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Sample records for unhealthy eating behaviours

  1. Gender Differences in the Relationships between Bullying at School and Unhealthy Eating and Shape-Related Attitudes and Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Claire V.; Fox, Claire L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research has found links between being a victim of bullying and reporting more unhealthy eating behaviours and cognitions, particularly in girls. However, little is known about the factors that might mediate these relationships. Aim: The present study compared the relationships between bullying, emotional adjustment,…

  2. Associations between the use of social networking sites and unhealthy eating behaviours and excess body weight in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A

    2015-12-14

    Unhealthy eating behaviour and excess body weight have been related to sedentary behaviour, particularly screen time, in adolescents; however, little is known about their associations with the use of social networking sites (SNS). We investigated the associations between time spent using SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours (including breakfast skipping, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and energy drinks) and body weight in adolescents. Data on 9858 students (mean age: 15·2 (SD 1·9) years) in grades 7 through 12 were derived from the 2013 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey--a cross-sectional school-based survey of middle and high school students. The majority (81·5%) of students reported daily use of SNS and an additional 10·7% reported using them on an irregular basis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the use of SNS was associated with increased odds of skipping breakfast (P trend<0·01) and consuming SSB (P trend<0·01) and energy drinks (P trend<0·01) in a dose-response manner with adjustments for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status, tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use as well as BMI. However, there was no evidence of a significant association between use of SNS and BMI before or after adjusting for all the covariates and unhealthy eating behaviours. In conclusion, our results suggest associations between the use of SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours among youth. Given the popularity of SNS, more efforts are needed to better understand the impact of social networks on eating behaviours and risk of excess weight. PMID:26400488

  3. Unhealthy Behaviours: An International Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Ferretti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    In the current global economy, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the leading cause of death and a major health concern for both developed and developing countries. Among other factors, the worldwide spread of NCDs is driven by the globalisation of unhealthy habits. The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple statistic to measure, at the national level, the average population’s exposure to the main NCDs modifiable risk factors. The approach and methodology followed by the United Nations Development Programme to compute the Human Development Index (HDI) is applied to four basic indicators of NCD-related preventable risk factors (alcohol consumption, excess caloric intake, non-balanced diet and tobacco use) in 112 countries worldwide in 2012–14. We obtain a summary composite index, which we call the Unhealthy Behaviour Index (UBI), which ranks countries by the average level of the unhealthy habits (drinking, eating and smoking) of their populations. We find that Belarus and Russian federation are the two countries with the unhealthiest NCD-related lifestyle. With the exception of Canada, the first twenty populations more exposed to the main NCDs preventable risk factors all live in European countries, and mainly in countries of Eastern Europe. Overall, the UBI tends to increase along with the level of human development. In medium, high and very high HDI countries, however, the same level of human development may be associated with very different kinds of NCD-related lifestyles. Finally, economic growth may push populations toward either more unhealthy or healthy habits, depending on the countries’ level of development; the elasticity of unhealthy habits with respect to income per capita is positive (but less than one: on average 0.6) until $30,000, decreases as income rises, and becomes negative (around -0.3) in very high income countries. PMID:26512717

  4. Unhealthy Behaviours: An International Comparison.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    In the current global economy, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the leading cause of death and a major health concern for both developed and developing countries. Among other factors, the worldwide spread of NCDs is driven by the globalisation of unhealthy habits. The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple statistic to measure, at the national level, the average population's exposure to the main NCDs modifiable risk factors. The approach and methodology followed by the United Nations Development Programme to compute the Human Development Index (HDI) is applied to four basic indicators of NCD-related preventable risk factors (alcohol consumption, excess caloric intake, non-balanced diet and tobacco use) in 112 countries worldwide in 2012-14. We obtain a summary composite index, which we call the Unhealthy Behaviour Index (UBI), which ranks countries by the average level of the unhealthy habits (drinking, eating and smoking) of their populations. We find that Belarus and Russian federation are the two countries with the unhealthiest NCD-related lifestyle. With the exception of Canada, the first twenty populations more exposed to the main NCDs preventable risk factors all live in European countries, and mainly in countries of Eastern Europe. Overall, the UBI tends to increase along with the level of human development. In medium, high and very high HDI countries, however, the same level of human development may be associated with very different kinds of NCD-related lifestyles. Finally, economic growth may push populations toward either more unhealthy or healthy habits, depending on the countries' level of development; the elasticity of unhealthy habits with respect to income per capita is positive (but less than one: on average 0.6) until $30,000, decreases as income rises, and becomes negative (around -0.3) in very high income countries. PMID:26512717

  5. Defining Features of Unhealthy Exercise Associated with Disordered Eating and Eating Disorder Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Lauren A.; Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The current study sought to compare different features of unhealthy exercise on associations with disordered eating and their ability to identify individuals with eating disorders. A secondary aim of the study was to compare prevalence and overlap of different aspects of unhealthy exercise and potential differences in their gender distribution. Design Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Methods A community-based sample of men (n=592) and women (n=1468) completed surveys of health and eating patterns, including questions regarding exercise habits and eating disorder symptoms. Results Compulsive and compensatory features of exercise were the best predictors of disordered eating and eating disorder diagnoses compared to exercise that was excessive in quantity. Further, compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise represented overlapping, yet distinct qualities in both men and women. Conclusions Including the compulsive quality among the defining features of unhealthy exercise may improve identification of eating disorders, particularly in men. Results suggest that the compensatory aspect of unhealthy exercise is not adequately captured by the compulsive aspect of unhealthy exercise. Thus, interventions that target unhealthy exercise behaviors among high-risk individuals, such as athletes, may benefit from addressing both the compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise. Future prospective longitudinal studies will aid in determining the direction of the association between these features of unhealthy exercise and the onset of eating pathology. PMID:24391457

  6. When Teens' Eating Habits Become Unhealthy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Alexander R.

    1984-01-01

    Eating disorders than may beset teenagers and seriously affect their health are discussed. Facts about causes, symptoms, and treatments for anorexia nervosa and bulimia, a disorder which involves overeating, followed by self-induced vomiting or purging, are presented. (PP)

  7. Weight discrimination and unhealthy eating-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina; Robinson, Eric; Daly, Michael; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Individuals with obesity often experience unfair treatment because of their body weight. Such experiences are associated with binge eating, but less is known about its association with other eating-related behaviors and whether these relations are specific to discrimination based on weight or extend to other attributions for discrimination. The present research uses a large national sample (N = 5129) to examine whether weight discrimination is associated with diet and meal rhythmicity, in addition to overeating, and whether these associations generalize to nine other attributions for discrimination. We found that in addition to overeating, weight discrimination was associated with more frequent consumption of convenience foods and less regular meal timing. These associations were generally similar across sex, age, and race. Discrimination based on ancestry, gender, age, religion, and physical disability were also associated with overeating, which suggests that overeating may be a general coping response to discrimination. Unfair treatment because of body weight is associated with unhealthy eating-related behaviors, which may be one pathway through which weight discrimination increases risk for weight gain and obesity. PMID:26877216

  8. Moral responsibility for (un)healthy behaviour.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca C H

    2013-11-01

    Combatting chronic, lifestyle-related disease has become a healthcare priority in the developed world. The role personal responsibility should play in healthcare provision has growing pertinence given the growing significance of individual lifestyle choices for health. Media reporting focussing on the 'bad behaviour' of individuals suffering lifestyle-related disease, and policies aimed at encouraging 'responsibilisation' in healthcare highlight the importance of understanding the scope of responsibility ascriptions in this context. Research into the social determinants of health and psychological mechanisms of health behaviour could undermine some commonly held and tacit assumptions about the moral responsibility of agents for the sorts of lifestyles they adopt. I use Philip Petit's conception of freedom as 'fitness to be held responsible' to consider the significance of some of this evidence for assessing the moral responsibility of agents. I propose that, in some cases, factors outside the agent's control may influence behaviour in such a way as to undermine her freedom along the three dimensions described by Pettit: freedom of action; a sense of identification with one's actions; and whether one's social position renders one vulnerable to pressure from more powerful others. PMID:23315854

  9. Moral responsibility for (un)healthy behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rebecca C H

    2013-01-01

    Combatting chronic, lifestyle-related disease has become a healthcare priority in the developed world. The role personal responsibility should play in healthcare provision has growing pertinence given the growing significance of individual lifestyle choices for health. Media reporting focussing on the ‘bad behaviour’ of individuals suffering lifestyle-related disease, and policies aimed at encouraging ‘responsibilisation’ in healthcare highlight the importance of understanding the scope of responsibility ascriptions in this context. Research into the social determinants of health and psychological mechanisms of health behaviour could undermine some commonly held and tacit assumptions about the moral responsibility of agents for the sorts of lifestyles they adopt. I use Philip Petit's conception of freedom as ‘fitness to be held responsible’ to consider the significance of some of this evidence for assessing the moral responsibility of agents. I propose that, in some cases, factors outside the agent's control may influence behaviour in such a way as to undermine her freedom along the three dimensions described by Pettit: freedom of action; a sense of identification with one's actions; and whether one's social position renders one vulnerable to pressure from more powerful others. PMID:23315854

  10. Individual, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Healthy and Unhealthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapp, Georgina S. A.; Hickling, Siobhan; Christian, Hayley E.; Bull, Fiona; Timperio, Anna F.; Boruff, Bryan; Shrestha, Damber; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies use comprehensive ecological approaches considering multilevel factors to understand correlates of healthy (and unhealthy) dietary intake. The aim of this study was to examine the association between individual, social, and environmental factors on composite measures of healthy and unhealthy dietary intake in adults.…

  11. Associated factors of unhealthy eating patterns among Spanish university students by gender.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Ana; Carrobles, José Antonio; Gandarillas, Ana M

    2010-05-01

    This study has examined bio-socio-demographic and psychopathological factors probably associated with unhealthy eating patterns among university students and to estimate a multifactorial model following the associated factors by gender. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to describe associations on basis of Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) stratified by gender in a representative sample of Spanish university students (n = 2551). The high EDI scorers for both sexes presented higher prevalence of dieting, body dissatisfaction, levels of psychopathology and lower self-esteem than the low EDI scorers. The results suggest that older students and higher self-esteem scores present lower scores in the EDI. In the female population, depression, paranoid dimension, dieting and body dissatisfaction were associated with population with unhealthy eating patterns. In the male sample, dieting, body dissatisfaction and interpersonal sensibility were also associated with unhealthy eating patterns. The results corroborate that abnormal eating patterns tend to affect specific vulnerable groups. We do not know the precise mechanisms through which these risk behaviors and attitudes, such as dieting or body dissatisfaction, may facilitate the later development of an eating disorder. PMID:20480703

  12. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit motivation and unhealthy eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Oertig, Daniela; Brandstätter, Veronika; Allemand, Mathias

    2010-08-01

    Many people change their eating behavior as a consequence of stress. One source of stress is intrapersonal psychological conflict as caused by discrepancies between implicit and explicit motives. In the present research, we examined whether eating behavior is related to this form of stress. Study 1 (N=53), a quasi-experimental study in the lab, showed that the interaction between the implicit achievement motive disposition and explicit commitment toward an achievement task significantly predicts the number of snacks consumed in a consecutive taste test. In cross-sectional Study 2 (N=100), with a sample of middle-aged women, overall motive discrepancy was significantly related to diverse indices of unsettled eating. Regression analyses revealed interaction effects specifically for power and achievement motivation and not for affiliation. Emotional distress further partially mediated the relationship between the overall motive discrepancy and eating behavior. PMID:20545817

  13. Stress, emotional eating behaviour and dietary patterns in children.

    PubMed

    Michels, Nathalie; Sioen, Isabelle; Braet, Caroline; Eiben, Gabriele; Hebestreit, Antje; Huybrechts, Inge; Vanaelst, Barbara; Vyncke, Krishna; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-12-01

    Psychological stress has been suggested to change dietary pattern towards more unhealthy choices and as such to contribute to overweight. Emotional eating behaviour could be an underlying mediating mechanism. The interrelationship between stress, emotional eating behaviour and dietary patterns has only rarely been examined in young children. Nevertheless, research in children is pivotal as the foundations of dietary habits are established starting from childhood and may track into adulthood. In 437 children (5-12years) of the ChiBS study, stress was measured by questionnaires on stressful events, emotions (happy, angry, sad, anxious) and problems (emotional, peer, conduct and hyperactivity). Data were collected on children's emotional eating behaviour and also on dietary patterns: frequency of fatty foods, sweet foods, snacks (fat and sweet), fruit and vegetables. Stressful events, negative emotions and problems were positively associated with emotional eating. Positive associations were observed between problems and both sweet and fatty foods consumption. Negative associations were observed between events and fruit and vegetables consumption. Overall, stress was associated with emotional eating and a more unhealthy dietary pattern and could thus contribute to the development of overweight, also in children. Nevertheless, emotional eating behaviour was not observed to mediate the stress-diet relation. PMID:22918173

  14. Food choices in the presence of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' eating partners.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-02-28

    Eating with others has been shown to influence the amount of food eaten in a meal or snack. We examined whether choosing food in the presence of another person who is choosing either predominantly low-energy-dense or high-energy-dense foods affects food choices. A between-subjects laboratory-based study was used. A group of 100 young females selected a lunch-time meal from a buffet consisting of a range of high-energy-dense and low-energy-dense foods, in the presence of an 'unhealthy' eating partner (who chose predominantly high-energy-dense foods) or a 'healthy' eating partner (who chose predominantly low-energy-dense foods) or when alone. Participants in the 'unhealthy' eating partner condition were significantly less likely to choose and consume a low-energy-dense food item (carrots), than when choosing alone or in the presence of a 'healthy' eater. Choice of high-energy-dense food did not differ across the conditions, nor did the total energy consumed. These data suggest that social influences on food choice are limited in this context but the presence of an 'unhealthy' eating partner may undermine intentions to consume low-energy-dense foods. PMID:22647276

  15. Promotion and Prevention Focused Feeding Strategies: Exploring the Effects on Healthy and Unhealthy Child Eating

    PubMed Central

    Melbye, Elisabeth L.; Hansen, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    There is a general lack of research addressing the motivations behind parental use of various feeding practices. Therefore, the present work aims to extend the current literature on parent-child feeding interactions by integrating the traditional developmental psychological perspective on feeding practices with elements of Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT) derived from the field of motivational psychology. In this paper, we seek to explain associations between parental feeding practices and child (un)healthy eating behaviors by categorizing parental feeding practices into promotion and prevention focused strategies, thus exploring parent-child feeding interactions within the framework of RFT. Our analyses partly supported the idea that (1) child healthy eating is positively associated with feeding practices characterized as promotion focused, and (2) child unhealthy eating is negatively associated with feeding practices characterized as prevention focused. However, a general observation following from our results suggests that parents' major driving forces behind reducing children's consumption of unhealthy food items and increasing their consumption of healthy food items are strategies that motivate rather than restrict. In particular, parents' provision of a healthy home food environment seems to be essential for child eating. PMID:26380269

  16. Feeling ‘too fat’ rather than being ‘too fat’ increases unhealthy eating habits among adolescents – even in boys

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet, Jolanda S.; Gustafsson, Per A.; Nelson, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a period of gender-specific physical changes, during which eating habits develop. To better understand what factors determine unhealthy eating habits such as dieting to lose weight, skipping meals, and consumption of unhealthy foods, we studied how physical measurements and body perception relate to eating habits in boys and girls, before and during adolescence. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we obtained data from both written questionnaires and physical measurements of height, weight, and waist circumference (WC). Results Dieting to lose weight and skipping breakfast were more common among adolescents than among younger boys and girls (p<0.05). The strongest risk factor for dieting in both boys and girls was perception of overweight, which persisted after adjusting for age and for being overweight (p<0.01). Another independent risk factor for dieting behaviour was overweight, as defined by body mass index (BMI) among boys (p<0.01) and WC among girls (p<0.05). In both boys and girls, skipping breakfast was associated with both a more negative body perception and higher BMI (p<0.05). Skipping breakfast was also associated with age- and gender-specific unhealthy eating habits such as skipping other meals, lower consumption of fruits and vegetables, and higher consumption of sweets and sugary drinks (p<0.05). Conclusion Body perception among adolescents is an important factor relating to unhealthy eating habits, not only in girls, but even in boys. Focus on body perception and eating breakfast daily is crucial for the development of healthy food consumption behaviours during adolescence and tracking into adulthood. PMID:26894992

  17. The Relationship between Television Viewing and Unhealthy Eating: Implications for Children and Media Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The concern over increasing rates of obesity and associated health issues have led to calls for solutions to the potentially unhealthy influence of television and food advertising on children's diets. Research demonstrates that children's food preferences are acquired through learning processes, and that these preferences have long-lasting effects on diet. We examined food preferences and eating behaviors among college students, and assessed the relative influence of two potential contributors: parental communication and television experience. In line with previous studies with children, prior television experience continued to predict unhealthy food preferences and diet in early adulthood, and perceived taste had the most direct relationship to both healthy and unhealthy diets. In addition, both television experience and parenting factors independently influenced preferences and diet. These findings provide insights into the potential effectiveness of alternative media interventions to counteract the unhealthy influence of television on diet, including nutrition education, parental communication and media literacy education to teach children to defend against unwanted influence, and reduced exposure to unhealthy messages. PMID:20183373

  18. Associations of eating a late-evening meal before bedtime with low serum amylase and unhealthy conditions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the associations of eating a late-evening meal (ELM), a putative unhealthy eating behavior, with low serum amylase, other eating behaviors, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Therefore, we investigated whether ELM before bedtime was associated with low serum amylase or other clinical factors in 2,426 asymptomatic adults aged 20–80 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ELM was significantly associated with low serum amylase (<60 IU/l), overweight, smoking, daily alcohol consumption, skipping breakfast, and rapid eating, but not with abnormal glucose metabolism. In conclusion, ELM may be independently associated with low serum amylase and common unhealthy behaviors. PMID:24354901

  19. Teasing, depression and unhealthy weight control behaviour in obese children

    PubMed Central

    Madowitz, J.; Knatz, S.; Maginot, T.; Crow, S. J.; Boutelle, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Data were taken from 80 obese children (mean age = 10.03 years; mean body mass index = 27.37; %white = 29.37%; %female = 58.8%). Self-report surveys were used to collect data on rates of depressive symptoms, unhealthy weight control behaviours (UWCBs), teasing, sources of teasing and how much the teasing bothered the child. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate relationships between weight-related teasing and UWCBs and depression in obese children. Teasing by peers and/or family, negative feelings due to teasing, frequency of teasing, and number of teasing sources reported and associations with UWCBs and depression were analysed. Methods Logistical and linear regressions were used to evaluate relationships between the teasing variables, depression and UWCBs, controlling for age and gender. Results Results indicated that children teased by other children have significantly higher levels of depression (B = 6.1 [SE = 2.3]) and are five times more likely to engage in UWCBs (OR = 5.1 [CI = 1.5–17.4]). Children who endorsed that teasing by peers bothered them had significantly higher levels of depression (B = 2.3 [SE = 0.8]). The frequency of weight-related teasing was significantly associated with depression (B = 2.5 [SE = 0.8]), as was the number of teasing sources (B = 4.6 [SE = 1.5]). No significant relationships were found between familial teasing and depression or UWCBs. Conclusions Weight-related teasing, especially by other children, was associated with negative psychosocial measures in these obese children. Interventions are needed to reduce teasing, and longitudinal studies are recommended to understand the impact of teasing over time. PMID:22991215

  20. Eating Behaviours of British University Students: A Cluster Analysis on a Neglected Issue

    PubMed Central

    Tanton, Jina; Dodd, Lorna J.; Woodfield, Lorayne; Mabhala, Mzwandile

    2015-01-01

    Unhealthy diet is a primary risk factor for noncommunicable diseases. University student populations are known to engage in health risking lifestyle behaviours including risky eating behaviours. The purpose of this study was to examine eating behaviour patterns in a population of British university students using a two-step cluster analysis. Consumption prevalence of snack, convenience, and fast foods in addition to fruit and vegetables was measured using a self-report “Student Eating Behaviours” questionnaire on 345 undergraduate university students. Four clusters were identified: “risky eating behaviours,” “mixed eating behaviours,” “moderate eating behaviours,” and “favourable eating behaviours.” Nineteen percent of students were categorised as having “favourable eating behaviours” whilst just under a third of students were categorised within the two most risky clusters. Riskier eating behaviour patterns were associated with living on campus and Christian faith. The findings of this study highlight the importance of university microenvironments on eating behaviours in university student populations. Religion as a mediator of eating behaviours is a novel finding. PMID:26550495

  1. It's my party and I eat if I want to. Reasons for unhealthy snacking.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Aukje A C; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the reasons that people give for unhealthy snacking behavior is important for developing effective health interventions. Little research, however, has identified reasons that apply to a large audience and most studies do not integrate multiple factors, precluding any conclusions regarding their relative importance. The present study explored reasons for unhealthy snacking among a representative community sample. Participants (N = 1544) filled out the newly developed Reasons to Snack inventory assessing an elaborate range of motives at baseline and 1-month follow-up. Exploratory and replication factor analyses identified six categories: opportunity induced eating, coping with negative emotions, enjoying a special occasion, rewarding oneself, social pressure, and gaining energy. The highest mean scores were obtained for enjoying a special occasion and opportunity induced eating. Regression analyses with participant characteristics as independent variables and each category of reasons as dependent variables showed differences for age. For all reasons except to enjoy a special occasion, younger people reported a higher score. Women indicated a higher score than men on coping with negative emotions, enjoying a special occasion and gaining energy. People who diet to a stronger extent reported a higher score for snacking because of social pressure, to reward oneself and to cope with negative emotions, with the latter also being related to a higher BMI. Finally, a higher education was associated with enjoying a special occasion. Future health interventions could allocate more attention to diminishing unhealthy snacking with regard to the six identified categories, specifically focusing on enjoying a special occasion and opportunity induced eating. PMID:25261101

  2. Predictors of initiation and persistence of unhealthy weight control behaviours in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Jennifer A; Wall, Melanie M; Haines, Jess; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Background Unhealthy weight control behaviours (UWCB) among adolescents have significant health and weight consequences. The current longitudinal study aimed to identify personal and socio-environmental predictors of initiation or persistence of adolescent UWCB, in order to inform development of programs aimed at both preventing and stopping UWCB. Methods A diverse sample included 1106 boys and 1362 girls from 31 middle schools and high schools in the United States who were enrolled in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Project EAT explored personal, behavioural, and socio-environmental factors associated with dietary intake and body weight in adolescence. Participants completed questionnaires to assess demographics, UWCB (including several methods of food restriction, purging by vomiting or medications, smoking to control weight, or food substitutions) and personal and socio-environmental variables at two time points, five years apart, between 1998 and 2004. Logistic regression models examined personal and socio-environmental predictors of initiation and persistence of UWCB among Project EAT participants. Results Results indicate that 15.5% of boys and 19.7% of girls initiated UWCB by Time 2, and 15.9% of boys and 43.3% of girls persisted with these behaviours from Time 1 to Time 2. After controlling for race/ethnicity and weight status changes between assessments, logistic regression models indicated that similar factors and patterns of factors were associated significantly with initiation and persistence of UWCB. For both boys and girls, personal factors had more predictive value than socio-environmental factors (Initiation models: for boys: R2 = 0.35 for personal vs. 0.27 for socio-environmental factors; for girls, R2 = 0.46 for personal vs. 0.26 for socio-environmental factors. Persistence models: for boys: R2 = 0.53 for personal vs. 0.33 for socio-environmental factors; for girls, R2 = 0.41 for personal vs. 0.19 for socio-environmental factors). The weight

