On addition of urea, the BSA protein unfolds for urea concentrations greater than 4 M and acquires a random coil configuration with its radius of gyration increasing with urea concentration. The addition of surfactant unfolds the protein by the formation of micelle-like aggregates of surfactants along the unfolded polypeptide chains of the protein. The fractal dimension of such a protein-surfactant complex decreases and the overall size of the complex increases on increasing the surfactant concentration. The conformation of the unfolded protein in the complex has been determined directly using contrast variation SANS measurements by contrast matching the surfactant to the medium. Results of DLS measurements are found to be in good agreement with those obtained using SANS.

  10. Protein unfolding in detergents: effect of micelle structure, ionic strength, pH, and temperature.

    PubMed Central

    Otzen, Daniel E

    2002-01-01

    The 101-residue monomeric protein S6 unfolds in the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) above the critical micelle concentration, with unfolding rates varying according to two different modes. Our group has proposed that spherical micelles lead to saturation kinetics in unfolding (mode 1), while cylindrical micelles prevalent at higher SDS concentrations induce a power-law dependent increase in the unfolding rate (mode 2). Here I investigate in more detail how micellar properties affect protein unfolding. High NaCl concentrations, which induce cylindrical micelles, favor mode 2. This is consistent with our model, though other effects such as electrostatic screening cannot be discounted. Furthermore, unfolding does not occur in mode 2 in the cationic detergent LTAB, which is unable to form cylindrical micelles. A strong retardation of unfolding occurs at higher LTAB concentrations, possibly due to the formation of dead-end protein-detergent complexes. A similar, albeit much weaker, effect is seen in SDS in the absence of salt. Chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 exhibits the same modes of unfolding in SDS as S6, indicating that this type of protein unfolding is not specific for S6. The unfolding process in mode 1 has an activation barrier similar in magnitude to that in water, while the activation barrier in mode 2 is strongly concentration-dependent. The strong pH-dependence of unfolding in SDS and LTAB suggests that the rate of unfolding in anionic detergent is modulated by repulsion between detergent headgroups and anionic side chains, while cationic side chains modulate unfolding rates in cationic detergents. PMID:12324439

  11. Unfolding the Role of Stress Response Signaling in Endocrine Resistant Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Robert; Cook, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an ancient stress response that enables a cell to manage the energetic stress that accompanies protein folding. There has been a significant recent increase in our understanding of the UPR, how it integrates physiological processes within cells, and how this integration can affect cancer cells and cell fate decisions. Recent publications have highlighted the role of UPR signaling components on mediating various cell survival pathways, cellular metabolism and bioenergenics, and autophagy. We address the role of UPR on mediating endocrine therapy resistance and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell survival. PMID:26157705

  12. A human coronavirus OC43 variant harboring persistence-associated mutations in the S glycoprotein differentially induces the unfolded protein response in human neurons as compared to wild-type virus

    SciTech Connect

    Favreau, Dominique J.; Desforges, Marc; St-Jean, Julien R.; Talbot, Pierre J.

    2009-12-20

    We have reported that human respiratory coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is neurotropic and neuroinvasive in humans and mice, and that neurons are the primary target of infection in mice, leading to neurodegenerative disabilities. We now report that an HCoV-OC43 mutant harboring two persistence-associated S glycoprotein point mutations (H183R and Y241H), induced a stronger unfolded protein response (UPR) and translation attenuation in infected human neurons. There was a major contribution of the IRE1/XBP1 pathway, followed by caspase-3 activation and nuclear fragmentation, with no significant role of the ATF6 and eIF2-alpha/ATF4 pathways. Our results show the importance of discrete molecular viral S determinants in virus-neuronal cell interactions that lead to increased production of viral proteins and infectious particles, enhanced UPR activation, and increased cytotoxicity and cell death. As this mutant virus is more neurovirulent in mice, our results also suggest that two mutations in the S glycoprotein could eventually modulate viral neuropathogenesis.

  13. Using Data Augmentation and Markov Chain Monte Carlo for the Estimation of Unfolding Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew S.; Junker, Brian W.

    2003-01-01

    Unfolding response models, a class of item response theory (IRT) models that assume a unimodal item response function (IRF), are often used for the measurement of attitudes. Verhelst and Verstralen (1993)and Andrich and Luo (1993) independently developed unfolding response models by relating the observed responses to a more common monotone IRT…

  14. Protein unfolding versus ?-sheet separation in spider silk nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Parvez

    2014-03-01

    In this communication a mechanism for spider silk strain hardening is proposed. Shear failure of ?-sheet nanocrystals is the first failure mode that gives rise to the creation of smaller nanocrystals, which are of higher strength and stiffness. ?-sheet unfolding requires more energy than nanocrystal separation in a shear mode of failure. As a result, unfolding occurs after the nanocrystals separate in shear. ?-sheet unfolding yields a secondary strain hardening effect once the ?-sheet conformation is geometrically stable and acts like a unidirectional fibre in a fibre reinforced composite. The mechanism suggested herein is based on molecular dynamics calculations of residual inter-?-sheet separation strengths against residual intra-?-sheet unfolding strengths.

  15. Glucose starvation and hypoxia, but not the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid or cholesterol, activate the unfolded protein response in 3T3-F442A and 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mihai, Adina D; Schröder, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in adipose tissue. In this study we identify physiological triggers of ER stress and of the UPR in adipocytes in vitro. We show that two markers of adipose tissue remodelling in obesity, glucose starvation and hypoxia, cause ER stress in 3T3-F442A and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Both conditions induced molecular markers of the IRE1α and PERK branches of the UPR, such as splicing of XBP1 mRNA and CHOP, as well as transcription of the ER stress responsive gene BiP. Hypoxia also induced an increase in phosphorylation of the PERK substrate eIF2α. By contrast, physiological triggers of ER stress in many other cell types, such as the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid, cholesterol, or several inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, do not cause ER stress in 3T3-F442A and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our data suggest that physiological changes associated with remodelling of adipose tissue in obesity, such as hypoxia and glucose starvation, are more likely physiological ER stressors of adipocytes than the lipid overload or hyperinsulinemia associated with obesity. PMID:26257992

  16. Implementation of Multiple Spectroscopic Techniques to Simultaneously Observe Native and Mutated Protein Unfolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, Brennan; Ben, Kelty; Link, Justin

    A protein's natural, correctly folded structure can determine the protein's ability to carry out its function. If the unfolding process of proteins can be observed, then the relative stability can be better understood between native and mutated proteins. A global picture of the unfolding process may be completed through the studies of strategically mutated proteins using tryptophan as a probe. Horse heart cytochrome c, a thoroughly studied, model protein was used in our investigation to explore this idea. Various spectroscopic techniques such as circular dichroism (CD), absorbance, and fluorescence were simultaneously applied while slowly unfolding our protein by increasing the concentration of a chemical denaturant, guanidine hydrochloride. This provided us information about the thermodynamic properties of the protein and several mutants which can then be interpreted to gain relative stability information among mutations. Efforts to utilize these techniques on native and mutated proteins in comparison to current scientific unfolding theories will be presented in this session.

  17. Unfolding and refolding of a purified precursor protein during import into isolated mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Eilers, M; Hwang, S; Schatz, G

    1988-01-01

    A purified mitochondrial precursor protein unfolds to a protease-sensitive conformation at the surface of isolated mitochondria before being imported into the organelles. This unfolding is stimulated by a potential across the mitochondrial inner membrane, but does not require ATP. In contrast, import of the surface-bound unfolded precursor requires ATP, but no potential; it is accompanied by a refolding inside the mitochondria. Images PMID:2841112

  18. Protein unfolding as a switch from self-recognition to high-affinity client binding

    PubMed Central

    Groitl, Bastian; Horowitz, Scott; Makepeace, Karl A. T.; Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V.; Borchers, Christoph H.; Reichmann, Dana; Bardwell, James C. A.; Jakob, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Stress-specific activation of the chaperone Hsp33 requires the unfolding of a central linker region. This activation mechanism suggests an intriguing functional relationship between the chaperone's own partial unfolding and its ability to bind other partially folded client proteins. However, identifying where Hsp33 binds its clients has remained a major gap in our understanding of Hsp33's working mechanism. By using site-specific Fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance experiments guided by in vivo crosslinking studies, we now reveal that the partial unfolding of Hsp33's linker region facilitates client binding to an amphipathic docking surface on Hsp33. Furthermore, our results provide experimental evidence for the direct involvement of conditionally disordered regions in unfolded protein binding. The observed structural similarities between Hsp33's own metastable linker region and client proteins present a possible model for how Hsp33 uses protein unfolding as a switch from self-recognition to high-affinity client binding. PMID:26787517

  19. Elucidation of GB1 Protein Unfolding Mechanism via a Long-timescale Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumaryada, T.; Hati, J.; Wahyudi, S. T.; Malau, N. D.; Sawitri, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the unfolding mechanism of 1GB1 protein at various simulation temperatures using a long-timescale molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis of structural parameters of molecular dynamics simulation have indicated that the unfolding process of GB1 protein has started at 95 ns for 475 K simulation, and at 745 ps for 500 K simulation. The unfolding process in this simulation exhibit the feature of hydrophobic core collapse model, in which the beta-hairpin destruction precedes the a-helix to coil transition. The unfolding was started with the increasing flexibility of the beta-sheets and hydrophobic core region, continued with beta-hairpins destruction, and ended with a-helix to coil and turn transition. The final structures of GB1 protein after unfolding, suggest an unfinished denaturation of protein as seen from the small remains of α-helix structure.

  20. Shifting transition states in the unfolding of a large ankyrin repeat protein

    PubMed Central

    Werbeck, Nicolas D.; Rowling, Pamela J. E.; Chellamuthu, Vasuki R.; Itzhaki, Laura S.

    2008-01-01

    The 33-amino-acid ankyrin motif comprises a ?-turn followed by two anti-parallel ?-helices and a loop and tandem arrays of the motif pack in a linear fashion to produce elongated structures characterized by short-range interactions. In this article we use site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the kinetic unfolding mechanism of D34, a 426-residue, 12-ankyrin repeat fragment of the protein ankyrinR. The data are consistent with a model in which the N-terminal half of the protein unfolds first by unraveling progressively from the start of the polypeptide chain to form an intermediate; in the next step, the C-terminal half of the protein unfolds via two pathways whose transition states have either the early or the late C-terminal ankyrin repeats folded. We conclude that the two halves of the protein unfold by different mechanisms because the N-terminal moiety folds and unfolds in the context of a folded C-terminal moiety, which therefore acts as a seed and confers a unique directionality on the process, whereas the C-terminal moiety folds and unfolds in the context of an unfolded N-terminal moiety and therefore behaves like a single-domain ankyrin repeat protein, having a high degree of symmetry and consequently more than one unfolding pathway accessible to it. PMID:18632570

  1. Optimizing the calculation of energy landscape parameters from single-molecule protein unfolding experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tych, Katarzyna M.; Hughes, Megan L.; Bourke, James; Taniguchi, Yukinori; Kawakami, Masaru; Brockwell, David J.; Dougan, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy using an atomic force microscope (AFM) can be used to measure the average unfolding force of proteins in a constant velocity experiment. In combination with Monte Carlo simulations and through the application of the Zhurkov-Bell model, information about the parameters describing the underlying unfolding energy landscape of the protein can be obtained. Using this approach, we have completed protein unfolding experiments on the polyprotein (I27 ) 5 over a range of pulling velocities. In agreement with previous work, we find that the observed number of protein unfolding events observed in each approach-retract cycle varies between one and five, due to the nature of the interactions between the polyprotein, the AFM tip, and the substrate, and there is an unequal unfolding probability distribution. We have developed a Monte Carlo simulation that incorporates the impact of this unequal unfolding probability distribution on the median unfolding force and the calculation of the protein unfolding energy landscape parameters. These results show that while there is a significant, unequal unfolding probability distribution, the unfolding energy landscape parameters obtained from use of the Zhurkov-Bell model are not greatly affected. This result is important because it demonstrates that the minimum acceptance criteria typically used in force extension experiments are justified and do not skew the calculation of the unfolding energy landscape parameters. We further validate this approach by determining the error in the energy landscape parameters for two extreme cases, and we provide suggestions for methods that can be employed to increase the level of accuracy in single-molecule experiments using polyproteins.

  2. Low-cost equilibrium unfolding of heme proteins using 2 μl samples.

    PubMed

    Guca, Ewelina; Roumestand, Christian; Vallone, Beatrice; Royer, Catherine A; Dellarole, Mariano

    2013-12-01

    Equilibrium unfolding experiments provide access to protein thermodynamic stability revealing basic aspects of protein structure-function relationships. A limitation of these experiments stands on the availability of large amounts of protein samples. Here we present the use of the NanoDrop for monitoring guanidinium chloride-induced unfolding by Soret absorbance of monomeric heme proteins. Unfolding experiments using 2 μl of reactant are validated by fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy and supported with five heme proteins including neuroglobin, cytochrome b5, and cyanoglobin. This work guarantees 2 orders of magnitude reduction in protein expense. Promising low-cost protein unfolding experiments following other chromophores and high-throughput screenings are discussed. PMID:23958270

  3. Mimicking Ribosomal Unfolding of RNA Pseudoknot in a Protein Channel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyue; Xu, Xiaojun; Yang, Zhiyu; Burcke, Andrew J; Gates, Kent S; Chen, Shi-Jie; Gu, Li-Qun

    2015-12-23

    Pseudoknots are a fundamental RNA tertiary structure with important roles in regulation of mRNA translation. Molecular force spectroscopic approaches such as optical tweezers can track the pseudoknot's unfolding intermediate states by pulling the RNA chain from both ends, but the kinetic unfolding pathway induced by this method may be different from that in vivo, which occurs during translation and proceeds from the 5' to 3' end. Here we developed a ribosome-mimicking, nanopore pulling assay for dissecting the vectorial unfolding mechanism of pseudoknots. The pseudoknot unfolding pathway in the nanopore, either from the 5' to 3' end or in the reverse direction, can be controlled by a DNA leader that is attached to the pseudoknot at the 5' or 3' ends. The different nanopore conductance between DNA and RNA translocation serves as a marker for the position and structure of the unfolding RNA in the pore. With this design, we provided evidence that the pseudoknot unfolding is a two-step, multistate, metal ion-regulated process depending on the pulling direction. Most notably, unfolding in both directions is rate-limited by the unzipping of the first helix domain (first step), which is Helix-1 in the 5' → 3' direction and Helix-2 in the 3' → 5' direction, suggesting that the initial unfolding step in either pulling direction needs to overcome an energy barrier contributed by the noncanonical triplex base-pairs and coaxial stacking interactions for the tertiary structure stabilization. These findings provide new insights into RNA vectorial unfolding mechanisms, which play an important role in biological functions including frameshifting. PMID:26595106

  4. Dual Functions of Yeast tRNA Ligase in the Unfolded Protein Response: Unconventional Cytoplasmic Splicing of HAC1 Pre-mRNA Is Not Sufficient to Release Translational Attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Takao; Ogasawara, Chiharu; Inada, Toshifumi; Englert, Markus; Beier, Hildburg; Takezawa, Mine; Endo, Toshiya

    2010-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an essential signal transduction to cope with protein-folding stress in the endoplasmic reticulum. In the yeast UPR, the unconventional splicing of HAC1 mRNA is a key step. Translation of HAC1 pre-mRNA (HAC1u mRNA) is attenuated on polysomes and restarted only after splicing upon the UPR. However, the precise mechanism of this restart remained unclear. Here we show that yeast tRNA ligase (Rlg1p/Trl1p) acting on HAC1 ligation has an unexpected role in HAC1 translation. An RLG1 homologue from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtRLG1) substitutes for yeast RLG1 in tRNA splicing but not in the UPR. Surprisingly, AtRlg1p ligates HAC1 exons, but the spliced mRNA (HAC1i mRNA) is not translated efficiently. In the AtRLG1 cells, the HAC1 intron is circularized after splicing and remains associated on polysomes, impairing relief of the translational repression of HAC1i mRNA. Furthermore, the HAC1 5′ UTR itself enables yeast Rlg1p to regulate translation of the following ORF. RNA IP revealed that yeast Rlg1p is integrated in HAC1 mRNP, before Ire1p cleaves HAC1u mRNA. These results indicate that the splicing and the release of translational attenuation of HAC1 mRNA are separable steps and that Rlg1p has pivotal roles in both of these steps. PMID:20844078

  5. Development and Application of a High Throughput Protein Unfolding Kinetic Assay

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Waterhouse, Nicklas; Feyijinmi, Olusegun; Dominguez, Matthew J.; Martinez, Lisa M.; Sharp, Zoey; Service, Rachel; Bothe, Jameson R.; Stollar, Elliott J.

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of folding and unfolding underlie protein stability and quantification of these rates provides important insights into the folding process. Here, we present a simple high throughput protein unfolding kinetic assay using a plate reader that is applicable to the studies of the majority of 2-state folding proteins. We validate the assay by measuring kinetic unfolding data for the SH3 (Src Homology 3) domain from Actin Binding Protein 1 (AbpSH3) and its stabilized mutants. The results of our approach are in excellent agreement with published values. We further combine our kinetic assay with a plate reader equilibrium assay, to obtain indirect estimates of folding rates and use these approaches to characterize an AbpSH3-peptide hybrid. Our high throughput protein unfolding kinetic assays allow accurate screening of libraries of mutants by providing both kinetic and equilibrium measurements and provide a means for in-depth ϕ-value analyses. PMID:26745729

  6. Truncated HSPB1 causes axonal neuropathy and impairs tolerance to unfolded protein stress

    PubMed Central

    Ylikallio, Emil; Konovalova, Svetlana; Dhungana, Yogesh; Hilander, Taru; Junna, Nella; Partanen, Juhani V.; Toppila, Jussi P.; Auranen, Mari; Tyynismaa, Henna

    2015-01-01

    Background HSPB1 belongs to the family of small heat shock proteins (sHSP) that have importance in protection against unfolded protein stress, in cancer cells for escaping drug toxicity stress and in neurons for suppression of protein aggregates. sHSPs have a conserved ?-crystalline domain (ACD), flanked by variable N- and C-termini, whose functions are not fully understood. Dominant missense variants in HSPB1, locating mostly to the ACD, have been linked to inherited neuropathy. Methods Patients underwent detailed clinical and neurophysiologic characterization. Disease causing variants were identified by exome or gene panel sequencing. Primary patient fibroblasts were used to investigate the effects of the dominant defective HSPB1 proteins. Results Frameshift variant predicting ablation of the entire C-terminus p.(Met169Cfs2*) of HSPB1 and a missense variant p.(Arg127Leu) were identified in patients with dominantly inherited motor-predominant axonal CharcotMarieTooth neuropathy. We show that the truncated protein is stable and binds wild type HSPB1. Both mutations impaired the heat stress tolerance of the fibroblasts. This effect was particularly pronounced for the cells with the truncating variant, independent of heat-induced nuclear translocation and induction of global transcriptional heat response. Furthermore, the truncated HSPB1 increased cellular sensitivity to protein misfolding. Conclusion Our results suggest that truncation of the non-conserved C-terminus impairs the function of HSPB1 in cellular stress response. General significance sHSPs have important roles in prevention of protein aggregates that induce toxicity. We showed that C-terminal part of HSPB1 is critical for tolerance of unfolded protein stress, and when lacking causes axonal neuropathy in patients. PMID:26675522

  7. Assaying the kinetics of protein denaturation catalyzed by AAA+ unfolding machines and proteases

    PubMed Central

    Baytshtok, Vladimir; Baker, Tania A.; Sauer, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    ATP-dependent molecular machines of the AAA+ superfamily unfold or remodel proteins in all cells. For example, AAA+ ClpX and ClpA hexamers collaborate with the self-compartmentalized ClpP peptidase to unfold and degrade specific proteins in bacteria and some eukaryotic organelles. Although degradation assays are straightforward, robust methods to assay the kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed protein unfolding in the absence of proteolysis have been lacking. Here, we describe a FRET-based assay in which enzymatic unfolding converts a mixture of donor-labeled and acceptor-labeled homodimers into heterodimers. In this assay, ClpX is a more efficient protein-unfolding machine than ClpA both kinetically and in terms of ATP consumed. However, ClpP enhances the mechanical activities of ClpA substantially, and ClpAP degrades the dimeric substrate faster than ClpXP. When ClpXP or ClpAP engage the dimeric subunit, one subunit is actively unfolded and degraded, whereas the other subunit is passively unfolded by loss of its partner and released. This assay should be broadly applicable for studying the mechanisms of AAA+ proteases and remodeling chaperones. PMID:25870262

  8. Correction: Reversibility and two state behaviour in the thermal unfolding of oligomeric TIM barrel proteins.

    PubMed

    Romero-Romero, Sergio; Costas, Miguel; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela; Fernández-Velasco, D Alejandro

    2016-04-21

    Correction for 'Reversibility and two state behaviour in the thermal unfolding of oligomeric TIM barrel proteins' by Sergio Romero-Romero et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, 17, 20699-20714. PMID:27010946

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of mechanical unfolding of proteins based on a simple two-state model.

    PubMed

    King, William T; Su, Meihong; Yang, Guoliang

    2010-03-01

    Single molecule methods are becoming routine biophysical techniques for studying biological macromolecules. In mechanical unfolding of proteins, an externally applied force is used to induce the unfolding of individual protein molecules. Such experiments have revealed novel information that has significantly enhanced our understanding of the function and folding mechanisms of several types of proteins. To obtain information on the unfolding kinetics and the free energy landscape of the protein molecule from mechanical unfolding data, a Monte Carlo simulation based on a simple two-state kinetic model is often used. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of the procedure to perform such simulations and discuss the approximations and assumptions involved. We show that the appearance of the force versus extension curves from mechanical unfolding of proteins is affected by a variety of experimental parameters, such as the length of the protein polymer and the force constant of the cantilever. We also analyze the errors associated with different methods of data pooling and present a quantitative measure of how well the simulation results fit experimental data. These findings will be helpful in experimental design, artifact identification, and data analysis for single molecule studies of various proteins using the mechanical unfolding method. PMID:20004685

  10. Adsorption and Unfolding of a Single Protein Triggers Nanoparticle Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Medina, Sergio; Kisley, Lydia; Tauzin, Lawrence J; Hoggard, Anneli; Shuang, Bo; D S Indrasekara, A Swarnapali; Chen, Sishan; Wang, Lin-Yung; Derry, Paul J; Liopo, Anton; Zubarev, Eugene R; Landes, Christy F; Link, Stephan

    2016-02-23

    The response of living systems to nanoparticles is thought to depend on the protein corona, which forms shortly after exposure to physiological fluids and which is linked to a wide array of pathophysiologies. A mechanistic understanding of the dynamic interaction between proteins and nanoparticles and thus the biological fate of nanoparticles and associated proteins is, however, often missing mainly due to the inadequacies in current ensemble experimental approaches. Through the application of a variety of single molecule and single particle spectroscopic techniques in combination with ensemble level characterization tools, we identified different interaction pathways between gold nanorods and bovine serum albumin depending on the protein concentration. Overall, we found that local changes in protein concentration influence everything from cancer cell uptake to nanoparticle stability and even protein secondary structure. We envision that our findings and methods will lead to strategies to control the associated pathophysiology of nanoparticle exposure in vivo. PMID:26751094

  11. Adsorption and Unfolding of a Single Protein Triggers Nanoparticle Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The response of living systems to nanoparticles is thought to depend on the protein corona, which forms shortly after exposure to physiological fluids and which is linked to a wide array of pathophysiologies. A mechanistic understanding of the dynamic interaction between proteins and nanoparticles and thus the biological fate of nanoparticles and associated proteins is, however, often missing mainly due to the inadequacies in current ensemble experimental approaches. Through the application of a variety of single molecule and single particle spectroscopic techniques in combination with ensemble level characterization tools, we identified different interaction pathways between gold nanorods and bovine serum albumin depending on the protein concentration. Overall, we found that local changes in protein concentration influence everything from cancer cell uptake to nanoparticle stability and even protein secondary structure. We envision that our findings and methods will lead to strategies to control the associated pathophysiology of nanoparticle exposure in vivo. PMID:26751094

  12. Unfolded state dynamics and structure of protein L characterized by simulation and experiment

    PubMed Central

    Voelz, Vincent A.; Singh, Vijay R.; Wedemeyer, William J.; Lapidus, Lisa J.; Pande, Vijay S.

