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1

The unfolded protein response unfolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a key organelle of protein targeting and secretion, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays host to a wide variety of protein\\u000a maturation steps including folding, modification, and complex formation. Homeostasis of ER function is therefore critical\\u000a to cell function. The unfolded protein response (UPR), a conserved eukaryotic signal transduction pathway, regulates the ER’s\\u000a capacity to perform protein folding according to

Maho Niwa

2

The unfolded-protein-response  

E-print Network

The unfolded- protein-response pathway in yeast The accumulation of unfolded proteins in structure to growth-factor receptorkinases has been identified as a key component of the unfolded-protein-response of genes encoding ER-resldent proteins Is induced In the nucleus. This 'unfolded-protein response

Walter, Peter

3

The unfolded protein response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a signal transduction network activated by inhibition of protein folding in the endoplasmic\\u000a reticulum (ER). The UPR coordinates adaptive responses to this stress situation, including induction of ER resident molecular\\u000a chaperone and protein foldase expression to increase the protein folding capacity of the ER, induction of phospholipid synthesis,\\u000a attenuation of general translation, and upregulation

Martin Schröder

2006-01-01

4

Cell Metabolism The Unfolded Protein Response  

E-print Network

Cell Metabolism Article The Unfolded Protein Response Mediates Adaptation to Exercise in Skeletal dysfunction. Here we show that the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive response pathway through a set of signal transduction cascades that are collectively termed the unfolded protein response

Campbell, Kevin P.

5

Translation Attenuation Mechanism in Unfolded Protein Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endoplasmic Reticulum is a cellular organelle where membrane and extracellular proteins are folded with the help of chaperons. Insulin is one example of such extracellular proteins. Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is a cell response to an increased level of unfolded proteins in ER. In pancreatic ?-cells failure in UPR leads to accumulation of unfolded insulin in Endoplasmic reticulum and eventual cell death. This is thought to be one of the causes of type two diabetes.

Trusina, Ala; Papa, Feroz; Tang, Chao

6

Cerebral ischemia and the unfolded protein response  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review studies of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) following cerebral isc- hemia and reperfusion (I\\/R). The UPR is a cell stress program activated when misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER lumen. UPR activation causes: (i) a PERK-mediated phos- phorylation of eIF2a, inhibiting protein synthesis to prevent further accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER

Donald J. DeGracia; Heather L. Montie

2004-01-01

7

The Unfolded Protein Response Protects from Tau Neurotoxicity In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unfolded protein response is a critical system by which the cell handles excess misfolded protein in the secretory pathway. The role of the system in modulating the effects of aggregation prone cytosolic proteins has received less attention. We use genetic reporters to demonstrate activation of the unfolded protein response in a transgenic Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease and related

Carin A. Loewen; Mel B. Feany

2010-01-01

8

The Unfolded Protein Response and Autophagy: Herpesviruses Rule!  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unfolded protein response (UPR) and autophagy are two cellular environmental responses that affect a cell's life or death. The UPR begins on the sensing of an excess of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Autophagy, originally discov- ered as a response to nutrient depletion, is involved in develop- ment, in the degradation of cellular components, and in the

Dong Yun Lee; Jisook Lee; Bill Sugden

2009-01-01

9

The Unfolded Protein Response and Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Diabetic retinopathy, a common complication of diabetes, is the leading cause of blindness in adults. Diabetes chronically damages retinal blood vessels and neurons likely through multiple pathogenic pathways such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To relieve ER stress, the cell activates an adaptive mechanism known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR coordinates the processes of protein synthesis, protein folding, and degradation to ensure proteostasis, which is vital for cell survival and activity. Emerging evidence suggests that diabetes can activate all three UPR branches in retinal cells, among which the PERK/ATF4 pathway is the most extensively studied in the development of diabetic retinopathy. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) is a major transcription factor in the core UPR pathway and also regulates a variety of genes involved in cellular metabolism, redox state, autophagy, inflammation, cell survival, and vascular function. The exact function and implication of XBP1 in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy remain elusive. Focusing on this less studied pathway, we summarize recent progress in studies of the UPR pertaining to diabetic changes in retinal vasculature and neurons, highlighting the perspective of XBP1 as a potential therapeutic target in diabetic retinopathy. PMID:25530974

Wang, Josh J.; Zhang, Sarah X.

2014-01-01

10

Signal integration in the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) responds to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in its lumen (ER stress) by activating intracellular signal transduction pathways — cumulatively called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Together, at least three mechanistically distinct arms of the UPR regulate the expression of numerous genes that function within the secretory pathway but also affect broad aspects of cell fate

David Ron; Peter Walter

2007-01-01

11

Unfolded protein response in cancer: the Physician's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cascade of intracellular stress signaling events in response to an accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins\\u000a in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Cancer cells are often exposed to hypoxia, nutrient starvation, oxidative\\u000a stress and other metabolic dysregulation that cause ER stress and activation of the UPR. Depending on the duration and

Xuemei Li; Kezhong Zhang; Zihai Li

2011-01-01

12

The role of the unfolded protein response in the heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The misfolding of nascent proteins, or the unfolding of proteins after synthesis is complete, can occur in response to numerous environmental stresses, or as a result of mutations that de-stabilize protein structure. Cells have developed elaborate protein quality control systems that recognize improperly folded proteins and either refold them or facilitate their degradation. One such quality control system is the

Christopher C. Glembotski

2008-01-01

13

The unfolded protein response in nutrient sensing and differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic cells coordinate protein-folding reactions in the endoplasmic reticulum with gene expression in the nucleus and messenger RNA translation in the cytoplasm. As the rate of protein synthesis increases, protein folding can be compromised, so cells have evolved signal-transduction pathways that control transcription and translation — the 'unfolded protein response'. Recent studies indicate that these pathways also coordinate rates of

Donalyn Scheuner; Martin Schröder; Xiaohua Shen; Kyungho Lee; Chuan Yin Liu; Stacey M. Arnold; Randal J. Kaufman

2002-01-01

14

Lipid-dependent regulation of the unfolded protein response  

PubMed Central

Protein folding homeostasis in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum is defended by signal transduction pathways that are activated by an imbalance between unfolded proteins and chaperones (so called ER stress). Collectively referred to as the unfolded protein response (UPR) this homeostatic response is initiated by three known ER stress transducers: IRE1, PERK and ATF6. These ER-localised transmembrane (TM) proteins posses lumenal stress sensing domains and cytosolic effector domains that collectively activate a gene expression programme regulating the production of proteins involved in the processing and maturation of secreted proteins that enter the ER. However, beyond limiting unfolded protein stress in the ER the UPR has important connections to lipid metabolism that are the subject of this review. PMID:25543896

Volmer, Romain; Ron, David

2015-01-01

15

Lipid Phase Perturbations and the Unfolded Protein Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of the consequences of ganglioside accumulation in lysosomal storage disease and free cholesterol accumulation in cell membranes in atherosclerosis suggest an unexpected link between perturbation of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane's lipid phase, induction of the unfolded protein response, and cell death.

David Ron; Seiichi Oyadomari

2004-01-01

16

Emerging functions of the unfolded protein response in immunity.  

PubMed

The unfolded protein response (UPR) has traditionally been viewed as an adaptive response triggered by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and aimed at restoring ER function. The UPR can also be an anticipatory response that is activated well before the disruption of protein homeostasis. UPR signaling intersects at many levels with the innate and adaptive immune responses. In some types of cells of the immune system, such as dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells, particular sensors that detect the UPR seem to be constitutively active in the absence of induction of the traditional UPR gene program and are necessary for antigen presentation and immunoglobulin synthesis. The UPR also influences signaling via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and activation of the transcription factor NF-?B, and some pathogens subvert the UPR. This Review summarizes these emerging noncanonical functions of the UPR in immunity. PMID:25232821

Janssens, Sophie; Pulendran, Bali; Lambrecht, Bart N

2014-10-01

17

Cellular unfolded protein response against viruses used in gene therapy  

PubMed Central

Viruses are excellent vehicles for gene therapy due to their natural ability to infect and deliver the cargo to specific tissues with high efficiency. Although such vectors are usually “gutted” and are replication defective, they are subjected to clearance by the host cells by immune recognition and destruction. Unfolded protein response (UPR) is a naturally evolved cyto-protective signaling pathway which is triggered due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in its lumen. The UPR signaling consists of three signaling pathways, namely PKR-like ER kinase, activating transcription factor 6, and inositol-requiring protein-1. Once activated, UPR triggers the production of ER molecular chaperones and stress response proteins to help reduce the protein load within the ER. This occurs by degradation of the misfolded proteins and ensues in the arrest of protein translation machinery. If the burden of protein load in ER is beyond its processing capacity, UPR can activate pro-apoptotic pathways or autophagy leading to cell death. Viruses are naturally evolved in hijacking the host cellular translation machinery to generate a large amount of proteins. This phenomenon disrupts ER homeostasis and leads to ER stress. Alternatively, in the case of gutted vectors used in gene therapy, the excess load of recombinant vectors administered and encountered by the cell can trigger UPR. Thus, in the context of gene therapy, UPR becomes a major roadblock that can potentially trigger inflammatory responses against the vectors and reduce the efficiency of gene transfer. PMID:24904562

Sen, Dwaipayan; Balakrishnan, Balaji; Jayandharan, Giridhara R.

2014-01-01

18

Intersection of the unfolded protein response and hepatic lipid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liver plays a central role in whole-body lipid metabolism by governing the synthesis, oxidization, transport and excretion\\u000a of lipids. The unfolded protein response (UPR) was identified as a signal transduction system that is activated by ER stress.\\u000a Recent studies revealed a critical role of the UPR in hepatic lipid metabolism. The IRE1\\/XBP1 branch of the UPR is activated\\u000a by

Ann-Hwee Lee; Laurie H. Glimcher

2009-01-01

19

Effects of Ubiquilin 1 on the Unfolded Protein Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have implicated the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We previously\\u000a reported that DNA variants in the ubiquilin 1 (UBQLN1) gene increase the risk for AD. Since UBQLN1 has been shown to play a role in the UPR, we assessed the effects of overexpression and downregulation of UBQLN1 splice variants during tunicamycin-induced ER

Alice Lu; Mikko Hiltunen; Donna M. Romano; Hilkka Soininen; Bradley T. Hyman; Lars Bertram; Rudolph E. Tanzi

2009-01-01

20

Structural Basis of the Unfolded Protein Response  

E-print Network

protein synthesis. If homeostasis in the ER cannot be reestablished, the metazoan UPR switches from at flux rates that can vary widely within the same cell depending on the phys- iological demand. During development (Lee et al. 2005), progen- itor cells are transformed into professional secretory cells

Walter, Peter

21

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: Signaling the Unfolded Protein Response  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the cellular site of newly synthesized secretory and membrane proteins. Such proteins must be properly folded and posttranslationally modified before exit from the organelle. Proper protein folding and modification requires molecular chaperone proteins as well as an ER environment conducive for these reactions. When ER lumenal conditions are altered or chaperone capacity is overwhelmed, the cell activates signaling cascades that attempt to deal with the altered conditions and restore a favorable folding environment. Such alterations are referred to as ER stress, and the response activated is the unfolded protein response (UPR). When the UPR is perturbed or not sufficient to deal with the stress conditions, apoptotic cell death is initiated. This review will examine UPR signaling that results in cell protective responses, as well as the mechanisms leading to apoptosis induction, which can lead to pathological states due to chronic ER stress.

2007-06-01

22

Lipid-dependent regulation of the unfolded protein response  

E-print Network

and execution of lipotoxic ER stress in pancreatic beta-cells. J Cell Sci 2008, 121:2308-2318. 10. Ariyama H, Kono N, Matsuda S, Inoue T, Arai H: Decrease in membrane phospholipid unsaturation induces unfolded protein response. J Biol Chem 2010, 285... :22027-22035. 11. Minville-Walz M, Pierre AS, Pichon L, Bellenger S, Fevre C, Bellenger J, Tessier C, Narce M, Rialland M: Inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression induces CHOP- dependent cell death in human cancer cells. PLoS ONE 2010, 5:e14363. 12...

Volmer, Romain; Ron, David

2014-12-25

23

The role of the unfolded protein response in diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a key role in the synthesis and modification of secretory and membrane proteins in all eukaryotic cells. Under normal conditions, these proteins are correctly folded and assembled in the ER. However, when cells are exposed to environmental factors such as overproduction of ER proteins, viral infections, or glucose deprivation, the secretory and membrane proteins can accumulate in unfolded or misfolded forms in the lumen of the ER, and consequently, cause stress in the ER. To maintain cellular homeostasis, cells induce several responses to ER stress. In mammalian cells, ER stress responses are induced by a diversity of signal pathways. There are three ER-located transmembrane proteins that play important roles in mammalian ER stress responses: activating transcription factor 6, inositol-requiring protein 1, and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase. ER stress is linked to various diseases, including diabetes. This review highlights the particular importance of ER stress-responsive molecules in insulin biosynthesis, glyconeogenesis, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and pancreatic ?-cell apoptosis. An understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of diabetes from the aspect of ER stress is crucial in formulating therapeutic strategies. PMID:23529219

Iwawaki, Takao; Oikawa, Daisuke

2013-05-01

24

Transcriptional and PostTranscriptional Regulation of Proangiogenic Factors by the Unfolded Protein Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInadequate extracellular conditions can adversely affect the environment of the ER and impinge on the maturation of nascent proteins. The resultant accumulation of unfolded proteins activates a signal transduction pathway, known as the unfolded protein response, which serves primarily to protect the cell during stress and helps restore homeostasis to the ER.Principal FindingsMicroarray analysis of the unfolded protein response in

Ethel R. Pereira; Nan Liao; Geoff A. Neale; Linda M. Hendershot; Dong-Yan Jin

2010-01-01

25

Unfolded protein response in hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus of clinical importance. The virus establishes a chronic infection and can progress from chronic hepatitis, steatosis to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanisms of viral persistence and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Recently the unfolded protein response (UPR), a cellular homeostatic response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, has emerged to be a major contributing factor in many human diseases. It is also evident that viruses interact with the host UPR in many different ways and the outcome could be pro-viral, anti-viral or pathogenic, depending on the particular type of infection. Here we present evidence for the elicitation of chronic ER stress in HCV infection. We analyze the UPR signaling pathways involved in HCV infection, the various levels of UPR regulation by different viral proteins and finally, we propose several mechanisms by which the virus provokes the UPR. PMID:24904547

Chan, Shiu-Wan

2014-01-01

26

Unfolded protein response followed by induction of cell death in cultured tobacco cells treated with tunicamycin  

Microsoft Academic Search

When correct folding of protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is prevented, cells respond to overcome the accumulation of unfolded proteins. This cellular response, which includes the induction of ER chaperones, is called an unfolded protein response (UPR). Although a link between the UPR and apoptosis has been reported in mammalian cells, little is known about this mechanism in plant

Yuji Iwata; Nozomu Koizumi

2005-01-01

27

The Unfolded Protein Response in Fatty Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is a protective cellular response activated under conditions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The hepatic UPR is activated in several forms of liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent data defining the role of the UPR in hepatic lipid metabolism have identified molecular mechanisms that may underlie the association between UPR activation and NAFLD. It has become increasingly evident that the IRE?/Xbp1 pathway of the UPR is critical for hepatic lipid homeostasis, and dysregulation of this evolutionarily conserved pathway is associated with human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although increasing evidence has delineated the importance of UPR pathway signaling in fatty liver disorders, the regulation of the hepatic UPR in normal physiology and fatty liver disorders remains incompletely understood. Understanding the role of the UPR in hepatic lipid metabolism may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:24222090

Green, Richard M.

2014-01-01

28

Hepatitis C virus envelope proteins regulate CHOP via induction of the unfolded protein response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular adaptive response that functions to reduce stress caused by malfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). UPR can be induced under physiological or pathological conditions and is responsible for the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus causing chronic diseases. Its genome encodes two envelope

Shiu-Wan Chan; Philip Anthony Egan

2005-01-01

29

Unfolded protein response in filamentous fungi-implications in biotechnology.  

PubMed

The unfolded protein response (UPR) represents a mechanism to preserve endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis that is conserved in eukaryotes. ER stress caused by the accumulation of potentially toxic un- or misfolded proteins in the ER triggers UPR activation and the induction of genes important for protein folding in the ER, ER expansion, and transport from and to the ER. Along with this adaptation, the overall capacity for protein secretion is markedly increased by the UPR. In filamentous fungi, various approaches to employ the UPR for improved production of homologous and heterologous proteins have been investigated. As the effects on protein production were strongly dependent on the expressed protein, generally applicable strategies have to be developed. A combination of transcriptomic approaches monitoring secretion stress and basic research on the UPR mechanism provided novel and important insight into the complex regulatory cross-connections between UPR signalling, cellular physiology, and developmental processes. It will be discussed how this increasing knowledge on the UPR might stimulate the development of novel strategies for using the UPR as a tool in biotechnology. PMID:25384707

Heimel, Kai

2015-01-01

30

Connecting endoplasmic reticulum stress to autophagy by unfolded protein response and calcium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic cells respond to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) either by unfolded protein response that leads to an increase in the capacity of the ER to fold its client proteins or by apoptosis when the function of ER cannot be restored. Emerging data now indicate that ER stress is also a potent inducer of macroautophagy,

M Høyer-Hansen; M Jäättelä

2007-01-01

31

ER stress and unfolded protein response in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Several theories on the pathomechanism of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been proposed: misfolded protein aggregates, mitochondrial dysfunction, increased glutamate toxicity, increased oxidative stress, disturbance of intracellular trafficking, and so on. In parallel, a number of drugs that have been developed to alleviate the putative key pathomechanism of ALS have been under clinical trials. Unfortunately, however, almost all studies have finished unsuccessfully. This fact indicates that the key ALS pathomechanism still remains a tough enigma. Recent studies with autopsied ALS patients and studies using mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) transgenic mice have suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related toxicity may be a relevant ALS pathomechanism. Levels of ER stress-related proteins were upregulated in motor neurons in the spinal cords of ALS patients. It was also shown that mSOD1, translocated to the ER, caused ER stress in neurons in the spinal cord of mSOD1 transgenic mice. We recently reported that the newly identified ALS-causative gene, vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB), plays a pivotal role in unfolded protein response (UPR), a physiological reaction against ER stress. The ALS-linked P56S mutation in VAPB nullifies the function of VAPB, resulting in motoneuronal vulnerability to ER stress. In this review, we summarize recent advances in research on the ALS pathomechanism especially addressing the putative involvement of ER stress and UPR dysfunction. PMID:19184563

Kanekura, Kohsuke; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Aiso, Sadakazu; Matsuoka, Masaaki

2009-04-01

32

Activation of the unfolded protein response in aged human lenses.  

PubMed

Cataract formation is a multifactorial disease, induced by a variety of stressors. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress?induced unfolded protein response (UPR) is known to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to apoptosis. The present study aimed to investigate whether activation of the UPR occurs in human lenses, using human lens epithelial cell (HLEC) lines and lenses obtained from an eye bank, from individuals aged between 50 and 90 years. In vitro analysis was performed using calcimycin (10 µM) as an ER stressor. The level of ER stress was measured by the production of ROS, staining for cell death, detection of binding immunoglobulin proteins (BIP) and levels of other UPR proteins, including inositol?requiring enzyme?1 (IRE), activating transcription factor (ATF) 6 and PKR?like eukaryotic initiation factor 2a kinase (PERK). These parameters were examined in HLECs exposed to calcimycin for 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Fluorescent activated cell sorting analysis of the levels of ROS and apoptosis revealed an increase following 24 h calcimycin exposure. The reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated a gradual increase in the mRNA levels of BIP, IRE1, ATF6 and PERK between 12 and 72 h. A similar effect was observed in the protein levels, which also demonstrated a gradual increase in the levels of endoplasmic oxidoreductin?1?like (Ero1?L)?? and protein disulfide isomerase, but a lower level of Ero1?L?. Activation of the UPR involved the apoptotic pathway, revealed by increased levels of C/EBP homologous protein, ATF4 and caspase?4. Additionally, the antioxidant protein levels were also suppressed. The investigation of aged human lenses revealed a similar increase in the protein expression of UPR. These results indicated that activation of the UPR?induced ROS production suppressed the antioxidant status and triggered the apoptotic pathway, ultimately leading to the formation of age?related cataracts. PMID:25739021

Tang, He-Zhen; Yang, Li-Min

2015-07-01

33

SirT3 Regulates the Mitochondrial Unfolded Protein Response  

PubMed Central

The mitochondria of cancer cells are characterized by elevated oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Such an elevation in ROS levels contributes to mitochondrial reprogramming and malignant transformation. However, high levels of ROS can cause irreversible damage to proteins, leading to their misfolding, mitochondrial stress, and ultimately cell death. Therefore, mechanisms to overcome mitochondrial stress are needed. The unfolded protein response (UPR) triggered by accumulation of misfolded proteins in the mitochondria (UPRmt) has been reported recently. So far, the UPRmt has been reported to involve the activation of CHOP and estrogen receptor alpha (ER?). The current study describes a novel role of the mitochondrial deacetylase SirT3 in the UPRmt. Our data reveal that SirT3 acts to orchestrate two pathways, the antioxidant machinery and mitophagy. Inhibition of SirT3 in cells undergoing proteotoxic stress severely impairs the mitochondrial network and results in cellular death. These observations suggest that SirT3 acts to sort moderately stressed from irreversibly damaged organelles. Since SirT3 is reported to act as a tumor suppressor during transformation, our findings reveal a dual role of SirT3. This novel role of SirT3 in established tumors represents an essential mechanism of adaptation of cancer cells to proteotoxic and mitochondrial stress. PMID:24324009

Papa, Luena

2014-01-01

34

Development of Antiproliferative Phenylmaleimides that Activate the Unfolded Protein Response  

PubMed Central

The current paper presents the synthesis and evaluation of a series of maleimides that were designed to inhibit the Cdc25 phosphatase by alkylation of catalytically essential cysteine residues. Although in HepB3 cell culture assays the analogues did exhibit antiproliferative IC50 values ranging from sub-micromolar to greater than 100 µM, inhibition of Cdc25 through cysteine alkylation could not be demonstrated. It was also found that analysis using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) following treatment with the most potent analogue (1t) did not provide data consistent with inhibition at one specific point in the cell cycle, as would be expected if Cdc25A were inhibited. Further studies with a subset of analogues resulted in a correlation of antiproliferative potencies with activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is a regulatory pathway that temporarily suspends protein production when misfolding of proteins occurs within the endoplastic reticulum (ER). In addition, ER chaperones that promote proper refolding become upregulated. If cellular damage cannot be resolved by these mechanisms, then the UPR can initiate apoptosis. The current study indicates that these maleimide analogues lead to UPR activation, which is predictive of the selective antiproliferative activity of the series. PMID:20472436

Muus, Ulrike; Hose, Curtis; Yao, Wei; Kosakowska-Cholody, Teresa; Farnsworth, David; Dyba, Marzena; Lountos, George T.; Waugh, David S.; Monks, Anne; Burke, Terrence R.; Michejda, Christopher J.

2010-01-01

35

Arsenic trioxide induces unfolded protein response in vascular endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Chronic arsenic exposure has been linked to endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis. We investigate the involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling in the arsenic-mediated cytotoxicity of the SVEC4-10 mouse endothelial cells. The SVEC4-10 cells underwent apoptosis in response to As2O3 dose- and time-dependently, accompanied by increased accumulation of calcium, and activation of caspase-3. These phenomena were completely inhibited by ?-lipoic acid (LA), which did not scavenge ROS over-production, but were only partially or not ameliorated by tiron, a potent superoxide scavenger. Moreover, arsenic activated UPR, leading to phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit ? (eIF2?), induction of ATF4, and processing of ATF6. Treatment with arsenic also triggered the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers, GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein), and CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein). The activation of eIF2?, ATF4 and ATF6 and expression of GRP78 and CHOP are repressed by both LA and tiron, indicating arsenic-induced UPR is mediated through ROS-dependent and ROS-independent pathways. Arsenic also induced ER stress-inducible genes, BAX, PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis), TRB3 (tribbles-related protein 3), and SNAT2 (sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter 2). Consistent with intracellular calcium and cell viability data, ROS may not be important in arsenic-induced death, because tiron did not affect the expression of these pro-apoptotic genes. In addition, pretreatment with salubrinal, a selective inhibitor of eIF2? dephosphorylation, enhanced arsenic-induced GRP78 and CHOP expression and partially prevented arsenic cytotoxicity in SVEC4-10 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that arsenic-induced endothelial cytotoxicity is associated with ER stress, which is mediated by ROS-dependent and ROS-independent signaling. PMID:23892647

Weng, Ching-Yi; Chiou, Shu-Yuan; Wang, Lisu; Kou, Mei-Chun; Wang, Ying-Jan; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

2014-02-01

36

Review: Retinal degeneration: Focus on the unfolded protein response  

PubMed Central

Recently published literature has provided evidence that the unfolded protein response (UPR) is involved in the development of retinal degeneration. The scope of these studies encompassed diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, glaucoma, retinal detachment, light-induced retinal degeneration, age-related macular degeneration, and inherited retinal degeneration. Subsequent studies investigating the role of individual UPR markers in retinal pathogenesis and examining the therapeutic potential of reprogramming the UPR as a method for modulating the rate of retinal degeneration have been initiated. Manipulation of UPR markers has been made possible by the use of knockout mice, pharmacological agents, and viral vector-mediated augmentation of gene expression. Future research will aim at identifying specific inhibitors and/or inducers of UPR regulatory markers as well as expand the list of UPR-related animal models. Additionally, adeno-associated virus-mediated gene delivery is a safe and effective method for modulating gene expression, and thus is a useful research tool for manipulating individual UPR markers in affected retinas and a promising delivery vector for gene therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. PMID:24068865

Gorbatyuk, Oleg

2013-01-01

37

A regulatory link between ER-associated protein degradation and the unfolded-protein response.  

PubMed

Ubiquitin conjugation during endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) depends on the activity of Ubc7. Here we show that Ubc1 acts as a further ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in this pathway. Absence of both enzymes results in marked stabilization of an ERAD substrate and induction of the unfolded-protein response (UPR). Furthermore, basic ERAD activity is sufficient to eliminate unfolded proteins under normal conditions. However, when stress is applied, the UPR is required to increase ERAD activity. We thus demonstrate, for the first time, a regulatory loop between ERAD and the UPR, which is essential for normal growth of yeast cells. PMID:10878801

Friedlander, R; Jarosch, E; Urban, J; Volkwein, C; Sommer, T

2000-07-01

38

Targeting the unfolded protein response in cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Rapid growth of tumor cells coupled with inadequate vascularization leads to shortage of oxygen and nutrients. The unfolded protein response (UPR), a defense cellular mechanism activated during such stress conditions, is a complex process that includes upregulation of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperones, such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). Due to its central role in UPR, GRP78 is overexpressed in many cancers; it is implicated in cancer cell survival through supporting of drug- and radioresistance as well as metastatic dissemination, and is generally associated with poor outcome. This is the reason why selective destruction of GRP78 could become a novel anticancer strategy. GRP78 is the only known substrate of the proteolytic A subunit (SubA) of a bacterial AB(5) toxin, and the selective SubA-induced cleavage of GRP78 leads to massive cell death. Targeted delivery of SubA into cancer cells via specific receptor-mediated endocytosis could be a suitable strategy for assaulting tumor cells. We fused SubA to epidermal growth factor (EGF), whose receptor (EGFR) is frequently overexpressed in tumor cells, and demonstrated that the resulting EGF-SubA immunotoxin is an effective killer of EGFR-positive tumor cells. Furthermore, because of its unique mechanism of action, EGF-SubA synergizes with UPR-inducing drugs, which opens a possibility for the development of mechanism-based combination regimens for effective anticancer therapy. In this chapter, we provide experimental protocols for the assessment of the effects of EGF-SubA on EGFR-positive cancer cells, either alone or in combination with UPR-inducing drugs. PMID:21329793

Backer, Marina V; Backer, Joseph M; Chinnaiyan, Prakash

2011-01-01

39

Induction of the unfolded protein response by constitutive G-protein signaling in rod photoreceptor cells.  

PubMed

Phototransduction is a G-protein signal transduction cascade that converts photon absorption to a change in current at the plasma membrane. Certain genetic mutations affecting the proteins in the phototransduction cascade cause blinding disorders in humans. Some of these mutations serve as a genetic source of "equivalent light" that activates the cascade, whereas other mutations lead to amplification of the light response. How constitutive phototransduction causes photoreceptor cell death is poorly understood. We showed that persistent G-protein signaling, which occurs in rod arrestin and rhodopsin kinase knock-out mice, caused a rapid and specific induction of the PERK pathway of the unfolded protein response. These changes were not observed in the cGMP-gated channel knock-out rods, an equivalent light condition that mimics light-stimulated channel closure. Thus transducin signaling, but not channel closure, triggers rapid cell death in light damage caused by constitutive phototransduction. Additionally, we show that in the albino light damage model cell death was not associated with increase in global protein ubiquitination or unfolded protein response induction. Taken together, these observations provide novel mechanistic insights into the cell death pathway caused by constitutive phototransduction and identify the unfolded protein response as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25183010

Wang, Tian; Chen, Jeannie

2014-10-17

40

The mitochondrial unfolded protein response, a conserved stress response pathway with implications in health and disease  

PubMed Central

The ability to respond to various intracellular and/or extracellular stresses allows the organism to adapt to changing environmental conditions and drives evolution. It is now well accepted that a progressive decline of the efficiency of stress response pathways occurs with aging. In this context, a correct proteostasis is essential for the functionality of the cell, and its dysfunction has been associated with protein aggregation and age-related degenerative diseases. Complex response mechanisms have evolved to deal with unfolded protein stress in different subcellular compartments and their moderate activation translates into positive effects on health. In this review, we focus on the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), a response to proteotoxic stress specifically in mitochondria, an organelle with a wide array of fundamental functions, most notably the harvesting of energy from food and the control of cell death. We compare UPRmt with the extensively characterized cytosolic heat shock response (HSR) and the unfolded protein response in endoplasmic reticulum (UPRER), and discuss the current knowledge about UPRmt signaling pathways as well as their potential involvement in physiology. PMID:24353213

Jovaisaite, Virginija; Mouchiroud, Laurent; Auwerx, Johan

2014-01-01

41

The Stress Rheostat: An Interplay Between the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) and Autophagy in Neurodegeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a conserved adaptive reaction that increases cell survival under conditions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The UPR controls diverse processes such as protein folding, secretion, ER biogenesis, protein quality control and macroautophagy. Occurrence of chronic ER stress has been extensively described in neurodegenerative conditions linked to protein misfolding and aggre- gation, including Amyotrophic lateral

Soledad Matus; Fernanda Lisbona; Mauricio Torres; Cristian Leon; Peter Thielen; Claudio Hetz

2008-01-01

42

Regulation of the Dolichol Pathway in Human Fibroblasts by the Endoplasmic Reticulum Unfolded Protein Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulation of unfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), which activates transcription of several genes encoding ER chaperones and folding enzymes. This study reports that conversion of dolichol-linked Man2-5GlcNAc2 intermediates into mature Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 oligosaccharides in primary human adult dermal fibroblasts is also stimulated by the UPR. This stimulation was not evident

William T. Doerrler; Mark A. Lehrman

1999-01-01

43

CHEMICAL STRESS INDUCES THE UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE IN OLFACTORY SENSORY NEURONS  

PubMed Central

More than any other neuron, olfactory sensory neurons are exposed to environmental insults. Surprisingly, their only documented response to damaging stress is apoptosis and subsequent replacement by new neurons. However, they expressed unfolded protein response genes, a transcriptionally regulated defense mechanism activated by many types of insults. The unfolded protein response transcripts Xbp1, spliced Xbp1, Chop (Ddit3), and BiP (Hspa5) were decreased when external access of stressors was reduced by blocking a nostril (naris occlusion). They, and Nrf2 (Nfe2l2), were increased by systemic application of tunicamycin or the selective olfactotoxic chemical, methimazole. Methimazole’s effects overcame naris occlusion and the unfolded protein response was independent of odor-evoked neuronal activity. Chemical stress is therefore a major and chronic activator of the unfolded protein response in olfactory sensory neurons. Stress-dependent repression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 was absent, however, suggesting a mechanism for disconnecting the UPR from apoptosis and tolerating a chronic unfolded protein response. Environmental stressors also affect both the sustentacular cells that support the neurons and respiratory epithelia because naris occlusion decreased expression of the xenobiotic chemical transformation enzyme Cyp2a5 in sustentacular cells and both naris occlusion and methimazole altered the abundance of the antibacterial lectin Reg3g in respiratory epithelia. PMID:20235094

Sammeta, Neeraja; McClintock, Timothy S.

2010-01-01

44

Transcriptional Regulation of VEGFA by Unfolded Protein Response Signaling Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoplasmic reticulum is the primary organelle in the cell which has the responsibility of properly folding proteins belonging to the secretory pathway. Secretory proteins are essential for a variety of functions within the body like metabolism, growth and survival. Hence, proper folding of the proteins in the ER is absolutely essential to maintain cellular and body function. The environment

Rajarshi Ghosh

2010-01-01

45

CONTRIBUTION OF THE UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE (UPR) TO ADIPOGENESIS AND WHOLE BODY ENERGY HOMEOSTASIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a specialized organelle that facilitates correct protein folding and maturation. Disruptions in ER homeostasis lead to ER stress and activation of a series of signal transduction cascades known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), which acts to restore ER homeostasis. In recent years, ER stress and UPR dysfunction have been linked to obesity, fatty liver

Sana Basseri

2012-01-01

46

Genomic Analysis of the Unfolded Protein Response in Arabidopsis Shows Its Connection to Important Cellular Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the breadth of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in Arabidopsis using gene expression analysis with Affymetrix GeneChips. With tunicamycin and DTT as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducing agents, we identified sets of UPR genes that were induced or repressed by both stresses. The proteins encoded by most of the upregulated genes function as part of the secretory system and

Immaculada M. Martínez; Maarten J. Chrispeels

2003-01-01

47

From acute ER stress to physiological roles of the Unfolded Protein Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

When protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is disrupted by alterations in homeostasis in the ER lumen, eucaryotic cells activate a series of signal transduction cascades that are collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Here we summarize our current understanding of how the UPR functions upon acute and severe stress. We discuss the mechanism of UPR receptor activation,

J Wu; R J Kaufman

2006-01-01

48

IRE1 Signaling Affects Cell Fate During the Unfolded Protein Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates a set of signaling pathways, collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The three UPR branches (IRE1, PERK, and ATF6) promote cell survival by reducing misfolded protein levels. UPR signaling also promotes apoptotic cell death if ER stress is not alleviated. How the UPR integrates its cytoprotective and proapoptotic outputs to select between life or

Jonathan H. Lin; Han Li; Douglas Yasumura; Hannah R. Cohen; Chao Zhang; Barbara Panning; Kevan M. Shokat; Matthew M. LaVail; Peter Walter

2007-01-01

49

Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection Initiates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and an Unfolded Protein Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The malfunctioning of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of cells in hosts ranging from yeast to mammals can trigger an unfolded protein response (UPR). Such malfunctioning can result from a variety of ER stresses, including the inhibition of protein glycosylation and calcium imbalance. To cope with ER stresses, cells may rely on the UPR to send a signal(s) from the ER

Hong-Lin Su; Ching-Len Liao; Yi-Ling Lin

2002-01-01

50

The Unfolded Protein Response Is Triggered by a Plant Viral Movement Protein1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Infection with Potato virus X (PVX) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants leads to increased transcript levels of several stress-related host genes, including basic-region leucine zipper 60 (bZIP60), SKP1, ER luminal binding protein (BiP), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), calreticulin (CRT), and calmodulin (CAM). bZIP60 is a key transcription factor that responds to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induces the expression of ER-resident chaperones (BiP, PDI, CRT, and CAM). SKP1 is a component of SCF (for SKP1-Cullin-F box protein) ubiquitin ligase complexes that target proteins for proteasomal degradation. Expression of PVX TGBp3 from a heterologous vector induces the same set of genes in N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves. Virus-induced gene silencing was employed to knock down the expression of bZIP60 and SKP1, and the number of infection foci on inoculated leaves was reduced and systemic PVX accumulation was altered. Silencing bZIP60 led to the suppression of BiP and SKP1 transcript levels, suggesting that bZIP60 might be an upstream signal transducer. Overexpression of TGBp3 led to localized necrosis, but coexpression of TGBp3 with BiP abrogated necrosis, demonstrating that the unfolded protein response alleviates ER stress-related cell death. Steady-state levels of PVX replicase and TGBp2 (which reside in the ER) proteins were unaltered by the presence of TGBp3, suggesting that TGBp3 does not contribute to their turnover. Taken together, PVX TGBp3-induced ER stress leads to up-regulation of bZIP60 and unfolded protein response-related gene expression, which may be important to regulate cellular cytotoxicity that could otherwise lead to cell death if viral proteins reach high levels in the ER. PMID:21474436

Ye, Changming; Dickman, Martin B.; Whitham, Steven A.; Payton, Mark; Verchot, Jeanmarie

2011-01-01

51

Metabolic stress promotes renal tubular inflammation by triggering the unfolded protein response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renal epithelium contributes to the development of inflammation during ischemic injury. Ischemia induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). Ischemic tissues generate distress signals and inflammation that activates fibrogenesis and may promote adaptive immunity. Interestingly, the UPR may activate inflammation pathways. Our aim was to test whether the UPR is activated during metabolic stress

S Fougeray; N Bouvier; P Beaune; C Legendre; D Anglicheau; E Thervet; N Pallet

2011-01-01

52

Dysfunction of the Unfolded Protein Response During Global Brain Ischemia and Reperfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses trigger the unfolded protein response (UPR), a compensatory response whose most proximal sensors are the ER membrane–bound proteins ATF6, IRE1?, and PERK. The authors simultaneously examined the activation of ATF6, IRE1?, and PERK, as well as components of downstream UPR pathways, in the rat brain after reperfusion after a 10-minute cardiac arrest. Although

Rita Kumar; Gary S. Krause; Hiderou Yoshida; Kazutoshi Mori; Donald J. DeGracia

2003-01-01

53

Translational Control Is Required for the Unfolded Protein Response and In Vivo Glucose Homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of unfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) attenuates protein synthesis initiation through phosphorylation of the ? subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2?) at Ser51. Subsequently, transcription of genes encoding adaptive functions including the glucose-regulated proteins is induced. We show that eIF2? phosphorylation is required for translation attenuation, transcriptional induction, and survival in response to ER

Donalyn Scheuner; Benbo Song; Edward McEwen; Chuan Liu; Ross Laybutt; Patrick Gillespie; Thom Saunders; Susan Bonner-Weir; Randal J Kaufman

2001-01-01

54

Intrinsic Capacities of Molecular Sensors of the Unfolded Protein Response to Sense Alternate Forms of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract (151words) The,unfolded ,protein ,response ,(UPR) regulates ,the protein-folding,capacity,of the,endoplasmic,reticulum,(ER) according to cellular demand. In mammalian cells, three ER transmembrane components, IRE1, PERK, and ATF6, initiate

Jenny B. DuRose; Arvin B. Tam; Maho Niwa

2006-01-01

55

Plasma cell differentiation and the unfolded protein response intersect at the transcription factor XBP-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) is essential for the differentiation of plasma cells and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Here we show that UPR-induced splicing of XBP-1 by the transmembrane endonuclease IRE1 is required to restore production of immunoglobulin in XBP-1?\\/? mouse B cells, providing an integral link between XBP-1, the UPR and plasma cell differentiation. Signals

Neal N. Iwakoshi; Ann-Hwee Lee; Prasanth Vallabhajosyula; Kevin L. Otipoby; Klaus Rajewsky; Laurie H. Glimcher

2003-01-01

56

Hypoxia signalling through mTOR and the unfolded protein response in cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxia occurs in the majority of tumours, promoting angiogenesis, metastasis and resistance to therapy. Responses to hypoxia are orchestrated in part through activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor family of transcription factors (HIFs). Recently, two additional O2-sensitive signalling pathways have also been implicated: signalling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase and signalling through activation of the unfolded protein response

Marianne Koritzinsky

2008-01-01

57

Engineering of chaperone systems and of the unfolded protein response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of recombinant proteins in mammalian cells is a successful technology that delivers protein pharmaceuticals for\\u000a therapies and for diagnosis of human disorders. Cost effective production of protein biopharmaceuticals requires extensive\\u000a optimization through cell and fermentation process engineering at the upstream and chemical engineering of purification processes\\u000a at the downstream side of the production process. The majority of protein pharmaceuticals

Saeed U. Khan; Martin Schröder

2008-01-01

58

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-induced mRNA Splicing Permits Synthesis of Transcription Factor Hac1p\\/Ern4p That Activates the Unfolded Protein Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intracellular signaling from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the nucleus, called the unfolded protein response (UPR), is activated when unfolded proteins are accumulated in the ER under a variety of stress conditions (\\

Tetsushi Kawahara; Hideki Yanagi; Takashi Yura; Kazutoshi Mori

59

Signalling from endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus: transcription factor with a basic-leucine zipper motif is required for the unfolded protein-response pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers the tran- scriptional induction of molecular chaperones and folding enzymes localized in the ER. Thus, eukar- yotic cells possess an intracellular signalling pathway from the ER to the nucleus, called the unfolded protein-response (UPR) pathway. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, such induction is mediated by the cis- acting unfolded protein-response element

Kazutoshi Mori; Tetsushi Kawahara; Hiderou Yoshida; Hideki Yanagi; Takashi Yura

1996-01-01

60

ClpP mediates activation of a mitochondrial unfolded protein response in C. elegans.  

PubMed

The cellular response to unfolded and misfolded proteins in the mitochondrial matrix is poorly understood. Here, we report on a genome-wide RNAi-based screen for genes that signal the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) in C. elegans. Unfolded protein stress in the mitochondria correlates with complex formation between a homeodomain-containing transcription factor DVE-1 and the small ubiquitin-like protein UBL-5, both of which are encoded by genes required for signaling the UPR(mt). Activation of the UPR(mt) correlates temporally and spatially with nuclear redistribution of DVE-1 and with its enhanced binding to the promoters of mitochondrial chaperone genes. These events and the downstream UPR(mt) are attenuated in animals with reduced activity of clpp-1, which encodes a mitochondrial matrix protease homologous to bacterial ClpP. As ClpP is known to function in the bacterial heat-shock response, our findings suggest that eukaryotes utilize component(s) from the protomitochondrial symbiont to signal the UPR(mt). PMID:17925224

Haynes, Cole M; Petrova, Kseniya; Benedetti, Cristina; Yang, Yun; Ron, David

2007-10-01

61

Effects of Inactivation and Constitutive Expression of the Unfolded- Protein Response Pathway on Protein Production in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

One strategy to obtain better yields of secreted proteins has been overexpression of single endoplasmic reticulum-resident foldases or chaperones. We report here that manipulation of the unfolded-protein response (UPR) pathway regulator, HAC1, affects production of both native and foreign proteins in the yeast Saccha- romyces cerevisiae. The effects of HAC1 deletion and overexpression on the production of a native protein,

Mari Valkonen; Merja Penttila; Markku Saloheimo

2003-01-01

62

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and the Unfolded Protein Response in Cellular Models of Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

6-Hydroxydopamine, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP), and rotenone cause the death of dopaminergic neurons in vitro and in vivo and are widely used to model Parkinson's disease. To identify regulated genes in such models, we performed serial analysis of gene expression on neuronal PC12 cells exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine. This revealed a striking increase in tran- scripts associated with the unfolded protein response. Immu-

Elizabeth J. Ryu; Heather P. Harding; James M. Angelastro; Ottavio V. Vitolo; David Ron; Lloyd A. Greene

2002-01-01

63

Severe Injury Is Associated With Insulin Resistance, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response, and Unfolded Protein Response  

PubMed Central

Objective We determined whether postburn hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) activation leading to impaired insulin receptor signaling. Background Inflammation and cellular stress, hallmarks of severely burned and critically ill patients, have been causally linked to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes via induction of ER stress and the UPR. Methods Twenty severely burned pediatric patients were compared with 36 nonburned children. Clinical markers, protein, and GeneChip analysis were used to identify transcriptional changes in ER stress and UPR and insulin resistance–related signaling cascades in peripheral blood leukocytes, fat, and muscle at admission and up to 466 days postburn. Results Burn-induced inflammatory and stress responses are accompanied by profound insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Genomic and protein analysis revealed that burn injury was associated with alterations in the signaling pathways that affect insulin resistance, ER/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and cell growth/apoptosis up to 466 days postburn. Conclusion Burn-induced insulin resistance is associated with persistent ER/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress/UPR and subsequent suppressed insulin receptor signaling over a prolonged period of time. PMID:22241293

Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.; Song, Juquan; Boehning, Darren; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Baker, Henry V.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.

2012-01-01

64

ER Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several theories on the pathomechanism of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been proposed: misfolded protein aggregates,\\u000a mitochondrial dysfunction, increased glutamate toxicity, increased oxidative stress, disturbance of intracellular trafficking,\\u000a and so on. In parallel, a number of drugs that have been developed to alleviate the putative key pathomechanism of ALS have\\u000a been under clinical trials. Unfortunately, however, almost all studies have

Kohsuke Kanekura; Hiroaki Suzuki; Sadakazu Aiso; Masaaki Matsuoka

2009-01-01

65

The Unfolded Protein Response Regulates Multiple Aspects of Secretory and Membrane Protein Biogenesis and Endoplasmic Reticulum Quality Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway that relays signals from the lumen of the ER to activate target genes in the nu- cleus. We devised a genetic screen in the yeast Saccha- romyces cerevisiae to isolate mutants that are depen- dent on activation of the pathway for viability. Using this strategy, we isolated mutants affecting various

Davis T. W. Ng; Eric D. Spear; Peter Walter

2000-01-01

66

Spliced X-box Binding Protein 1 Couples the Unfolded Protein Response to Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) generates UDP-GlcNAc (uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine) for glycan synthesis and O-linked GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc) protein modifications. Despite the established role of the HBP in metabolism and multiple diseases, regulation of the HBP remains largely undefined. Here, we show that spliced X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1s), the most conserved signal transducer of the unfolded protein response (UPR), is a direct transcriptional activator of the HBP. We demonstrate that the UPR triggers HBP activation via Xbp1s-dependent transcription of genes coding for key, rate-limiting enzymes. We further establish that this previously unrecognized UPR-HBP axis is triggered in a variety of stress conditions. Finally, we demonstrate a physiologic role for the UPR-HBP axis, by showing that acute stimulation of Xbp1s in heart by ischemia/reperfusion confers robust cardioprotection in part through induction of the HBP. Collectively, these studies reveal that Xbp1s couples the UPR to the HBP to protect cells under stress. PMID:24630721

Wang, Zhao V.; Deng, Yingfeng; Gao, Ningguo; Pedrozo, Zully; Li, Dan L.; Morales, Cyndi R.; Criollo, Alfredo; Luo, Xiang; Tan, Wei; Jiang, Nan; Lehrman, Mark A.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Lavandero, Sergio; Mammen, Pradeep P.A.; Ferdous, Anwarul; Gillette, Thomas G.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Hill, Joseph A.

2014-01-01

67

The unfolded protein response is triggered following a single, unaccustomed resistance-exercise bout.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress results from an imbalance between the abundance of synthesized proteins and the folding capacity of the ER. In response, the unfolded protein response (UPR) attempts to restore ER function by attenuating protein synthesis and inducing chaperone expression. Resistance exercise (RE) stimulates protein synthesis; however, a postexercise accumulation of unfolded proteins may activate the UPR. Aging may impair protein folding, and the accumulation of oxidized and misfolded proteins may stimulate the UPR at rest in aged muscle. Eighteen younger (n = 9; 21 ± 3 yr) and older (n = 9; 70 ± 4 yr) untrained men completed a single, unilateral bout of RE using the knee extensors (four sets of 10 repetitions at 75% of one repetition maximum on the leg press and leg extension) to determine whether the UPR is increased in resting, aged muscle and whether RE stimulates the UPR. Muscle biopsies were taken from the nonexercised and exercised vastus lateralis at 3, 24, and 48 h postexercise. Age did not affect any of the proteins and transcripts related to the UPR. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and protein kinase R-like ER protein kinase (PERK) proteins were increased at 48 h postexercise, whereas inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha (IRE1?) was elevated at 24 h and 48 h. Despite elevated protein, GRP78 and PERK mRNA was unchanged; however, IRE1? mRNA was increased at 24 h postexercise. Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) mRNA increased at 24 h and 48 h, whereas ATF4, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), and growth arrest and DNA damage protein 34 mRNA were unchanged. These data suggest that RE activates specific pathways of the UPR (ATF6/IRE1?), whereas PERK/eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha/CHOP does not. In conclusion, acute RE results in UPR activation, irrespective of age. PMID:25009220

Ogborn, Daniel I; McKay, Bryon R; Crane, Justin D; Parise, Gianni; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

2014-09-15

68

The anticancer flavonoid chrysin induces the unfolded protein response in hepatoma cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract Chrysin is a natural and biologically active flavonoid with anticancer effects. However, little is known about the adaptive response of cancer cells to chrysin. Chrysin reportedly has proteasome inhibitor activity. Previous studies demonstrated that proteasome inhibitors might induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of chrysin on hepatoma cells and roles of the ER-resident protein GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein 78) in its action. Also, we investigated the effects of green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a natural GRP78 inhibitor, on the sensitivity of hepatoma cells to chrysin. Here, we report that chrysin inhibits hepatoma cells growth and induces apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Chrysin induces GRP78 overexpression, X-box binding protein-1 splicing and eukaryotic initiation factor 2? phosphorylation, hallmarks of the unfolded protein response. GRP78 knockdown potentiates chrysin-induced caspase-7 cleavage in hepatoma cells and enhances chrysin-induced apoptosis. EGCG overcomes chrysin-induced GRP78 expression. Combination of EGCG potentiates chrysin-induced caspase-7 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Finally, EGCG sensitizes hepatoma cells to chrysin through caspase-mediated apoptosis. These data suggest that chrysin triggers the unfolded protein response. Abrogation of GRP78 induction may improve the anticancer effects of chrysin. Combination of EGCG and chrysin represents a new regimen for cancer chemoprevention and therapeutics. PMID:21199322

Sun, Xiangming; Huo, Xiaodong; Luo, Ting; Li, Minjing; Yin, Yancun; Jiang, Yangfu

2011-01-01

69

Acute nutrient regulation of the unfolded protein response and integrated stress response in cultured rat pancreatic islets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Inadequate chaperone function relative to client protein load in the endoplasmic reticulum triggers an adaptive unfolded protein\\u000a response (UPR), including the integrated stress response (ISR), the latter being also activated by other types of stresses.\\u000a It is well established that pancreatic beta cells, which synthesise and secrete insulin upon nutrient stimulation, are markedly\\u000a affected by pathological disruption or excessive activation

H. Elouil; M. Bensellam; Y. Guiot; D. Vander Mierde; S. M. A. Pascal; F. C. Schuit; J. C. Jonas

2007-01-01

70

Unfolding of Proteins: Thermal and Mechanical Unfolding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have employed a Hamiltonian model based on a self-consistent Gaussian appoximation to examine the unfolding process of proteins in external - both mechanical and thermal - force elds. The motivation was to investigate the unfolding pathways of proteins by including only the essence of the important interactions of the native-state topology. Furthermore, if such a model can indeed correctly predict the physics of protein unfolding, it can complement more computationally expensive simulations and theoretical work. The self-consistent Gaussian approximation by Micheletti et al. has been incorporated in our model to make the model mathematically tractable by signi cantly reducing the computational cost. All thermodynamic properties and pair contact probabilities are calculated by simply evaluating the values of a series of Incomplete Gamma functions in an iterative manner. We have compared our results to previous molecular dynamics simulation and experimental data for the mechanical unfolding of the giant muscle protein Titin (1TIT). Our model, especially in light of its simplicity and excellent agreement with experiment and simulation, demonstrates the basic physical elements necessary to capture the mechanism of protein unfolding in an external force field.

Hur, Joe S.; Darve, Eric

2004-01-01

71

Sorafenib enhances proteasome inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity via inhibition of unfolded protein response and keratin phosphorylation  

SciTech Connect

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly resistant to conventional systemic therapies and prognosis for advanced HCC patients remains poor. Recent studies of the molecular mechanisms responsible for tumor initiation and progression have identified several potential molecular targets in HCC. Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor shown to have survival benefits in advanced HCC. It acts by inhibiting the serine/threonine kinases and the receptor type tyrosine kinases. In preclinical experiments sorafenib had anti-proliferative activity in hepatoma cells and it reduced tumor angiogenesis and increased apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the cytotoxic mechanisms of sorafenib include its inhibitory effects on protein ubiquitination, unfolded protein response (UPR) and keratin phosphorylation in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Moreover, we show that combined treatment with sorafenib and proteasome inhibitors (PIs) synergistically induced a marked increase in cell death in hepatoma- and hepatocyte-derived cells. These observations may open the way to potentially interesting treatment combinations that may augment the effect of sorafenib, possibly including drugs that promote ER stress. Because sorafenib blocked the cellular defense mechanisms against hepatotoxic injury not only in hepatoma cells but also in hepatocyte-derived cells, we must be careful to avoid severe liver injury. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •We examined the cytotoxic mechanisms of sorafenib in hepatoma cells. •Sorafenib induces cell death via apoptotic and necrotic fashion. •Sorafenib inhibits protein ubiquitination and unfolded protein response. •Autophagy induced by sorafenib may affect its cytotoxicity. •Sorafenib inhibits keratin phosphorylation and cytoplasmic inclusion formation.

Honma, Yuichi; Harada, Masaru, E-mail: msrharada@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp

2013-08-15

72

Estrogen receptor ? inhibitor activates the unfolded protein response, blocks protein synthesis, and induces tumor regression.  

PubMed

Recurrent estrogen receptor ? (ER?)-positive breast and ovarian cancers are often therapy resistant. Using screening and functional validation, we identified BHPI, a potent noncompetitive small molecule ER? biomodulator that selectively blocks proliferation of drug-resistant ER?-positive breast and ovarian cancer cells. In a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer, BHPI induced rapid and substantial tumor regression. Whereas BHPI potently inhibits nuclear estrogen-ER?-regulated gene expression, BHPI is effective because it elicits sustained ER?-dependent activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (EnR) stress sensor, the unfolded protein response (UPR), and persistent inhibition of protein synthesis. BHPI distorts a newly described action of estrogen-ER?: mild and transient UPR activation. In contrast, BHPI elicits massive and sustained UPR activation, converting the UPR from protective to toxic. In ER?(+) cancer cells, BHPI rapidly hyperactivates plasma membrane PLC?, generating inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3), which opens EnR IP3R calcium channels, rapidly depleting EnR Ca(2+) stores. This leads to activation of all three arms of the UPR. Activation of the PERK arm stimulates phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?), resulting in rapid inhibition of protein synthesis. The cell attempts to restore EnR Ca(2+) levels, but the open EnR IP3R calcium channel leads to an ATP-depleting futile cycle, resulting in activation of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase and phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). eEF2 phosphorylation inhibits protein synthesis at a second site. BHPI's novel mode of action, high potency, and effectiveness in therapy-resistant tumor cells make it an exceptional candidate for further mechanistic and therapeutic exploration. PMID:25825714

Andruska, Neal D; Zheng, Xiaobin; Yang, Xujuan; Mao, Chengjian; Cherian, Mathew M; Mahapatra, Lily; Helferich, William G; Shapiro, David J

2015-04-14

73

Activation of Mammalian Unfolded Protein Response Is Compatible with the Quality Control System Operating in the Endoplasmic Reticulum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Newly synthesized secretory and transmembrane,proteins are folded and assembled in the endoplasmic,reticulum (ER) where an efficient quality control system operates so that only correctly folded molecules are allowed to move,along the secretory pathway. The productive folding process in the ER has been thought to be supported by the,unfolded protein response (UPR), which is activated by the accumulation of unfolded

Satomi Nadanaka; Hiderou Yoshida; Fumi Kano; Masayuki Murat; Kazutoshi Mori

2004-01-01

74

New insights into translational regulation in the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response.  