  3. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorder Symptoms and Unhealthy Weight Gain among Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…

  4. Associating a prototypical forbidden food item with guilt or celebration: relationships with indicators of (un)healthy eating and the moderating role of stress and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A; Marshall, Emma M

    2015-01-01

    The increase in obesity and the many educational messages prompting us to eat a healthy diet have heightened people's concerns about the effects of food choice on health and weight. An unintended side effect may be that such awareness fuels feelings of guilt and worry about food. Although guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, it may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. The current study examined the relationship between a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake), indicators of healthy eating and choosing food for mood regulation reasons. Following a 'diathesis-stress' perspective, the moderating roles of depressive symptoms and stress were examined. Although a default association of guilt was found to be harmless under some circumstances (i.e. under low stress), those who associated chocolate cake with guilt (vs. celebration) reported unhealthier eating habits and lower levels of perceived behavioural control over healthy eating when under stress, rated mood regulation reasons for food choice as important irrespective of their current affective state, and did not have more positive attitudes towards healthy eating. Implications for public health messages and interventions will be discussed. PMID:25186250

  5. Unhealthy Weight-control Behaviours, Dieting and Weight Status: A Cross-cultural Comparison between North American and Spanish Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    López-Guimerà, Gemma; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter; Fauquet, Jordi; Loth, Katie; Sánchez-Carracedo, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine and compare dieting and unhealthy weight-control behaviours (UWCB) in population-based samples in two large urban areas in Spain (Barcelona) and in the USA (Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota). Additionally, use of UWCB across weight categories was explored in both samples. Participants included 1501 adolescents from Barcelona (48% girls, 52% boys) and 2793 adolescents from the Twin Cities (53% girls, 47% boys). The main outcome measures were dieting, UWCB (less extreme and extreme) and weight status. Although dieting and UWCB were prevalent in both samples, particularly among girls, the prevalence was higher in the US sample. In both countries, the report of dieting and use of UWCB was highest among overweight and obese youth. Prevention interventions that address the broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems should be warranted in light of the high prevalence and co-occurrence of overweight and unhealthy weight-related behaviours. PMID:23055262

  6. I Eat Healthier Than You: Differences in Healthy and Unhealthy Food Choices for Oneself and for Others

    PubMed Central

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Kohlbrenner, Verena; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated self-other biases in actual eating behavior based on the observation of three different eating situations. To capture the complexity of real life food choices within a well-controlled setting, an ecologically valid fake food buffet with 72 different foods was employed. Sixty participants chose a healthy, a typical, and an unhealthy meal for themselves and for an average peer. We found that the typical meal for the self was more similar to the healthy than to the unhealthy meal in terms of energy content: The mean difference between the typical and healthy meals was MΔ = 1368 kJ (327 kcal) as compared to a mean difference between the typical and unhealthy meals of MΔ = 3075 kJ (735 kcal). Moreover, there was evidence that people apply asymmetrical standards for themselves and others: Participants chose more energy for a peer than for themselves (M = 4983 kJ or 1191 kcal on average for the peers’ meals vs. M = 3929 kJ or 939 kcal on average for the own meals) and more high-caloric food items for a typical meal, indicating a self-other bias. This comparatively positive self-view is in stark contrast to epidemiological data indicating overall unhealthy eating habits and demands further examination of its consequences for behavior change. PMID:26066013

  7. Vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours across different age groups in Swedish Adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13–14, 15–16 and 17–18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15–16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in

  8. Paying people to eat or not to eat? Carryover effects of monetary incentives on eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paul; Galizzi, Matteo M; Navarro-Martinez, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    There is no evidence comparing head-to-head the effects of monetary incentives to act and to abstain from acting on behaviour. We present an experiment, conducted between June and September 2012, that directly compares the effects of those two different monetary incentive schemes on eating behaviour: we evaluate incentives to eat against incentives not to eat. A large number of participants (n = 353) had bowls of sweets next to them while they watched different videos over two experimental sessions that were two days apart. Sweets eating was monitored and monetary incentives to eat or not to eat were introduced during one of the videos for participants randomly allocated to these conditions. Our results show that, while both types of incentives were effective in changing sweets-eating behaviour when they were in place, only incentives not to eat had significant carryover effects after they were removed. Those effects were still significant two days after the monetary incentives had been eliminated. We also present some additional results on personality and health-related variables that shed further light on these effects. Overall, our study shows that incentives not to eat can be more effective in producing carryover effects on behaviour in domains like the one explored here. PMID:25864152

  9. Time orientation and eating behavior: Unhealthy eaters consider immediate consequences, while healthy eaters focus on future health.

    PubMed

    Dassen, Fania C M; Houben, Katrijn; Jansen, Anita

    2015-08-01

    Time orientation could play an important role in eating behavior. The current study investigated whether eating behavior is associated with the Consideration of Future Consequences scale (CFC). Specifically, it was examined whether unhealthy eaters consider the future less and are more concerned with immediate gratification. A related measure of time orientation is delay discounting, a process by which a reinforcer becomes less valuable when considered later in time. Recent research argues that the relation between time orientation and health behaviors is measured best at a behavior-specific level. In the current study, we explored the relationships between CFC and discount rate - both general and food-specific - and their influence on healthy eating. Participants with ages 18 to 60 (N = 152; final sample N = 146) filled in an online questionnaire consisting of the CFC, a food-specific version of the CFC (CFC-food), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) and an adapted MCQ version with snack food as a reinforcer. Self-reported healthy eating was positively related to the future subscale (r = .48, p < .001) and negatively to the immediate subscale of the CFC-food (r = -.43, p < .001). The general CFC and discount rate (MCQ and MCQ-snack) were not related to healthy eating (all p > .05). In order to predict behavior, measurements of time orientation should thus be tailored to the behavior of interest. Based on current results, shifting one's concern from the immediate consequences of eating to a more future-oriented perspective may present an interesting target for future interventions aimed at promoting healthy eating and reducing overweight. PMID:25814191

  10. Disordered eating and unhealthy weight loss practices: which adolescents are at highest risk?

    PubMed

    Haley, Clinton C; Hedberg, Katrina; Leman, Richard F

    2010-07-01

    Early diagnosis of unhealthy weight loss practices (UWLP) among adolescents improves treatment outcomes. Analysis of population-based school survey data in Oregon demonstrated that the 11.6% reporting UWLP were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight, depressed, and to have abused substances. Targeted screening of adolescents can help identify those with UWLP. PMID:20547299

  11. Parental modelling of eating behaviours: observational validation of the Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours scale (PARM).

    PubMed

    Palfreyman, Zoe; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    Parents are important role models for their children's eating behaviours. This study aimed to further validate the recently developed Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM) by examining the relationships between maternal self-reports on the PARM with the modelling practices exhibited by these mothers during three family mealtime observations. Relationships between observed maternal modelling and maternal reports of children's eating behaviours were also explored. Seventeen mothers with children aged between 2 and 6 years were video recorded at home on three separate occasions whilst eating a meal with their child. Mothers also completed the PARM, the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and provided demographic information about themselves and their child. Findings provided validation for all three PARM subscales, which were positively associated with their observed counterparts on the observational coding scheme (PARM-O). The results also indicate that habituation to observations did not change the feeding behaviours displayed by mothers. In addition, observed maternal modelling was significantly related to children's food responsiveness (i.e., their interest in and desire for foods), enjoyment of food, and food fussiness. This study makes three important contributions to the literature. It provides construct validation for the PARM measure and provides further observational support for maternal modelling being related to lower levels of food fussiness and higher levels of food enjoyment in their children. These findings also suggest that maternal feeding behaviours remain consistent across repeated observations of family mealtimes, providing validation for previous research which has used single observations. PMID:25111293

  12. Associations of negative affect and eating behaviour in obese women with and without binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Schulz, S; Laessle, R G

    2010-12-01

    The present study was planned to investigate differences in psychopathological features, eating behaviour and eating habits between obese women with and without BED. It also aimed to identify specific relationships between affective symptoms and eating behaviour in obese women with BED. Eighty-four obese women were studied (40 with BED, 44 non-BED). Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed with the structured diagnostic interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and anxiety with the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). Eating habits (emotional and restrained eating) were assessed by the Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ). Food diaries were used for assessing naturalistic eating behaviour (food intake) and mood before and after food intake. BED subjects exhibited higher levels of comorbidity (in particular mood disorders, anxiety disorders and substance-related disorders), higher depressive symptoms, trait anxiety, external and emotional eating scores than non-BED subjects. Regression analyses revealed that anxiety and emotional eating were significant predictors for BED status. In the BED group, depressive symptoms were significantly related to emotional eating and food intake and negatively related to restraint. Anxiety was significantly related to emotional eating. In general, food intake significantly enhanced mood. Mood was worse on the days with self-reported binge eating episodes than on nonbinge days. These results are discussed with regard to aetiological models for BED and for BED being a distinct diagnostic category separate from obesity. PMID:21406953

  13. Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students’ eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Methods Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Results After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students’ eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products

  14. Correlates of parental feeding practices with pre-schoolers: Parental body image and eating knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M; Paxton, Susan J

    2016-06-01

    Parental feeding practices have been linked to eating and weight status in young children; however, more research is needed to understand what influences these feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine how parental feeding practices that are linked to unhealthy eating patterns in young children, are related to parental body image and eating knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours . Participants were 330 mothers of a 2- to 6-year-old child. Mothers completed measures of knowledge of child body image and eating patterns, overvaluation of weight and shape, internalization of general media and athletic ideals, dieting, and parental feeding practices. Higher maternal knowledge of strategies to promote positive child body image and eating patterns predicted lower weight restriction, instrumental, emotional, and pushing to eat feeding practices. Overvaluation of weight and shape predicted use of fat restriction. Maternal internalization of the athletic ideal predicted instrumental and pushing to eat feeding practices. As these feeding practices have been associated with long-term risk of children's weight gain and/or disordered eating, these findings highlight the need for prevention interventions to target knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of parents of pre-schoolers. PMID:26952561

  15. Combined effects of eating alone and living alone on unhealthy dietary behaviors, obesity and underweight in older Japanese adults: Results of the JAGES.

    PubMed

    Tani, Yukako; Kondo, Naoki; Takagi, Daisuke; Saito, Masashige; Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2015-12-01

    We examined whether eating alone is associated with dietary behaviors and body weight status, and assessed the modifying effects of cohabitation status in older Japanese people. Data from the 2010 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study, with a self-reported questionnaire for 38,690 men and 43,674 women aged ≥65 years, were used. Eating status was classified as eating with others, sometimes eating alone, or exclusively eating alone. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) of unhealthy dietary behaviors, obesity, and underweight, adjusting for age, education, income, disease, and dental status using Poisson regression. Overall, 16% of men and 28% of women sometimes or exclusively ate alone. Among those who exclusively ate alone, 56% of men and 68% of women lived alone. Men who exclusively ate alone were 3.74 times more likely to skip meals than men who ate with others. Among men who exclusively ate alone, those who lived alone had a higher APR than men who lived with others. Compared with subjects who ate and lived with others, the APRs of being obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2)) among men who exclusively ate alone were 1.34 (1.01-1.78) in those who lived alone and 1.17 (0.84-1.64) in those who lived with others. These combined effects of eating and living alone were weaker in women, with a potential increase in the APRs among those who ate alone despite living with others. Men who exclusively ate alone were more likely to be underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)) than men who ate with others in both cohabitation statuses. Eating alone and living alone may be jointly associated with higher prevalence of obesity, underweight and unhealthy eating behaviors in men. PMID:26116391

  16. Do Ramadan fasting restrictions alter eating behaviours in obese women?

    PubMed

    Savas, Esen; Öztürk, Zeynel Abidin; Tanrıverdi, Derya; Kepekçi, Yalçın

    2014-02-01

    Ramadan fasting can be considered as a kind of dietary restriction. Eating restriction is a risk factor for later development of eating disorders. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether Ramadan fasting changes the eating behaviours of obese women. Our sample consisted of 34 obese women who fasted during the Ramadan month. The data were collected by using Questionnaire Form, Eating Attitude Test (EAT) and Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE). No statistically significant differences were found between the scores of EAT, BITE, BMI, which were administered within the weeks before and after Ramadan. According to our results, Ramadan fasting restrictions do not seem to change the eating behaviours of obese women. PMID:22576675

  17. Cannabinoids, eating behaviour, and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of cannabis by western societies, its psychotropic effects overshadowed its medical benefits. However, investigation into the molecular action of the main constituents of cannabis has led to the discovery of an intercellular signalling system, called the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS comprises a set of molecular components, including enzymes, signalling lipids and G-protein coupled receptors, which has an outstanding role in modulating eating behaviour and energy homeostasis. Interestingly, evidence has shown that the ECS is present at the central and peripheral nervous system, modulating the function of the hypothalamus, the brain reward system and the brainstem, and coordinating the crosstalk between these brain structures and peripheral organs. Indeed, the ECS is present and functional in metabolically relevant peripheral tissues, directly modulating their physiology. In the context of a global obesity pandemic, these discoveries are highly suggestive in order to design novel pharmaceutical tools to fight obesity and related morbidities. In fact, a cannabinoid-based first generation of drugs was developed and marketed. Their failure, due to central side-effects, is leading to a second generation of these drugs unable to cross the blood-brain barrier, as well as other ECS-focused strategies that are still in the pipeline. In the next few years we will hopefully know whether such an important player in energy homeostasis can be successfully targeted without significantly affecting other vital processes related to mood and sense of well-being. PMID:24375977

  18. Emotional Openness, problematic eating behaviours, and overweight in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Walther, Mireille; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-04-01

    Overweight, a common health condition in adolescence, has been linked with difficulties in emotional processing. This study investigates associations between emotional processing, conceptualised through the model of Emotional Openness (EO), problematic eating behaviours, including Eating in the Absence of Hunger and disinhibited eating, and overweight in adolescents. Several self-report instruments were completed by 160 youngsters (mean age: 14.36±0.61years) from the community, including 39 overweight and obese adolescents (24.5%). In girls, bootstrap analyses supported a mediating effect of restrained eating on the relation between three EO dimensions and body mass index percentile, in particular the communication of emotions, the cognitive-conceptual representation of emotions, and the perception of bodily indicator of emotions. No mediating effect was found in boys. These results have important implications for psychological weight management interventions, as they underline the relevance of work on emotional processing in order to reduce problematic eating behaviours. PMID:25682365

  19. Stress-related eating, obesity and associated behavioural traits in adolescents: a prospective population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress-related eating is associated with unhealthy eating and drinking habits and an increased risk of obesity among adults, but less is known about factors related to stress-driven eating behaviour among children and adolescents. We studied the prevalence of stress-related eating and its association with overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, dietary and other health behaviours at the age of 16. Furthermore, we examined whether stress-related eating is predicted by early-life factors including birth size and maternal gestational health. Methods The study population comprised 3598 girls and 3347 boys from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986). Followed up since their antenatal period, adolescents underwent a clinical examination, and their stress-related eating behaviour, dietary habits and other health behaviours were assessed using a postal questionnaire. We examined associations using cross-tabulations followed by latent class analysis and logistic regression to profile the adolescents and explain the risk of obesity with behavioural traits. Results Stress-related eating behaviour was more common among girls (43%) than among boys (15%). Compared with non-stress-driven eaters, stress-driven eaters had a higher prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity. We found no significant associations between stress-eating and early-life factors. Among girls, tobacco use, shorter sleep, infrequent family meals and frequent consumption of chocolate, sweets, light sodas and alcohol were more prevalent among stress-driven eaters. Among boys, the proportions of those with frequent consumption of sausages, chocolate, sweets, hamburgers and pizza were greater among stress-driven eaters. For both genders, the proportions of those bingeing and using heavy exercise and strict diet for weight control were higher among stress-eaters. Besides a ‘healthy lifestyle’ cluster, latent class analysis revealed two other patterns (‘adverse habits’,

  20. How to Improve Eating Behaviour during Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Samy, Gamal; Miqdady, Mohamad Saleh; Salah, Mohamed; Sleiman, Rola; Abdelrahman, Hatim Mohamed Ahmed; Al Haddad, Fatima; Reda, Mona M.; Lewis, Humphrey; Ekanem, Emmanuel E.; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    Eating behaviour disorder during early childhood is a common pediatric problem. Many terminologies have been used interchangeably to describe this condition, hindering implementation of therapy and confusing a common problem. The definition suggests an eating behaviour which has consequences for family harmony and growth. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition does not cover the entire spectrum seen by pediatricians. Publications are substantive but level of evidence is most of the time low. This purpose of this review is to clarify terminology of eating behaviour problems during early childhood; including benign picky eating, limited diets, sensory food aversion, selective eating, food avoidance emotional disorder, pervasive refusal syndrome, tactile defensiveness, functional dysphagia, neophobia and toddler anorexia. This tool is proposed only to ease the clinical management for child care providers. Diagnostic criteria are set and management tools are suggested. The role of dietary counselling and, where necessary, behavioural therapy is clarified. It is hoped that the condition will make its way into mainstream pediatrics to allow these children, and their families, to receive the help they deserve. PMID:25866727

  1. The high prevalence of poor physical health and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours in individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Happell, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Recent mental health care policy has addressed the need for health care professionals to consider the physical health of consumers. Mental health nurses are particularly well-placed for this role. To provide mental health nurses with practical information, this narrative review summarises evidence from recent research on the physical health of individuals with Serious Mental Illness (SMI). In those with SMI, the international prevalence of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, symptoms of cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease all exceed that of the general population by at least two times, and HIV prevalence may be increased by as much as eight times. This increased prevalence of chronic disease may be largely responsible for an increased risk of death of up to five times, resulting in as much as 30 years of potential life lost. Of particular concern, the recent evidence suggests that for physical health and increased mortality, the gap between individuals with SMI and the general population is worsening. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours undoubtedly play a role in the development of poor physical health and chronic disease, and the present review indicates that low physical activity, poor diet, smoking, alcohol and substance abuse, and risky sexual behaviour are common in individuals with SMI. This narrative review demonstrates that the prevalence of poor physical health and health behaviours in people with SMI far exceed that observed in the general population, and reinforces the urgent need for mental health nurses to address physical health concerns in patients. PMID:21859410

  2. Associations between Unhealthy Diet and Lifestyle Behaviours and Increased Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Young Overweight and Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Whatnall, Megan C; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Hutchesson, Melinda J

    2016-01-01

    Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are known modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This cross-sectional analysis aimed to describe lifestyle behaviours and CVD risk markers in young overweight and obese Australian women and explore associations between individual and combined lifestyle behaviours with CVD risk markers. Lifestyle behaviours assessed were diet quality, alcohol intake, physical activity, sitting time and smoking status, and were combined to generate a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) (0-5). Objectively measured CVD risk markers were body mass index (BMI), %body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, and plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Analysis included 49 women aged 18-35 years, with BMI 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m². The mean ± SD Australian Recommended Food Score was 33.5 ± 9.3 points, alcohol 3.3 ± 2.4 standard drinks/day, physical activity 207 ± 225 min/week and sitting time 578 ± 213 min/day. All participants were non-smokers. The proportion of participants outside normal reference ranges was 83.7% for waist circumference (n = 41), blood pressure 0% (n = 0), total cholesterol 26.2% (n = 11), HDL cholesterol 38.6% (n = 17), LDL cholesterol 22.7% (n = 10), and triglycerides 4.2% (n = 2). Physical activity was inversely associated with body fat (β = -0.011%, p = 0.005), diastolic blood pressure (β = -0.010 mmHg, p = 0.031) and waist circumference (β = -0.013 cm, p = 0.029). Most participants (59.2%, n = 29) had a HLS ≤ 2. No significant associations were found between HLS and CVD risk markers. Insufficient physical activity was the primary lifestyle factor associated with increased CVD risk markers, which suggests interventions targeting physical activity in young women may potentially improve cardiovascular health. PMID:27548243

  3. Mindfulness-based interventions for obesity-related eating behaviours: a literature review.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, G A; Cook, L; Spruijt-Metz, D; Black, D S

    2014-06-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviours have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviours, such as binge eating, emotional eating and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO and Ovid Healthstar. Papers were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (i) describe a MBI or the use of mindfulness exercises as part of an intervention; (ii) include at least one obesity-related eating behaviour as an outcome; (iii) include quantitative outcomes; and (iv) be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. A total of N = 21 papers were included in this review. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including combined mindfulness and cognitive behavioural therapies, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acceptance-based therapies, mindful eating programmes, and combinations of mindfulness exercises. Targeted eating behaviour outcomes included binge eating, emotional eating, external eating and dietary intake. Eighteen (86%) of the reviewed studies reported improvements in the targeted eating behaviours. Overall, the results of this first review on the topic support the efficacy of MBIs for changing obesity-related eating behaviours, specifically binge eating, emotional eating and external eating. PMID:24636206

  4. Human eating behaviour in an evolutionary ecological context.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J

    2002-11-01

    Present-day human eating behaviour in industrialised society is characterised by the consumption of high-energy-density diets and often unstructured feeding patterns, largely uncoupled from seasonal cycles of food availability. Broadly similar patterns of feeding are found among advantaged groups in economically-emerging and developing nations. Such patterns of feeding are consistent with the evolutionary ecological understanding of feeding behaviour of hominids ancestral to humans, in that human feeding adaptations are likely to have arisen in the context of resource seasonality in which diet choice for energy-dense and palatable foods would have been selected by way of foraging strategies for the maximisation of energy intake. One hallmark trait of human feeding behaviour, complex control of food availability, emerged with Homo erectus (1.9 x 10(6)-200000 years ago), who carried out this process by either increased meat eating or by cooking, or both. Another key trait of human eating behaviour is the symbolic use of food, which emerged with modern Homo sapiens (100000 years ago to the present) between 25000 and 12000 years ago. From this and subsequent social and economic transformations, including the origins of agriculture, humans have come to use food in increasingly elaborate symbolic ways, such that human eating has become increasingly structured socially and culturally in many different ways. PMID:12691181

  5. Changes in Eating Attitudes, Body Esteem and Weight Control Behaviours during Adolescence in a South African Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gitau, Tabither M.; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal ‘ideal’ body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26), body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001) and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the ‘best’, ‘getting respect’ and being the ‘happiest’, while the obese silhouette was associated with the ‘worst’ and the ‘unhappiest’, and the underweight silhouette with the “weakest”. Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa. PMID:25310343

  6. Changes in eating attitudes, body esteem and weight control behaviours during adolescence in a South African cohort.

    PubMed

    Gitau, Tabither M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2014-01-01

    Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal 'ideal' body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26), body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001) and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the 'best', 'getting respect' and being the 'happiest', while the obese silhouette was associated with the 'worst' and the 'unhappiest', and the underweight silhouette with the "weakest". Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa. PMID:25310343

  7. Pizza and pop and the student identity: the role of referent group norms in healthy and unhealthy eating.

    PubMed

    Louis, Winnifred; Davies, Sarah; Smith, Joanne; Terry, Deborah

    2007-02-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (I. Ajzen, 1985, 1991) and referent group (student) norms and identification (D. J. Terry & M. A. Hogg, 1996), the authors longitudinally predicted healthy eating intentions and behavior in a sample of 137 university students. Specifically, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control predicted intentions at Time 1, which predicted self-reported behavior at Time 2. There was also a link between intentions and observed behavior at Time 2. Beyond the planned behavior variables, referent group norms for university students' eating behavior interacted with participants' identification as students to predict healthy eating intentions. The authors discussed implications for researcher's conceptualization of normative influence and for interventions into this group's eating behavior. PMID:17345922

  8. Evaluating the effects of a peer-support model: reducing negative body esteem and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in grade eight girls.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Carmen; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Saraceni, Reana

    2012-01-01

    During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss/weight gain behaviour, internalization of media ideals, weight based teasing, and communication, for a cohort of grade 8 girls. High-risk participants demonstrated trends toward decreased internalization of media ideals and increased body satisfaction at post-test. Implications and future research direction are discussed. PMID:22364343

  9. From fan to fat? Vicarious losing increases unhealthy eating, but self-affirmation is an effective remedy.

    PubMed

    Cornil, Yann; Chandon, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Using archival and experimental data, we showed that vicarious defeats experienced by fans when their favorite football team loses lead them to consume less healthy food. On the Mondays following a Sunday National Football League (NFL) game, saturated-fat and food-calorie intake increase significantly in cities with losing teams, decrease in cities with winning teams, and remain at their usual levels in comparable cities without an NFL team or with an NFL team that did not play. These effects are greater in cities with the most committed fans, when the opponents are more evenly matched, and when the defeats are narrow. We found similar results when measuring the actual or intended food consumption of French soccer fans who had previously been asked to write about or watch highlights from victories or defeats of soccer teams. However, these unhealthy consequences of vicarious defeats disappear when supporters spontaneously self-affirm or are given the opportunity to do so. PMID:23925307

  10. The Eating Disorder Inventory in evaluation of impaired eating behaviour in subjects requesting nutritional consultation.