    2010-01-01

    While several experimental techniques now exist for characterizing protein unfolded states, all-atom simulation of unfolded states has been challenging due to the long time scales and conformational sampling required. We address this problem by using a combination of accelerated calculations on graphics processor units and distributed computing to simulate tens of thousands of molecular dynamics trajectories each up to ~10 μs (for a total aggregate simulation time of 127 milliseconds). We used this approach in conjunction with Trp-Cys contact quenching experiments to characterize the unfolded structure and dynamics of protein L. We employed a polymer theory method to make quantitative comparisons between high temperature simulated and chemically denatured experimental ensembles, and find that reaction-limited quenching rates calculated from simulation agree remarkably well with experiment. In both experiment and simulation, we find that unfolded state intramolecular diffusion rates are very slow compared to highly denatured chains, and that a single-residue mutation can significantly alter unfolded state dynamics and structure. This work suggests a view of the unfolded state in which surprisingly low diffusion rates could limit folding, and opens the door for all-atom molecular simulation to be a useful predictive tool for characterizing protein unfolded states along with experiments that directly measure intramolecular diffusion. PMID:20218718

  13. Insulin relaxes bladder via PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway activation in mucosa: unfolded protein response-dependent insulin resistance as a cause of obesity-associated overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Leiria, Luiz O; Sollon, Carolina; Báu, Fernando R; Mónica, Fabíola Z; D'Ancona, Carlos L; De Nucci, Gilberto; Grant, Andrew D; Anhê, Gabriel F; Antunes, Edson

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of insulin in the bladder and its relevance for the development of overactive bladder (OAB) in insulin-resistant obese mice. Bladders from male individuals who were involved in multiple organ donations were used. C57BL6/J mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 10 weeks to induce insulin-resistant obesity. Concentration-response curves to insulin were performed in human and mouse isolated mucosa-intact and mucosa-denuded bladders. Cystometric study was performed in terminally anaesthetized mice. Western blot was performed in bladders to detect phosphorylated endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) (Ser1177) and the phosphorylated protein kinase AKT (Ser473), as well as the unfolded protein response (UPR) markers TRIB3, CHOP and ATF4. Insulin (1-100 nm) produced concentration-dependent mouse and human bladder relaxations that were markedly reduced by mucosal removal or inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway. In mouse bladders, insulin produced a 3.0-fold increase in cGMP levels (P < 0.05) that was prevented by PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway inhibition. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition abolished insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT and eNOS in bladder mucosa. Obese mice showed greater voiding frequency and non-voiding contractions, indicating overactive detrusor smooth muscle. Insulin failed to relax the bladder or to increase cGMP in the obese group. Insulin-stimulated AKT and eNOS phosphorylation in mucosa was also impaired in obese mice. The UPR markers TRIB3, CHOP and ATF4 were increased in the mucosa of obese mice. The UPR inhibitor 4-phenyl butyric acid normalized all the functional and molecular parameters in obese mice. Our data show that insulin relaxes human and mouse bladder via activation of the PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway in the bladder mucosa. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent insulin resistance in bladder contributes to OAB in obese mice. PMID:23478138

  14. Dynamics and Energy Contributions for Transport of Unfolded Pertactin through a Protein Nanopore

    PubMed Central

    Cressiot, Benjamin; Braselmann, Esther; Oukhaled, Abdelghani; Elcock, Adrian H.; Pelta, Juan; Clark, Patricia L.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the physical parameters governing translocation of an unfolded protein across a lipid bilayer, we studied protein transport through aerolysin, a passive protein channel, at the single molecule level. The protein model used was the passenger domain of pertactin, an autotransporter virulence protein. Transport of pertactin through the aerolysin nanopore was detected as transient partial current blockades as the unfolded protein partially occluded the aerolysin channel. We compared the dynamics of entry and transport for unfolded pertactin and a covalent end-to-end dimer of the same protein. For both the monomer and the dimer, the event frequency of current blockades increased exponentially with the applied voltage, while the duration of each event decreased exponentially as a function of the electrical potential. The blockade time was twice as long for the dimer as for the monomer. The calculated activation free energy includes a main enthalpic component that we attribute to electrostatic interactions between pertactin and the aerolysin nanopore (despite the low Debye length), plus an entropic component due to confinement of the unfolded chain within the narrow pore. Comparing our experimental results to previous studies and theory suggests that unfolded proteins cross the membrane by passing through the nanopore in a somewhat compact conformation according to the “blob” model of Daoud and de Gennes. PMID:26302243

  15. Dynamics and Energy Contributions for Transport of Unfolded Pertactin through a Protein Nanopore.

    PubMed

    Cressiot, Benjamin; Braselmann, Esther; Oukhaled, Abdelghani; Elcock, Adrian H; Pelta, Juan; Clark, Patricia L

    2015-09-22

    To evaluate the physical parameters governing translocation of an unfolded protein across a lipid bilayer, we studied protein transport through aerolysin, a passive protein channel, at the single-molecule level. The protein model used was the passenger domain of pertactin, an autotransporter virulence protein. Transport of pertactin through the aerolysin nanopore was detected as transient partial current blockades as the unfolded protein partially occluded the aerolysin channel. We compared the dynamics of entry and transport for unfolded pertactin and a covalent end-to-end dimer of the same protein. For both the monomer and the dimer, the event frequency of current blockades increased exponentially with the applied voltage, while the duration of each event decreased exponentially as a function of the electrical potential. The blockade time was twice as long for the dimer as for the monomer. The calculated activation free energy includes a main enthalpic component that we attribute to electrostatic interactions between pertactin and the aerolysin nanopore (despite the low Debye length), plus an entropic component due to confinement of the unfolded chain within the narrow pore. Comparing our experimental results to previous studies and theory suggests that unfolded proteins cross the membrane by passing through the nanopore in a somewhat compact conformation according to the "blob" model of Daoud and de Gennes. PMID:26302243

  16. Toward a Taxonomy of the Denatured State: Small Angle Scattering Studies of Unfolded Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, I.S.; Doniach, S.; Plaxco, K.W.

    2005-02-15

    Despite the critical role the unfolded state plays in defining protein folding kinetics and thermodynamics (Berg et al., 2002; Dunker, 2002; Shortle, 2002; Wright and Dyson, 2002), our understanding of its detailed structure remains rather rudimentary; the heterogeneity of the unfolded ensemble renders difficult or impossible its study by traditional, atomic-level structural methods. Consequently, recent years have seen a significant expansion of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS, respectively) techniques that provide direct, albeit rotationally and time-averaged, measures of the geometric properties of the unfolded ensemble. These studies have reached a critical mass, allowing us for the first time to define general observations regarding the nature of the geometry - and possibly the chemistry and physics - of unfolded proteins.

  17. Conformational dynamics of a protein in the folded and the unfolded state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitter, Jörg

    2003-08-01

    In a quasielastic neutron scattering experiment, the picosecond dynamics of α-amylase was investigated for the folded and the unfolded state of the protein. In order to ensure a reasonable interpretation of the internal protein dynamics, the protein was measured in D 2O-buffer solution. The much higher structural flexibility of the pH induced unfolded state as compared to the native folded state was quantified using a simple analytical model, describing a local diffusion inside a sphere. In terms of this model the conformational volume, which is explored mainly by confined protein side-chain movements, is parameterized by the radius of a sphere (folded state, r=1.2 Å; unfolded state, 1.8 Å). Differences in conformational dynamics between the folded and the unfolded state of a protein are of fundamental interest in the field of protein science, because they are assumed to play an important role for the thermodynamics of folding/unfolding transition and for protein stability.

  18. Physical modeling of the conformation of the unfolded proteins of the Nuclear Pore Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilman, Anton; Opferman, Michael; Coalson, Rob; Jasnow, David

    2013-03-01

    Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC) is a biological ``nano-machine'' that controls the macromolecular transport between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm. NPC functions without direct input of metabolic energy and without transitions of the gate from a ``closed'' to an ``open'' state during transport. The key and unique aspect of transport is the interaction of the transported molecules with the unfolded, natively unstructured proteins that cover the lumen of the NPC. Recently, the NPC inspired creation of artificial bio-mimetic for nano-technology applications. Although several models have been proposed, it is still not clear how the passage of the transport factors is coupled to the conformational dynamics of the unfolded proteins within the NPC. Morphology changes in assemblies of the unfolded proteins induced by the transport factors have been investigated experimentally in vitro. I will present a coarse-grained theoretical and simulation framework that mimics the interactions of unfolded proteins with nano-sized transport factors. The simple physical model predicts morphology changes that explain the recent puzzling experimental results and suggests possible new modes of transport through the NPC. It also provides insights into the physics of the behavior of unfolded proteins.

  19. The thermal unfolding of hevein, a small disulfide-rich protein.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Arana, A; Rojo-Domínguez, A; Soriano-García, M; Rodríguez-Romero, A

    1995-03-15

    Differential scanning calorimetry was used to study the thermal unfolding of hevein, a 43-residue disulfide-rich protein whose three-dimensional structure has been determined by X-ray diffraction. In the range pH 2.0-3.7 this process was approximately 75% reversible as judged by repeated scans on the same sample. The ratios of van'tr Hoff to calorimetric enthalpies were considerably larger than one, suggesting that intermolecular cooperation is involved in the unfolding of this protein. Alternatively, it is possible that the partial irreversibility of this process may cause distortions of the endotherm that affect the calculation of the van't Hoff enthalpy. Experimental changes in heat capacity and enthalpy were compared with those calculated from polar and nonpolar surface areas buried in the native state. It was found that when the unfolded state is represented as an extended chain without disulfide cross-links, experimental and calculated parameters agree well. However, if the unfolded protein is modeled with the presence of disulfide bridges, the agreement between the two sets of parameters is lost. The entropy change/residue at 112 degrees C is considerably smaller than the average value for globular proteins, thus suggesting that, as expected, disulfide bonds strongly influence the entropy of the unfolded state of this protein. PMID:7737158

  20. A Theoretical Search for Folding/Unfolding Nuclei in Three-Dimensional Protein Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galzitskaya, Oxana V.; Finkelstein, Alexei V.

    1999-09-01

    When a protein folds or unfolds, it has to pass through many half-folded microstates. Only a few of them can be seen experimentally. In a two-state transition proceeding with no accumulation of metastable intermediates [Fersht, A. R. (1995) Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 5, 79-84], only the semifolded microstates corresponding to the transition state can be outlined; they influence the folding/unfolding kinetics. Our aim is to calculate them, provided the three-dimensional protein structure is given. The presented approach follows from the capillarity theory of protein folding and unfolding [Wolynes, P. G. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6170-6175]. The approach is based on a search for free-energy saddle point(s) on a network of protein unfolding pathways. Under some approximations, this search is rapidly performed by dynamic programming and, despite its relative simplicity, gives a good correlation with experiment. The computed folding nuclei look like ensembles of those compact and closely packed parts of the three-dimensional native folds that contain a small number of disordered protruding loops. Their estimated free energy is consistent with the rapid (within seconds) folding and unfolding of small proteins at the point of thermodynamic equilibrium between the native fold and the coil.

  1. Computational modeling of acrylodan-labeled cAMP dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit unfolding.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Aleksei; Kivi, Rait; Järv, Jaak

    2016-04-01

    Structure of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, where the asparagine residue 326 was replaced with acrylodan-cystein conjugate to implement this fluorescence reporter group into the enzyme, was modeled by molecular dynamics (MD) method and the positioning of the dye molecule in protein structure was characterized at temperatures 300K, 500K and 700K. It was found that the acrylodan moiety, which fluorescence is very sensitive to solvating properties of its microenvironment, was located on the surface of the native protein at 300K that enabled its partial solvation with water. At high temperatures the protein structure significantly changed, as the secondary and tertiary structure elements were unfolded and these changes were sensitively reflected in positioning of the dye molecule. At 700K complete unfolding of the protein occurred and the reporter group was entirely expelled into water. However, at 500K an intermediate of the protein unfolding process was formed, where the fluorescence reporter group was directed towards the protein interior and buried in the core of the formed molten globule state. This different positioning of the reporter group was in agreement with the two different shifts of emission spectrum of the covalently bound acrylodan, observed in the unfolding process of the protein. PMID:26896699

  2. THE SURFACE-MEDIATED UNFOLDING KINETICS OF GLOBULAR PROTEINS IS DEPENDENT ON MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Patananan, A.N.; Goheen, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption and unfolding pathways of proteins on rigid surfaces are essential in numerous complex processes associated with biomedical engineering, nanotechnology, and chromatography. It is now well accepted that the kinetics of unfolding are characterized by chemical and physical interactions dependent on protein deformability and structure, as well as environmental pH, temperature, and surface chemistry. Although this fundamental process has broad implications in medicine and industry, little is known about the mechanism because of the atomic lengths and rapid time scales involved. Therefore, the unfolding kinetics of myoglobin, β-glucosidase, and ovalbumin were investigated by adsorbing the globular proteins to non-porous cationic polymer beads. The protein fractions were adsorbed at different residence times (0, 9, 10, 20, and 30 min) at near-physiological conditions using a gradient elution system similar to that in high-performance liquid chromatography. The elution profi les and retention times were obtained by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. A decrease in recovery was observed with time for almost all proteins and was attributed to irreversible protein unfolding on the non-porous surfaces. These data, and those of previous studies, fi t a positively increasing linear trend between percent unfolding after a fi xed (9 min) residence time (71.8%, 31.1%, and 32.1% of myoglobin, β-glucosidase, and ovalbumin, respectively) and molecular weight. Of all the proteins examined so far, only myoglobin deviated from this trend with higher than predicted unfolding rates. Myoglobin also exhibited an increase in retention time over a wide temperature range (0°C and 55°C, 4.39 min and 5.74 min, respectively) whereas ovalbumin and β-glucosidase did not. Further studies using a larger set of proteins are required to better understand the physiological and physiochemical implications of protein unfolding kinetics. This study confi rms that surface-mediated unfolding can be described by experimental techniques, thereby allowing for the better elucidation of the relationships between the structure and function of soluble proteins as well as other macromolecules.

  3. The Surface-Mediated Unfolding Kinetics of Globular Proteins is Dependent on Molecular Weight and Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Patananan, Alexander; Goheen, Steven C

    2008-12-01

    The adsorption and unfolding of proteins on rigid surfaces is characterized by numerous chemical and physical interactions such as hydrogen bonds, disulfide bridges, hydrophobic effects, and London forces. The kinetics of unfolding is dependent on pH, temperature, surface chemistry, as well as protein deformability and structure. In practical applications, this fundamental process has broad implications in biomedical engineering (i.e. artificial implants, drug delivery, and surgical equipment), nanotechnology, maritime construction, and chromatography. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind unfolding because of the atomic lengths and rapid time scales associated with the surface-mediated pathway. Therefore, the unfolding kinetics of myoglobin, β-glucosidase, and ovalbumin were investigated by adsorbing the proteins to non-porous cationic polymer beads. The protein fractions were adsorbed at different residence times (0, 9, 10, 20, and 30 min) at near-physiological conditions using a gradient elution system similar to that in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The elution profiles and retention times were obtained by UV/Vis spectrophotometry. A decrease in recovery was observed with time for almost all proteins and was attributed to protein unfolding on the non-porous surfaces. This data, and those of previous studies, fit a linear trend between percent unfolding after a fixed (9 min) residence time (71.8%, 31.1%, and 32.1% of myoglobin, β-glucosidase, and ovalbumin, respectively) and molecular weight. Of all the proteins examined so far, only myoglobin deviated from this trend. Myoglobin also exhibited an increase in retention time over a wide temperature range (0°C and 55°C, 4.39 min and 5.74 min, respectively) whereas ovalbumin and β-glucosidase did not. Further studies using a larger set of proteins are required to better understand the physiological and physiochemical implications of protein unfolding kinetics. This study confirms that unfolding can be described by experimental techniques, thereby allowing for the better elucidation of the relationships between the structure and function of soluble proteins as well as other macromolecules.

  4. Thermal unfolding of eosinophil cationic protein/ribonuclease 3: A nonreversible process

    PubMed Central

    Nikolovski, Zoran; Buzón, Víctor; Ribó, Marc; Moussaoui, Mohammed; Vilanova, Maria; Cuchillo, Claudi M.; Cladera, Josep; Nogués, M. Victòria

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP)/ribonuclease 3 is a member of the RNase A superfamily involved in inflammatory processes mediated by eosinophils. ECP is bactericidal, helminthotoxic, and cytotoxic to tracheal epithelium cells and to several mammalian cell lines although its RNase activity is low. We studied the thermal stability of ECP by fourth-derivative UV absorbance spectra, circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The T 1/2 values obtained with the different techniques were in very good agreement (T 1/2 ≈ 72°C), and the stability was maintained in the pH range between 5 and 7. The ECP calorimetric melting curve showed, in addition to the main transition, a pretransitional conformational change with a T 1/2 of 44°C. Both calorimetric transitions disappeared after successive re-heatings, and the ratio ΔH versus ΔH vH of 2.2 indicated a significant deviation from the two-state model. It was observed that the thermal unfolding was irreversible. The unfolding process gives rise to changes in the environment of aromatic amino acids that are partially maintained in the refolded protein with the loss of secondary structure and the formation of oligomers. From the thermodynamic analysis of ECP variants, the contribution of specific amino acids, such as Trp10 and the region 115–122, to thermal stability was also determined. The high thermal stability of ECP may contribute to its resistance to degradation when the protein is secreted to the extracellular medium during the immune response. PMID:17088327

  5. Direct quantification of the attempt frequency determining the mechanical unfolding of ubiquitin protein.

    PubMed

    Popa, Ionel; Fernández, Julio M; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi

    2011-09-01

    Understanding protein dynamics requires a comprehensive knowledge of the underlying potential energy surface that governs the motion of each individual protein molecule. Single molecule mechanical studies have provided the unprecedented opportunity to study the individual unfolding pathways along a well defined coordinate, the end-to-end length of the protein. In these experiments, unfolding requires surmounting an energy barrier that separates the native from the extended state. The calculation of the absolute value of the barrier height has traditionally relied on the assumption of an attempt frequency, υ(‡). Here we used single molecule force-clamp spectroscopy to directly determine the value of υ(‡) for mechanical unfolding by measuring the unfolding rate of the small protein ubiquitin at varying temperatures. Our experiments demonstrate a significant effect of the temperature on the mechanical rate of unfolding. By extrapolating the unfolding rate in the absence of force for different temperatures, varying within the range spanning from 5 to 45 °C, we measured a value for the activation barrier of ΔG(‡) = 71 ± 5 kJ/mol and an exponential prefactor υ(‡) ∼4 × 10(9) s(-1). Although the measured prefactor value is 3 orders of magnitude smaller than the value predicted by the transition state theory (∼6 × 10(12) s(-1)), it is 400-fold higher than that encountered in analogous experiments studying the effect of temperature on the reactivity of a protein-embedded disulfide bond (∼10(7) M(-1) s(-1)). This approach will allow quantitative characterization of the complete energy landscape of a folding polypeptide from highly extended states, of capital importance for proteins with elastic function. PMID:21768096

  6. A hypothesis to reconcile the physical and chemical unfolding of proteins.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Guilherme A P; Silva, Jerson L

    2015-05-26

    High pressure (HP) or urea is commonly used to disturb folding species. Pressure favors the reversible unfolding of proteins by causing changes in the volumetric properties of the protein-solvent system. However, no mechanistic model has fully elucidated the effects of urea on structure unfolding, even though protein-urea interactions are considered to be crucial. Here, we provide NMR spectroscopy and 3D reconstructions from X-ray scattering to develop the "push-and-pull" hypothesis, which helps to explain the initial mechanism of chemical unfolding in light of the physical events triggered by HP. In studying MpNep2 from Moniliophthora perniciosa, we tracked two cooperative units using HP-NMR as MpNep2 moved uphill in the energy landscape; this process contrasts with the overall structural unfolding that occurs upon reaching a threshold concentration of urea. At subdenaturing concentrations of urea, we were able to trap a state in which urea is preferentially bound to the protein (as determined by NMR intensities and chemical shifts); this state is still folded and not additionally exposed to solvent [fluorescence and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)]. This state has a higher susceptibility to pressure denaturation (lower p1/2 and larger ΔVu); thus, urea and HP share concomitant effects of urea binding and pulling and water-inducing pushing, respectively. These observations explain the differences between the molecular mechanisms that control the physical and chemical unfolding of proteins, thus opening up new possibilities for the study of protein folding and providing an interpretation of the nature of cooperativity in the folding and unfolding processes. PMID:25964355

  7. Replication Protein A Unfolds G-Quadruplex Structures with a Varying Degree of Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Mohammad H.; Ray, Sujay; Sewell, Abby L.; Basu, Soumitra; Balci, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    Replication Protein A (RPA) is known to interact with G-rich sequences that adopt G-quadruplex (GQ) structures. Most studies in the literature have been performed on GQ formed by homogenous sequences, such as the human telomeric repeat, and RPA’s ability to unfold GQ structures of differing stability is not known. We compared the thermal stability of three potential GQ forming DNA sequences (PQS) to their stability against RPA mediated unfolding using single molecule FRET and bulk biophysical and biochemical experiments. One of these sequences is the human telomeric repeat and the other two located in the promoter region of tyrosine hydroxylase gene are highly heterogeneous sequences, which better represent PQS in the genome. The three GQ constructs have thermal stabilities that are significantly different from each other. Our measurements showed that the most thermally stable structure (Tm= 86 °C) was also the most stable against RPA mediated unfolding, although the least thermally stable structure (Tm= 69 °C) had at least an order of magnitude higher stability against RPA mediated unfolding compared to the structure with intermediate thermal stability (Tm= 78 °C). The significance of this observation becomes more evident when considered within the context of cellular environment where protein-DNA interactions can be an important determinant of GQ viability. Considering these, we conclude that thermal stability is not necessarily an adequate criterion for predicting physiological viability of GQ structures. Finally, we measured the time it takes for an RPA molecule to unfold a GQ from a fully folded to a fully unfolded conformation using a single molecule stopped-flow type method. All three GQ structures were unfolded within Δt≈0.30±0.10 sec, a surprising result as the unfolding time does not correlate with thermal stability or stability against RPA mediated unfolding. These results suggest that the limiting step in G-quadruplex unfolding by RPA is simply the accessibility of the structure to the RPA protein. PMID:22500657

  8. Forced Protein Unfolding Leads to Highly Elastic and Tough Protein Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jie; Mehlich, Alexander; Koga, Nobuyasu; Huang, Jiqing; Koga, Rie; Gao, Xiaoye; Hu, Chunguang; Jin, Chi; Rief, Matthias; Kast, Juergen; Baker, David; Li, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    Protein-based hydrogels usually do not exhibit high stretchability or toughness, significantly limiting the scope of their potential biomedical applications. Here we report the engineering of a chemically crosslinked, highly elastic and tough protein hydrogel using a mechanically extremely labile, de novo designed protein that assumes the classical ferredoxin-like fold structure. Due to the low mechanical stability of the ferredoxin-like fold structure, swelling of hydrogels causes a significant fraction of the fold structure domains to unfold. Subsequent collapse and aggregation of unfolded ferredoxin-like fold structure domains leads to intertwining of physically and chemically crosslinked networks, entailing hydrogels with unusual physical and mechanical properties: a negative swelling ratio, high stretchability and toughness. These hydrogels can withstand an average strain of 450% before breaking and show massive energy dissipation. Upon relaxation, refolding of the ferredoxin-like fold structure domains enables the hydrogel to recover its massive hysteresis. This novel biomaterial may expand the scope of hydrogel applications in tissue engineering. PMID:24352111

  9. Forced protein unfolding leads to highly elastic and tough protein hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jie; Mehlich, Alexander; Koga, Nobuyasu; Huang, Jiqing; Koga, Rie; Gao, Xiaoye; Hu, Chunguang; Jin, Chi; Rief, Matthias; Kast, Juergen; Baker, David; Li, Hongbin

    2013-12-01

    Protein-based hydrogels usually do not exhibit high stretchability or toughness, significantly limiting the scope of their potential biomedical applications. Here we report the engineering of a chemically cross-linked, highly elastic and tough protein hydrogel using a mechanically extremely labile, de novo-designed protein that assumes the classical ferredoxin-like fold structure. Due to the low mechanical stability of the ferredoxin-like fold structure, swelling of hydrogels causes a significant fraction of the folded domains to unfold. Subsequent collapse and aggregation of unfolded ferredoxin-like domains leads to intertwining of physically and chemically cross-linked networks, entailing hydrogels with unusual physical and mechanical properties: a negative swelling ratio, high stretchability and toughness. These hydrogels can withstand an average strain of 450% before breaking and show massive energy dissipation. Upon relaxation, refolding of the ferredoxin-like domains enables the hydrogel to recover its massive hysteresis. This novel biomaterial may expand the scope of hydrogel applications in tissue engineering.