PubMed

Homeostasis of the protein-folding environment in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is maintained by signal transduction pathways that collectively constitute an unfolded protein response (UPR). These affect bulk protein synthesis and thereby the levels of ER stress, but also culminate in regulated expression of specific mRNAs, such as that encoding the transcription factor ATF4. Mechanisms linking eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) phosphorylation to control of unfolded protein load in the ER were elucidated more than 10 years ago, but recent work has highlighted the diversity of processes that impinge on eIF2 activity and revealed that there are multiple mechanisms by which changes in eIF2 activity can modulate the translation of individual mRNAs. In addition, the potential for affecting this step of translation initiation pharmacologically is becoming clearer. Furthermore, it is now clear that another strand of the UPR, controlled by the endoribonuclease inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), also affects rates of protein synthesis in stressed cells and that its effector function, mediated by the transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1), is subject to important mRNA-specific translational regulation. These new insights into the convergence of translational control and the UPR will be reviewed here. PMID:22535228

Pavitt, Graham D; Ron, David

2012-06-01

75

Protective Unfolded Protein Response in Human Pancreatic Beta Cells Transplanted into Mice  

PubMed Central

Background There is great interest about the possible contribution of ER stress to the apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells in the diabetic state and with islet transplantation. Methods and Findings Expression of genes involved in ER stress were examined in beta cell enriched tissue obtained with laser capture microdissection (LCM) from frozen sections of pancreases obtained from non-diabetic subjects at surgery and from human islets transplanted into ICR-SCID mice for 4 wk. Because mice have higher glucose levels than humans, the transplanted beta cells were exposed to mild hyperglycemia and the abnormal environment of the transplant site. RNA was extracted from the LCM specimens, amplified and then subjected to microarray analysis. The transplanted beta cells showed an unfolded protein response (UPR). There was activation of many genes of the IRE-1 pathway that provide protection against the deleterious effects of ER stress, increased expression of ER chaperones and ERAD (ER-associated protein degradation) proteins. The other two arms of ER stress, PERK and ATF-6, had many down regulated genes. Downregulation of EIF2A could protect by inhibiting protein synthesis. Two genes known to contribute to apoptosis, CHOP and JNK, were downregulated. Conclusions Human beta cells in a transplant site had UPR changes in gene expression that protect against the proapoptotic effects of unfolded proteins. PMID:20585452

Kennedy, Jeffrey; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Jung, Min-Ho; Marselli, Lorella; Goldfine, Allison B.; Balis, Ulysses J.; Sgroi, Dennis; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C.

2010-01-01

76

Unfolded protein response in Drosophila melanogaster: Role of IRE1\\/XBP1 pathway of UPR during differentiation and ER stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unfolded protein response (UPR) is a group of adaptive signal transduction pathways elicited in response to ER stress caused by accumulation of misfolded proteins. UPR, specifically Ire1\\/Xbp1 pathway is highly conserved and plays an important role during normal development and ER stress. UPR upregulates and maintains the secretory pathway components during development and differentiation of professional secretory cells like plasma

Madhu Sudana Rao Chikka

2009-01-01

77

Essential role of the unfolded protein response regulator GRP78\\/BiP in protection from neuronal apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurodegenerative diseases are often associated with dysfunction in protein quality control. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a key site for protein synthesis, senses stressful conditions by activating the unfolded protein response (UPR). In this study we report the creation of a novel mouse model in which GRP78\\/BiP, a major ER chaperone and master regulator of UPR, is specifically eliminated in Purkinje

M Wang; R Ye; E Barron; P Baumeister; C Mao; S Luo; Y Fu; B Luo; L Dubeau; D R Hinton; A S Lee

2010-01-01

78

Attenuation of mitochondrial unfolded protein response is associated with hepatic dysfunction in septic rats.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to reveal if the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR), a conserved mitochondrial-nuclear communication mechanism, plays a critical role in the protein quality control system to cope with damaged protein during sepsis. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in Sprague-Dawley rats. The efficiency of mtUPR was evaluated by measuring the transcriptional factors (CCAAT/enhancer-binder protein homologous protein [CHOP] and CCAAT/enhancer-binder protein-?) and chaperones (heat shock protein 60 [Hsp60] and Hsp10) expression in response to hepatic mitochondrial oxidized proteins (carbonylated proteins, car-proteins) and multi-ubiquitinated proteins (ub-proteins). The results showed that car-proteins and ub-proteins were significantly increased at 9 and 18 h after CLP. In addition, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase were significantly positively correlated with mitochondrial car-proteins and ub-proteins and negatively with intramitochondrial adenosine triphosphate. The expression of mitochondrial Hsp60 and Hsp10 decreased notably during the progression of sepsis, implying that failure of mtUPR occurred in the late septic liver. Interestingly, we evaluated the ratio of mitochondrial Hsp60/Hsp10 to the ub-proteins and found that both ratios were statistically lowered at the time points of 9 and 18 h in comparison with 3 and 6 h after CLP. These ratios were also significantly negatively correlated with glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase levels, suggesting that the ratios could act as an index of mtUPR failure and be a useful tool in estimating the ability of mitochondrial-nuclear communication in sepsis. In conclusion, the results indicated that mtUPR failure occurred during sepsis, and that the index of mtUPR may be a valuable measurement in assessing the severity of organ dysfunction in the clinical setting. PMID:23143056

Huang, Li-Ju; Dong, Huei-Ping; Chuang, I-Chun; Liu, Maw-Shung; Yang, Rei-Cheng

2012-12-01

79

Zhangfei/CREB-ZF – A Potential Regulator of the Unfolded Protein Response  

PubMed Central

Cells respond to perturbations in the microenvironment of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and to the overloading of its capacity to process secretory and membrane-associate proteins, by activating the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). Genes that mediate the UPR are regulated by three basic leucine-zipper (bLZip) motif-containing transcription factors – Xbp1s, ATF4 and ATF6. A failure of the UPR to achieve homeostasis and its continued stimulation leads to apoptosis. Mechanisms must therefore exist to turn off the UPR if it successfully restores normalcy. The bLZip protein Zhangfei/CREBZF/SMILE is known to suppress the ability of several, seemingly structurally unrelated, transcription factors. These targets include Luman/CREB3 and CREBH, ER-resident bLZip proteins known to activate the UPR in some cell types. Here we show that Zhangfei had a suppressive effect on most UPR genes activated by the calcium ionophore thapsigargin. This effect was at least partially due to the interaction of Zhangfei with Xbp1s. The leucine zipper of Zhangfei was required for this interaction, which led to the subsequent proteasomal degradation of Xbp1s. Zhangfei suppressed the ability of Xbp1s to activate transcription from a promoter containing unfolded protein response elements and significantly reduced the ability to Xbp1s to activate the UPR as measured by RNA and protein levels of UPR-related genes. Finally, specific suppression of endogenous Zhangfei in thapsigargin-treated primary rat sensory neurons with siRNA directed to Zhangfei transcripts, led to a significant increase in transcripts and proteins of UPR genes, suggesting a potential role for Zhangfei in modulating the UPR. PMID:24155933

Zhang, Rui; Rapin, Noreen; Ying, Zhengxin; Shklanka, Erika; Bodnarchuk, Timothy W.; Verge, Valerie M. K.; Misra, Vikram

2013-01-01

80

Mif1: a missing link between the unfolded protein response pathway and ER-associated protein degradation?  

PubMed

Eukaryotic cells have three different mechanisms to deal with the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum: (1) In cells in which unfolded polypeptides accumulate, translation initiation is inhibited to prevent further accumulation of unfolded proteins. (2) Expression of proteins involved in polypeptide folding is strongly enhanced by a process called the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). (3) Proteins missing the proper tertiary structure are degraded by the ER-Associated protein Degradation (ERAD) mechanism. Recent studies in S. cerevisiae have shown that the processes of UPR and ERAD are functionally linked to each other. Cells lacking a functional ERAD show a constitutive activation of UPR. In addition, many of the components of ERAD are under the direct transcriptional control of UPR. Finally, while neither UPR nor ERAD are essential for cell viability, deletion of both pathways results in severe growth impairment. UPR and ERAD are conserved between yeast and mammalian cells. One of the components of mammalian UPR is the protease presenilin-1. Mutations in the gene for presenilin-1 cause early-onset familial Alzheimer disease. Interestingly, inhibition of proteolysis by the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system has also been described for Alzheimer s disease. This suggests a link between UPR and ERAD in mammalian cells. The recently identified gene Mif1 is a possible candidate to form a direct link between UPR and ERAD in mammalian cells. The Mif1 gene is under the direct control of UPR. Mif1 is a trans-ER-membrane protein, with both the N- and the C-termini facing the cytoplasmic side of the ER membrane. It contains an N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain. It is anticipated that Mif1 may associate through its ubiquitin-like domain with the 26S proteasome, in this way connecting the protein degradation machinery to the ER membrane and resulting in an efficient ERAD. PMID:12370023

van Laar, T; van der Eb, A J; Terleth, C

2001-06-01

81

The unfolded protein response contributes to preimplantation mouse embryo death in the DDK syndrome.  

PubMed

DDK syndrome is the polar-lethal embryonic death that occurs at the morula-blastocyst transition when female mice of the DDK strain are mated with males from many other inbred strains (so-called alien males). Embryonic death is caused by incompatibility between a DDK oocyte factor and an alien male gene, both of which map to the Om locus on mouse chromosome 11. We compared global transcription patterns of DDK x DDK embryos (high viability) and DDK x C57BL/6 embryos (low viability) at the morula stage, approximately 24 h before any morphological manifestations of DDK syndrome are observed. Of the transcripts that are differentially more abundant in the DDK x C57BL/6 embryos, many are the products of genes induced by the "unfolded protein response." We confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR that a number of genes in this pathway are upregulated in the DDK x C57BL/6 embryos. Immunostaining of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker BIP/GRP78 (immunoglobin-binding protein/glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa), official symbol HSPA5, heat shock protein 5 revealed an accompanying abnormal HSPA5 accumulation and ER structure in the DDK x C57BL/6 embryos. Immunostaining for HERPUD1 (homocysteine-inducible, ER stress-inducible, ubiquitin-like domain member 1) and ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) also revealed accumulation of these stress-response products. Our results indicate that the unfolded protein response is induced in embryos destined to die of DDK syndrome and that the embryonic death observed is associated with inability to resolve the associated ER stress. PMID:19129515

Hao, Lanping; Vassena, Rita; Wu, Guangming; Han, Zhiming; Cheng, Yong; Latham, Keith E; Sapienza, Carmen

2009-05-01

82

Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Unfolded Protein Response: Dynamics and Metabolic Integration  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a dynamic intracellular organelle with multiple functions essential for cellular homeostasis, development, and stress responsiveness. In response to cellular stress, a well-established signaling cascade, the unfolded protein response (UPR), is activated. This intricate mechanism is an important means of reestablishing cellular homeostasis and alleviating the inciting stress. Now, emerging evidence has demonstrated that the UPR influences cellular metabolism through diverse mechanisms, including calcium and lipid transfer, raising the prospect of involvement of these processes in the pathogenesis of disease, including neurodegeneration, cancer, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Here, we review the distinct functions of the ER and UPR from a metabolic point of view, highlighting their association with prevalent pathologies. PMID:23317820

Bravo, Roberto; Parra, Valentina; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Torrealba, Natalia; Paredes, Felipe; Wang, Zhao V.; Zorzano, Antonio; Hill, Joseph A.; Jaimovich, Enrique; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Lavandero, Sergio

2013-01-01

83

Isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway inhibition disrupts monoclonal protein secretion and induces the unfolded protein response pathway in multiple myeloma cells  

PubMed Central

Myeloma is characterized by the overproduction and secretion of monoclonal protein. Inhibitors of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway (IBP) have pleiotropic effects in myeloma cells. To investigate whether IBP inhibition interferes with monoclonal protein secretion, human myeloma cells were treated with specific inhibitors of the IBP or prenyltransferases. These studies demonstrate that agents that inhibit Rab geranylgeranylation disrupt light chain trafficking, lead to accumulation of light chain in the endoplasmic reticulum, activate the unfolded protein response pathway and induce apoptosis. These studies provide a novel mechanism of action for IBP inhibitors and suggest that further exploration of Rab-targeted agents in myeloma is warranted. PMID:20828814

Holstein, Sarah A.; Hohl, Raymond J.

2010-01-01

84

Protein disulfide isomerase blocks CEBPA translation and is up-regulated during the unfolded protein response in AML  

PubMed Central

Deregulation of the myeloid key transcription factor CEBPA is a common event in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We previously reported that the chaperone calreticulin is activated in subgroups of AML patients and that calreticulin binds to the stem loop region of the CEBPA mRNA, thereby blocking CEBPA translation. In this study, we screened for additional CEBPA mRNA binding proteins and we identified protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein, to bind to the CEBPA mRNA stem loop region. We found that forced PDI expression in myeloid leukemic cells in fact blocked CEBPA translation, but not transcription, whereas abolishing PDI function restored CEBPA protein. In addition, PDI protein displayed direct physical interaction with calreticulin. Induction of ER stress in leukemic HL60 and U937 cells activated PDI expression, thereby decreasing CEBPA protein levels. Finally, leukemic cells from 25.4% of all AML patients displayed activation of the unfolded protein response as a marker for ER stress, and these patients also expressed significantly higher PDI levels. Our results indicate a novel role of PDI as a member of the ER stress–associated complex mediating blocked CEBPA translation and thereby suppressing myeloid differentiation in AML patients with activated unfolded protein response (UPR). PMID:21471526

Haefliger, Simon; Klebig, Christiane; Schaubitzer, Kerstin; Schardt, Julian; Timchenko, Nikolai; Mueller, Beatrice U.

2011-01-01

85

Unfolded protein response-induced ERdj3 secretion links ER stress to extracellular proteostasis.  

PubMed

The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) indirectly regulates extracellular proteostasis through transcriptional remodeling of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis pathways. This remodeling attenuates secretion of misfolded, aggregation-prone proteins during ER stress. Through these activities, the UPR has a critical role in preventing the extracellular protein aggregation associated with numerous human diseases. Here, we demonstrate that UPR activation also directly influences extracellular proteostasis through the upregulation and secretion of the ER HSP40 ERdj3/DNAJB11. Secreted ERdj3 binds misfolded proteins in the extracellular space, substoichiometrically inhibits protein aggregation, and attenuates proteotoxicity of disease-associated toxic prion protein. Moreover, ERdj3 can co-secrete with destabilized, aggregation-prone proteins in a stable complex under conditions where ER chaperoning capacity is overwhelmed, preemptively providing extracellular chaperoning of proteotoxic misfolded proteins that evade ER quality control. This regulated co-secretion of ERdj3 with misfolded clients directly links ER and extracellular proteostasis during conditions of ER stress. ERdj3 is, to our knowledge, the first metazoan chaperone whose secretion into the extracellular space is regulated by the UPR, revealing a new mechanism by which UPR activation regulates extracellular proteostasis. PMID:25361606

Genereux, Joseph C; Qu, Song; Zhou, Minghai; Ryno, Lisa M; Wang, Shiyu; Shoulders, Matthew D; Kaufman, Randal J; Lasmézas, Corinne I; Kelly, Jeffery W; Wiseman, R Luke

2015-01-01

86

Unfolded protein response transcription factor XBP-1 does not influence prion replication or pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a conserved adaptive reaction that increases cell survival under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress conditions. X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1) is a key transcriptional regulator of the UPR that activates genes involved in protein folding, secretion, and degradation to restore ER function. The occurrence of chronic ER stress has been extensively described in neurodegenerative conditions linked to protein misfolding and aggregation. However, the role of the UPR in the CNS has not been addressed directly. Here we describe the generation of a brain-specific XBP-1 conditional KO strain (XBP-1Nes?/?). XBP-1Nes?/? mice are viable and do not develop any spontaneous neurological dysfunction, although ER stress signaling in XBP-1Nes?/? primary neuronal cell cultures was impaired. To assess the function of XBP-1 in pathological conditions involving protein misfolding and ER stress, we infected XBP-1Nes?/? mice with murine prions. To our surprise, the activation of stress responses triggered by prion replication was not influenced by XBP-1 deficiency. Neither prion aggregation, neuronal loss, nor animal survival was affected. Hence, this most highly conserved arm of the UPR may not contribute to the occurrence or pathology of neurodegenerative conditions associated with prion protein misfolding despite predictions that such diseases are related to ER stress and irreversible neuronal damage. PMID:18178615

Hetz, Claudio; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Gonzalez-Romero, Dennisse; Thielen, Peter; Castilla, Joaquín; Soto, Claudio; Glimcher, Laurie H.

2008-01-01

87

Role of the unfolded protein response, GRP78 and GRP94 in organ homeostasis.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular organelle where secretory and membrane proteins, as well as lipids, are synthesized and modified. When cells are subjected to ER stress, an adaptive mechanism referred to as the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is triggered to allow the cells to restore homeostasis. Evidence has accumulated that the UPR pathways provide specialized and unique roles in diverse development and metabolic processes. The glucose regulated proteins (GRPs) are traditionally regarded as ER proteins with chaperone and calcium binding properties. The GRPs are constitutively expressed at basal levels in all organs, and as stress-inducible ER chaperones, they are major players in protein folding, assembly and degradation. This conventional concept is augmented by recent discoveries that GRPs can be actively translocated to other cellular locations such as the cell surface, where they assume novel functions that regulate signaling, proliferation, apoptosis and immunity. Recent construction and characterization of mouse models where the gene encoding for the UPR components and the GRPs is genetically altered provide new insights on the physiological contribution of these proteins in vivo. This review highlights recent progress towards the understanding of the role of the UPR and two major GRPs (GRP78 and GRP94) in regulating homeostasis of organs arising from the endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm. GRP78 and GRP94 exhibit shared and unique functions, and in specific organs their depletion elicits adaptive responses with physiological consequences. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 1413-1420, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company. PMID:25546813

Zhu, Genyuan; Lee, Amy S

2015-07-01

88

Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response Is Required for Defenses against Bacterial PoreForming Toxin In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) constitute the single largest class of proteinaceous bacterial virulence factors and are made by many of the most important bacterial pathogens. Host responses to these toxins are complex and poorly understood. We find that the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated upon exposure to PFTs both in Caenorhabditis elegans and in mammalian cells. Activation of

Larry J. Bischof; Cheng-Yuan Kao; Ferdinand C. O. Los; Manuel R. Gonzalez; Zhouxin Shen; Steven P. Briggs; F. Gisou van der Goot; Raffi V. Aroian

2008-01-01

89

Activation of the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response by lipid disequilibrium without disturbed proteostasis in vivo  

PubMed Central

The Mediator is a conserved transcriptional coregulator complex required for eukaryotic gene expression. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the Mediator subunit mdt-15 is essential for the expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and ingestion-associated stress responses. mdt-15 loss of function causes defects in reproduction and mobility and shortens lifespan. In the present study, we find that worms with mutated or depleted mdt-15 (mdt-15 worms) exhibit decreased membrane phospholipid desaturation, especially in phosphatidylcholine. Accordingly, mdt-15 worms exhibit disturbed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis, as indicated by a constitutively activated ER unfolded protein response (UPRER). Activation of this stress response is only partially the consequence of reduced membrane lipid desaturation, implicating other mdt-15–regulated processes in maintaining ER homeostasis. Interestingly, mdt-15 inactivation or depletion of the lipid metabolism enzymes stearoyl-CoA-desaturases (SCD) and S-adenosyl methionine synthetase (sams-1) activates the UPRER without promoting misfolded protein aggregates. Moreover, these worms exhibit wild-type sensitivity to chemically induced protein misfolding, and they do not display synthetic lethality with mutations in UPRER genes, which cause protein misfolding. Therefore, the constitutively activated UPRER in mdt-15, SCD, and sams-1 worms is not the consequence of proteotoxic stress but likely is the direct result of changes in ER membrane fluidity and composition. Together, our data suggest that the UPRER is induced directly upon membrane disequilibrium and thus monitors altered ER homeostasis. PMID:24843123

Hou, Nicole S.; Gutschmidt, Aljona; Choi, Daniel Y.; Pather, Keouna; Shi, Xun; Watts, Jennifer L.; Hoppe, Thorsten; Taubert, Stefan

2014-01-01

90

Unfolded protein response suppresses CEBPA by induction of calreticulin in acute myeloid leukaemia.  

PubMed

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is triggered by the accumulation of misfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The role of the UPR during leukemogenesis is unknown so far. Here, we studied the induction of mediators of the UPR in leukaemic cells of AML patients. Increased expression of the spliced variant of the X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s) was detected in 17.4% (16 of 92) of AML patients. Consistent with activated UPR, this group also had increased expression of ER-resident chaperones such as the 78 kD glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and of calreticulin. Conditional expression of calreticulin in leukaemic U937 cells was found to increase calreticulin binding to the CEBPA mRNA thereby efficiently blocking translation of the myeloid key transcription factor CEBPA and ultimately affecting myeloid differentiation. Consequently, leukaemic cells from AML patients with activated UPR and thus increased calreticulin levels showed in fact suppressed CEBPA protein expression. We identified two functional ER stress response elements (ERSE) in the calreticulin promoter. The presence of NFY and ATF6, as well as an intact binding site for YY1 within these ERSE motifs were essential for mediating sensitivity to ER stress and activation of calreticulin. Thus, we propose a model of the UPR being activated in a considerable subset of AML patients through induction of calreticulin along the ATF6 pathway, thereby ultimately suppressing CEBPA translation and contributing to the block in myeloid differentiation. PMID:19659458

Schardt, Julian A; Eyholzer, Marianne; Timchenko, Nikolai A; Mueller, Beatrice U; Pabst, Thomas

2010-06-01

91

ER stress and unfolded protein response in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis—a controversial role of protein disulphide isomerase  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of proteins in aberrant conformation occurs in many neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, dysfunctions in protein handling in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the following ER stress have been implicated in a vast number of diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). During excessive ER stress unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated to return ER to its normal physiological balance. The exact mechanisms of protein misfolding, accumulation and the following ER stress, which could lead to neurodegeneration, and the question whether UPR is a beneficial compensatory mechanism slowing down the neurodegenerative processes, are of interest. Protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) is a disulphide bond-modulating ER chaperone, which can also facilitate the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded proteins. In this review we discuss the recent findings of ER stress, UPR and especially the role of PDI in ALS. PMID:25520620

Jaronen, Merja; Goldsteins, Gundars; Koistinaho, Jari

2014-01-01

92

Effect of earlier unfolded protein response and efficient protein disposal system on cellulase production in Rut C30.  

PubMed

Trichoderma reesei (T. reesei) has been widely used in production of cellulolytic enzymes and heterologous proteins because of its high secretion capacity. The lack of knowledge on protein secretion mechanisms, however, still hinders rational improvement on cellulase production. The transcript levels of cellulases and components involved in post-transcriptional procedures were compared in this study between two mutants, QM9414 and Rut C30 for evaluating the effects of modification and secretion upon cellulase production. The results showed that cellulase induction by cellulose drastically up-regulated expressions of the sensor of unfolded protein, chaperone and folding-assisted enzymes in endoplasmic reticulum and resulted in unfolded protein response (UPR) and low-grade increase in secretory transporters' expression similar to that of chemical treatment. Rut C30 demonstrated earlier and more sustainable expressions of elements involved in UPR and lower amount of cellular retained cellulase compared to QM9414, indicating that Rut C30 had hypercellulolytic property partially for its earlier and enhanced UPR to more efficiently dispose of protein. Modifying post-translational peptides and enhancing protein flux to avoid protein accumulation during cellulase production may be a feasible approach for strain improvement. PMID:24898179

Wang, Guokun; Zhang, Dongyuan; Chen, Shulin

2014-10-01

93

Low intensity focused ultrasound (LOFU) modulates unfolded protein response and sensitizes prostate cancer to 17AAG  

PubMed Central

The hypoxic tumor microenvironment generates oxidative Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress, resulting in protein misfolding and unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR induces several molecular chaperones including heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90), which corrects protein misfolding and improves survival of cancer cells and resistance to tumoricidal therapy although prolonged activation of UPR induces cell death. The HSP90 inhibitor, 17AAG, has shown promise against various solid tumors, including prostate cancer (PC). However, therapeutic doses of 17AAG elicit systemic toxicity. In this manuscript, we describe a new paradigm where the combination therapy of a non-ablative and non-invasive low energy focused ultrasound (LOFU) and a non-toxic, low dose 17AAG causes synthetic lethality and significant tumoricidal effects in mouse and human PC xenografts. LOFU induces ER stress and UPR in tumor cells without inducing cell death. Treatment with a non-toxic dose of 17AAG further increased ER stress in LOFU treated PC and switch UPR from a cytoprotective to an apoptotic response in tumors resulting significant induction of apoptosis and tumor growth retardation. These observations suggest that LOFU-induced ER stress makes the ultrasound-treated tumors more susceptible to chemotherapeutic agents, such as 17AAG. Thus, a novel therapy of LOFU-induced chemosensitization may be designed for locally advanced and recurrent tumors. PMID:25594042

Saha, Subhrajit; Bhanja, Payel; Partanen, Ari; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Laibin; Tomé, Wolfgang; Guha, Chandan

2014-01-01

94

Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2?, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions.

Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children's of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Robbins, David J. [Department of Surgery, Molecular Oncology Program, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami (United States); Matalon, Sadis [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Deshane, Jessy S. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Afaq, Farrukh [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bickers, David R. [Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

2013-11-01

95

Amyloidogenesis of Natively Unfolded Proteins  

PubMed Central

Aggregation and subsequent development of protein deposition diseases originate from conformational changes in corresponding amyloidogenic proteins. The accumulated data support the model where protein fibrillogenesis proceeds via the formation of a relatively unfolded amyloidogenic conformation, which shares many structural properties with the pre-molten globule state, a partially folded intermediate first found during the equilibrium and kinetic (un)folding studies of several globular proteins and later described as one of the structural forms of natively unfolded proteins. The flexibility of this structural form is essential for the conformational rearrangements driving the formation of the core cross-beta structure of the amyloid fibril. Obviously, molecular mechanisms describing amyloidogenesis of ordered and natively unfolded proteins are different. For ordered protein to fibrillate, its unique and rigid structure has to be destabilized and partially unfolded. On the other hand, fibrillogenesis of a natively unfolded protein involves the formation of partially folded conformation; i.e., partial folding rather than unfolding. In this review recent findings are surveyed to illustrate some unique features of the natively unfolded proteins amyloidogenesis. PMID:18537543

Uversky, Vladimir N.

2009-01-01

96

Tau accumulation activates the unfolded protein response by impairing endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation  

PubMed Central

In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the mechanisms of neuronal loss remain largely unknown. While tau pathology is closely correlated with neuronal loss, how its accumulation may lead to activation of neurotoxic pathways is unclear. Here we show that tau increased the levels of ubiquitinated proteins in the brain and that this triggered activation of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). This suggested that tau was interfering with protein quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Consistent with this, ubiquitin was found to associate with the ER in human AD brains and rTg4510 tau transgenic mouse brains, but this was not always co-localized with tau. The increased levels of ubiquitinated protein were accompanied by increased levels of phosphorylated PERK, a marker that indicates UPR activation. Importantly, depleting soluble tau levels in cells and brain could reverse UPR activation. Tau accumulation facilitated its deleterious interaction with ER membrane and associated proteins that are essential for ER-associated degradation (ERAD), including VCP and Hrd1. Based on this, the effects of tau accumulation on ERAD efficiency were evaluated using the CD3? reporter, an ERAD substrate. Indeed, CD3? accumulated in both in vitro and in vivo models of tau over-expression and AD brains. These data suggest that soluble tau impairs ERAD, and the result is activation of the UPR. The reversibility of this process, however, suggests that tau-based therapeutics could significantly delay this type of cell death and consequently disease progression. PMID:23719816

Abisambra, Jose F.; Jinwal, Umesh K.; Blair, Laura J.; O’Leary, John C.; Li, Qingyou; Brady, Sarah; Wang, Li; Guidi, Chantal E.; Zhang, Bo; Nordhues, Bryce A.; Cockman, Matthew; Suntharalingham, Amirthaa; Li, Pengfei; Jin, Ying; Atkins, Christopher A.; Dickey, Chad A.

2013-01-01

97

IPI504, a novel and soluble HSP90 inhibitor, blocks the unfolded protein response in multiple myeloma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Inhibitors of heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 induce apoptosis in multiple myeloma (MM) cells, but the molecular mechanisms underlying\\u000a this cytotoxic outcome are not clear. Here, we investigate the effect of IPI-504, a novel and highly soluble inhibitor of\\u000a the Hsp90 ATPase activity, on the unfolded protein response (UPR) in MM cells. The UPR is a stress response pathway triggered

Jon Patterson; Vito J. Palombella; Christian Fritz; Emmanuel Normant

2008-01-01

98

Control of dopaminergic neuron survival by the unfolded protein response transcription factor XBP1  

PubMed Central

Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Although growing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a hallmark of PD, its exact contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Here we report that developmental ablation of X-Box binding protein 1 (XBP1) in the nervous system, a key regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), protects dopaminergic neurons against a PD-inducing neurotoxin. This survival effect was associated with a preconditioning condition that resulted from induction of an adaptive ER stress response in dopaminergic neurons of the SNpc, but not in other brain regions. In contrast, silencing XBP1 in adult animals triggered chronic ER stress and dopaminergic neuron degeneration. Supporting this finding, gene therapy to deliver an active form of XBP1 provided neuroprotection and reduced striatal denervation in animals injected with 6-hydroxydopamine. Our results reveal a physiological role of the UPR in the maintenance of protein homeostasis in dopaminergic neurons that may help explain the differential neuronal vulnerability observed in PD. PMID:24753614

Valdés, Pamela; Mercado, Gabriela; Vidal, Rene L.; Molina, Claudia; Parsons, Geoffrey; Court, Felipe A.; Martinez, Alexis; Galleguillos, Danny; Armentano, Donna; Schneider, Bernard L.; Hetz, Claudio

2014-01-01

99

The unfolded protein response in the therapeutic effect of hydroxy-DHA against Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The unfolded protein response (UPR) and autophagy are two cellular processes involved in the clearing of intracellular misfolded proteins. Both pathways are targets for molecules that may serve as treatments for several diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present work, we show that 2-hydroxy-DHA (HDHA), a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) derivate that restores cognitive function in a transgenic mouse model of AD, modulates UPR and autophagy in differentiated neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells. Mild therapeutic HDHA exposure induced UPR activation, characterized by the up-regulation of the molecular chaperone Bip as well as PERK-mediated stimulation of eIF2? phosphorylation. Key proteins involved in initiating autophagy, such as beclin-1, and several Atg proteins involved in autophagosome maturation (Atg3, Atg5, Atg12 and Atg7), were also up-regulated on exposure to HDHA. Moreover, when HDHA-mediated autophagy was studied after amyloid-? peptide (A?) stimulation to mimic the neurotoxic environment of AD, it was associated with increased cell survival, suggesting that HDHA driven modulation of this process at least in part mediates the neuroprotective effects of this new anti-neurodegenerative drug. The present results in part explain the pharmacological effects of HDHA inducing full recovery of the cognitive scores in murine models of AD. PMID:25663172

Torres, Manuel; Marcilla-Etxenike, Amaia; Fiol-deRoque, Maria A; Escribá, Pablo V; Busquets, Xavier

2015-05-01

100

Integration of the Unfolded Protein and Oxidative Stress Responses through SKN-1/Nrf  

PubMed Central

The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) maintains homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and defends against ER stress, an underlying factor in various human diseases. During the UPR, numerous genes are activated that sustain and protect the ER. These responses are known to involve the canonical UPR transcription factors XBP1, ATF4, and ATF6. Here, we show in C. elegans that the conserved stress defense factor SKN-1/Nrf plays a central and essential role in the transcriptional UPR. While SKN-1/Nrf has a well-established function in protection against oxidative and xenobiotic stress, we find that it also mobilizes an overlapping but distinct response to ER stress. SKN-1/Nrf is regulated by the UPR, directly controls UPR signaling and transcription factor genes, binds to common downstream targets with XBP-1 and ATF-6, and is present at the ER. SKN-1/Nrf is also essential for resistance to ER stress, including reductive stress. Remarkably, SKN-1/Nrf-mediated responses to oxidative stress depend upon signaling from the ER. We conclude that SKN-1/Nrf plays a critical role in the UPR, but orchestrates a distinct oxidative stress response that is licensed by ER signaling. Regulatory integration through SKN-1/Nrf may coordinate ER and cytoplasmic homeostasis. PMID:24068940

Glover-Cutter, Kira M.; Lin, Stephanie; Blackwell, T. Keith

2013-01-01

101

Tunicamycin-induced unfolded protein response in the developing mouse brain.  

PubMed

Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress, resulting in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress and UPR are associated with many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to environmental insults which may cause ER stress. We evaluated the UPR in the brain of postnatal mice. Tunicamycin, a commonly used ER stress inducer, was administered subcutaneously to mice of postnatal days (PDs) 4, 12 and 25. Tunicamycin caused UPR in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of mice of PD4 and PD12, which was evident by the upregulation of ATF6, XBP1s, p-eIF2?, GRP78, GRP94 and MANF, but failed to induce UPR in the brain of PD25 mice. Tunicamycin-induced UPR in the liver was observed at all stages. In PD4 mice, tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was observed in layer II of the parietal and optical cortex, CA1-CA3 and the subiculum of the hippocampus, the cerebellar external germinal layer and the superior/inferior colliculus. Tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was also shown on PD12 but to a much lesser degree and mainly located in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, deep cerebellar nuclei and pons. Tunicamycin did not activate caspase-3 in the brain of PD25 mice and the liver of all stages. Similarly, immature cerebellar neurons were sensitive to tunicamycin-induced cell death in culture, but became resistant as they matured in vitro. These results suggest that the UPR is developmentally regulated and the immature brain is more susceptible to ER stress. PMID:25620058

Wang, Haiping; Wang, Xin; Ke, Zun-Ji; Comer, Ashley L; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

2015-03-15

102

Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1/pS2) deficiency activates the unfolded protein response.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The trefoil factor 1 (TFF1/pS2) is a secreted gastrointestinal peptide that is often altered or lost in human gastric cancers. Consistently, mouse TFF1 deficiency leads to antropyloric tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate the gene expression alterations in response to the lack of TFF1, we performed differential expression analyses of TFF1 null antropyloric tumors using an array containing 588 cDNAs. RESULTS: Using total and enriched probes, 22 genes were found to be up-regulated. The identification of the genes for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident GRP78, ERp72, and p58IPK proteins connected TFF1 deficiency to the unfolded protein response (UPR). Accordingly, CHOP10, a transcription factor induced early in response to ER stress, and the pleiotropic Clusterin, involved in protein folding, were also overexpressed. Northern blot analyses of 8 weeks and 1 year TFF1 null tumors confirmed that GRP78, ERp72, p58IPK, CHOP10, and Clusterin overexpression is a common and permanent feature shared by all TFF1 null antropyloric tumors. Finally, consistent with UPR, ultrastructural analyses showed that tumor rough ER was enlarged and contained dense material, supporting the hypothesis that TFF1 deficiency leads to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER. CONCLUSION: Together, our data provide the first evidence of a relationship between a member of the TFF family and the ER machinery. Whereas to date TFF1 is believed to act as an extracellular molecule, our results suggest a possible additional function for TFF1 in protein folding and/or secretion. PMID:12359958

Torres, Luis-Fernando; Karam, Sherif M.; Wendling, Corinne; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Kershenobich, David; Tomasetto, Catherine; Rio, Marie-Christine

2002-01-01

103

HCV Causes Chronic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Leading to Adaptation and Interference with the Unfolded Protein Response  

PubMed Central

Background The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the cellular site for protein folding. ER stress occurs when protein folding capacity is exceeded. This stress induces a cyto-protective signaling cascades termed the unfolded protein response (UPR) aimed at restoring homeostasis. While acute ER stress is lethal, chronic sub-lethal ER stress causes cells to adapt by attenuation of UPR activation. Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major human pathogen, was shown to cause ER stress, however it is unclear whether HCV induces chronic ER stress, and if so whether adaptation mechanisms are initiated. We wanted to characterize the kinetics of HCV-induced ER stress during infection and assess adaptation mechanisms and their significance. Methods and Findings The HuH7.5.1 cellular system and HCV-transgenic (HCV-Tg) mice were used to characterize HCV-induced ER stress/UPR pathway activation and adaptation. HCV induced a wave of acute ER stress peaking 2–5 days post-infection, which rapidly subsided thereafter. UPR pathways were activated including IRE1 and EIF2? phosphorylation, ATF6 cleavage and XBP-1 splicing. Downstream target genes including GADD34, ERdj4, p58ipk, ATF3 and ATF4 were upregulated. CHOP, a UPR regulated protein was activated and translocated to the nucleus. Remarkably, UPR activity did not return to baseline but remained elevated for up to 14 days post infection suggesting that chronic ER stress is induced. At this time, cells adapted to ER stress and were less responsive to further drug-induced ER stress. Similar results were obtained in HCV-Tg mice. Suppression of HCV by Interferon-? 2a treatment, restored UPR responsiveness to ER stress tolerant cells. Conclusions Our study shows, for the first time, that HCV induces adaptation to chronic ER stress which was reversed upon viral suppression. These finding represent a novel viral mechanism to manipulate cellular response pathways. PMID:21949742

Merquiol, Emmanuelle; Uzi, Dotan; Mueller, Tobias; Goldenberg, Daniel; Nahmias, Yaakov; Xavier, Ramnik J.

2011-01-01

104

Pharmacological Modulation of the Retinal Unfolded Protein Response in Bardet-Biedl Syndrome Reduces Apoptosis and Preserves Light Detection Ability*  

PubMed Central

Ciliopathies, a class of rare genetic disorders, present often with retinal degeneration caused by protein transport defects between the inner segment and the outer segment of the photoreceptors. Bardet-Biedl syndrome is one such ciliopathy, genetically heterogeneous with 17 BBS genes identified to date, presenting early onset retinitis pigmentosa. By investigating BBS12-deprived retinal explants and the Bbs12?/? murine model, we show that the impaired intraciliary transport results in protein retention in the endoplasmic reticulum. The protein overload activates a proapoptotic unfolded protein response leading to a specific Caspase12-mediated death of the photoreceptors. Having identified a therapeutic window in the early postnatal retinal development and through optimized pharmacological modulation of the unfolded protein response, combining three specific compounds, namely valproic acid, guanabenz, and a specific Caspase12 inhibitor, achieved efficient photoreceptor protection, thereby maintaining light detection ability in vivo. PMID:22869374

Mockel, Anais; Obringer, Cathy; Hakvoort, Theodorus B. M.; Seeliger, Mathias; Lamers, Wouter H.; Stoetzel, Corinne; Dollfus, Hélène; Marion, Vincent

2012-01-01

105

Cantharidins induce ER stress and a terminal unfolded protein response in OSCC.  

PubMed

Mortality and morbidity associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain unacceptably high with disfiguring treatment options and a death rate of 1 per hour in the United States. The approval of cituximab for advanced OSCC has been the only new treatment for these patients since the 1970s, although it has not significantly increased overall survival. To address the paucity of effective new therapies, we undertook a high-throughput screen to discover small molecules and natural products that could induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and enforce a terminal unfolded protein response (UPR) in OSCC. The terpenoid cantharidin (CNT), previously used to treat various malignancies in culture-specific medical practices for over 2,000 y, emerged as a hit. CNT and its analog, cantharidic acid, potently induced protein and gene expression profiles consistent with the activation of ER stress, the UPR, and apoptosis in OSCC cells. Murine embryonic fibroblasts null for the UPR-associated transcription factors Atf4 or Chop were significantly protected from CNT, implicating a key role for the UPR in the death response. These data validate that our high-throughput screen can identify novel modulators of UPR signaling and that such compounds might provide a new therapeutic approach to treating patients with OSCC. PMID:25425581

Xi, Y; Garshott, D M; Brownell, A L; Yoo, G H; Lin, H-S; Freeburg, T L; Yoo, N G; Kaufman, R J; Callaghan, M U; Fribley, A M

2015-02-01

106

INTER-REGULATION OF THE UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE AND AUXIN SIGNALING  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a signaling network triggered by overload of protein-folding demand in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a condition termed ER stress. The UPR is critical for growth and development; nonetheless, connections between the UPR and other cellular regulatory processes remain largely unknown. Here, we identify a link between the UPR and the phytohormone auxin, a master regulator of plant physiology. We show that ER stress triggers down-regulation of auxin sensors and transporters in Arabidopsis thaliana. We also demonstrate that an Arabidopsis mutant of a conserved ER stress sensor IRE1 exhibits defects in the auxin response and levels. These data not only support that the plant IRE1 is required for auxin homeostasis, they also reveal a species-specific feature of IRE1 in multicellular eukaryotes. Furthermore, by establishing that UPR activation is reduced in mutants of ER-localized auxin transporters, including PIN5, we define a long-neglected biological significance of ER-based auxin regulation. We further examine the functional relationship of IRE1 and PIN5 by showing that an ire1 pin5 triple mutant enhances defects of UPR activation and auxin homeostasis in ire1 or pin5. Our results imply that the plant UPR has evolved a hormone-dependent strategy for coordinating ER function with physiological processes. PMID:24180465

Chen, Yani; Aung, Kyaw; Rol?ík, Jakub; Walicki, Kathryn; Friml, Ji?í; Brandizzi, Federica

2013-01-01

107

mir-233 Modulates the Unfolded Protein Response in C. elegans during Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection  

PubMed Central

The unfolded protein response (UPR), which is activated by perturbations of the endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis, has been shown to play an important role in innate immunity and inflammation. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying activation of the UPR during immune responses. Using small RNA deep sequencing and reverse genetic analysis, we show that the microRNA mir-233 is required for activation of the UPR in Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14. P. aeruginosa infection up-regulates the expression of mir-233 in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner. Quantitative proteomic analysis identifies SCA-1, a C. elegans homologue of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, as a target of mir-233. During P. aeruginosa PA14 infection, mir-233 represses the protein levels of SCA-1, which in turn leads to activation of the UPR. Whereas mir-233 mutants are more sensitive to P. aeruginosa infection, knockdown of sca-1 leads to enhanced resistance to the killing by P. aeruginosa. Our study indicates that microRNA-dependent pathways may have an impact on innate immunity by activating the UPR. PMID:25569229

Zou, Cheng-Gang; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Zhang, Ke-Qin

2015-01-01

108

Restoration of the Unfolded Protein Response in Pancreatic ? Cells Protects Mice Against Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Perturbations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis can evoke stress responses leading to aberrant glucose and lipid metabolism. ER dysfunction is linked to inflammatory disorders, but its role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unknown. We identified defects in the expression of unfolded protein response (UPR) mediators ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6) and XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1) in ? cells from two different T1D mouse models and then demonstrated similar defects in pancreatic ? cells from T1D patients. Administration of a chemical ER stress mitigator, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), at the prediabetic stage resulted in a marked reduction of diabetes incidence in the T1D mouse models. This reduction was accompanied by (i) a significant decrease in aggressive lymphocytic infiltration in the pancreas, (ii) improved survival and morphology of ? cells, (iii) reduced ? cell apoptosis, (iv) preserved insulin secretion, and (v) restored expression of UPR mediators. TUDCA?s actions were dependent on ATF6 and were lost in mice with ? cell-specific deletion of ATF6. These data indicate that proper maintenance of the UPR is essential for the preservation of ? cells and that defects in this process can be chemically restored for preventive or therapeutic interventions in T1D. PMID:24225943

Engin, Feyza; Yermalovich, Alena; Nguyen, True; Hummasti, Sarah; Fu, Wenxian; Eizirik, Decio L.; Mathis, Diane; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.

2014-01-01

109

The response to unfolded protein is involved in osmotolerance of Pichia pastoris  

PubMed Central

Background The effect of osmolarity on cellular physiology has been subject of investigation in many different species. High osmolarity is of importance for biotechnological production processes, where high cell densities and product titers are aspired. Several studies indicated that increased osmolarity of the growth medium can have a beneficial effect on recombinant protein production in different host organisms. Thus, the effect of osmolarity on the cellular physiology of Pichia pastoris, a prominent host for recombinant protein production, was studied in carbon limited chemostat cultures at different osmolarities. Transcriptome and proteome analyses were applied to assess differences upon growth at different osmolarities in both, a wild type strain and an antibody fragment expressing strain. While our main intention was to analyze the effect of different osmolarities on P. pastoris in general, this was complemented by studying it in context with recombinant protein production. Results In contrast to the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main osmolyte in P. pastoris was arabitol rather than glycerol, demonstrating differences in osmotic stress response as well as energy metabolism. 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel electrophoresis and microarray analysis were applied and demonstrated that processes such as protein folding, ribosome biogenesis and cell wall organization were affected by increased osmolarity. These data indicated that upon increased osmolarity less adaptations on both the transcript and protein level occurred in a P. pastoris strain, secreting the Fab fragment, compared with the wild type strain. No transcriptional activation of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway was observed at steady state conditions. Furthermore, no change of the specific productivity of recombinant Fab was observed at increased osmolarity. Conclusion These data point out that the physiological response to increased osmolarity is different to S. cerevisiae. Increased osmolarity resulted in an unfolded protein response (UPR) like response in P. pastoris and lead to pre-conditioning of the recombinant Fab producing strain of P. pastoris to growth at high osmolarity. The current data demonstrate a strong similarity of environmental stress response mechanisms and recombinant protein related stresses. Therefore, these results might be used in future strain and bioprocess engineering of this biotechnologically relevant yeast. PMID:20346137

2010-01-01

110

Epithelial sodium channel abundance is decreased by an unfolded protein response induced by hyperosmolality  

PubMed Central

Abstract Large shifts of osmolality occur in the kidney medulla as part of the urine concentrating mechanism. Hyperosmotic stress profoundly challenges cellular homeostasis and induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Here, we examined the unfolded protein response (UPR) in hyperosmotically?challenged principal cells of the kidney collecting duct (CD) and show its relevance in controlling epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) abundance, responsible for the final adjustment of Na+ excretion. Dehydration increases medullary but not cortical osmolality. Q?PCR analysis of microdissected CD of water?deprived mice revealed increased aquaporin?2 (AQP2) expression in outer medullary and cortical CD while ENaC abundance decreased in outer medullary but not cortical CD. Immunoblotting, Q?PCR and immunofluorescence revealed that hyperosmolality induced a transient ER stress?like response both ex vivo and in cultured CD principal cells and increased activity of the canonical UPR mediators PERK and ATF6. Both hyperosmolality and chemical induction of ER stress decreased ENaC expression in vitro. ENaC depletion by either stimulus was abolished by transcriptional inhibition and by the chemical chaperone 4?phenylbutyric acid and was partly abrogated by either PERK or ATF6 silencing. Our data suggest that induction of the UPR by hyperosmolality may help preserve body fluid homeostasis under conditions of dehydration by uncoupling AQP2 and ENaC abundance in outer medullary CD. PMID:25413317

Crambert, Gilles; Ernandez, Thomas; Lamouroux, Christine; Roth, Isabelle; Dizin, Eva; Martin, Pierre?Yves; Féraille, Eric; Hasler, Udo

2014-01-01

111

Induction of the Unfolded Protein Response Drives Enhanced Metabolism and Chemoresistance in Glioma Cells  

PubMed Central

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-based cytoprotective mechanism acting to prevent pathologies accompanying protein aggregation. It is frequently active in tumors, but relatively unstudied in gliomas. We hypothesized that UPR stress effects on glioma cells might protect tumors from additional exogenous stress (ie, chemotherapeutics), postulating that protection was concurrent with altered tumor cell metabolism. Using human brain tumor cell lines, xenograft tumors, human samples and gene expression databases, we determined molecular features of glioma cell UPR induction/activation, and here report a detailed analysis of UPR transcriptional/translational/metabolic responses. Immunohistochemistry, Western and Northern blots identified elevated levels of UPR transcription factors and downstream ER chaperone targets in gliomas. Microarray profiling revealed distinct regulation of stress responses between xenograft tumors and parent cell lines, with gene ontology and network analyses linking gene expression to cell survival and metabolic processes. Human glioma samples were examined for levels of the ER chaperone GRP94 by immunohistochemistry and for other UPR components by Western blotting. Gene and protein expression data from patient gliomas correlated poor patient prognoses with increased expression of ER chaperones, UPR target genes, and metabolic enzymes (glycolysis and lipogenesis). NMR-based metabolomic studies revealed increased metabolic outputs in glucose uptake with elevated glycolytic activity as well as increased phospholipid turnover. Elevated levels of amino acids, antioxidants, and cholesterol were also evident upon UPR stress; in particular, recurrent tumors had overall higher lipid outputs and elevated specific UPR arms. Clonogenicity studies following temozolomide treatment of stressed or unstressed cells demonstrated UPR-induced chemoresistance. Our data characterize the UPR in glioma cells and human tumors, and link the UPR to chemoresistance possibly via enhanced metabolism. Given the role of the UPR in the balance between cell survival and apoptosis, targeting the UPR and/or controlling metabolic activity may prove beneficial for malignant glioma therapeutics. PMID:24039668

Merz, Andrea L.; Dechkovskaia, Anjelika M.; Herring, Matthew; Winston, Benjamin A.; Lencioni, Alex M.; Russell, Rae L.; Madsen, Helen; Nega, Meheret; Dusto, Nathaniel L.; White, Jason; Bigner, Darell D.; Nicchitta, Christopher V.; Serkova, Natalie J.; Graner, Michael W.

2013-01-01

112

Disruption of the unfolded protein response (UPR) by lead compound selectively suppresses cancer cell growth.  

PubMed

Identifying chemotherapy candidates with high selectivity against cancer cells is a major challenge in cancer treatment. Tumor microenvironments cause chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) as an adaptive response. Here, one novel small-molecule compound, 17#, was discovered as a potent pan-UPR inhibitor. It exhibited good selection for growth inhibition when cancer cells were cultured in 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), mimicking an in vitro glucose-deprived status. Additionally, 17# alone could mildly suppress the growth of HeLa tumor xenografts, and a synergistic anti-cancer effect was observed when 17# was combined with 2DG. A mechanistic study showed that 17#-induced selective anti-cancer effects were highly dependent on UPR inhibition, and overexpressing GRP78 or XBP1s reversed the 17#-induced growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest, partially by delaying the downregulation of the cell cycle regulator cyclin B1. Furthermore, 17# improved the sensitivity of anti-cancer drugs such as doxorubicin or etoposide. Our study presents evidence that disrupting the UPR has selective therapeutic potential and may enhance drug sensitivity. PMID:25721085

Huang, Hejing; Liu, Huanan; Liu, Changmei; Fan, Lixia; Zhang, Xinwen; Gao, Anhui; Hu, Xiaobei; Zhang, Kunzhi; Cao, Xianchao; Jiang, Kailong; Zhou, Yubo; Hou, Jian; Nan, Fajun; Li, Jia

2015-05-01

113

Celastrol induces unfolded protein response-dependent cell death in head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

The survival rate for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not seen marked improvement in recent decades despite enhanced efforts in prevention and the introduction of novel therapies. We have reported that pharmacological exacerbation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is an effective approach to killing OSCC cells. The UPR is executed via distinct signaling cascades whereby an initial attempt to restore folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum during stress is complemented by an apoptotic response if the defect cannot be resolved. To identify novel small molecules able to overwhelm the adaptive capacity of the UPR in OSCC cells, we engineered a complementary cell-based assay to screen a broad spectrum of chemical matter. Stably transfected CHO-K1 cells that individually report (luciferase) on the PERK/eIF2?/ATF4/CHOP (apoptotic) or the IRE1/XBP1 (adaptive) UPR pathways, were engineered [1]. The triterpenoids dihydrocelastrol and celastrol were identified as potent inducers of UPR signaling and cell death in a primary screen and confirmed in a panel of OSCC cells and other cancer cell lines. Biochemical and genetic assays using OSCC cells and modified murine embryonic fibroblasts demonstrated that intact PERK-eIF2-ATF4-CHOP signaling is required for pro-apoptotic UPR and OSCC death following celastrol treatment. PMID:25139619

Fribley, Andrew M; Miller, Justin R; Brownell, Amy L; Garshott, Danielle M; Zeng, Qinghua; Reist, Tyler E; Narula, Neha; Cai, Peter; Xi, Yue; Callaghan, Michael U; Kodali, Vamsi; Kaufman, Randal J

2015-01-15

114

Celastrol induces unfolded protein response-dependent cell death in head and neck cancer  

PubMed Central

The survival rate for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not seen marked improvement in recent decades despite enhanced efforts in prevention and the introduction of novel therapies. We have reported that pharmacological exacerbation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is an effective approach to killing OSCC cells. The UPR is executed via distinct signaling cascades whereby an initial attempt to restore folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum during stress is complemented by an apoptotic response if the defect cannot be resolved. To identify novel small molecules able to overwhelm the adaptive capacity of the UPR in OSCC cells, we engineered a complementary cell-based assay to screen a broad spectrum of chemical matter. Stably transfected CHO-K1 cells that individually report (luciferase) on the PERK/eIF2?/ATF4/CHOP (apoptotic) or the IRE1/XBP1 (adaptive) UPR pathways, were engineered [1]. The triterpenoids dihydrocelastrol and celastrol were identified as potent inducers of UPR signaling and cell death in a primary screen and confirmed in a panel of OSCC cells and other cancer cell lines. Biochemical and genetic assays using OSCC cells and modified murine embryonic fibroblasts demonstrated that intact PERK-eIF2–ATF4-CHOP signaling is required for pro-apoptotic UPR and OSCC death following celastrol treatment. PMID:25139619

Fribley, Andrew M.; Miller, Justin R.; Brownell, Amy L.; Garshott, Danielle M.; Zeng, Qinghua; Reist, Tyler E.; Narula, Neha; Cai, Peter; Xi, Yue; Callaghan, Michael U.; Kodali, Vamsi; Kaufman, Randal J.