    PubMed

    Iorio, D; Margiotta, N; D'Orsi, P; Bellini, O; Boschi, V

    2000-12-01

    The present study evaluated impaired eating behaviour in women seeking participation in a diet-based programme of weight reduction or achievement of ideal body weight. Forty-seven obese, 42 overweight and 14 normal-weight subjects, attending an Italian university outpatient clinic completed the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). Forty-eight mothers of primary school children (25 normal-weight and 23 overweight) were used as controls. The EDI consists of 8 subscales, 3 evaluating psychopathology related to eating disorders (drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction) and 5 evaluating general psychopathology (intereoceptive awareness, ineffectiveness, maturity fears, perfectionism, interpersonal distrust). Significantly altered scores in the first three subscales were observed both in normal-weight and overweight outpatients compared to the controls. The overweight outpatients scored higher than the obese patients in terms of drive for thinness and bulimia and higher than the normal-weight women for terms of bulimia, body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. The overweight controls scored significantly higher than the normal-weight controls in the first three subscales in the remaining subscales, mean values were also higher in the overweight group, though significance was only reached in the interpersonal distrust and interoceptive awareness subscales. Impaired eating behaviour is frequent in subjects seeking participation in weight reduction or ideal body weight achievement programmes. PMID:11216128

  11. Eating behaviour among undergraduate students. Comparing nutrition students with other courses.

    PubMed

    Poínhos, Rui; Alves, Diogo; Vieira, Elisée; Pinhão, Sílvia; Oliveira, Bruno M P M; Correia, Flora

    2015-01-01

    Our main aim was to compare eating behaviour between Portuguese undergraduate nutrition students and students attending other courses. Several eating behaviour dimensions were compared between 154 nutrition students and 263 students from other areas. Emotional and external eating were assessed by the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, dietary restraint was measured using the flexible and rigid control of eating behaviour subscales, binge eating was measured using the Binge Eating Scale, and eating self-efficacy using the General Eating Self-Efficacy Scale. Higher levels of flexible and rigid control were found in nutrition students from both sexes when compared to students from other courses. Female nutrition students also presented higher binge eating levels than their colleagues from other courses. To our knowledge no other work has previously assessed all eating behaviour dimensions considered in the current study among nutrition students. Besides the results by themselves, the data obtained from this study provide several clues to further studies to be developed regarding the still rarely approached issue of eating behaviour among nutrition students. PMID:25240638

  12. Weight stigma and eating behaviours in elementary school children: A prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Jendrzyca, Anna; Warschburger, Petra

    2016-07-01

    The relevance of weight stigma as an important factor in disordered eating has been supported by research. However, because most of the studies were cross-sectional and focussed on older children, the causal relationships could not be fully determined in childhood. The current study explores the role of weight stigma in body dissatisfaction and eating behaviours. The sample consisted of 773 girls and 713 boys, aged 6-11 years, who completed surveys assessing weight stigma experiences, body dissatisfaction and eating behaviours at two points of measurement, approximately one year apart. The children's external and disordered eating was rated via parental questionnaires. As expected, the pattern of the associations between weight status, weight stigma, body dissatisfaction and eating behaviours differed by gender. Experience of weight stigma in girls led to external and restrained eating one year later, whereas in boys no such association was observed. Body dissatisfaction mediated the association between weight stigma and restrained eating behaviours in girls, whereas in boys, body dissatisfaction directly influenced restrained eating behaviours. However, in both girls and boys weight status predicted body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, while weight stigma did not have a direct effect on disordered eating. Results suggest that interventions involving weight stigma should be a part of eating disorder prevention programmes, and gender-specific pathways should be considered. PMID:26851574

  13. Eating Behaviour among Multi-Ethnic Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country as Measured by the Self-Reported Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Debbie Ann; Moy, Foong Ming; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2013-01-01

    Background Escalating weight gain among the Malaysian paediatric population necessitates identifying modifiable behaviours in the obesity pathway. Objectives This study describes the adaptation and validation of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) as a self-report for adolescents, investigates gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour and examines associations between eating behaviour and body mass index (BMI) z-scores among multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents. Methodology This two-phase study involved validation of the Malay self-reported CEBQ in Phase 1 (n = 362). Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests were performed. In Phase 2, adolescents completed the questionnaire (n = 646). Weight and height were measured. Gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour were investigated. Associations between eating behaviour and BMI z-scores were examined with complex samples general linear model (GLM) analyses, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and maternal educational level. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35-item, 9-factor structure with ‘food fussiness’ scale split into two. In confirmatory factor analysis, a 30-item, 8-factor structure yielded an improved model fit. Reliability estimates of the eight factors were acceptable. Eating behaviours did not differ between genders. Malay adolescents reported higher Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating and Food Fussiness 1 scores (p<0.05) compared to Chinese and Indians. A significant negative association was observed between BMI z-scores and Food Fussiness 1 (‘dislike towards food’) when adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Although CEBQ is a valuable psychometric instrument, adjustments were required due to age and cultural differences in our sample. With the self-report, our findings present that gender, ethnic and weight status influenced eating

  14. Contextual influences on eating behaviours: heuristic processing and dietary choices.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D A; Babey, S H

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews some of the evidence that dietary behaviours are, in large part, the consequence of automatic responses to contextual food cues, many of which lead to increased caloric consumption and poor dietary choices. We describe studies that illustrate how these automatic mechanisms underlie eating behaviours, as well as evidence that individuals are subject to inherent cognitive limitations, and mostly lack the capacity to consistently recognize, ignore or resist contextual cues that encourage eating. Restaurants and grocery stores are the primary settings from which people obtain food. These settings are often designed to maximize sales of food by strategically placing and promoting items to encourage impulse purchases. Although a great deal of marketing research is proprietary, this paper describes some of the published studies that indicate that changes in superficial characteristics of food products, including packaging and portion sizes, design, salience, health claims and labelling, strongly influence food choices and consumption in ways for which people generally lack insight. We discuss whether contextual influences might be considered environmental risk factors from which individuals may need the kinds of protections that fall under the mission of public health. PMID:22551473

  15. Motivation for eating behaviour in adolescent girls: the body beautiful.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew J

    2006-11-01

    Body dissatisfaction is commonplace for teenage girls and is associated with dieting and unhealthy weight-control behaviours. The idealisation and pursuit of thinness are seen as the main drivers of body dissatisfaction, with the media prominent in setting thin body ideals. Television and consumer magazine production in the UK are extensive, annually releasing 1x10(6) h programming and >3000 magazine titles. Their engagement by adolescent girls is high, and in surveys girls identify thin and revealing body images as influential to the appeal of thinness and their pursuit of dieting. Experimental studies show a short-term impact of these images on body dissatisfaction, especially in teenagers who are already concerned about body image. Magazine images appear more influential than television viewing. For many adolescents selecting thin-image media is purposive, permitting comparison of themselves with the models or celebrities featured. Indeed, the impact of the media needs to be understood within a social context, as engagement is often a highly-social process. Media influence is uneven because of differences in its content and manner of communication, and individual differences in vulnerability to its content. Greater social responsibility on the part of the media and better media literacy by children would be beneficial. For those working in adolescent nutrition it is a reminder that adolescent food choice and intake are subject to many competing, contradictory and non-health-related determinants. PMID:17181904

  16. Measuring Burden of Unhealthy Behaviours Using a Multivariable Predictive Approach: Life Expectancy Lost in Canada Attributable to Smoking, Alcohol, Physical Inactivity, and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Richard; Taljaard, Monica; Hennessy, Deirdre; Wilson, Kumanan; Tanuseputro, Peter; Bennett, Carol; Tuna, Meltem; Fisher, Stacey; Rosella, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Behaviours such as smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, and unhealthy alcohol consumption are leading risk factors for death. We assessed the Canadian burden attributable to these behaviours by developing, validating, and applying a multivariable predictive model for risk of all-cause death. Methods A predictive algorithm for 5 y risk of death—the Mortality Population Risk Tool (MPoRT)—was developed and validated using the 2001 to 2008 Canadian Community Health Surveys. There were approximately 1 million person-years of follow-up and 9,900 deaths in the development and validation datasets. After validation, MPoRT was used to predict future mortality and estimate the burden of smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, and poor diet in the presence of sociodemographic and other risk factors using the 2010 national survey (approximately 90,000 respondents). Canadian period life tables were generated using predicted risk of death from MPoRT. The burden of behavioural risk factors attributable to life expectancy was estimated using hazard ratios from the MPoRT risk model. Findings The MPoRT 5 y mortality risk algorithms were discriminating (C-statistic: males 0.874 [95% CI: 0.867–0.881]; females 0.875 [0.868–0.882]) and well calibrated in all 58 predefined subgroups. Discrimination was maintained or improved in the validation cohorts. For the 2010 Canadian population, unhealthy behaviour attributable life expectancy lost was 6.0 years for both men and women (for men 95% CI: 5.8 to 6.3 for women 5.8 to 6.2). The Canadian life expectancy associated with health behaviour recommendations was 17.9 years (95% CI: 17.7 to 18.1) greater for people with the most favourable risk profile compared to those with the least favourable risk profile (88.2 years versus 70.3 years). Smoking, by itself, was associated with 32% to 39% of the difference in life expectancy across social groups (by education achieved or neighbourhood deprivation). Conclusions Multivariable

  17. The eating-related behaviours, disorders and expectations of candidates for bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Opolski, M; Chur-Hansen, A; Wittert, G

    2015-08-01

    It is important that clinicians and researchers understand the possible eating-related difficulties experienced by pre-bariatric surgery candidates, as well as their expectations of how their eating and hunger will change after surgery. This review examines English-language publications related to the eating-related behaviours, disorders and expectations of bariatric candidates. Seventy-five articles related to binge eating disorder, grazing, night eating syndrome, emotional eating, food cravings and addiction, and pre-surgical expectations of post-surgical eating in this population were critically reviewed. A variety of often problematic eating behaviours appear more common in bariatric candidates than in non-obese populations. The literature suggests that 4-45% of candidates may have binge eating disorder, 20-60% may graze, 2-42% may have night eating syndrome, 38-59% may engage in emotional eating and 17-54% may fit criteria for food addiction. Binge eating may also be more prevalent in bariatric candidates than in similarly obese non-surgical individuals. Expectations of surgery are high, with pre-surgical candidates believing their bariatric procedure will virtually guarantee significantly improved eating behaviours. Study replications are needed, and further investigation into prevalence, impacts and candidate characteristics related to disordered eating behaviours, as well as candidates' expectations of eating after surgery, will be important. Further comparisons of bariatric candidates to similarly obese non-bariatric populations will be important to understand eating-related characteristics of candidates beyond those related to their weight. Future research may be improved by the use of validated measures, replicable methodologies, minimization of data collected in circumstances where respondents may been motivated to 'fake good', use of prospective data and consistent definitions of key terminology. PMID:26173752

  18. A psychiatric study of deviant eating behaviour among mentally handicapped adults.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, G; Whitehouse, A M

    1990-08-01

    A study of deviant eating behaviour among mentally handicapped adults in community placements is reported. Those individuals with a psychiatric disorder showed more deviant eating behaviour. Depressed subjects, in particular, showed an excess of the amount eaten and time spent searching for food, as well as the tendency to eat all sweet food presented to them. Non-food pica was uncommon, even among the autistic subjects. PMID:2224381

  19. Eating behaviour patterns in Chinese children aged 12-18 months and association with relative weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eating behaviours have been suggested relating to obesity development. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a parent-report measure constructed to assess multiple dimensions of eating behavior for children. This study aimed to test the validity of the Chinese version of Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) in Chinese children aged 12-18 months. We examined factor structure and the reliability of the Chinese version of the CEBQ, the associations between children's eating behaviours and children's weight (BMI SDS) were assessed. Methods 219 questionnaires were filled out by the caregivers, approached in community health care centers in two cities in China. BMI of each child was calculated and converted to BMI SDS. Factor validation (Principal Component Analysis, exploratory factor analysis) on all CEBQ items was performed and gender difference in eating behaviours was examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analyzed by linear regression analysis controlling for gender, parental combined weight, and education. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven-factor solution, with factor 'food responsiveness' (FR) split into two. 'Satiety responsiveness' (SR) and 'Enjoyment of food' (EF) factors were not detected. Interestingly, boys scored higher than girls in the FR scales, whereas girls had a higher score in 'food fussiness' (FF) scale. Conclusions We conclude that although a valuable psychometric instrument, CEBQ might be affected by age and cultural differences. Therefore, adjusting it in order to fit the Chinese population was suggested. We did not find an association between eating behaviours and children's BMI SDS, when it was controlled for gender and parental weight. PMID:22272572

  20. Maternal restraint and external eating behaviour are associated with formula use or shorter breastfeeding duration.

    PubMed

    Brown, A

    2014-05-01

    Maternal eating behaviour (e.g. restraint, disinhibition) has been associated with maternal child-feeding style (e.g. pressure to eat, restricting intake, monitoring) for children over the age of two years. In particular, mothers high in restraint are significantly more likely to restrict and monitor their child's intake of food. Research has not however examined the impact of maternal eating behaviour upon earlier infant feeding. A controlling maternal child-feeding style has been linked with shorter breastfeeding duration and earlier introduction of solid foods but the relationship between infant milk feeding and maternal eating behaviour has not been explored despite links between maternal weight, body image and breastfeeding duration. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between maternal restraint, emotional and external eating and breastfeeding initiation and duration. Seven hundred and fifty-six mothers with an infant aged 6-12months completed a copy of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and reported breastfeeding duration and formula use up to six months postpartum. Mothers high in restraint and external eating were significantly more likely to formula feed from birth, to breastfeed for a shorter duration and to introduce formula milk sooner than those lower in these behaviours. Moreover these behaviours were associated with reporting greater control during milk feeding by feeding to a mother-led rather than baby-led routine. Maternal eating behaviour may therefore affect breastfeeding initiation and continuation and is an important element for discussion for those working to support new mothers. PMID:24463067

  1. Ironic processes in the eating behaviour of restrained eaters.

    PubMed

    Boon, Brigitte; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Schut, Henk; Ijntema, Richta

    2002-02-01

    Theory. The present study examines the processes underlying the disinhibition of the eating behaviour of restrained eaters following negative emotions. Based on Herman and Polivy's (1984) Boundary Model and Wegner's Ironic Process Theory (1994), the limited capacity hypothesis is formulated, suggesting that overeating in restrained eaters results from cognitive capacity limitations. Predictions were that (1) impairment of cognitive capacity during eating will lead to overeating in restrained but not in unrestrained eaters and that (2) this difference should only emerge with food perceived to be high in calories.METHOD: The hypotheses were tested in an experiment with a 2 (restrained/unrestrained) x 2 (distraction yes/no) x 2 (perceived calories high/low) design, in which subjects consumed ice-cream in a taste test situation. Ice-cream consumption was the dependent variable.RESULTS: A second-order interaction was found: as predicted, in the high calorie condition restrained eaters ate the same amount as unrestrained eaters when not distracted, but considerably more when distracted. There was also an unexpected main effect of distraction, which indicated that restrained as well as unrestrained eaters ate more if distracted than if not distracted.DISCUSSION: The restraintxdistractionxperceived calories interaction can be explained by both the Ironic Process Theory and the Boundary Model; and the limited capacity hypothesis appears to be confirmed. The overall main effect of distraction remains puzzling. Two speculative views for the latter effect are offered. PMID:14596713

  2. Pro-eating disorder search patterns: the possible influence of celebrity eating disorder stories in the media.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Stephen P; Klauninger, Laura; Marcincinova, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Pro eating disorder websites often contain celebrity-focused content (e.g., images) used as thinspiration to engage in unhealthy eating disorder behaviours. The current study was conducted to examine whether news media stories covering eating disorder disclosures of celebrities corresponded with increases in Internet searches for pro eating disorder material. Results indicated that search volumes for pro eating disorder terms spiked in the month immediately following such news coverage but only for particularly high-profile celebrities. Hence, there may be utility in providing recovery-oriented resources within the search results for pro-eating disorder Internet searches and within news stories of this nature. PMID:26941955

  3. "Food addiction is real". The effects of exposure to this message on self-diagnosed food addiction and eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Rogers, Peter J; Dallas, Rebecca; Scott, Jade; Ruddock, Helen K; Robinson, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Food addiction is widely discussed in popular media in many Westernised societies. However, a potential concern is that endorsement of the food addiction model may cause people to perceive a lack of personal control over eating which could promote unhealthy dietary behaviours. To address this possibility, the current study investigated whether exposure to food addiction messages would, firstly, increase the number of participants who self-diagnosed as food addicts and, secondly, increase intake of indulgent foods. In a between-subjects design, participants (N = 60) read an article which either claimed that food addiction is real ("Real" condition) or that food addiction is a myth ("Myth" condition). Intake of indulgent and non-indulgent foods was then assessed in a disguised taste test and participants also completed a measure of self-diagnosed food addiction. A significantly higher proportion of participants in the Real condition self-diagnosed as food addicts relative to participants in the Myth condition (57% and 27% of participants, respectively; p = .018). Variability in intake, but not mean intake, of indulgent food was higher in the Real condition than in the Myth condition. These findings suggest that endorsement of the concept of food addiction may encourage people to self-diagnose as food addicts and thus explain their eating behaviour in terms of addiction (an external attribution). The extent to which self-diagnosis of food addiction influences actual food intake and how this might vary with individual differences and eating context remains to be determined. PMID:25891042

  4. The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students.

    PubMed

    Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eating behaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating behaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eating behaviour. Males with disordered eating behaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating. PMID:20593479

  5. Factors Influencing Adolescent Eating Behaviour: Application and Validation of a Diagnostic Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benarroch, Alicia; Perez, Silvia; Perales, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Variables that predict the eating behaviour of teenagers are a high-priority objective of nutritional educational programmes. This research work is designed to verify whether the "Food Consumption, Intentions and Preferences Assessment Test" (FCIPAT) is useful when investigating the factors influencing adolescent eating behaviour…

  6. Children's Eating Attitudes and Behaviour: A Study of the Modelling and Control Theories of Parental Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rachael; Ogden, Jane

    2004-01-01

    The present study compared the modelling and control theories of parental influence on children's eating attitudes and behaviour with a focus on snack foods. Matched questionnaires describing reported snack intake, eating motivations and body dissatisfaction were completed by 112 parent/child pairs. Parents completed additional items relating to…

  7. Does eating while watching television influence children's food-related behaviours?

    PubMed

    Marquis, Marie; Filion, Yves P; Dagenais, Fannie

    2005-01-01

    To assess children's food-related behaviours and their relationships with eating while watching television (TV), data were collected from 534 ten-year-old French-Canadian children. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Almost 18% of girls and over 25% of boys reported eating in front of the TV every day. Although, overall, the boys' eating pattern was less healthy than the girls', all of the children's food choices deteriorated with increased frequency of eating in front of the TV. Compared with girls, boys gave more importance to coloured and attractive foods, and to selecting foods similar to those eaten by others. Over 50% of children reported always receiving negative weight-related comments from family members. For boys, significant correlations were found between the frequency of eating in front of the TV, the importance given to a food's appearance, and their requests to parents for advertised foods. Significance was at the p<0.05 level for all findings. These results suggest that gender should be considered in attempts to understand children's food motivations and behaviours. The findings also indicate the need to document children's eating environments, and to inform children and their families about eating behaviours that may be associated with a given environment. PMID:15780151

  8. Mindfulness, Eating Behaviours, and Obesity: A Review and Reflection on Current Findings.

    PubMed

    Mantzios, Michail; Wilson, Janet Clare

    2015-03-01

    Mindfulness and mindful eating have become popular in recent years. In this review, we first explore what mindfulness is in the context of psychological research, and why it offers promise for eating behaviours and weight loss. Second, we review the main empirical findings for weight loss in mindfulness-based intervention programmes. Third, contradictions in the findings are explored in more depth, and suggestions are made regarding why they may be occurring. Fourth, the benefits of adding self-compassion (and compassion) training to mindfulness practise to assist weight loss is discussed. Finally, the limitations of the research literature (and possible solutions) are explored. Overall, it is concluded that while mindfulness meditations that specifically focus on eating may be extremely helpful in promoting better eating behaviours, and assist in weight regulation, work is still needed to make such interventions appeal to a wider audience. PMID:26627097

  9. The validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural model of eating disorders in predicting dietary restraint.

    PubMed

    Hoiles, Kimberley J; Egan, Sarah J; Kane, Robert T

    2012-04-01

    The study examined the validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural theory of eating disorders. The aim was to determine if the maintaining mechanisms of clinical perfectionism, core low self esteem, mood intolerance and interpersonal difficulties have a direct impact on dietary restraint or an indirect impact via eating, shape and weight concerns. The model was tested in a community sample of 224 females recruited via the internet. The structural equation model provided a good fit for the data. The relationship between maintaining mechanisms and dietary restraint was due to maintaining mechanisms impacting indirectly on dietary restraint via eating disorder psychopathology. The results lend support for the validity of the transdiagnostic model of eating disorders as the maintaining mechanisms lead to restraint via the core psychopathology of eating concerns, weight concerns and shape concerns. The findings suggest the four maintaining mechanisms alone are not enough to lead to dietary restraint, the core psychopathology of eating disorders needs to be present, which supports the predictions of the theory. These results help establish the validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural theory of eating disorders. PMID:22365794

  10. Eating behaviour, body image, and self-esteem of adolescent girls in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Soo, Kah Leng; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Samah, Bahaman Abu

    2008-06-01

    This cross-sectional study was undertaken with 489 secondary school girls, ages 15-17 years, to examine disordered eating behaviours of adolescent girls in Malaysia and to estimate associations with body weight, body-size discrepancy, and self-esteem. Dietary restraint, binge eating, body image, and self-esteem were assessed using the Restrained Eating scale of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, the Binge Scale Questionnaire, the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, respectively. Pearson correlations estimated associations between variables. There were 3.1% underweight, 9.8% at risk of being overweight, and 8.6% overweight girls. A total of 87.3% were dissatisfied with their own body size. Dietary restraint and binge eating were reported by 36.0% and 35.4%, respectively. Body Mass Index (r = .34, p < .01) and body-size dissatisfaction (r = .24, p < .01) were significantly associated with dietary restraint and binge eating, but self-esteem (r = -.20, p < .001) was significantly associated only with binge eating. PMID:18712205

  11. Systematic review of the relationship between childcare educators' practices and preschoolers' physical activity and eating behaviours.