  10. ClpXP, an ATP-powered unfolding and protein-degradation machine

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Tania A.; Sauer, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    ClpXP is a AAA+ protease that uses the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to perform mechanical work during targeted protein degradation within cells. ClpXP consists of hexamers of a AAA+ ATPase (ClpX) and a tetradecameric peptidase (ClpP). Asymmetric ClpX hexamers bind unstructured peptide tags in protein substrates, unfold stable tertiary structure in the substrate, and then translocate the unfolded polypeptide chain into an internal proteolytic compartment in ClpP. Here, we review our present understanding of ClpXP structure and function, as revealed by two decades of biochemical and biophysical studies. PMID:21736903

  11. Reversibility and two state behaviour in the thermal unfolding of oligomeric TIM barrel proteins.

    PubMed

    Romero-Romero, Sergio; Costas, Miguel; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela; Alejandro Fernández-Velasco, D

    2015-08-28

    Temperature is one of the main variables that modulate protein function and stability. Thermodynamic studies of oligomeric proteins, the dominant protein natural form, have been often hampered because irreversible aggregation and/or slow reactions are common. There are no reports on the reversible equilibrium thermal unfolding of proteins composed of (β/α)8 barrel subunits, albeit this "TIM barrel" topology is one of the most abundant and versatile in nature. We studied the eponymous TIM barrel, triosephosphate isomerase (TIM), belonging to five species of different bacterial taxa. All of them were found to be catalytically efficient dimers. The three-dimensional structure of four enzymes was solved at high/medium resolution. Irreversibility and kinetic control were observed in the thermal unfolding of two TIMs, while for the other three the thermal unfolding was found to follow a two-state equilibrium reversible process. Shifts in the global stability curves of these three proteins are related to the organismal temperature range of optimal growth and modulated by variations in maximum stability temperature and in the enthalpy change at that temperature. Reversibility appears to correlate with the low isoelectric point, the absence of a residual structure in the unfolded state, small cavity volume in the native state, low conformational stability and a low melting temperature. Furthermore, the strong coupling between dimer dissociation and monomer unfolding may reduce aggregation and favour reversibility. It is therefore very thought-provoking to find that a common topological ensemble, such as the TIM barrel, can unfold/refold in the Anfinsen way, i.e. without the help of the cellular machinery. PMID:26206330

  12. Protein Unfolding Coupled to Ligand Binding: Differential Scanning Calorimetry Simulation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soledad Celej, María; Fidelio, Gerardo Daniel; Dassie, Sergio Alberto

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the physicochemical basis underlying the changes in protein thermostability upon ligand binding. The article is addressed to advanced undergraduate and postgraduate chemistry students with an interest in protein biophysics. In addition, this article provides a useful tool for both learning and teaching biophysics because it links fundamental concepts: thermodynamics, chemical equilibrium, and protein stability. The influence of protein ligand interactions on thermally-induced protein denaturation was monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The changes in DSC output (thermogram) emerge by linking binding equilibrium with reversible protein unfolding thermodynamics. We derive the formalism for the description of protein unfolding in the presence of ligand that can bind to a single site on either native, unfolded, or both protein states. In addition to a rigorous mathematical description of the involved equilibria, the model provides the general formulation for simulating thermograms and calculating the changes in protein species during heating. First, we describe ligand interaction and emphasize the relationship between protein stability parameters and redistribution of species in equilibrium. After that, we describe the origin of bimodal thermograms, and finally, the effect on thermogram shape of protein concentration at constant ligand/protein mole ratio.

  13. A hypothesis to reconcile the physical and chemical unfolding of proteins

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Guilherme A. P.; Silva, Jerson L.

    2015-01-01

    High pressure (HP) or urea is commonly used to disturb folding species. Pressure favors the reversible unfolding of proteins by causing changes in the volumetric properties of the protein–solvent system. However, no mechanistic model has fully elucidated the effects of urea on structure unfolding, even though protein–urea interactions are considered to be crucial. Here, we provide NMR spectroscopy and 3D reconstructions from X-ray scattering to develop the “push-and-pull” hypothesis, which helps to explain the initial mechanism of chemical unfolding in light of the physical events triggered by HP. In studying MpNep2 from Moniliophthora perniciosa, we tracked two cooperative units using HP-NMR as MpNep2 moved uphill in the energy landscape; this process contrasts with the overall structural unfolding that occurs upon reaching a threshold concentration of urea. At subdenaturing concentrations of urea, we were able to trap a state in which urea is preferentially bound to the protein (as determined by NMR intensities and chemical shifts); this state is still folded and not additionally exposed to solvent [fluorescence and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)]. This state has a higher susceptibility to pressure denaturation (lower p1/2 and larger ΔVu); thus, urea and HP share concomitant effects of urea binding and pulling and water-inducing pushing, respectively. These observations explain the differences between the molecular mechanisms that control the physical and chemical unfolding of proteins, thus opening up new possibilities for the study of protein folding and providing an interpretation of the nature of cooperativity in the folding and unfolding processes. PMID:25964355

  14. Simulation of urea-induced protein unfolding: a lesson from bovine β-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Eberini, Ivano; Emerson, Andrew; Sensi, Cristina; Ragona, Laura; Ricchiuto, Piero; Pedretti, Alessandro; Gianazza, Elisabetta; Tramontano, Anna

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the very initial stages of protein unfolding, we carried out one long (1 μs) simulation of bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) together with three (500 ns) supporting MD runs, in which the unfolding conditions were produced by adding the osmolyte urea to the simulated systems and/or by increasing the thermal energy raising the temperature from 300 to 350 K. BLG was chosen, since it is a well-characterized model protein, for which structural and folding properties have been widely investigated by X-ray and NMR. MD trajectories were analyzed not only in terms of standard progress variables, such as backbone H-bonds, gyration radius width, secondary structure elements, but also through the scrutiny of interactions and dynamical behavior of specific key residues previously pointed out and investigated by NMR and belonging to a well known hydrophobic cluster. MD trajectories simulated in different unfolding conditions suggest that urea destabilizes BLG structure weakening protein::protein hydrophobic interactions and the hydrogen bond network. The early unfolding events, better observed at higher temperature, affect both secondary and tertiary structure of the protein. PMID:21724434

  15. Precursory signatures of protein folding/unfolding: From time series correlation analysis to atomistic mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P. J.; Lai, S. K.; Cheong, S. A.

    2014-05-28

    Folded conformations of proteins in thermodynamically stable states have long lifetimes. Before it folds into a stable conformation, or after unfolding from a stable conformation, the protein will generally stray from one random conformation to another leading thus to rapid fluctuations. Brief structural changes therefore occur before folding and unfolding events. These short-lived movements are easily overlooked in studies of folding/unfolding for they represent momentary excursions of the protein to explore conformations in the neighborhood of the stable conformation. The present study looks for precursory signatures of protein folding/unfolding within these rapid fluctuations through a combination of three techniques: (1) ultrafast shape recognition, (2) time series segmentation, and (3) time series correlation analysis. The first procedure measures the differences between statistical distance distributions of atoms in different conformations by calculating shape similarity indices from molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. The second procedure is used to discover the times at which the protein makes transitions from one conformation to another. Finally, we employ the third technique to exploit spatial fingerprints of the stable conformations; this procedure is to map out the sequences of changes preceding the actual folding and unfolding events, since strongly correlated atoms in different conformations are different due to bond and steric constraints. The aforementioned high-frequency fluctuations are therefore characterized by distinct correlational and structural changes that are associated with rate-limiting precursors that translate into brief segments. Guided by these technical procedures, we choose a model system, a fragment of the protein transthyretin, for identifying in this system not only the precursory signatures of transitions associated with α helix and β hairpin, but also the important role played by weaker correlations in such protein folding dynamics.

  16. Dynameomics: A Consensus View of the Protein Unfolding/Folding Transition State Ensemble across a Diverse Set of Protein Folds

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Amanda L.; Scott, Kathryn A.; Daggett, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The Dynameomics project aims to simulate a representative sample of all globular protein metafolds under both native and unfolding conditions. We have identified protein unfolding transition state (TS) ensembles from multiple molecular dynamics simulations of high-temperature unfolding in 183 structurally distinct proteins. These data can be used to study individual proteins and individual protein metafolds and to mine for TS structural features common across all proteins. Separating the TS structures into four different fold classes (all proteins, all-?, all-?, and mixed ?/? and ? + ?) resulted in no significant difference in the overall protein properties. The residues with the most contacts in the native state lost the most contacts in the TS ensemble. On average, residues beginning in an ?-helix maintained more structure in the TS ensemble than did residues starting in ?-strands or any other conformation. The metafolds studied here represent 67% of all known protein structures, and this is, to our knowledge, the largest, most comprehensive study of the protein folding/unfolding TS ensemble to date. One might have expected broad distributions in the average global properties of the TS relative to the native state, indicating variability in the amount of structure present in the TS. Instead, the average global properties converged with low standard deviations across metafolds, suggesting that there are general rules governing the structure and properties of the TS. PMID:19948125

  17. Comparative all-atomic study of unfolding pathways for proteins chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 and barnase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Yuebiao; Wang, Wei

    2006-02-01

    The features of transition states and intermediates are important in the study on protein folding. However, transition states and intermediates could not be obviously identified from trajectories obtained by dynamic simulations. In this work, a different method to identify and characterize the transition states and intermediates by combining the root mean square deviation of Cα atoms and the similarity factor Q to the native state is proposed. The unfolding processes based on all-atomic simulations for proteins chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 and barnase are studied, and the related transition states and intermediates are identified by observing an unfolding factor U=1-F . Comparisons between the conformational cluster analysis and experimental results are also made. The various analyses on the unfolding behaviors indicate that our method can well define the transition states and intermediates, and the factor U (or F ) can be used as a reaction coordinate of the folding and unfolding process. It is also found that three-state folding proteins might experience more complicated pathways and have more rugged energy landscapes than two-state folding proteins.

  18. Ligand-induced changes of the apparent transition-state position in mechanical protein unfolding.

    PubMed

    Stigler, Johannes; Rief, Matthias

    2015-07-21

    Force-spectroscopic measurements of ligand-receptor systems and the unfolding/folding of nucleic acids or proteins reveal information on the underlying energy landscape along the pulling coordinate. The slope ?x() of the force-dependent unfolding/unbinding rates is interpreted as the distance from the folded/bound state to the transition state for unfolding/unbinding and, hence, often related to the mechanical compliance of the sample molecule. Here we show that in ligand-binding proteins, the experimentally inferred ?x() can depend on the ligand concentration, unrelated to changes in mechanical compliance. We describe the effect in single-molecule, force-spectroscopy experiments of the calcium-binding protein calmodulin and explain it in a simple model where mechanical unfolding and ligand binding occur on orthogonal reaction coordinates. This model predicts changes in the experimentally inferred ?x(), depending on ligand concentration and the associated shift of the dominant barrier between the two reaction coordinates. We demonstrate quantitative agreement between experiments and simulations using a realistic six-state kinetic scheme using literature values for calcium-binding kinetics and affinities. Our results have important consequences for the interpretation of force-spectroscopic data of ligand-binding proteins. PMID:26200872

  19. Surface-Mediated Protein Unfolding as a Search Process for Denaturing Sites.

    PubMed

    Weltz, James S; Schwartz, Daniel K; Kaar, Joel L

    2016-01-26

    Surface-induced protein denaturation has important implications for the development of materials that are resistant and/or innocuous to biomolecules. Here, we studied the mechanism of lysozyme (T4L) unfolding on fused silica (FS) using single-molecule methods that provided direct insight into the cause of denaturation. Unfolding of T4L was monitored by Förster resonance energy transfer while simultaneously tracking the adsorption, diffusion, and desorption of individual molecules at the solid-solution interface. Results of high-throughput single-molecule analysis suggested that the unfolding of T4L on FS was mediated by surface diffusion and occurred on isolated nanoscale sites, which were relatively rare and distinct from the majority of the surface. These observations suggest that surface-mediated protein unfolding is a search process that is based on the exploration for denaturing sites by the protein. Ultimately, these findings have important implications for the design of protein-compatible surfaces. PMID:26580418

  20. Force-dependent switch in protein unfolding pathways and transition-state movements.

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, Pavel I; Hinczewski, Michael; Chakrabarti, Shaon; Marqusee, Susan; Thirumalai, D

    2016-02-01

    Although it is known that single-domain proteins fold and unfold by parallel pathways, demonstration of this expectation has been difficult to establish in experiments. Unfolding rate, [Formula: see text], as a function of force f, obtained in single-molecule pulling experiments on src SH3 domain, exhibits upward curvature on a [Formula: see text] plot. Similar observations were reported for other proteins for the unfolding rate [Formula: see text]. These findings imply unfolding in these single-domain proteins involves a switch in the pathway as f or [Formula: see text] is increased from a low to a high value. We provide a unified theory demonstrating that if [Formula: see text] as a function of a perturbation (f or [Formula: see text]) exhibits upward curvature then the underlying energy landscape must be strongly multidimensional. Using molecular simulations we provide a structural basis for the switch in the pathways and dramatic shifts in the transition-state ensemble (TSE) in src SH3 domain as f is increased. We show that a single-point mutation shifts the upward curvature in [Formula: see text] to a lower force, thus establishing the malleability of the underlying folding landscape. Our theory, applicable to any perturbation that affects the free energy of the protein linearly, readily explains movement in the TSE in a β-sandwich (I27) protein and single-chain monellin as the denaturant concentration is varied. We predict that in the force range accessible in laser optical tweezer experiments there should be a switch in the unfolding pathways in I27 or its mutants. PMID:26818842

  1. Structure and stability of recombinant bovine odorant-binding protein: II. Unfolding of the monomeric forms

    PubMed Central

    Stepanenko, Olga V.; Roginskii, Denis O.; Stepanenko, Olesya V.; Kuznetsova, Irina M.

    2016-01-01

    In a family of monomeric odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), bovine OBP (bOBP), that lacks conserved disulfide bond found in other OBPs, occupies unique niche because of its ability to form domain-swapped dimers. In this study, we analyzed conformational stabilities of the recombinant bOBP and its monomeric variants, the bOBP-Gly121+ mutant containing an additional glycine residue after the residue 121 of the bOBP, and the GCC-bOBP mutant obtained from the bOBP-Gly121+ form by introduction of the Trp64Cys/His155Cys double mutation to restore the canonical disulfide bond. We also analyzed the effect of the natural ligand binding on the conformational stabilities of these bOBP variants. Our data are consistent with the conclusion that the unfolding-refolding pathways of the recombinant bOBP and its mutant monomeric forms bOBP-Gly121+ and GCC-bOBP are similar and do not depend on the oligomeric status of the protein. This clearly shows that the information on the unfolding-refolding mechanism is encoded in the structure of the bOBP monomers. However, the process of the bOBP unfolding is significantly complicated by the formation of the domain-swapped dimer, and the rates of the unfolding-refolding reactions essentially depend on the conditions in which the protein is located. PMID:27114857

  2. Investigating plausible mechanisms for the photo-induced partial unfolding of a globular protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, James E.

    Two hypotheses are proposed to explain the photo-induced unfolding of β-lactoglobulin (BLG) that occurs when non-covalently bound to a dye molecule, meso-tetrakis (p-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (TSPP), and illuminated by a laser in the post-Tanford transition configuration. The first involves a photo-induced electron transfer from the porphyrin to the protein. The second involves the production of kynurenine by singlet oxygen that is generated during photo-excitation of the porphyrin. To evaluate these hypotheses, a series of computational and experimental results have been combined to establish the physical state of the BLG-TSPP complex and to estimate the likelihood of a post-irradiation event to initiate the partial unfolding. Determining the binding site location is crucial to establish the position of the photo-induced events and the likely end-product. A study of the vibronic state of the BLG-TSPP complex using resonant Raman and absorption spectroscopy coupled with density functional theory (DFT) and docking simulations is used to estimate the location of the binding site. Once the binding site is found, molecular dynamics simulations of the post-irradiation event relaxations in the protein are used to estimate the resulting secondary structure. This structure is compared to experimental estimates of the secondary structure of the unfolded protein to determine which hypothesis is the most likely mechanism to explain the unfolding.

  3. Single molecule unfolding and stretching of protein domains inside a solid-state nanopore by electric field

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Kevin J.; Haq, S. Raza; Edel, Joshua B.; Jemth, Per; Kim, Min Jun

    2013-01-01

    Single molecule methods have provided a significantly new look at the behavior of biomolecules in both equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions. Most notable are the stretching experiments performed by atomic force microscopes and laser tweezers. Here we present an alternative single molecule method that can unfold a protein domain, observed at electric fields greater than 106 V/m, and is fully controllable by the application of increasing voltages across the membrane of the pore. Furthermore this unfolding mechanism is characterized by measuring both the residence time of the protein within the nanopore and the current blockade. The unfolding data supports a gradual unfolding mechanism rather than the cooperative transition observed by classical urea denaturation experiments. Lastly it is shown that the voltage-mediated unfolding is a function of the stability of the protein by comparing two mutationally destabilized variants of the protein. PMID:23572157

  4. Universal convergence of the specific volume changes of globular proteins upon unfolding.

    PubMed

    Schweiker, Katrina L; Fitz, Victoria W; Makhatadze, George I

    2009-11-24

    Both pressure and temperature are important environmental variables, and to obtain a complete understanding of the mechanisms of protein folding, it is necessary to determine how protein stability is dependent on these fundamental thermodynamic parameters. Although the temperature dependence of protein stability has been widely explored, the dependence of protein stability on pressure is not as well studied. In this paper, we report the results of the direct thermodynamic determination of the change in specific volume (DeltaV/V) upon protein unfolding, which defines the pressure dependence of protein stability, for five model proteins (ubiquitin, eglin c, ribonuclease A, lysozyme, and cytochrome c). We have shown that the specific volumetric changes upon unfolding for four of the proteins (ubiquitin, eglin c, ribonuclease A, and lysozyme) appear to converge to a common value at high temperatures. Analysis of various contributions to the change in volume upon protein unfolding allowed us to put forth the hypothesis that the change in volume due to hydration is very close to zero at this temperature, such that DeltaV/V is defined largely by the total volume of cavities and voids within a protein, and that this is a universal property of all small globular proteins without prosthetic groups. To test this hypothesis, additional experiments were performed with variants of eglin c that had site-directed substitutions at two buried positions, to create an additional cavity in the protein core. The results of these experiments, coupled with the structural analysis of cytochrome c showing a lower packing density compared to those of the other four proteins, provided further support for the hypothesis. Finally, we have shown that the deviation of the high-temperature DeltaV value of a given protein from the convergence value can be used to determine the size of the excess cavities in globular proteins. PMID:19877593

  5. Mechanical Unfolding of Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Karsai, Árpád; Kellermayer, Miklós S.Z.; Harris, Samantha P.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac myosin-binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a thick-filament-associated protein that performs regulatory and structural roles within cardiac sarcomeres. It is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily of proteins consisting of eight Ig- and three fibronectin (FNIII)-like domains, along with a unique regulatory sequence referred to as the M-domain, whose structure is unknown. Domains near the C-terminus of cMyBP-C bind tightly to myosin and mediate the association of cMyBP-C with thick (myosin-containing) filaments, whereas N-terminal domains, including the regulatory M-domain, bind reversibly to myosin S2 and/or actin. The ability of MyBP-C to bind to both myosin and actin raises the possibility that cMyBP-C cross-links myosin molecules within the thick filament and/or cross-links myosin and thin (actin-containing) filaments together. In either scenario, cMyBP-C could be under mechanical strain. However, the physical properties of cMyBP-C and its behavior under load are completely unknown. Here, we investigated the mechanical properties of recombinant baculovirus-expressed cMyBP-C using atomic force microscopy to assess the stability of individual cMyBP-C molecules in response to stretch. Force-extension curves showed the presence of long extensible segment(s) that became stretched before the unfolding of individual Ig and FNIII domains, which were evident as sawtooth peaks in force spectra. The forces required to unfold the Ig/FNIII domains at a stretch rate of 500 nm/s increased monotonically from ∼30 to ∼150 pN, suggesting a mechanical hierarchy among the different Ig/FNIII domains. Additional experiments using smaller recombinant proteins showed that the regulatory M-domain lacks significant secondary or tertiary structure and is likely an intrinsically disordered region of cMyBP-C. Together, these data indicate that cMyBP-C exhibits complex mechanical behavior under load and contains multiple domains with distinct mechanical properties. PMID:22004751

  6. Microsecond dynamics of an unfolded protein by a line confocal tracking of single molecule fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yuta; Saito, Masataka; Kamagata, Kiyoto; Arai, Munehito; Takahashi, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method for high speed tracking of fluorescence time series from single proteins. The method uses a fast sample flow and a modified confocal microscopy, line confocal microscopy, and achieves the time resolution of less than 20 μs. The obtained time series from the B domain of protein A labeled with donor and acceptor fluorophores suggest conformational heterogeneity and dynamic fluctuations in the unfolded state. PMID:23827883

  7. Insight into Early-Stage Unfolding of GPI-Anchored Human Prion Protein.

    PubMed

    Wu, Emilia L; Qi, Yifei; Park, Soohyung; Mallajosyula, Sairam S; MacKerell, Alexander D; Klauda, Jeffery B; Im, Wonpil

    2015-11-17

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders, which are characterized by the accumulation of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc) converted from a normal host cellular prion protein (PrPC). Experimental studies suggest that PrPC is enriched with ?-helical structure, whereas PrPSc contains a high proportion of ?-sheet. In this study, we report the impact of N-glycosylation and the membrane on the secondary structure stability utilizing extensive microsecond molecular dynamics simulations. Our results reveal that the HB (residues 173 to 194) C-terminal fragment undergoes conformational changes and helix unfolding in the absence of membrane environments because of the competition between protein backbone intramolecular and protein-water intermolecular hydrogen bonds as well as its intrinsic instability originated from the amino acid sequence. This initiation of the unfolding process of PrPC leads to a subsequent increase in the length of the HB-HC loop (residues 195 to 199) that may trigger larger rigid body motions or further unfolding around this region. Continuous interactions between prion protein and the membrane not only constrain the protein conformation but also decrease the solvent accessibility of the backbone atoms, thereby stabilizing the secondary structure, which is enhanced by N-glycosylation via additional interactions between the N-glycans and the membrane surface. PMID:26588568

  8. New bonner sphere response matrix, ARK1, for neutron spectral unfolding

    SciTech Connect

    Lemley, E.C.; West. L.