2014-01-01

115

Role of Unfolded Protein Response Dysregulation in Oxidative Injury of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a major cause of legal blindness in the elderly, is associated with genetic and environmental risk factors, such as cigarette smoking. Recent evidence shows that cigarette smoke (CS) that contains high levels of potent oxidants preferably targets retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) leading to oxidative damage and apoptosis; however, the mechanisms are poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in CS-related RPE apoptosis. Results: ER stress and proapoptotic gene C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were induced in the RPE/choroid complex from mice exposed to CS for 2 weeks and in human RPE cells treated with hydroquinone, a potent oxidant found at high concentrations in CS. Suppressing ER stress or inhibiting CHOP activation by pharmacological chaperones or genetic approaches attenuated hydroquinone-induced RPE cell apoptosis. In contrast to enhanced CHOP activation, protein level of active X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), a major regulator of the adaptive UPR, was reduced in hydroquinone-treated cells. Conditional knockout of XBP1 gene in the RPE resulted in caspase-12 activation, increased CHOP expression, and decreased antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2. Furthermore, XBP1-deficient RPE cells are more sensitive to oxidative damage induced by hydroquinone or NaIO3, a CS-unrelated chemical oxidant. Conversely, overexpressing XBP1 protected RPE cells and attenuated oxidative stress-induced RPE apoptosis. Innovation and Conclusion: These findings provide strong evidence suggesting an important role of ER stress and the UPR in CS-related oxidative injury of RPE cells. Thus, the modulation of the UPR signaling may provide a promising target for the treatment of AMD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2091–2106. PMID:24053669

Chen, Chen; Cano, Marisol; Wang, Joshua J.; Li, Jingming; Huang, Chuangxin; Yu, Qiang; Herbert, Terence P.; Handa, James T.

2014-01-01

116

The Unfolded Protein State Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies on proteins have centered on the conformation and stability of the folded state. The unfolded state has essentially\\u000a been neglected because of its reputation of being devoid of biological function, and not well-defined. Recently the importance\\u000a of unfolded segments, as part of the secondary structure of globular proteins and their role in the performance of biological\\u000a functions, has

Patricio A. Carvajal; Tyre C. Lanier

117

Lysosomes and unfolded protein response, determinants of differential resistance of melanoma cells to vinca alkaloids.  

PubMed

On account of its strong ability to become chemoresistant after a primary response to drugs, malignant melanoma (MM) remains a therapeutic challenge. This study focuses on acquired resistance to vinca alkaloids (VAs) using VA-resistant MM cell lines (CAL1R-VCR, CAL1R-VDS, and CAL1R-VRB), established by long-term continuous exposure of parental CAL1-wt cells to vincristine (VCR), vindesine (VDS), or vinorelbine (VRB), respectively. Transcriptomic profiling using rma and rdam methods led to distinguish two cell groups: CAL1R-VCR and CAL1R-VDS, CAL1R-VRB, and CAL1-wt. mgsa of the specifically altered genes in the first group evidenced the GO terms 'lysosomal lumen' and 'vacuolar lumen' linked to underexpressed genes, and 'endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response' associated with overexpressed genes. A specific reduction of lysosomal enzymes, independent of acidic vacuole organelle (AVO) turnover, was observed (LTG probe) in CAL1R-VCR and CAL1R-VDS cells. It was associated with the specific lowering of cathepsin B and L, known to be involved in the lysosomal pathway of apoptosis. Confirming gene profiling, the same groups (CAL1R-VCR and CAL1R-VDS, CAL1-wt and CAL1R-VRB) could be distinguished regarding the VA-mediated changes on mean size areas and on acidic compartment volumes. These two parameters were reduced in CAL1R-VCR and CAL1R-VDS cells, suggesting a smaller AVO accumulation and thus a reduced sensitivity to lysosomal membrane permeabilization-mediated apoptosis. In addition, 'ER stress response' inhibition by tauroursodeoxycholic acid induced a higher VA sensitization of the first cell group. In conclusion, lysosomes and unfolded protein response could be key determinants of the differential resistance of MM to VAs. PMID:25601431

Vincent, Laure-Anais; Attaoua, Chaker; Bellis, Michel; Rozkydalova, Lucie; Hadj-Kaddour, Kamel; Vian, Laurence; Cuq, Pierre

2015-04-01

118

Activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response does not predict longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have propagated the model that the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) is causal for lifespan extension from inhibition of the electron transport chain (ETC) in C. elegans. Here we report a genome-wide RNAi screen for negative regulators of the UPRmt. Lifespan analysis of nineteen RNAi clones that induce the hsp-6p::gfp reporter demonstrate differential effects on longevity. Deletion of atfs-1, which is required for induction of the UPRmt, fails to prevent lifespan extension from knockdown of two genes identified in our screen or following knockdown of the ETC gene cco-1. RNAi knockdown of atfs-1 also has no effect on lifespan extension caused by mutation of the ETC gene isp-1. Constitutive activation of the UPRmt by gain of function mutations in atfs-1 fails to extend lifespan. These observations identify several new factors that promote mitochondrial homeostasis and demonstrate that the UPRmt, as currently defined, is neither necessary nor sufficient for lifespan extension. PMID:24662282

Bennett, Christopher F.; Wende, Helen Vander; Simko, Marissa; Klum, Shannon; Barfield, Sarah; Choi, Haeri; Pineda, Victor V.; Kaeberlein, Matt

2014-01-01

119

Unfolded protein response activation reduces secretion and extracellular aggregation of amyloidogenic immunoglobulin light chain  

PubMed Central

Light-chain amyloidosis (AL) is a degenerative disease characterized by the extracellular aggregation of a destabilized amyloidogenic Ig light chain (LC) secreted from a clonally expanded plasma cell. Current treatments for AL revolve around ablating the cancer plasma cell population using chemotherapy regimens. Unfortunately, this approach is limited to the ?70% of patients who do not exhibit significant organ proteotoxicity and can tolerate chemotherapy. Thus, identifying new therapeutic strategies to alleviate LC organ proteotoxicity should allow AL patients with significant cardiac and/or renal involvement to subsequently tolerate established chemotherapy treatments. Using a small-molecule screening approach, the unfolded protein response (UPR) was identified as a cellular signaling pathway whose activation selectively attenuates secretion of amyloidogenic LC, while not affecting secretion of a nonamyloidogenic LC. Activation of the UPR-associated transcription factors XBP1s and/or ATF6 in the absence of stress recapitulates the selective decrease in amyloidogenic LC secretion by remodeling the endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis network. Stress-independent activation of XBP1s, or especially ATF6, also attenuates extracellular aggregation of amyloidogenic LC into soluble aggregates. Collectively, our results show that stress-independent activation of these adaptive UPR transcription factors offers a therapeutic strategy to reduce proteotoxicity associated with LC aggregation. PMID:25157167

Cooley, Christina B.; Ryno, Lisa M.; Plate, Lars; Morgan, Gareth J.; Hulleman, John D.; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Wiseman, R. Luke

2014-01-01

120

Implication of unfolded protein response in resveratrol-induced inhibition of K562 cell proliferation  

SciTech Connect

Resveratrol (RES), a natural plant polyphenol, is an effective inducer of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a variety of carcinoma cell types. In addition, RES has been reported to inhibit tumorigenesis in several animal models suggesting that it functions as a chemopreventive and anti-tumor agent in vivo. The chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties associated with resveratrol offer promise for the design of new chemotherapeutic agents. However, the mechanisms by which RES mediates its effects are not yet fully understood. In this study, we showed that RES caused cell cycle arrest and proliferation inhibition via induction of unfolded protein response (UPR) in human leukemia K562 cell line. Treatment of K562 cells with RES induced a number of signature UPR markers, including transcriptional induction of GRP78 and CHOP, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2{alpha} (eIF2{alpha}), ER stress-specific XBP-1 splicing, suggesting the induction of UPR by RES. RES inhibited proliferation of K562 in a concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that K562 cells were arrested in G1 phase upon RES treatment. Salubrinal, an eIF2{alpha} inhibitor, or overexpression of dominant negative mutants of PERK or eIF2{alpha}, effectively restored RES-induced cell cycle arrest, underscoring the important role of PERK/eIF2{alpha} branch of UPR in RES-induced inhibition of cell proliferation.

Liu, Bao-Qin; Gao, Yan-Yan; Niu, Xiao-Fang [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Xie, Ji-Sheng [Youjiang Medical College for Nationalities, Guangxi 533000 (China)] [Youjiang Medical College for Nationalities, Guangxi 533000 (China); Meng, Xin; Guan, Yifu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Wang, Hua-Qin, E-mail: wanghq_doctor@hotmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)

2010-01-01

121

Small Molecule-Induced Mitochondrial Disruption Directs Prostate Cancer Inhibition via Unfolded Protein Response Signaling  

PubMed Central

We previously identified SMIP004 (N-(4-butyl-2-methyl-phenyl) acetamide) as a novel inducer of cancer-cell selective apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells. SMIP004 decreased the levels of positive cell cycle regulators, upregulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, and resulted in G1 arrest, inhibition of colony formation in soft agar, and cell death. However, the mechanism of SMIP004-induced cancer cell selective apoptosis remained unknown. Here, we used chemical genomic and proteomic profiling to unravel a SMIP004-induced pro-apoptotic pathway, which initiates with disruption of mitochondrial respiration leading to oxidative stress. This, in turn, activates two pathways, one eliciting cell cycle arrest by rapidly targeting cyclin D1 for proteasomal degradation and driving the transcriptional downregulation of the androgen receptor, and a second pathway that activates pro-apoptotic signaling through MAPK activation downstream of the unfolded protein response (UPR). SMIP004 potently inhibits the growth of prostate and breast cancer xenografts in mice. Our data suggest that SMIP004, by inducing mitochondrial ROS formation, targets specific sensitivities of prostate cancer cells to redox and bioenergetic imbalances that can be exploited in cancer therapy. PMID:23902736

Rico-Bautista, Elizabeth; Zhu, Wenhong; Kitada, Shinichi; Ganapathy, Suthakar; Lau, Eric; Krajewski, Stan; Ramirez, Joel; Bush, Jason A.; Yuan, Zhimin; Wolf, Dieter A.

2013-01-01

122

Inhibition of mitochondrial genome expression triggers the activation of CHOP-10 by a cell signaling dependent on the integrated stress response but not the mitochondrial unfolded protein response.  

PubMed

Mitochondria-to-nucleus communication, known as retrograde signaling, is important to adjust the nuclear gene expression in response to organelle dysfunction. Among the transcription factors described to respond to mitochondrial stress, CHOP-10 is activated by respiratory chain inhibition, mitochondrial accumulation of unfolded proteins and mtDNA mutations. In this study, we show that altered/impaired expression of mtDNA induces CHOP-10 expression in a signaling pathway that depends on the eIF2?/ATF4 axis of the integrated stress response rather than on the mitochondrial unfolded protein response. PMID:25643991

Michel, Sebastien; Canonne, Morgane; Arnould, Thierry; Renard, Patricia

2015-03-01

123

Activation of the unfolded protein response in human acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

There is accumulating evidence for the involvement of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the pathogenesis of many tumor types in humans. This is particularly the case in rapidly growing solid tumors in which the demand for oxygen and nutrients can exceed the supply until new tumor-initiated blood vessels are formed. In contrast, the role of the UPR during leukemogenesis remains largely unknown. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a genetically heterogeneous clonal disorder characterized by the accumulation of somatic mutations in hematopoietic progenitor cells that alter the physiological regulation of self-renewal, survival, proliferation, or differentiation. The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPA) gene is a key myeloid transcription factor and a frequent target for disruption in AML. In particular, translation of CEBPA mRNA can be specifically blocked by binding of the chaperone calreticulin (CALR), a well-established effector of the UPR, to a stem loop structure within the 5' region of the CEBPA mRNA. The relevance of this mechanism was first elucidated in certain AML subtypes carrying the gene rearrangements t(3;21) or inv(16). In our recent work, we could demonstrate the induction of key effectors of the UPR in leukemic cells of AML patients comprising all subtypes (according to the French-American-British (FAB) classification for human AML). The formation of the spliced variant of the X-box binding protein (XBP1s) was detectable in 17.4% (17 of 105) of AML patients. Consistent with an activated UPR, this group had significantly increased expression of the UPR target genes CALR, the 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), and the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Consistently, in vitro studies confirmed that calreticulin expression was upregulated via activation of the ATF6 pathway in myeloid leukemic cells. As a consequence, CEBPA protein expression was inhibited in vitro as well as in leukemic cells from patients with activated UPR. We therefore propose a model of the UPR being involved in leukemogenesis through induction of calreticulin along the ATF6 pathway, thereby ultimately suppressing CEBPA translation and contributing to the block in myeloid differentiation and cell-cycle deregulation which represent key features of the leukemic phenotype. From a more clinical point of view, the presence of activated UPR in AML patient samples was found to be associated with a favorable disease course. PMID:21266233

Schardt, Julian A; Mueller, Beatrice U; Pabst, Thomas

2011-01-01

124

The transcription factor HACA mediates the unfolded protein response in Aspergillus niger , and up-regulates its own transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unfolded protein response (UPR) involves a complex signalling pathway in which the transcription factor HACA plays a central role. Here we report the cloning and characterisation of the hacA gene and its product from Aspergillus niger. ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress results in the splicing of an unconventional 20-nt intron from the A. niger hacA mRNA, and is associated with

H. J. Mulder; M. Saloheimo; M. Penttilä; S. M. Madrid

2004-01-01

125

The Unfolded Protein Response Transducer Ire1p Contains a Nuclear Localization Sequence Recognized by Multiple Importins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ire1p transmembrane receptor kinase\\/endonuclease transduces the unfolded protein response (UPR) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the nucleus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we analyzed the capacity of a highly basic sequence in the linker region of Ire1p to function as a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) both in vivo and in vitro. This 18-residue sequence is capable of

Laurence Goffin; Sadanand Vodala; Christine Fraser; Joanne Ryan; Mark Timms; Sarina Meusburger; Bruno Catimel; Edouard C. Nice; Pamela A. Silver; Chong-Yun Xiao; David A. Jans; Mary-Jane H. Gething

2006-01-01

126

Inhibition of protein synthesis leading to unfolded protein response is the major event in abrin-mediated apoptosis.  

PubMed

Abrin obtained from the plant Abrus precatorius inhibits protein synthesis and also triggers apoptosis in cells. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested a link between these two events. Using an active site mutant of abrin A-chain which exhibits 225-fold lower protein synthesis inhibitory activity than the wild-type abrin A-chain, we demonstrate in this study that inhibition of protein synthesis induced by abrin is the major factor triggering unfolded protein response leading to apoptosis. Since abrin A-chain requires the B-chain for internalization into cells, the wild-type and mutant recombinant abrin A-chains were conjugated to native ricin B-chain to generate hybrid toxins, and the toxic effects of the two conjugates were compared. The rate of inhibition of protein synthesis mediated by the mutant ricin B-rABRA (R167L) conjugate was slower than that of the wild-type ricin B-rABRA conjugate as expected. The mutant conjugate activated p38MAPK and caspase-3 similar to its wild-type counterpart although at later time points. Overall, these results confirm that inhibition of protein synthesis is the major event contributing to abrin-mediated apoptosis. PMID:25753921

Mishra, Ritu; Kumar, Meenakshi Sundaram; Karande, Anjali A

2015-05-01

127

Maintenance of Pdx1 mRNA translation in islet ?-cells during the unfolded protein response.  

PubMed

In type 1 diabetes, proinflammatory cytokines secreted by infiltrating immune cells activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) in islet ?-cells, which leads to attenuation of global mRNA translation. Under such conditions, privileged mRNAs required for adaptation to the prevailing stress are maintained in an actively translated state. Pdx1 is a ?-cell transcription factor that is required for the adaptive UPR, but it is not known how translation of its mRNA is maintained under these conditions. To study translation, we established conditions in vitro with MIN6 cells and mouse islets and a mixture of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, TNF-?, and IFN-?) that mimicked the UPR conditions seen in type 1 diabetes. Cell extracts were then subjected to polyribosome profiling to monitor changes to mRNA occupancy by ribosomes. Similar to other privileged mRNAs (Atf4 and Chop), Pdx1 mRNA remained partitioned in actively translating polyribosomes under the UPR, whereas the mRNA encoding a proinsulin-processing enzyme (Cpe) and others partitioned into inactively translating monoribosomes. Bicistronic luciferase reporter analyses revealed that the distal portion of the 5'-untranslated region of mouse Pdx1 (between bp -105 to -280) contained elements that promoted translation under both normal and UPR conditions, and this region exhibited conserved sequences and secondary structure similar to those of other known internal ribosome entry sites. Our findings suggest that Pdx1 protein levels are maintained in the setting of the UPR, in part, through elements in the 5'-untranslated region that confer privileged mRNA translation in a 5'-7-methylguanylate cap-independent manner. PMID:25251389

Templin, Andrew T; Maier, Bernhard; Tersey, Sarah A; Hatanaka, Masayuki; Mirmira, Raghavendra G

2014-11-01

128

Granulovacuolar degeneration and unfolded protein response in mouse models of tauopathy and A? amyloidosis.  

PubMed

Histopathological studies on the brains of tauopathy cases including cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD) demonstrate that neurons with hyperphosphorylated protein tau display granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD), as evidenced by vacuolar lesions harboring a central granule, together with markers of the activated unfolded protein response (UPR). In order to examine whether this hallmark is reproduced in animal models we studied the presence of GVD and the activated UPR in two complementary mouse models, pR5 mice with a tau pathology and APPSLxPS1mut mice with an amyloid plaque pathology. Neither GVD nor a significant activation of the UPR was found in both APPSLxPS1mut mice and in those regions in the pR5 brain where only neurons with an early stage of tau hyperphosphorylation were present. In contrast, those neurons that displayed a tau phospho-epitope signature that only appeared in old pR5 mice and also correlated with Gallyas-positive tangle staining harbored granulovacuolar lesions that were labeled with the GVD markers casein kinases 1? and 1?. Granulovacuolar lesions in pR5 mice were also labeled with the UPR markers phosphorylated PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, phosphorylated inositol-requiring enzyme 1? and phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2?. However, GVD was rarely observed in neurons bearing mature neurofibrillary tangles as evidenced by Congo red staining. Our results suggest that NFT-formation activates the UPR in pR5 mice and that it is the early stages of neurofibrillary tangle formation that are accompanied by GVD, in line with observations from studies on human autopsy cases. PMID:25073087

Köhler, Christoph; Dinekov, Maja; Götz, Jürgen

2014-11-01

129

Molecularly defined unfolded protein response subclasses have distinct correlations with fatty liver disease in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a complex network of sensors and target genes that ensure efficient folding of secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). UPR activation is mediated by three main sensors, which regulate the expression of hundreds of targets. UPR activation can result in outcomes ranging from enhanced cellular function to cell dysfunction and cell death. How this pathway causes such different outcomes is unknown. Fatty liver disease (steatosis) is associated with markers of UPR activation and robust UPR induction can cause steatosis; however, in other cases, UPR activation can protect against this disease. By assessing the magnitude of activation of UPR sensors and target genes in the liver of zebrafish larvae exposed to three commonly used ER stressors (tunicamycin, thapsigargin and Brefeldin A), we have identified distinct combinations of UPR sensors and targets (i.e. subclasses) activated by each stressor. We found that only the UPR subclass characterized by maximal induction of UPR target genes, which we term a stressed-UPR, induced steatosis. Principal component analysis demonstrated a significant positive association between UPR target gene induction and steatosis. The same principal component analysis showed significant correlation with steatosis in samples from patients with fatty liver disease. We demonstrate that an adaptive UPR induced by a short exposure to thapsigargin prior to challenging with tunicamycin reduced both the induction of a stressed UPR and steatosis incidence. We conclude that a stressed UPR causes steatosis and an adaptive UPR prevents it, demonstrating that this pathway plays dichotomous roles in fatty liver disease. PMID:24973751

Vacaru, Ana M.; Di Narzo, Antonio Fabio; Howarth, Deanna L.; Tsedensodnom, Orkhontuya; Imrie, Dru; Cinaroglu, Ayca; Amin, Salma; Hao, Ke; Sadler, Kirsten C.

2014-01-01

130

Evidence for activation of the unfolded protein response in collagen IV nephropathies.  

PubMed

Thin-basement-membrane nephropathy (TBMN) and Alport syndrome (AS) are progressive collagen IV nephropathies caused by mutations in COL4A3/A4/A5 genes. These nephropathies invariably present with microscopic hematuria and frequently progress to proteinuria and CKD or ESRD during long-term follow-up. Nonetheless, the exact molecular mechanisms by which these mutations exert their deleterious effects on the glomerulus remain elusive. We hypothesized that defective trafficking of the COL4A3 chain causes a strong intracellular effect on the cell responsible for COL4A3 expression, the podocyte. To this end, we overexpressed normal and mutant COL4A3 chains (G1334E mutation) in human undifferentiated podocytes and tested their effects in various intracellular pathways using a microarray approach. COL4A3 overexpression in the podocyte caused chain retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that was associated with activation of unfolded protein response (UPR)-related markers of ER stress. Notably, the overexpression of normal or mutant COL4A3 chains differentially activated the UPR pathway. Similar results were observed in a novel knockin mouse carrying the Col4a3-G1332E mutation, which produced a phenotype consistent with AS, and in biopsy specimens from patients with TBMN carrying a heterozygous COL4A3-G1334E mutation. These results suggest that ER stress arising from defective localization of collagen IV chains in human podocytes contributes to the pathogenesis of TBMN and AS through activation of the UPR, a finding that may pave the way for novel therapeutic interventions for a variety of collagenopathies. PMID:24262798

Pieri, Myrtani; Stefanou, Charalambos; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Erguler, Kamil; Stylianou, Kostas; Lapathitis, George; Karaiskos, Christos; Savva, Isavella; Paraskeva, Revekka; Dweep, Harsh; Sticht, Carsten; Anastasiadou, Natassa; Zouvani, Ioanna; Goumenos, Demetris; Felekkis, Kyriakos; Saleem, Moin; Voskarides, Konstantinos; Gretz, Norbert; Deltas, Constantinos

2014-02-01

131

Evidence for Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response in Collagen IV Nephropathies  

PubMed Central

Thin-basement-membrane nephropathy (TBMN) and Alport syndrome (AS) are progressive collagen IV nephropathies caused by mutations in COL4A3/A4/A5 genes. These nephropathies invariably present with microscopic hematuria and frequently progress to proteinuria and CKD or ESRD during long-term follow-up. Nonetheless, the exact molecular mechanisms by which these mutations exert their deleterious effects on the glomerulus remain elusive. We hypothesized that defective trafficking of the COL4A3 chain causes a strong intracellular effect on the cell responsible for COL4A3 expression, the podocyte. To this end, we overexpressed normal and mutant COL4A3 chains (G1334E mutation) in human undifferentiated podocytes and tested their effects in various intracellular pathways using a microarray approach. COL4A3 overexpression in the podocyte caused chain retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that was associated with activation of unfolded protein response (UPR)–related markers of ER stress. Notably, the overexpression of normal or mutant COL4A3 chains differentially activated the UPR pathway. Similar results were observed in a novel knockin mouse carrying the Col4a3-G1332E mutation, which produced a phenotype consistent with AS, and in biopsy specimens from patients with TBMN carrying a heterozygous COL4A3-G1334E mutation. These results suggest that ER stress arising from defective localization of collagen IV chains in human podocytes contributes to the pathogenesis of TBMN and AS through activation of the UPR, a finding that may pave the way for novel therapeutic interventions for a variety of collagenopathies. PMID:24262798

Pieri, Myrtani; Stefanou, Charalambos; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Erguler, Kamil; Stylianou, Kostas; Lapathitis, George; Karaiskos, Christos; Savva, Isavella; Paraskeva, Revekka; Dweep, Harsh; Sticht, Carsten; Anastasiadou, Natassa; Zouvani, Ioanna; Goumenos, Demetris; Felekkis, Kyriakos; Saleem, Moin; Voskarides, Konstantinos; Gretz, Norbert

2014-01-01

132

Aging and sleep deprivation induce the unfolded protein response in the pancreas: implications for metabolism  

PubMed Central

Sleep disruption has detrimental effects on glucose metabolism through pathways that remain poorly defined. Although numerous studies have examined the consequences of sleep deprivation (SD) in the brain, few have directly tested its effects on peripheral organs. We examined several tissues in mice for induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) following acute SD. In young animals, we found a robust induction of BiP in the pancreas, indicating an active UPR. At baseline, pancreata from aged animals exhibited a marked increase in a pro-apoptotic transcription factor, CHOP, that was amplified by SD, whereas BiP induction was not observed, suggesting a maladaptive response to cellular stress with age. Acute SD increased plasma glucose levels in both young and old animals. However, this change was not overtly related to stress in the pancreatic beta cells, as plasma insulin levels were not lower following acute SD. Accordingly, animals subjected to acute SD remained tolerant to a glucose challenge. In a chronic SD experiment, young mice were found to be sensitized to insulin and have improved glycemic control, whereas aged animals became hyperglycemic and failed to maintain appropriate plasma insulin concentrations. Our results show that both age and SD cooperate to induce the UPR in pancreatic tissue. While changes in insulin secretion are unlikely to play a major role in the acute effects of SD, CHOP induction in pancreatic tissues suggests that chronic SD may contribute to the loss or dysfunction of endocrine cells and that these effects may be exacerbated by normal aging. PMID:24102714

Naidoo, Nirinjini; Davis, James G; Zhu, Jingxu; Yabumoto, Maya; Singletary, Kristan; Brown, Marishka; Galante, Raymond; Agarwal, Beamon; Baur, Joseph A

2014-01-01

133

The unfolded protein response is associated with early tau pathology in the hippocampus of tauopathies.  

PubMed

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a stress response activated upon disturbed homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Previously, we reported that the activation of the UPR closely correlates with the presence of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). As well as increased presence of intracellular p-tau, AD brains are characterized by extracellular deposits of ? amyloid (A?). Recent in vitro studies have shown that A? can induce ER stress and activation of the UPR. The aim of the present study is to investigate UPR activation in sporadic tauopathies like progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Pick's disease (PiD), and familial cases with frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) which carry mutations in the gene encoding for tau (MAPT). The presence of phosphorylated pancreatic ER kinase (pPERK) and phosphorylated inositol requiring enzyme 1? (pIRE1), which are indicative of an activated UPR, was assessed by immunohistochemistry in cases neuropathologically defined as frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tau pathology (FTLD-tau). Increased presence of UPR activation markers pPERK and pIRE1 was observed in neurons and glia in FTLD-tau cases, in contrast to FTLD subtypes negative for tau pathology or in non-neurological controls. pPERK and pIRE1 were also prominently present in relatively young carriers of MAPT mutation. A strong association between the presence of UPR activation markers and p-tau was observed in the hippocampus of FTLD-tau cases. Double immunohistochemical staining on FTLD-tau cases revealed that UPR activation is predominantly observed in neurons that show diffuse staining of p-tau. These data demonstrate that UPR activation is intimately connected with the accumulation and aggregation of p-tau, and occurs independently from A? deposits. Our findings provide new pathological insight into the close association between p-tau and UPR activation in tauopathies. PMID:22102449

Nijholt, Diana A T; van Haastert, Elise S; Rozemuller, Annemieke J M; Scheper, Wiep; Hoozemans, Jeroen J M

2012-04-01

134

Statins inhibit protein lipidation and induce the unfolded protein response in the non-sterol producing nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Statins are compounds prescribed to lower blood cholesterol in millions of patients worldwide. They act by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway that leads to the synthesis of farnesyl pyrophosphate, a precursor for cholesterol synthesis and the source of lipid moieties for protein prenylation. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans possesses a mevalonate pathway that lacks the branch leading to cholesterol synthesis, and thus represents an ideal organism to specifically study the noncholesterol roles of the pathway. Inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase in C. elegans using statins or RNAi leads to developmental arrest and loss of membrane association of a GFP-based prenylation reporter. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is also strongly activated, suggesting that impaired prenylation of small GTPases leads to the accumulation of unfolded proteins and ER stress. UPR induction was also observed upon pharmacological inhibition of farnesyl transferases or RNAi inhibition of a specific isoprenoid transferase (M57.2) and found to be dependent on both ire-1 and xbp-1 but not on pek-1 or atf-6, which are all known regulators of the UPR. The lipid stores and fatty acid composition were unaffected in statin-treated worms, even though they showed reduced staining with Nile red. We conclude that inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase or of farnesyl transferases induce the UPR by inhibiting the prenylation of M57.2 substrates, resulting in developmental arrest in C. elegans. These results provide a mechanism for the pleiotropic effects of statins and suggest that statins could be used clinically where UPR activation may be of therapeutic benefit. PMID:19826081

Mörck, Catarina; Olsen, Louise; Kurth, Caroline; Persson, Annelie; Storm, Nadia Jin; Svensson, Emma; Jansson, John-Olov; Hellqvist, Marika; Enejder, Annika; Faergeman, Nils J.; Pilon, Marc

2009-01-01

135

An activated unfolded protein response promotes retinal degeneration and triggers an inflammatory response in the mouse retina.  

PubMed

Recent studies on the endoplasmic reticulum stress have shown that the unfolded protein response (UPR) is involved in the pathogenesis of inherited retinal degeneration caused by mutant rhodopsin. However, the main question of whether UPR activation actually triggers retinal degeneration remains to be addressed. Thus, in this study, we created a mouse model for retinal degeneration caused by a persistently activated UPR to assess the physiological and morphological parameters associated with this disease state and to highlight a potential mechanism by which the UPR can promote retinal degeneration. We performed an intraocular injection in C57BL6 mice with a known unfolded protein response (UPR) inducer, tunicamycin (Tn) and examined animals by electroretinography (ERG), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and histological analyses. We detected a significant loss of photoreceptor function (over 60%) and retinal structure (35%) 30 days post treatment. Analysis of retinal protein extracts demonstrated a significant upregulation of inflammatory markers including interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IBA1. Similarly, we detected a strong inflammatory response in mice expressing either Ter349Glu or T17M rhodopsin (RHO). These mutant rhodopsin species induce severe retinal degeneration and T17M rhodopsin elicits UPR activation when expressed in mice. RNA and protein analysis revealed a significant upregulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory markers such as IL-1?, IL-6, p65 nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and MCP-1, as well as activation of F4/80 and IBA1 microglial markers in both the retinas expressing mutant rhodopsins. We then assessed if the Tn-induced inflammatory marker IL-1? was capable of inducing retinal degeneration by injecting C57BL6 mice with a recombinant IL-1?. We observed ~19% reduction in ERG a-wave amplitudes and a 29% loss of photoreceptor cells compared with control retinas, suggesting a potential link between pro-inflammatory cytokines and retinal pathophysiological effects. Our work demonstrates that in the context of an established animal model for ocular disease, the persistent activation of the UPR could be responsible for promoting retinal degeneration via the UPR-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1?. PMID:25522272

Rana, T; Shinde, V M; Starr, C R; Kruglov, A A; Boitet, E R; Kotla, P; Zolotukhin, S; Gross, A K; Gorbatyuk, M S

2014-01-01

136

Characterization of Ire1 in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica reveals an important role for the Sls1 nucleotide exchange factor in unfolded protein response regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, eukaryotic cells trigger a conserved signal transduction pathway called the unfolded\\u000a protein response (UPR) that regulates the ER’s capacity to perform protein folding according to cellular demand. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the UPR is initiated by Ire1, a type I transmembrane serine\\/threonine kinase\\/endoribonuclease, that senses unfolded protein\\u000a levels within the ER in collaboration with the ER

Anna Babour; Mehdi Kabani; Anita Boisramé; Jean-Marie Beckerich

2008-01-01

137

Effect of Exercise Intensity on Unfolded Protein Response in Skeletal Muscle of Rat  

PubMed Central

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, unfolded protein response (UPR), and mitochondrial biogenesis were assessed following varying intensities of exercise training. The animals were randomly assigned to receive either low- (LIT, n=7) or high intensity training (HIT, n=7), or were assigned to a control group (n=7). Over 5 weeks, the animals in the LIT were exercised on a treadmill with a 10° incline for 60 min at a speed of 20 m/min group, and in the HIT group at a speed of 34 m/min for 5 days a week. No statistically significant differences were found in the body weight, plasma triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels across the three groups, but fasting glucose and insulin levels were significantly lower in the exercise-trained groups. Additionally, no statistically significant differences were observed in the levels of PERK phosphorylation in skeletal muscles between the three groups. However, compared to the control and LIT groups, the level of BiP was lower in the HIT group. Compared to the control group, the levels of ATF4 in skeletal muscles and CHOP were significantly lower in the HIT group. The HIT group also showed increased PGC-1? mRNA expression in comparison with the control group. Furthermore, both of the trained groups showed higher levels of mitochondrial UCP3 than the control group. In summary, we found that a 5-week high-intensity exercise training routine resulted in increased mitochondrial biogenesis and decreased ER stress and apoptotic signaling in the skeletal muscle tissue of rats. PMID:24976760

Kim, Kihoon; Kim, Yun-Hye; Lee, Sung-Hye; Jeon, Man-Joong; Park, So-Young

2014-01-01

138

A Novel Link between Fic (Filamentation Induced by cAMP)-mediated Adenylylation/AMPylation and the Unfolded Protein Response.  

PubMed

The maintenance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis is a critical aspect of determining cell fate and requires a properly functioning unfolded protein response (UPR). We have discovered a previously unknown role of a post-translational modification termed adenylylation/AMPylation in regulating signal transduction events during UPR induction. A family of enzymes, defined by the presence of a Fic (filamentation induced by cAMP) domain, catalyzes this adenylylation reaction. The human genome encodes a single Fic protein, called HYPE (Huntingtin yeast interacting protein E), with adenylyltransferase activity but unknown physiological target(s). Here, we demonstrate that HYPE localizes to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum via its hydrophobic N terminus and adenylylates the ER molecular chaperone, BiP, at Ser-365 and Thr-366. BiP functions as a sentinel for protein misfolding and maintains ER homeostasis. We found that adenylylation enhances BiP's ATPase activity, which is required for refolding misfolded proteins while coping with ER stress. Accordingly, HYPE expression levels increase upon stress. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of HYPE prevents the induction of an unfolded protein response. Thus, we identify HYPE as a new UPR regulator and provide the first functional data for Fic-mediated adenylylation in mammalian signaling. PMID:25601083

Sanyal, Anwesha; Chen, Andy J; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Lazar, Cheri S; Zbornik, Erica A; Worby, Carolyn A; Koller, Antonius; Mattoo, Seema

2015-03-27

139

Loss of ion transporters and increased unfolded protein response in Fuchs’ dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Fuchs’ endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD), which affects approximately 5% of the population over 40 in the U.S.A., is a major cause of corneal transplantation. FECD is associated with mutations of a variety of unrelated genes: SLC4A11, COL8A2, TCF8, and LOXHD1. The current pathological description of the dystrophy includes deficiency of corneal endothelium (CE) pump function and induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). This study aims to determine the contribution of the two mechanisms by assessing the expression levels of (1) seven endothelial ion transporters known to regulate stromal hydration and (2) UPR related genes in a set of six CE samples obtained from FECD patients compared to that of normal controls. Methods CE samples collected during FECD keratoplasty or from an eye bank (normal control) were transferred into an RNA stabilizing agent and refrigerated. Total RNA from each CE specimen was individually extracted. The expression levels of ion transporters and UPR genes were tested using quantitative real-time (RT) PCR and a UPR specific PCR array, respectively. Results In normal CE, the comparative expression levels of ion transporters in decreasing order were SLC4A11, Na+/K+ ATPase, pNBCe1, and NHE1, followed by the isoforms of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). In FECD samples, Na+/K+ ATPase and MCTs 1 and 4 were significantly downregulated compared to normal controls (p<0.05). The PCR array tested 84 UPR related genes. Data analysis showed upregulation of 39 genes and downregulation of three genes, i.e., approximately 51% of the tested genes had their expression altered in FECD samples with a difference greater than ± twofold regulation. Thirteen of the altered genes showed significant changes (p<0.05). The PCR array results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Conclusions FECD samples had evident UPR with significant changes in the expression of the protein processing pathway genes. The significant downregulation of ion transporters indicates simultaneous compromised CE pump function in Fuchs’ dystrophy. PMID:25548511

Jalimarada, Supriya S.; Ogando, Diego G.; Bonanno, Joseph A.

2014-01-01

140

Polynomial algebra reveals diverging roles of the unfolded protein response in endothelial cells during ischemia-reperfusion injury.  

PubMed

The unfolded protein response (UPR)--the endoplasmic reticulum stress response--is found in various pathologies including ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). However, its role during IRI is still unclear. Here, by combining two different bioinformatical methods--a method based on ordinary differential equations (Time Series Network Inference) and an algebraic method (probabilistic polynomial dynamical systems)--we identified the IRE1?-XBP1 and the ATF6 pathways as the main UPR effectors involved in cell's adaptation to IRI. We validated these findings experimentally by assessing the impact of their knock-out and knock-down on cell survival during IRI. PMID:24945730

Le Pape, Sylvain; Dimitrova, Elena; Hannaert, Patrick; Konovalov, Alexander; Volmer, Romain; Ron, David; Thuillier, Raphaël; Hauet, Thierry

2014-08-25

141

Loss of subcellular lipid transport due to ARV1 deficiency disrupts organelle homeostasis and activates the unfolded protein response.  

PubMed

The ARV1-encoded protein mediates sterol transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane. Yeast ARV1 mutants accumulate multiple lipids in the ER and are sensitive to pharmacological modulators of both sterol and sphingolipid metabolism. Using fluorescent and electron microscopy, we demonstrate sterol accumulation, subcellular membrane expansion, elevated lipid droplet formation, and vacuolar fragmentation in ARV1 mutants. Motif-based regression analysis of ARV1 deletion transcription profiles indicates activation of Hac1p, an integral component of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Accordingly, we show constitutive splicing of HAC1 transcripts, induction of a UPR reporter, and elevated expression of UPR targets in ARV1 mutants. IRE1, encoding the unfolded protein sensor in the ER lumen, exhibits a lethal genetic interaction with ARV1, indicating a viability requirement for the UPR in cells lacking ARV1. Surprisingly, ARV1 mutants expressing a variant of Ire1p defective in sensing unfolded proteins are viable. Moreover, these strains also exhibit constitutive HAC1 splicing that interacts with DTT-mediated perturbation of protein folding. These data suggest that a component of UPR induction in arv1? strains is distinct from protein misfolding. Decreased ARV1 expression in murine macrophages also results in UPR induction, particularly up-regulation of activating transcription factor-4, CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein), and apoptosis. Cholesterol loading or inhibition of cholesterol esterification further elevated CHOP expression in ARV1 knockdown cells. Thus, loss or down-regulation of ARV1 disturbs membrane and lipid homeostasis, resulting in a disruption of ER integrity, one consequence of which is induction of the UPR. PMID:21266578

Shechtman, Caryn F; Henneberry, Annette L; Seimon, Tracie A; Tinkelenberg, Arthur H; Wilcox, Lisa J; Lee, Eunjee; Fazlollahi, Mina; Munkacsi, Andrew B; Bussemaker, Harmen J; Tabas, Ira; Sturley, Stephen L

2011-04-01

142

A carrier fusion significantly induces unfolded protein response in heterologous protein production by Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In heterologous protein production by filamentous fungi, target proteins are expressed as fusions with homologous secretory\\u000a proteins, called carriers, for higher production yields. Although carrier fusion is thought to overcome the bottleneck in\\u000a transcriptional and (post)translational processes during heterologous protein production, there is limited knowledge of its\\u000a physiological effects on the host strain. In this study, we performed DNA microarray

Ayako Ohno; Jun-ichi Maruyama; Takashi Nemoto; Manabu Arioka; Katsuhiko Kitamoto

143

Protein Folding in the Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Unfolded Protein Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

In all eukaryotic cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an intracellular organelle where folding and assembly occurs for proteins destined to the extracellular space, plasma membrane, and the exo\\/endocytic compartments (Kaufman 1999). As a protein-folding compartment, the ER is exquisitely sensitive to alterations in homeostasis, and provides stringent quality control systems to ensure that only correctly folded proteins transit to

K. Zhang; R. J. Kaufman

144

IRE1/bZIP60-Mediated Unfolded Protein Response Plays Distinct Roles in Plant Immunity and Abiotic Stress Responses  

PubMed Central

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mediated protein secretion and quality control have been shown to play an important role in immune responses in both animals and plants. In mammals, the ER membrane-located IRE1 kinase/endoribonuclease, a key regulator of unfolded protein response (UPR), is required for plasma cell development to accommodate massive secretion of immunoglobulins. Plant cells can secrete the so-called pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins with antimicrobial activities upon pathogen challenge. However, whether IRE1 plays any role in plant immunity is not known. Arabidopsis thaliana has two copies of IRE1, IRE1a and IRE1b. Here, we show that both IRE1a and IRE1b are transcriptionally induced during chemically-induced ER stress, bacterial pathogen infection and treatment with the immune signal salicylic acid (SA). However, we found that IRE1a plays a predominant role in the secretion of PR proteins upon SA treatment. Consequently, the ire1a mutant plants show enhanced susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen and are deficient in establishing systemic acquired resistance (SAR), whereas ire1b is unaffected in these responses. We further demonstrate that the immune deficiency in ire1a is due to a defect in SA- and pathogen-triggered, IRE1-mediated cytoplasmic splicing of the bZIP60 mRNA, which encodes a transcription factor involved in the expression of UPR-responsive genes. Consistently, IRE1a is preferentially required for bZIP60 splicing upon pathogen infection, while IRE1b plays a major role in bZIP60 processing upon Tunicamycin (Tm)-induced stress. We also show that SA-dependent induction of UPR-responsive genes is altered in the bzip60 mutant resulting in a moderate susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen. These results indicate that the IRE1/bZIP60 branch of UPR is a part of the plant response to pathogens for which the two Arabidopsis IRE1 isoforms play only partially overlapping roles and that IRE1 has both bZIP60-dependent and bZIP60-independent functions in plant immunity. PMID:22359644

Blanco, Francisca; Boatwright, Jon Lucas; Moreno, Ignacio; Jordan, Melissa R.; Chen, Yani; Brandizzi, Federica; Dong, Xinnian

2012-01-01

145

Evaluation of the Unfolded Protein Response: PI 3-Kinase Regulatory Subunits as Regulators of the IRE1? Pathway  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) consists of an interconnected, membranous network that is the major site for the synthesis and folding of integral membrane and secretory proteins. Within the ER lumen, protein folding is facilitated by molecular chaperones and a variety of enzymes that ensure that polypeptides obtain their appropriate, tertiary conformation (1,2). Physiological conditions that increase protein synthesis or stimuli that disturb the processes by which proteins obtain their native conformation, create an imbalance between the protein-folding demand and capacity of the ER. This results in the accumulation of unfolded or improperly folded proteins in the ER lumen and a state of ER stress. The cellular response, referred to as the unfolded protein response (UPR), results in activation of three linked signal transduction pathways: PKR-like kinase (PERK), inositol requiring 1 ? (IRE1?) and activating transcription factor 6? (ATF6?) (3,4). Collectively, the combined actions of these signaling cascades serve to reduce ER stress through attenuation of translation to reduce protein synthesis and through activation of transcriptional programs that ultimately serve to increase ER protein folding capacity. Recently, we and Park et. al have characterized a novel function for the p85? and p85? subunits as modulators of the UPR by virtue of their ability to facilitate the nuclear entry of XBP-1s following induction of ER stress (5,6). This chapter describes the recently elucidated role for the regulatory subunits of PI 3-kinase as modulators of the UPR and provides methods to measure UPR pathway activation. PMID:21266249

Winnay, Jonathon N.; Kahn, C. Ronald

2015-01-01

146

A regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase increases the nuclear accumulation of X-box–binding protein-1 to modulate the unfolded protein response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Class Ia phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), an essential mediator of the metabolic actions of insulin, is composed of a catalytic (p110? or p110?) and regulatory (p85??, p85?? or p55?) subunit. Here we show that p85?? interacts with X-box–binding protein-1 (XBP-1), a transcriptional mediator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), in an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-dependent manner. Cell lines with knockout or

Jonathon N Winnay; Jeremie Boucher; Marcelo A Mori; Kohjiro Ueki; C Ronald Kahn

2010-01-01

147

Enlargement of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is not necessarily linked to the unfolded protein response via Ire1p  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions that stress the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can elicit a combination of an unfolded protein response (UPR) and an inositol response (IR). This results in increased synthesis of ER protein-folding factors and of enzymes participating in phospholipid biosynthesis. It was suggested that in cells grown on glucose or galactose medium, the UPR and the IR are linked

An K. Stroobants; Ewald H. Hettema; Marlene van den Berg; Henk F. Tabak

1999-01-01

148

The Unfolded Protein Response Is Not Necessary for the G1\\/S Transition, but It Is Required for Chromosome Maintenance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe unfolded protein response (UPR) is a eukaryotic signaling pathway, from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the nucleus. Protein misfolding in the ER triggers the UPR. Accumulating evidence links the UPR in diverse aspects of cellular homeostasis. The UPR responds to the overall protein synthesis capacity and metabolic fluxes of the cell. Because the coupling of metabolism with cell division

Kelsey A. Henry; Heidi M. Blank; Scott A. Hoose; Michael Polymenis; Matt Kaeberlein

2010-01-01

149

Protein Oxidation Triggers the Unfolded Protein Response and Neuronal Injury in Chemically Induced Parkinson Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent identification of genetic mutations linked to Parkinson’s disease (PD), such as ?-synuclein, parkin, and LRRK2,\\u000a has highlighted the role of aberrant protein handling and degradation in this disorder. Moreover, a growing body of data suggests\\u000a that environmental toxins that mimic PD also exhibit faulty protein handling, providing a mechanistic link between toxicity\\u000a and the identified PD mutations. In

Alison I. Bernstein; Karen L. O’Malley

150

Fibroblasts from FAD-linked presenilin 1 mutations display a normal unfolded protein response but overproduce A?42 in response to tunicamycin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many patients affected by early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), carry mutations in the presenilin 1 (PS1) gene. Since it has been suggested that FAD-linked PS1 mutations impair the unfolded protein response (UPR) due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, we analyzed the UPR and amyloid ?-protein processing in fibroblasts bearing various PS1 mutations. Neither in normal conditions nor after induction

Alessandra Piccini; Anna Fassio; Elena Pasqualetto; Antonella Vitali; Roberta Borghi; Daniela Palmieri; Benedetta Nacmias; Sandro Sorbi; Roberto Sitia; Massimo Tabaton

2004-01-01

151

Plasma cell differentiation initiates a limited ER stress response by specifically suppressing the PERK-dependent branch of the unfolded protein response  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to terminal differentiation signals that enable B cells to produce vast quantities of antibodies, a dramatic expansion\\u000a of the secretory pathway and a corresponding increase in the molecular chaperones and folding enzymes that aid and monitor\\u000a immunoglobulin synthesis occurs. Recent studies reveal that the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is normally activated\\u000a by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, plays

Yanjun Ma; Yuichiro Shimizu; Melissa J. Mann; Yi Jin; Linda M. Hendershot

2010-01-01

152

Proteasome inhibition potentiates antitumor effects of photodynamic therapy in mice through induction of ER stress and unfolded protein response  

PubMed Central

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an approved therapeutic procedure that exerts cytotoxic activity towards tumor cells by inducing production of reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen. PDT leads to oxidative damage of cellular macromolecules, including numerous proteins that undergo multiple modifications such as fragmentation, cross-linking and carbonylation that result in protein unfolding and aggregation. Since the major mechanism for elimination of carbonylated proteins is their degradation by proteasomes, we hypothesized that a combination of PDT with proteasome inhibitors might lead to accumulation of carbonylated proteins in endoplasmatic reticulum (ER), aggravated ER stress and potentiated cytotoxicity towards tumor cells. Indeed, we observed that Photofrin-mediated PDT leads to robust carbonylation of cellular proteins and induction of unfolded protein response (UPR). Pre-treatment of tumor cells with three different proteasome inhibitors, including bortezomib, MG132 and PSI gave increased accumulation of carbonylated and ubiquitinated proteins in PDT-treated cells. Proteasome inhibitors effectively sensitized tumor cells of murine (EMT6 and C-26) as well as human (HeLa) origin to PDT-mediated cytotoxicity. Significant retardation of tumor growth with 60-100% complete responses was observed in vivo in two different murine tumor models (EMT6 and C-26) when PDT was combined with either bortezomib or PSI. Altogether these observations indicate that combination of PDT with proteasome inhibitors leads to potentiated antitumor effects. The results of these studies are of immediate clinical application as bortezomib is a clinically approved drug that undergoes extensive clinical evaluations for the treatment of solid tumors. PMID:19435917

Szokalska, Angelika; Makowski, Marcin; Nowis, Dominika; Wilczy?ski, Grzegorz M.; Kujawa, Marek; Wójcik, Cezary; M?ynarczuk-Bia?y, Izabela; Salwa, Pawel; Bil, Jacek; Janowska, Sylwia; Agostinis, Patrizia; Verfaillie, Tom; Bugajski, Marek; Gietka, Jan; Issat, Tadeusz; G?odkowska, Eliza; Mrówka, Piotr; Stoklosa, Tomasz; Hamblin, Michael R; Mróz, Pawe?; Jakóbisiak, Marek; Golab, Jakub

2009-01-01

153

Plant ribosome-inactivating proteins type II induce the unfolded protein response in human cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytotoxic ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) of type II such as ricin were investigated as anti-cancer agents, but also\\u000a pose a threat as biological weapons. The molecular mechanism leading to their toxic effects is, however, not yet clear. The\\u000a current paradigm, which states that the irreversible depurination of 28S rRNA results in a general translational arrest eventually\\u000a leading to cell death, has

C. Horrix; Z. Raviv; E. Flescher; C. Voss; M. R. Berger

2011-01-01

154

Role of the Unfolded Protein Response Pathway in Secretory Stress and Regulation of INO1 Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The unfolded protein response pathway (UPR) enables the cell to cope with the buildup of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). UPR loss-of-function mutants, hac1? and ire1?, are also inositol auxotrophs, a phenotype associated with defects in expression of INO1, the most highly regulated of a set of genes encoding enzymes of phospholipid metabolism. We now demonstrate that the UPR plays a functional role in membrane trafficking under conditions of secretory stress in yeast. Mutations conferring a wide range of membrane trafficking defects exhibited negative genetic interaction when combined with ire1? and hac1?. At semipermissive temperatures, carboxypeptidase Y transit time to the vacuole was slower in Sec? cells containing an ire1? or hac1? mutation than in Sec? cells with an intact UPR. The UPR was induced in Sec? cells defective in subcellular membrane trafficking events ranging from ER vesicle trafficking to distal secretion and in erg6? cells challenged with brefeldin A. However, the high levels of UPR induction observed under these conditions were not correlated with elevated INO1 expression. Indeed, many of the Sec? mutants that had elevated UPR expression at semipermissive growth temperatures failed to achieve wild-type levels of INO1 expression under these same conditions. PMID:15371354

Chang, Hak J.; Jesch, Stephen A.; Gaspar, Maria L.; Henry, Susan A.

2004-01-01

155

Neurodegeneration and Unfolded-Protein Response in Mice Expressing a Membrane-Tethered Flexible Tail of PrP  

PubMed Central

The cellular prion protein (PrPC) consists of a flexible N-terminal tail (FT, aa 23–128) hinged to a membrane-anchored globular domain (GD, aa 129–231). Ligation of the GD with antibodies induces rapid neurodegeneration, which is prevented by deletion or functional inactivation of the FT. Therefore, the FT is an allosteric effector of neurotoxicity. To explore its mechanism of action, we generated transgenic mice expressing the FT fused to a GPI anchor, but lacking the GD (PrP?141–225, or “FTgpi”). Here we report that FTgpi mice develop a progressive, inexorably lethal neurodegeneration morphologically and biochemically similar to that triggered by anti-GD antibodies. FTgpi was mostly retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it triggered a conspicuous unfolded protein response specifically activating the PERK pathway leading to phosphorylation of eIF2? and upregulation of CHOP ultimately leading to neurodegeration similar to what was observed in prion infection. PMID:25658480

Dametto, Paolo; Lakkaraju, Asvin K. K.; Bridel, Claire; Villiger, Lukas; O’Connor, Tracy; Herrmann, Uli S.; Pelczar, Pawel; Rülicke, Thomas; McHugh, Donal; Adili, Arlind; Aguzzi, Adriano

2015-01-01

156

Pro-oxidative DEP chemicals induce heat shock proteins and an unfolding protein response in a bronchial epithelial cell line as determined by DIGE analysis.  

PubMed

Ambient particulate matter (PM) induces adverse health effects through the ability of pro-oxidative chemicals to induce the production of oxygen radicals and oxidant injury. Utilizing a proteomics strategy involving 2-D DIGE, immunoblotting, and real-time PCR, we demonstrate that organic diesel exhaust particle (DEP) chemicals induce an unfolding protein response (UPR) and proinflammatory effects in the human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. DIGE and MS showed the induction of at least 14 proteins, among which heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), HSP40, TPR2, and T-complex protein 1 (zeta-subunit) are known to play a role in the UPR. Demonstrating increased HSP70 mRNA expression and nuclear translocation of HSF1, the key transcription factor responsible for HSP expression, further strengthened this notion. Immunoblotting demonstrated increased expression of ATF4, an ER stress-associated transcriptional enhancer responsible for differential protein translation under conditions of ER stress. Finally, the DEP extract induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in the culture supernatant. The role of oxidative stress was demonstrated further by response subtraction in the presence of the thiol antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine. Our data suggest that pro-oxidative DEP chemicals induce protein unfolding/misfolding that lead to UPR and proinflammatory effects in a cell type that is targeted by PM in the lung. PMID:17922515

Jung, EunMi Juliana; Avliyakulov, Nuraly K; Boontheung, Pinmanee; Loo, Joseph A; Nel, Andre E

2007-11-01

157

The unfolded protein response sensor IRE1? is required at 2 distinct steps in B cell lymphopoiesis  

PubMed Central

B lymphocyte differentiation is coordinated with the induction of high-level Ig secretion and expansion of the secretory pathway. Upon accumulation of unfolded proteins in the lumen of the ER, cells activate an intracellular signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Two major proximal sensors of the UPR are inositol-requiring enzyme 1? (IRE1?), an ER transmembrane protein kinase/endoribonuclease, and ER-resident eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) kinase (PERK). To elucidate whether the UPR plays an important role in lymphopoiesis, we carried out reconstitution of recombinase-activating gene 2–deficient (rag2–/–) mice with hematopoietic cells defective in either IRE1?- or PERK-mediated signaling. IRE1?-deficient (ire1?–/–) HSCs can proliferate and give rise to pro–B cells that home to bone marrow. However, IRE1?, but not its catalytic activities, is required for Ig gene rearrangement and production of B cell receptors (BCRs). Analysis of rag2–/– mice transplanted with IRE1? trans-dominant-negative bone marrow cells demonstrated an additional requirement for IRE1? in B lymphopoiesis: both the IRE1? kinase and RNase catalytic activities are required to splice the mRNA encoding X-box–binding protein 1 (XBP1) for terminal differentiation of mature B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells. Furthermore, UPR-mediated translational control through eIF2? phosphorylation is not required for B lymphocyte maturation and/or plasma cell differentiation. These results suggest specific requirements of the IRE1?-mediated UPR subpathway in the early and late stages of B lymphopoiesis. PMID:15690081

Zhang, Kezhong; Wong, Hetty N.; Song, Benbo; Miller, Corey N.; Scheuner, Donalyn; Kaufman, Randal J.