    PubMed

    Ward, S; Bélanger, M; Donovan, D; Carrier, N

    2015-12-01

    The role of childcare educators is important given that 81% of preschoolers living in developed countries receive childcare outside their home. Since children learn by observing and imitating others, childcare educators may play a role in promoting healthy eating behaviours and physical activity in young children. Six databases were searched for quantitative peer-reviewed, English or French primary studies reporting the correlates, predictors or effectiveness of childcare educators' practices on preschoolers' healthy eating and physical activity behaviours. Risk of bias was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Fifteen articles were included in this review: 10 measured physical activity levels and five assessed eating behaviours. The quality score was rated as low for eight of these articles, and as moderate for the remaining seven. Two of four cross-sectional studies reported a positive relationship between educators and children's behaviours. Eleven intervention studies reported significant favourable effects of interventions. Educators may play a positive role in promoting healthy behaviours in children, but this is mainly based on a small number of intervention type studies of low or moderate quality. The influence of specific components of educators' practices on children's healthy eating and physical activity behaviours remains inconclusive. PMID:26345462

  12. Influence of parental attitudes in the development of children eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni, Silvia; Salvioni, Michela; Galimberti, Cinzia

    2008-02-01

    The present paper is a review of available data on effects of parental feeding attitudes and styles on child nutritional behaviour. Food preferences develop from genetically determined predispositions to like sweet and salty flavours and to dislike bitter and sour tastes. There is evidence for existence of some innate, automatic mechanism that regulate appetite. However, from birth genetic predispositions are modified by experience. There are mechanisms of taste development: mere exposure, medicine effect, flavour learning, flavour nutrient learning. Parents play a pivotal role in the development of their child's food preferences and energy intake, with research indicating that certain child feeding practices, such as exerting excessive control over what and how much children eat, may contribute to childhood overweight. Mothers are of particular interest on children's eating behaviour, as they have been shown to spend significantly more time than fathers in direct interactions with their children across several familial situations.A recent paper describes two primary aspects of control: restriction, which involves restricting children's access to junk foods and restricting the total amount of food, and pressure, which involves pressuring children to eat healthy foods (usually fruits and vegetables) and pressuring to eat more in general. The results showed significant correlations between parent and child for reported nutritional behaviour like food intake, eating motivations, and body dis- and satisfaction. Parents create environments for children that may foster the development of healthy eating behaviours and weight, or that may promote overweight and aspects of disordered eating. In conclusion positive parental role model may be a better method for improving a child's diet than attempts at dietary control. PMID:18257948

  13. An Investigation into the Eating Behaviour of International Students Studying at an Australian University: Should We Be Concerned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomes, Susan; Croft, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study provides a snapshot of the eating behaviour of more than 300 international students studying across four campuses of an Australian university. It explores what the students are eating and drinking, their knowledge of nutrition, the extent to which they prepare their own food or rely on fast food and if their behaviour is…

  14. Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…

  15. Changes in Eating Behaviours among Czech Children and Adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC Study)

    PubMed Central

    Voráčová, Jaroslava; Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were examined by frequency of breakfast (on weekdays and weekends), fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption using data obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to analyze changes in eating behaviours. The findings showed a significant increase (only in girls, p ≤ 0.001) in prevalence of breakfast consumption (on weekdays) and a decrease in daily consumption of soft drinks (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.001), sweets (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.01) and fruit (in boys, p ≤ 0.01; in girls, p ≤ 0.001) between 2002 and 2014. Daily vegetable and breakfast on weekends consumption remained statistically unchanged over time. More frequent daily fruit, vegetable and breakfast (on weekends) consumption was reported by girls and younger children, whereas daily soft drink intake was more prevalent in boys and older children. There is a need for re-evaluation of current policies and new initiatives to improve the eating habits of Czech children. PMID:26694428

  16. Changes in Eating Behaviours among Czech Children and Adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC Study).

    PubMed

    Voráčová, Jaroslava; Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were examined by frequency of breakfast (on weekdays and weekends), fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption using data obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to analyze changes in eating behaviours. The findings showed a significant increase (only in girls, p ≤ 0.001) in prevalence of breakfast consumption (on weekdays) and a decrease in daily consumption of soft drinks (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.001), sweets (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.01) and fruit (in boys, p ≤ 0.01; in girls, p ≤ 0.001) between 2002 and 2014. Daily vegetable and breakfast on weekends consumption remained statistically unchanged over time. More frequent daily fruit, vegetable and breakfast (on weekends) consumption was reported by girls and younger children, whereas daily soft drink intake was more prevalent in boys and older children. There is a need for re-evaluation of current policies and new initiatives to improve the eating habits of Czech children. PMID:26694428

  17. Transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight

    PubMed Central

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the treatment of adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) is a potential option as it is a treatment for adult patients with eating disorders of this type and it has been shown to be effective with adolescent patients who are underweight. The aim of the present cohort study was to evaluate the effects of CBT-E on non-underweight adolescents with an eating disorder. Sixty-eight adolescent patients with an eating disorder and a body mass index (BMI) centile corresponding to an adult BMI ≥18.5 were recruited from consecutive referrals to a community-based eating disorder clinic. Each was offered 20 sessions of CBT-E over 20 weeks. Three-quarters completed the full 20 sessions. There was a marked treatment response with two-thirds (67.6%, intent-to-treat) having minimal residual eating disorder psychopathology by the end of treatment. CBT-E therefore appears to be a promising treatment for those adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. PMID:26275760

  18. Transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the treatment of adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) is a potential option as it is a treatment for adult patients with eating disorders of this type and it has been shown to be effective with adolescent patients who are underweight. The aim of the present cohort study was to evaluate the effects of CBT-E on non-underweight adolescents with an eating disorder. Sixty-eight adolescent patients with an eating disorder and a body mass index (BMI) centile corresponding to an adult BMI ≥ 18.5 were recruited from consecutive referrals to a community-based eating disorder clinic. Each was offered 20 sessions of CBT-E over 20 weeks. Three-quarters completed the full 20 sessions. There was a marked treatment response with two-thirds (67.6%, intent-to-treat) having minimal residual eating disorder psychopathology by the end of treatment. CBT-E therefore appears to be a promising treatment for those adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. PMID:26275760

  19. The Relationship between Lifestyle and Campus Eating Behaviours in Male and Female University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Rebecca A.; Berry, Tanya R.; Kennedy, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Poor nutritional practices and heightened levels of stress, two common attributes of university life, are strongly linked with weight gain and decreased health. Little research has examined the relationships between university students' lifestyle factors and campus eating behaviours; therefore, this study aimed to examine relationships…

  20. Eating Behaviours of Preadolescent Children over Time: Stability, Continuity and the Moderating Role of Perceived Parental Feeding Practices

    PubMed Central

    Houldcroft, Laura; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The links between childhood eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are well-established in younger children, but there is a lack of research examining these variables in a preadolescent age group, particularly from the child’s perspective, and longitudinally. This study firstly aimed to examine the continuity and stability of preadolescent perceptions of their parents’ controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction) over a 12 month period. The second aim was to explore if perceptions of parental feeding practices moderated the relationship between preadolescents’ eating behaviours longitudinally. Two hundred and twenty nine preadolescents (mean age at recruitment 8.73 years) completed questionnaires assessing their eating behaviours and their perceptions of parental feeding practices at two time points, 12 months apart (T1 and T2). Preadolescents’ perceptions of their parental feeding practices remained stable. Perceptions of restriction and pressure to eat were continuous. Perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction significantly moderated the relationships between eating behaviours at T1 and T2. The findings from this study suggest that in a preadolescent population, perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction of food may exacerbate the development of problematic eating behaviours. PMID:27104552

  1. Eating Behaviours of Preadolescent Children over Time: Stability, Continuity and the Moderating Role of Perceived Parental Feeding Practices.

    PubMed

    Houldcroft, Laura; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The links between childhood eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are well-established in younger children, but there is a lack of research examining these variables in a preadolescent age group, particularly from the child's perspective, and longitudinally. This study firstly aimed to examine the continuity and stability of preadolescent perceptions of their parents' controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction) over a 12 month period. The second aim was to explore if perceptions of parental feeding practices moderated the relationship between preadolescents' eating behaviours longitudinally. Two hundred and twenty nine preadolescents (mean age at recruitment 8.73 years) completed questionnaires assessing their eating behaviours and their perceptions of parental feeding practices at two time points, 12 months apart (T1 and T2). Preadolescents' perceptions of their parental feeding practices remained stable. Perceptions of restriction and pressure to eat were continuous. Perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction significantly moderated the relationships between eating behaviours at T1 and T2. The findings from this study suggest that in a preadolescent population, perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction of food may exacerbate the development of problematic eating behaviours. PMID:27104552

  2. Epidemiology of eating disorders, eating disordered behaviour, and body image disturbance in males: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Mitchison, Deborah; Mond, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to epidemiological studies of eating and related body image disturbance disorders in males include, in addition to low base rates and the predominance of residual diagnostic categories, the female-centric nature of current classification schemes and the consequent lack of appropriate assessment instruments. In this narrative review, we summarise epidemiological data regarding the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders, related body image disturbance disorders, and eating disorder features in males. Attention is focused on disorders most likely to be observed among males, such as muscle dysmorphia and muscularity-oriented excessive exercise. It is argued that, given the multiple challenges involved in research of this kind, a focus on features is more likely to advance the field than a focus on diagnoses. In terms of correlates, we focus on impairment and help-seeking, since these issues are most relevant in informing public health burden, service provision, and related issues. We end with some thoughts about current gaps in the knowledge base and directions for future research that we consider to be most promising. PMID:27408719

  3. The effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: an open trial.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Susan M; Fursland, Anthea; Allen, Karina L; Watson, Hunna

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Enhanced Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT-E) for eating disorders in an open trial for adults with the full range of eating disorders found in the community. The only previously published trial of CBT-E for eating disorders was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) conducted in the U.K. for patients with a BMI ≥ 17.5. The current study represents the first published trial of CBT-E to include patients with a BMI<17.5. The study involved 125 patients referred to a public outpatient clinic in Perth, Western Australia. Patients attended, on average, 20-40 individual sessions with a clinical psychologist. Of those who entered the trial, 53% completed treatment. Longer waiting time for treatment was significantly associated with drop out. By the end of treatment full remission (cessation of all key eating disorder behaviours, BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2), not meeting DSM-IV criteria for an eating disorder) or partial remission (meeting at least 2 these criteria) was achieved by two thirds of the patients who completed treatment and 40% of the total sample. The results compared favourably to those reported in the previous RCT of CBT-E, with one exception being the higher drop-out rate in the current study. Overall, the findings indicated that CBT-E results in significant improvements, in both eating and more general psychopathology, in patients with all eating disorders attending an outpatient clinic. PMID:21345418

  4. Maternal perception of causes and consequences of sibling differences in eating behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Laura; Cooke, Lucy; Wardle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore mothers’ perceptions of differences between their children in the eating behaviour domain. Methods Twelve semi-structured interviews were carried out with mothers who had at least two children aged between 6 and 15 years, to discuss feeding experiences, particularly around healthy eating. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and analysed using Framework Analysis. Results Mothers frequently identified differences in appetite and food preferences between their children, which they attributed largely to genetic factors. These sibling differences meant that although feeding goals might be common, the pathways to the goals varied depending on each child’s appetitive characteristics. The overall pattern was one of flexible responsiveness to each child. In contrast to perceptions of their own children’s eating behaviours, feeding difficulties in other families were usually attributed to lack of parental control. Conclusion The feeding relationship is complex and interactive, resulting in parents modulating their feeding strategies to match each child’s eating behaviour. Guidance to parents on healthy feeding needs to acknowledge the nuanced and interactive nature of feeding practices. PMID:20717131

  5. Changes in alcohol intake in response to transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Karačić, Matislava; Wales, Jackie A.; Arcelus, Jon; Palmer, Robert L.; Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine how alcohol intake changes during and after trans-diagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders (CBT-E). Additionally, the paper considers the relationship between alcohol consumption, eating disorder diagnosis and current major depressive episode at the time of first assessment. Method One hundred and forty nine outpatients with an eating disorder (body mass index over 17.5) were divided into high or low alcohol intake groups (HIG and LIG) according to their intake at pre-treatment assessment. Their alcohol intake and eating disorder psychopathology were examined over the course of treatment and follow-up. Results There was no difference between the groups on response of the eating disorder to treatment. The HIG significantly reduced their alcohol intake following treatment whilst the intake of the LIG remained stable over the course of treatment and follow-up. There were no group differences in major depression and overall severity of eating disorder at baseline. Conclusions The response to CBT-E was not influenced by baseline level of alcohol use. The mean alcohol intake of the heavy drinking subjects decreased without being specifically addressed by the treatment. PMID:21704306

  6. Eating behaviours in preadolescence are associated with body dissatisfaction and mental disorders - Results of the CCC2000 study.

    PubMed

    Munkholm, Anja; Olsen, Else Marie; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Clemmensen, Lars; Rimvall, Martin K; Jeppesen, Pia; Micali, Nadia; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-06-01

    Preadolescence is a key period in the early stages of eating disorder development. The aim of the present study was, firstly, to investigate restrained, emotional and external eating in a general population-based sample of 11-12 year olds. Secondly, we sought to explore how these eating behaviours are associated with possible predictors of eating disorders, such as body dissatisfaction, weight status and mental disorders. A subsample of 1567 children (47.7% boys; 52.3% girls) from the Copenhagen Child Cohort (CCC2000) completed web-based questionnaires on eating behaviours and body dissatisfaction using The Eating Pattern Inventory for Children (EPI-C) and The Children's Figure Rating Scale. Mental disorders were assessed using the online version of the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) based on parental replies with final DSM-IV diagnoses determined by experienced child- and adolescent psychiatrists. Height and weight were measured at a face-to-face assessment. The results showed that restrained eating was significantly associated with overweight, body dissatisfaction and emotional disorders in both genders. Emotional eating showed similar associations with overweight and body dissatisfaction in both genders, but was only associated with mental disorders in girls. External eating was significantly associated with body dissatisfaction and neurodevelopmental disorders in both genders, but was only associated with overweight in girls. Our findings show that problematic eating behaviours can be identified in preadolescence, and co-exist with weight problems and mental disorders. Thus restrained, emotional and external eating was, in different ways, associated with overweight, body dissatisfaction and mental disorders. Our findings point to significant eating behaviours in preadolescence, which could constitute potential predictors of later eating disorder risk. PMID:26896837

  7. The Role of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Binge-Eating/Purging Behaviours in Family Functioning in Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Depestele, Lies; Claes, Laurence; Dierckx, Eva; Baetens, Imke; Schoevaerts, Katrien; Lemmens, Gilbert M D

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate family functioning of restrictive and binge-eating/purging eating disordered adolescents with or without non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), as perceived by the patients and their parents (mothers and fathers). In total, 123 patients (between 14 and 24 years), 98 mothers and 79 fathers completed the Family Assessment Device. Patients completed the Self-Injury Questionnaire-Treatment Related and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. No main effects were found of restrictive versus binge-eating/purging behaviour nor of presence/absence of NSSI. For the parents, a significant interaction between binge-eating/purging behaviour and NSSI emerged: Mothers and fathers reported worse family functioning in the binge-eating/purging group in presence of NSSI, whereas mothers reported worse family functioning in the restrictive group without NSSI. Parental perception of family functioning is affected by the combined presence of binge-eating/purging behaviour and NSSI. This finding should be taken into account when treating families living with eating disorders. PMID:26084562

  8. Hormonal and neural mechanisms of food reward, eating behaviour and obesity.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan; Tulloch, Alastair; Gold, Mark S; Avena, Nicole M

    2014-09-01

    With rising rates of obesity, research continues to explore the contributions of homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms related to eating behaviour. In this Review, we synthesize the existing information on select biological mechanisms associated with reward-related food intake, dealing primarily with consumption of highly palatable foods. In addition to their established functions in normal feeding, three primary peripheral hormones (leptin, ghrelin and insulin) play important parts in food reward. Studies in laboratory animals and humans also show relationships between hyperphagia or obesity and neural pathways involved in reward. These findings have prompted questions regarding the possibility of addictive-like aspects in food consumption. Further exploration of this topic may help to explain aberrant eating patterns, such as binge eating, and provide insight into the current rates of overweight and obesity. PMID:24958311

  9. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia: distinct and overlapping changes in eating behaviour and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rebekah M; Irish, Muireann; Piguet, Olivier; Halliday, Glenda M; Ittner, Lars M; Farooqi, Sadaf; Hodges, John R; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic changes incorporating fluctuations in weight, insulin resistance, and cholesterol concentrations have been identified in several neurodegenerative disorders. Whether these changes result from the neurodegenerative process affecting brain regions necessary for metabolic regulation or whether they drive the degenerative process is unknown. Emerging evidence from epidemiological, clinical, pathological, and experimental studies emphasises a range of changes in eating behaviours and metabolism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In ALS, metabolic changes have been linked to disease progression and prognosis. Furthermore, changes in eating behaviour that affect metabolism have been incorporated into the diagnostic criteria for FTD, which has some clinical and pathological overlap with ALS. Whether the distinct and shared metabolic and eating changes represent a component of the proposed spectrum of the two diseases is an intriguing possibility. Moreover, future research should aim to unravel the complex connections between eating, metabolism, and neurodegeneration in ALS and FTD, and aim to understand the potential for targeting modifiable risk factors in disease development and progression. PMID:26822748

  10. The association between types of eating behaviour and dispositional mindfulness in adults with diabetes. Results from Diabetes MILES. The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Tak, Sanne R; Hendrieckx, Christel; Nefs, Giesje; Nyklíček, Ivan; Speight, Jane; Pouwer, François

    2015-04-01

    Although healthy food choices are important in the management of diabetes, making dietary adaptations is often challenging. Previous research has shown that people with type 2 diabetes are less likely to benefit from dietary advice if they tend to eat in response to emotions or external cues. Since high levels of dispositional mindfulness have been associated with greater awareness of healthy dietary practices in students and in the general population, it is relevant to study the association between dispositional mindfulness and eating behaviour in people with type 1 or 2 diabetes. We analysed data from Diabetes MILES - The Netherlands, a national observational survey in which 634 adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (to assess restrained, external and emotional eating behaviour) and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-Short Form (to assess dispositional mindfulness), in addition to other psychosocial measures. After controlling for potential confounders, including demographics, clinical variables and emotional distress, hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness were associated with eating behaviours that were more restrained (β = 0.10) and less external (β = -0.11) and emotional (β = -0.20). The mindfulness subscale 'acting with awareness' was the strongest predictor of both external and emotional eating behaviour, whereas for emotional eating, 'describing' and 'being non-judgemental' were also predictive. These findings suggest that there is an association between dispositional mindfulness and eating behaviour in adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes. Since mindfulness interventions increase levels of dispositional mindfulness, future studies could examine if these interventions are also effective in helping people with diabetes to reduce emotional or external eating behaviour, and to improve the quality of their diet. PMID:25596042

  11. Body-related sport and exercise motives and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Therme, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting-purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting-Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises. PMID:25974271

  12. Perceptions and dietary intake of self-described healthy and unhealthy eaters with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Carson, Nancy E; Blake, Christine E; Saunders, Ruth

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine how community-dwelling adults with severe mental illness describe themselves as eaters and how these eating identities relate to dietary intake. Twenty participants completed one in-depth qualitative interview and three 24-h dietary recalls. Two distinct groups were identified; self-described healthy eaters (n = 10) and self-described unhealthy eaters (n = 10). Healthy eaters emphasized fruits and vegetables, limiting sweets, three meals a day, overcoming cost concerns, and benefits of healthy eating. Unhealthy eaters emphasized junk foods, fried foods, few fruits and vegetables, cost and household barriers to healthy eating, and concerns about consequences of unhealthy eating. Self-described healthy eaters consumed significantly more vegetables and less kilocalories, carbohydrates, fat, and saturated fat than self-described unhealthy eaters. Understanding how eating identities relate to dietary intake provides important insights for development of more effective approaches to promote healthy eating in this high risk population. PMID:25535051

  13. The relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and perceptions of infant eating behaviours at 4 months.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Sullivan, Serena E; de Jersey, Susan J; Daniels, Lynne A

    2016-10-01

    Parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviours are inter-related and both have been implicated in the development of childhood obesity. However, research on the parent-child feeding relationship during the first few months of life is limited. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and infant eating behaviours in a community sample. Mothers (N = 413) of 4 month old infants recruited during pregnancy for the New Beginnings: Healthy Mothers and Babies study self-reported feeding beliefs/practices and eating behaviours of their infants on established tools. Data on a comprehensive range of maternal and infant characteristics were also collected. Multivariable regression models were used to assess the associations between five feeding beliefs and practices and four eating behaviours, adjusting for key maternal and infant covariates. Mothers concerned about their infant becoming underweight rated the infant higher on satiety responsiveness and lower on enjoyment of food. Higher awareness of infant feeding cues was associated with higher infant enjoyment of food. Mothers concerned about their infant becoming overweight and those who used food to calm their baby rated the infant as higher on food responsiveness. Feeding to a schedule (vs on demand) was not associated with any of the infant eating behaviours. A relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and infant eating behaviours is apparent early in life, therefore longitudinal investigation to establish the directions of this relationship is warranted. PMID:27133549

  14. Psychotherapy for transdiagnostic binge eating: A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy, appetite-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy, and schema therapy.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Virginia V W; Jordan, Jennifer; Carter, Janet D; Frampton, Christopher M A; McKenzie, Janice M; Latner, Janet D; Joyce, Peter R

    2016-06-30

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the recommended treatment for binge eating, yet many individuals do not recover, and innovative new treatments have been called for. The current study compares traditional CBT with two augmented versions of CBT; schema therapy, which focuses on early life experiences as pivotal in the history of the eating disorder; and appetite-focused CBT, which emphasises the role of recognising and responding to appetite in binge eating. 112 women with transdiagnostic DSM-IV binge eating were randomized to the three therapies. Therapy consisted of weekly sessions for six months, followed by monthly sessions for six months. Primary outcome was the frequency of binge eating. Secondary and tertiary outcomes were other behavioural and psychological aspects of the eating disorder, and other areas of functioning. No differences among the three therapy groups were found on primary or other outcomes. Across groups, large effect sizes were found for improvement in binge eating, other eating disorder symptoms and overall functioning. Schema therapy and appetite-focused CBT are likely to be suitable alternative treatments to traditional CBT for binge eating. PMID:27149410