    1996-12-31

    Although the energy spectra of neutron radiation cannot be measured directly, knowledge of the neutron spectrum in the workplace is necessary for predictions of personnel radiation doses and shielding design. Bonner spheres consist of a central detector over which polyethylene moderating spheres are placed, permitting measurement of the counting rate for various combinations of the central detector and several moderators. The process of approximating neutron spectra from Bonner sphere count-rate data is known as spectral unfolding and requires knowledge of the energy response of each detector-moderator combination (i.e., a response function). The unfolding process may be sensitive to small changes because the response functions are usually ill conditioned making an accurate set of response functions vital to the unfolding process. Previous response function calculations have been limited to a one-dimensional model of the detector-moderator combination and to binned cross-section sets, already averaged over some representative energy spectrum. Of these available response matrices, UTA4 and SAN4 perform the best in unfolding tests. This paper focuses on the relative performance differences between previously published response functions and those we have calculated by modeling Bonner spheres in three dimensions with the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A.

  9. Microsecond simulations of the folding/unfolding thermodynamics of the Trp-cage mini protein

    PubMed Central

    Day, Ryan; Paschek, Dietmar; Garcia, Angel E.

    2012-01-01

    We study the unbiased folding/unfolding thermodynamics of the Trp-cage miniprotein using detailed molecular dynamics simulations of an all-atom model of the protein in explicit solvent, using the Amberff99SB force field. Replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations are used to sample the protein ensembles over a broad range of temperatures covering the folded and unfolded states, and at two densities. The obtained ensembles are shown to reach equilibrium in the 1 μs per replica timescale. The total simulation time employed in the calculations exceeds 100 μs. Ensemble averages of the fraction folded, pressure, and energy differences between the folded and unfolded states as a function of temperature are used to model the free energy of the folding transition, ΔG(P,T), over the whole region of temperature and pressures sampled in the simulations. The ΔG(P,T) diagram describes an ellipse over the range of temperatures and pressures sampled, predicting that the system can undergo pressure induced unfolding and cold denaturation at low temperatures and high pressures, and unfolding at low pressures and high temperatures. The calculated free energy function exhibits remarkably good agreement with the experimental folding transition temperature (Tf = 321 K), free energy and specific heat changes. However, changes in enthalpy and entropy are significantly different than the experimental values. We speculate that these differences may be due to the simplicity of the semi-empirical force field used in the simulations and that more elaborate force fields may be required to describe appropriately the thermodynamics of proteins. PMID:20408169

  10. Bleach Activates A Redox-Regulated Chaperone by Oxidative Protein Unfolding

    PubMed Central

    Winter, J.; Ilbert, M.; Graf, P. C. F.; Özcelik, D.; Jakob, U.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the active ingredient of household bleach, is an effective antimicrobial produced by the mammalian host defense to kill invading microorganisms. Despite the widespread use of HOCl, surprisingly little is known about its mode of action. In this study we demonstrate that low molar ratios of HOCl to protein cause oxidative protein unfolding in vitro and target thermolabile proteins for irreversible aggregation in vivo. As a defense mechanism, bacteria employ the redox-regulated chaperone Hsp33, which responds to bleach treatment with the reversible oxidative unfolding of its C-terminal redox switch domain. HOCl-mediated unfolding turns inactive Hsp33 into a highly active chaperone holdase, which protects essential E. coli proteins against HOCl-induced aggregation and increases bacterial HOCl-resistance. Our results substantially improve our molecular understanding about HOCl’s functional mechanism. They suggest that the antimicrobial effects of bleach are largely based on HOCl’s ability to cause aggregation of essential bacterial proteins. PMID:19013278

  11. Conformational equilibration time of unfolded protein chains and the folding speed limit†

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Christina J.; Goldbeck, Robert A.; Latypov, Ramil F.; Roder, Heinrich; Kliger, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The speed with which the conformers of unfolded protein chains interconvert is a fundamental question in the study of protein folding. Kinetic evidence is presented here for the time constant for interconversion of disparate unfolded chain conformations of a small globular protein, cytochrome c, in the presence of guanidine HCl denaturant. The axial binding reactions of histidine and methionine residues with the Fe(II) heme cofactor were monitored with time-resolved magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy after photodissociation of the CO complexes of unfolded protein obtained from horse and tuna, and from several histidine mutants of the horse protein. A kinetic model fitting both the reaction rate constants and spectra of the intermediates was used to obtain a quantitative estimate of the conformational diffusion time. The latter parameter was approximated as a first-order time constant for exchange between conformational subensembles presenting either a methionine or a histidine residue to the heme iron for facile binding. The mean diffusional time constant of the wild type and variants was 3 ± 2 μs, close to the folding "speed limit". The implications of the relatively rapid conformational equilibration time observed are discussed in terms of the energy landscape and classical pathway time regimes of folding, for which the conformational diffusion time can be considered a pivot point. PMID:17352458

  12. FROM FOLDING THEORIES TO FOLDING PROTEINS: A Review and Assessment of Simulation Studies of Protein Folding and Unfolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Joan-Emma; Brooks, Charles L., III

    2001-10-01

    Beginning with simplified lattice and continuum "minimalist" models and progressing to detailed atomic models, simulation studies have augmented and directed development of the modern landscape perspective of protein folding. In this review we discuss aspects of detailed atomic simulation methods applied to studies of protein folding free energy surfaces, using biased-sampling free energy methods and temperature-induced protein unfolding. We review studies from each on systems of particular experimental interest and assess the strengths and weaknesses of each approach in the context of "exact" results for both free energies and kinetics of a minimalist model for a beta-barrel protein. We illustrate in detail how each approach is implemented and discuss analysis methods that have been developed as components of these studies. We describe key insights into the relationship between protein topology and the folding mechanism emerging from folding free energy surface calculations. We further describe the determination of detailed "pathways" and models of folding transition states that have resulted from unfolding studies. Our assessment of the two methods suggests that both can provide, often complementary, details of folding mechanism and thermodynamics, but this success relies on (a) adequate sampling of diverse conformational regions for the biased-sampling free energy approach and (b) many trajectories at multiple temperatures for unfolding studies. Furthermore, we find that temperature-induced unfolding provides representatives of folding trajectories only when the topology and sequence (energy) provide a relatively funneled landscape and "off-pathway" intermediates do not exist.

  13. Chaperone activation by unfolding

    PubMed Central

    Foit, Linda; George, Jenny S.; Zhang, Bin W.; Brooks, Charles L.; Bardwell, James C. A.

    2013-01-01

    Conditionally disordered proteins can alternate between highly ordered and less ordered configurations under physiological conditions. Whereas protein function is often associated with the ordered conformation, for some of these conditionally unstructured proteins, the opposite applies: Their activation is associated with their unfolding. An example is the small periplasmic chaperone HdeA, which is critical for the ability of enteric bacterial pathogens like Escherichia coli to survive passage through extremely acidic environments, such as the human stomach. At neutral pH, HdeA is a chaperone-inactive dimer. On a shift to low pH, however, HdeA monomerizes, partially unfolds, and becomes rapidly active in preventing the aggregation of substrate proteins. By mutating two aspartic acid residues predicted to be responsible for the pH-dependent monomerization of HdeA, we have succeeded in isolating an HdeA mutant that is active at neutral pH. We find this HdeA mutant to be substantially destabilized, partially unfolded, and mainly monomeric at near-neutral pH at a concentration at which it prevents aggregation of a substrate protein. These results provide convincing evidence for direct activation of a protein by partial unfolding. PMID:23487787

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of an antagonistic folding-unfolding equilibrium between two protein domains.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Thomas A; Loh, Stewart N

    2007-08-10

    A simple model is formulated for analyzing the coupled folding-unfolding equilibrium present in a unique class of molecular switch proteins. We previously fused two single-domain proteins, barnase and ubiquitin, such that the free energy stored in the folded structure of one subunit is used to drive unfolding of the other. Here, we present a thermodynamic test of that mechanism. The antagonistic interaction is represented by a coupling free energy term DeltaGX. DeltaGX is the penalty imposed on folding of one domain by the native structure of the other. If DeltaGX=0, then neither domain senses the other and they fold and unfold independently. If DeltaGX>0, then destabilizing one domain will stabilize the other, and vice versa. In the limit where DeltaGX is greater than the intrinsic stability of either protein, then only one domain can be folded at any given time. We estimate DeltaGX by measuring stability parameters for a series of mutants that destabilize either the barnase or ubiquitin domains. Fitting the data to the model leads to a DeltaGX value of approximately 4 kcal mol(-1). DeltaGX is proposed to depend on both the length of the linker peptides used to join the two proteins, and on the inherent structural plasticity of each domain. We predict that shortening the linkers from their current lengths of two and three amino acid residues will increase structural and thermodynamic coupling. PMID:17572441

  15. Investigating Protein Folding and Unfolding in Electrospray Nanodrops Upon Rapid Mixing Using Theta-Glass Emitters

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Theta-glass emitters are used to rapidly mix two solutions to induce either protein folding or unfolding during nanoelectrospray (nanoESI). Mixing acid-denatured myoglobin with an aqueous ammonium acetate solution to increase solution pH results in protein folding during nanoESI. A reaction time and upper limit to the droplet lifetime of 9 ± 2 μs is obtained from the relative abundance of the folded conformer in these rapid mixing experiments compared to that obtained from solutions at equilibrium and a folding time constant of 7 μs. Heme reincorporation does not occur, consistent with the short droplet lifetime and the much longer time constant for this process. Similar mixing experiments with acid-denatured cytochrome c and the resulting folding during nanoESI indicate a reaction time of between 7 and 25 μs depending on the solution composition. The extent of unfolding of holo-myoglobin upon rapid mixing with theta-glass emitters is less than that reported previously (Fisher et al. Anal. Chem.2014, 86, 4581−458824702054), a result that is attributed to the much smaller, ∼1.5 μm, average o.d. tips used here. These results indicate that the time frame during which protein folding or unfolding can occur during nanoESI depends both on the initial droplet size, which can be varied by changing the emitter tip diameter, and on the solution composition. This study demonstrates that protein folding or unfolding processes that occur on the ∼10 μs time scale can be readily investigated using rapid mixing with theta-glass emitters combined with mass spectrometry. PMID:25525976

  16. Deconvoluting Protein (Un)folding Structural Ensembles Using X-Ray Scattering, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Nasedkin, Alexandr; Marcellini, Moreno; Religa, Tomasz L.; Freund, Stefan M.; Menzel, Andreas; Fersht, Alan R.; Jemth, Per; van der Spoel, David; Davidsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The folding and unfolding of protein domains is an apparently cooperative process, but transient intermediates have been detected in some cases. Such (un)folding intermediates are challenging to investigate structurally as they are typically not long-lived and their role in the (un)folding reaction has often been questioned. One of the most well studied (un)folding pathways is that of Drosophila melanogaster Engrailed homeodomain (EnHD): this 61-residue protein forms a three helix bundle in the native state and folds via a helical intermediate. Here we used molecular dynamics simulations to derive sample conformations of EnHD in the native, intermediate, and unfolded states and selected the relevant structural clusters by comparing to small/wide angle X-ray scattering data at four different temperatures. The results are corroborated using residual dipolar couplings determined by NMR spectroscopy. Our results agree well with the previously proposed (un)folding pathway. However, they also suggest that the fully unfolded state is present at a low fraction throughout the investigated temperature interval, and that the (un)folding intermediate is highly populated at the thermal midpoint in line with the view that this intermediate can be regarded to be the denatured state under physiological conditions. Further, the combination of ensemble structural techniques with MD allows for determination of structures and populations of multiple interconverting structures in solution. PMID:25946337

  17. Does deamidation cause protein unfolding? A top-down tandem mass spectrometry study

    PubMed Central

    Soulby, Andrew J; Heal, Jack W; Barrow, Mark P; Roemer, Rudolf A; O'Connor, Peter B

    2015-01-01

    Deamidation is a nonenzymatic post-translational modification of asparagine to aspartic acid or glutamine to glutamic acid, converting an uncharged amino acid to a negatively charged residue. It is plausible that deamidation of asparagine and glutamine residues would result in disruption of a proteins' hydrogen bonding network and thus lead to protein unfolding. To test this hypothesis Calmodulin and B2M were deamidated and analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry on a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICR-MS). The gas phase hydrogen bonding networks of deamidated and nondeamidated protein isoforms were probed by varying the infra-red multi-photon dissociation laser power in a linear fashion and plotting the resulting electron capture dissociation fragment intensities as a melting curve at each amino acid residue. Analysis of the unfolding maps highlighted increased fragmentation at lower laser powers localized around heavily deamidated regions of the proteins. In addition fragment intensities were decreased across the rest of the proteins which we propose is because of the formation of salt-bridges strengthening the intramolecular interactions of the central regions. These results were supported by a computational flexibility analysis of the mutant and unmodified proteins, which would suggest that deamidation can affect the global structure of a protein via modification of the hydrogen bonding network near the deamidation site and that top down FTICR-MS is an appropriate technique for studying protein folding. PMID:25653127

  18. Protein unfolding accounts for the unusual mechanical behavior of fibrin networks

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Prashant K.; Litvinov, Rustem I.; Brown, Andre E. X.; Discher, Dennis E.; Weisel, John W.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the mechanical behavior of isotropic fibrin networks at the macroscopic scale in terms of the nanoscale force response of fibrin molecules that are its basic building blocks. We show that the remarkable extensibility and compressibility of fibrin networks have their origins in the unfolding of fibrin molecules. The force-stretch behavior of a single fibrin fiber is described using a two-state model in which the fiber has a linear force-stretch relation in the folded phase and behaves like a worm-like-chain in the unfolded phase. The nanoscale force-stretch response is connected to the macro-scale stress-stretch response by means of the eight-chain model. This model is able to capture the macroscopic response of a fibrin network in uniaxial tension and appears remarkably simple given the molecular complexity. We use the eight-chain model to explain why fibrin networks have negative compressibility and Poisson’s ratio greater than one due to unfolding of fibrin molecules. PMID:21342665

  19. An Item Response Unfolding Model for Graphic Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The graphic rating scale, a measurement tool used in many areas of psychology, usually takes a form of a fixed-length line segment, with both ends bounded and labeled as extreme responses. The raters mark somewhere on the line, and the length of the line segment from one endpoint to the mark is taken as the measure. An item response unfolding…

  20. Human defensins facilitate local unfolding of thermodynamically unstable regions of bacterial protein toxins

    PubMed Central

    Kudryashova, Elena; Quintyn, Royston; Seveau, Stephanie; Lu, Wuyuan; Wysocki, Vicki H.; Kudryashov, Dmitri S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Defensins are short cationic, amphiphilic, cysteine-rich peptides that constitute the front line immune defense against various pathogens. In addition to exerting direct antibacterial activities, defensins inactivate several classes of unrelated bacterial exotoxins. To date, no coherent mechanism has been proposed that would explain defensins’ enigmatic efficiency towards various toxins. We showed that binding of neutrophil α-defensin HNP1 to affected bacterial toxins caused their local unfolding, potentiated their thermal melting and precipitation, exposed new regions for proteolysis, and increased susceptibility to collisional quenchers, without causing similar affects on tested mammalian structural and enzymatic proteins. Enteric α-defensin HD5 and β-defensin hBD2 shared similar toxin-unfolding effects with HNP1, albeit to different degrees. We propose that protein susceptibility to inactivation by defensins is contingent to their thermolability and conformational plasticity and that the defensin-induced unfolding is a key element in the general mechanism of toxin inactivation by human defensins. PMID:25517613

  1. Mechanisms of triggering H1 helix in prion proteins unfolding revealed by molecular dynamic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chih-Yuan; Lee, H. C.

    2006-03-01

    In template-assistance model, normal Prion protein (PrP^C), the pathogen to cause several prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD) in human, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cow, and scrapie in sheep, converts to infectious prion (PrP^Sc) through a transient interaction with PrP^Sc. Furthermore, conventional studies showed S1-H1-S2 region in PrP^C to be the template of S1-S2 β-sheet in PrP^Sc, and Prion protein's conformational conversion may involve an unfolding of H1 and refolding into β-sheet. Here we prepare several mouse prion peptides that contain S1-H1-S2 region with specific different structures, which are corresponding to specific interactions, to investigate possible mechanisms to trigger H1 α-helix unfolding process via molecular dynamic simulation. Three properties, conformational transition, salt-bridge in H1, and hydrophobic solvent accessible surface (SAS) are analyzed. From these studies, we found the interaction that triggers H1 unfolding to be the one that causes dihedral angle at residue Asn^143 changes. Whereas interactions that cause S1 segment's conformational changes play a minor in this process. These studies offers an additional evidence for template-assistance model.

  2. β-sheet-like formation during the mechanical unfolding of prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Weiwei; Yoon, Gwonchan; Cao, Penghui; Eom, Kilho; Park, Harold S.

    2015-09-01

    Single molecule experiments and simulations have been widely used to characterize the unfolding and folding pathways of different proteins. However, with few exceptions, these tools have not been applied to study prion protein, PrPC, whose misfolded form PrPSc can induce a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we apply novel atomistic modeling based on potential energy surface exploration to study the constant force unfolding of human PrP at time scales inaccessible with standard molecular dynamics. We demonstrate for forces around 100 pN, prion forms a stable, three-stranded β-sheet-like intermediate configuration containing residues 155-214 with a lifetime exceeding hundreds of nanoseconds. A mutant without the disulfide bridge shows lower stability during the unfolding process but still forms the three-stranded structure. The simulations thus not only show the atomistic details of the mechanically induced structural conversion from the native α-helical structure to the β-rich-like form but also lend support to the structural theory that there is a core of the recombinant PrP amyloid, a misfolded form reported to induce transmissible disease, mapping to C-terminal residues ≈160-220.

  3. Performance comparison of bonner sphere response matrices by unfolding UARK SRCC neutron spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Lemley, E.C.; West, L.

    1994-12-31

    Determining the energy-dependent dose equivalent for neutrons is a difficult problem. The slowing-down process that neutrons undergo in moderating detectors destroys their incident energy information, causing the detector response to be a complicated function of energy. The improvement of neutron dosimetry requires experimental determination of neutron energy spectra in irradiation environments. Bonner spheres, which consist of a thermal-neutron scintillator and several polyethylene moderating spheres, are commonly used as a field neutron Spectrometer. A computer code must be used in tandem with the Bonner spheres to produce some approximate neutron spectrum from the sphere data by a technique known as spectral unfolding. The unfolding technique requires at least one of several available Bonner sphere response matrices. The choice of response matrix may strongly affect the end-product spectrum. This paper describes the comparison of the several response matrices currently available.

  4. Dynamical properties of α-amylase in the folded and unfolded state: the role of thermal equilibrium fluctuations for conformational entropy and protein stabilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitter, J.; Herrmann, R.; Hauß, T.; Lechner, R. E.; Dencher, N. A.

    2001-07-01

    A comparative analysis of thermal equilibrium fluctuations occurring in a mesophilic and in a thermophilic α-amylase was performed to study the effect of structural fluctuations on thermostability. The thermal fluctuations determining the conformational entropy of both enzymes have been characterised for the folded (at 30°C and 60°C) and for the unfolded state by applying neutron spectroscopy (at 30°C). The folded state shows a higher structural flexibility for the thermophilic protein as compared to the mesophilic homologue. In contrast, the unfolded state of both enzymes is rather similar with respect to the structural fluctuations. On the basis of this result, a mechanism characterised by entropic stabilisation (i.e., smaller Δ S for the unfolding transition of thermophilic α-amylase) can be assumed to be responsible for the higher thermostability of the thermophilic enzyme.

  5. Water-protein interaction in native and partially unfolded equine cytochrome c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banci, Lucia

    1998-12-01

    The problem of the interaction of water solvent with proteins has been addressed by investigating the water 1H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles of cytochrome c solutions. It is shown that the 1H NMRD profiles are accounted for by 1, a sizeable contribution from exchangeable protein protons (mostly from lysine side chains) and 2, a modest contribution from long-lived water. It is also shown that the number of exchangeable protons is sizeably increased in the oxidized but not in the reduced protein in the presence of the unfolding agent guanidinium chloride at a 3M concentration. This additional contribution arises mostly from backbone protons, as evidenced by high resolution NMR data which provide significant and independent data on the structure and the dynamic behaviour of the partly unfolded oxidized protein. Higher accessibility to short lived water molecules is proposed also. For the analysis of the 1H NMRD data a complete relaxation matrix approach is presented that is analogous, but not identical, to one recently described. This approach permits the simultaneous incorporation of exchangeable protein protons and an unlimited number of water molecules in pre-defined protein binding sites.

  6. Concerted dihedral rotations give rise to internal friction in unfolded proteins.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Ignacia; Makarov, Dmitrii E; Papoian, Garegin A

    2014-06-18

    Protein chains undergo conformational diffusion during folding and dynamics, experiencing both thermal kicks and viscous drag. Recent experiments have shown that the corresponding friction can be separated into wet friction, which is determined by the solvent viscosity, and dry friction, where frictional effects arise due to the interactions within the protein chain. Despite important advances, the molecular origins underlying dry friction in proteins have remained unclear. To address this problem, we studied the dynamics of the unfolded cold-shock protein at different solvent viscosities and denaturant concentrations. Using extensive all-atom molecular dynamics simulations we estimated the internal friction time scales and found them to agree well with the corresponding experimental measurements (Soranno et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2012, 109, 17800-17806). Analysis of the reconfiguration dynamics of the unfolded chain further revealed that hops in the dihedral space provide the dominant mechanism of internal friction. Furthermore, the increased number of concerted dihedral moves at physiological conditions suggest that, in such conditions, the concerted motions result in higher frictional forces. These findings have important implications for understanding the folding kinetics of proteins as well as the dynamics of intrinsically disordered proteins. PMID:24844314

  7. Mia40 is a facile oxidant of unfolded reduced proteins but shows minimal isomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Devin A; Thorpe, Colin

    2015-08-01

    Mia40 participates in oxidative protein folding within the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) by mediating the transfer of reducing equivalents from client proteins to FAD-linked oxidoreductases of the Erv1 family (lfALR in mammals). Here we investigate the specificity of the human Mia40/lfALR system towards non-cognate unfolded protein substrates to assess whether the efficient introduction of disulfides requires a particular amino acid sequence context or the presence of an IMS targeting signal. Reduced pancreatic ribonuclease A (rRNase), avian lysozyme, and riboflavin binding protein are all competent substrates of the Mia40/lfALR system, although they lack those sequence features previously thought to direct disulfide bond formation in cognate IMS substrates. The oxidation of rRNase by Mia40 does not limit overall turnover of unfolded substrate by the Mia40/lfALR system. Mia40 is an ineffective protein disulfide isomerase when its ability to restore enzymatic activity from scrambled RNase is compared to that of protein disulfide isomerase. Mia40's ability to bind amphipathic peptides is evident by avid binding to the isolated B-chain during the insulin reductase assay. In aggregate these data suggest that the Mia40/lfALR system has a broad sequence specificity and that potential substrates may be protected from adventitious oxidation by kinetic sequestration within the mitochondrial IMS. PMID:26014136

  8. Probing Single-Molecule Protein Conformational Folding-Unfolding Dynamics: The multiple-State and Multiple-Channel Energy Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H. Peter; Wang, Zhijiang; He, Yufan

    2013-03-01

    The folding-unfolding dynamics of protein provides an important understanding of the protein conformational dynamics and functions. We have used single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer combined with statistical data analysis to characterize enzyme and signaling protein fundamental conformational dynamics of Calmodulin (CaM) and kinase (6-Hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase, HPPK). The concentration dependence of FRET efficiency of GdmCl indicates the unfolding conformational transition of the proteins. At 2M of denaturant solvent, the majority of the HPPK and CaM protein molecules are under fluctuating folding-unfolding conformational changes, spending about half time in their native state and half time in their unfolded state. We obtained the fluctuation rates from the autocorrelation function analyses of the protein conformational fluctuation trajectories, and we have identified multiple intermediate states involving in bunched time dynamics and the related energy landscape. We had also analyzed the protein folding-unfolding pathways using detailed balance theoretical model analysis in order to understand the complex multiple-state and multiple-channel protein dynamics.