2005-01-01

158

An alternatively spliced heat shock transcription factor, OsHSFA2dI, functions in the heat stress-induced unfolded protein response in rice.  

PubMed

As sessile organisms, plants have evolved a wide range of defence pathways to cope with environmental stress such as heat shock. However, the molecular mechanism of these defence pathways remains unclear in rice. In this study, we found that OsHSFA2d, a heat shock transcriptional factor, encodes two main splice variant proteins, OsHSFA2dI and OsHSFA2dII in rice. Under normal conditions, OsHSFA2dII is the dominant but transcriptionally inactive spliced form. However, when the plant suffers heat stress, OsHSFA2d is alternatively spliced into a transcriptionally active form, OsHSFA2dI, which participates in the heat stress response (HSR). Further study found that this alternative splicing was induced by heat shock rather than photoperiod. We found that OsHSFA2dI is localised to the nucleus, whereas OsHSFA2dII is localised to the nucleus and cytoplasm. Moreover, expression of the unfolded protein response (UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE) sensors, OsIRE1, OsbZIP39/OsbZIP60 and the UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE marker OsBiP1, was up-regulated. Interestingly, OsbZIP50 was also alternatively spliced under heat stress, indicating that UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE signalling pathways were activated by heat stress to re-establish cellular protein homeostasis. We further demonstrated that OsHSFA2dI participated in the unfolded protein response by regulating expression of OsBiP1. PMID:25255693

Cheng, Q; Zhou, Y; Liu, Z; Zhang, L; Song, G; Guo, Z; Wang, W; Qu, X; Zhu, Y; Yang, D

2015-03-01

159

Induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response constitutes a pathogenic strategy of group A streptococcus  

PubMed Central

The connection between bacterial pathogens and unfolded protein response (UPR) is poorly explored. In this review we highlight the evidence showing that group A streptococcus (GAS) induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and UPR through which it captures the amino acid asparagine (ASN) from the host. GAS acts extracellularly and during adherence to host cells it delivers the hemolysin toxins; streptolysin O (SLO) and streptolysin S (SLS). By poorly understood pathways, these toxins trigger UPR leading to the induction of the transcriptional regulator ATF4 and consequently to the upregulation of asparagine synthetase (ASNS) transcription leading to production and release of ASN. GAS senses ASN and alters gene expression profile accordingly, and increases the rate of multiplication. We suggest that induction of UPR by GAS and by other bacterial pathogens represent means through which bacterial pathogens gain nutrients from the host, obviating the need to become internalized or inflict irreversible cell damage. PMID:25136516

Baruch, Moshe; Hertzog, Baruch B.; Ravins, Miriam; Anand, Aparna; Catherine Youting, Cheng; Biswas, Debabrata; Tirosh, Boaz; Hanski, Emanuel

2014-01-01

160

Antiviral Activity of a Small Molecule Deubiquitinase Inhibitor Occurs via Induction of the Unfolded Protein Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ubiquitin (Ub) is a vital regulatory component in various cellular processes, including cellular responses to viral infection. As obligate intracellular pathogens, viruses have the capacity to manipulate the ubiquitin (Ub) cycle to their advantage by encoding Ub-modifying proteins including deubiquitinases (DUBs). However, how cellular DUBs modulate specific viral infections, such as norovirus, is poorly understood. To examine the role of

Jeffrey W. Perry; Mohammad Ahmed; Kyeong-Ok Chang; Nicholas J. Donato; Hollis D. Showalter; Christiane E. Wobus

2012-01-01

161

Intestinal amino acid availability via PEPT-1 affects TORC1/2 signaling and the unfolded protein response.  

PubMed

The intestinal peptide transporter PEPT-1 plays an important role in development, growth, reproduction, and stress tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans, as revealed by the severe phenotype of the pept-1-deficient strain. The reduced number of offspring and increased stress resistance were shown to result from changes in the insulin/IGF-signaling cascade. To further elucidate the regulatory network behind the phenotypic alterations in PEPT1-deficient animals, a quantitative proteome analysis combined with transcriptome profiling was applied. Various target genes of XBP-1, the major mediator of the unfolded protein response, were found to be downregulated at the mRNA and protein levels, accompanied by a reduction of spliced xbp-1 mRNA. Proteome analysis also revealed a markedly reduced content of numerous ribosomal proteins. This was associated with a reduction in the protein synthesis rate in pept-1 C. elegans, a process that is strictly regulated by the TOR (target of rapamycine) complex, the cellular sensor for free amino acids. These data argue for a central role of PEPT-1 in cellular amino acid homeostasis. In PEPT-1 deficiency, amino acid levels dropped systematically, leading to alterations in protein synthesis and in the IRE-1/XBP-1 pathway. PMID:24999909

Geillinger, Kerstin E; Kuhlmann, Katja; Eisenacher, Martin; Giesbertz, Pieter; Meyer, Helmut E; Daniel, Hannelore; Spanier, Britta

2014-08-01

162

A mathematical model of the unfolded protein stress response reveals the decision mechanism for recovery, adaptation and apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Background The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a major signalling cascade acting in the quality control of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The cascade is known to play an accessory role in a range of genetic and environmental disorders including neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and kidney diseases. The three major receptors of the ER stress involved with the UPR, i.e. IRE1 ?, PERK and ATF6, signal through a complex web of pathways to convey an appropriate response. The emerging behaviour ranges from adaptive to maladaptive depending on the severity of unfolded protein accumulation in the ER; however, the decision mechanism for the switch and its timing have so far been poorly understood. Results Here, we propose a mechanism by which the UPR outcome switches between survival and death. We compose a mathematical model integrating the three signalling branches, and perform a comprehensive bifurcation analysis to investigate possible responses to stimuli. The analysis reveals three distinct states of behaviour, low, high and intermediate activity, associated with stress adaptation, tolerance, and the initiation of apoptosis. The decision to adapt or destruct can, therefore, be understood as a dynamic process where the balance between the stress and the folding capacity of the ER plays a pivotal role in managing the delivery of the most appropriate response. The model demonstrates for the first time that the UPR is capable of generating oscillations in translation attenuation and the apoptotic signals, and this is supplemented with a Bayesian sensitivity analysis identifying a set of parameters controlling this behaviour. Conclusions This work contributes largely to the understanding of one of the most ubiquitous signalling pathways involved in protein folding quality control in the metazoan ER. The insights gained have direct consequences on the management of many UPR-related diseases, revealing, in addition, an extended list of candidate disease modifiers. Demonstration of stress adaptation sheds light to how preconditioning might be beneficial in manifesting the UPR outcome to prevent untimely apoptosis, and paves the way to novel approaches for the treatment of many UPR-related conditions. PMID:23433609

2013-01-01

163

XBP-1, a key regulator of unfolded protein response, activates transcription of IGF1 and Akt phosphorylation in zebrafish embryonic cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a conserved and adaptive cellular response to increase cell survival during ER stress. XBP-1 spliced form (XBP-1S) generated by IRE1 endoribonuclease is a key transcriptional regulator in UPR to activate genes involved in protein folding and degradation to restore ER function. Although Akt activation was suggested to be a pro-survival pathway activated during ER

Meng-Chuen Hu; Hong-Yi Gong; Gen-Hwa Lin; Shao-Yang Hu; Mark Hung-Chih Chen; Shin-Jie Huang; Ching-Fong Liao; Jen-Leih Wu

2007-01-01

164

Acute hypoxia induces apoptosis of pancreatic ?-cell by activation of the unfolded protein response and upregulation of CHOP  

PubMed Central

The success of pancreatic ?-cells transplantation to treat type 1 diabetes has been hindered by massive ?-cell dysfunction and loss of ?-cells that follows the procedure. Hypoxia-mediated cell death has been considered one of the main difficulties that must be overcome for transplantation to be regarded as a reliable therapy. Here we have investigated the mechanisms underlying ?-cell death in response to hypoxia (1% O2). Our studies show that mouse insulinoma cell line 6 (Min6) cells undergo apoptosis with caspase-3 activation occurring as early as 2?h following exposure to hypoxia. Hypoxia induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in Min6 cells leading to activation of the three branches of the unfolded protein response pathway. In response to hypoxia the pro-apoptotic transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) is upregulated. The important role of CHOP in the apoptotic process was highlighted by the rescue of Min6 cells from hypoxia-mediated apoptosis observed in CHOP-knockdown cells. Culturing isolated pancreatic mouse islets at normoxia showed intracellular hypoxia with accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and upregulation of CHOP, the latter one occurring as early as 4?h after isolation. Finally, we observed that pancreatic islets of type 2 db/db diabetic mice were more hypoxic than their counterpart in normoglycemic animals. This finding indicates that hypoxia-mediated apoptosis may occur in type 2 diabetes. PMID:22695615

Zheng, X; Zheng, X; Wang, X; Ma, Z; Gupta Sunkari, V; Botusan, I; Takeda, T; Björklund, A; Inoue, M; Catrina, S-B; Brismar, K; Poellinger, L; Pereira, T S

2012-01-01

165

The critical roles of endoplasmic reticulum chaperones and unfolded protein response in tumorigenesis and anti-cancer therapies  

PubMed Central

Cancer progression is characterized by rapidly proliferating cancer cells that are in need of increased protein synthesis. Therefore, enhanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activity is required to facilitate the folding, assembly and transportation of membrane and secretory proteins. These functions are carried out by ER chaperones. It is now becoming clear that the ER chaperones have critical functions outside of simply facilitating protein folding. For example, cancer progression requires GRP78 for cancer cell survival and proliferation, as well as angiogenesis in the microenvironment. GRP78 can translocate to the cell surface acting as a receptor regulating oncogenic signaling and cell viability. Calreticulin, another ER chaperone, can translocate to the cell surface of apoptotic cancer cells and induce immunogenic cancer cell death and antitumor responses in vivo. Tumor-secreted GRP94 has been shown to elicit antitumor immune responses when used as antitumor vaccines. Protein disulfide isomerase is another ER chaperone that demonstrates pro-oncogenic and pro-survival functions. Due to intrinsic alterations of cellular metabolism and extrinsic factors in the tumor microenvironment, cancer cells are under ER stress, and they respond to this stress by activating the unfolded protein response (UPR). Depending on the severity and duration of ER stress, the signaling branches of the UPR can activate adaptive and pro-survival signals, or induce apoptotic cell death. The PERK signaling branch of the UPR has a dual role in cancer proliferation and survival, and is also required for ER stress-induced autophagy. The activation of the IRE1? branch promotes tumorigenesis, cancer cell survival, and regulates tumor invasion. In summary, perturbance of ER homeostasis plays critical roles in tumorigenesis, and therapeutic modulation of ER chaperones and/or UPR components presents potential antitumor treatments. PMID:22508478

Luo, Biquan; Lee, Amy S.

2013-01-01

166

Upregulation of BiP and CHOP by the unfolded-protein response is independent of presenilin expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presenilin 1 (PS1), a polytopic membrane protein, has a critical role in the trafficking and proteolysis of a selected set of transmembrane proteins. The vast majority of individuals affected with early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) carry missense mutations in PS1. Two studies have suggested that loss of PS1 function, or expression of FAD-linked PS1 variants, compromises the mammalian unfolded-protein

Naoyuki Sato; Fumihiko Urano; Jae Yoon Leem; Seong-Hun Kim; Mingqing Li; Dorit Donoviel; Alan Bernstein; Amy S. Lee; David Ron; Margaret L. Veselits; Sangram S. Sisodia; Gopal Thinakaran

2000-01-01

167

A pathway distinct from the mammalian unfolded protein response regulates expression of endoplasmic reticulum chaperones in non-stressed cells.  

PubMed Central

The stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) is the only signaling pathway known to regulate expression of genes encoding the resident endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperones and folding enzymes, yet these genes are constitutively expressed in all cells. We have examined the expression of ER chaperones in several cell lines that are dependent on a variety of cytokines for growth and survival. When the various cell lines were deprived of essential growth factors, mRNA levels of the ER chaperones BiP and GRP94 decreased dramatically. Re-stimulation of ligand-deprived cells with the appropriate growth factor induced BiP and GRP94 as delayed-early response genes. Cytokine induction of BiP and GRP94 biosynthesis was not preceded by a burst of glycoprotein traffic through the ER nor accompanied by expression of the CHOP transcription factor. The glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin potently induced expression of both ER chaperones and CHOP in ligand-deprived cells, demonstrating that the UPR pathway remains functionally intact in the absence of growth factor-mediated signaling. Therefore, basal expression of ER chaperones is dependent upon and regulated by a mitogenic pathway distinct from the stress-inducible UPR cascade and this probably controls expression of ER chaperones and folding enzymes needed to assist protein biogenesis in the ER of normal, non-stressed cells. PMID:9384597

Brewer, J W; Cleveland, J L; Hendershot, L M

1997-01-01

168

The importance of connections between the cell wall integrity pathway and the unfolded protein response in filamentous fungi.  

PubMed

In the external environment, or within a host organism, filamentous fungi experience sudden changes in nutrient availability, osmolality, pH, temperature and the exposure to toxic compounds. The fungal cell wall represents the first line of defense, while also performing essential roles in morphology, development and virulence. A polarized secretion system is paramount for cell wall biosynthesis, filamentous growth, nutrient acquisition and interactions with the environment. The unique ability of filamentous fungi to secrete has resulted in their industrial adoption as fungal cell factories. Protein maturation and secretion commences in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The unfolded protein response (UPR) maintains ER functionality during exposure to secretion and cell wall stress. UPR, therefore, influences secretion and cell wall homeostasis, which in turn impacts upon numerous fungal traits important to pathogenesis and biotechnology. Subsequently, this review describes the relevance of the cell wall and UPR systems to filamentous fungal pathogens or industrial microbes and then highlights interconnections between the two systems. Ultimately, the possible biotechnological applications of an enhanced understanding of such regulatory systems in combating fungal disease, or the removal of natural bottlenecks in protein secretion in an industrial setting, are discussed. PMID:25060881

Malavazi, Iran; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Brown, Neil Andrew

2014-11-01

169

Effects of cyclic AMP response element binding protein–Zhangfei (CREBZF) on the unfolded protein response and cell growth are exerted through the tumor suppressor p53  

PubMed Central

Zhangfei/CREBZF, a basic region-leucine zipper (bLZip) transcription factor, is a potent suppressor of growth and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in some cancer cell lines, including the canine osteosarcoma cell line, D-17. However, the effects of Zhangfei are not universal, and it has no obvious effects on untransformed cells and some cancer cell lines, suggesting that Zhangfei may act through an intermediary that is either not induced or is defective in cells that it does not affect. Here we identify the tumor suppressor protein p53 as this intermediary. We show the following: in cells ectopically expressing Zhangfei, the protein stabilizes p53 and co-localizes with it in cellular nuclei; the bLZip domain of Zhangfei is required for its profound effects on cell growth and interaction with p53. Suppression of p53 by siRNA at least partially inhibits the effects of Zhangfei on the UPR and cell growth. The effects of Zhangfei on D-17 cells is mirrored by its effects on the p53-expressing human osteosarcoma cell line U2OS, while Zhangfei has no effect on the p53-null osteosarcoma cell line MG63. In U2OS cells, Zhangfei displaces the E3 ubiquitin ligase mouse double minute homolog 2 (Mdm2) from its association with p53, suggesting a mechanism for the effects of Zhangfei on p53. PMID:24200963

Zhang, Rui; Misra, Vikram

2014-01-01

170

Targeting the unfolded protein response, XBP1, and the NLRP3 inflammasome in fibrosis and cancer  

PubMed Central

Increasing health care costs in the US are due in a large part to the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases in an aging population. Current therapeutic strategies for treating chronic diseases alleviate symptoms allowing patients to live longer with these diseases, but they do little, however, to alter the underlying disease course. Recent advances in molecular biology are revealing new drug targets that may significantly alter the course of these diseases and, as a result, offer economic relief from burgeoning health care costs. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated as an underlying pathology in many chronic diseases, and, therefore, the development of therapies designed to ameliorate ER stress may yield novel, effective treatment strategies. Herein, we report that X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) may be one of the earliest proteins engaged in response to ER stress. We show that a new signaling peptide derived from the ER-embedded transient receptor potential calcium channel protein 1 (TRPC1) engages XBP1 upstream of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated maturation and secretion of IL-1?/IL-18. Moreover, we show that a synthetic homolog of this signaling peptide (Naclynamide™) administered intravenously twice weekly over a 4-week treatment course induced suppuration and evoked partial or complete resolution of lesions associated with a fibrotic granuloma, a lymphosarcoma, and a colo-rectal carcinoma in canine patients. The mode of action for Naclynamide™ as a first-in-class anti-cancer drug candidate is discussed. PMID:24496016

Overley-Adamson, Beth; Artlett, Carol M; Stephens, Connie; Sassi-Gaha, Sihem; Weis, Ransome D; Thacker, James D

2014-01-01

171

Unfolding protein response signaling is involved in development, maintenance, and regression of the corpus luteum during the bovine estrous cycle.  

PubMed

The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine organ. Development, maintenance, and regression of CL are effectively controlled by dynamic changes in gene expression. However, it is unknown what types of gene are affected during the CL life span of the estrous cycle in bovine. Here, we determined whether unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling via eIF2?/ATF4/GADD34, p90ATF6/p50ATF6, and IRE1/XBP1, which is a cellular stress response associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is involved in the bovine CL life span. Our results indicated that expression of Grp78/Bip, the master UPR regulator, was increased during the maintenance stage and rapidly decreased at the regression stage. Additionally, UPR signaling pathways genes were found to be involved in luteal phase progression during the estrous cycle. Our findings suggested that Grp78/Bip, ATF6, and XBP1 act as ER chaperones for initiating CL development and maintaining the CL. In addition, we investigated whether ER stress-mediated apoptosis is occurred through three UPR signaling pathways in CL regression stage. Interestingly, pIRE1 and CHOP were found to be involved in both the adaptive response and ER stress-mediated apoptosis. During the CL regression stage, increased expression of pJNK and CHOP, two components of ER stress-mediated apoptotic cascades, occurred before increased level of cleaved caspase 3 were observed. The present investigation was performed to identify a functional link between UPR signaling and CL life span during the bovine estrous cycle. Taken together, results from this study demonstrated that UPR protein/gene expression levels were different at various stages of the bovine CL life span. Variations in the expression of these protein/genes may play important roles in luteal stage progression during the estrous cycle. PMID:24161737

Park, Hyo-Jin; Park, Sun-Ji; Koo, Deog-Bon; Kong, Il-Keun; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Jin-Man; Choi, Myung-Sook; Park, Young-Ho; Kim, Sun-Uk; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Park, Choon-Keun; Chae, Jung-Il; Lee, Dong-Seok

2013-11-15

172

Loss of Oca2 disrupts the unfolded protein response and increases resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress in melanocytes  

PubMed Central

Summary Accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) typically induces stress and initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to facilitate recovery. If homeostasis is not restored, apoptosis is induced. However, adaptation to chronic UPR activation can increase resistance to subsequent acute ER stress. We therefore investigated adaptive mechanisms in Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (Oca2)-null melanocytes where UPR signaling is arrested despite continued tyrosinase accumulation leading to resistance to the chemical ER stressor thapsigargin. Although thapsigargin triggers UPR activation, instead of Perk-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2?, in Oca2-null melanocytes, eIF2? was rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment. Dephosphorylation was mediated by the Gadd34-PP1? phosphatase complex. Gadd34-complex inhibition blocked eIF2? dephosphorylation and significantly increased Oca2-null melanocyte sensitivity to thapsigargin. Thus, Oca2-null melanocytes adapt to acute ER stress by disruption of proapoptotic Perk signaling, which promotes cell survival. This is the first study to demonstrate rapid eIF2? dephosphorylation as an adaptive mechanism to ER stress. PMID:23962237

Cheng, Tsing; Orlow, Seth J.; Manga, Prashiela

2013-01-01

173

The ATF6 branch of unfolded protein response and apoptosis are activated to promote African swine fever virus infection  

PubMed Central

African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection induces apoptosis in the infected cell; however, the consequences of this activation on virus replication have not been defined. In order to identify the role of apoptosis in ASFV infection, we analyzed caspase induction during the infection and the impact of caspase inhibition on viral production. Caspases 3, 9 and 12 were activated from 16?h post-infection, but not caspase 8. Indeed, caspase 3 activation during the early stages of the infection appeared to be crucial for efficient virus exit. In addition, the inhibition of membrane blebbing reduced the release of virus particles from the cell. ASFV uses the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as a site of replication and this process can trigger ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) of the host cell. In addition to caspase 12 activation, indicators of ER stress include the upregulation of the chaperones calnexin and calreticulin upon virus infection. Moreover, ASFV induces transcription factor 6 signaling pathway of the UPR, but not the protein kinase-like ER kinase or the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 pathways. Thus, the capacity of ASFV to regulate the UPR may prevent early apoptosis and ensure viral replication. PMID:22764100

Galindo, I; Hernáez, B; Muñoz-Moreno, R; Cuesta-Geijo, M A; Dalmau-Mena, I; Alonso, C

2012-01-01

174

A Peptidic Unconjugated GRP78/BiP Ligand Modulates the Unfolded Protein Response and Induces Prostate Cancer Cell Death  

PubMed Central

The molecular chaperone GRP78/BiP is a key regulator of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum, and it plays a pivotal role in cancer cell survival and chemoresistance. Inhibition of its function has therefore been an important strategy for inhibiting tumor cell growth in cancer therapy. Previous efforts to achieve this goal have used peptides that bind to GRP78/BiP conjugated to pro-drugs or cell-death-inducing sequences. Here, we describe a peptide that induces prostate tumor cell death without the need of any conjugating sequences. This peptide is a sequence derived from the cochaperone Bag-1. We have shown that this sequence interacts with and inhibits the refolding activity of GRP78/BiP. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that it modulates the unfolded protein response in ER stress resulting in PARP and caspase-4 cleavage. Prostate cancer cells stably expressing this peptide showed reduced growth and increased apoptosis in in vivo xenograft tumor models. Amino acid substitutions that destroyed binding of the Bag-1 peptide to GRP78/BiP or downregulation of the expression of GRP78 compromised the inhibitory effect of this peptide. This sequence therefore represents a candidate lead peptide for anti-tumor therapy. PMID:23049684

Maddalo, Danilo; Neeb, Antje; Jehle, Katja; Schmitz, Katja; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Shatkina, Liubov; Walther, Tamara Vanessa; Bruchmann, Anja; Gopal, Srinivasa M.; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Anne S.; Cato, Andrew C. B.

2012-01-01

175

Exposure to inhaled particulate matter activates early markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and unfolded protein response in rat striatum.  

PubMed

To study central nervous system airborne PM related subchronic toxicity, SD male rats were exposed for eight weeks to either coarse (32 ?g/m³), fine (178 ?g/m³) or ultrafine (107 ?g/m³) concentrated PM or filtered air. Different brain regions (olfactory bulb, frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus), were harvested from the rats following exposure to airborne PM. Subsequently, prooxidant (HO-1 and SOD-2), and inflammatory markers (IL-1? and TNF?), apoptotic (caspase 3), and unfolded protein response (UPR) markers (XBP-1S and BiP), were also measured using real-time PCR. Activation of nuclear transcription factors Nrf-2 and NF-?B, associated with antioxidant and inflammation processes, respectively, were also analyzed by GSMA. Ultrafine PM increased HO-1 and SOD-2 mRNA levels in the striatum and hippocampus, in the presence of Nrf-2 activation. Also, ultrafine PM activated NF-?B and increased IL-1? and TNF? in the striatum. Activation of UPR was observed after exposure to coarse PM through the increment of XBP-1S and BiP in the striatum, accompanied by an increase in antioxidant response markers HO-1 and SOD-2. Our results indicate that exposure to different size fractions of PM may induce physiological changes (in a neuroanatomical manner) in the central nervous system (CNS), specifically within the striatum, where inflammation, oxidative stress and UPR signals were effectively activated. PMID:23892126

Guerra, R; Vera-Aguilar, E; Uribe-Ramirez, M; Gookin, G; Camacho, J; Osornio-Vargas, A R; Mugica-Alvarez, V; Angulo-Olais, R; Campbell, A; Froines, J; Kleinman, T M; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, A

2013-10-24

176

Exposure to inhaled particulate matter activates early markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and unfolded protein response in rat striatum  

PubMed Central

To study central nervous system airborne PM related subchronic toxicity, SD male rats were exposed for eight weeks to either coarse (32 µg/m3), fine (178 µg/m3) or ultrafine (107 µg/m3) concentrated PM or filtered air. Different brain regions (olfactory bulb, frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus), were harvested from the rats following exposure to airborne PM. Subsequently, prooxidant (HO-1 and SOD-2), and inflammatory markers (IL-1? and TNF?), apoptotic (caspase 3), and unfolded protein response (UPR) markers (XBP-1S and BiP), were also measured using real-time PCR. Activation of nuclear transcription factors Nrf-2 and NF-?B, associated with antioxidant and inflammation processes, respectively, were also analyzed by GSMA. Ultrafine PM increased HO-1 and SOD-2 mRNA levels in the striatum and hippocampus, in the presence of Nrf-2 activation. Also, ultrafine PM activated NF-?B and increased IL-1? and TNF? in the striatum. Activation of UPR was observed after exposure to coarse PM through the increment of XBP-1S and BiP in the striatum, accompanied by an increase in antioxidant response markers HO-1 and SOD-2. Our results indicate that exposure to different size fractions of PM may induce physiological changes (in a neuroanatomical manner) in the central nervous system (CNS), specifically within the striatum, where inflammation, oxidative stress and UPR signals were effectively activated. PMID:23892126

Guerra, R.; Vera-Aguilar, E.; Uribe-Ramirez, M.; Gookin, G.; Camacho, J.; Osornio-Vargas, A.R.; Mugica-Alvarez, V.; Angulo-Olais, R.; Campbell, A.; Froines, J.; Kleinman, T.M.; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, A.

2014-01-01

177

PI 3Kinase Regulatory Subunits as Regulators of the Unfolded Protein Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) consists of an interconnected, membranous network that is the major site for the synthesis and folding of integral membrane and secretory proteins. Within the ER lumen, protein folding is facilitated by molecular chaperones and a variety of enzymes that ensure that polypeptides obtain their appropriate, tertiary conformation (Dobson, C. M. (2004). Principles of protein folding, misfolding

Jonathon N. Winnay; C. Ronald Kahn

2011-01-01

178

The secreted antigen, HP0175, of Helicobacter pylori links the unfolded protein response (UPR) to autophagy in gastric epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that is required to maintain cellular homeostasis. Pathogen-elicited host cell autophagy may favour containment of infection or may help in bacterial survival. Pathogens have developed the ability to modulate host autophagy. The secreted antigen HP0175, a peptidyl prolyl cis,trans isomerase of Helicobacter pylori, has moonlighting functions with reference to host cells. Here we show that it executes autophagy in gastric epithelial cells. Autophagy is dependent on the unfolded protein response (UPR) that activates the expression of PKR-like ER?kinase (PERK). This is accompanied by phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF-2?) and transcriptional activation of ATF4 and CHOP. Knockdown of UPR-related genes inhibits the conversion of LC3I to LC3II, a marker of autophagy. The autophagy-inducing ability of H.?pylori is compromised when cells are infected with an isogenic hp0175 mutant. Autophagy precedes apoptosis. Silencing of BECLIN1 augments cleavage of caspase 3 as well as apoptosis. Increased apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells is known to be linked to H.?pylori-mediated gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first demonstration of how HP0175 endowed with moonlighting functions links UPR-dependent autophagy and apoptosis during H.?pylori infection. PMID:25439545

Halder, Priyanka; Datta, Chandreyee; Kumar, Ranjeet; Sharma, Arun Kumar; Basu, Joyoti; Kundu, Manikuntala

2015-05-01

179

DEFECTIVE TRAFFICKING OF CONE PHOTORECEPTOR CNG CHANNELS INDUCES THE UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE AND ER STRESS-ASSOCIATED CELL DEATH  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Mutations that perturb the function of photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are associated with several human retinal disorders, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to photoreceptor dysfunction and degeneration remain unclear. Many loss-of-function mutations result in intracellular accumulation of CNG channel subunits. Accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is known to cause ER stress and trigger the unfolded protein response (UPR), an evolutionarily conserved cellular program that results in either adaptation via increased protein processing capacity or apoptotic cell death. We hypothesize that defective trafficking of cone photoreceptor CNG channels can induce UPR-mediated cell death. To test this idea, CNGA3 subunits bearing the R563H and Q655X mutations were expressed in photoreceptor-derived 661W cells with CNGB3 subunits. Compared to wild type, R563H and Q655X subunits displayed altered degradation rates and/or were retained in the ER. ER retention was associated with increased expression of UPR-related markers of ER stress and with decreased cell viability. Chemical and pharmacological chaperones (TUDCA, 4PBA, and the cGMP analog CPT-cGMP) differentially reduced degradation and/or promoted plasma-membrane localization of defective subunits. Improved subunit maturation was concordant with reduced expression of ER stress markers and improved viability of cells expressing localization-defective channels. These results indicate that ER stress can arise from expression of localization defective CNG channels, and may represent a contributing factor for photoreceptor degeneration. PMID:21992067

Duricka, Deborah L.; Brown, R. Lane; Varnum, Michael D.

2011-01-01

180

The unfolded protein response regulator GRP78\\/BiP is required for endoplasmic reticulum integrity and stress-induced autophagy in mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammalian cells, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has recently been shown to induce autophagy and the induction requires the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathways. However, little is known whether autophagy regulates UPR pathways and how specific UPR targets might control autophagy. Here, we demonstrated that although ER stress-induced autophagy was suppressed by class III phosphatidylinositol-3?-kinase (PI3KC3) inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA),

J Li; M Ni; B Lee; E Barron; D R Hinton; A S Lee

2008-01-01

181

Investigating the role of the Caenorhabditis elegans unfolded protein response in immunity and development  

E-print Network

Proteins destined for the secretory pathway are folded, posttranslationally modified, and assembled into complexes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To maintain ER proteostasis, the rate of nascent peptide influx into the ...

Richardson, Claire E

2012-01-01

182

Dolichol Biosynthesis and Its Effects on the Unfolded Protein Response and Abiotic Stress Resistance in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dolichols are long-chain unsaturated polyisoprenoids with multiple cellular functions, such as serving as lipid carriers of sugars used for protein glycosylation, which affects protein trafficking in the endoplasmic reticulum. The biological functions of dolichols in plants are largely unknown. We isolated an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, lew1 (for leaf wilting1), that showed a leaf-wilting phenotype under normal growth conditions. LEW1 encoded

Hairong Zhang; Kiyoshi Ohyama; Julie Boudet; Zhizhong Chen; Jilai Yang; Min Zhang; Toshiya Muranaka; Christophe Maurel; Jian-Kang Zhu; Zhizhong Gong

2008-01-01

183

XBP-1 Regulates a Subset of Endoplasmic Reticulum Resident Chaperone Genes in the Unfolded Protein Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

the DnaJ\\/Hsp40-like genes, p58IPK, ERdj4, and HEDJ, as well as EDEM, protein disulfide isomerase-P5, and ribosome-associated membrane protein 4 (RAMP4), whereas expression of BiP was only modestly dependent on XBP-1. Surprisingly, given previous reports that enforced expression of ATF6 induced a subset of UPR target genes, cells deficient in ATF6, ATF6, or both had minimal defects in upregulating UPR target

Ann-Hwee Lee; Neal N. Iwakoshi; Laurie H. Glimcher

2003-01-01

184

The p53/HSP70 inhibitor, 2-phenylethynesulfonamide, causes oxidative stress, unfolded protein response and apoptosis in rainbow trout cells.  

PubMed

The effect of 2-phenylethynesulfonamide (PES), which is a p53 and HSP70 inhibitor in mammalian cells, was studied on the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill epithelial cell line, RTgill-W1, in order to evaluate PES as a tool for understanding the cellular survival pathways operating in fish. As judged by three viability assays, fish cells were killed by 24h exposures to PES, but cell death was blocked by the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Cell death had several hallmarks of apoptosis: DNA laddering, nuclear fragmentation, Annexin V staining, mitochondrial membrane potential decline, and caspases activation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production peaked in several hours after the addition of PES and before cell death. HSP70 and BiP levels were higher in cultures treated with PES for 24h, but this was blocked by NAC. As well, PES treatment caused HSP70, BiP and p53 to accumulate in the detergent-insoluble fraction, and this too was prevented by NAC. Of several possible scenarios to explain the results, the following one is the simplest. PES enhances the generation of ROS, possibly by inhibiting the anti-oxidant actions of p53 and HSP70. ER stress arises from the ROS and from PES inhibiting the chaperone activities of HSP70. The ER stress in turn initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR), but this fails to restore ER homeostasis so proteins aggregate and cells die. Despite these multiple actions, PES should be useful for studying fish cellular survival pathways. PMID:24270669

Zeng, Fanxing; Tee, Catherine; Liu, Michelle; Sherry, James P; Dixon, Brian; Duncker, Bernard P; Bols, Niels C

2014-01-01

185

Reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis and impaired unfolded protein response in TRPC3-deficient M1 macrophages.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a prominent mechanism of macrophage apoptosis in advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Recent studies from our laboratory showed that advanced atherosclerotic plaques in Apoe(-/-) mice with bone marrow deficiency of the calcium-permeable channel Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 3 (TRPC3) are characterized by reduced areas of necrosis and fewer apoptotic macrophages than animals transplanted with Trpc3(+/+) bone marrow. In vitro, proinflammatory M1 but not anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages derived from Trpc3(-/-)Apoe(-/-) animals exhibited reduced ER stress-induced apoptosis. However, whether this was due to a specific effect of TRPC3 deficiency on macrophage ER stress signaling remained to be determined. In the present work we used polarized macrophages derived from mice with macrophage-specific deficiency of TRPC3 to examine the expression level of ER stress markers and the activation status of some typical mediators of macrophage apoptosis. We found that the reduced susceptibility of TRPC3-deficient M1 macrophages to ER stress-induced apoptosis correlates with an impaired unfolded protein response (UPR), reduced mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis, and reduced activation of the proapoptotic molecules calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. Notably, none of these pathways was altered in TRPC3-deficient M2 macrophages. These findings show for the first time an obligatory requirement for a member of the TRPC family of cation channels in ER stress-induced apoptosis in macrophages, underscoring a rather selective role of the TRPC3 channel on mechanisms related to the UPR signaling in M1 macrophages. PMID:25031020

Solanki, Sumeet; Dube, Prabhatchandra R; Tano, Jean-Yves; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Vazquez, Guillermo

2014-09-15

186

Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response associated genes in seed stratification and bud endodormancy during chilling accumulation in Prunus persica.  

PubMed

Dormancy mechanisms in seeds and buds arrest growth until environmental conditions are optimal for development. A genotype-specific period of chilling is usually required to release dormancy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. To discover transcriptional pathways associated with dormancy release common to seed stratification and bud endodormancy, we explored the chilling-dependent expression of 11 genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response signal pathways. We propose that endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response impact on seed as well as bud germination and development by chilling-dependent mechanisms. The emerging discovery of similarities between seed stratification and bud endodormancy status indicate that these two processes are probably regulated by common endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response signalling pathways. Clarification of regulatory pathways common to both seed and bud dormancy may enhance understanding of the mechanisms underlying dormancy and breeding programs may benefit from earlier prediction of chilling requirements for uniform blooming of novel genotypes of deciduous fruit tree species. PMID:24999812

Fu, Xi Ling; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Dong Ling; Chen, Min; Tan, Qiu Ping; Li, Ling; De Chen, Xiu; Gao, Dong Sheng

2014-01-01

187

Roles of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response Associated Genes in Seed Stratification and Bud Endodormancy during Chilling Accumulation in Prunus persica  

PubMed Central

Dormancy mechanisms in seeds and buds arrest growth until environmental conditions are optimal for development. A genotype-specific period of chilling is usually required to release dormancy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. To discover transcriptional pathways associated with dormancy release common to seed stratification and bud endodormancy, we explored the chilling-dependent expression of 11 genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response signal pathways. We propose that endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response impact on seed as well as bud germination and development by chilling-dependent mechanisms. The emerging discovery of similarities between seed stratification and bud endodormancy status indicate that these two processes are probably regulated by common endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response signalling pathways. Clarification of regulatory pathways common to both seed and bud dormancy may enhance understanding of the mechanisms underlying dormancy and breeding programs may benefit from earlier prediction of chilling requirements for uniform blooming of novel genotypes of deciduous fruit tree species. PMID:24999812

Fu, Xi Ling; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Dong Ling; Chen, Min; Tan, Qiu Ping; Li, Ling; De Chen, Xiu; Gao, Dong Sheng

2014-01-01

188

A Model of the Unfolded Protein Response: Pancreatic ?-Cell as a Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pancreatic ?-cell failure is increasingly recognized as central to the progression of diabetes mellitus. Different causes are implicated in the onset of ?-cell stress, dysfunction or death. Recent genetic and biochemical evidence both in humans and mice shows that failure in modulating the capacity and quality of the endoplasmic reticulum protein-folding machinery leads to ?-cell death. The quality control of

Santiago Schnell; Palmer Commons

2009-01-01

189

The response to unfolded protein is involved in osmotolerance of Pichia pastoris  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The effect of osmolarity on cellular physiology has been subject of investigation in many different species. High osmolarity is of importance for biotechnological production processes, where high cell densities and product titers are aspired. Several studies indicated that increased osmolarity of the growth medium can have a beneficial effect on recombinant protein production in different host organisms. Thus, the

Martin Dragosits; Johannes Stadlmann; Alexandra Graf; Brigitte Gasser; Michael Maurer; Michael Sauer; David P Kreil; Friedrich Altmann; Diethard Mattanovich

2010-01-01

190

Overexpression of human virus surface glycoprotein precursors induces cytosolic unfolded protein response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The expression of human virus surface proteins, as well as other mammalian glycoproteins, is much more efficient in cells\\u000a of higher eukaryotes rather than yeasts. The limitations to high-level expression of active viral surface glycoproteins in\\u000a yeast are not well understood. To identify possible bottlenecks we performed a detailed study on overexpression of recombinant\\u000a mumps hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (MuHN) and measles hemagglutinin

Evaldas ?iplys; Dhanraj Samuel; Mindaugas Juozapaitis; K?stutis Sasnauskas; Rimantas Slibinskas

2011-01-01

191

Overexpression of Myocilin in the Drosophila Eye Activates the Unfolded Protein Response: Implications  

E-print Network

associated with congenital glaucoma and 2­4% of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) cases, but the pathogenic hypertension, and a progressive decline in their behavioral responses to light. Transcriptional analysis shows that culminates in apoptosis. We infer from the Drosophila model that MYOC- associated ocular hypertension

Mackay, Trudy F.C.

192

A Role for the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) in Virulence and Antifungal Susceptibility in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filamentous fungi rely heavily on the secretory pathway, both for the delivery of cell wall components to the hyphal tip and the production and secretion of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes needed to support growth on polymeric substrates. Increased demand on the secretory system exerts stress on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is countered by the activation of a coordinated stress response

Daryl L. Richie; Lukas Hartl; Vishukumar Aimanianda; Michael S. Winters; Kevin K. Fuller; Michael D. Miley; Stephanie White; Jason W. McCarthy; Jean-Paul Latgé; Marta Feldmesser; Judith C. Rhodes; David S. Askew

2009-01-01

193

Approaches to imaging unfolded secretory protein stress in living cells  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the point of entry of proteins into the secretory pathway. Nascent peptides interact with the ER quality control machinery that ensures correct folding of the nascent proteins. Failure to properly fold proteins can lead to loss of protein function and cytotoxic aggregation of misfolded proteins that can lead to cell death. To cope with increases in the ER unfolded secretory protein burden, cells have evolved the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). The UPR is the primary signaling pathway that monitors the state of the ER folding environment. When the unfolded protein burden overwhelms the capacity of the ER quality control machinery, a state termed ER stress, sensor proteins detect accumulation of misfolded peptides and trigger the UPR transcriptional response. The UPR, which is conserved from yeast to mammals, consists of an ensemble of complex signaling pathways that aims at adapting the ER to the new misfolded protein load. To determine how different factors impact the ER folding environment, various tools and assays have been developed. In this review, we discuss recent advances in live cell imaging reporters and model systems that enable researchers to monitor changes in the unfolded secretory protein burden and activation of the UPR and its associated signaling pathways. PMID:25419521

Lajoie, Patrick; Fazio, Elena N.; Snapp, Erik L.

2014-01-01

194

Transcription Elongation Factor ELL2 Drives Ig Secretory-Specific mRNA Production and the Unfolded Protein Response  

PubMed Central

Differentiation of B cells into Ab-secreting cells induces changes in gene transcription, IgH RNA processing, the unfolded protein response (UPR), and cell architecture. The transcription elongation factor eleven nineteen lysine-rich leukemia gene (ELL2) stimulates the processing of the secreted form of the IgH mRNA from the H chain gene. Mice (mus musculus) with the ELL2 gene floxed in either exon 1 or exon 3 were constructed and crossed to CD19-driven cre/CD19+. The B cell–specific ELL2 conditional knockouts (cKOs; ell2loxp/loxp CD19cre/+) exhibit curtailed humoral responses both in 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl–Ficoll and in 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl–keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunized animals; recall responses were also diminished. The number of immature and recirculating B cells in the bone marrow is increased in the cKOs, whereas plasma cells in spleen are reduced relative to control animals. There are fewer IgG1 Ab-producing cells in the bone marrow of cKOs. LPS ex vivo–stimulated B220loCD138+ cells from ELL2-deficient mouse spleens are 4-fold less abundant than from control splenic B cells; have a paucity of secreted IgH; and have distended, abnormal-appearing endoplasmic reticulum. IRE1? is efficiently phosphorylated, but the amounts of Ig ?, ATF6, BiP, Cyclin B2, OcaB (BOB1, Pou2af1), and XBP1 mRNAs, unspliced and spliced, are severely reduced in ELL2-deficient cells. ELL2 enhances the expression of BCMA (also known as Tnfrsf17), which is important for long-term survival. Transcription yields from the cyclin B2 and the canonical UPR promoter elements are upregulated by ELL2 cDNA. Thus, ELL2 is important for many aspects of Ab secretion, XBP1 expression, and the UPR. PMID:25238757

Park, Kyung Soo; Bayles, Ian; Szlachta-McGinn, Alec; Paul, Joshua; Boiko, Julie; Santos, Patricia; Liu, June; Wang, Zhou; Borghesi, Lisa

2014-01-01

195

Proteomic and biochemical analyses reveal the activation of unfolded protein response, ERK-1/2 and ribosomal protein S6 signaling in experimental autoimmune myocarditis rat model  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the molecular and cellular pathogenesis underlying myocarditis, we used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM)-induced heart failure rat model that represents T cell mediated postinflammatory heart disorders. Results By performing unbiased 2-dimensional electrophoresis of protein extracts from control rat heart tissues and EAM rat heart tissues, followed by nano-HPLC-ESI-QIT-MS, 67 proteins were identified from 71 spots that exhibited significantly altered expression levels. The majority of up-regulated proteins were confidently associated with unfolded protein responses (UPR), while the majority of down-regulated proteins were involved with the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism in mitochondria. Although there was no difference in AKT signaling between EAM rat heart tissues and control rat heart tissues, the amounts and activities of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 and ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) were significantly increased. By comparing our data with the previously reported myocardial proteome of the Coxsackie viruses of group B (CVB)-mediated myocarditis model, we found that UPR-related proteins were commonly up-regulated in two murine myocarditis models. Even though only two out of 29 down-regulated proteins in EAM rat heart tissues were also dysregulated in CVB-infected rat heart tissues, other proteins known to be involved with the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism in mitochondria were also dysregulated in CVB-mediated myocarditis rat heart tissues, suggesting that impairment of mitochondrial functions may be a common underlying mechanism of the two murine myocarditis models. Conclusions UPR, ERK-1/2 and S6RP signaling were activated in both EAM- and CVB-induced myocarditis murine models. Thus, the conserved components of signaling pathways in two murine models of acute myocarditis could be targets for developing new therapeutic drugs or methods aimed at treating enigmatic myocarditis. PMID:22014063

2011-01-01

196

Role of the unfolded protein response in regulating the mucin-dependent filamentous-growth mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.  

PubMed

Signaling mucins are evolutionarily conserved regulators of signal transduction pathways. The signaling mucin Msb2p regulates the Cdc42p-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that controls filamentous growth in yeast. The cleavage and release of the glycosylated inhibitory domain of Msb2p is required for MAPK activation. We show here that proteolytic processing of Msb2p was induced by underglycosylation of its extracellular domain. Cleavage of underglycosylated Msb2p required the unfolded protein response (UPR), a quality control (QC) pathway that operates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The UPR regulator Ire1p, which detects misfolded/underglycosylated proteins in the ER, controlled Msb2p cleavage by regulating transcriptional induction of Yps1p, the major protease that processes Msb2p. Accordingly, the UPR was required for differentiation to the filamentous cell type. Cleavage of Msb2p occurred in conditional trafficking mutants that trap secretory cargo in the endomembrane system. Processed Msb2p was delivered to the plasma membrane, and its turnover by the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5p and ESCRT attenuated the filamentous-growth pathway. We speculate that the QC pathways broadly regulate signaling glycoproteins and their cognate pathways by recognizing altered glycosylation patterns that can occur in response to extrinsic cues. PMID:25666509

Adhikari, Hema; Vadaie, Nadia; Chow, Jacky; Caccamise, Lauren M; Chavel, Colin A; Li, Boyang; Bowitch, Alexander; Stefan, Christopher J; Cullen, Paul J

2015-04-15

197

Nodulin 22, a Novel Small Heat-Shock Protein of the Endoplasmic Reticulum, Is Linked to the Unfolded Protein Response in Common Bean  

PubMed Central

The importance of plant small heat shock proteins (sHsp) in multiple cellular processes has been evidenced by their unusual abundance and diversity; however, little is known about their biological role. Here, we characterized the in vitro chaperone activity and subcellular localization of nodulin 22 of Phaseolus vulgaris (PvNod22; common bean) and explored its cellular function through a virus-induced gene silencing–based reverse genetics approach. We established that PvNod22 facilitated the refolding of a model substrate in vitro, suggesting that it acts as a molecular chaperone in the cell. Through microscopy analyses of PvNod22, we determined its localization in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Furthermore, we found that silencing of PvNod22 resulted in necrotic lesions in the aerial organs of P. vulgaris plants cultivated under optimal conditions and that downregulation of PvNod22 activated the ER-unfolded protein response (UPR) and cell death. We also established that PvNod22 expression in wild-type bean plants was modulated by abiotic stress but not by chemicals that trigger the UPR, indicating PvNod22 is not under UPR control. Our results suggest that the ability of PvNod22 to suppress protein aggregation contributes to the maintenance of ER homeostasis, thus preventing the induction of cell death via UPR in response to oxidative stress during plant-microbe interactions. PMID:24073881

Rodriguez-López, Jonathan; Martínez-Centeno, Cynthia; Padmanaban, Annamalai; Guillén, Gabriel; Olivares, Juan Elías; Stefano, Giovanni; Lledías, Fernando; Ramos, Fernando; Ghabrial, Said A.; Brandizzi, Federica; Rocha-Sosa, Mario; Díaz-Camino, Claudia; Sanchez, Federico

2014-01-01

198

DINACICLIB (SCH727965) INHIBITS THE UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE (UPR) THROUGH A CDK1 AND CDK5-DEPENDENT MECHANISM  

PubMed Central

Evidence implicating dysregulation of the IRE1/XBP-1s arm of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cancer pathogenesis (e.g., multiple myeloma) has prompted the development of IRE1 RNase inhibitors. Here, effects of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, SCH727965 (dinaciclib), on the IRE1 arm of the UPR were examined in human leukemia and myeloma cells. Exposure of cells to extremely low (e.g., nM) concentrations of SCH727965, a potent inhibitor of CDKs 1/2/5/9, diminished XBP-1s and Grp78 induction by the ER stress-inducers thapsigargin (Tg) and tunicamycin (Tm), while sharply inducing cell death. SCH727965, in contrast to IRE1 RNase inhibitors, inhibited the UPR in association with attenuation of XBP-1s nuclear localization and accumulation rather than transcription, translation, or XBP-1 splicing. Notably, in human leukemia cells, CDK1 and CDK5 shRNA knock-down diminished Grp78 and XBP-1s up-regulation while increasing Tg lethality, arguing for a functional role for CDK1/5 in activation of the cytoprotective IRE1/XBP-1s arm of the UPR. In contrast, CDK9 or CDK2 inhibitors or shRNA knockdown failed to down-regulate XBP-1s or Grp78. Furthermore, IRE1, XBP-1, or Grp78 knockdown significantly increased Tg lethality, as observed with CDK1/5 inhibition/knockdown. Finally, SCH727965 diminished myeloma cell growth in vivo in association with XBP-1s down-regulation. Together, these findings demonstrate that SCH727965 acts at extremely low concentrations to attenuate XBP-1s nuclear accumulation and Grp78 up-regulation in response to ER stress inducers. They also highlight a link between specific components of the cell cycle regulatory apparatus (e.g., CDK1/5) and the cytoprotective IRE1/XBP-1s/Grp78 arm of the UPR that may be exploited therapeutically in UPR-driven malignancies. PMID:24362465

Nguyen, Tri; Grant, Steven

2014-01-01

199

A Novel Interaction Between the Regulatory Subunit of PI 3-Kinase and X-box Binding Protein-1 Modulates the Unfolded Protein Response  

PubMed Central

Class Ia phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase, an essential mediator of the metabolic actions of insulin, is composed of a catalytic (p110?) and regulatory (p85?) subunit. Here we demonstrate that p85? interacts with X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1), a transcriptional mediator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), in an ER stress-dependent manner. Cell lines with knockout or knockdown of p85? exhibit dramatic alterations in the UPR including reduced ER stress-dependent accumulation of nuclear XBP-1, decreased induction of UPR target genes and increased rates of apoptosis. This is associated with a decrease activation of IRE1? and ATF6?. Mice with deletion of p85? in liver (L-Pik3r1?/?) display a similar attenuated UPR following tunicamycin administration leading to an increased inflammatory response. Thus, p85? forms a novel link between the PI 3-kinase pathway, which is central to insulin action, and the regulation of the cellular response to ER stress, which can lead to insulin resistance. PMID:20348923

Winnay, Jonathon N.; Boucher, Jeremie; Mori, Marcelo; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kahn, C. Ronald

2015-01-01

200

The Unfolded Protein Response Element IRE1? Senses Bacterial Proteins Invading the ER to Activate RIG-I and Innate Immune Signaling  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The plasma membrane and all membrane-bound organelles except for the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are equipped with pattern-recognition molecules to sense microbes or their products and induce innate immunity for host defense. Here, we report that inositol-requiring-1? (IRE1?), an ER protein that signals in the unfolded protein response (UPR), is activated to induce inflammation by binding a portion of cholera toxin as it co-opts the ER to cause disease. Other known UPR transducers, including the IRE1?-dependent transcription factor XBP1, are dispensable for this signaling. The inflammatory response depends instead on the RNase activity of IRE1? to degrade endogenous mRNA, a process termed regulated IRE1?-dependent decay (RIDD) of mRNA. The mRNA fragments produced engage retinoic-acid inducible gene 1 (RIG-I), a cyto-solic sensor of RNA viruses, to activate NF-?B and interferon pathways. We propose IRE1? provides for a generalized mechanism of innate immune surveillance originating within the ER lumen. PMID:23684307

Cho, Jin A.; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Platzer, Barbara; Cross, Benedict C.S.; Gardner, Brooke M.; De Luca, Heidi; Luong, Phi; Harding, Heather P.; Glimcher, Laurie H.; Walter, Peter; Fiebiger, Edda; Ron, David; Kagan, Jonathan C.; Lencer, Wayne I.

2013-01-01

201

The Unfolded Protein Response Transducer ATF6 Represents a Novel Transmembrane-type Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation Substrate Requiring Both Mannose Trimming and SEL1L Protein*  

PubMed Central

Proteins misfolded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are cleared by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasome system in the cytosol, a series of events collectively termed ER-associated degradation (ERAD). It was previously shown that SEL1L, a partner protein of the E3 ubiquitin ligase HRD1, is required for degradation of misfolded luminal proteins (ERAD-Ls substrates) but not misfolded transmembrane proteins (ERAD-Lm substrates) in both mammalian and chicken DT40 cells. Here, we analyzed ATF6, a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as a sensor/transducer of the unfolded protein response, as a potential ERAD-Lm substrate in DT40 cells. Unexpectedly, degradation of endogenous ATF6 and exogenously expressed chicken and human ATF6 by the proteasome required SEL1L. Deletion analysis revealed that the luminal region of ATF6 is a determinant for SEL1L-dependent degradation. Chimeric analysis showed that the luminal region of ATF6 confers SEL1L dependence on type I transmembrane protein as well. In contrast, degradation of other known type I ERAD-Lm substrates (BACE457, T-cell receptor-?, CD3-?, and CD147) did not require SEL1L. Thus, ATF6 represents a novel type of ERAD-Lm substrate requiring SEL1L for degradation despite its transmembrane nature. In addition, endogenous ATF6 was markedly stabilized in wild-type cells treated with kifunensine, an inhibitor of ?1,2-mannosidase in the ER, indicating that degradation of ATF6 requires proper mannose trimming. Our further analyses revealed that the five ERAD-Lm substrates examined are classified into three subgroups based on their dependence on mannose trimming and SEL1L. Thus, ERAD-Lm substrates are degraded through much more diversified mechanisms in higher eukaryotes than previously thought. PMID:24043630

Horimoto, Satoshi; Ninagawa, Satoshi; Okada, Tetsuya; Koba, Hibiki; Sugimoto, Takehiro; Kamiya, Yukiko; Kato, Koichi; Takeda, Shunichi; Mori, Kazutoshi

2013-01-01

202

Chemical induction of the unfolded protein response in the liver increases glucose production and is activated during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) can regulate insulin secretion, insulin action and\\u000a in vitro hepatocyte glucose release. The aims of this study were to determine whether chemical agents that induce ER stress\\u000a regulate glucose production in vivo and to identify a physiological setting in which this may be important.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A pancreatic clamp test was performed

J. C. Gonzales; C. L. Gentile; K. T. Pfaffenbach; Y. Wei; D. Wang; M. J. Pagliassotti

2008-01-01

203

Blunted activation of NF-{kappa}B and NF-{kappa}B-dependent gene expression by geranylgeranylacetone: Involvement of unfolded protein response  

SciTech Connect

Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), an anti-ulcer agent, has anti-inflammatory potential against experimental colitis and ischemia-induced renal inflammation. However, molecular mechanisms involved in its anti-inflammatory effects are largely unknown. We found that, in glomerular mesangial cells, GGA blocked activation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B and consequent induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) by inflammatory cytokines. It was inversely correlated with induction of unfolded protein response (UPR) evidenced by expression of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and suppression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-responsive alkaline phosphatase. Various inducers of UPR including tunicamycin, thapsigargin, A23187, 2-deoxyglucose, dithiothreitol, and AB{sub 5} subtilase cytotoxin reproduced the suppressive effects of GGA. Furthermore, attenuation of UPR by stable transfection with GRP78 diminished the anti-inflammatory effects of GGA. These results disclosed a novel, UPR-dependent mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory potential of GGA.

Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Hiramatsu, Nobuhiko; Okamura, Maro; Yao, Jian [Department of Molecular Signaling, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Yamanashi 409-3898 (Japan); Paton, Adrienne W.; Paton, James C. [School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Kitamura, Masanori [Department of Molecular Signaling, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Yamanashi 409-3898 (Japan)], E-mail: masanori@yamanashi.ac.jp

2008-01-04

204

Unfolded proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress in neurodegenerative disorders  

PubMed Central

Abstract The stimuli for neuronal cell death in neurodegenerative disorders are multi-factorial and may include genetic predisposition, environmental factors, cellular stressors such as oxidative stress and free radical production, bioenergy failure, glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, disruption of Ca2+-regulating systems, mitochondrial dysfunction and misfolded protein accumulation. Cellular stress disrupts functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a critical organelle for protein quality control, leading to induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress may contribute to neurodegeneration in a range of neurodegenerative disorders. This review summarizes the molecular events occurring during ER stress and the unfolded protein response and it specifically evaluates the evidence suggesting the ER stress response plays a role in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21722302

Doyle, Karen M; Kennedy, Donna; Gorman, Adrienne M; Gupta, Sanjeev; Healy, Sandra J M; Samali, Afshin

2011-01-01

205

Active unfolding of precursor proteins during mitochondrial protein import.  

PubMed Central

Precursor proteins made in the cytoplasm must be in an unfolded conformation during import into mitochondria. Some precursor proteins have tightly folded domains but are imported faster than they unfold spontaneously, implying that mitochondria can unfold proteins. We measured the import rates of artificial precursors containing presequences of varying length fused to either mouse dihydrofolate reductase or bacterial barnase, and found that unfolding of a precursor at the mitochondrial surface is dramatically accelerated when its presequence is long enough to span both membranes and to interact with mhsp70 in the mitochondrial matrix. If the presequence is too short, import is slow but can be strongly accelerated by urea-induced unfolding, suggesting that import of these 'short' precursors is limited by spontaneous unfolding at the mitochondrial surface. With precursors that have sufficiently long presequences, unfolding by the inner membrane import machinery can be orders of magnitude faster than spontaneous unfolding, suggesting that mhsp70 can act as an ATP-driven force-generating motor during protein import. PMID:9362487

Matouschek, A; Azem, A; Ratliff, K; Glick, B S; Schmid, K; Schatz, G

1997-01-01

206

Functional analysis of the impact of ORMDL3 expression on inflammation and activation of the unfolded protein response in human airway epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background The gene ORMDL3 was shown to be associated with early-onset asthma susceptibility in multiple independent genome-wide and candidate-gene association studies. Asthmatic patients have elevated expression levels of this gene. ORMDL3 encodes a transmembrane protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that may be involved in ER stress and inflammation. It is essential to validate the genetic associations linking ORMDL3 with asthma through functional studies that confirm the biological relevance of this gene in disease. We investigated the effects of manipulating ORMDL3 expression levels in vitro in airway cells on innate immune inflammatory responses, ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Methods ORMDL3 expression levels were manipulated in airway cells using an overexpression plasmid and siRNA technologies. Successful modulation of ORMDL3 was confirmed at both the gene and protein level. The functional impact of modulation of ORMDL3 expression levels on inflammatory responses and activation of the UPR were quantified using complementary cellular and molecular immunology techniques. Results Cells with altered ORMDL3 levels responded equally well to innate immune stimuli and produced similar levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to wild-type cells. Treatment with ER stress inducers, thapsigargin and tunicamycin, resulted in activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, we observed no difference in UPR activation in cells with ORMDL3 knockdown compared to cells with normal ORMDL3 levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that ORMDL3 variation in the airway epithelium is unlikely to play a significant role in modulating innate immune responses and the UPR in the lung. PMID:23369242

2013-01-01

207

Multiple ways to die: Delineation of the unfolded protein response and apoptosis induced by Surfactant Protein C BRICHOS mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epithelial cell dysfunction is now recognized as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung diseases. Surfactant Protein C (SP-C), an alveolar type II cell specific protein, has contributed to this concept with the observation that heterozygous expression of SFTPC gene mutations are associated with chronic interstitial lung disease. We have shown that transient expression of aggregation prone mutant

Jean Ann Maguire; Surafel Mulugeta; Michael F. Beers

208

Airway mesenchymal cell death by mevalonate cascade inhibition: integration of autophagy, unfolded protein response and apoptosis focusing on Bcl2 family proteins.  

PubMed

HMG-CoA reductase, the proximal rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, is inhibited by statins. Beyond their cholesterol lowering impact, statins have pleiotropic effects and their use is linked to improved lung health. We have shown that mevalonate cascade inhibition induces apoptosis and autophagy in cultured human airway mesenchymal cells. Here, we show that simvastatin also induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in these cells. We tested whether coordination of ER stress, autophagy and apoptosis determines survival or demise of human lung mesenchymal cells exposed to statin. We observed that simvastatin exposure activates UPR (activated transcription factor 4, activated transcription factor 6 and IRE1?) and caspase-4 in primary human airway fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. Exogenous mevalonate inhibited apoptosis, autophagy and UPR, but exogenous cholesterol was without impact, indicating that sterol intermediates are involved with mechanisms mediating statin effects. Caspase-4 inhibition decreased simvastatin-induced apoptosis, whereas inhibition of autophagy by ATG7 or ATG3 knockdown significantly increased cell death. In BAX(-/-)/BAK(-/-) murine embryonic fibroblasts, simvastatin-triggered apoptotic and UPR events were abrogated, but autophagy flux was increased leading to cell death via necrosis. Our data indicate that mevalonate cascade inhibition, likely associated with depletion of sterol intermediates, can lead to cell death via coordinated apoptosis, autophagy, and ER stress. The interplay between these pathways appears to be principally regulated by autophagy and Bcl-2-family pro-apoptotic proteins. These findings uncover multiple mechanisms of action of statins that could contribute to refining the use of such agent in treatment of lung disease. PMID:24637330

Ghavami, Saeid; Sharma, Pawan; Yeganeh, Behzad; Ojo, Oluwaseun O; Jha, Aruni; Mutawe, Mark M; Kashani, Hessam H; Los, Marek J; Klonisch, Thomas; Unruh, Helmut; Halayko, Andrew J

2014-07-01

209

Increase in gene-transcript levels as indicators of up-regulation of the unfolded protein response in spontaneous canine tumors.  

PubMed

The unfolded protein response (UPR), a conserved cellular response to stressors such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation, is associated with angiogenesis and metastasis in tumor cells. This article discusses a pilot study conducted to determine whether components of the UPR could be identified in spontaneous canine tumors and whether they were up-regulated within tumor tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue. Tissue samples of various spontaneous canine neoplasms were taken from 13 dogs shortly after surgical excision or euthanasia; control samples were taken from adjacent normal tissue. RNA purification and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction were done to measure the expression of 4 genes associated with the UPR (HERP, CHOP, GRP78, and XBP1s). The results indicated that UPR gene expression can be identified in spontaneous canine tumors and that the UPR is up-regulated, as indicated by significantly increased expression of CHOP and GRP78 within the tumor. PMID:24982546

Elliot, Kirsten; MacDonald-Dickinson, Valerie; Linn, Kathleen; Simko, Elemir; Misra, Vikram

2014-07-01

210

Increase in gene-transcript levels as indicators of up-regulation of the unfolded protein response in spontaneous canine tumors  

PubMed Central

The unfolded protein response (UPR), a conserved cellular response to stressors such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation, is associated with angiogenesis and metastasis in tumor cells. This article discusses a pilot study conducted to determine whether components of the UPR could be identified in spontaneous canine tumors and whether they were up-regulated within tumor tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue. Tissue samples of various spontaneous canine neoplasms were taken from 13 dogs shortly after surgical excision or euthanasia; control samples were taken from adjacent normal tissue. RNA purification and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction were done to measure the expression of 4 genes associated with the UPR (HERP, CHOP, GRP78, and XBP1s). The results indicated that UPR gene expression can be identified in spontaneous canine tumors and that the UPR is up-regulated, as indicated by significantly increased expression of CHOP and GRP78 within the tumor. PMID:24982546

Elliot, Kirsten; MacDonald-Dickinson, Valerie; Linn, Kathleen; Simko, Elemir; Misra, Vikram

2014-01-01

211

Translational and posttranslational regulation of XIAP by eIF2? and ATF4 promotes ER stress–induced cell death during the unfolded protein response  

PubMed Central

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein misfolding activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to help cells cope with ER stress. If ER homeostasis is not restored, UPR promotes cell death. The mechanisms of UPR-mediated cell death are poorly understood. The PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) arm of the UPR is implicated in ER stress–induced cell death, in part through up-regulation of proapoptotic CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Chop?/? cells are partially resistant to ER stress–induced cell death, and CHOP overexpression alone does not induce cell death. These findings suggest that additional mechanisms regulate cell death downstream of PERK. Here we find dramatic suppression of antiapoptosis XIAP proteins in response to chronic ER stress. We find that PERK down-regulates XIAP synthesis through eIF2? and promotes XIAP degradation through ATF4. Of interest, PERK's down-regulation of XIAP occurs independently of CHOP activity. Loss of XIAP leads to increased cell death, whereas XIAP overexpression significantly enhances resistance to ER stress–induced cell death, even in the absence of CHOP. Our findings define a novel signaling circuit between PERK and XIAP that operates in parallel with PERK to CHOP induction to influence cell survival during ER stress. We propose a “two-hit” model of ER stress–induced cell death involving concomitant CHOP up-regulation and XIAP down-regulation both induced by PERK. PMID:24623724

Hiramatsu, Nobuhiko; Messah, Carissa; Han, Jaeseok; LaVail, Matthew M.; Kaufman, Randal J.; Lin, Jonathan H.

2014-01-01

212

Translational and posttranslational regulation of XIAP by eIF2? and ATF4 promotes ER stress-induced cell death during the unfolded protein response.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein misfolding activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to help cells cope with ER stress. If ER homeostasis is not restored, UPR promotes cell death. The mechanisms of UPR-mediated cell death are poorly understood. The PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) arm of the UPR is implicated in ER stress-induced cell death, in part through up-regulation of proapoptotic CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Chop((-)/(-)) cells are partially resistant to ER stress-induced cell death, and CHOP overexpression alone does not induce cell death. These findings suggest that additional mechanisms regulate cell death downstream of PERK. Here we find dramatic suppression of antiapoptosis XIAP proteins in response to chronic ER stress. We find that PERK down-regulates XIAP synthesis through eIF2? and promotes XIAP degradation through ATF4. Of interest, PERK's down-regulation of XIAP occurs independently of CHOP activity. Loss of XIAP leads to increased cell death, whereas XIAP overexpression significantly enhances resistance to ER stress-induced cell death, even in the absence of CHOP. Our findings define a novel signaling circuit between PERK and XIAP that operates in parallel with PERK to CHOP induction to influence cell survival during ER stress. We propose a "two-hit" model of ER stress-induced cell death involving concomitant CHOP up-regulation and XIAP down-regulation both induced by PERK. PMID:24623724

Hiramatsu, Nobuhiko; Messah, Carissa; Han, Jaeseok; LaVail, Matthew M; Kaufman, Randal J; Lin, Jonathan H

2014-05-01

213

Mutations of the ELA2 gene found in patients with severe congenital neutropenia induce the unfolded protein response and cellular apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is an inborn disorder of granulopoiesis. Mutations of the ELA2 gene encoding neutrophil elastase (NE) are responsible for most cases of SCN and cyclic neutropenia (CN), a related but milder disorder of granulopoiesis. However, the mechanisms by which these mutations disrupt granulopoiesis are unclear. We hypothesize that the ELA2 mutations result in the production of misfolded NE protein, activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), and ultimately apoptosis of granulocytic precursors. Expression of mutant NE but not wild-type NE strongly induced BiP/GRP78 mRNA expression and XBP1 mRNA splicing, 2 classic markers of the UPR. The magnitude of UPR activation by a specific ELA2 mutation correlated with its associated clinical phenotype. Consistent with the UPR model, expression of mutant NE in primary human granulocytic precursors increased expression of CHOP (DDITS) and induced apoptosis in a protease-independent fashion. Most strikingly, UPR activation and decreased NE protein expression were detected in primary granulocytic precursors from SCN patients. Collectively, these data provide strong support for a UPR model of SCN disease pathogenesis and place SCN in a growing list of human diseases caused by misfolded proteins. PMID:17761833

Grenda, David S.; Murakami, Mark; Ghatak, Jhuma; Xia, Jun; Boxer, Laurence A.; Dale, David; Dinauer, Mary C.

2007-01-01

214

Differential unfolded protein response during Chikungunya and Sindbis virus infection: CHIKV nsP4 suppresses eIF2? phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Sindbis (SINV) are arboviruses belonging to the alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae family. They cause frequent epidemics of febrile illness and long-term arthralgic sequelae that affect millions of people each year. Both viruses replicate prodigiously in infected patients and in vitro in mammalian cells, suggesting some level of control over the host cellular translational machinery that senses and appropriately directs the cell’s fate through the unfolded protein response (UPR). The mammalian UPR involves BIP (or GRP78), the master sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) together with the three downstream effector branches: inositol-requiring ser/thr protein kinase/endonuclease (IRE-1), PKR-like ER resident kinase (PERK) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF-6). Through careful analysis of CHIKV and SINV infections in cell culture we found that the former selectively activates ATF-6 and IRE-1 branches of UPR and suppresses the PERK pathway. By separately expressing each of the CHIKV proteins as GFP-fusion proteins, we found that non-structural protein 4 (nsP4), which is a RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase, suppresses the serine-51 phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor, alpha subunit (eIF2?), which in turn regulates the PERK pathway. This study provides insight into a mechanism by which CHIKV replication responds to overcome the host UPR machinery. PMID:23356742

2013-01-01

215

Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by activating the unfolded protein response  

PubMed Central

N-3-oxododecanoyl homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL), a quorum-sensing signal molecule produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), is involved in the expression of bacterial virulence factors and in the modulation of host immune responses by directly disrupting nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling and inducing cell apoptosis. The unfolded protein response (UPR) triggered by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may suppress inflammatory responses in the later phase by blocking NF-?B activation. It was recently demonstrated that 3-oxo-C12-HSL may induce UPR in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Therefore, 3-oxo-C12-HSL may also inhibit NF-?B activation and suppress inflammatory responses by activating UPR. However, the possible underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of 3-oxo-C12-HSL on cellular viability, UPR activation, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-?B activation and inflammatory response in the RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. Treatment with 6.25 ?M 3-oxo-C12-HSL was not found to affect the viability of RAW264.7 cells. However, pretreating RAW264.7 cells with 6.25 ?M 3-oxo-C12-HSL effectively triggered UPR and increased the expression of UPR target genes, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP ?) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP). The expression of C/EBP ? and CHOP was found to be inversely correlated with LPS-induced NF-?B activation. 3-Oxo-C12-HSL pretreatment was also shown to inhibit LPS-stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production. Hence, 3-oxo-C12-HSL may attenuate LPS-induced inflammation via UPR-mediated NF-?B inhibition without affecting cell viability. This may be another mechanism through which P. aeruginosa evades the host immune system and maintains a persistent infection. PMID:24649102

ZHANG, JIANGGUO; GONG, FENGYUN; LI, LING; ZHAO, MANZHI; SONG, JIANXIN

2014-01-01

216

The unfolded protein response and cellular senescence. A Review in the Theme: Cellular Mechanisms of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling in Health and Disease.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional organelle critical for the proper folding and assembly of secreted and transmembrane proteins. Perturbations of ER functions cause ER stress, which activates a coordinated system of transcriptional and translational controls called the unfolded protein response (UPR), to cope with accumulation of misfolded proteins and proteotoxicity. It results in ER homeostasis restoration or in cell death. Senescence is a complex cell phenotype induced by several stresses such as telomere attrition, DNA damage, oxidative stress, and activation of some oncogenes. It is mainly characterized by a cell enlargement, a permanent cell-cycle arrest, and the production of a secretome enriched in proinflammatory cytokines and components of the extracellular matrix. Senescent cells accumulate with age in tissues and are suspected to play a role in age-associated diseases. Since senescence is a stress response, the question arises of whether an ER stress could occur concomitantly with senescence and participate in the onset or maintenance of the senescent features. Here, we described the interconnections between the UPR signaling and the different aspects of the cellular senescence programs and discuss the implication of UPR modulations in this context. PMID:25540175

Pluquet, Olivier; Pourtier, Albin; Abbadie, Corinne

2015-03-15

217

Assessment of the effect of sphingosine kinase inhibitors on apoptosis,unfolded protein response and autophagy of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells; indications for novel therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that is formed by the phosphorylation of sphingosine and catalysed by sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) or sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2). Sphingosine kinases play a fundamental role in many signaling pathways associated with cancer, suggesting that proteins belonging to this signaling network represent potential therapeutic targets. Over the last years, many improvements have been made in the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL); however, novel and less toxic therapies are still needed, especially for relapsing and chemo-resistant patients. Here, we analyzed the therapeutic potential of SKi and ROMe, a sphingosine kinase 1 and 2 inhibitor and SK2-selective inhibitor, respectively. While SKi induced apoptosis, ROMe initiated an autophagic cell death in our in vitro cell models. SKi treatment induced an increase in SK1 protein levels in Molt-4 cells, whereas it activated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway in Jurkat and CEM-R cells as protective mechanisms in a sub-population of T-ALL cells. Interestingly, we observed a synergistic effect of SKi with the classical chemotherapeutic drug vincristine. In addition, we reported that SKi affected signaling cascades implicated in survival, proliferation and stress response of cells. These findings indicate that SK1 or SK2 represent potential targets for treating T-ALL. PMID:25226616

Evangelisti, Cecilia; Evangelisti, Camilla; Teti, Gabriella; Chiarini, Francesca; Falconi, Mirella; Melchionda, Fraia; Pession, Andrea; Bertaina, Alice; Locatelli, Franco; McCubrey, James A.; Beak, Dong Jae; Bittman, Robert; Pyne, Susan; Pyne, Nigel J.; Martelli, Alberto M.

2014-01-01

218

Stimulation of surface IgM of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells induces an unfolded protein response dependent on BTK and SYK  

PubMed Central

B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling plays a key role in the behavior of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, cellular consequences of signaling are incompletely defined. Here we explored possible links between BCR signaling and the unfolded protein response (UPR), a stress response pathway that can promote survival of normal and malignant cells. Compared with normal B cells, circulating CLL cells expressed increased, but variable, levels of UPR components. Higher expression of CHOP and XBP1 RNAs was associated with more aggressive disease. UPR activation appeared due to prior tissue-based antigenic stimulation because elevated expression of UPR components was detected within lymph node proliferation centers. Basal UPR activation also correlated closely with surface immunoglobulin M (sIgM) signaling capacity in vitro in both IGHV unmutated CLL and within mutated CLL. sIgM signaling increased UPR activation in vitro with responders showing increased expression of CHOP and XBP1 RNAs, and PERK and BIP proteins, but not XBP1 splicing. Inhibitors of BCR-associated kinases effectively prevented sIgM-induced UPR activation. Overall, this study demonstrates that sIgM signaling results in activation of some components the UPR in CLL cells. Modulation of the UPR may contribute to variable clinical behavior, and its inhibition may contribute to clinical responses to BCR-associated kinase inhibitors. PMID:25170122

Steele, Andrew J.; Coelho, Vania; Linley, Adam; Sanchez Hidalgo, Marina; Carter, Matthew; Potter, Kathleen N.; Kennedy, Benjamin; Duncombe, Andrew S.; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Forconi, Francesco; Stevenson, Freda K.; Packham, Graham

2014-01-01

219

Electrospray Ionization-Induced Protein Unfolding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) measurements were performed under a variety of solution conditions on a highly acidic sub-fragment (B3C) of the C-terminal carbohydrate-binding repeat region of Clostridium difficile toxin B, and two mutants (B4A and B4B) containing fewer acidic residues. ESI-MS measurements performed in negative ion mode on aqueous ammonium acetate solutions of B3C at low ionic strength ( I < 80 mM) revealed evidence, based on the measured charge state distribution, of protein unfolding. In contrast, no evidence of unfolding was detected from ESI-MS measurements made in positive ion mode at low I or in either mode at higher I. The results of proton nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism spectroscopy measurements and gel filtration chromatography performed on solutions of B3C under low and high I conditions suggest that the protein exists predominantly in a folded state in neutral aqueous solutions with I > 10 mM. The results of ESI-MS measurements performed on B3C in a series of solutions with high I at pH 5 to 9 rule out the possibility that the structural changes are related to ESI-induced changes in pH. It is proposed that unfolding of B3C, observed in negative mode for solutions with low I, occurs during the ESI process and arises due to Coulombic repulsion between the negatively charged residues and liquid/droplet surface charge. ESI-MS measurements performed in negative ion mode on B4A and B4B also reveal a shift to higher charge states at low I but the magnitude of the changes are smaller than observed for B3C.

Lin, Hong; Kitova, Elena N.; Johnson, Margaret A.; Eugenio, Luiz; Ng, Kenneth K. S.; Klassen, John S.

2012-12-01

220

IRE-1/XBP-1 pathway of the unfolded protein response is required for properly localizing neuronal UNC-6/Netrin for axon guidance in C. elegans.  

PubMed

During developing nervous system, neurons project axons to their targets precisely. In this process, axon guidance molecules provide positional information to the axons. Therefore, the spatially and temporally controlled localization of the axon guidance molecules is required for the proper structure formation of the complex nervous system. In C. elegans, UNC-6/Netrin is a secreted protein that elicits both attractive and repulsive response in axon guidance. UNC-6/Netrin secreted from ventral cells may establish a concentration gradient from the ventral to the dorsal side of the animal, thus providing dorso-ventral positional information. However, the mechanisms specifying positional information of UNC-6/Netrin are largely unknown. Here, we show that the ire-1/xbp-1 pathway of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is required for axonal distribution of UNC-6/Netrin in the ventral neurons. In addition, the ire-1/xbp-1 pathway is also required for dorso-ventral axon guidance mediated by UNC-6/Netrin. Our results suggest that the ire-1/xbp-1 pathway of the UPR is crucial for establishing positional information of UNC-6/Netrin. We propose that the proper secretion of UNC-6/Netrin from the ventral neurons requires the activity of IRE-1. PMID:25469499

Asakura, Taro; Ogura, Ken-Ichi; Goshima, Yoshio

2015-03-01

221

TMBIM3/GRINA is a novel unfolded protein response (UPR) target gene that controls apoptosis through the modulation of ER calcium homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif-containing (TMBIM)-6, also known as BAX-inhibitor 1 (BI-1), is an anti-apoptotic protein that belongs to a putative family of highly conserved and poorly characterized genes. Here we report the function of TMBIM3/GRINA in the control of cell death by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Tmbim3 mRNA levels are strongly upregulated in cellular and animal models of ER stress, controlled by the PERK signaling branch of the unfolded protein response. TMBIM3/GRINA synergies with TMBIM6/BI-1 in the modulation of ER calcium homeostasis and apoptosis, associated with physical interactions with inositol trisphosphate receptors. Loss-of-function studies in D. melanogaster demonstrated that TMBIM3/GRINA and TMBIM6/BI-1 have synergistic activities against ER stress in vivo. Similarly, manipulation of TMBIM3/GRINA levels in zebrafish embryos revealed an essential role in the control of apoptosis during neuronal development and in experimental models of ER stress. These findings suggest the existence of a conserved group of functionally related cell death regulators across species beyond the BCL-2 family of proteins operating at the ER membrane. PMID:22240901

Rojas-Rivera, D; Armisén, R; Colombo, A; Martínez, G; Eguiguren, A L; Díaz, A; Kiviluoto, S; Rodríguez, D; Patron, M; Rizzuto, R; Bultynck, G; Concha, M L; Sierralta, J; Stutzin, A; Hetz, C

2012-01-01

222

T-cadherin attenuates the PERK branch of the unfolded protein response and protects vascular endothelial cells from endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activated by perturbations in ER homeostasis induces the unfolded protein response (UPR) with chaperon Grp78 as the key activator of UPR signalling. The aim of UPR is to restore normal ER function; however prolonged or severe ER stress triggers apoptosis of damaged cells to ensure protection of the whole organism. Recent findings support an association of ER stress-induced apoptosis of vascular cells with cardiovascular pathologies. T-cadherin (T-cad), an atypical glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored member of the cadherin superfamily is upregulated in atherosclerotic lesions. Here we investigate the ability of T-cad to influence UPR signalling and endothelial cell (EC) survival during ER stress. EC were treated with a variety of ER stress-inducing compounds (thapsigargin, dithiothereitol, brefeldin A, tunicamycin, A23187 or homocysteine) and induction of ER stress validated by increases in levels of UPR signalling molecules Grp78 (glucose-regulated protein of 78kDa), phospho-eIF2alpha (phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha) and CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein). All compounds also increased T-cad mRNA and protein levels. Overexpression or silencing of T-cad in EC respectively attenuated or amplified the ER stress-induced increase in phospho-eIF2alpha, Grp78, CHOP and active caspases. Effects of T-cad-overexpression or T-cad-silencing on ER stress responses in EC were not affected by inclusion of either N-acetylcysteine (reactive oxygen species scavenger), LY294002 (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor) or SP6000125 (Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor). The data suggest that upregulation of T-cad on EC during ER stress attenuates the activation of the proapoptotic PERK (PKR (double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase)-like ER kinase) branch of the UPR cascade and thereby protects EC from ER stress-induced apoptosis. PMID:20457250

Kyriakakis, Emmanouil; Philippova, Maria; Joshi, Manjunath B; Pfaff, Dennis; Bochkov, Valery; Afonyushkin, Taras; Erne, Paul; Resink, Therese J

2010-09-01

223

Analyzing Forced Unfolding of Protein Tandems by Ordered Variates, 2: Dependent Unfolding Times  

E-print Network

to the development of new kinetic models, which describe the probabilities of ordered unfolding transitions rather of protein domains in a tandem or a polyprotein are analyzed by ap- plying constant mechanical force (force

Barsegov, Valeri

224

The Graded Unfolding Model: A Unidimensional Item Response Model for Unfolding Graded Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Binary or graded disagree-agree responses to attitude items are often collected for the purpose of attitude measurement. Although such data are sometimes analyzed with cumulative measurement models, recent investigations suggest that unfolding models are more appropriate (J. S. Roberts, 1995; W. H. Van Schuur and H. A. L. Kiers, 1994). Advances in…

Roberts, James S.; Laughlin, James E.

225

The unfolded protein response protects human tumor cells during hypoxia through regulation of the autophagy genes MAP1LC3B and ATG5  

PubMed Central

Tumor hypoxia is a common microenvironmental factor that adversely influences tumor phenotype and treatment response. Cellular adaptation to hypoxia occurs through multiple mechanisms, including activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Recent reports have indicated that hypoxia activates a lysosomal degradation pathway known as autophagy, and here we show that the UPR enhances the capacity of hypoxic tumor cells to carry out autophagy, and that this promotes their survival. In several human cancer cell lines, hypoxia increased transcription of the essential autophagy genes microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3? (MAP1LC3B) and autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5) through the transcription factors ATF4 and CHOP, respectively, which are regulated by PKR-like ER kinase (PERK, also known as EIF2AK3). MAP1LC3B and ATG5 are not required for initiation of autophagy but mediate phagophore expansion and autophagosome formation. We observed that transcriptional induction of MAP1LC3B replenished MAP1LC3B protein that was turned over during extensive hypoxia-induced autophagy. Correspondingly, cells deficient in PERK signaling failed to transcriptionally induce MAP1LC3B and became rapidly depleted of MAP1LC3B protein during hypoxia. Consistent with these data, autophagy and MAP1LC3B induction occurred preferentially in hypoxic regions of human tumor xenografts. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of autophagy sensitized human tumor cells to hypoxia, reduced the fraction of viable hypoxic tumor cells, and sensitized xenografted human tumors to irradiation. Our data therefore demonstrate that the UPR is an important mediator of the hypoxic tumor microenvironment and that it contributes to resistance to treatment through its ability to facilitate autophagy. PMID:20038797

Rouschop, Kasper M.A.; van den Beucken, Twan; Dubois, Ludwig; Niessen, Hanneke; Bussink, Johan; Savelkouls, Kim; Keulers, Tom; Mujcic, Hilda; Landuyt, Willy; Voncken, Jan Willem; Lambin, Philippe; van der Kogel, Albert J.; Koritzinsky, Marianne; Wouters, Bradly G.

2009-01-01

226

Treadmill exercise represses neuronal cell death and inflammation during A?-induced ER stress by regulating unfolded protein response in aged presenilin 2 mutant mice.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of aggregated amyloid-beta (A?), which triggers a cellular stress response called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR signaling pathway is a cellular defense system for dealing with the accumulation of misfolded proteins but switches to apoptosis when endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is prolonged. ER stress is involved in neurodegenerative diseases including AD, but the molecular mechanisms of neuronal apoptosis and inflammation by A?-induced ER stress to exercise training are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that treadmill exercise (TE) prevented PS2 mutation-induced memory impairment and reduced A?-42 deposition through the inhibition of ?-secretase (BACE-1) and its product, C-99 in cortex and/or hippocampus of aged PS2 mutant mice. We also found that TE down-regulated the expression of GRP78/Bip and PDI proteins and inhibited activation of PERK, eIF2?, ATF6?, sXBP1 and JNK-p38 MAPK as well as activation of CHOP, caspase-12 and caspase-3. Moreover, TE up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and down-regulated the expressions of Bax in the hippocampus of aged PS2 mutant mice. Finally, the generation of TNF? and IL-1? and the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the hippocampus of aged PS2 mutant mice was also prevented or decreased by TE. These results showed that TE suppressed the activation of UPR signaling pathways as well as inhibited the apoptotic pathways of the UPR and inflammatory response following A?-induced ER stress. Thus, therapeutic strategies that modulate A?-induced ER stress through TE could represent a promising approach for the prevention or treatment of AD. PMID:23907580

Kang, Eun-Bum; Kwon, In-Su; Koo, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Eung-Joon; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Jin; Yang, Choon-Ho; Lee, Young-Il; Cho, In-Ho; Cho, Joon-Yong

2013-11-01

227

Endoplasmic reticulum vacuolation and unfolded protein response leading to paraptosis like cell death in cyclosporine A treated cancer cervix cells is mediated by cyclophilin B inhibition.  

PubMed

Cyclosporine A (CsA), a widely used immunosuppressant shows cytotoxic effects by either inducing apoptosis or redirecting the cell towards non-apoptotic cell death. However, there still remains a lacuna in understanding the mechanism of CsA induced non-apoptotic cell death. In the present study we investigated calcineurin dependent or independent cytotoxic effects of CsA, a calcineurin inhibitor, in cervical cancerous SiHa cells. Decreased cell viability and massive cytoplasmic vacuolations were observed in CsA treated SiHa cells, having increased calcineurin activity. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), accompanied by a decrease in cyclophilin B (ER resident PPIase), preceded the formation of the vacuoles. These vacuoles stained positive for many ER resident markers confirming their ER origin; but the absence of autophagosomal marker, LC3II, ruled out autophagy. Extensively vacuolated cells eventually undergo cell death which lacked the typical apoptotic features, but showed significant decrease in AIP (ALG2 interacting protein) as seen in paraptosis. ER-vacuolation was prevented by cycloheximide and salubrinal thereby indicating requirement of active protein synthesis. Inhibiting calcineurin activity by either Tacrolimus (FK506) or by knockdown of calcineurin B subunit did not result in either ER-stress or cellular vacuolation. However, knockdown of cyclophilin B by siRNA resulted in increased expression of Bip and IRE1?, together with cytoplasmic vacuolation. In conclusion, we report that persistent ER stress due to cyclophilin B inhibition in CsA treated cervical cancer cells caused cellular vacuolation which culminated in a non-apoptotic cell death response similar to paraptosis. Additionally, the paraptotic effects of CsA are independent of calcineurin inhibition. PMID:25003316

Ram, Babul Moni; Ramakrishna, Gayatri

2014-11-01

228

Methylmercury exposure increases lipocalin related (lpr) and decreases activated in blocked unfolded protein response (abu) genes and specific miRNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a persistent environmental and dietary contaminant that causes serious adverse developmental and physiologic effects at multiple cellular levels. In order to understand more fully the consequences of MeHg exposure at the molecular level, we profiled gene and miRNA transcripts from the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Animals were exposed to MeHg (10µM) from embryo to larval 4 (L4) stage and RNAs were isolated. RNA-seq analysis on the Illumina platform revealed 541 genes up- and 261 genes down-regulated at a cutoff of 2-fold change and false discovery rate-corrected significance q < 0.05. Among the up-regulated genes were those previously shown to increase under oxidative stress conditions including hsp-16.11 (2.5-fold), gst-35 (10.1-fold), and fmo-2(58.5-fold). In addition, we observed up-regulation of 6 out of 7 lipocalin related (lpr) family genes and down regulation of 7 out of 15 activated in blocked unfolded protein response (abu) genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis highlighted the effect of genes related to development and organism growth. miRNA-seq analysis revealed 6–8 fold down regulation of mir-37-3p, mir-41-5p, mir-70-3p, and mir-75-3p. Our results demonstrate the effects of MeHg on specific transcripts encoding proteins in oxidative stress responses and in ER stress pathways. Pending confirmation of these transcript changes at protein levels, their association and dissocation characteristics with interaction partners, and integration of these signals, these findings indicate broad and dynamic mechanisms by which MeHg exerts its harmful effects. PMID:23872261

Rudgalvyte, Martina; VanDuyn, Natalia; Aarnio, Vuokko; Heikkinen, Liisa; Peltonen, Juhani; Lakso, Merja; Nass, Richard; Wong, Garry

2013-01-01

229

Modulation of the Unfolded Protein Response Is the Core of MicroRNA-122-Involved Sensitivity to Chemotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma12  

PubMed Central

The loss of microRNA-122 (miR-122) expression correlates to many characteristic properties of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, including clonogenic survival, anchorage-independent growth, migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and tumorigenesis. However, all of these findings do not sufficiently explain the oncogenic potential of miR-122. In the current study, we used two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis to measure changes in the expression of thousands of proteins in response to the inhibition of miR-122 in human hepatoma cells. Several proteins that were upregulated on miR-122 inhibition were involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. The overexpression of miR-122 resulted in the repression of UPR pathway activation. Therefore, miR-122 may act as an inhibitor of the chaperone gene expression and negatively regulate the UPR pathway in HCC. We further showed that the miR-122 inhibitor enhanced the stability of the 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 10 (PSMD10) through the up-regulation of its target gene cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). This process may activate the UPR pathway to prevent chemotherapy-mediated tumor cell apoptosis. The current study suggests that miR-122 negatively regulates the UPR through the CDK4-PSMD10 pathway. The down-regulation of miR-122 activated the CDK4-PSMD10-UPR pathway to decrease tumor cell anticancer drug-mediated apoptosis. We identified a new HCC therapeutic target and proclaimed the potential risk of the therapeutic use of miR-122 silencing. PMID:21750653

Yang, Fu; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Fang; Wang, Yue; Huo, Xi-song; Yin, Yi-xuan; Wang, Yu-qi; Zhang, Lin; Sun, Shu-han

2011-01-01

230

Thermal unfolding dynamics of proteins probed by nonlinear infrared spectroscopy  

E-print Network

This thesis presents spectroscopic approaches to study the thermal unfolding dynamics of proteins. The spectroscopic tool is nonlinear infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the protein amide I band. Among various nonlinear IR ...

Chung, Hoi Sung

2007-01-01

231

Monocrotaline pyrrole-induced megalocytosis of lung and breast epithelial cells: Disruption of plasma membrane and Golgi dynamics and an enhanced unfolded protein response  

SciTech Connect

The pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline (MCT) initiates pulmonary hypertension by inducing a 'megalocytosis' phenotype in target pulmonary arterial endothelial, smooth muscle and Type II alveolar epithelial cells. In cultured endothelial cells, a single exposure to the pyrrolic derivative of monocrotaline (MCTP) results in large cells with enlarged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi and increased vacuoles. However, these cells fail to enter mitosis. Largely based upon data from endothelial cells, we proposed earlier that a disruption of the trafficking and mitosis-sensor functions of the Golgi (the 'Golgi blockade' hypothesis) may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to MCTP-induced megalocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the applicability of the Golgi blockade hypothesis to epithelial cells. MCTP induced marked megalocytosis in cultures of lung A549 and breast MCF-7 cells. This was associated with a change in the distribution of the cis-Golgi scaffolding protein GM130 from a discrete juxtanuclear localization to a circumnuclear distribution consistent with an anterograde block of GM130 trafficking to/through the Golgi. There was also a loss of plasma membrane caveolin-1 and E-cadherin, cortical actin together with a circumnuclear accumulation of clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and {alpha}-tubulin. Flotation analyses revealed losses/alterations in the association of caveolin-1, E-cadherin and CHC with raft microdomains. Moreover, megalocytosis was accompanied by an enhanced unfolded protein response (UPR) as evidenced by nuclear translocation of Ire1{alpha} and glucose regulated protein 58 (GRP58/ER-60/ERp57) and a circumnuclear accumulation of PERK kinase and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). These data further support the hypothesis that an MCTP-induced Golgi blockade and enhanced UPR may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to enlargement of ER and Golgi and subsequent megalocytosis.

Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Shah, Mehul [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Patel, Kirit [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Sehgal, Pravin B. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States) and Department of Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States)]. E-mail: pravin_sehgal@nymc.edu

2006-03-15

232

Yip1A, a Novel Host Factor for the Activation of the IRE1 Pathway of the Unfolded Protein Response during Brucella Infection  

PubMed Central

Brucella species replicate within host cells in the form of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vacuoles. The mechanisms by which the bacteria are sequestered into such vacuoles and obtain a continuous membrane supply for their replication remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we provided several lines of evidence that demonstrate the mechanism by which B. abortus acquires the ER-derived membrane. First, during Brucella infection, the IRE1 pathway, but not the PERK and ATF6 pathways, of the unfolded protein response (UPR) was activated in a time-dependent manner, and the COPII vesicle components Sar1, Sec23, and Sec24D were upregulated. Second, a marked accretion of ER-derived vacuoles was observed around replicating bacteria using fluorescent microscopy and electron microscopy. Third, we identified a novel host factor, Yip1A, for the activation of the IRE1 pathway in response to both tunicamycin treatment and infection with B. abortus. We found that Yip1A is responsible for the phosphorylation of IRE1 through high-order assembly of Ire1 molecules at ER exit sites (ERES) under the UPR conditions. In Yip1A-knockdown cells, B. abortus failed to generate the ER-derived vacuoles, and remained in endosomal/lysosomal compartments. These results indicate that the activation of the IRE1 pathway and the subsequent formation of ER-derived vacuoles are critical for B. abortus to establish a safe replication niche, and that Yip1A is indispensable for these processes. Furthermore, we showed that the autophagy-related proteins Atg9 and WIPI1, but not DFCP1, were required for the biogenesis of the ER-derived membrane compartments. ?On the basis of our findings, we propose a model for intracellular Brucella replication that exploits the host UPR and ER-derived vacuole formation machineries, both of which depend on Yip1A-mediated IRE1 activation. PMID:25742138

Taguchi, Yuki; Imaoka, Koichi; Kataoka, Michiyo; Uda, Akihiko; Nakatsu, Daiki; Horii-Okazaki, Sakuya; Kunishige, Rina; Kano, Fumi; Murata, Masayuki

2015-01-01

233

Role of the unfolded protein response pathway in regulation of INO1 and in the sec14 bypass mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

INO1, encoding inositol 1-phosphate synthase, is the most highly regulated of a class of genes containing the repeated element, UAS(INO), in their promoters. Transcription of UAS(INO)-containing genes is modulated by the availability of exogenous inositol and by signals generated by alteration of phospholipid metabolism. The unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway also is involved in INO1 expression and the ire1Delta and hac1Delta mutants are inositol auxotrophs. We examined the role of the UPR in transmitting a signal generated in response to inositol deprivation and to alteration of phospholipid biosynthesis created in the sec14(ts) cki1Delta genetic background. We report that the UPR is required for sustained high-level INO1 expression in wild-type strains, but not for transient derepression in response to inositol deprivation. Moreover, the UPR is not required for expression or regulation of INO1 in response to the change in lipid metabolism that occurs in the sec14(ts) cki1Delta genetic background. Thus, the UPR signal transduction pathway is not involved directly in transcriptional regulation of INO1 and other UAS(INO)-containing genes. However, we discovered that inactivation of Sec14p leads to activation of the UPR, and that sec14 cki1 strains exhibit defective vacuolar morphology, suggesting that the mechanism by which the cki1Delta mutation suppresses the growth and secretory defect of sec14 does not fully restore wild-type morphology. Finally, synthetic lethality involving sec14 and UPR mutations suggests that the UPR plays an essential role in survival of sec14 cki1 strains. PMID:12242221

Chang, Hak J; Jones, Elizabeth W; Henry, Susan A

2002-01-01

234

Taxol-induced unfolded protein response activation in breast cancer cells exposed to hypoxia: ATF4 activation regulates autophagy and inhibits apoptosis.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms responsible for the resistance against chemotherapy-induced cell death is still of great interest since the number of patients with cancer increases and relapse is commonly observed. Indeed, the development of hypoxic regions as well as UPR (unfolded protein response) activation is known to promote cancer cell adaptive responses to the stressful tumor microenvironment and resistance against anticancer therapies. Therefore, the impact of UPR combined to hypoxia on autophagy and apoptosis activation during taxol exposure was investigated in MDA-MB-231 and T47D breast cancer cells. The results showed that taxol rapidly induced UPR activation and that hypoxia modulated taxol-induced UPR activation differently according to the different UPR pathways (PERK, ATF6, and IRE1?). The putative involvement of these signaling pathways in autophagy or in apoptosis regulation in response to taxol exposure was investigated. However, while no link between the activation of these three ER stress sensors and autophagy or apoptosis regulation could be evidenced, results showed that ATF4 activation, which occurs independently of UPR activation, was involved in taxol-induced autophagy completion. In addition, an ATF4-dependent mechanism leading to cancer cell adaptation and resistance against taxol-induced cell death was evidenced. Finally, our results demonstrate that expression of ATF4, in association with hypoxia-induced genes, can be used as a biomarker of a poor prognosis for human breast cancer patients supporting the conclusion that ATF4 might play an important role in adaptation and resistance of breast cancer cells to chemotherapy in hypoxic tumors. PMID:25724736

Notte, Annick; Rebucci, Magali; Fransolet, Maude; Roegiers, Edith; Genin, Marie; Tellier, Celine; Watillon, Kassandra; Fattaccioli, Antoine; Arnould, Thierry; Michiels, Carine

2015-05-01

235

Amyloid protein unfolding and insertion kinetics on neuronal membrane mimics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atomistic details of beta-amyloid (Abeta ) protein unfolding and lipid interaction kinetics mediated by the neuronal membrane surface are important for developing new therapeutic strategies to prevent and cure Alzheimer's disease. Using all-atom MD simulations, we explored the early unfolding and insertion kinetics of 40 and 42 residue long Abeta in binary lipid mixtures with and without cholesterol that mimic

Liming Qiu; Creighton Buie; Mark Vaughn; Kwan Cheng

2010-01-01

236

Fibroblast growth factor 21 is regulated by the IRE1?-XBP1 branch of the unfolded protein response and counteracts endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced hepatic steatosis.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) and represents a critical mechanism that underlies metabolic dysfunctions. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a hormone that is predominantly secreted by the liver, exerts a broad range of effects upon the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. Although increased circulating levels of FGF21 have been documented in animal models and human subjects with obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the functional interconnections between metabolic ER stress and FGF21 are incompletely understood. Here, we report that increased ER stress along with the simultaneous elevation of FGF21 expression were associated with the occurrence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease both in diet-induced obese mice and human patients. Intraperitoneal administration of the ER stressor tunicamycin in mice resulted in hepatic steatosis, accompanied by activation of the three canonical UPR branches and increased the expression of FGF21. Furthermore, the IRE1?-XBP1 pathway of the UPR could directly activate the transcriptional expression of Fgf21. Administration of recombinant FGF21 in mice alleviated tunicamycin-induced liver steatosis, in parallel with reduced eIF2?-ATF4-CHOP signaling. Taken together, these results suggest that FGF21 is an integral physiological component of the cellular UPR program, which exerts beneficial feedback effects upon lipid metabolism through counteracting ER stress. PMID:25170079

Jiang, Shan; Yan, Cheng; Fang, Qi-chen; Shao, Meng-le; Zhang, Yong-liang; Liu, Yang; Deng, Yi-ping; Shan, Bo; Liu, Jing-qi; Li, Hua-ting; Yang, Liu; Zhou, Jian; Dai, Zhi; Liu, Yong; Jia, Wei-ping

2014-10-24

237

Chaperone machines for protein folding, unfolding and disaggregation  

PubMed Central

Molecular chaperones are diverse families of multidomain proteins that have evolved to assist nascent proteins to reach their native fold, protect subunits from heat shock during the assembly of complexes, prevent protein aggregation or mediate targeted unfolding and disassembly. Their increased expression in response to stress is a key factor in the health of the cell and longevity of an organism. Unlike enzymes with their precise and finely tuned active sites, chaperones are heavy-duty molecular machines that operate on a wide range of substrates. The structural basis of their mechanism of action is being unravelled (in particular for the heat shock proteins HSP60, HSP70, HSP90 and HSP100) and typically involves massive displacements of 20–30 kDa domains over distances of 20–50 Å and rotations of up to 100°. PMID:24026055

Saibil, Helen

2015-01-01

238

Misfolding of collagen X chains harboring Schmid metaphyseal chondrodysplasia mutations results in aberrant disulfide bond formation, intracellular retention, and activation of the unfolded protein response.  

PubMed

Collagen X is a short chain collagen expressed specifically by the hypertrophic chondrocytes of the cartilage growth plate during endochondral bone formation. Accordingly, COL10A1 mutations disrupt growth plate function and cause Schmid metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (SMCD). SMCD mutations are almost exclusively located in the NC1 domain, which is crucial for both trimer formation and extracellular assembly. Several mutations are expected to reduce the level of functional collagen X due to NC1 domain misfolding or exclusion from stable trimer formation. However, other mutations may be tolerated within the structure of the assembled NC1 trimer, allowing mutant chains to exert a dominant-negative impact within the extracellular matrix. To address this, we engineered SMCD mutations that are predicted either to prohibit subunit folding and assembly (NC1del10 and Y598D, respectively) or to allow trimerization (N617K and G618V) and transfected these constructs into 293-EBNA and SaOS-2 cells. Although expected to form stable trimers, G618V and N617K chains (like Y598D and NC1del10 chains) were secreted very poorly compared with wild-type collagen X. Interestingly, all mutations resulted in formation of an unusual SDS-stable dimer, which dissociated upon reduction. As the NC1 domain sulfhydryl group is not solvent-exposed in the correctly folded NC1 monomer, disulfide bond formation would result only from a dramatic conformational change. In cells expressing mutant collagen X, we detected significantly increased amounts of the spliced form of X-box DNA-binding protein mRNA and up-regulation of BiP, two key markers for the unfolded protein response. Our data provide the first clear evidence for misfolding of SMCD collagen X mutants, and we propose that solvent exposure of the NC1 thiol may trigger the recognition and degradation of mutant collagen X chains. PMID:15695517

Wilson, Richard; Freddi, Susanna; Chan, Danny; Cheah, Kathryn S E; Bateman, John F

2005-04-22

239

S(+)-ibuprofen destabilizes MYC/MYCN and AKT, increases p53 expression, and induces unfolded protein response and favorable phenotype in neuroblastoma cell lines  

PubMed Central

Neuroblastoma is a common pediatric solid tumor that exhibits a striking clinical bipolarity favorable and unfavorable. The survival rate of children with unfavorable neuroblastoma remains low among all childhood cancers. MYCN and MYC play a crucial role in determining the malignancy of unfavorable neuroblastomas, whereas high-level expression of the favorable neuroblastoma genes is associated with a good disease outcome and confers growth suppression of neuroblastoma cells. A small fraction of neuroblastomas harbors TP53 mutations at diagnosis, but a higher proportion of the relapse cases acquire TP53 mutations. In this study, we investigated the effect of S(+)-ibuprofen on neuroblastoma cell lines, focusing on the expression of the MYCN, MYC, AKT, p53 proteins and the favorable neuroblastoma genes in vitro as biomarkers of malignancy. Treatment of neuroblastoma cell lines with S(+)-ibuprofen resulted in a significant growth suppression. This growth effect was accompanied by a marked decrease in the expression of MYC, MYCN, AKT and an increase in p53 expression in neuroblastoma cell lines without TP53 mutation. In addition, S(+)-ibuprofen enhanced the expression of some favorable neuroblastoma genes (EPHB6, CD44) and genes involved in growth suppression and differentiation (EGR1, EPHA2, NRG1 and SEL1L). Gene expression profile and Ingenuity pathway analyses using TP53-mutated SKNAS cells further revealed that S(+)-ibuprofen suppressed molecular pathways associated with cell growth and conversely enhanced those of cell cycle arrest and the unfolded protein response. Collectively, these results suggest that S(+)-ibuprofen or its related compounds may have the potential for therapeutic and/or palliative use for unfavorable neuroblastoma. PMID:24173829

IKEGAKI, NAOHIKO; HICKS, SAKEENAH L.; REGAN, PAUL L.; JACOBS, JOSHUA; JUMBO, AMINA S.; LEONHARDT, PAYTON; RAPPAPORT, ERIC F.; TANG, XAO X.

2014-01-01

240

Hypoxia stimulates migration of breast cancer cells via the PERK/ATF4/LAMP3-arm of the unfolded protein response  

PubMed Central

Introduction The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 pathway can stimulate tumor cell migration and metastasis. Furthermore, hypoxic tumors are associated with a poor prognosis. Besides the HIF-1 pathway, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is also induced by hypoxic conditions. The PKR-like ER kinase (PERK)/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)-arm of the UPR induces expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3), a factor that has been linked to metastasis and poor prognosis in solid tumors. In this study the role of UPR-induced LAMP3 in hypoxia-mediated migration of breast cancer cells was examined. Methods A number of in vitro metastasis models were used to study the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells under hypoxic conditions. PERK, ATF4 and their downstream factor LAMP3 were knocked down to examine their role in cell migration. In addition, multicellular tumor spheroids were used to study the involvement of the tumor microenvironment in invasion. Results Using transwell assays, migration of different breast cancer cell lines was assessed. A direct correlation was found between cell migration and baseline LAMP3 expression. Furthermore, moderate hypoxia (1% O2) was found to be optimal in stimulating migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. siRNA mediated knockdown of PERK, ATF4 and LAMP3 reduced migration of cells under these conditions. Using gap closure assays, similar results were found. In a three-dimensional invasion assay into collagen, LAMP3 knockdown cells showed a diminished capacity to invade compared to control cells when collectively grown in multicellular spheroids. Conclusions Thus, the PERK/ATF4/LAMP3-arm of the UPR is an additional pathway mediating hypoxia-induced breast cancer cell migration. PMID:23294542

2013-01-01

241

Genome-wide analysis of the unfolded protein response in fibroblasts from congenital disorders of glycosylation type-I patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a family of diseases characterized by defects of N-linked glycosylation. In CDG-I, several genetic defects cause a shortage of dolichol-linked oligosaccharides, which leads to underglycosylation of nascent glycoproteins. N-linked glycosylation is important for proper folding and trafficking of glycoproteins. Inhibition of glycosylation results in the buildup of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, which

M. Rita Lecca; Ulrich Wagner; Andrea Patrignani; Eric G. Berger; Thierry Hennet

2004-01-01

242

The unfolded protein response potentiates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of gastric cancer cells under severe hypoxic conditions.  

PubMed

The hypoxic condition occurs in most types of solid tumors and has been shown to be associated with the metastatic ability of gastric cancer. A previous study has demonstrated that hypoxia might stimulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of gastric cancer cells. Nevertheless, the mechanism has not yet been completely understood. In the current study, the human gastric cancer cell lines HGC27 and MGC803 were presented to normoxic (21 % O2), hypoxic (1 % O2) or severe hypoxic (0.1 % O2) conditions for 24 h. We found that hypoxia exposure induced EMT of gastric cancer cells, which was promoted by severe hypoxia condition. Meanwhile, expressions of PERK, ATF4 and ATF6 proteins were elevated in cells under conditions of severe hypoxia but not by normoxia or hypoxia. Knockdown of PERK, ATF4 or ATF6 impeded EMT of gastric cancer cells induced by severe hypoxia. Furthermore, severe hypoxia exposure extremely boosted the expression of TGF-?, which was blocked by the knockdown of PERK, ATF4 or ATF6 expression. Additionally, we found that TGF-? release caused by hypoxia is facilitated by elevated UPR proteins and led to the activation of Smad2/3 and PI3K/Akt signaling. Our data suggest that UPR potentiates the EMT of gastric cancer cells under conditions of severe hypoxia. PMID:25502090

Shen, Xinsheng; Xue, Yange; Si, Yaqing; Wang, Qun; Wang, Zhao; Yuan, Jiaxiang; Zhang, Xiefu

2015-01-01

243

TreFoil Factor 1 (TFF1\\/pS2) Deficiency Activates the Unfolded Protein Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The trefoil factor 1 (TFF1\\/pS2) is a secreted gastrointestinal peptide that is often altered or lost in hu- man gastric cancers. Consistently, mouse TFF1 deficiency leads to antropyloric tumors. Materials and Methods: To investigate the gene expres- sion alterations in response to the lack of TFF1, we per- formed differential expression analyses of TFF1 null antropyloric tumors using an

Luis-Fernando Torres; Sherif M. Karam; Corinne Wendling; Marie-Pierre Chenard; David Kershenobich; Catherine Tomasetto; Marie-Christine Rio; Salvador Zubiran

2002-01-01

244

Exclusion of the Unfolded Protein Response in Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration in the Canine T4R RHO Model of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) following acute light damage in the naturally-occurring canine model of RHO-adRP (T4R RHO dog). Methods The left eyes of T4R RHO dogs were briefly light-exposed and retinas collected 3, 6 and 24 hours later. The contra-lateral eyes were shielded and used as controls. To evaluate the time course of cell death, histology and TUNEL assays were performed. Electron microscopy was used to examine ultrastructural alterations in photoreceptors at 15 min, 1 hour, and 6 hours after light exposure. Gene expression of markers of ER stress and UPR were assessed by RT-PCR, qRT-PCR and western blot at the 6 hour time-point. Calpain and caspase-3 activation were assessed at 1, 3 and 6 hours after exposure. Results A brief exposure to clinically-relevant levels of white light causes within minutes acute disruption of the rod outer segment disc membranes, followed by prominent ultrastructural alterations in the inner segments and the initiation of cell death by 6 hours. Activation of the PERK and IRE1 pathways, and downstream targets (BIP, CHOP) of the UPR was not observed. However increased transcription of caspase-12 and hsp70 occurred, as well as calpain activation, but not that of caspase-3. Conclusion The UPR is not activated in the early phase of light-induced photoreceptor cell death in the T4R RHO model. Instead, disruption in rods of disc and plasma membranes within minutes after light exposure followed by increase in calpain activity and caspase-12 expression suggests a different mechanism of degeneration. PMID:25695253

Marsili, Stefania; Genini, Sem; Sudharsan, Raghavi; Gingrich, Jeremy; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Beltran, William A.