  15. Appetitive traits and relationships with BMI in adults: Development of the Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Hunot, Claudia; Fildes, Alison; Croker, Helen; Llewellyn, Clare H; Wardle, Jane; Beeken, Rebecca J

    2016-10-01

    The Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a validated parent-report measure of appetitive traits associated with weight in childhood. There is currently no matched measure for use in adults. The aim of this study was to adapt the CEBQ into a self-report Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (AEBQ) to explore whether the associations between appetitive traits and BMI observed in children are present in adults. Two adult samples were recruited one year apart from an online survey panel in 2013 (n = 708) and 2014 (n = 954). Both samples completed the AEBQ and self-reported their weight and height. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to derive 35 items for the AEBQ in Sample 1 and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to replicate the factor structure in Sample 2. Reliability of the AEBQ was assessed using Cronbach's α and a two week test-retest in a sub-sample of 93 participants. Correlations between appetitive traits measured by the AEBQ and BMI were calculated. PCA and CFA results showed the AEBQ to be a reliable questionnaire (Cronbach's α > 0.70) measuring 8 appetitive traits similar to the CEBQ [Hunger (H), Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Over-Eating (EOE), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Emotional Under-eating (EUE), Food Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE)]. Associations with BMI showed FR, EF (p < 0.05) and EOE (p < 0.01) were positively associated and SR, EUE and SE (p < 0.01) were negatively associated. Overall, the AEBQ appears to be a reliable measure of appetitive traits in adults which translates well from the validated child measure. Adults with a higher BMI had higher scores for 'food approach' traits (FR, EOE and EF) and lower scores for 'food avoidance' traits (SR, EUE and SE). PMID:27215837

  16. Adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions: gender-specific effects of child, maternal and family risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Micali, N.; De Stavola, B.; Ploubidis, G.; Simonoff, E.; Treasure, J.; Field, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors. Aims To investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children. Method Data were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions. Results Childhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys. Conclusions Risk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26206865

  17. Effect of gender and school level on disordered eating behaviours and attitudes in Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mancilla-Díaz, J M; López-Aguilar, X; Franco-Paredes, K; Alvarez-Rayón, G; Vázquez-Arévalo, R; Trinidad Ocampo Téllez-Girón, M

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess eating behaviours and attitudes in a community sample of 615 adolescent Mexican students recruited at a middle school (192 boys and 226 girls; mean age +/- standard deviation 13.56+/-0.09) and high school (90 boys and 107 girls; mean age 16.04+/-0.12 years), who completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), the Bulimia Test (BULIT) and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Multiple analysis of variance revealed the significant effect of gender on the negative feelings, body dissatisfaction, drive of thinness and perceived social pressure subscales, and school level on the body dissatisfaction and food preoccupation subscales. Among the high school girls, the gender x school level interaction had a significant effect on negative feelings, body dissatisfaction, drive of thinness, food preoccupation and perceived social pressure subscales. These data support previous findings concerning gender, and also suggest that perceived social pressure in the case of girls and food preoccupation in the case of boys could be important factors in the natural development of eating disorders. PMID:20179402

  18. Implicit shopping: attitudinal determinants of the purchasing of healthy and unhealthy foods.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, Andrew; Hurling, Robert; Baker, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Implicit attitudes, evaluations that can occur without effort, quickly and without conscious intent, have been shown to predict self-reported diets and objectively measured food choices within the laboratory. We present two studies which extend the literature by demonstrating that implicit attitudes predict objective purchasing of healthy and unhealthy foods. Both Study 1 (N=40) and Study 2 (N=36) utilised an online shopping paradigm and concerned purchasing of fruit and chocolate. In both studies, implicit attitudes predicted purchases. Explicit attitudes towards buying or eating fruit versus chocolate did not predict purchase behaviour. These studies represent an original test of whether implicit attitudes predict healthy consumer behaviour, which involves participants paying for products. This research provides the strongest evidence yet that implicit attitudes play a role in predicting health food purchases. A comprehensive model of health behaviour should take into account the role of implicit attitudes. PMID:21432730

  19. Implication of corticotropic hormone axis in eating behaviour pattern in obese and type 2 diabetic participants.

    PubMed

    Benbaibeche, Hassiba; Haffaf, El Mahdi; Kacimi, Ghouti; Oudjit, Brahim; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Koceïr, Elhadj Ahmed

    2015-04-28

    In Algeria, eating behaviour has been increasingly deviated from its traditional Mediterranean diet to modern fast food style. The present study examines the interactions between eating behaviour pattern (EBP), corticotropic hormone axis and the metabolic syndrome. Our Algerian population cohort comprised of 410 participants (130 obese, 170 type 2 diabetics and 110 healthy participants). The EBP was evaluated by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire test. The anthropometric and metabolic parameters (glucose, TAG, HDL, LDL and cholesterol) and the concentrations of hormones (insulin, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone) were determined by biometrics, spectrophotometry and RIA, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed a high correlation between the EBP and the metabolic syndrome, particularly between insulin-resistant state and hypertrophy of visceral adipose tissue. Compared with healthy participants, obese ones showed the hyperphagic type of EBP, i.e. disinhibition and hunger disorders. Conversely, the diabetics showed both the hypophagic and hyperphagic type of EBP. In diabetic and obese participants, cortisol and ACTH secretions were significantly altered, leading to metabolic disorders. The present study confirms the role of EBP in obesity and diabetes. PMID:25782454

  20. The Role and Impact of Student Leadership on Participants in a Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutuskey, Lila; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo; Centeio, Erin; Garn, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In the USA there are rising rates of obesity among children, at least in part due to unhealthy eating and physical inactivity. Implementing school-based health interventions with elementary school children focused on youth empowerment could lead to improved health environments and behaviours. The purpose of the present study was to…

  1. A narrative review of psychological and educational strategies applied to young children's eating behaviours aimed at reducing obesity risk.

    PubMed

    Gibson, E L; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Vögele, C; Summerbell, C D; Nixon, C; Moore, H; Douthwaite, W; Manios, Y

    2012-03-01

    Strategies to reduce risk of obesity by influencing preschool children's eating behaviour are reviewed. The studies are placed in the context of relevant psychological processes, including inherited and acquired preferences, and behavioural traits, such as food neophobia, 'enjoyment of food' and 'satiety responsiveness'. These are important influences on how children respond to feeding practices, as well as predictors of obesity risk. Nevertheless, in young children, food environment and experience are especially important for establishing eating habits and food preferences. Providing information to parents, or to children, on healthy feeding is insufficient. Acceptance of healthy foods can be encouraged by five to ten repeated tastes. Recent evidence suggests rewarding healthy eating can be successful, even for verbal praise alone, but that palatable foods should not be used as rewards for eating. Intake of healthier foods can be promoted by increasing portion size, especially in the beginning of the meal. Parental strategies of pressuring to eat and restriction do not appear to be causally linked to obesity, but are instead primarily responses to children's eating tendencies and weight. Moderate rather than frequent restriction may improve healthy eating in children. Actively positive social modelling by adults and peers can be effective in encouraging healthier eating. PMID:22309067

  2. Pharmacological modulation of the endocannabinoid signalling alters binge-type eating behaviour in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Scherma, M; Fattore, L; Satta, V; Businco, F; Pigliacampo, B; Goldberg, SR; Dessi, C; Fratta, W; Fadda, P

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by excessive food intake during short periods of time. Recent evidence suggests that alterations in the endocannabinoid signalling could be involved in the pathophysiology of BED. In this study, we investigated whether pharmacological manipulation of endocannabinoid transmission may be effective in modulating the aberrant eating behaviour present in a validated rat model of BED. Experimental Approach Binge-type eating was induced in female rats by providing limited access to an optional source of dietary fat (margarine). Rats were divided into three groups, all with ad libitum access to chow and water: control (C), with no access to margarine; low restriction (LR), with 2 h margarine access 7 days a week; high restriction (HR), with 2 h margarine access 3 days a week. Key Results Compared with the LR group, the HR group consumed more margarine and this was accompanied by an increase in body weight. The cannabinoid CB1/CB2 receptor agonist Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol significantly increased margarine intake selectively in LR rats, while the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 showed no effect. The CB1 receptor inverse agonist/antagonist rimonabant dose-dependently reduced margarine intake in HR rats. Notably, in HR rats, chronic treatment with a low dose of rimonabant induced a selective long-lasting reduction in margarine intake that did not develop tolerance, and a significant and persistent reduction in body weight. Conclusions and Implications Chronic pharmacological blockade of CB1 receptors reduces binge eating behaviour in female rats and may prove effective in treating BED, with an associated significant reduction in body weight. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-4 & http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.167.issue-8 PMID:23072421

  3. Eating habits and behaviors

    MedlinePlus

    ... events where food is served You stop at fast-food restaurants for breakfast and choose high fat, high ... buying unhealthy foods (impulse buying) or eating at fast-food restaurants. Plan your dinners at the beginning of ...

  4. Evaluation of eating and rumination behaviour in cows using a noseband pressure sensor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An automated technique for recording eating and rumination behaviour was evaluated in ten lactating Brown Swiss cows by comparing data obtained from a pressure sensor with data obtained via direct observation over a 24-hour period. The recording device involved a pressure sensor integrated in the noseband of a halter. The analysed variables included number and duration of individual rumination, eating and resting phases, total daily length of these phases and number of cuds chewed per day. Results Eating and rumination phases were readily differentiated based on characteristic pressure profiles. Chewing movements during rumination were regular and generated regular waveforms with uniform amplitudes, whereas eating generated irregular waveforms with variable amplitudes. There was complete or almost complete agreement and no significant differences between data obtained via direct observation and pressure sensor technique. Both methods yielded an average of 16 daily eating phases with a mean duration of 28.3 minutes. Total time spent eating was 445.0 minutes for direct observation and 445.4 minutes for the pressure sensor technique. Both techniques recorded an average of 13.3 rumination phases with a mean duration of 30.3 (direct observation) and of 30.2 (pressure sensor) minutes. Total time spent ruminating per day, number of cuds per day and chewing cycles per cud were 389.3 and 388.3 minutes, 410.1 and 410.0 and 60.0 and 60.3 for direct observation and pressure sensor technique, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two methods with respect to mean number of chewing cycles per day (24′669, direct observation vs. 24′751, pressure sensor, P < 0.05, paired t-test). There were strong correlations between the two recording methods with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.98 to 1.00. Conclusions The results confirmed that measurements of eating and rumination variables obtained via the pressure sensor technique are in

  5. Food for thought: a pilot study of the pros and cons of changing eating patterns within cognitive-behavioural therapy for the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Waller, Glenn; Evans, Jane; Pugh, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Evidence-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders has an early focus on behavioural changes around food intake. However, patients' anxiety around such change might account for why they often seem unmotivated in treatment. In order to determine the impact of changing intake, this pilot study of patients with bulimic disorders (N = 19) or anorexia nervosa (N = 9) used a mixed quantitative and qualitative design to retrospectively examine their perspectives of the short- and long-term pros and cons of such change. As expected, change was seen negatively in the short-term (with particularly high numbers reporting anxiety), but there were few reports of long-term negative outcomes. In contrast, there were both short- and long-term benefits of changing eating. The patients described what was helpful in making changes and what they had learned as a result. In both cases, their descriptions mapped closely onto the content and process of evidence-based CBT for the eating disorders. Although there is a need for more extensive research, these findings suggest that patients (and therapists) might benefit from being aware of the contrast between the short- and the long-term pros and cons of changing eating within CBT for the eating disorders. PMID:23820156

  6. Maternal report of young children's eating styles. Validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire in three ethnically diverse Australian samples.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Liu, Wei-Hong; Mehta, Rati Jani; Daniels, Lynne A; Magarey, Anthea; Battistutta, Diana

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) in three ethnically and culturally diverse samples of mothers in Australia. Confirmatory factor analysis utilising structural equation modelling examined whether the established 8-factor model of the CEBQ was supported in our three populations: (i) a community sample of first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH trial (mean child age=24months [SD=1]; N=244); (ii) a sample of immigrant Indian mothers of children aged 1-5years (mean age=34months [SD=14]; N=203), and (iii) a sample of immigrant Chinese mothers of children aged 1-4years (mean age=36months [SD=14]; N=216). The original 8-factor model provided an acceptable fit to the data in the NOURISH sample with minor post hoc re-specifications (two error covariances on Satiety Responsiveness and an item-factor covariance to account for a cross-loading of an item (Fussiness) on Satiety Responsiveness). The re-specified model showed reasonable fit in both the Indian and Chinese samples. Cronbach's α estimates ranged from .73 to .91 in the Australian sample and .61-.88 in the immigrant samples. This study supports the appropriateness of the CEBQ in the multicultural Australian context. PMID:23333562

  7. A comparison of parental views of their pre-school children's 'healthy' versus 'unhealthy' diets. A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jacqueline; Parletta, Natalie; Lynch, John; Campbell, Karen

    2014-05-01

    Despite recommended dietary guidelines, recent population surveys have recorded low fruit and vegetable and high non-core food consumption by Australian children. Young children rely on parents or primary carers to provide their diets; therefore pre-school age is an optimal time to promote and encourage healthy child eating behaviours. Identified contributing factors to a child's eating behaviour and diet in the home environment include parenting style, parent feeding practices and attitudes, parent nutrition knowledge, and home food availability. The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore perceptions, perceived influences, facilitators and barriers when providing healthy foods for young children via focus groups with parents of children with 'healthy' versus 'unhealthy' diets. Thematic analysis identified similarities across both groups including an intention to provide healthy food for their children with most parents involving their child in some level of meal preparation and most families dining together for the evening meal. Main points of difference included parents in the 'healthy' group having more partner support in relation to child diet, a willingness to say 'no' without wavering, and considering their child's daily physical activity when deciding appropriate food options. A majority of parents in the 'unhealthy' group attempted to disguise vegetables and healthy foods for their child and reported experiencing increased levels of stress regarding their child's fussy eating. PMID:24524974

  8. Eating and rumination behaviour of Scottish Highland cattle on pasture and in loose housing during the winter.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Storni, E; Hässig, M; Nuss, K

    2014-09-01

    This study examined eating and rumination behaviour in 13 Scottish Highland cattle for 13 days on a winter pasture and then for 13 days in a loose housing barn during winter. The cows were fed hay ad libitum and each was fitted with a pressure-sensitive transducer integrated into the noseband of the halter. The endpoints for each cow at both locations were calculated per day and included eating and rumination times, number of chewing cycles related to eating and rumination, number of regurgitated cuds and number of chewing cycles per cud. Air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, barometric pressure and precipitation were recorded. Pastured cows had significantly longer eating and rumination times, more chewing cycles related to eating and rumination, more regurgitated cuds and more chewing cycles per cud than housed cows. Meteorological conditions were very similar at both locations. PMID:25183674

  9. The Role of Non-suicidal Self-Injury and Binge-Eating/Purging Behaviours in the Caregiving Experience Among Mothers and Fathers of Adolescents with Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Depestele, Lies; Lemmens, Gilbert M D; Dierckx, Eva; Baetens, Imke; Schoevaerts, Katrien; Claes, Laurence

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the caregiving experiences of mothers and fathers of restrictive and binge-eating/purging eating disordered (ED) inpatients with and without non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Sixty-five mothers and 65 fathers completed the Experience of Caregiving Inventory. All inpatients completed the Self-Injury Questionnaire-Treatment Related to assess NSSI and the Eating Disorder Evaluation Scale to assess eating disorder symptoms. Mothers reported significant more negative and more positive caregiving experiences compared with fathers. Mothers (but not fathers) of restrictive ED patients reported more positive caregiving experiences compared with mothers of binge-eating/purging patients. The presence of NSSI in ED patients was associated with more negative caregiving experiences of both parents. Mothers and fathers of ED inpatients differ in caregiving experiences, and both binge-eating behaviours and NSSI negatively affect their caregiving experience. Therefore, supportive interventions for parents of ED patients are necessary, especially of those patients who engage in NSSI. PMID:26640156

  10. Body image interventions in cognitive-behavioural therapy of binge-eating disorder: a component analysis.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2004-11-01

    The present study sought to investigate effects of body exposure in the treatment of binge-eating disorder (BED). Cognitive-behavioural therapy with a body exposure component (CBT-E) was compared with CBT with a cognitive restructuring component focused on body image (CBT-C). Twenty-eight patients diagnosed with BED were randomly assigned to CBT-E or CBT-C, both delivered in a group format. Negative automatic thoughts about one's body, dysfunctional assumptions about shape and weight, and body dissatisfaction were assessed using experimental thought-sampling techniques, a clinical interview (Eating Disorder Examination), and self-report questionnaires. At posttreatment and at 4-month follow-up, CBT-E and CBT-C were equally effective in improving body image disturbance on all indicators assessed. Both CBT-E and CBT-C produced substantial and stable improvements in the specific and general eating disorder psychopathology. Results suggest that both treatment components are equally effective in the treatment of BED. PMID:15381441

  11. Growth and Development in Chinese Pre-Schoolers with Picky Eating Behaviour: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yong; Zhao, Ai; Cai, Li; Yang, Baoru; Szeto, Ignatius M. Y.; Ma, Defu; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations between picky eating behaviour and pre-schoolers’ growth and development. Corresponding potential mechanisms, such as nutrient and food subgroup intake, as well as micronutrients in the blood, will be considered. Methods Picky eating behaviour was present if it was reported by parents. From various areas of China, 937 healthy children of 3-7 years old were recruited using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Children and their mothers’ socio-demographic information and children’s anthropometry, intelligence, blood samples, one 24-hour dietary intake record and food frequency questionnaire were collected. Z-scores and intelligence tests were used to evaluate growth and development (cognitive development). Multilevel models were employed to verify the associations between picky eating behaviour and growth and development. Results The prevalence of picky eating as reported by parents was 54% in pre-schoolers. Compared with the non-picky eaters, weight for age in picky eaters was 0.14 z-score (95% CI: -0.25, -0.02; p = 0.017) lower while no significant difference was found in intelligence (p > 0.05). Picky eating behaviour lasting over two years was associated with lower weight for age, as was nit-picking meat (the prevalence from parents’ perception was 23% in picky eaters) (p < 0.05). Picky eaters consumed fewer cereals, vegetables, and fish (p < 0.05), and had a lower dietary intake of protein, dietary fibre, iron, and zinc (p < 0.05). There were no differences in the concentrations of essential minerals in whole blood (p > 0.05). Conclusions Picky eating behaviour is reported by parents in half of the Chinese pre-schoolers, which is negatively associated with growth (weight for age). Lower protein and dietary fibre as well as lower iron and zinc intakes were associated with picky eating as were lower intakes of vegetables, fish and cereals. PMID:25875004

  12. The Association of Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Behavioural Difficulties with Pre-Adolescent Problematic Eating Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Rebecca C.; Skugarevsky, Oleg; Yang, Seungmi; Kramer, Michael S.; Wade, Kaitlin H.; Patel, Rita; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Sergeichick, Natalia; Smith, George Davey; Oken, Emily; Martin, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Few studies have prospectively investigated associations of child cognitive ability and behavioural difficulties with later eating attitudes. We investigated associations of intelligence quotient (IQ), academic performance and behavioural difficulties at 6.5 years with eating attitudes five years later. Methods We conducted an observational cohort study nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, Belarus. Of 17,046 infants enrolled at birth, 13,751 (80.7%) completed the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) at 11.5 years, most with information on IQ (n = 12,667), academic performance (n = 9,954) and behavioural difficulties (n = 11,098) at 6.5 years. The main outcome was a ChEAT score ≥85th percentile, indicative of problematic eating attitudes. Results Boys with higher IQ at 6.5 years reported fewer problematic eating attitudes, as assessed by ChEAT scores ≥85th percentile, at 11.5 years (OR per SD increase in full-scale IQ = 0.87; 0.79, 0.94). No such association was observed in girls (1.01; 0.93, 1.10) (p for sex-interaction = 0.016). In both boys and girls, teacher-assessed academic performance in non-verbal subjects was inversely associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per unit increase in mathematics ability = 0.88; 0.82, 0.94; and OR per unit increase in ability for other non-verbal subjects = 0.86; 0.79, 0.94). Behavioural difficulties were positively associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per SD increase in teacher-assessed rating = 1.13; 1.07, 1.19). Conclusion Lower IQ, worse non-verbal academic performance and behavioural problems at early school age are positively associated with risk of problematic eating attitudes in early adolescence. PMID:25102171

  13. Neurobehavioural correlates of body mass index and eating behaviours in adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Vainik, Uku; Dagher, Alain; Dubé, Laurette; Fellows, Lesley K

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide increase in obesity has spurred numerous efforts to understand the regulation of eating behaviours and underlying brain mechanisms. These mechanisms can affordably be studied via neurobehavioural measures. Here, we systematically review these efforts, evaluating neurocognitive tests and personality questionnaires based on: a) consistent relationship with obesity and eating behaviour, and b) reliability. We also considered the measures’ potential to shed light on the brain mechanisms underlying these individual differences. Sixty-six neurocognitive tasks were examined. Less than 11%, mainly measures of executive functions and food motivation, yielded both replicated and reliable effects. Several different personality questionnaires were consistently related to BMI. However, further analysis found that many of these questionnaires relate closely to Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Neuroticism within the Five-Factor Model of personality. Both neurocognitive tests and personality questionnaires suggest that the critical neural systems related to individual differences in obesity are lateral prefrontal structures underpinning self-control and striatal regions implicated in food motivation. This review can guide selection of the highest yield neurobehavioural measures for future studies. PMID:23261403

  14. Influence of Physical Activity Participation on the Associations between Eating Behaviour Traits and Body Mass Index in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Riou, Marie-Ève; Doucet, Éric; Provencher, Véronique; Weisnagel, S. John; Piché, Marie-Ève; Dubé, Marie-Christine; Bergeron, Jean; Lemieux, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Available data reveals inconsistent relationships between eating behaviour traits and markers of adiposity level. It is thus relevant to investigate whether other factors also need to be considered when interpreting the relationship between eating behaviour traits and adiposity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was thus to examine whether the associations between variables of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and adiposity are influenced by the level of physical activity participation. Information from the TFEQ and physical activity was obtained from 113 postmenopausal women (56.7 ± 4.2 years; 28.5 ± 5.9 kg/m2). BMI was compared between four groups formed on the basis of the physical activity participation and eating behaviour traits medians. In groups of women with higher physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women who presented higher dietary restraint when compared to women who had lower dietary restraint (25.5 ± 0.5 versus 30.3 ± 1.7 kg/m2, P < .05). In addition, among women with lower physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women presenting a lower external hunger than in those with a higher external hunger (27.5 ± 0.8 versus 32.4 ± 1.1 kg/m2, P < .001). Our results suggest that physical activity participation should also be taken into account when interpreting the relationship between adiposity and eating behaviour traits. PMID:20871862

  15. Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Effects on Binge Eating Behaviour and Obsessive-Compulsive and Impulsive Features in Adults with Binge Eating Disorder.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Susan L; Mitchell, James E; Wilfley, Denise; Gasior, Maria; Ferreira-Cornwell, M Celeste; McKay, Michael; Wang, Jiannong; Whitaker, Timothy; Hudson, James I

    2016-05-01

    In a published 11-week, placebo-controlled trial, 50 and 70 mg/d lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), but not 30 mg/d LDX, significantly reduced binge eating days (primary endpoint) in adults with binge eating disorder (BED). This report provides descriptions of LDX effects on secondary endpoints (Binge Eating Scale [BES]; Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire [TFEQ]; Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Binge Eating [Y-BOCS-BE]; and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 [BIS-11]) from that study. Week 11 least squares mean treatment differences favoured all LDX doses over placebo on the BES (p ≤ 0.03), TFEQ Disinhibition and Hunger subscales (all p < 0.05), and Y-BOCS-BE total, obsessive, and compulsive scales (all p ≤ 0.02) and on BIS-11 total score at 70 mg/d LDX (p = 0.015) and the TFEQ Cognitive Restraint subscale at 30 and 70 mg/d LDX (both p<0.05). These findings indicate that LDX decreased global binge eating severity and obsessive-compulsive and impulsive features of BED in addition to binge eating days. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26621156

  16. Fast food: unfriendly and unhealthy.

    PubMed

    Stender, S; Dyerberg, J; Astrup, A

    2007-06-01

    Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently 'healthy' meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together with large portion sizes, induces over consumption of calories. In addition, we have found it to be a myth that the typical fast-food meal is the same worldwide. Chemical analyses of 74 samples of fast-food menus consisting of French fries and fried chicken (nuggets/hot wings) bought in McDonalds and KFC outlets in 35 countries in 2005-2006 showed that the total fat content of the same menu varies from 41 to 65 g at McDonalds and from 42 to 74 g at KFC. In addition, fast food from major chains in most countries still contains unacceptably high levels of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (IP-TFA). IP-TFA have powerful biological effects and may contribute to increased weight gain, abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. The food quality and portion size need to be improved before it is safe to eat frequently at most fast-food chains. PMID:17452996

  17. Impact of childhood experience and adult well-being on eating preferences and behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Simon J; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relative contribution of childhood experience, measured by childhood violence and childhood happiness, and adult well-being on adult eating preferences and behaviours, independent of proximal factors such as current deprivation. Design A cross-sectional, stratified, randomised sample survey using retrospective measures of childhood violence and happiness and self-reported measures of current well-being. Setting The North West Region of England between September 2012 and March 2013. Participants Individuals aged 18–95-year-olds from randomly selected households (participation was successful for 90% of eligible households and 78% of the total visited addresses; n=11 243). Outcomes Dichotomised measures for preference of healthy foods or ‘feel good’ foods and low or high daily fruit and vegetable consumption. Results After correcting for demographics, combined categories for childhood experience and dichotomised measures of adult well-being were found to be significantly related to adult food preferences and eating behaviours. Participants with unhappy and violent childhoods compared to those with happy and non-violent childhoods had adjusted ORs (95% CI, significance) of 2.67 (2.15 to 3.06, p<0.001) of having low daily fruit and vegetable intake (two or less portions) and 1.53 (1.29 to 1.81, p<0.001) of choosing ‘feel good’ foods over foods which were good for their long term health. Conclusions Daily intake of fruit and vegetables, linked to non-communicable diseases, and preference for ‘feel good’ foods, linked to obesity, are affected by childhood experience and adult well-being independent of demographic factors. Preventative interventions which support parent–child relationships and improve childhood experience are likely to reduce the development of poor dietary and other health-risk behaviours. PMID:26743696

  18. The theory of planned behaviour and healthy eating: Examining additive and moderating effects of social influence variables.