  9. Inhibition of Unfolding and Aggregation of Lens Protein Human Gamma D Crystallin by Sodium Citrate

    PubMed Central

    Goulet, Daniel R.; Knee, Kelly M.; King, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Cataract affects 1 in 6 Americans over the age of 40, and is considered a global health problem. Cataract is caused by the aggregation of unfolded or damaged proteins in the lens, which accumulate as an individual ages. Currently, surgery is the only available treatment for cataract, however, small molecules have been suggested as potential preventative therapies. In this work, we study the effect of sodium citrate on the stability of Human γD Crystallin (HγD-Crys), a structural protein of the eye lens, and two cataract-related mutants, L5S HγD-Crys and I90F HγD-Crys. In equilibrium unfolding-refolding studies, the presence of 250 mM sodium citrate increased the transition midpoint of the N-td of WT HγD-Crys and L5S HγD-Crys by 0.3 M GuHCl, the C-td by 0.6M GuHCl, and the single transition of I90F HγD-Crys by 0.4M GuHCl. In kinetic unfolding reactions, sodium citrate demonstrates a measurable stabilization effect only for the mutant I90F HγD-Crys. In the presence of citrate, a kinetic unfolding intermediate of I90F HγD-Crys can be observed, which was not observed in the absence of citrate. Rate of aggregation was measured using solution turbidity, and sodium citrate demonstrates negligible effect on rate of aggregation of WT HγD-Crys, but considerably slows the rate of aggregation of both L5S HγD-Crys and I90F HγD-Crys. The presence of sodium citrate dramatically slows refolding of WT HγD-Crys and I90F HγD-Crys, but has a significantly smaller effect on the refolding of L5S HγD-Crys. The differential stabilizing effect of sodium citrate suggests that the ion is binding to a partially unfolded conformation of the C-td, but a solution-based Hofmeister effect cannot be eliminated as a possible explanation for the effects observed. These results suggest that sodium citrate may be a potential preventative agent for cataract. PMID:21600897

  10. Slow transition between two beta-strand registers is dictated by protein unfolding.

    PubMed

    Evans, Matthew R; Gardner, Kevin H

    2009-08-19

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is a promiscuous, basic helix-loop-helix Period/ARNT/Single-minded protein that forms dimeric transcriptional regulator complexes with other bHLH-PAS proteins to regulate various biological pathways. Intriguingly, the introduction of a single point mutation into the C-terminal PAS-B domain resulted in a protein that can simultaneously exist in two distinct conformations. The difference between these two structures is a +3 slip and inversion of a central Ibeta-strand and an accompanying N448-P449 peptide bond isomerization in the preceding HI loop. Previous studies have indicated these two forms of Y456T interconvert on the approximate time scale of tens of minutes, allowing these two conformations to be separated by ion exchange chromatography. Here, we use time-resolved solution NMR spectroscopy to quantitatively characterize this rate and its temperature dependence, providing information into the transition state. When compared with fluorescence measurements of protein unfolding rates, we find data that suggest a linkage between interconversion and unfolding based on comparable temperature dependence and corresponding energetics of these processes. Notably, the N448-P449 peptide bond also plays a critical role for the interconversion between states, with a mutant unable to adopt a cis configuration at this bond (P449A/Y456T) being kinetically trapped under nondenaturing conditions. Taken together, these data provide information about a rare equilibrium model system for beta-strand slippage. PMID:19722642

  11. Decoding Structural Properties of a Partially Unfolded Protein Substrate: En Route to Chaperone Binding

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Suhani; Tiwari, Satyam; Mapa, Koyeli; Thukral, Lipi

    2015-01-01

    Many proteins comprising of complex topologies require molecular chaperones to achieve their unique three-dimensional folded structure. The E.coli chaperone, GroEL binds with a large number of unfolded and partially folded proteins, to facilitate proper folding and prevent misfolding and aggregation. Although the major structural components of GroEL are well defined, scaffolds of the non-native substrates that determine chaperone-mediated folding have been difficult to recognize. Here we performed all-atomistic and replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations to dissect non-native ensemble of an obligate GroEL folder, DapA. Thermodynamics analyses of unfolding simulations revealed populated intermediates with distinct structural characteristics. We found that surface exposed hydrophobic patches are significantly increased, primarily contributed from native and non-native β-sheet elements. We validate the structural properties of these conformers using experimental data, including circular dichroism (CD), 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS) binding measurements and previously reported hydrogen-deutrium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). Further, we constructed network graphs to elucidate long-range intra-protein connectivity of native and intermediate topologies, demonstrating regions that serve as central “hubs”. Overall, our results implicate that genomic variations (or mutations) in the distinct regions of protein structures might disrupt these topological signatures disabling chaperone-mediated folding, leading to formation of aggregates. PMID:26394388

  12. Thermal denaturation of Bungarus fasciatus acetylcholinesterase: Is aggregation a driving force in protein unfolding?

    PubMed

    Shin, I; Wachtel, E; Roth, E; Bon, C; Silman, I; Weiner, L

    2002-08-01

    A monomeric form of acetylcholinesterase from the venom of Bungarus fasciatus is converted to a partially unfolded molten globule species by thermal inactivation, and subsequently aggregates rapidly. To separate the kinetics of unfolding from those of aggregation, single molecules of the monomeric enzyme were encapsulated in reverse micelles of Brij 30 in 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, or in large unilamellar vesicles of egg lecithin/cholesterol at various protein/micelle (vesicle) ratios. The first-order rate constant for thermal inactivation at 45 degrees C, of single molecules entrapped within the reverse micelles (0.031 min(-1)), was higher than in aqueous solution (0.007 min(-1)) or in the presence of normal micelles (0.020 min(-1)). This clearly shows that aggregation does not provide the driving force for thermal inactivation of BfAChE. Within the large unilamellar vesicles, at average protein/vesicle ratios of 1:1 and 10:1, the first-order rate constants for thermal inactivation of the encapsulated monomeric acetylcholinesterase, at 53 degrees C, were 0.317 and 0.342 min(-1), respectively. A crosslinking technique, utilizing the photosensitive probe, hypericin, showed that thermal denaturation produces a distribution of species ranging from dimers through to large aggregates. Consequently, at a protein/vesicle ratio of 10:1, aggregation can occur upon thermal denaturation. Thus, these experiments also demonstrate that aggregation does not drive the thermal unfolding of Bungarus fasciatus acetylcholinesterase. Our experimental approach also permitted monitoring of recovery of enzymic activity after thermal denaturation in the absence of a competing aggregation process. Whereas no detectable recovery of enzymic activity could be observed in aqueous solution, up to 23% activity could be obtained for enzyme sequestered in the reverse micelles. PMID:12142456

  13. Genetic regulation of spy gene expression in Escherichia coli in the presence of protein unfolding agent ethanol.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Santosh Kumar; Lambadi, Paramesh Ramulu; Ghosh, Tamoghna; Pathania, Ranjana; Navani, Naveen Kumar

    2014-09-10

    In a living cell, folding of proteins is assisted by molecular chaperones and other folding helpers. In Escherichia coli (E. coli), recently an ATP independent chaperon 'Spy' was discovered which is highly up-regulated in the presence of protein unfolding agents like ethanol, butanol and tannic acid. Two response regulators; BaeR and CpxR have been recognized as transcriptional regulators of spy gene. However, the mechanism of genetic regulation of spy under protein denaturants like ethanol has not been studied in detail so far. Based on a combination of genetic, molecular biology and biochemical experimental data, we propose that BaeR protein is the primary regulator of spy gene in response to ethanol stress in E. coli. In addition, we expanded the experimental spectrum and validated that regulation of spy gene in the presence of zinc and copper metal stress is primarily via BaeR and CpxR regulators respectively. We also performed in-silico analysis to identify the homologs of Spy protein and their cognate regulatory elements in bacterial species belonging to enterobacteriaceae family. Based on the unique ATP-independent chaperone nature and genetic regulation of spy we also propose its importance in biosensor development and facilitated production of properly folded recombinant proteins. PMID:24999585

  14. NMR unfolding studies on a liver bile acid binding protein reveal a global two-state unfolding and localized singular behaviors.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Ragona, Laura; Fessas, Dimitrios; Signorelli, Marco; Ugolini, Raffaella; Pedò, Massimo; Assfalg, Michael; Molinari, Henriette

    2009-01-01

    The folding properties of a bile acid binding protein, belonging to a subfamily of the fatty acid binding proteins, have been here investigated both by hydrogen exchange measurements, using the SOFAST NMR approach, and urea denaturation experiments. The urea unfolding profiles of individual residues, acting as single probes, were simultaneously analyzed through a global fit, according to a two-state unfolding model. The resulting conformational stability DeltaG(U)(H(2)O)=7.2+/-0.25kcal mol(-1) is in good agreement with hydrogen exchange stability DeltaG(op). While the majority of protein residues satisfy this model, few amino-acids display a singular behavior, not directly amenable to the presence of a folding intermediate, as reported for other fatty acid binding proteins. These residues are part of a protein patch characterized by enhanced plasticity. To explain this singular behavior a tentative model has been proposed which takes into account the interplay between the dynamic features and the formation of transient aggregates. A functional role for this plasticity, related to translocation across the nuclear membrane, is discussed. PMID:18977333

  15. Highly Anomalous Energetics of Protein Cold Denaturation Linked to Folding-Unfolding Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Romero, M. Luisa; Inglés-Prieto, Alvaro; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite several careful experimental analyses, it is not yet clear whether protein cold-denaturation is just a “mirror image” of heat denaturation or whether it shows unique structural and energetic features. Here we report that, for a well-characterized small protein, heat denaturation and cold denaturation show dramatically different experimental energetic patterns. Specifically, while heat denaturation is endothermic, the cold transition (studied in the folding direction) occurs with negligible heat effect, in a manner seemingly akin to a gradual, second-order-like transition. We show that this highly anomalous energetics is actually an apparent effect associated to a large folding/unfolding free energy barrier and that it ultimately reflects kinetic stability, a naturally-selected trait in many protein systems. Kinetics thus emerges as an important factor linked to differential features of cold denaturation. We speculate that kinetic stabilization against cold denaturation may play a role in cold adaptation of psychrophilic organisms. Furthermore, we suggest that folding-unfolding kinetics should be taken into account when analyzing in vitro cold-denaturation experiments, in particular those carried out in the absence of destabilizing conditions. PMID:21829584

  16. Unfolding the response of a zero-degree magnetic spectrometer from measurements of the Δ resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, J.; Benlliure, J.; Caamaño, M.

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic spectrometer FRagment Separator at GSI has been used to investigate the in-medium Δ-resonance excitation in peripheral heavy-ion reactions. The resolving power of this spectrometer makes it possible to disentangle the longitudinal-momentum loss induced by the excitation of the Δ resonance in the projectile residues produced in isobaric charge-exchange collisions. However, beam emittance, electromagnetic interactions of projectile and residual nuclei in the target, and the accuracy of the tracking detectors limit the final resolution. The characterization of the Δ resonance requires then to unfold the measured longitudinal-momentum distribution from the response of the spectrometer. In this work, we use an unfolding procedure based on the Richardson-Lucy method with a regularization technique to optimize the stability of the solution against statistical fluctuations. The method is validated using measurements of isobaric charge-changing collisions with a 136Xe beam at 500 A MeV.

  17. Susceptibility of Nrf2-null mice to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis upon consumption of a high-fat diet is associated with oxidative stress, perturbation of the unfolded protein response, and disturbance in the expression of metabolic enzymes but not with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Meakin, Paul J; Chowdhry, Sudhir; Sharma, Ritu S; Ashford, Fiona B; Walsh, Shaun V; McCrimmon, Rory J; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T; Dillon, John F; Hayes, John D; Ashford, Michael L J

    2014-09-01

    Mice lacking the transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) develop more severe nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with cirrhosis, than wild-type (Nrf2(+/+)) mice when fed a high-fat (HF) diet for 24 weeks. Although NASH is usually associated with insulin resistance, HF-fed Nrf2(-/-) mice exhibited better insulin sensitivity than HF-fed Nrf2(+/+) mice. In livers of HF-fed mice, loss of Nrf2 resulted in greater induction of lipogenic genes, lower expression of ?-oxidation genes, greater reduction in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels, and diminished acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase phosphorylation than in the wild-type livers, which is consistent with greater fatty acid (FA) synthesis in Nrf2(-/-) livers. Moreover, primary Nrf2(-/-) hepatocytes displayed lower glucose and FA oxidation than Nrf2(+/+) hepatocytes, with FA oxidation partially rescued by treatment with AMPK activators. The unfolded protein response (UPR) was perturbed in control regular-chow (RC)-fed Nrf2(-/-) mouse livers, and this was associated with constitutive activation of NF-?B and JNK, along with upregulation of inflammatory genes. The HF diet elicited an antioxidant response in Nrf2(+/+) livers, and as this was compromised in Nrf2(-/-) livers, they suffered oxidative stress. Therefore, Nrf2 protects against NASH by suppressing lipogenesis, supporting mitochondrial function, increasing the threshold for the UPR and inflammation, and enabling adaptation to HF-diet-induced oxidative stress. PMID:24958099

  18. Telomerase recruitment by the telomere end binding protein-beta facilitates G-quadruplex DNA unfolding in ciliates.

    PubMed

    Paeschke, Katrin; Juranek, Stefan; Simonsson, Tomas; Hempel, Anne; Rhodes, Daniela; Lipps, Hans Joachim

    2008-06-01

    The telomeric G-overhangs of the ciliate Stylonychia lemnae fold into a G-quadruplex DNA structure in vivo. Telomeric G-quadruplex formation requires the presence of two telomere end binding proteins, TEBPalpha and TEBPbeta, and is regulated in a cell-cycle dependent manner. Unfolding of this structure in S phase is dependent on the phosphorylation of TEBPbeta. Here we show that TEBPbeta phosphorylation is necessary but not sufficient for a G-quadruplex unfolding rate compatible with telomere synthesis. The telomerase seems to be actively involved in telomeric G-quadruplex DNA structure unfolding in vivo. Significantly, the telomerase is recruited to telomeres by phosphorylated TEBPbeta, and hence telomerase recruitment is cell-cycle regulated through phosphorylation. These observations allow us to propose a model for the regulation of G-quadruplex unfolding and telomere synthesis during the cell cycle. PMID:18488043

  19. Substrate-Induced Unfolding of Protein Disulfide Isomerase Displaces the Cholera Toxin A1 Subunit from Its Holotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michael; Burress, Helen; Banerjee, Tuhina; Ray, Supriyo; Curtis, David; Tatulian, Suren A.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    To generate a cytopathic effect, the catalytic A1 subunit of cholera toxin (CT) must be separated from the rest of the toxin. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is thought to mediate CT disassembly by acting as a redox-driven chaperone that actively unfolds the CTA1 subunit. Here, we show that PDI itself unfolds upon contact with CTA1. The substrate-induced unfolding of PDI provides a novel molecular mechanism for holotoxin disassembly: we postulate the expanded hydrodynamic radius of unfolded PDI acts as a wedge to dislodge reduced CTA1 from its holotoxin. The oxidoreductase activity of PDI was not required for CT disassembly, but CTA1 displacement did not occur when PDI was locked in a folded conformation or when its substrate-induced unfolding was blocked due to the loss of chaperone function. Two other oxidoreductases (ERp57 and ERp72) did not unfold in the presence of CTA1 and did not displace reduced CTA1 from its holotoxin. Our data establish a new functional property of PDI that may be linked to its role as a chaperone that prevents protein aggregation. PMID:24516389

  20. Origin and Functional Evolution of the Cdc48/p97/VCP AAA+ Protein Unfolding and Remodeling Machine.

    PubMed

    Barthelme, Dominik; Sauer, Robert T

    2016-05-01

    The AAA+ Cdc48 ATPase (alias p97 or VCP) is a key player in multiple ubiquitin-dependent cell signaling, degradation, and quality control pathways. Central to these broad biological functions is the ability of Cdc48 to interact with a large number of adaptor proteins and to remodel macromolecular proteins and their complexes. Different models have been proposed to explain how Cdc48 might couple ATP hydrolysis to forcible unfolding, dissociation, or remodeling of cellular clients. In this review, we provide an overview of possible mechanisms for substrate unfolding/remodeling by this conserved and essential AAA+ protein machine and their adaption and possible biological function throughout evolution. PMID:26608813

  1. Paramagnetic relaxation enhancements in unfolded proteins: Theory and application to drkN SH3 domain

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yi; Podkorytov, Ivan S; Rao, D Krishna; Benjamin, Nathan; Sun, Honglei; Skrynnikov, Nikolai R

    2009-01-01

    Site-directed spin labeling in combination with paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) measurements is one of the most promising techniques for studying unfolded proteins. Since the pioneering work of Gillespie and Shortle (J Mol Biol 1997;268:158), PRE data from unfolded proteins have been interpreted using the theory that was originally developed for rotational spin relaxation. At the same time, it can be readily recognized that the relative motion of the paramagnetic tag attached to the peptide chain and the reporter spin such as 1HN is best described as a translation. With this notion in mind, we developed a number of models for the PRE effect in unfolded proteins: (i) mutual diffusion of the two tethered spheres, (ii) mutual diffusion of the two tethered spheres subject to a harmonic potential, (iii) mutual diffusion of the two tethered spheres subject to a simulated mean-force potential (Smoluchowski equation); (iv) explicit-atom molecular dynamics simulation. The new models were used to predict the dependences of the PRE rates on the 1HN residue number and static magnetic field strength; the results are appreciably different from the Gillespie–Shortle model. At the same time, the Gillespie–Shortle approach is expected to be generally adequate if the goal is to reconstruct the distance distributions between 1HN spins and the paramagnetic center (provided that the characteristic correlation time is known with a reasonable accuracy). The theory has been tested by measuring the PRE rates in three spin-labeled mutants of the drkN SH3 domain in 2M guanidinium chloride. Two modifications introduced into the measurement scheme—using a reference compound to calibrate the signals from the two samples (oxidized and reduced) and using peak volumes instead of intensities to determine the PRE rates—lead to a substantial improvement in the quality of data. The PRE data from the denatured drkN SH3 are mostly consistent with the model of moderately expanded random-coil protein, although part of the data point toward a more compact structure (local hydrophobic cluster). At the same time, the radius of gyration reported by Choy et al. (J Mol Biol 2002;316:101) suggests that the protein is highly expanded. This seemingly contradictory evidence can be reconciled if one assumes that denatured drkN SH3 forms a conformational ensemble that is dominated by extended conformations, yet also contains compact (collapsed) species. Such behavior is apparently more complex than predicted by the model of a random-coil protein in good solvent/poor solvent. PMID:19544584

  2. Dynamics of apomyoglobin in the alpha-to-beta transition and of partially unfolded aggregated protein.

    PubMed

    Fabiani, E; Stadler, A M; Madern, D; Koza, M M; Tehei, M; Hirai, M; Zaccai, G

    2009-02-01

    Changes of molecular dynamics in the alpha-to-beta transition associated with amyloid fibril formation were explored on apomyoglobin (ApoMb) as a model system. Circular dichroism, neutron and X-ray scattering experiments were performed as a function of temperature on the protein, at different solvent conditions. A significant change in molecular dynamics was observed at the alpha-to-beta transition at about 55 degrees C, indicating a more resilient high temperature beta structure phase. A similar effect at approximately the same temperature was observed in holo-myoglobin, associated with partial unfolding and protein aggregation. A study in a wide temperature range between 20 and 360 K revealed that a dynamical transition at about 200 K for motions in the 50 ps time scale exists also for a hydrated powder of heat-denatured aggregated ApoMb. PMID:18853152

  3. Core-Shell Model of Folding-Unfolding Transitions (UFT) in Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aroutiounian, Svetlana

    2008-03-01

    There are ˜10^N conformations for a protein of length N to sort out randomly in search of lowest free energy state. Can protein folding be simple and fast? Core-shell model introduces principles, proposes mechanisms and scores residues of fast, reversible UFT in protein. According to it, during UFT the realm of intra-residual interactions leads the residue motion. The scaffold of hydrophilic residues forms external shell of unstructured, tube-like protein in unfolded state, just as the hydrophobic residues form internal scaffold -- core, of the protein in folded state. As UFT proceeds, residue slides into lowest-score position permitted by its structure. Model accounts for experimentally observed features of UFT. It is based on three principles: 1) During UFT protein is virtual - its features or structure are inferred only statistically and with limited precision; 2) Mechanism of UFT memory is not longitudinal, but transverse; 3) Native design overrides specific features of residues - the alphabet of amino acids assumes an intrinsic score-function. Per-residue mechanism of UFT is proposed and score-function is described. Difference graphs of transitional score-function and average genome-wide abundance index show that our score-function is the order parameter of UFT in protein and by virtue of being it, reveals transitional key residues. It echoes the multiple-tier and funnel concepts of FEL perspective. Monte Carlo simulations of UFT in myoglobin illustrate the idea.