2015-01-01

245

Dual Regulation of Cadmium-Induced Apoptosis by mTORC1 through Selective Induction of IRE1 Branches in Unfolded Protein Response  

PubMed Central

Cadmium (Cd) causes generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that trigger renal tubular injury. We found that rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1, attenuated Cd-induced apoptosis in renal tubular cells. Knockdown of Raptor, a positive regulator of mTORC1, also had the similar effect. However, rapamycin did not alter generation of ROS, suggesting that mTORC1 is a target downstream of ROS. Indeed, ROS caused activation of mTORC1, which contributed to induction of a selective branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR); i.e., the IRE1 pathway. Although Cd triggered three major UPR pathways, activation of mTORC1 by Cd did not contribute to induction of the PERK–eIF2? and ATF6 pathways. Consistently, knockdown of Raptor caused suppression of JNK without affecting the PERK–eIF2? pathway in Cd-exposed cells. Knockdown of TSC2, a negative regulator of mTORC1, caused activation of mTORC1 and enhanced Cd induction of the IRE1–JNK pathway and apoptosis without affecting other UPR branches. Inhibition of IRE1? kinase led to suppression of JNK activity and apoptosis in Cd-treated cells. Dominant-negative inhibition of JNK also suppressed Cd-induced apoptosis. In contrast, inhibition of IRE1? endoribonuclease activity or downstream XBP1 modestly enhanced Cd-induced apoptosis. In vivo, administration with rapamycin suppressed activation of mTORC1 and JNK, but not eIF2?, in the kidney of Cd-treated mice. It was correlated with attenuation of tubular injury and apoptotic cell death in the tubules. These results elucidate dual regulation of Cd-induced renal injury by mTORC1 through selective induction of IRE1 signaling. PMID:23696882

Kato, Hironori; Katoh, Ryohei; Kitamura, Masanori

2013-01-01

246

D-Penicillamine targets metastatic melanoma cells with induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and Noxa (PMAIP1)-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis  

PubMed Central

D-penicillamine (3,3-Dimethyl-D-cysteine; DP) is an FDA-approved redox-active D-cysteine-derivative with antioxidant, disulfide-reducing, and metal chelating properties used therapeutically for the control of copper-related pathology in Wilson’s disease and reductive cystine-solubilization in cystinuria. Based on the established sensitivity of metastatic melanoma cells to pharmacological modulation of cellular oxidative stress, we tested feasibility of using DP for chemotherapeutic intervention targeting human A375 melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo. DP treatment induced caspase-dependent cell death in cultured human metastatic melanoma cells (A375, G361) without compromising viability of primary epidermal melanocytes, an effect not observed with the thiol-antioxidants N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and dithiothreitol. Focused gene expression array analysis followed by immunoblot detection revealed that DP rapidly activates the cytotoxic unfolded protein response (UPR; involving phospho-PERK, phospho-eIF2?, Grp78, CHOP, and Hsp70) and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis with p53 upregulation and modulation of Bcl-2 family members (involving Noxa, Mcl-1, and Bcl-2). DP (but not NAC) induced oxidative stress with early impairment of glutathione homeostasis and mitochondrial transmembrane potential. SiRNA-based antagonism of PMAIP1 expression blocked DP-induced upregulation of the proapoptotic BH3-only effector Noxa and prevented downregulation of the Noxa-antagonist Mcl-1, rescuing melanoma cells from DP-induced apoptosis. Intraperitoneal administration of DP displayed significant antimelanoma activity in a murine A375 xenograft model. It remains to be seen if melanoma cell-directed induction of UPR and apoptosis using DP or improved DP-derivatives can be harnessed for future chemotherapeutic intervention. PMID:22843330

Qiao, Shuxi; Cabello, Christopher M.; Lamore, Sarah D.; Lesson, Jessica L.; Wondrak, Georg T.

2013-01-01

247

Up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress induced genes of the unfolded protein response in the liver of periparturient dairy cows  

PubMed Central

Background In dairy cows, the periparturient phase is a stressful period, which is commonly associated with strong metabolic adaptations and the development of pathophysiologic conditions and disorders. Some of the symptoms occurring in the liver, such as the development of fatty liver, are similar to those observed under the condition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Therefore, we hypothesized, that in the liver of dairy cows ER stress is induced during the periparturient phase, which in turn leads to an induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). In order to investigate this hypothesis, we determined relative mRNA concentrations of 14 genes of the ER stress-induced UPR in liver biopsy samples of 13 dairy cows at 3 wk antepartum and 1, 5 and 14 wk postpartum. Results We found, that the mRNA concentrations of 13 out of the 14 genes involved in the UPR in the liver were significantly increased (1.9 to 4.0 fold) at 1 wk postpartum compared to 3 wk antepartum. From 1 wk postpartum to later lactation, mRNA concentrations of all the genes considered were declining. Moreover, at 1 wk postpartum, mRNA concentration of the spliced variant of XBP1 was increased in comparison to 3 wk antepartum, indicating that splicing of XBP1 – a hallmark of ER stress - was induced following the onset of lactation. Conclusion The present study reveals, that ER stress might be induced during the periparturient phase in the liver of dairy cows. We assume that the ER stress-induced UPR might contribute to the pathophysiologic conditions commonly observed in the liver of periparturient cows, such as the development of fatty liver, ketosis or inflammation. PMID:24555446

2014-01-01

248

Rosiglitazone induces the unfolded protein response, but has no significant effect on cell viability, in monocytic and vascular smooth muscle cells  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Rosiglitazone rapidly (30 min) inhibited microsomal Ca{sup 2+}ATPase activity (IC{sub 50} {approx}2 {mu}M). {yields} After 4 h rosiglitazone exposure, the UPR transcription factor XBP-1 was activated. {yields} Within 24-72 h, UPR target genes were upregulated, enhancing ER Ca{sup 2+} sequestration. {yields} Replenishment of ER Ca{sup 2+} stores appeared to restore normal cell physiology. {yields} Monocyte/VSMC viability was not decreased during 2 weeks' rosiglitazone treatment. -- Abstract: Given the safety concerns expressed over negative cardiovascular outcomes resulting from the clinical use of rosiglitazone, and the view that rosiglitazone exerts PPAR{gamma}-independent effects alongside its insulin-sensitising PPAR{gamma}-dependent effects, we hypothesised that rosiglitazone may trigger Unfolded Protein Responses (UPRs) due to disruptions in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} homeostasis within two cardiovascular cell types: monocytic (MM6) and vascular smooth muscle (A7r5) cells. In microsomal samples derived from both cell types, pre-incubation with rosiglitazone rapidly (30 min) brought about concentration-dependent PPAR{gamma}-independent inhibition of Ca{sup 2+}ATPase activity (IC{sub 50} {approx}2 {mu}M). Fluo-3 fluorimetric data demonstrated in intact cells that 1 h treatment with 1 or 10 {mu}M rosiglitazone caused Ca{sup 2+} ions to leak into the cytoplasm. Gene expression analysis showed that within 4 h of rosiglitazone exposure, the UPR transcription factor XBP-1 was activated (likely due to corresponding ER Ca{sup 2+} depletion), and the UPR target genes BiP and SERCA2b were subsequently upregulated within 24-72 h. After 72 h 1 or 10 {mu}M rosiglitazone treatment, microsomal Ca{sup 2+}ATPase activity increased to >2-fold of that seen in control microsomes, while [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} returned to basal, indicating that UPR-triggered SERCA2b upregulation was responsible for enhanced enzymatic Ca{sup 2+} sequestration within the ER. This appeared to be sufficient to replenish ER Ca{sup 2+} stores and restore normal cell physiology, as cell viability levels were not decreased due to rosiglitazone treatment throughout a 2-week study. Thus, incubation with 1-10 {mu}M rosiglitazone triggers the UPR, but does not prove cytotoxic, in cells of the cardiovascular system. This observation provides an important contribution to the current debate over the use of rosiglitazone in the clinical treatment of Type-2 Diabetes.

Caddy, J.; Isa, S.; Mainwaring, L.S. [Centre for Biomedical Sciences, Cardiff School of Health Sciences, University of Wales Institute Cardiff, Cardiff CF5 2YB (United Kingdom)] [Centre for Biomedical Sciences, Cardiff School of Health Sciences, University of Wales Institute Cardiff, Cardiff CF5 2YB (United Kingdom); Adam, E. [Howest University College, Campus Graaf Karel de Goedelaan 5, Marksesteenweg 58 - 8500 Kortrijk, West Flanders (Belgium)] [Howest University College, Campus Graaf Karel de Goedelaan 5, Marksesteenweg 58 - 8500 Kortrijk, West Flanders (Belgium); Roberts, A.; Lang, D. [School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park Campus, Cardiff CF14 4XN (United Kingdom)] [School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park Campus, Cardiff CF14 4XN (United Kingdom); Morris, R.H.K.; Thomas, A.W. [Centre for Biomedical Sciences, Cardiff School of Health Sciences, University of Wales Institute Cardiff, Cardiff CF5 2YB (United Kingdom)] [Centre for Biomedical Sciences, Cardiff School of Health Sciences, University of Wales Institute Cardiff, Cardiff CF5 2YB (United Kingdom); Webb, R., E-mail: rwebb@uwic.ac.uk [Centre for Biomedical Sciences, Cardiff School of Health Sciences, University of Wales Institute Cardiff, Cardiff CF5 2YB (United Kingdom)

2010-10-01

249

Regulated increase in folding capacity prevents unfolded protein stress in the ER  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of thyrocytes with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) leads to a morphological change and a massive increase in thyroglobulin (Tg) production. Although Tg is a demanding client of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), its increase did not result in significant accumulation of unfolded protein in the ER. Instead, ER chaperones and folding enzymes reached maximum synthesis rates immediately after TSH stimulation, before significant upregulation of Tg synthesis. The resulting increase in folding capacity before client protein production prevented cellular unfolded-protein stress, confirmed by the silence of the most conserved branch of the unfolded protein response. Thyrocytes set an example of physiological adaptation of cells to a future potentially stress-causing situation, which suggests a general strategy for both non-secretory and specialized secretory cells. PMID:20144991

Christis, Chantal; Fullaondo, Asier; Schildknegt, Danny; Mkrtchian, Souren; Heck, Albert J. R.; Braakman, Ineke

2010-01-01

250

Prefoldin, a Chaperone that Delivers Unfolded Proteins to Cytosolic Chaperonin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the discovery of a heterohexameric chaperone protein, prefoldin, based on its ability to capture unfolded actin. Prefoldin binds specifically to cytosolic chaperonin (c-cpn) and transfers target proteins to it. Deletion of the gene encoding a prefoldin subunit in S. cerevisiae results in a phenotype similar to those found when c-cpn is mutated, namely impaired functions of the actin

Irina E Vainberg; Sally A Lewis; Heidi Rommelaere; Christophe Ampe; Joel Vandekerckhove; Hannah L Klein; Nicholas J Cowan

1998-01-01

251

Distribution, Transition and Thermodynamic Stability of Protein Conformations in the Denaturant-Induced Unfolding of Proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Extensive and intensive studies on the unfolding of proteins require appropriate theoretical model and parameter to clearly illustrate the feature and characteristic of the unfolding system. Over the past several decades, four approaches have been proposed to describe the interaction between proteins and denaturants, but some ambiguity and deviations usually occur in the explanation of the experimental data. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, a theoretical model was presented to show the dependency of the residual activity ratio of the proteins on the molar denaturant concentration. Through the characteristic unfolding parameters ki and ?mi in this model, the distribution, transition and thermodynamic stability of protein conformations during the unfolding process can be quantitatively described. This model was tested with the two-state unfolding of bovine heart cytochrome c and the three-state unfolding of hen egg white lysozyme induced by both guanidine hydrochloride and urea, the four-state unfolding of bovine carbonic anhydrase b induced by guanidine hydrochloride and the unfolding of some other proteins induced by denaturants. The results illustrated that this model could be used accurately to reveal the distribution and transition of protein conformations in the presence of different concentrations of denaturants and to evaluate the unfolding tendency and thermodynamic stability of different conformations. In most denaturant-induced unfolding of proteins, the unfolding became increasingly hard in next transition step and the proteins became more unstable as they attained next successive stable conformation. Conclusions/Significance This work presents a useful method for people to study the unfolding of proteins and may be used to describe the unfolding and refolding of other biopolymers induced by denaturants, inducers, etc. PMID:24603868

Bian, Liujiao; Ji, Xu

2014-01-01

252

Down-modulation of SEL1L, an Unfolded Protein Response and Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation Protein, Sensitizes Glioma Stem Cells to the Cytotoxic Effect of Valproic Acid*  

PubMed Central

Valproic acid (VPA), an histone deacetylase inhibitor, is emerging as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatments of gliomas by virtue of its ability to reactivate the expression of epigenetically silenced genes. VPA induces the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive pathway displaying a dichotomic yin yang characteristic; it initially contributes in safeguarding the malignant cell survival, whereas long-lasting activation favors a proapoptotic response. By triggering UPR, VPA might tip the balance between cellular adaptation and programmed cell death via the deregulation of protein homeostasis and induction of proteotoxicity. Here we aimed to investigate the impact of proteostasis on glioma stem cells (GSC) using VPA treatment combined with subversion of SEL1L, a crucial protein involved in homeostatic pathways, cancer aggressiveness, and stem cell state maintenance. We investigated the global expression of GSC lines untreated and treated with VPA, SEL1L interference, and GSC line response to VPA treatment by analyzing cell viability via MTT assay, neurosphere formation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress/UPR-responsive proteins. Moreover, SEL1L immunohistochemistry was performed on primary glial tumors. The results show that (i) VPA affects GSC lines viability and anchorage-dependent growth by inducing differentiative programs and cell cycle progression, (ii) SEL1L down-modulation synergy enhances VPA cytotoxic effects by influencing GSCs proliferation and self-renewal properties, and (iii) SEL1L expression is indicative of glioma proliferation rate, malignancy, and endoplasmic reticulum stress statuses. Targeting the proteostasis network in association to VPA treatment may provide an alternative approach to deplete GSC and improve glioma treatments. PMID:24311781

Cattaneo, Monica; Baronchelli, Simona; Schiffer, Davide; Mellai, Marta; Caldera, Valentina; Saccani, Gloria Jotti; Dalpra, Leda; Daga, Antonio; Orlandi, Rosaria; DeBlasio, Pasquale; Biunno, Ida

2014-01-01

253

Thermodynamic Characterization of the Unfolding of the Prion Protein  

PubMed Central

The prion protein appears to be unusually susceptible to conformational change, and unlike nearly all other proteins, it can easily be made to convert to alternative misfolded conformations. To understand the basis of this structural plasticity, a detailed thermodynamic characterization of two variants of the mouse prion protein (moPrP), the full-length moPrP (23–231) and the structured C-terminal domain, moPrP (121–231), has been carried out. All thermodynamic parameters governing unfolding, including the changes in enthalpy, entropy, free energy, and heat capacity, were found to be identical for the two protein variants. The N-terminal domain remains unstructured and does not interact with the C-terminal domain in the full-length protein at pH 4. Moreover, the enthalpy and entropy of unfolding of moPrP (121–231) are similar in magnitude to values reported for other proteins of similar size. However, the protein has an unusually high native-state heat capacity, and consequently, the change in heat capacity upon unfolding is much lower than that expected for a protein of similar size. It appears, therefore, that the native state of the prion protein undergoes substantial fluctuations in enthalpy and hence, in structure. PMID:24461016

Moulick, Roumita; Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

2014-01-01

254

An Item Response Unfolding Model for Graphic Rating Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The graphic rating scale, a measurement tool used in many areas of psychology, usually takes a form of a fixed-length line segment, with both ends bounded and labeled as extreme responses. The raters mark somewhere on the line, and the length of the line segment from one endpoint to the mark is taken as the measure. An item response unfolding

Liu, Ying

2009-01-01

255

Amyloid protein unfolding and insertion kinetics on neuronal membrane mimics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomistic details of beta-amyloid (A? ) protein unfolding and lipid interaction kinetics mediated by the neuronal membrane surface are important for developing new therapeutic strategies to prevent and cure Alzheimer's disease. Using all-atom MD simulations, we explored the early unfolding and insertion kinetics of 40 and 42 residue long A? in binary lipid mixtures with and without cholesterol that mimic the cholesterol-depleted and cholesterol-enriched lipid nanodomains of neurons. The protein conformational transition kinetics was evaluated from the secondary structure profile versus simulation time plot. The extent of membrane disruption was examined by the calculated order parameters of lipid acyl chains and cholesterol fused rings as well as the density profiles of water and lipid headgroups at defined regions across the lipid bilayer from our simulations. Our results revealed that both the cholesterol content and the length of the protein affect the protein-insertion and membrane stability in our model lipid bilayer systems.

Qiu, Liming; Buie, Creighton; Vaughn, Mark; Cheng, Kwan

2010-03-01

256

[Unfolding item response model using best-worst scaling].  

PubMed

In attitude measurement and sensory tests, the unfolding model is typically used. In this model, response probability is formulated by the distance between the person and the stimulus. In this study, we proposed an unfolding item response model using best-worst scaling (BWU model), in which a person chooses the best and worst stimulus among repeatedly presented subsets of stimuli. We also formulated an unfolding model using best scaling (BU model), and compared the accuracy of estimates between the BU and BWU models. A simulation experiment showed that the BWU modell performed much better than the BU model in terms of bias and root mean square errors of estimates. With reference to Usami (2011), the proposed models were apllied to actual data to measure attitudes toward tardiness. Results indicated high similarity between stimuli estimates generated with the proposed models and those of Usami (2011). PMID:25799868

Ikehara, Kazuya

2015-02-01

257

Direction dependent mechanical unfolding and Green Fluorescent Protein as a force sensor  

E-print Network

An Ising--like model of proteins is used to investigate the mechanical unfolding of the Green Fluorescent Protein along different directions. When the protein is pulled from its ends, we recover the major and minor unfolding pathways observed in experiments. Upon varying the pulling direction, we find the correct order of magnitude and ranking of the unfolding forces. Exploiting the direction dependence of the unfolding force at equilibrium, we propose a force sensor whose luminescence depends on the applied force.

M. Caraglio; A. Imparato; A. Pelizzola

2011-07-21

258

Energetically significant networks of coupled interactions within an unfolded protein  

PubMed Central

Unfolded and partially unfolded proteins participate in a wide range of biological processes from pathological aggregation to the regulation of normal cellular activity. Unfolded states can be populated under strongly denaturing conditions, but the ensemble which is relevant for folding, stability, and aggregation is that populated under physiological conditions. Characterization of nonnative states is critical for the understanding of these processes, yet comparatively little is known about their energetics and their structural propensities under native conditions. The standard view is that energetically significant coupled interactions involving multiple residues are generally not present in the denatured state ensemble (DSE) or in intrinsically disordered proteins. Using the N-terminal domain of the ribosomal protein L9, a small ?-? protein, as an experimental model system, we demonstrate that networks of energetically significant, coupled interactions can form in the DSE of globular proteins, and can involve residues that are distant in sequence and spatially well separated in the native structure. X-ray crystallography, NMR, dynamics studies, native state pKa measurements, and thermodynamic analysis of more than 25 mutants demonstrate that residues are energetically coupled in the DSE. Altering these interactions by mutation affects the stability of the domain. Mutations that alter the energetics of the DSE can impact the analysis of cooperativity and folding, and may play a role in determining the propensity to aggregate. PMID:25099351

Cho, Jae-Hyun; Meng, Wenli; Sato, Satoshi; Kim, Eun Young; Schindelin, Hermann; Raleigh, Daniel P.

2014-01-01

259

Maximum likelihood estimation of protein kinetic parameters under weak assumptions from unfolding force spectroscopy experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) is extensively used to characterize the mechanical unfolding behavior of individual protein domains under applied force by pulling chimeric polyproteins consisting of identical tandem repeats. Constant velocity unfolding SMFS data can be employed to reconstruct the protein unfolding energy landscape and kinetics. The methods applied so far require the specification of a single stretching force

Daniel Aioanei; Bruno Samorì; Marco Brucale

2009-01-01

260

Protein Unfolding Coupled to Ligand Binding: Differential Scanning Calorimetry Simulation Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive theoretical description of thermal protein unfolding coupled to ligand binding is presented. The thermodynamic concepts are independent of the method used to monitor protein unfolding but a differential scanning calorimetry is being used as a tool for examining the unfolding process.

Celej, Maria Soledad; Fidelio, Gerardo Daniel; Dassie, Sergio Alberto

2005-01-01

261

Unfoldings  

E-print Network

Huizinga's analysis of play, described in his text Homo Ludens, is compared to the creative process in art-making and to the creative response of the viewer. The play process is examined through questionnaire responses and ...

Johnson, Caryn L. (Caryn Lindani)

1992-01-01

262

Do Protein Molecules Unfold in a Simple Shear Flow?  

PubMed Central

Protein molecules typically unfold (denature) when subjected to extremes of heat, cold, pH, solvent composition, or mechanical stress. One might expect that shearing forces induced by a nonuniform fluid flow would also destabilize proteins, as when a protein solution flows rapidly through a narrow channel. However, although the protein literature contains many references to shear denaturation, we find little quantitative evidence for the phenomenon. We have investigated whether a high shear can destabilize a small globular protein to any measurable extent. We study a protein (horse cytochrome c, 104 amino acids) whose fluorescence increases sharply upon unfolding. By forcing the sample through a silica capillary (inner diameter 150–180 ?m) at speeds approaching 10 m/s, we subject the protein to shear rates dvz/dr as large as ?2 × 105 s?1 while illuminating it with an ultraviolet laser. We can readily detect fluorescence changes of <1%, corresponding to shifts of protein. A simple model suggests that extraordinary shear rates, ?107 s?1, would be required to denature typical small, globular proteins in water. PMID:16891374

Jaspe, Juan; Hagen, Stephen J.

2006-01-01

263

An unfolded protein response is the initial cellular response to the expression of mutant matrilin-3 in a mouse model of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) can result from mutations in matrilin-3, a structural protein of the cartilage extracellular\\u000a matrix. We have previously shown that in a mouse model of MED the tibia growth plates were normal at birth but developed a\\u000a progressive dysplasia characterised by the intracellular retention of mutant matrilin-3 and abnormal chondrocyte morphology.\\u000a By 3 weeks of age, mutant mice

Seema Nundlall; M. Helen Rajpar; Peter A. Bell; Christopher Clowes; Leo A. H. Zeeff; Benjamin Gardner; David J. Thornton; Raymond P. Boot-Handford; Michael D. Briggs

2010-01-01

264

Usage of Simulated Response Matrices for the Scintillation Spectra Unfolding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Response of the scintillation spectrometer to incident photons has complex character due to complex character of photon interaction processes. Experimental spectrum thus provide qualitative information given by the identifiable peaks positions, while extraction of the full, quantitative information (i.e. photon flux energy distribution) require spectra unfolding based on the spectrometer response (represented by the response matrix) knowledge. As experimental determination of response matrix is difficult or impossible in most cases, the Monte Carlo simulation is the proved solution. Usage of the unfolding for experimental spectra processing enable to determine dosimetric characteristics of the incident photon fields and/or characteristics of the sources, creating those photon fields. The response matrices for scintillation spectrometers with different detectors (commonly used NaI, BGO and new LaBr) were calculated using Monte Carlo method. The response to the internal activity of the LaBr detector was also simulated and considered in spectra processing. Calculated matrices were used for unfolding of the experimental spectra from different applications to determine desired dosimetric quantities. Typical applications are environmental monitoring, monitoring of the working environment, accidental monitoring and contamination measurement, etc. Method is suitable also for the airborne monitoring or security applications. Results for individual detection systems are compared and discussed with aim to analyze potential advantages of the LaBr detector for considered applications.

Kluso?, J.; Urban, T.

2014-06-01

265

Differential stability of the bovine prion protein upon urea unfolding  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are a group of infectious neurological diseases associated with the structural conversion of an endogenous protein (PrP) in the central nervous system. There are two major forms of this protein: the native and noninfectious cellular form, PrPC; and the misfolded, infectious, and proteinase K-resistant form, PrPSc. The C-terminal domain of PrPC is mainly ?-helical in structure, whereas PrPSc in known to aggregate into an assembly of ?-sheets, forming amyloid fibrils. To identify the regions of PrPC potentially involved in the initial steps of the conversion to the infectious conformation, we have used high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to characterize the stability and structure of bovine recombinant PrPC (residues 121 to 230) during unfolding with the denaturant urea. Analysis of the 800 MHz 1H NMR spectra reveals region-specific information about the structural changes occurring upon unfolding. Our data suggest that the dissociation of the native ?-sheet of PrPC is a primary step in the urea-induced unfolding process, while strong hydrophobic interactions between helices ?1 and ?3, and between ?2 and ?3, stabilize these regions even at very high concentrations of urea. PMID:19693935

Julien, Olivier; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu; Thiessen, Angela; Graether, Steffen P; Sykes, Brian D

2009-01-01

266

Tannin-assisted aggregation of natively unfolded proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannin-protein interactions are essentially physical: hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond-mediated. We explored the tannin-assisted protein aggregation on the case of ?-casein, which is a natively unfolded protein known for its ability to form micellar aggregates. We used several tannins with specified length. Our SAXS results show that small tannins increase the number of proteins per micelle, but keeping their size constant. It leads to a tannin-assisted compactization of micelles. Larger tannins, with linear dimensions greater than the crown width of micelles, lead to the aggregation of micelles by a bridging effect. Experimental results can be understood within a model where tannins are treated as effective enhancers of hydrophobic attraction between specific sites in proteins.

Zanchi, D.; Narayanan, T.; Hagenmuller, D.; Baron, A.; Guyot, S.; Cabane, B.; Bouhallab, S.

2008-06-01

267

The unfolded protein response in a dolichyl phosphate mannose-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell line points out the key role of a demannosylation step in the quality-control mechanism of N-glycoproteins.  

PubMed Central

The CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) glycosylation mutant cell line, B3F7, transfers the truncated glycan Glc(3)Man(5)GlcNAc(2) on to nascent proteins. After deglucosylation, the resulting Man(5)GlcNAc(2) glycan is subjected to two reciprocal enzymic processes: the action of an endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) kifunensine-sensitive alpha1,2-mannosidase activity to yield a Man(4)GlcNAc(2) glycan, and the reglucosylation involved in the quality-control system which ensures that only correctly folded glycoproteins leave the ER. We show that the recombinant secreted alkaline phosphatase (SeAP) produced in stably transfected B3F7 cells, is co-immunoprecipitated with the GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein 78), a protein marker of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The level of GRP78 transcription has been evaluated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and we demonstrate that B3F7 cells present a constitutively higher level of UPR in the absence of inductors, compared with Pro(-5) cells. Interestingly, a decrease was observed in the UPR and an increase in SeAP secretion in the kifunensine-treated B3F7 cells. Altogether, these data highlight the relationships between the glycan structure, the quality control system and the UPR. Moreover, they support the idea that a specific demannosylation step is a key event of the glycoprotein quality control in B3F7 cells. PMID:11853559

Foulquier, François; Harduin-Lepers, Anne; Duvet, Sandrine; Marchal, Ingrid; Mir, Anne Marie; Delannoy, Philippe; Chirat, Frédéric; Cacan, René

2002-01-01

268

A Unidimensional Item Response Model for Unfolding Responses From a Graded Disagree-Agree Response Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binary or graded disagree-agree responses to atti tude items are often collected for the purpose of attitude measurement. Although such data are sometimes ana lyzed with cumulative measurement models, recent studies suggest that unfolding models are more appro priate (Roberts, 1995; van Schuur & Kiers, 1994). Ad vances in item response theory (IRT) have led to the development of several

James S. Roberts; James E. Laughlin

1996-01-01

269

Protein co-translocational unfolding depends on the direction of pulling  

PubMed Central

Protein unfolding and translocation through pores occurs during trafficking between organelles, protein degradation and bacterial toxin delivery. In vivo, co-translocational unfolding can be affected by the end of the polypeptide that is threaded into the pore first. Recently, we have shown that co-translocational unfolding can be followed in a model system at the single-molecule level, thereby unravelling molecular steps and their kinetics. Here, we show that the unfolding kinetics of the model substrate thioredoxin, when pulled through an ?-haemolysin pore, differ markedly depending on whether the process is initiated from the C terminus or the N terminus. Further, when thioredoxin is pulled from the N terminus, the unfolding pathway bifurcates: some molecules finish unfolding quickly, while others finish ~100 times slower. Our findings have important implications for the understanding of biological unfolding mechanisms and in the application of nanopore technology for the detection of proteins and their modifications. PMID:25197784

Rodriguez-Larrea, David; Bayley, Hagan

2014-01-01

270

Protein co-translocational unfolding depends on the direction of pulling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protein unfolding and translocation through pores occurs during trafficking between organelles, protein degradation and bacterial toxin delivery. In vivo, co-translocational unfolding can be affected by the end of the polypeptide that is threaded into the pore first. Recently, we have shown that co-translocational unfolding can be followed in a model system at the single-molecule level, thereby unravelling molecular steps and their kinetics. Here, we show that the unfolding kinetics of the model substrate thioredoxin, when pulled through an ?-haemolysin pore, differ markedly depending on whether the process is initiated from the C terminus or the N terminus. Further, when thioredoxin is pulled from the N terminus, the unfolding pathway bifurcates: some molecules finish unfolding quickly, while others finish ~100 times slower. Our findings have important implications for the understanding of biological unfolding mechanisms and in the application of nanopore technology for the detection of proteins and their modifications.

Rodriguez-Larrea, David; Bayley, Hagan

2014-09-01

271

Thermodynamics of the temperature-induced unfolding of globular proteins.  

PubMed Central

The heat capacity, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy changes for the temperature-induced unfolding of 11 globular proteins of known three-dimensional structure have been obtained by microcalorimetric measurements. Their experimental values are compared to those we calculate from the change in solvent-accessible surface area between the native proteins and the extended polypeptide chain. We use proportionality coefficients for the transfer (hydration) of aliphatic, aromatic, and polar groups from gas phase to aqueous solution, we estimate vibrational effects, and we discuss the temperature dependence of each constituent of the thermodynamic functions. At 25 degrees C, stabilization of the native state of a globular protein is largely due to two favorable terms: the entropy of non-polar group hydration and the enthalpy of interactions within the protein. They compensate the unfavorable entropy change associated with these interactions (conformational entropy) and with vibrational effects. Due to the large heat capacity of nonpolar group hydration, its stabilizing contribution decreases quickly at higher temperatures, and the two unfavorable entropy terms take over, leading to temperature-induced unfolding. PMID:7670374

Khechinashvili, N. N.; Janin, J.; Rodier, F.

1995-01-01

272

Protein unfolding and refolding as transitions through virtual states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-molecule atomic force spectroscopy probes elastic properties of titin, ubiquitin and other relevant proteins. We explain bioprotein folding dynamics under both length- and force-clamp by modeling polyprotein modules as particles in a bistable potential, weakly connected by harmonic spring linkers. Multistability of equilibrium extensions provides the characteristic sawtooth force-extension curve. We show that abrupt or stepwise unfolding and refolding under force-clamp conditions involve transitions through virtual states (which are quasi-stationary domain configurations) modified by thermal noise. These predictions agree with experimental observations.

Bonilla, L. L.; Carpio, A.; Prados, A.

2014-10-01

273

SANS and DLS Studies of Protein Unfolding in Presence of Urea and Surfactant  

SciTech Connect

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) have been used to study conformational changes in protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) during its unfolding in presence of protein denaturating agents urea and surfactant. On addition of urea, the BSA protein unfolds for urea concentrations greater than 4 M and acquires a random coil configuration with its radius of gyration increasing with urea concentration. The addition of surfactant unfolds the protein by the formation of micelle-like aggregates of surfactants along the unfolded polypeptide chains of the protein. The fractal dimension of such a protein-surfactant complex decreases and the overall size of the complex increases on increasing the surfactant concentration. The conformation of the unfolded protein in the complex has been determined directly using contrast variation SANS measurements by contrast matching the surfactant to the medium. Results of DLS measurements are found to be in good agreement with those obtained using SANS.

Aswal, V. K.; Chodankar, S. N.; Wagh, A. G. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kohlbrecher, J.; Vavrin, R. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETH Zurich and Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2008-03-17

274

Natively unfolded proteins: A point where biology waits for physics  

PubMed Central

The experimental material accumulated in the literature on the conformational behavior of intrinsically unstructured (natively unfolded) proteins was analyzed. Results of this analysis showed that these proteins do not possess uniform structural properties, as expected for members of a single thermodynamic entity. Rather, these proteins may be divided into two structurally different groups: intrinsic coils, and premolten globules. Proteins from the first group have hydrodynamic dimensions typical of random coils in poor solvent and do not possess any (or almost any) ordered secondary structure. Proteins from the second group are essentially more compact, exhibiting some amount of residual secondary structure, although they are still less dense than native or molten globule proteins. An important feature of the intrinsically unstructured proteins is that they undergo disorder–order transition during or prior to their biological function. In this respect, the Protein Quartet model, with function arising from four specific conformations (ordered forms, molten globules, premolten globules, and random coils) and transitions between any two of the states, is discussed. PMID:11910019

Uversky, Vladimir N.

2002-01-01

275

Direct observation of markovian behavior of the mechanical unfolding of individual proteins.  

PubMed

Single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy is a valuable tool to analyze unfolding kinetics of proteins. Previous force-clamp spectroscopy experiments have demonstrated that the mechanical unfolding of ubiquitin deviates from the generally assumed Markovian behavior and involves the features of glassy dynamics. Here we use single molecule force-clamp spectroscopy to study the unfolding kinetics of a computationally designed fast-folding mutant of the small protein GB1, which shares a similar beta-grasp fold as ubiquitin. By treating the mechanical unfolding of polyproteins as the superposition of multiple identical Poisson processes, we developed a simple stochastic analysis approach to analyze the dwell time distribution of individual unfolding events in polyprotein unfolding trajectories. Our results unambiguously demonstrate that the mechanical unfolding of NuG2 fulfills all criteria of a memoryless Markovian process. This result, in contrast with the complex mechanical unfolding behaviors observed for ubiquitin, serves as a direct experimental demonstration of the Markovian behavior for the mechanical unfolding of a protein and reveals the complexity of the unfolding dynamics among structurally similar proteins. Furthermore, we extended our method into a robust and efficient pseudo-dwell-time analysis method, which allows one to make full use of all the unfolding events obtained in force-clamp experiments without categorizing the unfolding events. This method enabled us to measure the key parameters characterizing the mechanical unfolding energy landscape of NuG2 with improved precision. We anticipate that the methods demonstrated here will find broad applications in single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy studies for a wide range of proteins. PMID:18375518

Cao, Yi; Kuske, Rachel; Li, Hongbin

2008-07-01

276

A human coronavirus OC43 variant harboring persistence-associated mutations in the S glycoprotein differentially induces the unfolded protein response in human neurons as compared to wild-type virus  

SciTech Connect

We have reported that human respiratory coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is neurotropic and neuroinvasive in humans and mice, and that neurons are the primary target of infection in mice, leading to neurodegenerative disabilities. We now report that an HCoV-OC43 mutant harboring two persistence-associated S glycoprotein point mutations (H183R and Y241H), induced a stronger unfolded protein response (UPR) and translation attenuation in infected human neurons. There was a major contribution of the IRE1/XBP1 pathway, followed by caspase-3 activation and nuclear fragmentation, with no significant role of the ATF6 and eIF2-alpha/ATF4 pathways. Our results show the importance of discrete molecular viral S determinants in virus-neuronal cell interactions that lead to increased production of viral proteins and infectious particles, enhanced UPR activation, and increased cytotoxicity and cell death. As this mutant virus is more neurovirulent in mice, our results also suggest that two mutations in the S glycoprotein could eventually modulate viral neuropathogenesis.

Favreau, Dominique J.; Desforges, Marc; St-Jean, Julien R. [Laboratory of Neuroimmunovirology, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec, H7V 1B7 (Canada); Talbot, Pierre J., E-mail: pierre.talbot@iaf.inrs.c [Laboratory of Neuroimmunovirology, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec, H7V 1B7 (Canada)

2009-12-20

277

Modulation of ER stress and apoptosis by endoplasmic reticulum calcium leak via translocon during unfolded protein response: involvement of GRP78.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in many cellular functions, including protein folding and Ca(2+) homeostasis. The ability of cells to respond to the ER stress is critical for cell survival, and disruption in such regulation can lead to apoptosis. ER stress is accompanied by alterations in Ca(2+) homeostasis, and the ER Ca(2+) store depletion by itself can induce ER stress and apoptosis. Despite that, the ER Ca(2+) leak channels activated in response to the ER stress remain poorly characterized. Here we demonstrate that ER Ca(2+) depletion during the ER stress occurs via translocon, the ER protein complex involved in translation. Numerous ER stress inducers stimulate the ER Ca(2+) leak that can be prevented by translocon inhibitor, anisomycin. Expression of GRP78, an ER stress marker, increased following treatment with puromycin (a translocon opener) and was suppressed by anisomycin, confirming a primary role of translocon in ER stress induction. Inhibition of ER store depletion by anisomycin significantly reduces apoptosis stimulated by the ER stress inducers. We suggest that translocon opening is physiologically modulated by GRP78, particularly during the ER stress. The ability to modulate the ER Ca(2+) permeability and subsequent ER stress can lead to development of a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:23322163

Hammadi, Mehdi; Oulidi, Agathe; Gackière, Florian; Katsogiannou, Maria; Slomianny, Christian; Roudbaraki, Morad; Dewailly, Etienne; Delcourt, Philippe; Lepage, Gilbert; Lotteau, Sabine; Ducreux, Sylvie; Prevarskaya, Natalia; Van Coppenolle, Fabien

2013-04-01

278

Direct Observation of Markovian Behavior of the Mechanical Unfolding of Individual Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy is a valuable tool to analyze unfolding kinetics of proteins. Previous force-clamp spectroscopy experiments have demonstrated that the mechanical unfolding of ubiquitin deviates from the generally assumed Markovian behavior and involves the features of glassy dynamics. Here we use single molecule force-clamp spectroscopy to study the unfolding kinetics of a computationally designed fast-folding mutant of the small

Y. Cao; Rachel Kuske; Hongbin Li

2008-01-01

279

Spectroscopic studies of the unfolding of a multimeric protein ?-crystallin.  

PubMed

?-Crystallin is a multimeric eye lens protein having molecular chaperone-like function which is crucial for lens transparency. The stability and unfolding-refolding properties of ?-crystallin plays important roles for its function. We undertook a multi probe based fluorescence spectroscopic approach to explore the changes in the various levels of organization of this protein at different urea concentration. Steady state fluorescence studies reveal that at 0.6M urea a compact structural intermediate is formed which has a native-like secondary structure with enhanced surface exposure of hydrophobic groups. At 2.8M urea the tertiary interactions are largely collapsed with partial collapse of secondary and quaternary structure. The surface solvation probed by picosecond time resolved fluorescence of acrylodan labeled ?-crystallin revealed dry native-like core of ?-crystallin at 0.6M urea compared to enhanced water penetration at 2.8M urea and extensive solvation at 6M urea. Activation energy for the subunit exchange decreased by 22 kJ mol(-1) on changing urea concentration from 0 to 0.6M compared with over 75 kJ mol(-1) on changing urea concentration from 0 to 2.8M. Light scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation techniques were used to determine size and oligomerization of the unfolding intermediates. The data indicated swelling but no oligomer breakdown at 0.6M urea. At 2.8M urea the oligomeric size is considerably reduced and a monomer is produced at 6M urea. The data clearly reveals that structural breakdown of ?-crystallin does not follow hierarchical sequence as tertiary structure dissolution takes place before complete oligomeric dissociation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 101: 549-560, 2014. PMID:24122648

Chowdhury, Aritra; Choudhury, Aparajita; Banerjee, Victor; Banerjee, Rajat; Das, K P

2014-05-01

280

Single-Molecule Protein Unfolding and Translocation by an ATP-Fueled Proteolytic Machine  

E-print Network

All cells employ ATP-powered proteases for protein-quality control and regulation. In the ClpXP protease, ClpX is a AAA+ machine that recognizes specific protein substrates, unfolds these molecules, and then translocates ...

Aubin-Tam, Marie-Eve

281

Experimental study of single protein mechanics and protein rates of unfolding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is a multidisciplinary approach to the understanding of the mechanical properties of proteins and their kinetics of unfolding, through the use of an atomic force microscope in force-clamp mode to perform single-molecule force spectroscopy. It begins with the development of a new experimental framework, which includes the design and construction of a new faster atomic force microscopy instrumentation, the definition of new bias-free experimental protocols, and the application of modern statistical tools for data analysis, all of these optimized for the use in force spectroscopy at the single molecule level. Through this new framework new insight was gained on the laws governing the mechanics of a protein in solution. The kinetics of unfolding of the protein ubiquitin were experimentally observed to feature a broad power-law distribution of unfolding rates, quality characteristic of glassy kinetics, which challenges the commonly accepted simplest single rate two-state model models for protein unfolding. Also, the transition between two highly stretched structural configurations of a protein was directly observed to be rate-limited, revealing the magnitude of the intrinsic friction limiting the speed of the first stage of protein folding. This document is presented with detailed technical and mathematical considerations with the intention to serve as handbook for the experimentalist interested in the study of polymers using force-clamp single molecule force spectroscopy.

Hermans, Rodolfo I.

282

An unusual protein-protein interaction through coupled unfolding and binding.  

PubMed

Aptides, a novel class of high-affinity peptides, recognize diverse molecular targets with high affinity and specificity. The solution structure of the aptide APT specifically bound to fibronectin extradomain?B (EDB), which represents an unusual protein-protein interaction that involves coupled unfolding and binding, is reported. APT binding is accompanied by unfolding of the C-terminal ??strand of EDB, thereby permitting APT to interact with the freshly exposed hydrophobic interior surfaces of EDB. The ?-hairpin scaffold of APT drives the interaction by a ?-strand displacement mechanism, such that an intramolecular ??sheet is replaced by an intermolecular ??sheet. The unfolding of EDB perturbs the tight domain association between EDB and FN8 of fibronectin, thus highlighting its potential use as a scaffold that switches between stretched and bent conformations. PMID:24985319

Yu, Tae-Kyung; Shin, Seung-A; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Sunghyun; Ryu, Kyung-Seok; Cheong, Haekap; Ahn, Hee-Chul; Jon, Sangyong; Suh, Jeong-Yong

2014-09-01

283

Ligand-modulated Parallel Mechanical Unfolding Pathways of Maltose-binding Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein folding and unfolding are complex phenomena, and it is accepted that multidomain proteins generally follow multiple pathways. Maltose-binding protein (MBP) is a large (a two-do- main, 370-amino acid residue) bacterial periplasmic protein involved in maltose uptake. Despite the large size, it has been shown to exhibit an apparent two-state equilibrium unfolding in bulk experiments. Single-molecule studies can uncover rare

Vasudha Aggarwal; S. Rajendra Kulothungan; M. M. Balamurali; S. R. Saranya; Raghavan Varadarajan; Koti Ainavarapu

2011-01-01

284

Optimizing the calculation of energy landscape parameters from single-molecule protein unfolding experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-molecule force spectroscopy using an atomic force microscope (AFM) can be used to measure the average unfolding force of proteins in a constant velocity experiment. In combination with Monte Carlo simulations and through the application of the Zhurkov-Bell model, information about the parameters describing the underlying unfolding energy landscape of the protein can be obtained. Using this approach, we have completed protein unfolding experiments on the polyprotein (I27 ) 5 over a range of pulling velocities. In agreement with previous work, we find that the observed number of protein unfolding events observed in each approach-retract cycle varies between one and five, due to the nature of the interactions between the polyprotein, the AFM tip, and the substrate, and there is an unequal unfolding probability distribution. We have developed a Monte Carlo simulation that incorporates the impact of this unequal unfolding probability distribution on the median unfolding force and the calculation of the protein unfolding energy landscape parameters. These results show that while there is a significant, unequal unfolding probability distribution, the unfolding energy landscape parameters obtained from use of the Zhurkov-Bell model are not greatly affected. This result is important because it demonstrates that the minimum acceptance criteria typically used in force extension experiments are justified and do not skew the calculation of the unfolding energy landscape parameters. We further validate this approach by determining the error in the energy landscape parameters for two extreme cases, and we provide suggestions for methods that can be employed to increase the level of accuracy in single-molecule experiments using polyproteins.

Tych, Katarzyna M.; Hughes, Megan L.; Bourke, James; Taniguchi, Yukinori; Kawakami, Masaru; Brockwell, David J.; Dougan, Lorna

2015-01-01

285

Protein unfolding versus ?-sheet separation in spider silk nanocrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this communication a mechanism for spider silk strain hardening is proposed. Shear failure of ?-sheet nanocrystals is the first failure mode that gives rise to the creation of smaller nanocrystals, which are of higher strength and stiffness. ?-sheet unfolding requires more energy than nanocrystal separation in a shear mode of failure. As a result, unfolding occurs after the nanocrystals separate in shear. ?-sheet unfolding yields a secondary strain hardening effect once the ?-sheet conformation is geometrically stable and acts like a unidirectional fibre in a fibre reinforced composite. The mechanism suggested herein is based on molecular dynamics calculations of residual inter-?-sheet separation strengths against residual intra-?-sheet unfolding strengths.

Alam, Parvez

2014-03-01

286

Analyzing Forced Unfolding of Protein Tandems by Ordered Variates, 1: Independent Unfolding Times  

E-print Network

. There are numerous examples of polyproteins that consist of ``head-to- tail'' (C-terminal-to-N-terminal) connected polyprotein that con- tains tandem arrays of immunoglobulins (Ig) domains, separated by short linker sequences, the constant force-clamp technique was used to study the unfolding kinetics of single polyubiquitin and titin

Barsegov, Valeri

287

Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Enhances Bortezomib-induced Death in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)-null Cells by a c-MYC-dependent Induction of the Unfolded Protein Response*  

PubMed Central

Many factors, including duration and intensity of the unfolded protein response (UPR), dictate whether cells will adapt to endoplasmic reticulum stress or undergo apoptosis. In tuberous sclerosis (TSC), elevation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity has been proposed to compound the induction of UPR transcription factors ATF4 and CHOP, suggesting that the UPR could be targeted to eradicate TSC1/2-null cells during patient therapy. Here we report that control of c-MYC translation by mTORC1 plays a key role in determining whether TSC2-null Elt3 rat leiomyoma cells apoptose in response to UPR induction by the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Although bortezomib induces eukaryotic initiating factor 2? phosphorylation, mTORC1 activity was also required for downstream induction of the UPR transcription factors ATF4 and CHOP by a mechanism involving increased expression of c-MYC. Although bortezomib-induced c-MYC transcription was resistant to rapamycin treatment, mTORC1 activity was required for efficient c-MYC translation. c-MYC subsequently bound to the ATF4 promoter, suggesting direct involvement of an mTORC1/c-MYC-driven signaling pathway in the activation of the UPR. Consistent with this notion, exogenously expressed c-MYC reversed the ability of rapamycin to prevent bortezomib-induced CHOP and ATF4 expression as well as apoptosis. These findings indicate that the induction of ATF4/CHOP expression occurs via mTORC1 regulation of c-MYC and that this signaling pathway is a major determinant in the ability of bortezomib to induce apoptosis. PMID:23612979

Babcock, Justin T.; Nguyen, Hoa B.; He, Yujun; Hendricks, Jeremiah W.; Wek, Ronald C.; Quilliam, Lawrence A.

2013-01-01

288

Worm-Like Ising Model for Protein Mechanical Unfolding under the Effect of Osmolytes  

PubMed Central

We show via single-molecule mechanical unfolding experiments that the osmolyte glycerol stabilizes the native state of the human cardiac I27 titin module against unfolding without shifting its unfolding transition state on the mechanical reaction coordinate. Taken together with similar findings on the immunoglobulin-binding domain of streptococcal protein G (GB1), these experimental results suggest that osmolytes act on proteins through a common mechanism that does not entail a shift of their unfolding transition state. We investigate the above common mechanism via an Ising-like model for protein mechanical unfolding that adds worm-like-chain behavior to a recent generalization of the Wako-Saitô-Muñoz-Eaton model with support for group-transfer free energies. The thermodynamics of the model are exactly solvable, while protein kinetics under mechanical tension can be simulated via Monte Carlo algorithms. Notably, our force-clamp and velocity-clamp simulations exhibit no shift in the position of the unfolding transition state of GB1 and I27 under the effect of various osmolytes. The excellent agreement between experiment and simulation strongly suggests that osmolytes do not assume a structural role at the mechanical unfolding transition state of proteins, acting instead by adjusting the solvent quality for the protein chain analyte. PMID:22339871

Aioanei, Daniel; Brucale, Marco; Tessari, Isabella; Bubacco, Luigi; Samorì, Bruno

2012-01-01

289

Degradation of a Short-lived Glycoprotein from the Lumen of the Endoplasmic Reticulum: The Role of N-linked Glycans and the Unfolded Protein Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are studying endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) with the use of a truncated variant of the type I ER transmembrane glycoprotein ribophorin I (RI). The mutant protein, RI332, containing only the N-terminal 332 amino acids of the luminal domain of RI, has been shown to interact with calnexin and to be a substrate for the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. When RI332 was

Maddalena de Virgilio; Claudia Kitzmuller; Eva Schwaiger

1999-01-01

290

Probing the contribution of internal cavities to the volume change of protein unfolding under pressure.  

PubMed Central

The structural origin of the decrease in system volume upon protein denaturation by pressure has remained a puzzle for decades. This negative volume change upon unfolding is assumed to arise globally from more intimate interactions between the polypeptide chain and water, including electrostriction of buried charges that become exposed upon unfolding, hydration of the polypeptide backbone and amino acid side chains and elimination of packing defects and internal void volumes upon unfolding of the chain. However, the relative signs and magnitudes of each of these contributing factors have not been experimentally determined. Our laboratory has probed the fundamental basis for the volume change upon unfolding of staphylococcal nuclease (Snase) using variable solution conditions and point mutants of Snase (Royer CA et al., 1993, Biochemistry 32:5222-5232; Frye KJ et al., 1996, Biochemistry 35:10234-10239). Our prior results indicate that for Snase, neither electrostriction nor polar or nonpolar hydration contributes significantly to the value of the volume change of unfolding. In the present work, we investigate the pressure induced unfolding of three point mutants of Snase in which internal cavity size is altered. The experimentally determined volume changes of unfolding for the mutants suggest that loss of internal void volume upon unfolding represents the major contributing factor to the value of the volume change of Snase unfolding. PMID:9792110

Frye, K. J.; Royer, C. A.

1998-01-01

291

Oxidative stress-dependent activation of the eIF2?-ATFr unfolded protein response branch by skin sensitizer 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene modulates dendritic-like cell maturation and inflammatory status in a biphasic manner.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of allergic contact dermatitis, the most common manifestation of immunotoxicity in humans, is intimately connected to hapten-induced maturation of dendritic cells (DC). The molecular mechanisms driving this maturational program are not completely known; however, initial danger signals such as the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to play a critical role. Recent evidence linking ROS production, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases led us to analyze, in the present work, the ability of the skin sensitizer 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB) to evoke ER stress in DC-like THP-1 cells and the concomitant consequences to their immunobiology. We found that DNFB triggers a ROS-dependent activation of the PERK-eIF?-ATF4 unfolded protein response (UPR) branch conferring cytoprotection and modulating the maturation/proinflammatory cell status in a biphasic manner. Early DNFB induction of ATF4 positively modulates autophagy-related genes MAP1LC3B and ATG3 and stabilizes the transcription factor Nrf2, causing a strong induction of the HMOX1-detoxifying gene. Moreover, we observed that in a first phase, DNFB-induced ATF4 upregulates IL8 mRNA levels while blocking CD86, IL1B, IL12B, and CXL10 transcription. Later, following ATF4 decay, HMOX1 and IL8 transcription drastically decrease and CD86, IL1B, and Il12B are upregulated. Overall, our results evidence a connection between sensitizer-induced redox imbalance and the establishment of ER stress in DC-like cells and provide new insights into the role of UPR effectors such as ATF4 to the complex DC maturational program. PMID:25236743

Luís, Andreia; Martins, João Demétrio; Silva, Ana; Ferreira, Isabel; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Neves, Bruno Miguel

2014-12-01

292

Frequency of COL4A3/COL4A4 Mutations amongst Families Segregating Glomerular Microscopic Hematuria and Evidence for Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response. Focal and Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Is a Frequent Development during Ageing  

PubMed Central

Familial glomerular hematuria(s) comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of conditions which include Alport Syndrome (AS) and thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN). Here we investigated 57 Greek-Cypriot families presenting glomerular microscopic hematuria (GMH), with or without proteinuria or chronic kidney function decline, but excluded classical AS. We specifically searched the COL4A3/A4 genes and identified 8 heterozygous mutations in 16 families (28,1%). Eight non-related families featured the founder mutation COL4A3-p.(G1334E). Renal biopsies from 8 patients showed TBMN and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Ten patients (11.5%) reached end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) at ages ranging from 37-69-yo (mean 50,1-yo). Next generation sequencing of the patients who progressed to ESKD failed to reveal a second mutation in any of the COL4A3/A4/A5 genes, supporting that true heterozygosity for COL4A3/A4 mutations predisposes to CRF/ESKD. Although this could be viewed as a milder and late-onset form of autosomal dominant AS, we had no evidence of ultrastructural features or extrarenal manifestations that would justify this diagnosis. Functional studies in cultured podocytes transfected with wild type or mutant COL4A3 chains showed retention of mutant collagens and differential activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) cascade. This signifies the potential role of the UPR cascade in modulating the final phenotype in patients with collagen IV nephropathies. PMID:25514610

Papazachariou, Louiza; Demosthenous, Panayiota; Pieri, Myrtani; Papagregoriou, Gregory; Savva, Isavella; Stavrou, Christoforos; Zavros, Michael; Athanasiou, Yiannis; Ioannou, Kyriakos; Patsias, Charalambos; Panagides, Alexia; Potamitis, Costas; Demetriou, Kyproula; Prikis, Marios; Hadjigavriel, Michael; Kkolou, Maria; Loukaidou, Panayiota; Pastelli, Androulla; Michael, Aristos; Lazarou, Akis; Arsali, Maria; Damianou, Loukas; Goutziamani, Ioanna; Soloukides, Andreas; Yioukas, Lakis; Elia, Avraam; Zouvani, Ioanna; Polycarpou, Polycarpos; Pierides, Alkis; Voskarides, Konstantinos; Deltas, Constantinos

2014-01-01

293

Frequency of COL4A3/COL4A4 mutations amongst families segregating glomerular microscopic hematuria and evidence for activation of the unfolded protein response. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis is a frequent development during ageing.  