    PubMed

    Povey, R; Conner, M; Sparks, P; James, R; Shepherd, R

    2000-11-01

    Abstract This paper examines the additive and moderating effects of social influence variables (injunctive norms, descriptive norms, perceived social support) within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The target behaviour is the decision to eat healthily. Questionnaire responses on components of the TPB, descriptive norms, perceived social support, and subsequent healthy eating were obtained from a prospective sample of 235 members of the general public. Good predictions of intentions (42% of variance explained) and behaviour (15% of variance explained) were found using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Neither descriptive norms nor perceived social support added to these predictions of intentions over and above the TPB variables. However, perceived social support was found to act as a moderator variable on the relationship between perceived behavioral control and intention, and the relationship between attitude and intention. Implications for exploring the role of social influence variables on decisions concerning health behavioun an discussed. PMID:22175258

  19. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Fennis, Bob M; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose weight on snack purchase behavior were explored. Participants included in the study were instructed to report every snack they bought over the course of one week. The dependent variables were the number of healthy and unhealthy snacks purchased. The results of the present study demonstrate that depletion sensitivity predicts the amount of unhealthy (but not healthy) snacks bought. The more sensitive people are to depletion, the more unhealthy snacks they buy. Moreover, there was some tentative evidence that this relation is more pronounced for people with a weak as opposed to a strong goal to lose weight, suggesting that a strong goal to lose weight may function as a motivational buffer against self-control failures. All in all, these findings provide evidence for the external validity of depletion sensitivity and the relevance of this construct in the domain of eating behavior. PMID:26321417

  20. Central and peripheral peptides regulating eating behaviour and energy homeostasis in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tortorella, Alfonso; Brambilla, Francesca; Fabrazzo, Michele; Volpe, Umberto; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Mastromo, Daniele; Monteleone, Palmiero

    2014-09-01

    A large body of literature suggests the occurrence of a dysregulation in both central and peripheral modulators of appetite in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), but at the moment, the state or trait-dependent nature of those changes is far from being clear. It has been proposed, although not definitively proved, that peptide alterations, even when secondary to malnutrition and/or to aberrant eating behaviours, might contribute to the genesis and the maintenance of some symptomatic aspects of AN and BN, thus affecting the course and the prognosis of these disorders. This review focuses on the most significant literature studies that explored the physiology of those central and peripheral peptides, which have prominent effects on eating behaviour, body weight and energy homeostasis in patients with AN and BN. The relevance of peptide dysfunctions for the pathophysiology of eating disorders is critically discussed. PMID:24942507

  1. Unhealthy Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Holt, Stephen; Tetrault, Jeanette

    2016-08-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use is common and routine screening is essential to identify patients and initiate appropriate treatment. At-risk or hazardous drinking is best managed with brief interventions, which can be performed by any provider and are designed to enhance patients' motivations and promote behavioral change. Alcohol withdrawal can be managed, preferably with benzodiazepines, using a symptom-triggered approach. Twelve-step programs and provider-driven behavioral therapies have robust data supporting their effectiveness and patients with alcohol use disorder should be referred for these services. Research now support the use of several FDA-approved medications that aid in promoting abstinence and reducing heavy drinking. PMID:27373607

  2. Improving Children's Problem Eating and Mealtime Behaviours: An Evaluative Study of a Single Session Parent Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kim; Wallis, Marianne; St. John, Winsome

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a "single session" group, early intervention, multidisciplinary, education programme (entitled the "Fun not Fuss with Food" group programme) designed to improve children's problem eating and mealtime behaviours. Design: A quasi-experimental time-series design incorporating data collection, twice before…

  3. Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…

  4. Can Social Cognitive Theory Constructs Explain Socio-Economic Variations in Adolescent Eating Behaviours? A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, K.; MacFarlane, A.; Crawford, D.; Savige, G.; Andrianopoulos, N.; Worsley, A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eating behaviours using a theoretically derived…

  5. Chocolate cake. Guilt or celebration? Associations with healthy eating attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and weight-loss.

    PubMed

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A

    2014-03-01

    Food and eating are often associated with ambivalent feelings: pleasure and enjoyment, but also worry and guilt. Guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, but may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. This study firstly examined whether a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake) was related to differences in attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and intentions in relation to healthy eating, and secondly whether the default association was related to weight change over an 18month period (and short term weight-loss in a subsample of participants with a weight-loss goal). This study did not find any evidence for adaptive or motivational properties of guilt. Participants associating chocolate cake with guilt did not report more positive attitudes or stronger intentions to eat healthy than did those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Instead, they reported lower levels of perceived behavioural control over eating and were less successful at maintaining their weight over an 18month period. Participants with a weight-loss goal who associated chocolate cake with guilt were less successful at losing weight over a 3month period compared to those associating chocolate cake with celebration. PMID:24275670

  6. Influence of dietary macronutrient composition on eating behaviour and self-perception in young women undergoing weight management.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hoi Lun; Griffin, Hayley; Claes, Bri-Ellen; Petocz, Peter; Steinbeck, Katharine; Rooney, Kieron; O'Connor, Helen

    2014-06-01

    The control of eating behaviours such as hunger and disinhibition is problematic for women during weight management. Higher-protein (HP) diets have been shown to promote greater weight reduction than higher-carbohydrate (HC) diets, but their impact on eating behaviours is relatively unexplored. This study compared two iso-energetically restricted (5,600 kJ/day) diets differing in protein (HP: 32%, HC: 20%) and carbohydrate (HP: 41%, HC: 58%) on appetite ratings, restraint, disinhibition, perceived hunger and binge eating in 36 (HP: n = 21, HC: n = 15) young (18-25 years), healthy women with BMI ≥27.5 kg/m(2) who completed a 12-month clinical weight management trial. Dietary compliance and self-worth were also assessed. Results showed that both diets induced improvements in restraint and disinhibition from baseline (p < 0.01), with HP participants losing a non-significantly greater amount of weight than HC participants (HP: 9.6 ± 2.6, HC: 4.1 ± 1.4 kg, p = 0.07). Despite reasonable compliance, no significant appetite and eating behaviour differences were observed between the diets. Reduction in disinhibition (regardless of diet) significantly predicted weight loss (β = 0.574, p < 0.001) and self-worth improvement (β = -0.463, p = 0.002), while HP intake predicted greater self-worth change (β = -0.371, p = 0.011). This study demonstrates that young women can improve restraint and disinhibition on a weight management programme, with the reduction in disinhibition shown to be a key predictor of weight loss. HP intake may offer some advantage for increasing self-worth but not eating behaviours. As HP diets are popular, these findings warrant confirmation in a larger sample. PMID:24609724

  7. General practitioner attitudes towards referral of eating-disordered patients: a vignette study based on the theory of planned behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective The study examined individual differences between general practitioners (GPs) to determine their impact on variations in intention to refer a hypothetical patient with disordered eating to specialist eating disorder services. The study also examined the impact of patient weight on intention to refer. Method GPs within three primary care trusts (PCTs) were posted a vignette depicting a patient with disordered eating, described as either normal weight or underweight. A questionnaire was developed from the theory of planned behaviour to assess the GPs' attitudes, perception of subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and intention to refer the patient. Demographic details were also collected. Results Responses were received from 88 GPs (33%). Intention to refer the patient was significantly related to subjective norms and cognitive attitudes. Together these predictors explained 86% of the variance in the intention to refer. GP or practice characteristics did not have a significant effect on the GPs' intention to refer, and nor did the patient's weight. Conclusion Despite National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence current guidance, patient weight did not influence GPs' decisions to refer. Much of the variance in actual referral behaviour may be explained by cognitive attitudes and subjective norms. Interventions to reduce this variation should be focused on informing GPs about actual norms, and best practice guidelines. PMID:22477872

  8. Effect of a Nutritional Intervention in Athlete's Body Composition, Eating Behaviour and Nutritional Knowledge: A Comparison between Adults and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Marcus; Silva, Danielle; Ribeiro, Sandra; Nunes, Marco; Almeida, Marcos; Mendes-Netto, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult. In a before and after quasi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20-32 years; 11 adolescents, age range: 12-19 years) participated in a nutritional counselling consisting of four consultations separated by an interval of 45 to 60 days. The athlete's eating behaviour, body composition and nutrition knowledge were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Both groups increased lean body mass and nutritional knowledge. Adolescents increased their mid-arm muscle circumference and improved meal frequency, and daily water intake. Athletes of both groups improved their ingestion of vegetables and fruits and decreased the ingestion of sweets and oils. Adolescents showed a higher prevalence of individuals that remained within or approached to the recommendations of sweets. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult athletes body composition, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge. The nutritional counselling has been effective in promoting beneficial changes on the athlete's eating behaviour, nutritional knowledge and body composition, however, some healthy changes were only experienced by adolescents, especially in the frequency of meals and the intake of sweets. PMID:27618088

  9. Novel methods to help develop healthier eating habits for eating and weight disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Turton, Robert; Bruidegom, Kiki; Cardi, Valentina; Hirsch, Colette R; Treasure, Janet

    2016-02-01

    This paper systematically reviews novel interventions developed and tested in healthy controls that may be able to change the over or under controlled eating behaviours in eating and weight disorders. Electronic databases were searched for interventions targeting habits related to eating behaviours (implementation intentions; food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification). These were assessed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. In healthy controls the implementation intention approach produces a small increase in healthy food intake and reduction in unhealthy food intake post-intervention. The size of these effects decreases over time and no change in weight was found. Unhealthy food intake was moderately reduced by food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification post-intervention. This work may have important implications for the treatment of populations with eating and weight disorders. However, these findings are preliminary as there is a moderate to high level of heterogeneity in implementation intention studies and to date there are few food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification studies. PMID:26695383

  10. The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1 km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1 km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1 km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). Conclusions There was a strong

  11. Eating Disorders: Facts about Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eating disorders. Eating disorders frequently co-occur with…

  12. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire: factorial validity and association with Body Mass Index in Dutch children aged 6–7

    PubMed Central

    Sleddens, Ester FC; Kremers, Stef PJ; Thijs, Carel

    2008-01-01

    Background The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a parent-report measure designed to assess variation in eating style among children. In the present study we translated the CEBQ and examined its factor structure in a sample of parents of 6- and 7-year-old children in the Netherlands. Additionally, associations between the mean scale scores of the instrument and children's body mass index (BMI) were assessed. Methods In total, 135 parents of primary school children aged 6 and 7 completed the questionnaire (response rate 41.9%). Children's BMI was converted into standardised z-scores, adjusted for child gender and age to examine the association between mean scale scores and child weight status. Results Results generally confirmed the theoretical factor structure, with acceptable internal reliability and between-subscale correlations. Linear regression analyses revealed that BMI z-scores were positively associated with the 'food approach' subscales of the CEBQ (food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, emotional overeating) (β's 0.15 to 0.22) and negatively with 'food avoidant' subscales (satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, emotional undereating, and food fussiness) (β's -0.09 to -0.25). Significant relations with child BMI z-scores were found for food responsiveness (p = 0.02), enjoyment of food (p = 0.03), satiety responsiveness (p = 0.01) and slowness in eating (p = 0.01). Conclusion The results support the use of the CEBQ as a psychometrically sound tool for assessing children's eating behaviours in Dutch children and the study demonstrates its applicability in overweight-related studies. PMID:18937832

  13. Associations of Television Viewing With Eating Behaviors in the 2009 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Leah M.; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of television viewing with eating behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Public and private schools in the United States during the 2009–2010 school year. Participants A total of 12 642 students in grades 5 to 10 (mean [SD] age, 13.4[0.09] years; 86.5% participation). Main Exposures Television viewing (hours per day) and snacking while watching television (days per week). Main Outcome Measures Eating (≥1 instance per day) fruit, vegetables, sweets, and sugary soft drinks; eating at a fast food restaurant (≥1 d/wk); and skipping breakfast (≥1 d/wk). Results Television viewing was inversely related to intake of fruit (adjusted odds ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88–0.96) and vegetables (0.95; 0.91–1.00) and positively related to intake of candy (1.18; 1.14–1.23) and fast food (1.14; 1.09–1.19) and skipping breakfast (1.06; 1.02–1.10) after adjustment for socioeconomic factors, computer use, and physical activity. Television snacking was related to increased intake of fruit (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02–1.10), candy (1.20; 1.16–1.24), soda (1.15; 1.11–1.18), and fast food (1.09; 1.06–1.13), independent of television viewing. The relationships of television viewing with fruit and vegetable intake and with skipping breakfast were essentially unchanged after adjustment for television snacking; the relationships with intake of candy, soda, and fast food were moderately attenuated. Age and race/ethnicity modified relationships of television viewing with soda and fast food intake and with skipping breakfast. Conclusion Television viewing was associated with a cluster of unhealthy eating behaviors in US adolescents after adjustment for socioeconomic and behavioral covariates. PMID:22566548

  14. Preference and motivation of laying hens to eat under different illuminances and the effect of illuminance on eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Prescott, N B; Wathes, C M

    2002-05-01

    1. In experiment 1, 10 laying hens were given the choice to eat food pellets from any of 4 food bowls illuminated by overhead, incandescent luminaires at <1, 6, 20 or 200 lux. During a trial hens were allowed to eat for 5 min. After each minute had elapsed (from the start of eating) the light sources were extinguished and the illuminances re-assigned to the food bowls in a random manner. Each hen received two trials, one where the food was freely available and another where it was hidden in a sand and gravel mix. 2. The hens chose to eat for most time in the brightest (200 lux) and least in the dimmest (<1 lux) environments for both free and hidden food (free: 5.9, 10.5, 10.4, 15.7s for increasing illuminance; Hidden: 5.5, 9.8, 9.1 and 15.7s. 3. In experiment 2, 9 hens were trained to peck at either an illuminated or unilluminated panel to access a food reward behind a guillotine door for 3 s. Five hens were trained to peck the illuminated panel to access food brightly lit (200 lux) or the unilluminated panel to access food dimly lit (<1 lux); 4 hens were trained vice versa. The flock was then divided into three groups of three, and three treatments imposed on each group in a Latin-square arrangement. In treatment 1, one peck at either panel allowed access to the chosen light environment (F1:F1). In treatment 2, 5 pecks were required to access food brightly lit on a variable ratio, but only one to access food dimly lit (ratio V5:F1). In treatment 3, the variable ratio was increased to V10:F1 to access food in the light. 4. Over 40 trials for each hen, the mean number of attempts to eat food in the light (where the panel which allowed access to food brightly lit was pecked at least once) was 34.5 for F1:F1, 12.1 for V5:F1 and 8.5 for V10:F1. The mean number of food rewards taken in bright light was 34.5, 3.1 and 1.8, respectively. For both variables, the difference between F1:F1 and V5:F1 was significant but not between V5:F1 and V10:F1. By interpolation of the

  15. The Moderating Role of Purging Behaviour in the Relationship Between Sexual/Physical Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disorder Patients.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara; Silva, Cátia; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Cao, Li; Machado, Paulo P P

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to examine predictors of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in eating disorder patients and to evaluate the moderating role of purging behaviours in the relationship between a theorised predictor (i.e. sexual/physical abuse) and NSSI. Participants in this study were 177 female patients with eating disorders (age range = 14-38 years) who completed semistructured interviews assessing eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related risk factors (e.g. history of sexual and physical abuse, history of NSSI and feelings of fatness). Results revealed that 65 participants (36.7%) reported lifetime engagement in NSSI, and 48 participants (27.1%) reported a history of sexual/physical abuse. Early onset of eating problems, lower BMI, feeling fat, a history of sexual/physical abuse and the presence of purging behaviours were all positively associated with the lifetime occurrence of NSSI. The relationship between sexual/physical abuse before eating disorder onset and lifetime NSSI was moderated by the presence of purging behaviours, such that the relationship was stronger in the absence of purging. These findings are consistent with the notion that purging and NSSI may serve similar functions in eating disorder patients (e.g. emotion regulation), such that the presence of purging may attenuate the strength of the association between sexual/physical abuse history (which is also associated with elevated NSSI risk) and engagement in NSSI behaviours. PMID:26606864

  16. Reaching unhealthy eaters: applying a strategic approach to media vehicle choice.

    PubMed

    Dutta-Bergman, Mohan J

    2004-01-01

    Founded upon the argument that unhealthy eaters need to be reached through strategic choices that are driven by adequate formative research, this article examines the media consumption patterns of unhealthy eaters. Based on an analysis of the 1999 Lifestyle data, the article points out that healthy and unhealthy eaters differ systematically in their media choices. While television news is the most effective channel for reaching healthy eaters, television sports and entertainment-oriented Internet are the two major media categories consumed by the unhealthy eater. Also, healthy eaters are more likely to be drawn to print media, suggesting that print-based healthy eating campaigns are unlikely to reach the at-risk group. The article recommends the exploration of alternative entertainment-oriented channels and content strategies to effectively reach the unhealthy eater. PMID:15465692

  17. Can social cognitive theory constructs explain socio-economic variations in adolescent eating behaviours? A mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Ball, K; MacFarlane, A; Crawford, D; Savige, G; Andrianopoulos, N; Worsley, A

    2009-06-01

    Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eating behaviours using a theoretically derived explanatory model. Data were obtained from a community-based sample of 2529 adolescents aged 12-15 years, from 37 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Adolescents completed a web-based survey assessing their eating behaviours, self-efficacy for healthy eating, perceived importance of nutrition and health, social modelling and support and the availability of foods in the home. Parents provided details of maternal education level, which was used as an indicator of SEP. All social cognitive constructs assessed mediated socio-economic variations in at least one indicator of adolescents' diet. Cognitive factors were the strongest mediator of socio-economic variations in fruit intakes, while for energy-dense snack foods and fast foods, availability of energy-dense snacks at home tended to be strong mediators. Social cognitive theory provides a useful framework for understanding socio-economic variations in adolescent's diet and might guide public health programmes and policies focusing on improving adolescent nutrition among those experiencing socio-economic disadvantage. PMID:18927442

  18. From perceived autonomy support to intentional behaviour: Testing an integrated model in three healthy-eating behaviours.

    PubMed

    Girelli, Laura; Hagger, Martin; Mallia, Luca; Lucidi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    A motivational model integrating self-determination theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the health action process approach was tested in three samples in three behavioural contexts: fruit and vegetable, breakfast, and snack consumption. Perceived support for autonomous (self-determined) forms of motivation from parents and autonomous motivation from self-determination theory were hypothesised to predict intention and behaviour indirectly via the mediation of attitude and perceived behavioural control from the theory of planned behaviour. It was also expected that planning strategies would mediate the effect of intention on behaviour. Relations in the proposed models were expected to be similar across the behaviours. A two-wave prospective design was adopted. Three samples of high-school students (total N = 1041; 59.60% female; M age = 17.13 years ± 1.57) completed measures of perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation, theory of planned behaviour constructs, planning strategies and behaviour for each of the three behavioural contexts. Three months later, 816 participants (62,24% female; M age: 17.13 years, SD = 1.58) of the initial sample self-reported their behaviour referred to the previous three months. Structural equation models provided support for the key hypothesised effects of the proposed model for the three health-related behaviours. Two direct effects were significantly different across the three behaviours: the effect of perceived autonomy support on perceived behavioural control and the effect of attitude on intention. In addition, planning strategies mediated the effect of intention on behaviour in fruit and vegetable sample only. Findings extend knowledge of the processes by which psychological antecedents from the theories affect energy-balance related behaviours. PMID:26423363

  19. Adjusting to motherhood. The importance of BMI in predicting maternal well-being, eating behaviour and feeding practice within a cross cultural setting.