  4. Temperature Dependent Equilibrium Native to Unfolded Protein Dynamics and Properties Observed with IR Absorption and 2D IR Vibrational Echo Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jean K.; Thielges, Megan C.; Bowman, Sarah E. J.; Bren, Kara L.; Fayer, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic and structural properties of carbonmonoxy (CO)-coordinated cytochrome c552 from Hydrogenobacter thermophilus (Ht-M61A) at different temperatures under thermal equilibrium conditions were studied with infrared absorption spectroscopy and ultrafast two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo experiments using the heme-bound CO as the vibrational probe. Depending on the temperature, the stretching mode of CO shows two distinct bands corresponding to the native and unfolded proteins. As the temperature is increased from low temperature, a new absorption band for the unfolded protein grows in and the native band decreases in amplitude. Both the temperature dependent circular dichroism and the IR absorption area ratio RA(T), defined as the ratio of the area under the unfolded band to the sum of the areas of the native and unfolded bands, suggest a two-state transition from the native to the unfolded protein. However, it is found that the absorption spectrum of the unfolded protein increases its inhomogeneous linewidth and the center frequency shifts as the temperature is increased. The changes in linewidth and center frequency demonstrate that the unfolding does not follow simple two-state behavior. The temperature dependent 2D IR vibrational echo experiments show that the fast dynamics of the native protein are virtually temperature independent. In contrast, the fast dynamics of the unfolded protein are slower than those of the native protein, and the unfolded protein fast dynamics and at least a portion of the slower dynamics of the unfolded protein change significantly, becoming faster as the temperature is raised. The temperature dependence of the absorption spectrum and the changes in dynamics measured with the 2D IR experiments confirm that the unfolded ensemble of conformers continuously changes its nature as unfolding proceeds, in contrast to the native state, which displays a temperature independent distribution of structures. PMID:21469666

  5. Study of thermally and chemically unfolded conformations of a small ?-protein by means of small-angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, D.; Durand, D.; Desmadril, M.; Calmettes, P.

    2000-03-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering experiments shows that the unfolded conformation of neocarzinostatin heated at 78C is different from that obtained with 5 M guanidinium chloride at 12C. The values of the second virial coefficient of the protein solutions indicates that the interactions between the polypeptide chain and the solvent are different for the thermally and the chemically unfolded states. In the first case the protein conformation is like that of an ideal chain whereas it is similar to an excluded volume chain in the second one. The corresponding values of the contour length, the statistical length, and the apparent radius of the chain cross-section are given.

  6. Probing the Folding-Unfolding Transition of a Thermophilic Protein, MTH1880

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Youngjin; Han, Jeongmin; Yun, Ji-Hye; Chang, Iksoo; Lee, Weontae

    2016-01-01

    The folding mechanism of typical proteins has been studied widely, while our understanding of the origin of the high stability of thermophilic proteins is still elusive. Of particular interest is how an atypical thermophilic protein with a novel fold maintains its structure and stability under extreme conditions. Folding-unfolding transitions of MTH1880, a thermophilic protein from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, induced by heat, urea, and GdnHCl, were investigated using spectroscopic techniques including circular dichorism, fluorescence, NMR combined with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our results suggest that MTH1880 undergoes a two-state N to D transition and it is extremely stable against temperature and denaturants. The reversibility of refolding was confirmed by spectroscopic methods and size exclusion chromatography. We found that the hyper-stability of the thermophilic MTH1880 protein originates from an extensive network of both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions coordinated by the central β-sheet. Spectroscopic measurements, in combination with computational simulations, have helped to clarify the thermodynamic and structural basis for hyper-stability of the novel thermophilic protein MTH1880. PMID:26766214

  7. Alternative Computational Protocols for Supercharging Protein Surfaces for Reversible Unfolding and Retention of Stability

    PubMed Central

    Der, Bryan S.; Kluwe, Christien; Miklos, Aleksandr E.; Jacak, Ron; Lyskov, Sergey; Gray, Jeffrey J.; Georgiou, George; Ellington, Andrew D.; Kuhlman, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Reengineering protein surfaces to exhibit high net charge, referred to as “supercharging”, can improve reversibility of unfolding by preventing aggregation of partially unfolded states. Incorporation of charged side chains should be optimized while considering structural and energetic consequences, as numerous mutations and accumulation of like-charges can also destabilize the native state. A previously demonstrated approach deterministically mutates flexible polar residues (amino acids DERKNQ) with the fewest average neighboring atoms per side chain atom (AvNAPSA). Our approach uses Rosetta-based energy calculations to choose the surface mutations. Both protocols are available for use through the ROSIE web server. The automated Rosetta and AvNAPSA approaches for supercharging choose dissimilar mutations, raising an interesting division in surface charging strategy. Rosetta-supercharged variants of GFP (RscG) ranging from −11 to −61 and +7 to +58 were experimentally tested, and for comparison, we re-tested the previously developed AvNAPSA-supercharged variants of GFP (AscG) with +36 and −30 net charge. Mid-charge variants demonstrated ∼3-fold improvement in refolding with retention of stability. However, as we pushed to higher net charges, expression and soluble yield decreased, indicating that net charge or mutational load may be limiting factors. Interestingly, the two different approaches resulted in GFP variants with similar refolding properties. Our results show that there are multiple sets of residues that can be mutated to successfully supercharge a protein, and combining alternative supercharge protocols with experimental testing can be an effective approach for charge-based improvement to refolding. PMID:23741319

  8. Alternative computational protocols for supercharging protein surfaces for reversible unfolding and retention of stability.

    PubMed

    Der, Bryan S; Kluwe, Christien; Miklos, Aleksandr E; Jacak, Ron; Lyskov, Sergey; Gray, Jeffrey J; Georgiou, George; Ellington, Andrew D; Kuhlman, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Reengineering protein surfaces to exhibit high net charge, referred to as "supercharging", can improve reversibility of unfolding by preventing aggregation of partially unfolded states. Incorporation of charged side chains should be optimized while considering structural and energetic consequences, as numerous mutations and accumulation of like-charges can also destabilize the native state. A previously demonstrated approach deterministically mutates flexible polar residues (amino acids DERKNQ) with the fewest average neighboring atoms per side chain atom (AvNAPSA). Our approach uses Rosetta-based energy calculations to choose the surface mutations. Both protocols are available for use through the ROSIE web server. The automated Rosetta and AvNAPSA approaches for supercharging choose dissimilar mutations, raising an interesting division in surface charging strategy. Rosetta-supercharged variants of GFP (RscG) ranging from -11 to -61 and +7 to +58 were experimentally tested, and for comparison, we re-tested the previously developed AvNAPSA-supercharged variants of GFP (AscG) with +36 and -30 net charge. Mid-charge variants demonstrated ∼3-fold improvement in refolding with retention of stability. However, as we pushed to higher net charges, expression and soluble yield decreased, indicating that net charge or mutational load may be limiting factors. Interestingly, the two different approaches resulted in GFP variants with similar refolding properties. Our results show that there are multiple sets of residues that can be mutated to successfully supercharge a protein, and combining alternative supercharge protocols with experimental testing can be an effective approach for charge-based improvement to refolding. PMID:23741319

  9. Lipid insertion domain unfolding regulates protein orientational transition behavior in a lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kwan Hon; Qiu, Liming; Cheng, Sara Y; Vaughn, Mark W

    2015-11-01

    We have used coarse-grained (CG) and united atom (UA) molecular dynamics simulations to explore the mechanisms of protein orientational transition of a model peptide (Aβ42) in a phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (PC/CHO) lipid bilayer. We started with an inserted state of Aβ42 containing a folded (I) or unfolded (II) K28-A42 lipid insertion domain (LID), which was stabilized by the K28-snorkeling and A42-anchoring to the PC polar groups in the lipid bilayer. After a UA-to-CG transformation and a 1000ns-CG simulation for enhancing the sampling of protein orientations, we discovered two transitions: I-to-"deep inserted" state with disrupted K28-snorkeling and II-to-"deep surface" state with disrupted A42-anchoring. The new states remained stable after a CG-to-UA transformation and a 200ns-UA simulation relaxation. Significant changes in the cholesterol-binding domain of Aβ42 and protein-induced membrane disruptions were evident after the transitions. We propose that the conformation of the LID regulates protein orientational transitions in the lipid membrane. PMID:26164502

  10. Hydration-responsive folding and unfolding in graphene oxide liquid crystal phases.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Kim, Franklin; Han, Tae Hee; Shenoy, Vivek B; Huang, Jiaxing; Hurt, Robert H

    2011-10-25

    Graphene oxide is promising as a plate-like giant molecular building block for the assembly of new carbon materials. Its water dispersibility, liquid crystallinity, and ease of reduction offer advantages over other carbon precursors if its fundamental assembly rules can be identified. This article shows that graphene oxide sheets of known lateral dimension form nematic liquid crystal phases with transition points in agreement with the Onsager hard-plate theory. The liquid crystal phases can be systematically ordered into defined supramolecular patterns using surface anchoring, complex fluid flow, and microconfinement. Graphene oxide is seen to exhibit homeotropic surface anchoring at interfaces driven by excluded volume entropy and by adsorption enthalpy associated with its partially hydrophobic basal planes. Surprisingly, some of the surface-ordered graphene oxide phases dry into graphene oxide solids that undergo a dramatic anisotropic swelling upon rehydration to recover their initial size and shape. This behavior is shown to be a unique hydration-responsive folding and unfolding transition. During drying, surface tension forces acting parallel to the layer planes cause a buckling instability that stores elastic energy in accordion-folded structures in the dry solid. Subsequent water infiltration reduces interlayer frictional forces and triggers release of the stored elastic energy in the form of dramatic unidirectional expansion. We explain the folding/unfolding phenomena by quantitative nanomechanics and introduce the potential of liquid crystal-derived graphene oxide phases as new stimuli-response materials. PMID:21877716

  11. An approach to unfold the response of a multi-element system using an artificial neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Cordes, E.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Schuetz, R.; Sprunck, M.; Hahn, K.; Hofmann, R.; Wahl, W.; Biersack, J.P.

    1998-06-01

    An unfolding procedure is proposed which aims at obtaining spectral information of a neutron radiation field by the analysis of the response of a multi-element system consisting of converter type semiconductors. For the unfolding procedure an artificial neural network (feed forward network), trained by the back-propagation method, was used. The response functions of the single elements to neutron radiation were calculated by application of a computational model for an energy range from 10{sup {minus}2} eV to 10 MeV. The training of the artificial neural network was based on the computation of responses of a six-element system for a set of 300 neutron spectra and the application of the back-propagation method. The validation was performed by the unfolding of 100 computed responses. Two unfolding examples were pointed out for the determination of the neutron spectra. The spectra resulting from the unfolding procedure agree well with the original spectra used for the response computation.

  12. Susceptibility of Nrf2-Null Mice to Steatohepatitis and Cirrhosis upon Consumption of a High-Fat Diet Is Associated with Oxidative Stress, Perturbation of the Unfolded Protein Response, and Disturbance in the Expression of Metabolic Enzymes but Not with Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Meakin, Paul J.; Chowdhry, Sudhir; Sharma, Ritu S.; Ashford, Fiona B.; Walsh, Shaun V.; McCrimmon, Rory J.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Dillon, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Mice lacking the transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) develop more severe nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with cirrhosis, than wild-type (Nrf2+/+) mice when fed a high-fat (HF) diet for 24 weeks. Although NASH is usually associated with insulin resistance, HF-fed Nrf2−/− mice exhibited better insulin sensitivity than HF-fed Nrf2+/+ mice. In livers of HF-fed mice, loss of Nrf2 resulted in greater induction of lipogenic genes, lower expression of β-oxidation genes, greater reduction in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels, and diminished acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase phosphorylation than in the wild-type livers, which is consistent with greater fatty acid (FA) synthesis in Nrf2−/− livers. Moreover, primary Nrf2−/− hepatocytes displayed lower glucose and FA oxidation than Nrf2+/+ hepatocytes, with FA oxidation partially rescued by treatment with AMPK activators. The unfolded protein response (UPR) was perturbed in control regular-chow (RC)-fed Nrf2−/− mouse livers, and this was associated with constitutive activation of NF-κB and JNK, along with upregulation of inflammatory genes. The HF diet elicited an antioxidant response in Nrf2+/+ livers, and as this was compromised in Nrf2−/− livers, they suffered oxidative stress. Therefore, Nrf2 protects against NASH by suppressing lipogenesis, supporting mitochondrial function, increasing the threshold for the UPR and inflammation, and enabling adaptation to HF-diet-induced oxidative stress. PMID:24958099

  13. How does reorganization energy change upon protein unfolding? Monitoring the structural perturbations in the heme cavity of cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Shafiey, Hassan; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Mogharrab, Navid

    2008-05-01

    In several classes of proteins the redox center provides an additional intrinsic biophysical probe that could be used to study the protein structure and function. In present report reorganization energy (lambda, as a parameter describing electron transfer properties) was used to study the protein structural changes around the heme prosthetic group in cytochrome c (cyt c). We attempted to monitor the value of this parameter upon the unfolding process of cyt c by urea, during which it was increased sigmoidally from about 0.52 to 0.82 eV for native and unfold protein, respectively. Results indicate that by structural changes in the heme site, lambda provides a complementary tool for following the unfolding process. Assuming a reversible two-state model for cyt c unfolding, Delta G(H2O), Cm and m values were determined to be 8.32+/-0.7 kcal mol(-1), 1.53+/-0.19 kcalmol(-1)M(-1) and 5.03 M, respectively. PMID:18325656

  14. Protein denaturation at a single-molecule level: the effect of nonpolar environments and its implications on the unfolding mechanism by proteases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Bo; Wu, Shaogui; Liu, Shixin; Rodriguez-Aliaga, Piere; Yu, Jin; Cui, Shuxun

    2015-02-01

    Most proteins are typically folded into predetermined three-dimensional structures in the aqueous cellular environment. However, proteins can be exposed to a nonpolar environment under certain conditions, such as inside the central cavity of chaperones and unfoldases during protein degradation. It remains unclear how folded proteins behave when moved from an aqueous solvent to a nonpolar one. Here, we employed single-molecule atomic force microscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the structural and mechanical variations of a polyprotein, I278, during the change from a polar to a nonpolar environment. We found that the polyprotein was unfolded into an unstructured polypeptide spontaneously when pulled into nonpolar solvents. This finding was corroborated by MD simulations where I27 was dragged from water into a nonpolar solvent, revealing details of the unfolding process at the water/nonpolar solvent interface. These results highlight the importance of water in maintaining folding stability, and provide insights into the response of folded proteins to local hydrophobic environments.Most proteins are typically folded into predetermined three-dimensional structures in the aqueous cellular environment. However, proteins can be exposed to a nonpolar environment under certain conditions, such as inside the central cavity of chaperones and unfoldases during protein degradation. It remains unclear how folded proteins behave when moved from an aqueous solvent to a nonpolar one. Here, we employed single-molecule atomic force microscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the structural and mechanical variations of a polyprotein, I278, during the change from a polar to a nonpolar environment. We found that the polyprotein was unfolded into an unstructured polypeptide spontaneously when pulled into nonpolar solvents. This finding was corroborated by MD simulations where I27 was dragged from water into a nonpolar solvent, revealing details of the unfolding process at the water/nonpolar solvent interface. These results highlight the importance of water in maintaining folding stability, and provide insights into the response of folded proteins to local hydrophobic environments. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The schematic diagram of environment change, the comparison of F-E curves obtained at various stretching velocities, the details of the QM-WLC model and the process of generation of fitting curves, the comparison of F-E curves of polylysine obtained in PBS and I278 obtained in 6 M GdnHCl, the normalized F-E curves of polylysine obtained in a PBS solution, MD simulation movies, the hydrophobicity change of PAN/20S and HsIU. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07140a

  15. The unfolded state of the murine prion protein and properties of single-point mutants related to human prion diseases.

    PubMed

    Gerum, Christian; Schlepckow, Kai; Schwalbe, Harald

    2010-08-01

    The prion protein can exist both in a normal cellular isoform and in a pathogenic conformational isoform. The latter is responsible for the development of different neurodegenerative diseases, for example Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or fatal familial insomnia. To convert the native benign state of the protein into a highly ordered fibrillar aggregate, large-scale rearrangements of the tertiary structure are necessary during the conversion process and intermediates that are at least partially unfolded are present during fibril formation. In addition to the sporadic conversion into the pathogenic isoform, more than 20 familial diseases are known that are caused by single point mutations increasing the probability of aggregation and neurodegeneration. Here, we demonstrate that the chemically denatured states of the mouse and human prion proteins have very similar structural and dynamic characteristics. Initial studies on the single point mutants E196K, F198S, V203I and R208H of the oxidized mouse construct, which are related to human prion diseases, reveal significant differences in the rate of aggregation. Aggregation for mutants V203I and R208H is slower than it is for the wild type, and the constructs E196K and F198S show accelerated aggregation. These differences in aggregation behaviour are not correlated with the thermal stability of the mutants, indicating different mechanisms promoting the conformational conversion process. PMID:20541558

  16. Protein-disulfide isomerase displaces the cholera toxin A1 subunit from the holotoxin without unfolding the A1 subunit.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michael; Banerjee, Tuhina; Ray, Supriyo; Tatulian, Suren A; Teter, Ken

    2011-06-24

    Protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been proposed to exhibit an "unfoldase" activity against the catalytic A1 subunit of cholera toxin (CT). Unfolding of the CTA1 subunit is thought to displace it from the CT holotoxin and to prepare it for translocation to the cytosol. To date, the unfoldase activity of PDI has not been demonstrated for any substrate other than CTA1. An alternative explanation for the putative unfoldase activity of PDI has been suggested by recent structural studies demonstrating that CTA1 will unfold spontaneously upon its separation from the holotoxin at physiological temperature. Thus, PDI may simply dislodge CTA1 from the CT holotoxin without unfolding the CTA1 subunit. To evaluate the role of PDI in CT disassembly and CTA1 unfolding, we utilized a real-time assay to monitor the PDI-mediated separation of CTA1 from the CT holotoxin and directly examined the impact of PDI binding on CTA1 structure by isotope-edited Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Our collective data demonstrate that PDI is required for disassembly of the CT holotoxin but does not unfold the CTA1 subunit, thus uncovering a new mechanism for CTA1 dissociation from its holotoxin. PMID:21543321

  17. Interactions of main chain in folding and self assembly of unfolded protein structure: Enquiries with a serine solubilized nonapeptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Kinshuk Raj; Durani, Susheel

    2014-06-01

    Interactions of the protein main chain are probed for their role in folding and self-assembly. The interactions are assessed with serine nonapeptide Ac-(Ser-Ala)4-Ser-NH2 in poly-L and alternating-L,D structure variations. Being a neutral molecule, Serine nonapeptide has been found to display not only folding-unfolding equilibrium, but also association-dissociation equilibrium as a function of solvent and concentration. Thus scrutiny of intra- and inter-molecular interactions have been undertaken in water, methanol, and DMSO solvents. In water, poly-L peptide displays a PPII-helix conformation which unfolds to extended ?-conformation with increase of temperature, apparently in a two-state equilibrium. Poly-L peptide at high concentration and on transfer to the low polarity solvent, methanol, displays ordering as a ?-hairpin. This implies folding of the peptide by self assembly. Self assembly and ordering possibly as double-stranded ?-helix is also evidence for alternating-L,D peptide. Both isomers were observed to be unfolded in high polarity solvent DMSO. Dynamic light scattering suggests that assembly in both isomers may involve large size aggregates. The results have established that folding and self-assembly can be coupled equilibria dependent upon solute structure, concentration, and solvent. The interactions of the protein main chain involved in folding and self assembly of unfolded structure are illuminated and have been discussed.

  18. Examining faking on personality inventories using unfolding item response theory models.

    PubMed

    Scherbaum, Charles A; Sabet, Jennifer; Kern, Michael J; Agnello, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A concern about personality inventories in diagnostic and decision-making contexts is that individuals will fake. Although there is extensive research on faking, little research has focused on how perceptions of personality items change when individuals are faking or responding honestly. This research demonstrates how the delta parameter from the generalized graded unfolding item response theory model can be used to examine how individuals' perceptions about personality items might change when responding honestly or when faking. The results indicate that perceptions changed from honest to faking conditions for several neuroticism items. The direction of the change varied, indicating that faking can operate to increase or decrease scores within a personality factor. PMID:23030769

  19. The thermal unfolding of the ribosome-inactivating protein saporin-S6 characterized by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Marina; Scirè, Andrea; Tanfani, Fabio; Ausili, Alessio

    2015-10-01

    Saporin-S6 is a plant toxin belonging to the type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) family. Since it was extracted and isolated from Saponaria officinalis for the first time almost thirty years ago, the protein has been widely studied mainly for its potential applications in anti-tumour and anti-viral infection therapy. Like other RIPs, saporin-S6 is particularly effective in the form of immunotoxin conjugated with monoclonal antibodies and its chemico-physical characteristics made the protein a perfect candidate for the synthesis, development and use of saporin-S6-based chimeric toxins. The high stability of the protein against different denaturing agents has been broadly demonstrated, however, its complete thermal unfolding characterization has not already been performed. In this work we analyse in detail structure, thermostability and unfolding features by means of infrared spectroscopy coupled with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy. Our data showed that saporin-S6 in solution at neutral pH exhibits a secondary structure analogue to that of the crystal and confirmed its good stability at moderately high temperatures, with a temperature of melting of 58°C. Our results also demonstrated that the thermal unfolding process is non-cooperative and occurs in two steps, and revealed the sequence of the events that take place during the denaturation, showing a higher stability of the N-terminal domain of the protein. PMID:26096917

  20. Impacts of the charged residues mutation S48E/N62H on the thermostability and unfolding behavior of cold shock protein: insights from molecular dynamics simulation with Gō model.

    PubMed

    Su, Ji-Guo; Han, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Shu-Xin; Hou, Yan-Xue; Li, Xing-Yuan; Qi, Li-Sheng; Wang, Ji-Hua

    2016-04-01

    The cold shock protein from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima (Tm-Csp) exhibits significantly higher thermostability than its homologue from the thermophile Bacillus caldolyticus (Bc-Csp). Experimental studies have shown that the electrostatic interactions unique to Tm-Csp are responsible for improving its thermostability. In the present work, the favorable charged residues in Tm-Csp were grafted into Bc-Csp by a double point mutation of S48E/N62H, and the impacts of the mutation on the thermostability and unfolding/folding behavior of Bc-Csp were then investigated by using a modified Gō model, in which the electrostatic interactions between charged residues were considered in the model. Our simulation results show that this Tm-Csp-like charged residue mutation can effectively improve the thermostability of Bc-Csp without changing its two-state folding mechanism. Besides that, we also studied the unfolding kinetics and unfolding/folding pathway of the wild-type Bc-Csp and its mutant. It is found that this charged residue mutation obviously enhanced the stability of the C-terminal region of Bc-Csp, which decreases the unfolding rate and changes the unfolding/folding pathway of the protein. Our studies indicate that the thermostability, unfolding kinetics and unfolding/folding pathway of Bc-Csp can be artificially changed by introducing Tm-Csp-like favorable electrostatic interactions into Bc-Csp. Graphical abstract Tertiary structure of wild-type cold shock protein from the thermophile Bacillus caldolyticus. PMID:27021210

  1. Single-molecule spectroscopy of the unexpected collapse of an unfolded protein at low pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Hagen; Nettels, Daniel; Schuler, Benjamin

    2013-09-01

    The dimensions of intrinsically disordered and unfolded proteins critically depend on the solution conditions, such as temperature, pH, ionic strength, and osmolyte or denarurant concentration. However, a quantitative understanding of how the complex combination of chain-chain and chain-solvent interactions is affected by the solvent is still missing. Here, we take a step towards this goal by investigating the combined effect of pH and denaturants on the dimensions of an unfolded protein. We use single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy to extract the dimensions of unfolded cold shock protein (CspTm) in mixtures of the denaturants urea and guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) at neutral and acidic pH. Surprisingly, even though a change in pH from 7 to 2.9 increases the net charge of CspTm from -3.8 to +10.2, the radius of gyration of the chain is very similar under both conditions, indicating that protonation of acidic side chains at low pH results in additional hydrophobic interactions. We use a simple shared binding site model that describes the joint effect of urea and GdmCl, together with polyampholyte theory and an ion cloud model that includes the chemical free energy of counterion interactions and side chain protonation, to quantify this effect.