PubMed

Familial glomerular hematuria(s) comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of conditions which include Alport Syndrome (AS) and thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN). Here we investigated 57 Greek-Cypriot families presenting glomerular microscopic hematuria (GMH), with or without proteinuria or chronic kidney function decline, but excluded classical AS. We specifically searched the COL4A3/A4 genes and identified 8 heterozygous mutations in 16 families (28,1%). Eight non-related families featured the founder mutation COL4A3-p.(G1334E). Renal biopsies from 8 patients showed TBMN and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Ten patients (11.5%) reached end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) at ages ranging from 37-69-yo (mean 50,1-yo). Next generation sequencing of the patients who progressed to ESKD failed to reveal a second mutation in any of the COL4A3/A4/A5 genes, supporting that true heterozygosity for COL4A3/A4 mutations predisposes to CRF/ESKD. Although this could be viewed as a milder and late-onset form of autosomal dominant AS, we had no evidence of ultrastructural features or extrarenal manifestations that would justify this diagnosis. Functional studies in cultured podocytes transfected with wild type or mutant COL4A3 chains showed retention of mutant collagens and differential activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) cascade. This signifies the potential role of the UPR cascade in modulating the final phenotype in patients with collagen IV nephropathies. PMID:25514610

Papazachariou, Louiza; Demosthenous, Panayiota; Pieri, Myrtani; Papagregoriou, Gregory; Savva, Isavella; Stavrou, Christoforos; Zavros, Michael; Athanasiou, Yiannis; Ioannou, Kyriakos; Patsias, Charalambos; Panagides, Alexia; Potamitis, Costas; Demetriou, Kyproula; Prikis, Marios; Hadjigavriel, Michael; Kkolou, Maria; Loukaidou, Panayiota; Pastelli, Androulla; Michael, Aristos; Lazarou, Akis; Arsali, Maria; Damianou, Loukas; Goutziamani, Ioanna; Soloukides, Andreas; Yioukas, Lakis; Elia, Avraam; Zouvani, Ioanna; Polycarpou, Polycarpos; Pierides, Alkis; Voskarides, Konstantinos; Deltas, Constantinos

2014-01-01

294

How long does it take to equilibrate the unfolded state of a protein?  

PubMed Central

How long does it take to equilibrate the unfolded state of a protein? The answer to this question has important implications for our understanding of why many small proteins fold with two state kinetics. When the equilibration within the unfolded state U is much faster than the folding, the folding kinetics will be two state even if there are many folding pathways with different barriers. Yet the mean first passage times (MFPTs) between different regions of the unfolded state can be much longer than the folding time. This seems to imply that the equilibration within U is much slower than the folding. In this communication we resolve this paradox. We present a formula for estimating the time to equilibrate the unfolded state of a protein. We also present a formula for the MFPT to any state within U, which is proportional to the average lifetime of that state divided by the state population. This relation is valid when the equilibration within U is very fast as compared with folding as it often is for small proteins. To illustrate the concepts, we apply the formulas to estimate the time to equilibrate the unfolded state of Trp-cage and MFPTs within the unfolded state based on a Markov State Model using an ultra-long 208 microsecond trajectory of the miniprotein to parameterize the model. The time to equilibrate the unfolded state of Trp-cage is ?100 ns while the typical MFPTs within U are tens of microseconds or longer. PMID:23963761

Levy, Ronald M; Dai, Wei; Deng, Nan-Jie; Makarov, Dmitrii E

2013-01-01

295

Interactions of urea with native and unfolded proteins: a volumetric study.  

PubMed

We describe a statistical thermodynamic approach to analyzing urea-dependent volumetric properties of proteins. We use this approach to analyze our urea-dependent data on the partial molar volume and adiabatic compressibility of lysozyme, apocytochrome c, ribonuclease A, and ?-chymotrypsinogen A. The analysis produces the thermodynamic properties of elementary urea-protein association reactions while also yielding estimates of the effective solvent-accessible surface areas of the native and unfolded protein states. Lysozyme and apocytochrome c do not undergo urea-induced transitions. The former remains folded, while the latter is unfolded between 0 and 8 M urea. In contrast, ribonuclease A and ?-chymotrypsinogen A exhibit urea-induced unfolding transitions. Thus, our data permit us to characterize urea-protein interactions in both the native and unfolded states. We interpreted the urea-dependent volumetric properties of the proteins in terms of the equilibrium constant, k, and changes in volume, ?V0, and compressibility, ?KT0, for a reaction in which urea binds to a protein with a concomitant release of two waters of hydration to the bulk. Comparison of the values of k, ?V0, and ?KT0 with the similar data obtained on small molecules mimicking protein groups reveals lack of cooperative effects involved in urea-protein interactions. In general, the volumetric approach, while providing a unique characterization of cosolvent-protein interactions, offers a practical way for evaluating the effective solvent accessible surface area of biologically significant fully or partially unfolded polypeptides. PMID:25365737

Son, Ikbae; Shek, Yuen Lai; Tikhomirova, Anna; Baltasar, Eduardo Hidalgo; Chalikian, Tigran V

2014-11-26

296

Toward a Taxonomy of the Denatured State: Small Angle Scattering Studies of Unfolded Proteins  

SciTech Connect

Despite the critical role the unfolded state plays in defining protein folding kinetics and thermodynamics (Berg et al., 2002; Dunker, 2002; Shortle, 2002; Wright and Dyson, 2002), our understanding of its detailed structure remains rather rudimentary; the heterogeneity of the unfolded ensemble renders difficult or impossible its study by traditional, atomic-level structural methods. Consequently, recent years have seen a significant expansion of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS, respectively) techniques that provide direct, albeit rotationally and time-averaged, measures of the geometric properties of the unfolded ensemble. These studies have reached a critical mass, allowing us for the first time to define general observations regarding the nature of the geometry - and possibly the chemistry and physics - of unfolded proteins.

Millett, I.S.; Doniach, S.; Plaxco, K.W. (Stanford); (UCSB)

2005-02-15

297

Capturing the mechanical unfolding pathway of a large protein with coiled-coil probes.  

PubMed

The folding behaviors and mechanisms of large multidomain proteins have remained largely uncharacterized, primarily because of the lack of appropriate research methods. To address these limitations, novel mechanical folding probes have been developed that are based on antiparallel coiled-coil polypeptides. Such probes can be conveniently inserted at the DNA level, at different positions within the protein of interest where they minimally disturb the host protein structure. During single-molecule force spectroscopy measurements, the forced unfolding of the probe captures the progress of the unfolding front through the host protein structure. This novel approach allows unfolding pathways of large proteins to be directly identified. As an example, this probe was used in a large multidomain protein with ten identical ankyrin repeats, and the unfolding pathway, its direction, and the order of sequential unfolding were unequivocally and precisely determined. This development facilitates the examination of the folding pathways of large proteins, which are predominant in the proteasomes of all organisms, but have thus far eluded study because of the technical limitations encountered when using traditional techniques. PMID:25339429

Li, Qing; Scholl, Zackary N; Marszalek, Piotr E

2014-12-01

298

Pressure Equilibrium and Jump Study on Unfolding of 23-kDa Protein from Spinach Photosystem II  

E-print Network

Pressure Equilibrium and Jump Study on Unfolding of 23-kDa Protein from Spinach Photosystem II Cui ABSTRACT Pressure-induced unfolding of 23-kDa protein from spinach photosystem II has been systematically is very sensitive to pressure. At 20°C and pH 5.5, 23-kDa protein shows a reversible two-state unfolding

Tian, Weidong

299

Single-Molecule Spectroscopy of Cold Denaturation and the Temperature-Induced Collapse of Unfolded Proteins  

E-print Network

of cold denaturation are still under debate, but the most common interpretation of the originSingle-Molecule Spectroscopy of Cold Denaturation and the Temperature-Induced Collapse of Unfolded that cold- denatured proteins are more expanded than heat- denatured proteins. To clarify the connection

Schuler, Ben

300

Mapping of unfolding states of integral helical membrane proteins by GPS-NMR and scattering techniques: TFE-induced unfolding of KcsA in DDM surfactant.  

PubMed

Membrane proteins are vital for biological function, and their action is governed by structural properties critically depending on their interactions with the membranes. This has motivated considerable interest in studies of membrane protein folding and unfolding. Here the structural changes induced by unfolding of an integral membrane protein, namely TFE-induced unfolding of KcsA solubilized by the n-dodecyl ?-d-maltoside (DDM) surfactant is investigated by the recently introduced GPS-NMR (Global Protein folding State mapping by multivariate NMR) (Malmendal et al., PlosONE 5, e10262 (2010)) along with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). GPS-NMR is used as a tool for fast analysis of the protein unfolding processes upon external perturbation, and DLS and SAXS are used for further structural characterization of the unfolding states. The combination allows addressing detergent properties and protein conformations at the same time. The mapping of the states reveals that KcsA undergoes a series of rearrangements which include expansion of the tetramer in several steps followed by dissociation into monomers at 29% TFE. Supplementary studies of DDM and TFE in the absence of KcsA suggest that the disintegration of the tetramer at 29% TFE is caused by TFE dissolving the surrounding DDM rim. Above 34% TFE, KcsA collapses to a new structure that is fully formed at 44% TFE. PMID:22525601

Calcutta, Antonello; Jessen, Christian M; Behrens, Manja Annette; Oliveira, Cristiano L P; Renart, Maria Lourdes; González-Ros, José M; Otzen, Daniel E; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Malmendal, Anders; Nielsen, Niels Chr

2012-09-01

301

THE SURFACE-MEDIATED UNFOLDING KINETICS OF GLOBULAR PROTEINS IS DEPENDENT ON MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

The adsorption and unfolding pathways of proteins on rigid surfaces are essential in numerous complex processes associated with biomedical engineering, nanotechnology, and chromatography. It is now well accepted that the kinetics of unfolding are characterized by chemical and physical interactions dependent on protein deformability and structure, as well as environmental pH, temperature, and surface chemistry. Although this fundamental process has broad implications in medicine and industry, little is known about the mechanism because of the atomic lengths and rapid time scales involved. Therefore, the unfolding kinetics of myoglobin, ?-glucosidase, and ovalbumin were investigated by adsorbing the globular proteins to non-porous cationic polymer beads. The protein fractions were adsorbed at different residence times (0, 9, 10, 20, and 30 min) at near-physiological conditions using a gradient elution system similar to that in high-performance liquid chromatography. The elution profi les and retention times were obtained by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. A decrease in recovery was observed with time for almost all proteins and was attributed to irreversible protein unfolding on the non-porous surfaces. These data, and those of previous studies, fi t a positively increasing linear trend between percent unfolding after a fi xed (9 min) residence time (71.8%, 31.1%, and 32.1% of myoglobin, ?-glucosidase, and ovalbumin, respectively) and molecular weight. Of all the proteins examined so far, only myoglobin deviated from this trend with higher than predicted unfolding rates. Myoglobin also exhibited an increase in retention time over a wide temperature range (0°C and 55°C, 4.39 min and 5.74 min, respectively) whereas ovalbumin and ?-glucosidase did not. Further studies using a larger set of proteins are required to better understand the physiological and physiochemical implications of protein unfolding kinetics. This study confi rms that surface-mediated unfolding can be described by experimental techniques, thereby allowing for the better elucidation of the relationships between the structure and function of soluble proteins as well as other macromolecules.

Patananan, A.N.; Goheen, S.C.

2008-01-01

302

Forced Protein Unfolding Leads to Highly Elastic and Tough Protein Hydrogels  

PubMed Central

Protein-based hydrogels usually do not exhibit high stretchability or toughness, significantly limiting the scope of their potential biomedical applications. Here we report the engineering of a chemically crosslinked, highly elastic and tough protein hydrogel using a mechanically extremely labile, de novo designed protein that assumes the classical ferredoxin-like fold structure. Due to the low mechanical stability of the ferredoxin-like fold structure, swelling of hydrogels causes a significant fraction of the fold structure domains to unfold. Subsequent collapse and aggregation of unfolded ferredoxin-like fold structure domains leads to intertwining of physically and chemically crosslinked networks, entailing hydrogels with unusual physical and mechanical properties: a negative swelling ratio, high stretchability and toughness. These hydrogels can withstand an average strain of 450% before breaking and show massive energy dissipation. Upon relaxation, refolding of the ferredoxin-like fold structure domains enables the hydrogel to recover its massive hysteresis. This novel biomaterial may expand the scope of hydrogel applications in tissue engineering. PMID:24352111

Fang, Jie; Mehlich, Alexander; Koga, Nobuyasu; Huang, Jiqing; Koga, Rie; Gao, Xiaoye; Hu, Chunguang; Jin, Chi; Rief, Matthias; Kast, Juergen; Baker, David; Li, Hongbin

2014-01-01

303

Convergence of unfolded spectrum with response function for single radiation based on Bayes' theorem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Bayesian unfolding method has previously been proposed to infer the source spectrum from measured pulse height distribution data. In contrast to the conventional unfolding methods using the Bayes' theory, the pulse height response function for a single radiation is used as the likelihood function. In the present work, the convergence of the unfolded to the source spectrum by this method is proven analytically from the viewpoint of the Kullback-Leibler divergence when a flat-type spectrum is assigned to the initial prior spectrum. In addition, the unfolding capability of this method is demonstrated using a numerical simulation for the ideal case where the statistical error in the measured pulse height distribution can be neglected.

Nauchi, Yasushi; Iwasaki, Shin

2014-01-01

304

Human defensins facilitate local unfolding of thermodynamically unstable regions of bacterial protein toxins.  

PubMed

Defensins are short cationic, amphiphilic, cysteine-rich peptides that constitute the front-line immune defense against various pathogens. In addition to exerting direct antibacterial activities, defensins inactivate several classes of unrelated bacterial exotoxins. To date, no coherent mechanism has been proposed to explain defensins' enigmatic efficiency toward various toxins. In this study, we showed that binding of neutrophil ?-defensin HNP1 to affected bacterial toxins caused their local unfolding, potentiated their thermal melting and precipitation, exposed new regions for proteolysis, and increased susceptibility to collisional quenchers without causing similar effects on tested mammalian structural and enzymatic proteins. Enteric ?-defensin HD5 and ?-defensin hBD2 shared similar toxin-unfolding effects with HNP1, albeit to different degrees. We propose that protein susceptibility to inactivation by defensins is contingent to their thermolability and conformational plasticity and that defensin-induced unfolding is a key element in the general mechanism of toxin inactivation by human defensins. PMID:25517613

Kudryashova, Elena; Quintyn, Royston; Seveau, Stephanie; Lu, Wuyuan; Wysocki, Vicki H; Kudryashov, Dmitri S

2014-11-20

305

Simulation of urea-induced protein unfolding: a lesson from bovine ?-lactoglobulin.  

PubMed

To investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the very initial stages of protein unfolding, we carried out one long (1 ?s) simulation of bovine ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) together with three (500 ns) supporting MD runs, in which the unfolding conditions were produced by adding the osmolyte urea to the simulated systems and/or by increasing the thermal energy raising the temperature from 300 to 350 K. BLG was chosen, since it is a well-characterized model protein, for which structural and folding properties have been widely investigated by X-ray and NMR. MD trajectories were analyzed not only in terms of standard progress variables, such as backbone H-bonds, gyration radius width, secondary structure elements, but also through the scrutiny of interactions and dynamical behavior of specific key residues previously pointed out and investigated by NMR and belonging to a well known hydrophobic cluster. MD trajectories simulated in different unfolding conditions suggest that urea destabilizes BLG structure weakening protein::protein hydrophobic interactions and the hydrogen bond network. The early unfolding events, better observed at higher temperature, affect both secondary and tertiary structure of the protein. PMID:21724434

Eberini, Ivano; Emerson, Andrew; Sensi, Cristina; Ragona, Laura; Ricchiuto, Piero; Pedretti, Alessandro; Gianazza, Elisabetta; Tramontano, Anna

2011-09-01

306

Precursory signatures of protein folding/unfolding: From time series correlation analysis to atomistic mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Folded conformations of proteins in thermodynamically stable states have long lifetimes. Before it folds into a stable conformation, or after unfolding from a stable conformation, the protein will generally stray from one random conformation to another leading thus to rapid fluctuations. Brief structural changes therefore occur before folding and unfolding events. These short-lived movements are easily overlooked in studies of folding/unfolding for they represent momentary excursions of the protein to explore conformations in the neighborhood of the stable conformation. The present study looks for precursory signatures of protein folding/unfolding within these rapid fluctuations through a combination of three techniques: (1) ultrafast shape recognition, (2) time series segmentation, and (3) time series correlation analysis. The first procedure measures the differences between statistical distance distributions of atoms in different conformations by calculating shape similarity indices from molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. The second procedure is used to discover the times at which the protein makes transitions from one conformation to another. Finally, we employ the third technique to exploit spatial fingerprints of the stable conformations; this procedure is to map out the sequences of changes preceding the actual folding and unfolding events, since strongly correlated atoms in different conformations are different due to bond and steric constraints. The aforementioned high-frequency fluctuations are therefore characterized by distinct correlational and structural changes that are associated with rate-limiting precursors that translate into brief segments. Guided by these technical procedures, we choose a model system, a fragment of the protein transthyretin, for identifying in this system not only the precursory signatures of transitions associated with ? helix and ? hairpin, but also the important role played by weaker correlations in such protein folding dynamics.

Hsu, P. J.; Cheong, S. A.; Lai, S. K.

2014-05-01

307

Two-state vs. multistate protein unfolding studied by optical melting and hydrogen exchange  

E-print Network

Two-state vs. multistate protein unfolding studied by optical melting and hydrogen exchange LELAND MAYNE and S. WALTER ENGLANDER The Johnson Research Foundation, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics energy parameters of cytochrome c determined by optical methods and by hydrogen exchange ~HX

Englander, S. Walter

308

Complete all-atom hydrodynamics of protein unfolding in uniform flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unfolding dynamics of a protein, ubiquitin, pinned in several uniform flows, was studied at low and high flow rates in an all-atom style through a non-equilibrium molecular dynamics approach with explicit water molecules included. Atomic hydrodynamic force components on individual amino acids, as a function of time, due to the collisional interactions with the flowing water molecules were calculated

Guan M. Wang; William C. Sandberg

2010-01-01

309

An Experimental Test of Jarzynski's Equality on Free Energy of Protein Unfolding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed an experimental test of Jarzynski's equality on the mechanical unfolding of a giant protein, human cardiac titin. Jarzynski's estimator relates the free energy difference (deltaG) between two equilibrium states and the work performed in switching between those states. We used atomic force microscopy to obtain the single-molecule dynamic force spectroscopy of polyproteins consisting of identical tandem repeats of

Nolan Harris

2005-01-01

310

Topography of the free-energy landscape probed via mechanical unfolding of proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-molecule experiments in which proteins are unfolded by applying mechanical stretching forces generally force unfolding to proceed along a reaction coordinate that is different from that in chemical or thermal denaturation. Here we simulate the mechanical unfolding and refolding of a minimalist off-lattice model of the protein ubiquitin to explore in detail the slice of the multidimensional free-energy landscape that is accessible via mechanical pulling experiments. We find that while the free-energy profile along typical "chemical" reaction coordinates may exhibit two minima, corresponding to the native and denatured states, the free energy G(z ) is typically a monotonic function of the mechanical coordinate z equal to the protein extension. Application of a stretching force along z tilts the free-energy landscape resulting in a bistable (or multistable) free energy G(z )-fz probed in mechanical unfolding experiments. We construct a two-dimensional free-energy surface as a function of both chemical and mechanical reaction coordinates and examine the coupling between the two. We further study the refolding trajectories after the protein has been prestretched by a large force, as well as the mechanical unfolding trajectories in the presence of a large stretching force. We demonstrate that the stretching forces required to destabilize the native state thermodynamically are larger than those expected on the basis of previous experimental estimates of G(z ). This finding is consistent with the recent experimental studies, indicating that proteins may refold even in the presence of a substantial stretching force. Finally, we show that for certain temperatures the free energy of a polyprotein chain consisting of multiple domains is a linear function of the chain extension. We propose that the recently observed "slow phase" in the refolding of proteins under mechanical tension may be viewed as downhill diffusion in such a linear potential.

Kirmizialtin, Serdal; Huang, Lei; Makarov, Dmitrii E.

2005-06-01

311

Solvent sensitivity of protein unfolding: dynamical study of chicken villin headpiece subdomain in water-ethanol binary mixture.  

PubMed

We carry out a series of long atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to study the unfolding of a small protein, chicken villin headpiece (HP-36), in water-ethanol (EtOH) binary mixture. The prime objective of this work is to explore the sensitivity of protein unfolding dynamics toward increasing concentration of the cosolvent and unravel essential features of intermediates formed in search of a dynamical pathway toward unfolding. In water-ethanol binary mixtures, HP-36 is found to unfold partially, under ambient conditions, that otherwise requires temperature as high as ?600 K to denature in pure aqueous solvent. However, an interesting course of pathway is observed to be followed in the process, guided by the formation of unique intermediates. The first step of unfolding is essentially the separation of the cluster formed by three hydrophobic (phenylalanine) residues, namely, Phe-7, Phe-11, and Phe-18, which constitute the hydrophobic core, thereby initiating melting of helix-2 of the protein. The initial steps are similar to temperature-induced unfolding as well as chemical unfolding using DMSO as cosolvent. Subsequent unfolding steps follow a unique path. As water-ethanol shows composition-dependent anomalies, so do the details of unfolding dynamics. With an increase in cosolvent concentration, different partially unfolded intermediates are found to be formed. This is reflected in a remarkable nonmonotonic composition dependence of several order parameters, including fraction of native contacts and protein-solvent interaction energy. The emergence of such partially unfolded states can be attributed to the preferential solvation of the hydrophobic residues by the ethyl groups of ethanol. We further quantify the local dynamics of unfolding by using a Marcus-type theory. PMID:24168520

Ghosh, Rikhia; Roy, Susmita; Bagchi, Biman

2013-12-12

312

Bile salts act as effective protein-unfolding agents and instigators of disulfide stress in vivo  

PubMed Central

Commensal and pathogenic bacteria must deal with many different stress conditions to survive in and colonize the human gastrointestinal tract. One major challenge that bacteria encounter in the gut is the high concentration of bile salts, which not only aid in food absorption but also act as effective physiological antimicrobials. The mechanism by which bile salts limit bacterial growth is still largely unknown. Here, we show that bile salts cause widespread protein unfolding and aggregation, affecting many essential proteins. Simultaneously, the bacterial cytosol becomes highly oxidizing, indicative of disulfide stress. Strains defective in reducing oxidative thiol modifications, restoring redox homeostasis, or preventing irreversible protein aggregation under disulfide stress conditions are sensitive to bile salt treatment. Surprisingly, cholate and deoxycholate, two of the most abundant and very closely related physiological bile salts, vary substantially in their destabilizing effects on proteins in vitro and cause protein unfolding of different subsets of proteins in vivo. Our results provide a potential mechanistic explanation for the antimicrobial effects of bile salts, help explain the beneficial effects of bile salt mixtures, and suggest that we have identified a physiological source of protein-unfolding disulfide stress conditions in bacteria. PMID:24706920

Cremers, Claudia M.; Knoefler, Daniela; Vitvitsky, Victor; Banerjee, Ruma; Jakob, Ursula

2014-01-01

313

Universal convergence of the specific volume changes of globular proteins upon unfolding.  

PubMed

Both pressure and temperature are important environmental variables, and to obtain a complete understanding of the mechanisms of protein folding, it is necessary to determine how protein stability is dependent on these fundamental thermodynamic parameters. Although the temperature dependence of protein stability has been widely explored, the dependence of protein stability on pressure is not as well studied. In this paper, we report the results of the direct thermodynamic determination of the change in specific volume (DeltaV/V) upon protein unfolding, which defines the pressure dependence of protein stability, for five model proteins (ubiquitin, eglin c, ribonuclease A, lysozyme, and cytochrome c). We have shown that the specific volumetric changes upon unfolding for four of the proteins (ubiquitin, eglin c, ribonuclease A, and lysozyme) appear to converge to a common value at high temperatures. Analysis of various contributions to the change in volume upon protein unfolding allowed us to put forth the hypothesis that the change in volume due to hydration is very close to zero at this temperature, such that DeltaV/V is defined largely by the total volume of cavities and voids within a protein, and that this is a universal property of all small globular proteins without prosthetic groups. To test this hypothesis, additional experiments were performed with variants of eglin c that had site-directed substitutions at two buried positions, to create an additional cavity in the protein core. The results of these experiments, coupled with the structural analysis of cytochrome c showing a lower packing density compared to those of the other four proteins, provided further support for the hypothesis. Finally, we have shown that the deviation of the high-temperature DeltaV value of a given protein from the convergence value can be used to determine the size of the excess cavities in globular proteins. PMID:19877593

Schweiker, Katrina L; Fitz, Victoria W; Makhatadze, George I

2009-11-24

314

Assembly and function of the Photosystem II manganese stabilizing protein: lessons from its natively unfolded behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Photosystem II (PS II) manganese stabilizing protein (MSP) possesses characteristics, including thermostability, ascribed to the natively unfolded class of proteins (Lydakis-Simantiris et al. (1999) Biochemistry 38: 404–414). A site-directed mutant of MSP, C28A, C51A, which lacks the -S–S- bridge, also binds to PS II at wild-type levels and reconstitutes oxygen evolution activity [Betts et al. (1996) Biochim Biophys Acta

Aaron J. Wyman; Charles F. Yocum

2005-01-01

315

Single-molecule Force Spectroscopy Reveals the Individual Mechanical Unfolding Pathways of a Surface Layer Protein*  

PubMed Central

Surface layers (S-layers) represent an almost universal feature of archaeal cell envelopes and are probably the most abundant bacterial cell proteins. S-layers are monomolecular crystalline structures of single protein or glycoprotein monomers that completely cover the cell surface during all stages of the cell growth cycle, thereby performing their intrinsic function under a constant intra- and intermolecular mechanical stress. In Gram-positive bacteria, the individual S-layer proteins are anchored by a specific binding mechanism to polysaccharides (secondary cell wall polymers) that are linked to the underlying peptidoglycan layer. In this work, atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule force spectroscopy and a polyprotein approach are used to study the individual mechanical unfolding pathways of an S-layer protein. We uncover complex unfolding pathways involving the consecutive unfolding of structural intermediates, where a mechanical stability of 87 pN is revealed. Different initial extensibilities allow the hypothesis that S-layer proteins adapt highly stable, mechanically resilient conformations that are not extensible under the presence of a pulling force. Interestingly, a change of the unfolding pathway is observed when individual S-layer proteins interact with secondary cell wall polymers, which is a direct signature of a conformational change induced by the ligand. Moreover, the mechanical stability increases up to 110 pN. This work demonstrates that single-molecule force spectroscopy offers a powerful tool to detect subtle changes in the structure of an individual protein upon binding of a ligand and constitutes the first conformational study of surface layer proteins at the single-molecule level. PMID:21690085

Horejs, Christine; Ristl, Robin; Tscheliessnig, Rupert; Sleytr, Uwe B.; Pum, Dietmar

2011-01-01

316

Chaperone activation by unfolding.  

PubMed

Conditionally disordered proteins can alternate between highly ordered and less ordered configurations under physiological conditions. Whereas protein function is often associated with the ordered conformation, for some of these conditionally unstructured proteins, the opposite applies: Their activation is associated with their unfolding. An example is the small periplasmic chaperone HdeA, which is critical for the ability of enteric bacterial pathogens like Escherichia coli to survive passage through extremely acidic environments, such as the human stomach. At neutral pH, HdeA is a chaperone-inactive dimer. On a shift to low pH, however, HdeA monomerizes, partially unfolds, and becomes rapidly active in preventing the aggregation of substrate proteins. By mutating two aspartic acid residues predicted to be responsible for the pH-dependent monomerization of HdeA, we have succeeded in isolating an HdeA mutant that is active at neutral pH. We find this HdeA mutant to be substantially destabilized, partially unfolded, and mainly monomeric at near-neutral pH at a concentration at which it prevents aggregation of a substrate protein. These results provide convincing evidence for direct activation of a protein by partial unfolding. PMID:23487787

Foit, Linda; George, Jenny S; Zhang, Bin W; Brooks, Charles L; Bardwell, James C A

2013-04-01

317

Protein unfolding an important process in vivo? Andreas Matouschek  

E-print Network

trypsin inhibitor DHFR dihydrofolate reductase ER endoplasmic reticulum WASP Wiskott±Aldrich syndrome. Protein translocation Membranes subdivide the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells into compartments with well-de®ned protein composi- tions. Many of the proteins found in the various compart- ments are synthesized

Matouschek, Andreas

318

Design and Characterization of a Membrane Protein Unfolding Platform in Lipid Bilayers  

PubMed Central

Accurate measurement of membrane protein stability—and particularly how it may vary as a result of disease-phenotypic mutations—ideally requires a denaturant that can unfold a membrane-embedded structure while leaving the solubilizing environment unaffected. The steric trap method fulfills this requirement by using monovalent streptavidin (mSA) molecules to unfold membrane proteins engineered with two spatially close biotin tags. Here we adapted this method to an 87-residue helix-loop-helix (hairpin) construct derived from helices 3 and 4 in the transmembrane domain of the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), wherein helix-helix tertiary interactions are anticipated to confer a portion of construct stability. The wild type CFTR TM3/4 hairpin construct was modified with two accessible biotin tags for mSA-induced unfolding, along with two helix-terminal pyrene labels to monitor loss of inter-helical contacts by pyrene excimer fluorescence. A series of eight constructs with biotin tags at varying distances from the helix-terminal pyrene labels were expressed, purified and labeled appropriately; all constructs exhibited largely helical circular dichroism spectra. We found that addition of mSA to an optimized construct in lipid vesicles led to a complete and reversible loss in pyrene excimer fluorescence and mSA binding, and hence hairpin unfolding—results further supported by SDS-PAGE visualization of mSA bound and unbound species. While some dimeric/oligomeric populations persist that may affect quantitation of the unfolding step, our characterization of the design yields a promising prototype of a future platform for the systematic study of membrane protein folding in a lipid bilayer environment. PMID:25799099

Nadeau, Vincent G.; Gao, Anqi; Deber, Charles M.

2015-01-01

319

Methionine Mutations of Outer Membrane Protein X Influence Structural Stability and Beta-Barrel Unfolding  

PubMed Central

We report the biochemical and biophysical characterization of outer membrane protein X (OmpX), an eight-stranded transmembrane ?-barrel from E. coli, and compare the barrel behavior with a mutant devoid of methionine residues. Transmembrane outer membrane proteins of bacterial origin are known to display high tolerance to sequence rearrangements and mutations. Our studies with the triple mutant of OmpX that is devoid of all internal methionine residues (M18L; M21L; M118L) indicate that Met replacement has no influence on the refolding efficiency and structural characteristics of the protein. Surprisingly, the conserved substitution of Met?Leu leads to barrel destabilization and causes a lowering of the unfolding free energy by a factor of ?8.5 kJ/mol, despite the mutations occurring at the loop regions. We report that the barrel destabilization is accompanied by a loss in cooperativity of unfolding in the presence of chemical denaturants. Furthermore, we are able to detect an unfolding intermediate in the Met-less barrel, whereas the parent protein exhibits a classic two-state unfolding. Thermal denaturation measurements also suggest a greater susceptibility of the OmpX barrel to heat, in the Met-less construct. Our studies reveal that even subtle variations in the extra-membrane region of rigid barrel structures such as OmpX, may bear severe implications on barrel stability. We propose that methionines contribute to efficient barrel structuring and protein-lipid interactions, and are therefore important elements of OmpX stability. PMID:24265768

Chaturvedi, Deepti; Mahalakshmi, Radhakrishnan

2013-01-01

320

The thermodynamic analysis of protein stabilization by sucrose and glycerol against pressure-induced unfolding.  

PubMed

We have studied the reaction native left arrow over right arrow denatured for the 33-kDa protein isolated from photosystem II. Sucrose and glycerol have profound effects on pressure-induced unfolding. The additives shift the equilibrium to the left; they also cause a significant decrease in the standard volume change (DeltaV). The change in DeltaV was related to the sucrose and glycerol concentrations. The decrease in DeltaV varied with the additive: sucrose caused the largest effect, glycerol the smallest. The theoretical shift of the half-unfolding pressure (P1/2) calculated from the net increase in free energy by addition of sucrose and glycerol was lower than that obtained from experimental mea- surements. This indicates that the free energy change caused by preferential hydration of the protein is not the unique factor involved in the protein stabilization. The reduction in DeltaV showed a large contribution to the theoretical P1/2 shift, suggesting that the DeltaV change, caused by the sucrose or glycerol was associated with the protein stabilization. The origin of the DeltaV change is discussed. The rate of pressure-induced unfolding in the presence of sucrose or glycerol was slower than the refolding rate although both were significantly slower than that observed without any stabilizers. PMID:12694178

Ruan, Kangcheng; Xu, Chunhe; Li, Tingting; Li, Jiong; Lange, Reinhard; Balny, Claude

2003-04-01

321

Pathways and kinetic barriers in mechanical unfolding and refolding of RNA and proteins.  

PubMed

Using self-organized polymer models, we predict mechanical unfolding and refolding pathways of ribozymes, and the green fluorescent protein. In agreement with experiments, there are between six and eight unfolding transitions in the Tetrahymena ribozyme. Depending on the loading rate, the number of rips in the force-ramp unfolding of the Azoarcus ribozymes is between two and four. Force-quench refolding of the P4-P6 subdomain of the Tetrahymena ribozyme occurs through a compact intermediate. Subsequent formation of tertiary contacts between helices P5b-P6a and P5a/P5c-P4 leads to the native state. The force-quench refolding pathways agree with ensemble experiments. In the dominant unfolding route, the N-terminal alpha helix of GFP unravels first, followed by disruption of the N terminus beta strand. There is a third intermediate that involves disruption of three other strands. In accord with experiments, the force-quench refolding pathway of GFP is hierarchic, with the rate-limiting step being the closure of the barrel. PMID:17098189

Hyeon, Changbong; Dima, Ruxandra I; Thirumalai, D

2006-11-01

322

If protein misfolding or unfolding occurs, for instance  

E-print Network

Electron Microscopy of Soft Systems My research is concerned with studying the interplay between between these two states, and how it ties in with the proteins implicated in diseases such as Alzheimers

Steiner, Ullrich

323

Enhancing cellular uptake of GFP via unfolded supercharged protein tags.  

PubMed

One of the barriers to the development of protein therapeutics is effective delivery to mammalian cells. The proteins must maintain a careful balance of polar moieties to enable administration and distribution and hydrophobic character to minimize cell toxicity. Numerous strategies have been applied to this end, from appending additional cationic peptides to supercharging the protein itself, sometimes with limited success. Here we present a strategy that combines these methods, by equipping a protein with supercharged elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) tags. We monitored cellular uptake and cell viability for GFP reporter proteins outfitted with a range of ELP tags and demonstrated enhanced uptake that correlates with the number of positive charges, while maintaining remarkably low cytotoxicity and resistance to degradation in the cell. GFP uptake proceeded mainly through caveolae-mediated endocytosis and we observed GFP emission inside the cells over extended time (up to 48 h). Low toxicity combined with high molecular weights of the tag opens the way to simultaneously optimize cell uptake and pharmacokinetic parameters. Thus, cationic supercharged ELP tags show great potential to improve the therapeutic profile of protein drugs leading to more efficient and safer biotherapeutics. PMID:23478039

Pesce, Diego; Wu, Yuzhou; Kolbe, Anke; Weil, Tanja; Herrmann, Andreas

2013-06-01

324

Measurement of energy landscape roughness of folded and unfolded proteins  

PubMed Central

The dynamics of protein conformational changes, from protein folding to smaller changes, such as those involved in ligand binding, are governed by the properties of the conformational energy landscape. Different techniques have been used to follow the motion of a protein over this landscape and thus quantify its properties. However, these techniques often are limited to short timescales and low-energy conformations. Here, we describe a general approach that overcomes these limitations. Starting from a nonnative conformation held by an aromatic disulfide bond, we use time-resolved spectroscopy to observe nonequilibrium backbone dynamics over nine orders of magnitude in time, from picoseconds to milliseconds, after photolysis of the disulfide bond. We find that the reencounter probability of residues that initially are in close contact decreases with time following an unusual power law that persists over the full time range and is independent of the primary sequence. Model simulations show that this power law arises from subdiffusional motion, indicating a wide distribution of trapping times in local minima of the energy landscape, and enable us to quantify the roughness of the energy landscape (4–5 kBT). Surprisingly, even under denaturing conditions, the energy landscape remains highly rugged with deep traps (>20 kBT) that result from multiple nonnative interactions and are sufficient for trapping on the millisecond timescale. Finally, we suggest that the subdiffusional motion of the protein backbone found here may promote rapid folding of proteins with low contact order by enhancing contact formation between nearby residues. PMID:23150572

Milanesi, Lilia; Waltho, Jonathan P.; Hunter, Christopher A.; Shaw, Daniel J.; Beddard, Godfrey S.; Reid, Gavin D.; Dev, Sagarika; Volk, Martin

2012-01-01

325

Protein unfolding accounts for the unusual mechanical behavior of fibrin networks  

PubMed Central

We describe the mechanical behavior of isotropic fibrin networks at the macroscopic scale in terms of the nanoscale force response of fibrin molecules that are its basic building blocks. We show that the remarkable extensibility and compressibility of fibrin networks have their origins in the unfolding of fibrin molecules. The force-stretch behavior of a single fibrin fiber is described using a two-state model in which the fiber has a linear force-stretch relation in the folded phase and behaves like a worm-like-chain in the unfolded phase. The nanoscale force-stretch response is connected to the macro-scale stress-stretch response by means of the eight-chain model. This model is able to capture the macroscopic response of a fibrin network in uniaxial tension and appears remarkably simple given the molecular complexity. We use the eight-chain model to explain why fibrin networks have negative compressibility and Poisson’s ratio greater than one due to unfolding of fibrin molecules. PMID:21342665

Purohit, Prashant K.; Litvinov, Rustem I.; Brown, Andre E. X.; Discher, Dennis E.; Weisel, John W.

2011-01-01

326

The effect of the choice or response matrix on unfolded bonner sphere spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the choice of response matrix on neutron spectra unfolded from Bonner sphere data was studied. In particular, the variation of integral parameters calculated from the unfolded spectra was determined for six matrices. It was determined that, depending on the choice of matrix, the calculated neutron fluence varies by approximately + or - 15%, the average neutron energy by + or - 40%, the dose by + or 30%, the dose equivalent by up to a factor of 4, and the quality factor by + or - 35%. For personnel monitoring devices, the calculated response varied by up to a factor of 4 for the Navy albedo badge, a factor of 7 for a cadmium-covered albedo badge, a factor of 6 for a CR-39 dosimeter, and more than two orders of magnitude for NTA type emulsion film. Two of the response matrices gave results in good agreement with other calculated and experimental data.

Lowry, K. A.; Johnson, T. L.

1984-12-01

327

Mechanical response and conformational changes of alpha-actinin domains during unfolding: a molecular dynamics study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpha-actinin is a cytoskeleton-binding protein involved in the assembly and regulation of the actin filaments. In this work\\u000a molecular dynamics method was applied to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the human skeletal muscle ?-actinin. Five\\u000a configurations were unfolded at an elongation speed of 0.1 nm\\/ps in order to investigate the conformational changes occurring\\u000a during the extension process. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis

Monica Soncini; Simone Vesentini; Davide Ruffoni; Mario Orsi; Marco A. Deriu; Alberto Redaelli

2007-01-01

328

Solvent Sensitivity of Protein Unfolding: Study of Chicken Villin Headpiece Subdomain in Water-Ethanol and Water-DMSO Mixtures  

E-print Network

In the present work we study and compare unfolding of a small protein, chicken villin headpiece (HP-36) in two different aqueous binary mixtures, namely water-ethanol (EtOH) and water-dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). In both the binary mixtures, HP-36 is found to unfold (fully or partially, depending on the mixture) under ambient conditions, that otherwise requires temperature as high as ~600 K to denature in pure aqueous solvent. In all the cases, first step of unfolding is found to be similar, i.e. separation of the cluster formed by three hydrophobic (phenylalanine) residues, namely Phe-7, Phe-11 and Phe-18, which constitute the hydrophobic core, thereby initiating melting of helix-2 of the protein. Subsequent unfolding steps follow different paths in different chemical environments. As both water-DMSO and water-ethanol show composition dependent anomalies, so do the details of unfolding dynamics. With an increase of co-solvent concentration different partially unfolded intermediates are found to be formed in both the cases. This is reflected in a remarkable non-monotonic composition dependence of several order parameters, including fraction of native contacts and protein-solvent interaction energy. The emergence of such partially unfolded states is particularly attributed to the preferential solvation of the hydrophobic residues by the ethyl groups of ethanol and methyl groups of DMSO. While in DMSO the protein gradually attains a completely unfolded state at xDMSO=0.30, unfolding in water-ethanol appears to be more complex and sensitive to solvent composition.

Rikhia Ghosh; Susmita Roy; Biman Bagchi

2013-07-10

329

Mechanisms of triggering H1 helix in prion proteins unfolding revealed by molecular dynamic simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In template-assistance model, normal Prion protein (PrP^C), the pathogen to cause several prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD) in human, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cow, and scrapie in sheep, converts to infectious prion (PrP^Sc) through a transient interaction with PrP^Sc. Furthermore, conventional studies showed S1-H1-S2 region in PrP^C to be the template of S1-S2 ?-sheet in PrP^Sc, and Prion protein's conformational conversion may involve an unfolding of H1 and refolding into ?-sheet. Here we prepare several mouse prion peptides that contain S1-H1-S2 region with specific different structures, which are corresponding to specific interactions, to investigate possible mechanisms to trigger H1 ?-helix unfolding process via molecular dynamic simulation. Three properties, conformational transition, salt-bridge in H1, and hydrophobic solvent accessible surface (SAS) are analyzed. From these studies, we found the interaction that triggers H1 unfolding to be the one that causes dihedral angle at residue Asn^143 changes. Whereas interactions that cause S1 segment's conformational changes play a minor in this process. These studies offers an additional evidence for template-assistance model.

Tseng, Chih-Yuan; Lee, H. C.

2006-03-01

330

Stochastic but highly coordinated protein unfolding and translocation by the ClpXP proteolytic machine.  

PubMed

ClpXP and other AAA+ proteases recognize, mechanically unfold, and translocate target proteins into a chamber for proteolysis. It is not known whether these remarkable molecular machines operate by a stochastic or sequential mechanism or how power strokes relate to the ATP-hydrolysis cycle. Single-molecule optical trapping allows ClpXP unfolding to be directly visualized and reveals translocation steps of ?1-4 nm in length, but how these activities relate to solution degradation and the physical properties of substrate proteins remains unclear. By studying single-molecule degradation using different multidomain substrates and ClpXP variants, we answer many of these questions and provide evidence for stochastic unfolding and translocation. We also present a mechanochemical model that accounts for single-molecule, biochemical, and structural results for our observation of enzymatic memory in translocation stepping, for the kinetics of translocation steps of different sizes, and for probabilistic but highly coordinated subunit activity within the ClpX ring. PMID:25083874

Cordova, Juan Carlos; Olivares, Adrian O; Shin, Yongdae; Stinson, Benjamin M; Calmat, Stephane; Schmitz, Karl R; Aubin-Tam, Marie-Eve; Baker, Tania A; Lang, Matthew J; Sauer, Robert T

2014-07-31

331

The Unfolding Action of GroEL on a Protein Substrate  

PubMed Central

A molecular dynamics simulation of the active unfolding of denatured rhodanese by the chaperone GroEL is presented. The compact denatured protein is bound initially to the cis cavity and forms stable contacts with several of the subunits. As the cis ring apical domains of GroEL undergo the transition from the closed to the more open (ATP-bound) state, they exert a force on rhodanese that leads to the increased unfolding of certain loops. The contacts between GroEL and rhodanese are analyzed and their variation during the GroEL transition is shown. The major contacts, which give rise to the stretching force, are found to be similar to those observed in crystal structures of peptides bound to the apical domains. The results of the simulation show that multidomain interactions play an essential role, in accord with experiments. Implications of the results for mutation experiments and for the action of GroEL are discussed. PMID:15240489

van der Vaart, Arjan; Ma, Jianpeng; Karplus, Martin

2004-01-01

332

Concerted dihedral rotations give rise to internal friction in unfolded proteins.  

PubMed

Protein chains undergo conformational diffusion during folding and dynamics, experiencing both thermal kicks and viscous drag. Recent experiments have shown that the corresponding friction can be separated into wet friction, which is determined by the solvent viscosity, and dry friction, where frictional effects arise due to the interactions within the protein chain. Despite important advances, the molecular origins underlying dry friction in proteins have remained unclear. To address this problem, we studied the dynamics of the unfolded cold-shock protein at different solvent viscosities and denaturant concentrations. Using extensive all-atom molecular dynamics simulations we estimated the internal friction time scales and found them to agree well with the corresponding experimental measurements (Soranno et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2012, 109, 17800-17806). Analysis of the reconfiguration dynamics of the unfolded chain further revealed that hops in the dihedral space provide the dominant mechanism of internal friction. Furthermore, the increased number of concerted dihedral moves at physiological conditions suggest that, in such conditions, the concerted motions result in higher frictional forces. These findings have important implications for understanding the folding kinetics of proteins as well as the dynamics of intrinsically disordered proteins. PMID:24844314

Echeverria, Ignacia; Makarov, Dmitrii E; Papoian, Garegin A

2014-06-18

333

Probing Single-Molecule Protein Conformational Folding-Unfolding Dynamics: The multiple-State and Multiple-Channel Energy Landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The folding-unfolding dynamics of protein provides an important understanding of the protein conformational dynamics and functions. We have used single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer combined with statistical data analysis to characterize enzyme and signaling protein fundamental conformational dynamics of Calmodulin (CaM) and kinase (6-Hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase, HPPK). The concentration dependence of FRET efficiency of GdmCl indicates the unfolding conformational transition of the proteins. At 2M of denaturant solvent, the majority of the HPPK and CaM protein molecules are under fluctuating folding-unfolding conformational changes, spending about half time in their native state and half time in their unfolded state. We obtained the fluctuation rates from the autocorrelation function analyses of the protein conformational fluctuation trajectories, and we have identified multiple intermediate states involving in bunched time dynamics and the related energy landscape. We had also analyzed the protein folding-unfolding pathways using detailed balance theoretical model analysis in order to understand the complex multiple-state and multiple-channel protein dynamics.

Lu, H. Peter; Wang, Zhijiang; He, Yufan

2013-03-01

334

Direct observation of multimer stabilization in the mechanical unfolding pathway of a protein undergoing oligomerization.  

PubMed

Understanding how protein oligomerization affects the stability of monomers in self-assembled structures is crucial to the development of new protein-based nanomaterials and protein cages for drug delivery. Here, we use single-molecule force spectroscopy (AFM-SMFS), protein engineering, and computer simulations to evaluate how dimerization and tetramerization affects the stability of the monomer of Streptavidin, a model homotetrameric protein. The unfolding force directly relates to the folding stability, and we find that monomer of Streptavidin is mechanically stabilized by 40% upon dimerization, and that it is stabilized an additional 24% upon tetramerization. We also find that biotin binding increases stability by another 50% as compared to the apo-tetrameric form. We used the distribution of unfolding forces to extract properties of the underlying energy landscape and found that the distance to the transition state is decreased and the barrier height is increased upon multimerization. Finally, we investigated the origin of the strengthening by ligand binding. We found that, rather than being strengthened through intramolecular contacts, it is strengthened due to the contacts provided by the biotin-binding loop that crosses the interface between the dimers. PMID:25639698

Scholl, Zackary N; Yang, Weitao; Marszalek, Piotr E

2015-02-24

335

Unfolding the response of a zero-degree magnetic spectrometer from measurements of the ? resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic spectrometer FRagment Separator at GSI has been used to investigate the in-medium ?-resonance excitation in peripheral heavy-ion reactions. The resolving power of this spectrometer makes it possible to disentangle the longitudinal-momentum loss induced by the excitation of the ? resonance in the projectile residues produced in isobaric charge-exchange collisions. However, beam emittance, electromagnetic interactions of projectile and residual nuclei in the target, and the accuracy of the tracking detectors limit the final resolution. The characterization of the ? resonance requires then to unfold the measured longitudinal-momentum distribution from the response of the spectrometer. In this work, we use an unfolding procedure based on the Richardson-Lucy method with a regularization technique to optimize the stability of the solution against statistical fluctuations. The method is validated using measurements of isobaric charge-changing collisions with a 136Xe beam at 500 A MeV.

Vargas, J.; Benlliure, J.; Caamaño, M.

2013-04-01

336

NMR unfolding studies on a liver bile acid binding protein reveal a global two-state unfolding and localized singular behaviors.  

PubMed

The folding properties of a bile acid binding protein, belonging to a subfamily of the fatty acid binding proteins, have been here investigated both by hydrogen exchange measurements, using the SOFAST NMR approach, and urea denaturation experiments. The urea unfolding profiles of individual residues, acting as single probes, were simultaneously analyzed through a global fit, according to a two-state unfolding model. The resulting conformational stability DeltaG(U)(H(2)O)=7.2+/-0.25kcal mol(-1) is in good agreement with hydrogen exchange stability DeltaG(op). While the majority of protein residues satisfy this model, few amino-acids display a singular behavior, not directly amenable to the presence of a folding intermediate, as reported for other fatty acid binding proteins. These residues are part of a protein patch characterized by enhanced plasticity. To explain this singular behavior a tentative model has been proposed which takes into account the interplay between the dynamic features and the formation of transient aggregates. A functional role for this plasticity, related to translocation across the nuclear membrane, is discussed. PMID:18977333

D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Ragona, Laura; Fessas, Dimitrios; Signorelli, Marco; Ugolini, Raffaella; Pedò, Massimo; Assfalg, Michael; Molinari, Henriette

2009-01-01

337

Real-time investigation of protein unfolding at an air-water interface at the 1 s time scale.  

PubMed

Protein unfolding at an air-water interface has been demonstrated such that the X-ray reflectivity can be measured with an acquisition time of 1 s using a recently developed simultaneous multiple-angle-wavelength-dispersive X-ray reflectometer. This has enabled the electron density profile of the adsorbed protein molecules to be obtained in real time. A globular protein, lysozyme, adsorbed at the air-water interface is found to unfold into a flat shape within 1 s. PMID:24121352

Yano, Yohko F; Arakawa, Etsuo; Voegeli, Wolfgang; Matsushita, Tadashi

2013-11-01

338

Real-time investigation of protein unfolding at an air–water interface at the 1?s time scale  

PubMed Central

Protein unfolding at an air–water interface has been demonstrated such that the X-ray reflectivity can be measured with an acquisition time of 1?s using a recently developed simultaneous multiple-angle–wavelength-dispersive X-ray reflectometer. This has enabled the electron density profile of the adsorbed protein molecules to be obtained in real time. A globular protein, lysozyme, adsorbed at the air–water interface is found to unfold into a flat shape within 1?s. PMID:24121352

Yano, Yohko F.; Arakawa, Etsuo; Voegeli, Wolfgang; Matsushita, Tadashi

2013-01-01

339

Substrate-Induced Unfolding of Protein Disulfide Isomerase Displaces the Cholera Toxin A1 Subunit from Its Holotoxin  

PubMed Central

To generate a cytopathic effect, the catalytic A1 subunit of cholera toxin (CT) must be separated from the rest of the toxin. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is thought to mediate CT disassembly by acting as a redox-driven chaperone that actively unfolds the CTA1 subunit. Here, we show that PDI itself unfolds upon contact with CTA1. The substrate-induced unfolding of PDI provides a novel molecular mechanism for holotoxin disassembly: we postulate the expanded hydrodynamic radius of unfolded PDI acts as a wedge to dislodge reduced CTA1 from its holotoxin. The oxidoreductase activity of PDI was not required for CT disassembly, but CTA1 displacement did not occur when PDI was locked in a folded conformation or when its substrate-induced unfolding was blocked due to the loss of chaperone function. Two other oxidoreductases (ERp57 and ERp72) did not unfold in the presence of CTA1 and did not displace reduced CTA1 from its holotoxin. Our data establish a new functional property of PDI that may be linked to its role as a chaperone that prevents protein aggregation. PMID:24516389

Taylor, Michael; Burress, Helen; Banerjee, Tuhina; Ray, Supriyo; Curtis, David; Tatulian, Suren A.; Teter, Ken

2014-01-01

340

Solvent Sensitivity of Protein Unfolding: Study of Chicken Villin Headpiece Subdomain in Water-Ethanol and Water-DMSO Mixtures  

E-print Network

In the present work we study and compare unfolding of a small protein, chicken villin headpiece (HP-36) in two different aqueous binary mixtures, namely water-ethanol (EtOH) and water-dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). In both the binary mixtures, HP-36 is found to unfold (fully or partially, depending on the mixture) under ambient conditions, that otherwise requires temperature as high as ~600 K to denature in pure aqueous solvent. In all the cases, first step of unfolding is found to be similar, i.e. separation of the cluster formed by three hydrophobic (phenylalanine) residues, namely Phe-7, Phe-11 and Phe-18, which constitute the hydrophobic core, thereby initiating melting of helix-2 of the protein. Subsequent unfolding steps follow different paths in different chemical environments. As both water-DMSO and water-ethanol show composition dependent anomalies, so do the details of unfolding dynamics. With an increase of co-solvent concentration different partially unfolded intermediates are found to be formed in b...

Ghosh, Rikhia; Bagchi, Biman

2013-01-01

341

Tracking Unfolding and Refolding Reactions of Single Proteins using Atomic Force Microscopy Methods  

PubMed Central

During the last two decades single-molecule manipulation techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) has risen to prominence through their unique capacity to provide fundamental information on the structure and function of biomolecules. Here we describe the use of single-molecule AFM to track protein unfolding and refolding pathways, enzymatic catalysis and the effects of osmolytes and chaperones on protein stability and folding. We will outline the principles of operation for two different AFM pulling techniques: length clamp and force-clamp discuss prominent applications. We provide protocols for the construction of polyproteins which are amenable for AFM experiments, the preparation of different coverslips, choice and calibration of AFM cantilevers. We also discuss the selection criteria for AFM recordings, the calibration of AFM cantilevers, protein sample preparations and analysis of the obtained data. PMID:23523554

Bujalowski, Paul J.; Oberhauser, Andres F.

2013-01-01

342

Temperature Dependent Equilibrium Native to Unfolded Protein Dynamics and Properties Observed with IR Absorption and 2D IR Vibrational Echo Experiments  

PubMed Central

Dynamic and structural properties of carbonmonoxy (CO)-coordinated cytochrome c552 from Hydrogenobacter thermophilus (Ht-M61A) at different temperatures under thermal equilibrium conditions were studied with infrared absorption spectroscopy and ultrafast two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo experiments using the heme-bound CO as the vibrational probe. Depending on the temperature, the stretching mode of CO shows two distinct bands corresponding to the native and unfolded proteins. As the temperature is increased from low temperature, a new absorption band for the unfolded protein grows in and the native band decreases in amplitude. Both the temperature dependent circular dichroism and the IR absorption area ratio RA(T), defined as the ratio of the area under the unfolded band to the sum of the areas of the native and unfolded bands, suggest a two-state transition from the native to the unfolded protein. However, it is found that the absorption spectrum of the unfolded protein increases its inhomogeneous linewidth and the center frequency shifts as the temperature is increased. The changes in linewidth and center frequency demonstrate that the unfolding does not follow simple two-state behavior. The temperature dependent 2D IR vibrational echo experiments show that the fast dynamics of the native protein are virtually temperature independent. In contrast, the fast dynamics of the unfolded protein are slower than those of the native protein, and the unfolded protein fast dynamics and at least a portion of the slower dynamics of the unfolded protein change significantly, becoming faster as the temperature is raised. The temperature dependence of the absorption spectrum and the changes in dynamics measured with the 2D IR experiments confirm that the unfolded ensemble of conformers continuously changes its nature as unfolding proceeds, in contrast to the native state, which displays a temperature independent distribution of structures. PMID:21469666

Chung, Jean K.; Thielges, Megan C.; Bowman, Sarah E. J.; Bren, Kara L.; Fayer, M. D.