    PubMed

    Shloim, Netalie; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard; Hetherington, Marion

    2014-10-01

    Maternal body mass index (BMI) is associated with negative body image and restrained eating which are experienced differently across cultures. The present study aimed to: 1) examine if self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction changed from early pregnancy to 2-6 months after giving birth; 2) explore changes according to country (Israel vs. UK) and BMI; and 3) determine any relationship between these measurements and infant feeding. Participants completed questionnaires assessing self-esteem, body image and eating/feeding behaviours. Multilevel linear modelling was used to account for change and to assess the independent impact of BMI on outcomes. Seventy-three women and infants participated in the study in early pregnancy and again 16 (9) weeks following birth. Women gained 1.5 kg (range -12 + 23) and UK mothers reported significantly greater body dissatisfaction, but self-esteem and eating behaviours remained stable. BMI was the main predictor of self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction. Mothers' perceptions of infant's eating did not vary according to BMI or country; however, heavier mothers reported feeding their infants according to a schedule. The first months after giving birth are a key time to assess adjustment to motherhood but later assessments are necessary in order to track changes beyond the early period post-pregnancy. PMID:24933685

  20. Prevention of Disordered Eating among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey-Stokes, Marilyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)

  1. What helps children eat well? A qualitative exploration of resilience among disadvantaged families.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lauren K; Veitch, Jenny; Ball, Kylie

    2011-04-01

    It is well known that persons of low socioeconomic position consume generally a less healthy diet. Key determinants of unhealthy eating among disadvantaged individuals include aspects of the family and external environment. Much less is known about family and environmental determinants of healthy eating among social disadvantaged children. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the family and environmental factors underlying resilience to poor nutrition among children and their mothers living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 mother-child pairs (N = 76) from disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Children were selected if they were a healthy weight, consumed adequate intakes of fruit and vegetables and were physically active. Two main themes emerged from the interviews: active strategies from parents to promote healthy eating and external barriers and supports to healthy eating. Mothers believed that exercising control over access to unhealthy food, providing education and encouragement for consumption of healthy food and enabling healthy food options aided their child to eat well. Children did not perceive food advertisements to be major influences on their eating preferences or behaviour. The results of the current study offer insight into potential avenues for nutrition promotion among disadvantaged children. PMID:21350037

  2. Eating As Treatment (EAT) study protocol: a stepped-wedge, randomised controlled trial of a health behaviour change intervention provided by dietitians to improve nutrition in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Ben; McCarter, Kristen; Baker, Amanda; Wolfenden, Luke; Wratten, Chris; Bauer, Judith; Beck, Alison; McElduff, Patrick; Halpin, Sean; Carter, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Maintaining adequate nutrition for Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) patients is challenging due to both the malignancy and the rigours of radiation treatment. As yet, health behaviour interventions designed to maintain or improve nutrition in patients with HNC have not been evaluated. The proposed trial builds on promising pilot data, and evaluates the effectiveness of a dietitian-delivered health behaviour intervention to reduce malnutrition in patients with HNC undergoing radiotherapy: Eating As Treatment (EAT). Methods and analysis A stepped-wedge cluster randomised design will be used. All recruitment hospitals begin in the control condition providing treatment as usual. In a randomly generated order, oncology staff at each hospital will receive 2 days of training in EAT before switching to the intervention condition. Training will be supplemented by ongoing supervision, coaching and a 2-month booster training provided by the research team. EAT is based on established behaviour change counselling methods, including motivational interviewing, cognitive–behavioural therapy, and incorporates clinical practice change theory. It is designed to improve motivation to eat despite a range of barriers (pain, mucositis, nausea, reduced or no saliva, taste changes and appetite loss), and to provide patients with practical behaviour change strategies. EAT will be delivered by dietitians during their usual consultations. 400 patients with HNC (nasopharynx, hypopharynx, oropharynx, oral cavity or larynx), aged 18+, undergoing radiotherapy (>60 Gy) with curative intent, will be recruited from radiotherapy departments at 5 Australian sites. Assessments will be conducted at 4 time points (first and final week of radiotherapy, 4 and 12 weeks postradiotherapy). The primary outcome will be a nutritional status assessment. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval from all relevant bodies has been granted. Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer

  3. A transdiagnostic comparison of enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) and interpersonal psychotherapy in the treatment of eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fairburn, Christopher G.; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Basden, Shawnee; Doll, Helen A.; Jones, Rebecca; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E.; Cooper, Zafra

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders may be viewed from a transdiagnostic perspective and there is evidence supporting a transdiagnostic form of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E). The aim of the present study was to compare CBT-E with interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), a leading alternative treatment for adults with an eating disorder. One hundred and thirty patients with any form of eating disorder (body mass index >17.5 to <40.0) were randomized to either CBT-E or IPT. Both treatments involved 20 sessions over 20 weeks followed by a 60-week closed follow-up period. Outcome was measured by independent blinded assessors. Twenty-nine participants (22.3%) did not complete treatment or were withdrawn. At post-treatment 65.5% of the CBT-E participants met criteria for remission compared with 33.3% of the IPT participants (p < 0.001). Over follow-up the proportion of participants meeting criteria for remission increased, particularly in the IPT condition, but the CBT-E remission rate remained higher (CBT-E 69.4%, IPT 49.0%; p = 0.028). The response to CBT-E was very similar to that observed in an earlier study. The findings indicate that CBT-E is potent treatment for the majority of outpatients with an eating disorder. IPT remains an alternative to CBT-E, but the response is less pronounced and slower to be expressed. Current controlled trials ISRCTN 15562271. PMID:26000757

  4. Nutrients and behaviour: research strategies for the investigation of taste characteristics, food preferences, hunger sensations and eating patterns in man.

    PubMed

    Hill, A J; Blundell, J E

    Although, as described elsewhere in this report, the consumption of particular nutrients can modify behaviors that are not directly related to eating, it seems highly likely that the main function of nutrient-induced changes in neurotransmitter synthesis is to provide the brain with information about what has been eaten, which the brain can then utilize in deciding what to eat next. This chapter summarizes research strategies and techniques which have been used to assess the effects of drugs and diseases on appetite and food consumption, and which might also be useful in exploring the effects of particular nutrients. Crude measures of total food intake and of global hunger ratings are probably too insensitive to reveal the subtle effects of many nutrients. Some alternative procedures allow the assessment of particular aspects of feeding behaviour, (e.g. food or nutrient choice), and of the relationships between such behaviour and the individual's metabolic and physiological state, sensory functions, taste hedonics, and affective response to foods. PMID:6764938

  5. Cognitive biases to healthy and unhealthy food words predict change in BMI.

    PubMed

    Calitri, Raff; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Tapper, Katy; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J

    2010-12-01

    The current study explored the predictive value of cognitive biases to food cues (assessed by emotional Stroop and dot probe tasks) on weight change over a 1-year period. This was a longitudinal study with undergraduate students (N = 102) living in shared student accommodation. After controlling for the effects of variables associated with weight (e.g., physical activity, stress, restrained eating, external eating, and emotional eating), no effects of cognitive bias were found with the dot probe. However, for the emotional Stroop, cognitive bias to unhealthy foods predicted an increase in BMI whereas cognitive bias to healthy foods was associated with a decrease in BMI. Results parallel findings in substance abuse research; cognitive biases appear to predict behavior change. Accordingly, future research should consider strategies for attentional retraining, encouraging individuals to reorient attention away from unhealthy eating cues. PMID:20379149

  6. Impact of an Intuitive Eating Education Program on High School Students' Eating Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Nicole; Joram, Elana; Matvienko, Oksana; Woolf, Suzanne; Knesting, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is a growing need for school-based nutritional educational programs that promote healthy eating attitudes without increasing an unhealthy focus on restrictive eating or promoting a poor body image. Research suggests that "intuitive eating" ("IE") approaches, which encourage individuals to focus on internal body…

  7. The Encultured Body: Policy Implications for Healthy Body Image and Disordered Eating Behaviours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskill, Deanne, Ed.; Sanders, Fran, Ed.

    The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…

  8. Lisdexamfetamine reduces the compulsive and perseverative behaviour of binge-eating rats in a novel food reward/punished responding conflict model.

    PubMed

    Heal, David J; Goddard, Simon; Brammer, Richard J; Hutson, Peter H; Vickers, Steven P

    2016-07-01

    Compulsive and perseverative behaviour in binge-eating, female, Wistar rats was investigated in a novel food reward/punished responding conflict model. Rats were trained to perform the conditioned avoidance response task. When proficient, the paradigm was altered to a food-associated conflict test by placing a chocolate-filled jar (empty jar for controls) in one compartment of the shuttle box. Entry into the compartment with the jar triggered the conditioning stimulus after a variable interval, and foot-shock 10 seconds later if the rat did not leave. Residence in the 'safe' compartment with no jar did not initiate trials or foot-shocks. By frequently entering the chocolate-paired compartment, binge-eating rats completed their 10 trials more quickly than non-binge controls. Binge-eating rats spent a greater percentage of the session in the chocolate-paired compartment, received foot-shocks more frequently, and tolerated foot-shocks for longer periods; all consistent with compulsive and perseverative behaviour. The d-amphetamine prodrug, lisdexamfetamine, has recently received US approval for the treatment of moderate to severe binge-eating disorder in adults. Lisdexamfetamine (0.8 mg/kg po [d-amphetamine base]) decreased chocolate consumption by binge-eating rats by 55% and markedly reduced compulsive and perseverative responding in the model. These findings complement clinical results showing lisdexamfetamine reduced compulsiveness scores in subjects with binge-eating disorder. PMID:27170676

  9. Testing the cognitive-behavioural maintenance models across DSM-5 bulimic-type eating disorder diagnostic groups: a multi-centre study.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, Maria Assunta; Gaudio, Santino; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    The original cognitive-behavioural (CB) model of bulimia nervosa, which provided the basis for the widely used CB therapy, proposed that specific dysfunctional cognitions and behaviours maintain the disorder. However, amongst treatment completers, only 40-50 % have a full and lasting response. The enhanced CB model (CB-E), upon which the enhanced version of the CB treatment was based, extended the original approach by including four additional maintenance factors. This study evaluated and compared both CB models in a large clinical treatment seeking sample (N = 679), applying both DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for bulimic-type eating disorders. Application of the DSM-5 criteria reduced the number of cases of DSM-IV bulimic-type eating disorders not otherwise specified to 29.6 %. Structural equation modelling analysis indicated that (a) although both models provided a good fit to the data, the CB-E model accounted for a greater proportion of variance in eating-disordered behaviours than the original one, (b) interpersonal problems, clinical perfectionism and low self-esteem were indirectly associated with dietary restraint through over-evaluation of shape and weight, (c) interpersonal problems and mood intolerance were directly linked to binge eating, whereas restraint only indirectly affected binge eating through mood intolerance, suggesting that factors other than restraint may play a more critical role in the maintenance of binge eating. In terms of strength of the associations, differences across DSM-5 bulimic-type eating disorder diagnostic groups were not observed. The results are discussed with reference to theory and research, including neurobiological findings and recent hypotheses. PMID:25416408

  10. Predictors and moderators of response to enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy for the treatment of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Zafra; Allen, Elizabeth; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Basden, Shawnee; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2016-09-01

    Consistent predictors, and more especially moderators, of response to psychological treatments for eating disorders have not been identified. The present exploratory study examined predictors and moderators of outcome in adult patients who took part in a randomised clinical trial comparing two leading treatments for these disorders, enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT-E) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Four potentially important findings emerged. Firstly, patients with a longer duration of disorder were less likely to benefit from either treatment. Second, across the two treatments the presence, at baseline, of higher levels of over-evaluation of the importance of shape predicted a less good treatment outcome. Third DSM-IV diagnosis did not predict treatment outcome. Fourth, with the exception of patients with baseline low self-esteem who achieved a better outcome with CBT-E, it was generally not possible to identify a subgroup of patients who would differentially benefit from one or other treatment. PMID:27423373

  11. Healthy eating among 10 - 13-year-old New Zealand children: understanding choice using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the role of parental influence.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Allison M; Stephens, Christine

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the roles of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and parental influence in predicting healthy eating intentions and behaviour among 10 - 13-year-old New Zealand children. Two hundred and sixty-one children completed questionnaires designed to measure the components of the TPB. In addition, their parents or caregivers completed a questionnaire examining their child-feeding practices. Subjective norm, behavioural belief, attitude and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted intentions, which, in turn, predicted self-reported dietary behaviour. Parental influence did not increase the model's explanatory power. Results support the application of the TPB to the prediction of food choice-related intention and behaviour among children; however, the role of parental influence requires further examination. PMID:17828673

  12. Unhealthy weight control behaviors and related risk factors in Massachusetts middle and high school students.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Diane; Hawk, Helen; Goodenow, Carol

    2014-10-01

    Unhealthy weight control behaviors may be precursors to clinical eating disorders; therefore, it is important to identify these actions, and what may trigger them, as early as possible. We used 2009 and 2011 Massachusetts Youth Health Survey data for middle and high school students. We studied age, sex, and race disparities related to unhealthy weight control behaviors in conjunction with other risk factors such as body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, involvement in bullying, and depressive symptoms. The surveys were completed in public schools. Bivariate and multinomial regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between weight control behaviors and BMI categories, body weight perception, bullying involvement, and depressive symptoms. Poor body weight perception, bullying involvement, and depressive symptoms were associated with significantly elevated odds of reporting unhealthy weight control behaviors in both middle and high school students. Most patterns were consistent for middle and high school students, with obesity and bullying involvement being prevailing risks for high school students. Though females were more likely to report unhealthy weight control behaviors we also showed the rarely presented prevalence of male involvement in disordered eating behaviors including those who perceived themselves to be underweight. Health education classes and school-based interventions may be two strategies to help prevent the development of unhealthy weight control behaviors. Continuation of youth surveys that gather data on weight control behaviors and known risk factors is essential for observing changes in behaviors over time. PMID:24357083

  13. Effects of consuming mycoprotein, tofu or chicken upon subsequent eating behaviour, hunger and safety.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Donald A; Geiselman, Paula J; Lovejoy, Jennifer; Greenway, Frank; Volaufova, Julia; Martin, Corby K; Arnett, Cheryl; Ortego, Lauren

    2006-01-01

    This study tested if: (1) a preload of mycoprotein and tofu consumed before a lunch meal have a greater effect on satiety when compared to a chicken preload, (2) the mycoprotein and tofu preloads, compared to chicken, are not associated with compensation or eating more food at a subsequent dinner meal. These hypotheses were tested in a controlled laboratory study using universal eating monitors to measure food intake and visual analogue scales to monitor hunger and satiety. Forty-two overweight adult females consumed three meals in the laboratory on 3 test days. At lunch, isocaloric pasta preloads, containing mycoprotein, tofu, or chicken, varied across the days in a balanced order. The findings of the study supported the two hypotheses. Mycoprotein and tofu preloads, in comparison to the chicken preload, were associated with lower food intake shortly after consuming the preload at lunch. Food intake following consumption of mycoprotein and tofu did not differ, and participants did not compensate for lower food intake at lunch by consuming more food at dinner. The findings suggest that mycoprotein and tofu have satiating properties that persist for several hours after a meal. These findings have significant implications for the development of foods that are low in kilojoules, but are also filling. PMID:16364496

  14. Peer clustering of exercise and eating behaviours among young adults in Sweden: a cross-sectional study of egocentric network data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that the growing prevalence of obesity may be related to the influence of the health behaviours of peers. We look at clustering of exercise and eating behaviours amongst a previously unstudied group, young adults in Sweden. Previous research has mainly been conducted in the United States and Britain, countries that have relatively high rates of obesity. Methods Using ego-alter dyads from the egocentric network data as the unit of analysis, we conduct logistic regressions to investigate the association between ego and alter exercise and eating behaviours. Results Respondents have a significantly greater probability of engaging in regular exercise and eating healthily if a nominated peer also does so. Furthermore, the degree to which this behavior is shared is modulated by the strength of the relationship between the two individuals, with a greater probability of engaging in these behaviours observed when the relationship with the nominated peer is strong relative to when the relationship is weak. However, we find that ego-alter homogeneity in terms of gender and migration status was not associated with a significantly greater probability of behaving in a similar manner to a nominated peer. Furthermore, the status of the nominated peer as a relative or not did not impact the probability that the ego would engage in similar health behaviours to that alter. Conclusions We observe strong associations between ego and alter health behaviours for young adults, consistent with previous research. Although we cannot draw causal inferences, these results suggest that the health behaviours of an individual’s peers may play a role in shaping their own health behaviours. PMID:23981951

  15. Prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle patterns among overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Robert F; Choi, Seung W

    2010-06-01

    This study determined the prevalence of unhealthy eating, exercise, and coping pattern traits among a large sample of overweight and obese adults. We analyzed responses to a 53-item lifestyle pattern questionnaire posted on a commercial weight loss program Web site collected from 2004 through 2008. Subjects included 446,608 healthy weight, overweight, and obese adults, 18-65 years old, average age 31.9 (s.d. = 11.8), average BMI 30.5 kg/m(2) (s.d. = 7.5). Categorically, 25.5% were healthy weight, 29.0% were overweight, 33.7% were class I-II obesity, and 11.8% class III obesity. A stratified random sample was used to estimate the prevalence of the 21 lifestyle patterns (7 eating, 7 exercise, and 7 coping) in the general population, and the prevalence of patterns in the complete dataset was further analyzed by gender, age, and BMI. Finally, we analyzed the odds ratio of the pattern prevalence for each BMI category. We found that unhealthy lifestyle patterns in diet, exercise, and coping were highly prevalent among this population. In general, the prevalence of these patterns rose with increasing BMI and is correlated with advancing age. Gender differences were seen with many of the patterns, most noticeably among the coping patterns. The odds ratio for 18 of the 21 patterns was >1.0 and steadily increased with higher BMI categories. We conclude that unhealthy lifestyle patterns in diet, exercise, and coping are highly prevalent among the overweight and obese population. Pattern recognition represents a new method to analyze the cluster of behaviors, attitudes, and traits seen among this population. PMID:19875995

  16. Psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical, and nutritional proposals about how to encourage eating a healthy breakfast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Even if more and more evidences have highlighted the importance of breakfast in the growth and development of children, from 10 to 30% of US and European children and adolescents regularly skip breakfast. Thus, there is still a lot to be done before breakfast becomes a daily habit. The aim of this paper is to try and understand how it is possible to overcome the real or imaginary difficulties associated with skipping breakfast by psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical and nutritional proposals. Discussion Schools are the best context where perform healthy interventions because it is here that children learn about the importance of good health at an age when the school still plays a major role in their education. Some school interventions, based on solid theories as the Self Determination Theory and the Behaviour Analysis, have been implemented in the last years to promote health behaviour such as intake of fruit and vegetables and physical activities. Cognitive behaviour therapy is the most closely monitored type of treatment/cure for obesity in randomised controlled trials. Moreover some associations such as the National Association of Food Science Specialists have drawn an own method to encourage food education at school and promote the importance of prevention. These projects could be used as starting point to perform interventions focus on breakfast. Summary Increase the consumption of breakfast between children is very important. Efforts should be done to drawn new school projects based on scientific-evidences. PMID:25125024

  17. Predictors of Self-rated Health and Lifestyle Behaviours in Swedish University Students

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle behaviours are usually formed during youth or young adulthood which makes college students a particularly vulnerable group that easily can adopt unhealthy lifestyle behaviour. Aim: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the influence of socio-demographic factors on Swedish university students’ lifestyle behaviours and self-rated health. Method: Data were collected from a convenience sample of 152 students using questionnaires consisting of a socio-demographic section followed by previously well-validated instruments. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics: t-tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression tests. Findings: The results of this study show that the lifestyle behaviours under study (physical activity, perceived stress and eating behaviours) as well as self-rated health can be predicted to a certain extent by socio-demographic factors such as gender, mother tongue and parents’ educational level. Male university students were shown to be physically more active than female students; the male students were less stressed and rated their overall health, fitness level and mental health higher. Female students were more prone to adopt unhealthy eating behaviours. Discussion: This study addresses gender differences and their influences on lifestyle behaviours; it provides both theoretical explanations for these differences as well as presents some practical implications of the findings. PMID:22980336

  18. Relationship between body mass index and women's body image, self-esteem and eating behaviours in pregnancy: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Shloim, Netalie; Hetherington, Marion M; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-esteem, restrained eating, body image and body mass index during pregnancy. A total of 110 pregnant Israeli and UK women completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire, the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, scales to assess body image and demographics. Body mass index was calculated from antenatal records. Regression modelling determined the relationship between variables, countries and body mass index categories. High correlations were found between body image and body mass index with significantly higher body dissatisfaction for Israeli women. Self-esteem scores for pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant women. Poorer body image and higher prevalence of restrained eating were found in healthy weight Israeli women. PMID:24140617

  19. Parent Conversations about Healthful Eating and Weight: Associations with Adolescent Disordered Eating Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Rich; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of weight-related problems in adolescents is high. Parents of adolescents may wonder whether talking about eating habits and weight is useful or detrimental. This study aimed to examine the associations between parent conversations about healthful eating and weight and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Design Cross-sectional analysis using data from two linked multi-level population-based studies. Setting Anthropometric assessments and surveys completed at school by adolescents and surveys completed at home by parents in 2009–2010. Participants Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse sample (81% ethnic minority; 60% low income) of adolescents from EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens) 2010 (n = 2,793, mean age=14.4) and parents from F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) (n = 3,709, mean age = 42.3). Main Exposure Parent conversations about healthful eating and weight/size. Outcome Measures Adolescent dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and binge eating. Results Mothers and fathers who engaged in weight-related conversations had adolescents who were more likely to diet, use unhealthy weight control behaviors, and engage in binge eating. Overweight/obese adolescents whose mothers engaged in conversations that were focused only on healthful eating behaviors were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight control behaviors. Additionally, sub-analyses with adolescents with data from two parents showed that when both parents engaged in healthful eating conversations, their overweight/obese adolescent children were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight control behaviors. Conclusion Parent conversations focused on weight/size are associated with increased risk for adolescent disordered eating behaviors, whereas conversations focused on healthful eating are protective against disordered eating behaviors. PMID:23797808

  20. Meals described as healthy or unhealthy match public health education in England.

    PubMed

    Laguna-Camacho, Antonio; Booth, David A

    2015-04-01

    Dietary guidelines for the general public aim to lower the incidence of nutrition-related diseases by influencing habitual food choices. Yet little is known about how well the guidelines are matched by the actual practices that people regard as healthy or unhealthy. In the present study, British residents were asked in a cognitive interview to write a description of an occasion when either they ate in an unhealthy way or the eating was healthy. The reported foods and drinks, as well as sort of occasion, location, people present and time of day, were categorised by verbal and semantic similarities. The number of mentions of terms in each category was then contrasted between groups in exact probability tests. Perceived unhealthy and healthy eating occasions differed reliably in the sorts of foods and the contexts reported. There was also full agreement with the national guidelines on eating plenty of fruit and vegetables, eating small amounts of foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar, drinking plenty of water, and cutting down on alcohol. There was a tendency to regard choices of bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods as healthy. Reported healthy and unhealthy eating did not differ in incidences of meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein or of dairy foods and milk. These results indicate that operationally clear recommendations by health professionals are well understood in this culture but members of the public do not make clear distinctions in the case of foods that can be included in moderate amounts in a healthy diet. PMID:25596040

  1. [Assessment of usefulness of visual analogue scale (VAS) for measuring adolescent attitude toward unhealthy behaviors].