  2. Identification of a dimeric intermediate in the unfolding pathway for the calcium-binding protein S100B.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gary S; Marlatt, Nicole M; Ferguson, Peter L; Barber, Kathryn R; Bottomley, Stephen P

    2008-10-17

    The S100 proteins comprise 25 calcium-signalling members of the EF-hand protein family. Unlike typical EF-hand signalling proteins such as calmodulin and troponin-C, the S100 proteins are dimeric, forming both homo- and heterodimers in vivo. One member of this family, S100B, is a homodimeric protein shown to control the assembly of several cytoskeletal proteins and regulate phosphorylation events in a calcium-sensitive manner. Calcium binding to S100B causes a conformational change involving movement of helix III in the second calcium-binding site (EF2) that exposes a hydrophobic surface enabling interactions with other proteins such as tubulin and Ndr kinase. In several S100 proteins, calcium binding also stabilizes dimerization compared to the calcium-free states. In this work, we have examined the guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl)-induced unfolding of dimeric calcium-free S100B. A series of tryptophan substitutions near the dimer interface and the EF2 calcium-binding site were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and showed biphasic unfolding curves. The presence of a plateau near 1.5 M GuHCl showed the presence of an intermediate that had a greater exposed hydrophobic surface area compared to the native dimer based on increased 4,4-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid fluorescence. Furthermore, (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear single quantum coherence analyses as a function of GuHCl showed significant chemical shift changes in regions near the EF1 calcium-binding loop and between the linker and C-terminus of helix IV. Together these observations show that calcium-free S100B unfolds via a dimeric intermediate. PMID:18706914

  3. Effects of ammonium bicarbonate on the electrospray mass spectra of proteins: evidence for bubble-induced unfolding.

    PubMed

    Hedges, Jason B; Vahidi, Siavash; Yue, Xuanfeng; Konermann, Lars

    2013-07-01

    Many protein investigations by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) strive to ensure a "native" solvent environment, i.e., nondenaturing conditions up to the point of gas-phase ion formation. Ideally, these studies would employ a volatile pH buffer to mitigate changes in H(+) concentration that can occur during ESI. Ammonium acetate is a commonly used additive, despite its low buffering capacity at pH 7. Ammonium bicarbonate provides greatly improved pH stabilization, thus offering an interesting alternative. Surprisingly, protein analyses in bicarbonate at pH 7 tend to result in the formation of very high charge states, similar to those obtained when electrospraying unfolded proteins in a denaturing solvent. This effect has been reported previously (Sterling, H. J.; Cassou, C. A.; Susa, A. C.; Williams, E. R. Anal. Chem. 2012, 84, 3795), but its exact mechanistic origin remains unclear. ESI-mediated unfolding does not take place in acetate under otherwise identical conditions. We demonstrate that heating of protein-containing bicarbonate solutions results in extensive foaming, caused by CO2 outgassing. In contrast, acetate solutions do not generate foam. Protein denaturation caused by gas bubbles is a well-known phenomenon. Adsorption to the gas/liquid interface is accompanied by major conformational changes that allow the protein to act as a surfactant. The foaming of beer is a manifestation of this effect. Bubble formation in bicarbonate during ESI is facilitated by collisional and blackbody droplet heating. Our data imply that heat and bubbles act synergistically to cause unfolding during the electrospray process, while proteins reside in ESI droplets. Because of this effect we advise against the use of ammonium bicarbonate for native ESI-MS. Ammonium acetate represents a gentler droplet environment, despite its low buffering capacity. PMID:23724896

  4. Glucosylation of β-lactoglobulin lowers the heat capacity change of unfolding; a unique way to affect protein thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Van Teeffelen, Annemarie M.M.; Broersen, Kerensa; de Jongh, Harmen H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical glycosylation of proteins occurs in vivo spontaneously, especially under stress conditions, and has been linked in a number of cases to diseases related to protein denaturation and aggregation. It is the aim of this work to study the origin of the change in thermodynamic properties due to glucosylation of the folded β-lactoglobulin A. Under mild conditions Maillard products can be formed by reaction of ɛ-amino groups of lysines with the reducing group of, in this case, glucose. The formed conjugates described here have an average degree of glycosylation of 82%. No impact of the glucosylation on the protein structure is detected, except that the Stokes radius was increased by ~3%. Although at ambient temperatures the change in Gibbs energy of unfolding is reduced by 20%, the denaturation temperature is increased by 5°C. Using a combination of circular dichroism, fluorescence, and calorimetric approaches, it is shown that the change in heat capacity upon denaturation is reduced by 60% due to the glucosylation. Since in the denatured state the Stokes radius of the protein is not significantly smaller for the glucosylated protein, it is suggested that the nonpolar residues associate to the covalently linked sugar moiety in the unfolded state, thereby preventing their solvent exposure. In this way coupling of small reducing sugar moieties to solvent exposed groups of proteins offers an efficient and unique tool to deal with protein stability issues, relevant not only in nature but also for technological applications. PMID:15987887

  5. Protein unfolding from free-energy calculations: Integration of the Gaussian network model with bond binding energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Amit; Granek, Rony

    2015-02-01

    Motivated by single molecule experiments, we study thermal unfolding pathways of four proteins, chymotrypsin inhibitor, barnase, ubiquitin, and adenylate kinase, using bond network models that combine bond energies and elasticity. The protein elasticity is described by the Gaussian network model (GNM), to which we add prescribed bond binding energies that are assigned to all (nonbackbone) connecting bonds in the GNM of native state and assumed identical for simplicity. Using exact calculation of the Helmholtz free energy for this model, we consider bond rupture single events. The bond designated for rupture is chosen by minimizing the free-energy difference for the process, over all (nonbackbone) bonds in the network. Plotting the free-energy profile along this pathway at different temperatures, we observe a few major partial unfolding, metastable or stable, states, that are separated by free-energy barriers and change role as the temperature is raised. In particular, for adenylate kinase we find three major partial unfolding states, which is consistent with single molecule FRET experiments [Pirchi et al., Nat. Commun. 2, 493 (2011), 10.1038/ncomms1504] for which hidden Markov analysis reveals between three and five such states. Such states can play a major role in enzymatic activity.

  6. Unfolding and Folding of the Three-Helix Bundle Protein KIX in the Absence of Solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schennach, Moritz; Schneeberger, Eva-Maria; Breuker, Kathrin

    2016-03-01

    Electron capture dissociation was used to probe the structure, unfolding, and folding of KIX ions in the gas phase. At energies for vibrational activation that were sufficiently high to cause loss of small molecules such as NH3 and H2O by breaking of covalent bonds in about 5% of the KIX (M + nH)n+ ions with n = 7-9, only partial unfolding was observed, consistent with our previous hypothesis that salt bridges play an important role in stabilizing the native solution fold after transfer into the gas phase. Folding of the partially unfolded ions on a timescale of up to 10 s was observed only for (M + nH)n+ ions with n = 9, but not n = 7 and n = 8, which we attribute to differences in the distribution of charges within the (M + nH)n+ ions.

  7. Coarse-Grained Simulations of Topology-Dependent Mechanisms of Protein Unfolding and Translocation Mediated by ClpY ATPase Nanomachines

    PubMed Central

    Kravats, Andrea N.; Tonddast-Navaei, Sam; Stan, George

    2016-01-01

    Clp ATPases are powerful ring shaped nanomachines which participate in the degradation pathway of the protein quality control system, coupling the energy from ATP hydrolysis to threading substrate proteins (SP) through their narrow central pore. Repetitive cycles of sequential intra-ring ATP hydrolysis events induce axial excursions of diaphragm-forming central pore loops that effect the application of mechanical forces onto SPs to promote unfolding and translocation. We perform Langevin dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained model of the ClpY ATPase-SP system to elucidate the molecular details of unfolding and translocation of an α/β model protein. We contrast this mechanism with our previous studies which used an all-α SP. We find conserved aspects of unfolding and translocation mechanisms by allosteric ClpY, including unfolding initiated at the tagged C-terminus and translocation via a power stroke mechanism. Topology-specific aspects include the time scales, the rate limiting steps in the degradation pathway, the effect of force directionality, and the translocase efficacy. Mechanisms of ClpY-assisted unfolding and translocation are distinct from those resulting from non-allosteric mechanical pulling. Bulk unfolding simulations, which mimic Atomic Force Microscopy-type pulling, reveal multiple unfolding pathways initiated at the C-terminus, N-terminus, or simultaneously from both termini. In a non-allosteric ClpY ATPase pore, mechanical pulling with constant velocity yields larger effective forces for SP unfolding, while pulling with constant force results in simultaneous unfolding and translocation. PMID:26734937

  8. The interaction of human serum albumin with selected lanthanide and actinide ions: Binding affinities, protein unfolding and conformational changes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Manjoor; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Mukesh; Pandey, Badri N

    2016-04-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant soluble protein in blood plays critical roles in transportation of biomolecules and maintenance of osmotic pressure. In view of increasing applications of lanthanides- and actinides-based materials in nuclear energy, space, industries and medical applications, the risk of exposure with these metal ions is a growing concern for human health. In present study, binding interaction of actinides/lanthanides [thorium: Th(IV), uranium: U(VI), lanthanum: La(III), cerium: Ce(III) and (IV)] with HSA and its structural consequences have been investigated. Ultraviolet-visible, Fourier transform-infrared, Raman, Fluorescence and Circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques were applied to study the site of metal ions interaction, binding affinity determination and the effect of metal ions on protein unfolding and HSA conformation. Results showed that these metal ions interacted with carbonyl (CO..:)/amide(N..-H) groups and induced exposure of aromatic residues of HSA. The fluorescence analysis indicated that the actinide binding altered the microenvironment around Trp214 in the subdomain IIA. Binding affinity of U(VI) to HSA was slightly higher than that of Th(IV). Actinides and Ce(IV) altered the secondary conformation of HSA with a significant decrease of α-helix and an increase of β-sheet, turn and random coil structures, indicating a partial unfolding of HSA. A correlation was observed between metal ion's ability to alter HSA conformation and protein unfolding. Both cationic effects and coordination ability of metal ions seemed to determine the consequences of their interaction with HSA. Present study improves our understanding about the protein interaction of these heavy ions and their impact on its secondary structure. In addition, binding characteristics may have important implications for the development of rational antidote for the medical management of health effects of actinides and lanthanides. PMID:26821345

  9. Application of unfolding technique to HPGe detector using response functions calculated with the EGS4 Monte Carlo code.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kook Jin; Hah, Suck Ho; Kim, Hyun Moon; Yoo, Gwang Ho

    2006-03-01

    The EGS4 Monte Carlo simulation technique was used to obtain the energy spectra of photons arriving at a detector from the pulse height distributions measured by the same detector. First, the measured pulse height distribution for incident photons from several radiation sources such as 60Co, 137Cs, 152Eu and 207Bi with a collimator are compared with those calculated using the EGS4 code to investigate the feasibility of the simulation. The comparison showed good agreement of 98.7% for 60Co, 92.5% for 207Bi on the total counts. Second, the pulse height distributions were measured in the open space and then unfolded. The measurement of the distributions was done with changing the source to detector distance (SDD) from 10 cm to 100 cm for 60Co and 137Cs respectively. In the unfolding process, response functions of a high purity Ge (HPGe) detector were calculated using the EGS4 code. The calculated pulse height distributions were then normalized to the measured ones at the peaks of the incident photon energies. The ratio of the sum of counts of the main peaks to the total count in the unfolded spectra for 60Co varied from 5.4 to 5.7 times greater than those in the measured pulse height distributions, while from 2.5 to 2.9 times for 137Cs. Electron contribution to the unfolded spectra for 137Cs decreased as the source to detector distance increased, becoming negligible above 50 cm. The pulse height distributions at the center of the reference plane at 100 cm from the 60Co and 137Cs dummy sources located inside each irradiator were also measured and unfolded to obtain the real pulse height distribution. In the unfolded spectra, the photons scattered from the surrounding materials were reduced to approximately one fourth of those measured in the open space due to the small size of apertures of the irradiators. The ratio of the sum of counts for the main peaks to the total count was larger than those in the measured pulse height distributions by the factor of 5.0 for 60Co and 3.4 for 137Cs. The uncertainties estimated in the unfolding processes were around 0.1% for 60Co and 0.07% for 137Cs. PMID:16571916

  10. Insights into Unfolded Proteins from the Intrinsic ϕ/ψ Propensities of the AAXAA Host-Guest Series.

    PubMed

    Towse, Clare-Louise; Vymetal, Jiri; Vondrasek, Jiri; Daggett, Valerie

    2016-01-19

    Various host-guest peptide series are used by experimentalists as reference conformational states. One such use is as a baseline for random-coil NMR chemical shifts. Comparison to this random-coil baseline, through secondary chemical shifts, is used to infer protein secondary structure. The use of these random-coil data sets rests on the perception that the reference chemical shifts arise from states where there is little or no conformational bias. However, there is growing evidence that the conformational composition of natively and nonnatively unfolded proteins fail to approach anything that can be construed as random coil. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations of an alanine-based host-guest peptide series (AAXAA) as a model of unfolded and denatured states to examine the intrinsic propensities of the amino acids. We produced ensembles that are in good agreement with the experimental NMR chemical shifts and confirm that the sampling of the 20 natural amino acids in this peptide series is be far from random. Preferences toward certain regions of conformational space were both present and dependent upon the environment when compared under conditions typically used to denature proteins, i.e., thermal and chemical denaturation. Moreover, the simulations allowed us to examine the conformational makeup of the underlying ensembles giving rise to the ensemble-averaged chemical shifts. We present these data as an intrinsic backbone propensity library that forms part of our Structural Library of Intrinsic Residue Propensities to inform model building, to aid in interpretation of experiment, and for structure prediction of natively and nonnatively unfolded states. PMID:26789758

  11. Temperature, pressure, and electrochemical constraints on protein speciation: Group additivity calculation of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of ionized unfolded proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, J. M.; Larowe, D. E.; Helgeson, H. C.

    2006-07-01

    Thermodynamic calculations can be used to quantify environmental constraints on the speciation of proteins, such as the pH and temperature dependence of ionization state, and the relative chemical stabilities of proteins in different biogeochemical settings. These calculations depend in part on values of the standard molal Gibbs energies of proteins and their ionization reactions as a function of temperature and pressure. Because these values are not generally available, we calculated values of the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25C and 1 bar as well as the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equations of state parameters of neutral and charged zwitterionic reference model compounds including aqueous amino acids, polypeptides, and unfolded proteins. The experimental calorimetric and volumetric data for these species taken from the literature were combined with group additivity algorithms to calculate the properties and parameters of neutral and ionized sidechain and backbone groups in unfolded proteins. The resulting set of group contributions enables the calculation of the standard molal Gibbs energy, enthalpy, entropy, isobaric heat capacity, volume, and isothermal compressibility of unfolded proteins in a range of proton ionization states to temperatures and pressures exceeding 100C and 1000 bar. This approach provides a useful frame of reference for thermodynamic studies of protein folding and complexation reactions. It can also be used to assign provisional values of the net charge and Gibbs energy of ionized proteins as a function of temperature and pH. Using these values, an Eh-pH diagram for a reaction representing the speciation of extracellular proteins from Pyrococcus furiosus and Bacillus subtilis was generated. The predicted predominance limits of these proteins correspond with the different electrochemical conditions of hydrothermal vents and soils. More comprehensive calculations of this kind may reveal pervasive chemical potential constraints on the interactions of microbes with their environment.

  12. Unfolding the Role of Large Heat Shock Proteins: New Insights and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Daming; Subjeck, John; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) of eukaryotes are evolutionarily conserved molecules present in all the major intracellular organelles. They mainly function as molecular chaperones and participate in maintenance of protein homeostasis in physiological state and under stressful conditions. Despite their relative abundance, the large HSPs, i.e., Hsp110 and glucose-regulated protein 170 (Grp170), have received less attention compared to other conventional HSPs. These proteins are distantly related to the Hsp70 and belong to Hsp70 superfamily. Increased sizes of Hsp110 and Grp170, due to the presence of a loop structure, result in their exceptional capability in binding to polypeptide substrates or non-protein ligands, such as pathogen-associated molecules. These interactions that occur in the extracellular environment during tissue injury or microbial infection may lead to amplification of an immune response engaging both innate and adaptive immune components. Here, we review the current advances in understanding these large HSPs as molecular chaperones in proteostasis control and immune modulation as well as their therapeutic implications in treatment of cancer and neurodegeneration. Given their unique immunoregulatory activities, we also discuss the emerging evidence of their potential involvement in inflammatory and immune-related diseases. PMID:26973652

  13. A New Efficient Method for Generating Conformations of Unfolded Proteins with Diverse Main-Chain Dihedral-Angle Distributions.

    PubMed

    Seki, Yasutaka; Shimbo, Yudai; Nonaka, Takamasa; Soda, Kunitsugu

    2011-07-12

    A new method for generating polypeptide-chain conformations has been developed for studying structural characteristics of unfolded proteins. It enables us to generate a large number of conformations very rapidly by avoiding atomic collisions efficiently with the use of main-chain dihedral-angle distributions derived from a crystal-structure database of proteins. In addition, combining main-chain dihedral-angle distributions for the amino acid residues incorporated in different secondary structures, we can obtain diverse conformational ensembles with different structural features. Structural characteristics of proteins denatured in high-concentration denaturant solution were analyzed by comparing predictions from this method with results from solution X-ray scattering (SXS) measurement. Analysis of the dependence of the mean square radius (Rsq) of protein on the number of residues and the shape of its Kratky profile has confirmed that the highly denaturing solvent serves as a good solvent in accordance with previous reports. It was also found that, in order for a conformational ensemble to reproduce experimental data, the percentage in which main-chain dihedral angles are found in the α region must be in the range of 20-40%. It agrees with studies on the (3)JHNα coupling constant using the multidimensional NMR method. These results confirm that our method for generating diverse conformations of polypeptide chains is very useful to the conformational analysis of unfolded protein, because it enables us to analyze comprehensively both of the local structural features obtained from NMR and the global ones obtained from SXS. PMID:26606484

  14. Insight into the Unfolding Properties of Chd64, a Small, Single Domain Protein with a Globular Core and Disordered Tails

    PubMed Central

    Dobryszycki, Piotr; Kaus-Drobek, Magdalena; Dadlez, Michał; Ożyhar, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Two major lipophilic hormones, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH), govern insect development and growth. While the mode of action of 20E is well understood, some understanding of JH-dependent signalling has been attained only in the past few years, and the crosstalk of the two hormonal pathways remains unknown. Two proteins, the calponin-like Chd64 and immunophilin FKBP39 proteins, have recently been found to play pivotal roles in the formation of dynamic, multiprotein complex that cross-links these two signalling pathways. However, the molecular mechanism of the interaction remains unexplored. The aim of this work was to determine structural elements of Chd64 to provide an understanding of molecular basis of multiple interactions. We analysed Chd64 in two unrelated insect species, Drosophila melanogaster (DmChd64) and Tribolium castaneum (TcChd64). Using hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS), we showed that both Chd64 proteins have disordered tails that outflank the globular core. The folds of the globular cores of both Chd64 resemble the calponin homology (CH) domain previously resolved by crystallography. Monitoring the unfolding of DmChd64 and TcChd64 by far-ultraviolet (UV) circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) revealed a highly complex process. Chd64 unfolds and forms of a molten globule (MG)—like intermediate state. Furthermore, our data indicate that in some conditions, Chd64 may exists in discrete structural forms, indicating that the protein is pliable and capable of easily acquiring different conformations. The plasticity of Chd64 and the existence of terminal intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) may be crucial for multiple interactions with many partners. PMID:26325194

  15. In vitro unfolding, refolding, and polymerization of human gammaD crystallin, a protein involved in cataract formation.

    PubMed

    Kosinski-Collins, Melissa S; King, Jonathan

    2003-03-01

    Human gammaD crystallin (HgammaD-Crys), a major protein of the human eye lens, is a primary component of cataracts. This 174-residue primarily beta-sheet protein is made up of four Greek keys separated into two domains. Mutations in the human gene sequence encoding HgammaD-Crys are implicated in early-onset cataracts in children, and the mutant protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibits properties that reflect the in vivo pathology. We have characterized the unfolding, refolding, and competing aggregation of human wild-type HgammaD-Crys as a function of guanidinium hydrochloride (GuHCl) concentration at neutral pH and 37 degrees C, using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence to monitor in vitro folding. Wild-type HgammaD-Crys exhibited reversible refolding above 1.0 M GuHCl. The GuHCl unfolded protein was more fluorescent than its native counterpart despite the absence of metal or ion-tryptophan interactions. Aggregation of refolding intermediates of HgammaD-Crys was observed in both equilibrium and kinetic refolding processes. The aggregation pathway competed with productive refolding at denaturant concentrations below 1.0 M GuHCl, beyond the major conformational transition region. Atomic force microscopy of samples under aggregating conditions revealed the sequential appearance of small nuclei, thin protofibrils, and fiber bundles. The HgammaD-Crys fibrous aggregate species bound bisANS appreciably, indicating the presence of exposed hydrophobic pockets. The mechanism of HgammaD-Crys aggregation may provide clues to understanding age-onset cataract formation in vivo. PMID:12592018

  16. Nucleophosmin mutations in acute myeloid leukemia: A tale of protein unfolding and mislocalization

    PubMed Central

    Federici, Luca; Falini, Brunangelo

    2013-01-01

    Nucleophosmin (NPM1) is an abundant, ubiquitously expressed protein mainly localized at nucleoli but continuously shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm. NPM1 plays a role in several cellular functions, including ribosome biogenesis and export, centrosome duplication, chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, and response to stress stimuli. Much of the interest in this protein arises from its relevance in human malignancies. NPM1 is frequently overexpressed in solid tumors and is the target of several chromosomal translocations in hematologic neoplasms. Notably, NPM1 has been characterized as the most frequently mutated gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Mutations alter the C-terminal DNA-binding domain of the protein and result in its aberrant nuclear export and stable cytosolic localization. In this review, we focus on the leukemia-associated NPM1 C-terminal domain and describe its structure, function, and the effect exerted by leukemic mutations. Finally, we discuss the possibility to target NPM1 for the treatment of cancer and, in particular, of AML patients with mutated NPM1 gene. PMID:23436734

  17. Association Properties and Unfolding of a βγ-Crystallin Domain of a Vibrio-Specific Protein

    PubMed Central

    Suman, Shashi Kumar; Ravindra, Daddali; Sharma, Yogendra; Mishra, Amita

    2013-01-01

    The βγ-crystallin superfamily possesses a large number of versatile members, of which only a few members other than lens βγ-crystallins have been studied. Understanding the non-crystallin functions as well as origin of crystallin-like properties of such proteins is possible by exploring novel members from diverse sources. We describe a novel βγ-crystallin domain with S-type (Spherulin 3a type) Greek key motifs in protein vibrillin from a pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae. This domain is a part of a large Vibrio-specific protein prevalent in Vibrio species (found in at least fourteen different strains sequenced so far). The domain contains two canonical N/D-N/D-X-X-S/T-S Ca2+-binding motifs, and bind Ca2+. Unlike spherulin 3a and other microbial homologues studied so far, βγ-crystallin domain of vibrillin self-associates forming oligomers of various sizes including dimers. The fractionated dimers readily form octamers in concentration-dependent manner, suggesting an association between these two major forms. The domain associates/dissociates forming dimers at the cost of monomeric populations in the presence of Ca2+. No such effect of Ca2+ has been observed in oligomeric species. The equilibrium unfolding of both forms follows a similar pattern, with the formation of an unfolding intermediate at sub-molar concentrations of denaturant. These properties exhibited by this βγ-crystallin domain are not shown by any other domain studied so far, demonstrating the diversity in domain properties. PMID:23349723

  18. Experiments and simulations show how long-range contacts can form in expanded unfolded proteins with negligible secondary structure

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Wenli; Lyle, Nicholas; Luan, Bowu; Raleigh, Daniel P.; Pappu, Rohit V.