2011-01-01

343

Effect of osmolytes on pressure-induced unfolding of proteins: a high-pressure SAXS study.  

PubMed

Herein, we explore the effect of different types of osmolytes on the high-pressure stability and tertiary structure of a well-characterized monomeric protein, staphylococcal nuclease (SNase). Changes in the denaturation pressure and the radius of gyration are obtained in the presence of different concentrations of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), glycerol and urea. To reveal structural changes in the protein upon compression at various osmolyte conditions, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments were carried out. To this end, a new high-pressure cell suitable for high-precision SAXS studies at synchrotron sources was built, which allows one to carry out scattering experiments up to maximum pressures of about 7 kbar. Our data clearly indicate that the osmolytes that stabilize proteins against temperature-induced unfolding drastically increase their pressure stability and that the elliptically shaped curve of the pressure-temperature-stability diagram of proteins is shifted to higher temperatures and pressures with increasing osmolyte concentration. A drastic stabilization is observed for the osmolyte TMAO, which exhibits not only a significant stabilization against temperature-induced unfolding, but also a particularly strong stabilization of the protein against pressure. In fact, such findings are in accordance with in vivo studies (for example P. J. Yancey, J. Exp. Biol. 2005, 208, 2819-2830), where unusually high TMAO concentrations in some deep-sea animals were found. Conversely, chaotropic agents such as urea have a strong destabilizing effect on both the temperature and pressure stability of the protein. Our data also indicate that sufficiently high TMAO concentrations might be able to largely offset the destabilizing effect of urea. The different scenarios observed are discussed in the context of recent experimental and theoretical studies. PMID:18924198

Krywka, Christina; Sternemann, Christian; Paulus, Michael; Tolan, Metin; Royer, Catherine; Winter, Roland

2008-12-22

344

The Stability and Formation of Native Proteins from Unfolded Monomers Is Increased through Interactions with Unrelated Proteins  

PubMed Central

The intracellular concentration of protein may be as high as 400 mg per ml; thus it seems inevitable that within the cell, numerous protein-protein contacts are constantly occurring. A basic biochemical principle states that the equilibrium of an association reaction can be shifted by ligand binding. This indicates that if within the cell many protein-protein interactions are indeed taking place, some fundamental characteristics of proteins would necessarily differ from those observed in traditional biochemical systems. Accordingly, we measured the effect of eight different proteins on the formation of homodimeric triosephosphate isomerase from Trypanosoma brucei (TbTIM) from guanidinium chloride unfolded monomers. The eight proteins at concentrations of micrograms per ml induced an important increase on active dimer formation. Studies on the mechanism of this phenomenon showed that the proteins stabilize the dimeric structure of TbTIM, and that this is the driving force that promotes the formation of active dimers. Similar data were obtained with TIM from three other species. The heat changes that occur when TbTIM is mixed with lysozyme were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry; the results provided direct evidence of the weak interaction between apparently unrelated proteins. The data, therefore, are strongly suggestive that the numerous protein-protein interactions that occur in the intracellular space are an additional control factor in the formation and stability of proteins. PMID:17551578

Rodríguez-Almazán, Claudia; Torner, Francisco J.; Costas, Miguel; Pérez-Montfort, Ruy; de Gómez-Puyou, Marieta Tuena; Puyou, Armando Gómez

2007-01-01

345

Hydration-responsive folding and unfolding in graphene oxide liquid crystal phases.  

PubMed

Graphene oxide is promising as a plate-like giant molecular building block for the assembly of new carbon materials. Its water dispersibility, liquid crystallinity, and ease of reduction offer advantages over other carbon precursors if its fundamental assembly rules can be identified. This article shows that graphene oxide sheets of known lateral dimension form nematic liquid crystal phases with transition points in agreement with the Onsager hard-plate theory. The liquid crystal phases can be systematically ordered into defined supramolecular patterns using surface anchoring, complex fluid flow, and microconfinement. Graphene oxide is seen to exhibit homeotropic surface anchoring at interfaces driven by excluded volume entropy and by adsorption enthalpy associated with its partially hydrophobic basal planes. Surprisingly, some of the surface-ordered graphene oxide phases dry into graphene oxide solids that undergo a dramatic anisotropic swelling upon rehydration to recover their initial size and shape. This behavior is shown to be a unique hydration-responsive folding and unfolding transition. During drying, surface tension forces acting parallel to the layer planes cause a buckling instability that stores elastic energy in accordion-folded structures in the dry solid. Subsequent water infiltration reduces interlayer frictional forces and triggers release of the stored elastic energy in the form of dramatic unidirectional expansion. We explain the folding/unfolding phenomena by quantitative nanomechanics and introduce the potential of liquid crystal-derived graphene oxide phases as new stimuli-response materials. PMID:21877716

Guo, Fei; Kim, Franklin; Han, Tae Hee; Shenoy, Vivek B; Huang, Jiaxing; Hurt, Robert H

2011-10-25

346

Hydration-Responsive Folding and Unfolding in Graphene Oxide Liquid Crystal Phases  

PubMed Central

Graphene oxide is promising as a plate-like giant molecular building block for the assembly of new carbon materials. Its water dispersibility, liquid crystallinity, and ease of reduction offer advantages over other carbon precursors if its fundamental assembly rules can be identified. This article shows that graphene oxide sheets of known lateral dimension form nematic liquid crystal phases with transition points in agreement with the Onsager hard-plate theory. The liquid crystal phases can be systematic ordered into defined supramolecular patterns using surface anchoring, complex fluid flow, and micro-confinement. Graphene oxide is seen to exhibit homeotropic surface anchoring at interfaces driven by excluded volume entropy and by adsorption enthalpy associated with its partially hydrophobic basal planes. Surprisingly, some of the surface-ordered graphene oxide phases dry into graphene oxide solids that undergo a dramatic anisotropic swelling upon rehydration to recover their initial size and shape. This behavior is shown to be a unique hydration-responsive folding and unfolding transition. During drying, surface tension forces acting parallel to the layer planes cause a buckling instability that stores elastic energy in accordion-folded structures in the dry solid. Subsequent water infiltration reduces interlayer frictional forces and triggers release of the stored elastic energy in the form of dramatic unidirectional expansion. We explain the folding/unfolding phenomena by quantitative nanomechanics, and introduce the potential of liquid crystal-derived graphene oxide phases as new stimuli-response materials. PMID:21877716

Guo, Fei; Kim, Franklin; Han, Tae Hee; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Huang, Jiaxing; Hurt, Robert H.

2011-01-01

347

Mechanical response and conformational changes of alpha-actinin domains during unfolding: a molecular dynamics study.  

PubMed

Alpha-actinin is a cytoskeleton-binding protein involved in the assembly and regulation of the actin filaments. In this work molecular dynamics method was applied to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the human skeletal muscle alpha-actinin. Five configurations were unfolded at an elongation speed of 0.1 nm/ps in order to investigate the conformational changes occurring during the extension process. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis at different velocities was performed for one of the R2-R3 spectrin-like repeat configuration extracted in order to evaluate the effect of the pulling speed on the mechanical behaviour of the molecule. Two different behaviours were recognized with respect to the pulling speed. In particular, at speed higher than 0.025 nm/ps a continuous rearrangement without evident force peaks was obtained, on the contrary at lower speed evident peaks in the range 500-750 pN were detected. R3 repeat resulted more stable than R2 during mechanical unfolding, due to the lower hydrophobic surface available to the solvent. The characterization of the R2-R3 units can be useful for the development of cytoskeleton network models based on stiffness values obtained by analyses performed at the molecular level. PMID:17115122

Soncini, Monica; Vesentini, Simone; Ruffoni, Davide; Orsi, Mario; Deriu, Marco A; Redaelli, Alberto

2007-11-01

348

How does reorganization energy change upon protein unfolding? Monitoring the structural perturbations in the heme cavity of cytochrome c.  

PubMed

In several classes of proteins the redox center provides an additional intrinsic biophysical probe that could be used to study the protein structure and function. In present report reorganization energy (lambda, as a parameter describing electron transfer properties) was used to study the protein structural changes around the heme prosthetic group in cytochrome c (cyt c). We attempted to monitor the value of this parameter upon the unfolding process of cyt c by urea, during which it was increased sigmoidally from about 0.52 to 0.82 eV for native and unfold protein, respectively. Results indicate that by structural changes in the heme site, lambda provides a complementary tool for following the unfolding process. Assuming a reversible two-state model for cyt c unfolding, Delta G(H2O), Cm and m values were determined to be 8.32+/-0.7 kcal mol(-1), 1.53+/-0.19 kcalmol(-1)M(-1) and 5.03 M, respectively. PMID:18325656

Shafiey, Hassan; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Mogharrab, Navid

2008-05-01

349

Alternative computational protocols for supercharging protein surfaces for reversible unfolding and retention of stability.  

PubMed

Reengineering protein surfaces to exhibit high net charge, referred to as "supercharging", can improve reversibility of unfolding by preventing aggregation of partially unfolded states. Incorporation of charged side chains should be optimized while considering structural and energetic consequences, as numerous mutations and accumulation of like-charges can also destabilize the native state. A previously demonstrated approach deterministically mutates flexible polar residues (amino acids DERKNQ) with the fewest average neighboring atoms per side chain atom (AvNAPSA). Our approach uses Rosetta-based energy calculations to choose the surface mutations. Both protocols are available for use through the ROSIE web server. The automated Rosetta and AvNAPSA approaches for supercharging choose dissimilar mutations, raising an interesting division in surface charging strategy. Rosetta-supercharged variants of GFP (RscG) ranging from -11 to -61 and +7 to +58 were experimentally tested, and for comparison, we re-tested the previously developed AvNAPSA-supercharged variants of GFP (AscG) with +36 and -30 net charge. Mid-charge variants demonstrated ?3-fold improvement in refolding with retention of stability. However, as we pushed to higher net charges, expression and soluble yield decreased, indicating that net charge or mutational load may be limiting factors. Interestingly, the two different approaches resulted in GFP variants with similar refolding properties. Our results show that there are multiple sets of residues that can be mutated to successfully supercharge a protein, and combining alternative supercharge protocols with experimental testing can be an effective approach for charge-based improvement to refolding. PMID:23741319

Der, Bryan S; Kluwe, Christien; Miklos, Aleksandr E; Jacak, Ron; Lyskov, Sergey; Gray, Jeffrey J; Georgiou, George; Ellington, Andrew D; Kuhlman, Brian

2013-01-01

350

Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy of the thermal unfolding of proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steady-state and transient conformational changes upon the thermal unfolding of ubiquitin were investigated with femtosecond infrared spectroscopy of the amide I vibrations. Equilibrium temperature-dependent 2D IR spectroscopy reveals the unfolding of the ?-sheet of ubiquitin through the loss of cross peaks formed between transitions arising from vibrations of the ?-sheet. Transient unfolding following a nanosecond temperature jump is monitored with vibrational echo spectroscopy, a projection of the 2D IR spectrum. While the equilibrium study follows a simple two-state unfolding, the transient experiments observe complex relaxation behavior that differs for various spectral components and spans time scales from nanoseconds to milliseconds. By modeling the amide I vibrations of ubiquitin, this observation is explained as unfolding of the less stable strands III-V of the ?-sheet prior to unfolding of the hairpin that forms part of the hydrophobic core.

Tokmakoff, Andrei

2005-03-01

351

Protein denaturation at a single-molecule level: the effect of nonpolar environments and its implications on the unfolding mechanism by proteases.  

PubMed

Most proteins are typically folded into predetermined three-dimensional structures in the aqueous cellular environment. However, proteins can be exposed to a nonpolar environment under certain conditions, such as inside the central cavity of chaperones and unfoldases during protein degradation. It remains unclear how folded proteins behave when moved from an aqueous solvent to a nonpolar one. Here, we employed single-molecule atomic force microscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the structural and mechanical variations of a polyprotein, I278, during the change from a polar to a nonpolar environment. We found that the polyprotein was unfolded into an unstructured polypeptide spontaneously when pulled into nonpolar solvents. This finding was corroborated by MD simulations where I27 was dragged from water into a nonpolar solvent, revealing details of the unfolding process at the water/nonpolar solvent interface. These results highlight the importance of water in maintaining folding stability, and provide insights into the response of folded proteins to local hydrophobic environments. PMID:25597693

Cheng, Bo; Wu, Shaogui; Liu, Shixin; Rodriguez-Aliaga, Piere; Yu, Jin; Cui, Shuxun

2015-02-01

352

Structural correspondence between the ?-helix and the random-flight chain resolves how unfolded proteins can have native-like properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we have proposed that, on average, the structure of the unfolded state of small, mostly ?-helical proteins may be similar to the native structure (the 'mean-structure' hypothesis). After examining thousands of simulations of both the folded and the unfolded states of five polypeptides in atomistic detail at room temperature, we report here a result that seems at odds with

Bojan Zagrovic; Vijay S Pande

2003-01-01

353

Comparative study of protein unfolding in aqueous urea and dimethyl sulfoxide solutions: surface polarity, solvent specificity, and sequence of secondary structure melting.  

PubMed

Elucidation of possible pathways between folded (native) and unfolded states of a protein is a challenging task, as the intermediates are often hard to detect. Here, we alter the solvent environment in a controlled manner by choosing two different cosolvents of water, urea, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and study unfolding of four different proteins to understand the respective sequence of melting by computer simulation methods. We indeed find interesting differences in the sequence of melting of ? helices and ? sheets in these two solvents. For example, in 8 M urea solution, ?-sheet parts of a protein are found to unfold preferentially, followed by the unfolding of ? helices. In contrast, 8 M DMSO solution unfolds ? helices first, followed by the separation of ? sheets for the majority of proteins. Sequence of unfolding events in four different ?/? proteins and also in chicken villin head piece (HP-36) both in urea and DMSO solutions demonstrate that the unfolding pathways are determined jointly by relative exposure of polar and nonpolar residues of a protein and the mode of molecular action of a solvent on that protein. PMID:24807152

Roy, Susmita; Bagchi, Biman

2014-05-29

354

Examining faking on personality inventories using unfolding item response theory models.  

PubMed

A concern about personality inventories in diagnostic and decision-making contexts is that individuals will fake. Although there is extensive research on faking, little research has focused on how perceptions of personality items change when individuals are faking or responding honestly. This research demonstrates how the delta parameter from the generalized graded unfolding item response theory model can be used to examine how individuals' perceptions about personality items might change when responding honestly or when faking. The results indicate that perceptions changed from honest to faking conditions for several neuroticism items. The direction of the change varied, indicating that faking can operate to increase or decrease scores within a personality factor. PMID:23030769

Scherbaum, Charles A; Sabet, Jennifer; Kern, Michael J; Agnello, Paul

2013-01-01

355

Interactions of main chain in folding and self assembly of unfolded protein structure: Enquiries with a serine solubilized nonapeptide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions of the protein main chain are probed for their role in folding and self-assembly. The interactions are assessed with serine nonapeptide Ac-(Ser-Ala)4-Ser-NH2 in poly-L and alternating-L,D structure variations. Being a neutral molecule, Serine nonapeptide has been found to display not only folding-unfolding equilibrium, but also association-dissociation equilibrium as a function of solvent and concentration. Thus scrutiny of intra- and inter-molecular interactions have been undertaken in water, methanol, and DMSO solvents. In water, poly-L peptide displays a PPII-helix conformation which unfolds to extended ?-conformation with increase of temperature, apparently in a two-state equilibrium. Poly-L peptide at high concentration and on transfer to the low polarity solvent, methanol, displays ordering as a ?-hairpin. This implies folding of the peptide by self assembly. Self assembly and ordering possibly as double-stranded ?-helix is also evidence for alternating-L,D peptide. Both isomers were observed to be unfolded in high polarity solvent DMSO. Dynamic light scattering suggests that assembly in both isomers may involve large size aggregates. The results have established that folding and self-assembly can be coupled equilibria dependent upon solute structure, concentration, and solvent. The interactions of the protein main chain involved in folding and self assembly of unfolded structure are illuminated and have been discussed.

Srivastava, Kinshuk Raj; Durani, Susheel

2014-06-01

356

The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) & The Endoplasmic Reticulum  

E-print Network

degraded in non-lysosomal compartments ER protease Retrotranslocation ·A yeast vacuolar protease sensitive to genetic defects in PERK, ATF6, Wolframin (Wolfram Syndrome) ­ Akita mouse ­ Insulin2 gene

Bedwell, David M.

357

Atypical induction of the unfolded protein response by mifepristone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mifepristone is a synthetic progesterone antagonist that is being used widely for the treatment of various conditions such\\u000a as endometriosis, glaucoma, meningiomas, breast, ovarian and prostate cancer, as well as for research purposes, in the conditional\\u000a induction of gene expression by using artificial plasmid-based systems. Here, we report that exposure of A549 human lung cancer\\u000a cells to mifepristone caused an

N. Dioufa; E. Kassi; A. G. Papavassiliou; H. Kiaris

2010-01-01

358

Single-molecule spectroscopy of the unexpected collapse of an unfolded protein at low pH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dimensions of intrinsically disordered and unfolded proteins critically depend on the solution conditions, such as temperature, pH, ionic strength, and osmolyte or denarurant concentration. However, a quantitative understanding of how the complex combination of chain-chain and chain-solvent interactions is affected by the solvent is still missing. Here, we take a step towards this goal by investigating the combined effect of pH and denaturants on the dimensions of an unfolded protein. We use single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy to extract the dimensions of unfolded cold shock protein (CspTm) in mixtures of the denaturants urea and guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) at neutral and acidic pH. Surprisingly, even though a change in pH from 7 to 2.9 increases the net charge of CspTm from -3.8 to +10.2, the radius of gyration of the chain is very similar under both conditions, indicating that protonation of acidic side chains at low pH results in additional hydrophobic interactions. We use a simple shared binding site model that describes the joint effect of urea and GdmCl, together with polyampholyte theory and an ion cloud model that includes the chemical free energy of counterion interactions and side chain protonation, to quantify this effect.

Hofmann, Hagen; Nettels, Daniel; Schuler, Benjamin

2013-09-01

359

Effects of ammonium bicarbonate on the electrospray mass spectra of proteins: evidence for bubble-induced unfolding.  

PubMed

Many protein investigations by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) strive to ensure a "native" solvent environment, i.e., nondenaturing conditions up to the point of gas-phase ion formation. Ideally, these studies would employ a volatile pH buffer to mitigate changes in H(+) concentration that can occur during ESI. Ammonium acetate is a commonly used additive, despite its low buffering capacity at pH 7. Ammonium bicarbonate provides greatly improved pH stabilization, thus offering an interesting alternative. Surprisingly, protein analyses in bicarbonate at pH 7 tend to result in the formation of very high charge states, similar to those obtained when electrospraying unfolded proteins in a denaturing solvent. This effect has been reported previously (Sterling, H. J.; Cassou, C. A.; Susa, A. C.; Williams, E. R. Anal. Chem. 2012, 84, 3795), but its exact mechanistic origin remains unclear. ESI-mediated unfolding does not take place in acetate under otherwise identical conditions. We demonstrate that heating of protein-containing bicarbonate solutions results in extensive foaming, caused by CO2 outgassing. In contrast, acetate solutions do not generate foam. Protein denaturation caused by gas bubbles is a well-known phenomenon. Adsorption to the gas/liquid interface is accompanied by major conformational changes that allow the protein to act as a surfactant. The foaming of beer is a manifestation of this effect. Bubble formation in bicarbonate during ESI is facilitated by collisional and blackbody droplet heating. Our data imply that heat and bubbles act synergistically to cause unfolding during the electrospray process, while proteins reside in ESI droplets. Because of this effect we advise against the use of ammonium bicarbonate for native ESI-MS. Ammonium acetate represents a gentler droplet environment, despite its low buffering capacity. PMID:23724896

Hedges, Jason B; Vahidi, Siavash; Yue, Xuanfeng; Konermann, Lars

2013-07-01

360

Protein unfolding from free-energy calculations: Integration of the Gaussian network model with bond binding energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by single molecule experiments, we study thermal unfolding pathways of four proteins, chymotrypsin inhibitor, barnase, ubiquitin, and adenylate kinase, using bond network models that combine bond energies and elasticity. The protein elasticity is described by the Gaussian network model (GNM), to which we add prescribed bond binding energies that are assigned to all (nonbackbone) connecting bonds in the GNM of native state and assumed identical for simplicity. Using exact calculation of the Helmholtz free energy for this model, we consider bond rupture single events. The bond designated for rupture is chosen by minimizing the free-energy difference for the process, over all (nonbackbone) bonds in the network. Plotting the free-energy profile along this pathway at different temperatures, we observe a few major partial unfolding, metastable or stable, states, that are separated by free-energy barriers and change role as the temperature is raised. In particular, for adenylate kinase we find three major partial unfolding states, which is consistent with single molecule FRET experiments [Pirchi et al., Nat. Commun. 2, 493 (2011), 10.1038/ncomms1504] for which hidden Markov analysis reveals between three and five such states. Such states can play a major role in enzymatic activity.

Srivastava, Amit; Granek, Rony

2015-02-01

361

An alternative explanation for the collapse of unfolded proteins in an aqueous mixture of urea and guanidinium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulations have shown that a totally unfolded protein in aqueous 8 M urea undergoes a collapse transition on replacing urea molecules by guanidinium chloride, GdmCl, assuming a compact conformation in 4 M urea + 4 M GdmCl [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134 (2012) 18266]. This is unexpected because GdmCl is a denaturant stronger than urea. It is shown that such collapse can originate from an increase in the magnitude of the solvent-excluded volume effect due the high density of urea + GdmCl mixtures, coupled to their low water number density that pushes denaturant molecules toward the protein surface.

Graziano, Giuseppe

2014-09-01

362

Analysis of cellular response to protein overexpression.  

PubMed

The overexpression of secreted proteins is of critical importance to the biotechnology and biomedical fields. A common roadblock to high yields of proteins is in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where proofreading for properly folded proteins is often rate limiting. Heterologous expression of secreted proteins can saturate the cell's capacity to properly fold protein, initiating the unfolded protein response (UPR), and resulting in a loss of protein expression. An obvious method for overcoming this block would be to increase the capacity of the folding process (overexpressing chaperones) or decreasing the proofreading process (blocking the down-regulation by the UPR). Unfortunately, these processes are tightly interlinked, whereby modification of one mechanism has unknown effects on the other. Although some success has been achieved in improving expression via co-overexpressing ER chaperones, the results have not lead to a global method for increasing all heterologously overexpressed proteins. Further, many diseases have been linked to extended periods of stress and are not treatable by these approaches. This work utilises both experimental analysis of the interactions within the ER and modelling in order to understand how these interactions affect early secretory pathway dynamics. This study shows that overexpression of the ER chaperone binding protein does not regulate Ire1p and the UPR as predicted by a model based on the published understanding of the molecular mechanism. A new model is proposed for Ire1p regulation and the UPR that better fits the experimental data and recent studies on Ire1p. PMID:16986272

Raden, D; Hildebrandt, S; Xu, P; Bell, E; Doyle, F J; Robinson, A S

2005-12-01

363

proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS Role of partial protein unfolding in  

E-print Network

neurodegenerative diseases1,2 and sickle cell anemia.3,4 Protein aggregates in therapeutic formulations trigger. To study alcohol effects, we chose benzyl alcohol (BA) because of its wide-range of biochemical at the extremely low levels of 1% v/v. So far, these studies have not provided any mechanistic insight

Mallela, Krishna M. G.

364

Repetitive Protein Unfolding by the trans Ring of the GroEL-GroES Chaperonin Complex Stimulates Folding*  

PubMed Central

A key constraint on the growth of most organisms is the slow and inefficient folding of many essential proteins. To deal with this problem, several diverse families of protein folding machines, known collectively as molecular chaperones, developed early in evolutionary history. The functional role and operational steps of these remarkably complex nanomachines remain subjects of active debate. Here we present evidence that, for the GroEL-GroES chaperonin system, the non-native substrate protein enters the folding cycle on the trans ring of the double-ring GroEL-ATP-GroES complex rather than the ADP-bound complex. The properties of this ATP complex are designed to ensure that non-native substrate protein binds first, followed by ATP and finally GroES. This binding order ensures efficient occupancy of the open GroEL ring and allows for disruption of misfolded structures through two phases of multiaxis unfolding. In this model, repeated cycles of partial unfolding, followed by confinement within the GroEL-GroES chamber, provide the most effective overall mechanism for facilitating the folding of the most stringently dependent GroEL substrate proteins. PMID:24022487

Lin, Zong; Puchalla, Jason; Shoup, Daniel; Rye, Hays S.

2013-01-01

365

Speeding up protein folding: mutations that increase the rate at which Rop folds and unfolds by over four orders of magnitude  

E-print Network

Speeding up protein folding: mutations that increase the rate at which Rop folds and unfolds. Introduction When a protein folds, the backbone and sidechain atoms organize from the extensive number protein folding usually occurs on the order of milliseconds to seconds, it is gener- ally accepted

Mochrie, Simon

366

Force-clamp spectroscopy of single-protein monomers reveals the individual unfolding and folding pathways of I27 and ubiquitin.  

PubMed

Single-protein force experiments have relied on a molecular fingerprint based on tethering multiple single-protein domains in a polyprotein chain. However, correlations between these domains remain an issue in interpreting force spectroscopy data, particularly during protein folding. Here we first show that force-clamp spectroscopy is a sensitive technique that provides a molecular fingerprint based on the unfolding step size of four single-monomer proteins. We then measure the force-dependent unfolding rate kinetics of ubiquitin and I27 monomers and find a good agreement with the data obtained for the respective polyproteins over a wide range of forces, in support of the Markovian hypothesis. Moreover, with a large statistical ensemble at a single force, we show that ubiquitin monomers also exhibit a broad distribution of unfolding times as a signature of disorder in the folded protein landscape. Furthermore, we readily capture the folding trajectories of monomers that exhibit the same stages in folding observed for polyproteins, thus eliminating the possibility of entropic masking by other unfolded modules in the chain or domain-domain interactions. On average, the time to reach the I27 folded length increases with increasing quenching force at a rate similar to that of the polyproteins. Force-clamp spectroscopy at the single-monomer level reproduces the kinetics of unfolding and refolding measured using polyproteins, which proves that there is no mechanical effect of tethering proteins to one another in the case of ubiquitin and I27. PMID:17545242

Garcia-Manyes, Sergi; Bruji?, Jasna; Badilla, Carmen L; Fernández, Julio M

2007-10-01

367

Using an Amino Acid Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Pair To Probe Protein Unfolding: Application to the Villin Headpiece Subdomain and the LysM Domain†  

PubMed Central

Previously, we have shown that p-cyanophenylalanine (PheCN) and tryptophan (Trp) constitute an efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair that has several advantages over commonly used dye pairs. Here, we aim to examine the general applicability of this FRET pair in protein folding–unfolding studies by applying it to the urea-induced unfolding transitions of two small proteins, the villin headpiece subdomain (HP35) and the lysin motif (LysM) domain. Depending on whether PheCN is exposed to solvent, we are able to extract either qualitative information about the folding pathway, as demonstrated by HP35, which has been suggested to unfold in a stepwise manner, or quantitative thermodynamic and structural information, as demonstrated by LysM, which has been shown to be an ideal two-state folder. Our results show that the unfolding transition of HP35 reported by FRET occurs at a denaturant concentration lower than that measured by circular dichroism (CD) and that the loop linking helix 2 and helix 3 remains compact in the denatured state, which are consistent with the notion that HP35 unfolds in discrete steps and that its unfolded state contains residual structures. On the other hand, our FRET results on the LysM domain allow us to develop a model for extracting structural and thermodynamic parameters about its unfolding, and we find that our results are in agreement with those obtained by other methods. Given the fact that PheCN is a non-natural amino acid and, thus, amenable to incorporation into peptides and proteins via existing peptide synthesis and protein expression methods, we believe that the FRET method demonstrated here is widely applicable to protein conformational studies, especially to the study of relatively small proteins. PMID:18816063

Glasscock, Julie M.; Zhu, Yongjin; Chowdhury, Pramit; Tang, Jia; Gai, Feng

2014-01-01

368

How Kinetics within the Unfolded State Affects Protein Folding: an Analysis Based on Markov State Models and an Ultra-Long MD Trajectory  

PubMed Central

Understanding how kinetics in the unfolded state affects protein folding is a fundamentally important yet less well-understood issue. Here we employ three different models to analyze the unfolded landscape and folding kinetics of the miniprotein Trp-cage. The first is a 208 ?s explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulation from D. E. Shaw Research containing tens of folding events. The second is a Markov state model (MSM-MD) constructed from the same ultra-long MD simulation; MSM-MD can be used to generate thousands of folding events. The third is a Markov state model built from temperature replica exchange MD simulations in implicit solvent (MSM-REMD). All the models exhibit multiple folding pathways, and there is a good correspondence between the folding pathways from direct MD and those computed from the MSMs. The unfolded populations interconvert rapidly between extended and collapsed conformations on time scales ? 40 ns, compared with the folding time of ? 5 ?s. The folding rates are independent of where the folding is initiated from within the unfolded ensemble. About 90 % of the unfolded states are sampled within the first 40 ?s of the ultra-long MD trajectory, which on average explores ~27 % of the unfolded state ensemble between consecutive folding events. We clustered the folding pathways according to structural similarity into “tubes”, and kinetically partitioned the unfolded state into populations that fold along different tubes. From our analysis of the simulations and a simple kinetic model, we find that when the mixing within the unfolded state is comparable to or faster than folding, the folding waiting times for all the folding tubes are similar and the folding kinetics is essentially single exponential despite the presence of heterogeneous folding paths with non-uniform barriers. When the mixing is much slower than folding, different unfolded populations fold independently leading to non-exponential kinetics. A kinetic partition of the Trp-cage unfolded state is constructed which reveals that different unfolded populations have almost the same probability to fold along any of the multiple folding paths. We are investigating whether the results for the kinetics in the unfolded state of the twenty-residue Trp-cage is representative of larger single domain proteins. PMID:23705683

Deng, Nan-jie; Dai, Wei

2013-01-01

369

Cooperativity in thermal and force-induced protein unfolding: integration of crack propagation and network elasticity models.  

PubMed

We investigate force-induced and temperature-induced unfolding of proteins using the combination of a gaussian network model and a crack propagation model based on "bond"-breaking independent events. We assume the existence of threshold values for the mean strain and strain fluctuations that dictate bond rupture. Surprisingly, we find that this stepwise process usually leads to a few cooperative, first-order-like, transitions in which several bonds break simultaneously, reminiscent of the "avalanches" seen in disordered networks. PMID:23581376

Srivastava, Amit; Granek, Rony

2013-03-29

370

Characterizing the structures and folding of free proteins using 2-D gas-phase separations: observation of multiple unfolded conformers.  

PubMed

Understanding the 3-D structure and dynamics of proteins and other biological macromolecules in various environments is among the central challenges of chemistry. Electrospray ionization can often transfer ions from solution to gas phase with only limited structural distortion, allowing their profiling using mass spectrometry and other gas-phase approaches. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) can separate and characterize macroion conformations with high sensitivity and speed. However, IMS separation power is generally insufficient for full resolution of major structural variants of protein ions and elucidation of their interconversion dynamics. Here we report characterization of macromolecular conformations using field asymmetric waveform IMS (FAIMS) coupled to conventional IMS in conjunction with mass spectrometry. The collisional heating of ions in the electrodynamic funnel trap between FAIMS and IMS stages enables investigating the structural evolution of particular isomeric precursors as a function of the intensity and duration of activation that can be varied over large ranges. These new capabilities are demonstrated for ubiquitin and cytochrome c, two common model proteins for structure and folding studies. For nearly all charge states, two-dimensional FAIMS/IMS separations distinguish many more conformations than either FAIMS or IMS alone, including some with very low abundance. For cytochrome c in high charge states, we find several abundant "unfolded" isomer series not distinguishable by IMS, possibly corresponding to different "string of beads" geometries. The unfolding of specific ubiquitin conformers selected by FAIMS has been studied by employing their heating in the FAIMS/IMS interface. PMID:16689531

Shvartsburg, Alexandre A; Li, Fumin; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D

2006-05-15

371

Unfolding stabilities of two paralogous proteins from Naja naja naja (Indian cobra) as probed by molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

Structurally similar but functionally different two paralogous proteins, CTX1 (a cardiotoxin) and LNTX2 (an alpha-neurotoxin), from venom of Naja naja naja have been homology modeled and subjected to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at four different temperatures (298 K, 310 K, 373 K & 473 K) under close quarters of physiological conditions. Each MD simulation was performed for 25 ns and trajectory structures stored at every 25 ps were used to probe various structural events occurring in the temperature-induced unfolding of the proteins. Notwithstanding their similar scaffolds, the two proteins are drastically differing in their unfolding stabilities from each other. The structural orders of flexibilities for the CTX1 and LNTX2 were found to be loop II > loop III > loop I > C-terminal and C-terminal > loop I > loop III > loop II, respectively. Based on the comprehensive analyses of the simulation data and studies on the various structural interactions of all cardiotoxins (CTXs) and alpha-neurotoxins (NTXs) for which three-dimensional structures determined by experimental techniques are available to date, we have herein proposed a hypothesis ('CN network') rationalizing the differential stabilities of the CTXs and NTXs belonging to a three-finger toxin superfamily of snake venoms. PMID:23791667

Gorai, Biswajit; Sivaraman, Thirunavukkarasu

2013-09-01

372

Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry of Intrinsically Unfolded Proteins: Trying to Put Order into Disorder  

PubMed Central

Intrinsically disordered proteins do not adopt well-defined native structures and therefore present an intriguing challenge in terms of structural elucidation as they are relatively inaccessible to traditional approaches such as NMR and X-ray crystallography. Many members of this important group of proteins have a distinct biological function and frequently undergo a conformational change on binding to their physiological targets which can in turn modulate their function. Furthermore, many intrinsically unstructured proteins are associated with a wide range of major diseases including cancer and amyloid-related disorders. Here, electrospray ionisation-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (ESI-IMS-MS) has been used to probe the conformational characteristics of two intrinsically disordered proteins: apo-cytochrome c and apo-osteocalcin. Both proteins are structured in their holo-states when bound to their respective substrates, but disordered in their apo-states. Here, the conformational properties of the holo- and the apo-protein forms for both species have been analysed and their mass spectral data and ion mobility spectrometry-derived collision cross-sectional areas, indicative of their physical size, compared to study the relationship between substrate binding and tertiary structure. In both cases, the intrinsically unstructured apo-states populated multiple conformations with larger cross-sectional areas than their holo-analogues, suggesting that intrinsic disorder in proteins does not preclude the formation of preferred conformations. Additionally, analysis of truncated analogues of osteocalcin has located the region of the protein responsible for the conformational changes detected upon metal cation binding. Together, the data illustrate the scope and utility of ESI-IMS-MS for studying the characteristics and properties of intrinsically disordered proteins whose analysis by other techniques is limited. PMID:23885220

Knapman, T. W; Valette, N. M; Warriner, S. L; Ashcroft, A. E

2013-01-01

373

Structural and Hydration Properties of the Partially Unfolded States of the Prion Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Misfolding and aggregation of the prion protein (PrP) is responsible for the development of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). To gain insights into possible aggregation-prone intermediate states, we construct the free energy surface of the C-terminal globular domain of the PrP from enhanced sampling of replica exchange molecular dynamics. This cellular domain is characterized by three helices H1–H3 and a small

Alfonso De Simone; Adriana Zagari; Philippe Derreumaux

2007-01-01

374

Resolution of the unfolded state.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unfolded states in proteins and nucleic acids remain weakly understood despite their importance to protein folding; misfolding diseases (Parkinson's & Alzheimer's); natively unfolded proteins (˜ 30% of eukaryotic proteins); and to understanding ribozymes. Research has been hindered by the inability to quantify the residual (native) structure present in an unfolded protein or nucleic acid. Here, a scaling model is proposed to quantify the degree of folding and the unfolded state (Beaucage, 2004, 2007). The model takes a global view of protein structure and can be applied to a number of analytic methods and to simulations. Three examples are given of application to small-angle scattering from pressure induced unfolding of SNase (Panick, 1998), from acid unfolded Cyt c (Kataoka, 1993) and from folding of Azoarcus ribozyme (Perez-Salas, 2004). These examples quantitatively show 3 characteristic unfolded states for proteins, the statistical nature of a folding pathway and the relationship between extent of folding and chain size during folding for charge driven folding in RNA. Beaucage, G., Biophys. J., in press (2007). Beaucage, G., Phys. Rev. E. 70, 031401 (2004). Kataoka, M., Y. Hagihara, K. Mihara, Y. Goto J. Mol. Biol. 229, 591 (1993). Panick, G., R. Malessa, R. Winter, G. Rapp, K. J. Frye, C. A. Royer J. Mol. Biol. 275, 389 (1998). Perez-Salas U. A., P. Rangan, S. Krueger, R. M. Briber, D. Thirumalai, S. A. Woodson, Biochemistry 43 1746 (2004).

Beaucage, Gregory

2008-03-01

375

Experiments and simulations show how long-range contacts can form in expanded unfolded proteins with negligible secondary structure  

PubMed Central

The sizes of unfolded proteins under highly denaturing conditions scale as N0.59 with chain length. This suggests that denaturing conditions mimic good solvents, whereby the preference for favorable chain–solvent interactions causes intrachain interactions to be repulsive, on average. Beyond this generic inference, the broader implications of N0.59 scaling for quantitative descriptions of denatured state ensembles (DSEs) remain unresolved. Of particular interest is the degree to which N0.59 scaling can simultaneously accommodate intrachain attractions and detectable long-range contacts. Here we present data showing that the DSE of the N-terminal domain of the L9 (NTL9) ribosomal protein in 8.3 M urea lacks detectable secondary structure and forms expanded conformations in accord with the expected N0.59 scaling behavior. Paramagnetic relaxation enhancements, however, indicate the presence of detectable long-range contacts in the denatured-state ensemble of NTL9. To explain these observations we used atomistic thermal unfolding simulations to identify ensembles whose properties are consistent with all of the experimental observations, thus serving as useful proxies for the DSE of NTL9 in 8.3 M urea. Analysis of these ensembles shows that residual attractions are present under mimics of good solvent conditions, and for NTL9 they result from low-likelihood, medium/long-range contacts between hydrophobic residues. Our analysis provides a quantitative framework for the simultaneous observation of N0.59 scaling and low-likelihood long-range contacts for the DSE of NTL9. We propose that such low-likelihood intramolecular hydrophobic clusters might be a generic feature of DSEs that play a gatekeeping role to protect against aggregation during protein folding. PMID:23341588

Meng, Wenli; Lyle, Nicholas; Luan, Bowu; Raleigh, Daniel P.; Pappu, Rohit V.

2013-01-01

376

The N-terminal domain of the enzyme I is a monomeric well-folded protein with a low conformational stability and residual structure in the unfolded state.  

PubMed

The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system is a multiprotein complex that phosphorylates and, concomitantly, transports carbohydrates across the membrane into the cell. The first protein of the cascade is a multidomain protein so-called enzyme I (EI). The N-terminal domain of EI from Streptomyces coelicolor, EIN(sc), responsible for the binding to the second protein in the cascade (the histidine phosphocarrier, HPr), was cloned and successfully expressed and purified. We have previously shown that EI(sc) binds to HPr(sc) with smaller affinity than other members of the EI and HPr families [Hurtado-Gómez et al. (2008) Biophys. J., 95, 1336-1348]. We think that the study of the isolated binding HPr(sc) domain, that is EIN(sc), could shed light on the small affinity value measured. Therefore, in this work we present a detailed description of the structural features of the EIN domain, as a first step towards a complete characterization of the molecular recognition process between the two proteins. We show that EIN(sc) is a folded protein, with alpha-helix and beta-sheet structures and also random-coil conformations, as shown by circular dichroism (CD), FTIR and NMR spectroscopies. The acquisition of secondary and tertiary structures, and the burial of hydrophobic regions, occurred concomitantly at acidic pHs, but at very low pH, the domain acquired a molten-globule conformation. The EIN(sc) protein was not very stable, with an apparent conformational free energy change upon unfolding, DeltaG, of 4.1 +/- 0.4 kcal mol(-1), which was pH independent in the range explored (from pH 6.0 to 8.5). The thermal denaturation midpoint, which was also pH invariant, was similar to that measured in the isolated intact EI(sc). Although EIN(sc) shows thermal- and chemical denaturations that seems to follow a two-state mechanism, there is evidence of residual structure in the chemical and thermally unfolded states, as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry and CD measurements. PMID:20630900

Romero-Beviar, Manuel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Sergio; Prieto, Jesús; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Ariz, Usue; Martínez-Chantar, María de la Luz; Gómez, Javier; Neira, José L

2010-09-01

377

Force-Clamp Spectroscopy of Single-Protein Monomers Reveals the Individual Unfolding and Folding Pathways of I27 and Ubiquitin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-protein force experiments have relied on a molecular fingerprint based on tethering multiple single-protein domains in a polyprotein chain. However, correlations between these domains remain an issue in interpreting force spectroscopy data, particularly during protein folding. Here we first show that force-clamp spectroscopy is a sensitive technique that provides a molecular fingerprint based on the unfolding step size of four

Sergi Garcia-Manyes; Jasna Brujic; Carmen L. Badilla; Julio M. Fernandez

2007-01-01

378

"Invisible" Conformers of an Antifungal Disulfide Protein Revealed by Constrained Cold and Heat Unfolding, CEST-NMR Experiments, and Molecular Dynamics Calculations.  

PubMed

Transition between conformational states in proteins is being recognized as a possible key factor of function. In support of this, hidden dynamic NMR structures were detected in several cases up to populations of a few percent. Here, we show by two- and three-state analysis of thermal unfolding, that the population of hidden states may weight 20-40?% at 298?K in a disulfide-rich protein. In addition, sensitive (15) N-CEST NMR experiments identified a low populated (0.15?%) state that was in slow exchange with the folded PAF protein. Remarkably, other techniques failed to identify the rest of the NMR "dark matter". Comparison of the temperature dependence of chemical shifts from experiments and molecular dynamics calculations suggests that hidden conformers of PAF differ in the loop and terminal regions and are most similar in the evolutionary conserved core. Our observations point to the existence of a complex conformational landscape with multiple conformational states in dynamic equilibrium, with diverse exchange rates presumably responsible for the completely hidden nature of a considerable fraction. PMID:25676351

Fizil, Ádám; Gáspári, Zoltán; Barna, Terézia; Marx, Florentine; Batta, Gyula

2015-03-23

379

Randomizing the Unfolded State of Peptides (and Proteins) by Nearest Neighbor Interactions between Unlike Residues.  

PubMed

To explore the influence of nearest neighbors on conformational biases in unfolded peptides, we combined vibrational and 2D NMR spectroscopy to obtain the conformational distributions of selected "GxyG" host-guest peptides in aqueous solution: GDyG, GSyG, GxLG, GxVG, where x/y=A, K, L, V. Large changes of conformational propensities were observed due to nearest-neighbor interactions, at variance with the isolated pair hypothesis. We found that protonated aspartic acid and serine lose their above-the-average preference for turn-like structures in favor of polyproline?II (pPII) populations in the presence of neighbors with bulky side chains. Such residues also decrease the above-the-average pPII preference of alanine. These observations suggest that the underlying mechanism involves a disruption of the hydration shell. Thermodynamic analysis of (3) J(H(N) ,H(?) ) (T) data for each x,y residue reveals that modest changes in the conformational ensemble masks larger changes of enthalpy and entropy governing the pPII?? equilibrium indicating a significant residue dependent temperature dependence of the peptides' conformational ensembles. These results suggest that nearest-neighbor interactions between unlike residues act as conformational randomizers close to the enthalpy-entropy compensation temperature, eliminating intrinsic biases in favor of largely balanced pPII/? dominated ensembles at physiological temperatures. PMID:25728043

Toal, Siobhan E; Kubatova, Nina; Richter, Christian; Linhard, Verena; Schwalbe, Harald; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard

2015-03-23

380

Slow Proton Transfer Coupled to Unfolding Explains the Puzzling Results of Single-Molecule Experiments on BBL, a Paradigmatic Downhill Folding Protein  

PubMed Central

A battery of thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural approaches has indicated that the small ?-helical protein BBL folds-unfolds via the one-state downhill scenario. Yet, single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy offers a more conflicting view. Single-molecule experiments at pH 6 show a unique half-unfolded conformational ensemble at mid denaturation, whereas other experiments performed at higher pH show a bimodal distribution, as expected for two-state folding. Here we use thermodynamic and laser T-jump kinetic experiments combined with theoretical modeling to investigate the pH dependence of BBL stability, folding kinetics and mechanism within the pH 6–11 range. We find that BBL unfolding is tightly coupled to the protonation of one of its residues with an apparent pKa of ?7. Therefore, in chemical denaturation experiments around neutral pH BBL unfolds gradually, and also converts in binary fashion to the protonated species. Moreover, under the single-molecule experimental conditions (denaturant midpoint and 279 K), we observe that proton transfer is much slower than the ?15 microseconds folding-unfolding kinetics of BBL. The relaxation kinetics is distinctly biphasic, and the overall relaxation time (i.e. 0.2–0.5 ms) becomes controlled by the proton transfer step. We then show that a simple theoretical model of protein folding coupled to proton transfer explains quantitatively all these results as well as the two sets of single-molecule experiments, including their more puzzling features. Interestingly, this analysis suggests that BBL unfolds following a one-state downhill folding mechanism at all conditions. Accordingly, the source of the bimodal distributions observed during denaturation at pH 7–8 is the splitting of the unique conformational ensemble of BBL onto two slowly inter-converting protonation species. Both, the unprotonated and protonated species unfold gradually (one-state downhill), but they exhibit different degree of unfolding at any given condition because the native structure is less stable for the protonated form. PMID:24205082

Cerminara, Michele; Campos, Luis A.; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Muñoz, Victor

2013-01-01

381

Investigation of electrocatalytic pathway for hemoglobin toward nitric oxide by electrochemical approach based on protein controllable unfolding and in-situ reaction.  

PubMed

An electrochemical approach based on protein controllable unfolding was developed and applied in combination with in-situ reaction in order to investigate the electrocatalytic pathway for hemoglobin (Hb) toward nitric oxide (NO). Hb was entrapped in a dimethyldidodecylammonium bromide (DDAB) film modified glassy carbon electrode (DDAB/Hb/GCE). Two typical denaturants of acid and urea were synergistically utilized to control the incorporated Hb to a most unfolded state without losing heme groups. Under optimal conditions, the unfolded DDAB/Hb/GCE exhibited accelerated direct electron transfer. The sensitivities for the detection of ascorbic acid (AA), NaNO(2) and NO were improved as 3, 10 and 12 times higher than those on the native DDAB/Hb/GCE, and the limits of detection (LODs) for AA, NaNO(2) and NO were down to 0.33, 0.83 and 0.063 ?M, respectively. The unfolded DDAB/Hb/GCE was further applied for the investigation of Hb-NO interaction in NaNO(2) solution. With successive additions of AA, NO was generated in situ on DDAB/Hb/GCE. A new reduction peak of the intermediate HbFe(II)-HN(2)O(2) was successfully revealed near -0.65 V. The whole electrocatalytic mechanism was proposed and verified by density functional theory. The method can be a promising platform for facile study of the interaction between NO and heme proteins. PMID:23079342

Wu, Hai; Fan, Suhua; Zhu, Wenyuan; Dai, Zong; Zou, Xiaoyong

2013-03-15

382

Oligomerization, Conformational Stability and Thermal Unfolding of Harpin, HrpZPss and Its Hypersensitive Response-Inducing C-Terminal Fragment, C-214-HrpZPss  

PubMed Central

HrpZ—a harpin from Pseudomonas syringae—is a highly thermostable protein that exhibits multifunctional abilities e.g., it elicits hypersensitive response (HR), enhances plant growth, acts as a virulence factor, and forms pores in plant plasma membranes as well as artificial membranes. However, the molecular mechanism of its biological activity and high thermal stability remained poorly understood. HR inducing abilities of non-overlapping short deletion mutants of harpins put further constraints on the ability to establish structure-activity relationships. We characterized HrpZPss from Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and its HR inducing C-terminal fragment with 214 amino acids (C-214-HrpZPss) using calorimetric, spectroscopic and microscopic approaches. Both C-214-HrpZPss and HrpZPss were found to form oligomers. We propose that leucine-zipper-like motifs may take part in the formation of oligomeric aggregates, and oligomerization could be related to HR elicitation. CD, DSC and fluorescence studies showed that the thermal unfolding of these proteins is complex and involves multiple steps. The comparable conformational stability at 25°C (?10.0 kcal/mol) of HrpZPss and C-214-HrpZPss further suggest that their structures are flexible, and the flexibility allows them to adopt proper conformation for multifunctional abilities. PMID:25502017

Tarafdar, Pradip K.; Vedantam, Lakshmi Vasudev; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Purushotham, Pallinti; Podile, Appa Rao; Swamy, Musti J.

2014-01-01

383

Missense Mutation Lys18Asn in Dystrophin that Triggers X-Linked Dilated Cardiomyopathy Decreases Protein Stability, Increases Protein Unfolding, and Perturbs Protein Structure, but Does Not Affect Protein Function  

PubMed Central

Genetic mutations in a vital muscle protein dystrophin trigger X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (XLDCM). However, disease mechanisms at the fundamental protein level are not understood. Such molecular knowledge is essential for developing therapies for XLDCM. Our main objective is to understand the effect of disease-causing mutations on the structure and function of dystrophin. This study is on a missense mutation K18N. The K18N mutation occurs in the N-terminal actin binding domain (N-ABD). We created and expressed the wild-type (WT) N-ABD and its K18N mutant, and purified to homogeneity. Reversible folding experiments demonstrated that both mutant and WT did not aggregate upon refolding. Mutation did not affect the protein's overall secondary structure, as indicated by no changes in circular dichroism of the protein. However, the mutant is thermodynamically less stable than the WT (denaturant melts), and unfolds faster than the WT (stopped-flow kinetics). Despite having global secondary structure similar to that of the WT, mutant showed significant local structural changes at many amino acids when compared with the WT (heteronuclear NMR experiments). These structural changes indicate that the effect of mutation is propagated over long distances in the protein structure. Contrary to these structural and stability changes, the mutant had no significant effect on the actin-binding function as evident from co-sedimentation and depolymerization assays. These results summarize that the K18N mutation decreases thermodynamic stability, accelerates unfolding, perturbs protein structure, but does not affect the function. Therefore, K18N is a stability defect rather than a functional defect. Decrease in stability and increase in unfolding decrease the net population of dystrophin molecules available for function, which might trigger XLDCM. Consistently, XLDCM patients have decreased levels of dystrophin in cardiac muscle. PMID:25340340

Singh, Surinder M.; Bandi, Swati; Shah, Dinen D.; Armstrong, Geoffrey; Mallela, Krishna M. G.

2014-01-01

384

Dwell-time distribution analysis of polyprotein unfolding using force-clamp spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Using the recently developed single molecule force-clamp technique we quantitatively measure the kinetics of conformational changes of polyprotein molecules at a constant force. In response to an applied force of 110 pN, we measure the dwell times of 1647 unfolding events of individual ubiquitin modules within each protein chain. We then establish a rigorous method for analyzing force-clamp data using order statistics. This allows us to test the success of a history-independent, two-state model in describing the kinetics of the unfolding process. We find that the average unfolding trajectory is independent of the number of protein modules N in each trajectory, which varies between 3 and 12 (the engineered protein length), suggesting that the unfolding events in each chain are uncorrelated. We then derive a binomial distribution of dwell times to describe the stochastic dynamics of protein unfolding. This distribution successfully describes 81% of the data with a single rate constant of alpha = 0.6 s(-1) for all N. The remainder of the data that cannot be accounted for suggests alternative unfolding barriers in the energy landscape of the protein. This method investigates the statistical features of unfolding beyond the average measurement of a single rate constant, thus providing an attractive alternative for measuring kinetics by force-clamp spectroscopy. PMID:17259284

Brujic, Jasna; Hermans, Rodolfo I Z; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi; Walther, Kirstin A; Fernandez, Julio M

2007-04-15

385

Stabilizing Salt-Bridge Enhances Protein Thermostability by Reducing the Heat Capacity Change of Unfolding  

PubMed Central

Most thermophilic proteins tend to have more salt bridges, and achieve higher thermostability by up-shifting and broadening their protein stability curves. While the stabilizing effect of salt-bridge has been extensively studied, experimental data on how salt-bridge influences protein stability curves are scarce. Here, we used double mutant cycles to determine the temperature-dependency of the pair-wise interaction energy and the contribution of salt-bridges to ?Cp in a thermophilic ribosomal protein L30e. Our results showed that the pair-wise interaction energies for the salt-bridges E6/R92 and E62/K46 were stabilizing and insensitive to temperature changes from 298 to 348 K. On the other hand, the pair-wise interaction energies between the control long-range ion-pair of E90/R92 were negligible. The ?Cp of all single and double mutants were determined by Gibbs-Helmholtz and Kirchhoff analyses. We showed that the two stabilizing salt-bridges contributed to a reduction of ?Cp by 0.8–1.0 kJ mol?1 K?1. Taken together, our results suggest that the extra salt-bridges found in thermophilic proteins enhance the thermostability of proteins by reducing ?Cp, leading to the up-shifting and broadening of the protein stability curves. PMID:21720566

Chan, Chi-Ho; Yu, Tsz-Ha; Wong, Kam-Bo

2011-01-01

386

Verification of unfold error estimates in the unfold operator code  

SciTech Connect

Spectral unfolding is an inverse mathematical operation that attempts to obtain spectral source information from a set of response functions and data measurements. Several unfold algorithms have appeared over the past 30 years; among them is the unfold operator (UFO) code written at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition to an unfolded spectrum, the UFO code also estimates the unfold uncertainty (error) induced by estimated random uncertainties in the data. In UFO the unfold uncertainty is obtained from the error matrix. This built-in estimate has now been compared to error estimates obtained by running the code in a Monte Carlo fashion with prescribed data distributions (Gaussian deviates). In the test problem studied, data were simulated from an arbitrarily chosen blackbody spectrum (10 keV) and a set of overlapping response functions. The data were assumed to have an imprecision of 5{percent} (standard deviation). One hundred random data sets were generated. The built-in estimate of unfold uncertainty agreed with the Monte Carlo estimate to within the statistical resolution of this relatively small sample size (95{percent} confidence level). A possible 10{percent} bias between the two methods was unresolved. The Monte Carlo technique is also useful in underdetermined problems, for which the error matrix method does not apply. UFO has been applied to the diagnosis of low energy x rays emitted by Z-pinch and ion-beam driven hohlraums. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Fehl, D.L.; Biggs, F. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

1997-01-01