    2013-01-01

    The sizes of unfolded proteins under highly denaturing conditions scale as N0.59 with chain length. This suggests that denaturing conditions mimic good solvents, whereby the preference for favorable chain–solvent interactions causes intrachain interactions to be repulsive, on average. Beyond this generic inference, the broader implications of N0.59 scaling for quantitative descriptions of denatured state ensembles (DSEs) remain unresolved. Of particular interest is the degree to which N0.59 scaling can simultaneously accommodate intrachain attractions and detectable long-range contacts. Here we present data showing that the DSE of the N-terminal domain of the L9 (NTL9) ribosomal protein in 8.3 M urea lacks detectable secondary structure and forms expanded conformations in accord with the expected N0.59 scaling behavior. Paramagnetic relaxation enhancements, however, indicate the presence of detectable long-range contacts in the denatured-state ensemble of NTL9. To explain these observations we used atomistic thermal unfolding simulations to identify ensembles whose properties are consistent with all of the experimental observations, thus serving as useful proxies for the DSE of NTL9 in 8.3 M urea. Analysis of these ensembles shows that residual attractions are present under mimics of good solvent conditions, and for NTL9 they result from low-likelihood, medium/long-range contacts between hydrophobic residues. Our analysis provides a quantitative framework for the simultaneous observation of N0.59 scaling and low-likelihood long-range contacts for the DSE of NTL9. We propose that such low-likelihood intramolecular hydrophobic clusters might be a generic feature of DSEs that play a gatekeeping role to protect against aggregation during protein folding. PMID:23341588

  19. Resolution of the unfolded state.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaucage, Gregory

    2008-03-01

    The unfolded states in proteins and nucleic acids remain weakly understood despite their importance to protein folding; misfolding diseases (Parkinson's & Alzheimer's); natively unfolded proteins (˜ 30% of eukaryotic proteins); and to understanding ribozymes. Research has been hindered by the inability to quantify the residual (native) structure present in an unfolded protein or nucleic acid. Here, a scaling model is proposed to quantify the degree of folding and the unfolded state (Beaucage, 2004, 2007). The model takes a global view of protein structure and can be applied to a number of analytic methods and to simulations. Three examples are given of application to small-angle scattering from pressure induced unfolding of SNase (Panick, 1998), from acid unfolded Cyt c (Kataoka, 1993) and from folding of Azoarcus ribozyme (Perez-Salas, 2004). These examples quantitatively show 3 characteristic unfolded states for proteins, the statistical nature of a folding pathway and the relationship between extent of folding and chain size during folding for charge driven folding in RNA. Beaucage, G., Biophys. J., in press (2007). Beaucage, G., Phys. Rev. E. 70, 031401 (2004). Kataoka, M., Y. Hagihara, K. Mihara, Y. Goto J. Mol. Biol. 229, 591 (1993). Panick, G., R. Malessa, R. Winter, G. Rapp, K. J. Frye, C. A. Royer J. Mol. Biol. 275, 389 (1998). Perez-Salas U. A., P. Rangan, S. Krueger, R. M. Briber, D. Thirumalai, S. A. Woodson, Biochemistry 43 1746 (2004).

  20. Are Zinc-Finger Domains of Protein Kinase C Dynamic Structures That Unfold by Lipid or Redox Activation?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Feng; Ilbert, Marianne; Varadan, Ranjani; Cremers, Claudia M.; Hoyos, Beatrice; Acin-Perez, Rebeca; Vinogradov, Valerie; Cowburn, David; Jakob, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Protein kinase C (PKC) is activated by lipid second messengers or redox action, raising the question whether these activation modes involve the same or alternate mechanisms. Here we show that both lipid activators and oxidation target the zinc-finger domains of PKC, suggesting a unifying activation mechanism. We found that lipid agonist-binding or redox action leads to zinc release and disassembly of zinc fingers, thus triggering large-scale unfolding that underlies conversion to the active enzyme. These results suggest that PKC zinc fingers, originally considered purely structural devices, are in fact redox-sensitive flexible hinges, whose conformation is controlled both by redox conditions and lipid agonists. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 757–766. PMID:21067413

  1. Pressure perturbation calorimetric studies of the solvation properties and the thermal unfolding of proteins in solution--experiments and theoretical interpretation.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Lally; Smolin, Nikolai; Ravindra, Revanur; Royer, Catherine; Winter, Roland

    2006-03-21

    We used pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC), a relatively new and efficient technique, to study the solvation and volumetric properties of amino acids and peptides as well as of proteins in their native and unfolded state. In PPC, the coefficient of thermal expansion of the partial volume of the protein is deduced from the heat consumed or produced after small isothermal pressure jumps, which strongly depends on the interaction of the protein with the solvent or cosolvent at the protein-solvent interface. Furthermore, the effects of various chaotropic and kosmotropic cosolvents on the volume and expansivity changes of proteins were measured over a wide concentration range with high precision. Depending on the type of cosolvent and its concentration, specific differences were found for the solvation properties and unfolding behaviour of the proteins, and the volume change upon unfolding may even change sign. To yield a molecular interpretation of the different terms contributing to the partial protein volume and its temperature dependence, and hence a better understanding of the PPC data, molecular dynamics computer simulations on SNase were also carried out and compared with the experimental data. The PPC studies introduced aim to obtain more insight into the basic thermodynamic properties of protein solvation and volume effects accompanying structural transformations of proteins in various cosolvents on one hand, as these form the basis for understanding their physiological functions and their use in drug designing and formulations, but also to initiate further valuable applications in studies of other biomolecular and chemical systems. PMID:16633605

  2. Dewetting-induced globule-coil transitions of model polymers and possible implications high-temperature and low-pressure unfolding of proteins.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Tomonari; Imazaki, Nobuyuki; Sekino, Hideo

    2010-04-28

    A thermodynamic analysis of high-temperature and low-pressure unfolding of proteins using a coarse-grained multiscale simulation combined with a liquid-state density-functional theory is presented. In this study, a hydrophobic polymer chain is employed as a probe molecule for investigating qualitative changes in a hydration free energy surface acting on proteins with changes in temperature and pressure. When water is heated so that its vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure, it boils. Long-ranged dewetting or drying caused by a hydrophobic planar wall and a large hydrophobic solute surface is significantly enhanced as it approaches the liquid-vapor coexistence curve of water. In this study, we demonstrate that high-temperature and low-pressure unfolding of the polymer chain is interpreted as dewetting-induced unfolding that occurs as it approaches the liquid-vapor coexistence. The unfolding of proteins due to high-temperature and low-pressure denaturation enhances the long-ranged dewetting or drying around them. The long-ranged dewetting phenomenon is considered to be originating from positive changes in both volume and entropy due to the high-temperature and low-pressure denaturation of the proteins. PMID:20441309

  3. “Invisible” Conformers of an Antifungal Disulfide Protein Revealed by Constrained Cold and Heat Unfolding, CEST-NMR Experiments, and Molecular Dynamics Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Fizil, Ádám; Gáspári, Zoltán; Barna, Terézia; Marx, Florentine; Batta, Gyula

    2015-01-01

    Transition between conformational states in proteins is being recognized as a possible key factor of function. In support of this, hidden dynamic NMR structures were detected in several cases up to populations of a few percent. Here, we show by two- and three-state analysis of thermal unfolding, that the population of hidden states may weight 20–40 % at 298 K in a disulfide-rich protein. In addition, sensitive 15N-CEST NMR experiments identified a low populated (0.15 %) state that was in slow exchange with the folded PAF protein. Remarkably, other techniques failed to identify the rest of the NMR “dark matter”. Comparison of the temperature dependence of chemical shifts from experiments and molecular dynamics calculations suggests that hidden conformers of PAF differ in the loop and terminal regions and are most similar in the evolutionary conserved core. Our observations point to the existence of a complex conformational landscape with multiple conformational states in dynamic equilibrium, with diverse exchange rates presumably responsible for the completely hidden nature of a considerable fraction. PMID:25676351

  4. Characterizing the Structures and Folding of Free Proteins Using 2-D Gas-Phase Separations: Observation of Multiple Unfolded Conformers

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Li, Fumin; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-05-15

    Understanding the 3-D structure and dynamics of proteins and other biological macromolecules in various environments is among the central challenges of chemistry. Electrospray ionization (ESI) can transfer ions from solution to gas phase with only limited structural distortion, allowing their profiling using mass spectrometry and other gas phase approaches. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) can be used to separate and characterize macroion conformations with high sensitivity and speed. However, IMS separation power has proven insufficient for full resolution of major structural variants of protein ions and elucidation of their interconversion dynamics. Here we report characterization of macromolecular conformations using field asymmetric waveform IMS (FAIMS) coupled to conventional IMS in conjunction with mass spectrometry. The controlled activation of ions in the electrodynamic funnel trap between FAIMS and IMS stages enables investigating the structural evolution of particular isomeric precursors as a function of the extent and duration of activation that can be varied over a large range. These new capabilities are demonstrated for bovine ubiquitin, a common model for study of structure and folding of gas-phase proteins. For nearly all charge states, two-dimensional FAIMS/IMS separations distinguish many more conformations than either FAIMS or IMS alone, including some species with very low abundance. The unfolding of specific ubiquitin conformers has been studied employing ion heating in the FAIMS/IMS interface.

  5. Probing single-molecule protein spontaneous folding-unfolding conformational fluctuation dynamics: the multiple-state and multiple-pathway energy landscape.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zijian; Lu, H Peter

    2015-05-28

    Protein conformational dynamics often plays a critical role in protein functions. We have characterized the spontaneous folding-unfolding conformational fluctuation dynamics of calmodulin (CaM) at thermodynamic equilibrium conditions by using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy. We have identified multiple folding transition pathways and characterized the underlying energy landscape of the single-molecule protein conformational fluctuation trajectories, using a model analysis based on the detailed balance rate process principle. Our results suggest that the folding dynamics of CaM molecules involves a complex multiple-pathway multiple-state energy landscape, rather than an energy landscape of two-state dynamical process. Our probing single-molecule FRET fluctuation experiments demonstrate a new approach of studying spontaneous protein folding-unfolding conformational dynamics at the equilibrium that features recording long time single-molecule conformational fluctuation trajectories. PMID:25812917

  6. Bile Acids Protect Expanding Hematopoietic Stem Cells from Unfolded Protein Stress in Fetal Liver.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Valgardur; Takei, Hajime; Soboleva, Svetlana; Radulovic, Visnja; Galeev, Roman; Siva, Kavitha; Leeb-Lundberg, L M Fredrik; Iida, Takashi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Miharada, Kenichi

    2016-04-01

    During development, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo a rapid expansion in the fetal liver (FL) before settling in the adult bone marrow. We recently reported that proliferating adult HSCs are vulnerable to ER stress caused by accumulation of mis-folded proteins. Here, we find that FL-HSCs, despite an increased protein synthesis rate and a requirement for protein folding, do not upregulate ER chaperones. Instead, bile acids (BAs), secreted from maternal and fetal liver, coordinate to serve as chemical chaperones. Taurocholic acid, the major BA in FL, supports growth of HSCs in vitro by inhibiting protein aggregation. In vivo, reducing BA levels leads to ER stress elevation and accumulation of aggregated proteins and significantly decreases the number of FL-HSCs. Taken together, these findings reveal that BA alleviation of ER stress is a mechanism required for HSC expansion during fetal hematopoiesis. PMID:26831518

  7. Slow Proton Transfer Coupled to Unfolding Explains the Puzzling Results of Single-Molecule Experiments on BBL, a Paradigmatic Downhill Folding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Cerminara, Michele; Campos, Luis A.; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Muñoz, Victor

    2013-01-01

    A battery of thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural approaches has indicated that the small α-helical protein BBL folds-unfolds via the one-state downhill scenario. Yet, single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy offers a more conflicting view. Single-molecule experiments at pH 6 show a unique half-unfolded conformational ensemble at mid denaturation, whereas other experiments performed at higher pH show a bimodal distribution, as expected for two-state folding. Here we use thermodynamic and laser T-jump kinetic experiments combined with theoretical modeling to investigate the pH dependence of BBL stability, folding kinetics and mechanism within the pH 6–11 range. We find that BBL unfolding is tightly coupled to the protonation of one of its residues with an apparent pKa of ∼7. Therefore, in chemical denaturation experiments around neutral pH BBL unfolds gradually, and also converts in binary fashion to the protonated species. Moreover, under the single-molecule experimental conditions (denaturant midpoint and 279 K), we observe that proton transfer is much slower than the ∼15 microseconds folding-unfolding kinetics of BBL. The relaxation kinetics is distinctly biphasic, and the overall relaxation time (i.e. 0.2–0.5 ms) becomes controlled by the proton transfer step. We then show that a simple theoretical model of protein folding coupled to proton transfer explains quantitatively all these results as well as the two sets of single-molecule experiments, including their more puzzling features. Interestingly, this analysis suggests that BBL unfolds following a one-state downhill folding mechanism at all conditions. Accordingly, the source of the bimodal distributions observed during denaturation at pH 7–8 is the splitting of the unique conformational ensemble of BBL onto two slowly inter-converting protonation species. Both, the unprotonated and protonated species unfold gradually (one-state downhill), but they exhibit different degree of unfolding at any given condition because the native structure is less stable for the protonated form. PMID:24205082

  8. Molten-globule and other conformational forms of zinc cytochrome C. Effect of partial and complete unfolding of the protein on its electron-transfer reactivity.

    PubMed

    Tremain, Scott M; Kostić, Nenad M

    2002-06-17

    To test the effect of protein conformation on reactivity, we use laser flash photolysis to compare the electron-transfer properties of the triplet state of zinc-substituted cytochrome c, designated (3)Zncyt, in the folded forms at low (F(low)) and high (F(high)) ionic strength, molten-globule (MG) form, and the forms unfolded by acid (U(acid)) and urea (U(urea)) toward the following four oxidative quenchers: Fe(CN)(6)(3-), Co(acac)(3), Co(phen)(3)(3+), and iron(III) cytochrome c. We characterize the conformational forms of Zncyt on the basis of the far-UV circular dichroism, Soret absorption, and rate constant for natural decay of the triplet state. This rate constant in the absence of quencher increases in the order F(high) < F(low) < MG < U(acid) < U(urea) because the exposure of porphyrin to solvent increases as Zncyt unfolds. Bimolecular rate constants for the reaction of (3)Zncyt with the four quenchers show significant effects on reactivity of electrostatic interactions and porphyrin exposure to solvent. This rate constant at the ionic strength of 20 mM increases upon unfolding by urea and acid, respectively, as follows: 1340-fold and 466-fold when the quencher is Co(phen)(3)(3+) and 168-fold and 36-fold when the quencher is cyt(III). To compare reactivity of (3)Zncyt in the F(low), F(high), MG, U(acid), and U(urea) forms without complicating effects of electrostatic interactions, we used the electroneutral quencher Co(acac)(3). Indeed, reactivity of folded (3)Zncyt with Co(acac)(3) was independent of ionic strength. Reactivity of (3)Zncyt with Co(acac)(3) upon partial and complete unfolding increases 10-fold, 54-fold, and 64-fold in the molten-globule, urea-unfolded, and acid-unfolded forms. PMID:12055008

  9. An Unfolding Story of Helical Transmembrane Proteins†

    PubMed Central

    Renthal, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Reversible unfolding of helical transmembrane proteins could provide valuable information about the free energy of interaction between transmembrane helices. Thermal unfolding experiments suggest that this process for integral membrane proteins is irreversible. Chemical unfolding has been accomplished with organic acids, but the unfolding or refolding pathways involve irreversible steps. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been used as a perturbant to study reversible unfolding and refolding kinetics. However, the interpretation of these experiments is not straightforward. It is shown that the results could be explained by SDS binding without substantial unfolding. Furthermore, the SDS perturbed state is unlikely to include all of the entropy terms involved in an unfolding process. Alternative directions for future research are suggested: fluorinated alcohols in homogeneous solvent systems; inverse micelles; and fragment association studies. PMID:17144649

  10. Verification of unfold error estimates in the unfold operator code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehl, D. L.; Biggs, F.

    1997-01-01

    Spectral unfolding is an inverse mathematical operation that attempts to obtain spectral source information from a set of response functions and data measurements. Several unfold algorithms have appeared over the past 30 years; among them is the unfold operator (UFO) code written at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition to an unfolded spectrum, the UFO code also estimates the unfold uncertainty (error) induced by estimated random uncertainties in the data. In UFO the unfold uncertainty is obtained from the error matrix. This built-in estimate has now been compared to error estimates obtained by running the code in a Monte Carlo fashion with prescribed data distributions (Gaussian deviates). In the test problem studied, data were simulated from an arbitrarily chosen blackbody spectrum (10 keV) and a set of overlapping response functions. The data were assumed to have an imprecision of 5% (standard deviation). One hundred random data sets were generated. The built-in estimate of unfold uncertainty agreed with the Monte Carlo estimate to within the statistical resolution of this relatively small sample size (95% confidence level). A possible 10% bias between the two methods was unresolved. The Monte Carlo technique is also useful in underdetermined problems, for which the error matrix method does not apply. UFO has been applied to the diagnosis of low energy x rays emitted by Z-pinch and ion-beam driven hohlraums.

  11. Verification of unfold error estimates in the unfold operator code

    SciTech Connect

    Fehl, D.L.; Biggs, F.

    1997-01-01

    Spectral unfolding is an inverse mathematical operation that attempts to obtain spectral source information from a set of response functions and data measurements. Several unfold algorithms have appeared over the past 30 years; among them is the unfold operator (UFO) code written at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition to an unfolded spectrum, the UFO code also estimates the unfold uncertainty (error) induced by estimated random uncertainties in the data. In UFO the unfold uncertainty is obtained from the error matrix. This built-in estimate has now been compared to error estimates obtained by running the code in a Monte Carlo fashion with prescribed data distributions (Gaussian deviates). In the test problem studied, data were simulated from an arbitrarily chosen blackbody spectrum (10 keV) and a set of overlapping response functions. The data were assumed to have an imprecision of 5{percent} (standard deviation). One hundred random data sets were generated. The built-in estimate of unfold uncertainty agreed with the Monte Carlo estimate to within the statistical resolution of this relatively small sample size (95{percent} confidence level). A possible 10{percent} bias between the two methods was unresolved. The Monte Carlo technique is also useful in underdetermined problems, for which the error matrix method does not apply. UFO has been applied to the diagnosis of low energy x rays emitted by Z-pinch and ion-beam driven hohlraums. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Solvent denaturation of globular proteins: unfolding by the monoalkyl- and dialkyl-substituted formamides and ureas.

    PubMed

    Herskovits, T T; Behrens, C F; Siuta, P B; Pandolfelli, E R

    1977-01-25

    The effects of the monoalkyl and dialkyl-substituted formamide series of denaturants on the native conformation of sperm whale myoglobin, horse heart cytochrome c, and Glycera dibranciata (single chain) hemoglobin have been investigated by spectral measurements in the Soret region (409 and 422 nm) and optical rotation measurements (265nm). The effectiveness of these two classes of protein denaturants is similar to the other straight-chain compounds of the urea, amide, and alcohol classes, examined in previous investigations from our laboratory. Their denaturing effectiveness is found to increase with increasing chain length or hydrocarbon content of the substituent alkyl groups. Application of the Peller and Flory equation to the denaturation data of the formamides shows that both the polar and the nonpolar group contributions to the protein-denaturant interactions have to be taken into account in order to correctly predict the observed denaturation midpoints. Additivity of the hydrophobic, KHø, and the polar, Kp, group contributions to the binding constants, KB = nKHø + Kp, with n = 1 or 2 for the mono- of the di-alkyl substituted denaturants gave best account of the experimental data. The KHø values used were based on free energy transfer data of various alkyl groups or the Scheraga-Nemethy theory of hydrophobic bonding. The assumption of group contributions of the denaturant to KB were also applied to the denaturation data of the unsubstituted amides and some examples of the monoalkyl and symmetrically substituted dialkyl ureas, taken from the literature. PMID:189823

  13. Fluorescence investigations on choline phospholipid binding and chemical unfolding of HSP-1/2, a major protein of horse seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C Sudheer; Sivaramakrishna, D; Ravi, Sanjay K; Swamy, Musti J

    2016-05-01

    Seminal fibronectin type-II (Fn-II) proteins interact with choline phospholipids present on the sperm plasma membrane and play a crucial role in sperm capacitation. Crystal structure of phosphorylcholine (PrC) complex of PDC-109, the major bovine Fn-II protein, together with fluorescence spectroscopic studies has shown that tryptophan residues are crucial for its specific interaction with choline phospholipids. In the present study, the heterogeneity and microenvironment of tryptophan residues in HSP-1/2, a major protein of horse seminal plasma (which is homologous to PDC-109) were investigated in the native state, in the presence of PrC and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) with short (valeryl, C-5) and long (myristoyl, C-14) chains, and upon denaturation using fluorescence quenching, time-resolved fluorescence and red-edge excitation shift (REES) measurements. The results obtained show that the environment of tryptophan residues in HSP-1/2 is more heterogeneous as compared to that in PDC-109. Binding of choline containing ligands afforded a protection to the tryptophan residues with the shielding order being: PrC≤divalaroyl PCunfolding with chemical denaturants with no cooperativity, whereas complete unfolding was observed in the presence of 10mM dithiothreitol, indicating that disulfide linkages prevent complete unfolding of the protein. In the presence of PrC the transition midpoints shifted to higher concentrations of the denaturant together with a broadening of the sigmoidal transitions, indicating that ligand binding as well as polydispersity modulate the unfolding process. PMID:26963430

  14. The acidic domain of the endothelial membrane protein GPIHBP1 stabilizes lipoprotein lipase activity by preventing unfolding of its catalytic domain.

    PubMed

    Mysling, Simon; Kristensen, Kristian Kølby; Larsson, Mikael; Beigneux, Anne P; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Fong, Loren G; Bensadouen, André; Jørgensen, Thomas Jd; Young, Stephen G; Ploug, Michael

    2016-01-01

    GPIHBP1 is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein of capillary endothelial cells that binds lipoprotein lipase (LPL) within the interstitial space and shuttles it to the capillary lumen. The LPL•GPIHBP1 complex is responsible for margination of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins along capillaries and their lipolytic processing. The current work conceptualizes a model for the GPIHBP1•LPL interaction based on biophysical measurements with hydrogen-deuterium exchange/mass spectrometry, surface plasmon resonance, and zero-length cross-linking. According to this model, GPIHBP1 comprises two functionally distinct domains: (1) an intrinsically disordered acidic N-terminal domain; and (2) a folded C-terminal domain that tethers GPIHBP1 to the cell membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositol. We demonstrate that these domains serve different roles in regulating the kinetics of LPL binding. Importantly, the acidic domain stabilizes LPL catalytic activity by mitigating the global unfolding of LPL's catalytic domain. This study provides a conceptual framework for understanding intravascular lipolysis and GPIHBP1 and LPL mutations causing familial chylomicronemia. PMID:26725083

  15. ZnO nanoparticle-protein interaction: Corona formation with associated unfolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhunia, A. K.; Samanta, P. K.; Saha, S.; Kamilya, T.

    2013-09-01