    PubMed

    Supranowicz, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    In the last two decades the visual analogue scale has been more frequently used for measuring the psychosocial determinants of health, its disorders and unhealthy behaviours. In 1999 in Health Promotion Department of the National Institute of Hygiene multidimensional investigations on self-assessment of health and life style of adolescents were undertaken and evaluation of visual analogue scale usefulness for health promotion research was one of the aims of these investigations. The data were obtained from randomly selected sample of 682 schoolchildren aged 14-15 years attending to public and private schools of Warsaw. The questionnaire contained the questions about frequency of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, drug using and manifestation of aggression. Simultaneously, respondents were asked, how much these behaviours are usefully for coping with everyday events. The answers of usefulness of unhealthy behaviours were measured on tenth centimetre line from "not at all" to "completely". The study shows that adolescents who presented unhealthy behaviours more often are more likely to give higher value to these behaviours in coping with their problems. Moreover, adolescents' attitude toward unhealthy behaviours varies according to gender, kind of alcohol, frequency of being drunk, proposals to buy the drugs, carrying the weapon and frequency of injures from violence. The analyses confirm the usefulness of visual analogue scale for study on psychosocial and life style determinants of health. PMID:14682174

  2. To eat and not be eaten: optimal foraging behaviour in suspension feeding copepods

    PubMed Central

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, Houshuo

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton feed on microscopic prey that they either entrain in a feeding current or encounter as they cruise through the water. They generate fluid disturbances as they feed and move, thus elevating their risk of being detected and encountered by predators. Different feeding modes generate different hydrodynamic signals to predators and different predator encounter speeds but may also differ in their efficiency; the optimal behaviour is that which maximizes the net energy gain over the predation risk. Here, we show by means of flow visualization and simple hydrodynamic and optimization models that copepods with a diversity of feeding behaviours converge on optimal, size-independent specific clearance rates that are consistent with observed clearance rates of zooplankton, irrespective of feeding mode, species and size. We also predict magnitudes and size-scaling of swimming speeds that are consistent with observations. The rationalization of the magnitude and scaling of the clearance rates of zooplankton makes it more suitable for development of models of marine ecosystems, and is particularly relevant in predicting the size structure and biomass of pelagic communities. PMID:23075546

  3. Prevalence of picky eating behaviour in Chinese school-age children and associations with anthropometric parameters and intelligence quotient. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yong; Lee, Eva; Ning, Ke; Zheng, Yingdong; Ma, Defu; Gao, Hongchong; Yang, Baoru; Bai, Ying; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of eating behaviour regarding dietary variety and nutrient intake of children. However, the association between picky eating and growth of children is still a topic of debate. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of picky eating and to identify possible associations with the growth of school-age children in China. In this survey, 793 healthy children aged 7-12 years were recruited from nine cities and rural areas in China using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data collected included socio-demographic information and parents' perceptions of picky eating using a structured questionnaire, nutrient intake using 24-hour dietary recall, weight and height using body measurements, and intelligence using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Blood samples were collected and analysed for minerals. The prevalence of picky eating reported by parents was 59.3% in children. Compared with non-picky eaters, picky eaters had a lower dietary intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates, most vitamins and minerals, and lower levels of magnesium, iron, and copper in the blood (p < 0.05), and also had a 0.184 z-score lower in height for age (95% CI: -0.332, 0.036; p = 0.015), a 0.385 z-score lower in weight for age (95% CI: -0.533, -0.237; p < 0.001), a 0.383 z-score lower in BMI for age (95% CI: -0.563, -0.203; p < 0.001), and scored 2.726 points higher on the intelligence test (95% CI: 0.809, 4.643; p = 0.006) when adjusted for children's birth weight and food allergy, mothers' education, and family income. Picky eating behaviour towards meat, eggs and vegetables showed negative associations with growth. Picky eating behaviour is prevalent in school-age children in China and may have a negative effect on growth. PMID:25934087

  4. The effects of social support and stress perception on bulimic behaviors and unhealthy food consumption.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Mun Yee; Gordon, Kathryn H

    2016-08-01

    Two studies tested a model where perceived stress was the proposed mediator for the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and unhealthy food consumption among undergraduate students. Study 1 was a longitudinal, online study in which undergraduate students completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Bulimia Test-Revised at the Time 1 assessment, and the Perceived Stress Scale and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire at the Time 2 assessment, approximately four weeks later. Study 2 was an experimental study in which female participants were randomly assigned into a group with or without social support. Stress was induced with a speech task, followed by a bogus taste task paradigm designed to assess unhealthy food consumption. Bootstrap analyses revealed an indirect effect of perceived social support on bulimic behaviors and unhealthy food consumption through perceived stress. Perceived social support was associated with lower perceived stress in both studies. Lower perceived stress was associated with less self-reported bulimic behaviors in Study 1 and greater consumption of unhealthy foods in Study 2. The negative association between perceived stress and calorie consumption in Study 2 was moderated by dietary restraint. Findings suggest that stress perception helps to explain the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and calorie consumption. Stress perception may be an important treatment target for eating disorder symptoms among undergraduate students. PMID:27085167

  5. A sad mood increases attention to unhealthy food images in women with food addiction.

    PubMed

    Frayn, Mallory; Sears, Christopher R; von Ranson, Kristin M

    2016-05-01

    Food addiction and emotional eating both influence eating and weight, but little is known of how negative mood affects the attentional processes that may contribute to food addiction. The purpose of this study was to compare attention to food images in adult women (N = 66) with versus without food addiction, before and after a sad mood induction (MI). Participants' eye fixations were tracked and recorded throughout 8-s presentations of displays with healthy food, unhealthy food, and non-food images. Food addiction was self-reported using the Yale Food Addiction Scale. The sad MI involved watching an 8-min video about a young child who passed away from cancer. It was predicted that: (1) participants in the food addiction group would attend to unhealthy food significantly more than participants in the control group, and (2) participants in the food addiction group would increase their attention to unhealthy food images following the sad MI, due to increased emotional reactivity and poorer emotional regulation. As predicted, the sad MI had a different effect for those with versus without food addiction: for participants with food addiction, attention to unhealthy images increased following the sad MI and attention to healthy images decreased, whereas for participants without food addiction the sad MI did not alter attention to food. These findings contribute to researchers' understanding of the cognitive factors underlying food addiction. PMID:26873452

  6. Food, fizzy, and football: promoting unhealthy food and beverages through sport - a New Zealand case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages dominate sports sponsorship. However, as marketing goes beyond the use of brand livery, research examining how marketers support sponsorships that create brand associations encouraging consumer purchase is also required. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and extent of sponsorships and associated marketing by food and non-alcoholic beverage brands and companies through a case study of New Zealand sport. Methods We conducted a systematic review of 308 websites of national and regional New Zealand sporting organisations to identify food and beverage sponsors, which were then classified as healthy or unhealthy using nutrient criteria for energy, fat, sodium and fibre levels. We interviewed 18 key informants from national and regional sporting organisations about sponsorships. Results Food and beverage sponsorship of sport is not extensive in New Zealand. However, both healthy and unhealthy brands and companies do sponsor sport. Relatively few support their sponsorships with additional marketing. Interviews revealed that although many sports organisations felt concerned about associating themselves with unhealthy foods or beverages, others considered sponsorship income more important. Conclusions While there is limited food and beverage sponsorship of New Zealand sport, unhealthy food and beverage brands and companies do sponsor sport. The few that use additional marketing activities create repeat exposure for their brands, many of which target children. The findings suggest

  7. Unhealthy diets, obesity and time discounting: a systematic literature review and network analysis.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Pepita; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Galea, Gauden; Stuckler, David

    2016-09-01

    There is an increasing policy commitment to address the avoidable burdens of unhealthy diet, overweight and obesity. However, to design effective policies, it is important to understand why people make unhealthy dietary choices. Research from behavioural economics suggests a critical role for time discounting, which describes how people's value of a reward, such as better health, decreases with delay to its receipt. We systematically reviewed the literature on the relationship of time discounting with unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity in Web of Science and PubMed. We identified 41 studies that met our inclusion criteria as they examined the association between time discount rates and (i) unhealthy food consumption; (ii) overweight and (iii) response to dietary and weight loss interventions. Nineteen out of 25 cross-sectional studies found time discount rates positively associated with overweight, obesity and unhealthy diets. Experimental studies indicated that lower time discounting was associated with greater weight loss. Findings varied by how time discount rates were measured; stronger results were observed for food than monetary-based measurements. Network co-citation analysis revealed a concentration of research in nutrition journals. Overall, there is moderate evidence that high time discounting is a significant risk factor for unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity and may serve as an important target for intervention. © 2016 The Authors Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO). PMID:27256685

  8. Unhealthy diets, obesity and time discounting: a systematic literature review and network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Galea, Gauden; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Summary There is an increasing policy commitment to address the avoidable burdens of unhealthy diet, overweight and obesity. However, to design effective policies, it is important to understand why people make unhealthy dietary choices. Research from behavioural economics suggests a critical role for time discounting, which describes how people's value of a reward, such as better health, decreases with delay to its receipt. We systematically reviewed the literature on the relationship of time discounting with unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity in Web of Science and PubMed. We identified 41 studies that met our inclusion criteria as they examined the association between time discount rates and (i) unhealthy food consumption; (ii) overweight and (iii) response to dietary and weight loss interventions. Nineteen out of 25 cross‐sectional studies found time discount rates positively associated with overweight, obesity and unhealthy diets. Experimental studies indicated that lower time discounting was associated with greater weight loss. Findings varied by how time discount rates were measured; stronger results were observed for food than monetary‐based measurements. Network co‐citation analysis revealed a concentration of research in nutrition journals. Overall, there is moderate evidence that high time discounting is a significant risk factor for unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity and may serve as an important target for intervention. © 2016 The Authors Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO) PMID:27256685

  9. Eating behaviors, victimization, and desire for supportive intervention among adolescents in weight-loss camps.

    PubMed

    King, Kelly M; Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg; Peterson, Jamie Lee

    2013-12-01

    This study examined links between eating behaviors, weight-based victimization (WBV) and preferences for bullying intervention among adolescents. Adolescents enrolled in weight loss camps participated in an online survey (N = 361). Regression models examined relationships between key variables. Almost half of adolescents who experienced WBV engaged in unhealthy eating behaviors, which corresponded to less desire for supportive intervention. Unhealthy eating behaviors may offset adaptive coping strategies to deal with WBV, such as support from peers and family. PMID:24183141

  10. Cognitive behaviour therapy response and dropout rate across purging and nonpurging bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder: DSM-5 implications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the imminent publication of the new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), there has been a growing interest in the study of the boundaries across the three bulimic spectrum syndromes [bulimia nervosa-purging type (BN-P), bulimia nervosa-non purging type (BN-NP) and binge eating disorder (BED)]. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine differences in treatment response and dropout rates following Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) across the three bulimic-spectrum syndromes. Method The sample comprised of 454 females (87 BED, 327 BN-P and 40 BN-NP) diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria who were treated with 22 weekly outpatient sessions of group CBT therapy. Patients were assessed before and after treatment using a food and binging/purging diary and some clinical questionnaires in the field of ED. “Full remission” was defined as total absence of binging and purging (laxatives and/or vomiting) behaviors and psychological improvement for at least 4 (consecutive). Results Full remission rate was found to be significantly higher in BED (69.5%) than in both BN-P (p < 0.005) and BN-NP (p < 0.001), which presented no significant differences between them (30.9% and 35.5%). The rate of dropout from group CBT was also higher in BED (33.7%) than in BN-P (p < 0.001) and BN-NP (p < 0.05), which were similar (15.4% and 12.8%, respectively). Conclusions Results suggest that purging and non-purging BN have similar treatment response and dropping out rates, whereas BED appears as a separate diagnosis with better outcome for those who complete treatment. The results support the proposed new DSM-5 classification PMID:24200085

  11. Paediatric nurses' attitudes towards the promotion of healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Blake, Holly; Patterson, Joanna

    This study assessed paediatric nurses' attitudes towards promoting healthy eating and their opinions regarding nurses as role models for health. In all, 67 nurses from 14 wards at an acute hospital trust completed questionnaires on weight, diet, physical activity, self-efficacy and attitudes towards nurses as role models for health. Forty-eight percent felt that they could incorporate health promotion into their patient care better, and 84% believed that nurses should present themselves as role models for health. Nurses felt that their own health behaviours influenced the quality of their care: 77% reported that patients and families would heed advice better from those who appeared to follow it themselves, and 48% reported difficulties in promoting health behaviours they did not adhere to themselves. These views were inconsistent with their own lifestyle choices, since one third of respondents did not meet physical-activity guidelines, almost half were an unhealthy weight, and the majority did not consume five portions of fruits/vegetables per day. Paediatric nurses identified barriers and facilitators to promoting healthy eating. Education, training and access to evidence-based resources may help to increase paediatric nurses' confidence to promote healthy eating to children and their families. Hospital workplaces should make provision to support nurses who seek to improve their own health. PMID:25615996

  12. Social support influences on eating awareness in children and adolescents: the mediating effect of self-regulatory strategies.

    PubMed

    Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Palmeira, Antonio L; Gaspar, Tania; De Wit, John B F; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the social environment on healthy eating awareness results from complex interactions among physical, economic, cultural, interpersonal and individual characteristics. This study investigated the impact of social support and social influence on healthy eating awareness, controlling for socio-economic status, gender and age. Additionally, the mediating effect of self-regulation strategies was examined. A total of 2764 children and adolescents aged 10-17 from four European countries completed self-report measures on healthy eating awareness, social influence and the use of self-regulation strategies. Healthy eating awareness and the use of self-regulation strategies were more likely to occur among younger participants. An interaction between gender and age was related to the use of some self-regulation strategies; compared to girls, boys decreased the use of self-regulation strategies more from pre-adolescence to adolescence. Peer social influence was associated with more unhealthy eating in older participants. Results suggest a need to promote self-regulatory competences among young people in order to assist them with regulating their eating behaviours, especially in the presence of peers. Both school-based interventions and family-based interventions, focusing on self-regulation cognitions and social (peer) influence, could help children and adolescents to use self-regulatory strategies which are essential to eat healthier. PMID:26564992

  13. Early problematic eating behaviours are associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake and less dietary variety at 4-5 years of age. A prospective analysis of three European birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A; Jones, L; de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Emmett, P; Moreira, P; Charles, M A; Lopes, C

    2015-09-14

    Problematic eating behaviours during early childhood could be mediators of poor dietary habits. This study aims to prospectively relate early eating behaviours with fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and a healthy diet variety score of children aged between 4 and 5 years. Eating behaviours were assessed in three European birth cohorts (Generation XXI from Portugal, ALSPAC from the UK and EDEN from France) at 4-6, 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age, based on the child's feeding difficulties, mother's perception of child's poor eating (eating small quantities at each meal, not eating enough or needing to be stimulated to eat), food refusal and difficulties in the establishment of daily food routines. Daily servings of F&V (>1 v. ≤1 serving/d, except in Generation XXI: >3 v. ≤3) and the Healthy Plate Variety Score (categorised by the median score of each sample) were calculated using FFQ. Associations were tested by logistic regressions adjusted for maternal age, education, smoking during pregnancy, any breast-feeding and the child's z-score BMI at 4-5 years of age. Children with more feeding difficulties, poor eating, food refusal/neophobia and difficulties in establishing a daily routine at 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age had in general lower F&V intake at 4-5 years of age. The association with vegetables was slightly stronger than with fruits. These early feeding problems were also inversely associated with the variety score at 4-5 years of age, particularly when eating behaviours were reported after 12-15 months of age. A better understanding of these early feeding difficulties may help define strategies to increase the dietary quality in children. PMID:26195187

  14. Family affluence and cultural capital as indicators of social inequalities in adolescent’s eating behaviours: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary inequality, via socio-economic inequality, may involve several mechanisms. Different aspects of adolescents’ socio-economic circumstances should therefore be considered in order to make effective interventions to promote healthy eating in the young population. Indicators designed to tap socio-economic status among adolescents in particular will facilitate a better understanding of the concept of socio-economic status and how it influences health behaviour among young people. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if material capital and cultural capital individually and independently contribute to the prediction of eating habits in the Norwegian adolescent population. Methods The analysis is based on survey data from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study. The Family Affluence Scale (number of cars, holidays, PC and bedrooms) and number of books in the household were used as indicators of socio-economic status, respectively measuring material capital and cultural capital. Their influence on adolescent’s consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets, soft drinks, and consumption of breakfast and dinner was evaluated. Pearson’s correlation, logistic regression and ridit transformation analysis were used to analyse the data. Results Higher family affluence was shown to predict consumption of more fruit (OR 1.52) and vegetables (OR 1.39) and consumption of breakfast (OR 1.61) and dinner (1.35). Cultural capital was significantly associated to consumption of fruit (OR 1.85), vegetables (OR 2.38) sweets (OR .45), sugary soft drinks (OR .26), breakfast (OR 2.13) and dinner (OR 1.54). Cultural capital was the strongest predictor to healthy eating among adolescents in Norway. Conclusions Material capital and cultural capital individually and independently contributed to the prediction of healthy eating patterns among adolescents in Norway. Cultural capital is an understudied dimension of the socio-economic status concept and the influence

  15. Healthy or unhealthy slogans: that's the question...

    PubMed

    Adams, Leen; Geuens, Maggie

    2007-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect on adolescents of different health appeals (healthy versus unhealthy) in ads for healthy and unhealthy perceived foods. The results did not reveal a main effect of product or slogan, but indicated a significant interaction effect between slogan and product. The healthy slogan only led to significantly more positive attitudes and purchase intentions when it promoted a healthy food product. An unhealthy food product received better results in combination with an unhealthy slogan than with a healthy one. This indicates that adolescents react better to ads in which the health appeal is congruent with the health perception of the product. Moreover, we took into account gender and health concern as potential moderators in the relationship between slogan and ad responses. Gender did not lead to different responses to healthy or unhealthy food ads, whereas health concern did interact significantly with the slogan type. Highly concerned adolescents responded more favorably to a healthy slogan in terms of attitudes. A necessary first step seems to be making adolescents more health conscious. A following step is to reinforce their positive attitudes toward healthy foods and turn these into real behavior. PMID:17365358

  16. Television Viewing by School-Age Children: Associations with Physical Activity, Snack Food Consumption and Unhealthy Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judith E.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Broom, Dorothy H.; Bittman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Alarm about the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has focussed attention on individual lifestyle behaviours that may contribute to unhealthy weight. Television viewing is often a focus of the obesity debate. Not only is it sedentary, it also has the potential to influence other lifestyle behaviours either by displacing physical activities…

  17. Boredom proneness and emotion regulation predict emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Amanda C; Myhre, Samantha K; Rokke, Paul D

    2015-05-01

    Emotional eating is considered a risk factor for eating disorders and an important contributor to obesity and its associated health problems. It has been suggested that boredom may be an important contributor to overeating, but has received relatively little attention. A sample of 552 college students was surveyed. Linear regression analyses found that proneness to boredom and difficulties in emotion regulation simultaneously predicted inappropriate eating behavior, including eating in response to boredom, other negative emotions, and external cues. The unique contributions of these variables to emotional eating were discussed. These findings help to further identify which individuals could be at risk for emotional eating and potentially for unhealthy weight gain. PMID:25903253

  18. Perceived Parenting Style and the Eating Practices of College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Seraphine Pitt; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Kromrey, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy eating contributes to morbidity in adolescents and college students and is an antecedent of premature mortality in adulthood. It has been suggested that the increase in independence (i.e., living away from parents) of adolescents contributes to their poor eating behaviors. Some literature reports that specific parenting…

  19. Promoting Lifelong Healthy Eating: An Overview. CDC's Guidelines for School Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA. Adolescent and School Health Div.

    This publication describes the importance of promoting healthy eating habits among school-age children, discussing the benefits of healthy eating (e.g., prevents child and adolescent health problems and health problems later in life) and noting the consequences of unhealthy eating (e.g., hungry childen are more likely to have behavioral,…

  20. Unhealthy body perception among Turkish youths: socioeconomic status and social comparisons.

    PubMed

    Oksuz, Ergun

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) and social comparisons on body perception, and to identify their relationship to unhealthy behaviours and changing body structures, by assessing body perception in youths. A questionnaire was administered to 640 university students. The topics covered included SES, body definitions, behaviours related to body weight (such as exercise, dieting, starving, using diet foods, drug use, and bingeing and purging) and a social comparison scale. The prevalence of heavy exercise (42.9%) among male students was significantly higher in the low-income group (p < 0.01), whereas it was significantly higher (61.7%) among female students in the high-income group (p < 0.001). Behaviours such as dieting and starving for more than 24 hours were more common among female students in the high-income group (p < 0.01). The average social comparison scores were significantly lower among students with a higher body mass index. The social attractiveness subscale scores were significantly lower (p < 0.05) among students with unhealthy body definitions. The components of attractivity showed a clear correlation among students with unhealthy body definitions. As well as the increasing prevalence of obesity in developing countries, unnecessary body-measurement controls and "ideal" body images are affecting the behaviour of youths. Gender is related to most of these behaviours. Understanding the relationship between social comparisons and body appearance in adolescent females and males can be facilitated by examining certain features of attractiveness. PMID:18494182

  1. Gender, school and academic year differences among Spanish university students at high-risk for developing an eating disorder: An epidemiologic study

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Ana R; Carrobles, Jose A; Gandarillas, Ana M

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of the university population at high-risk of developing an eating disorder and the prevalence of unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviours amongst groups at risk; gender, school or academic year differences were also explored. Methods A cross-sectional study based on self-report was used to screen university students at high-risk for an eating disorder. The sample size was of 2551 university students enrolled in 13 schools between the ages of 18 and 26 years. The instruments included: a social-demographic questionnaire, the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), the Symptom Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R), and the Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). The sample design is a non-proportional stratified sample by academic year and school. The prevalence rate was estimated controlling academic year and school. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate adjusted associations between gender, school and academic year. Results Female students presented unhealthy weight-control behaviours as dieting, laxatives use or self-induced vomiting to lose weight than males. A total of 6% of the females had a BMI of 17.5 or less or 2.5% had amenorrhea for 3 or more months. In contrast, a higher proportion of males (11.6%) reported binge eating behaviour. The prevalence rate of students at high-risk for an eating disorder was 14.9% (11.6–18) for males and 20.8% (18.7–22.8) for females, according to an overall cut-off point on the EDI questionnaire. Prevalence rates presented statistically significant differences by gender (p < 0.001) but not by school or academic year. Conclusion The prevalence of eating disorder risk in university students is high and is associated with unhealthy weight-control practices, similar results have been found in previous studies using cut-off points in questionnaires. These results may be taken into account to encourage early detection and a greater awareness for

  2. Healthy eating decisions require efficient dietary self-control in children: A mouse-tracking food decision study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Bruce, Amanda S; Pruitt, Stephen W; Cherry, J Bradley C; Smith, T Ryan; Burkart, Dominic; Bruce, Jared M; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-10-01

    Learning how to make healthy eating decisions, (i.e., resisting unhealthy foods and consuming healthy foods), enhances physical development and reduces health risks in children. Although healthy eating decisions are known to be challenging for children, the mechanisms of children's food choice processes are not fully understood. The present study recorded mouse movement trajectories while eighteen children aged 8-13 years were choosing between eating and rejecting foods. Children were inclined to choose to eat rather than to reject foods, and preferred unhealthy foods over healthy foods, implying that rejecting unhealthy foods could be a demanding choice. When children rejected unhealthy foods, mouse trajectories were characterized by large curvature toward an eating choice in the beginning, late decision shifting time toward a rejecting choice, and slowed response times. These results suggested that children exercised greater cognitive efforts with longer decision times to resist unhealthy foods, providing evidence that children require dietary self-control to make healthy eating-decisions by resisting the temptation of unhealthy foods. Developmentally, older children attempted to exercise greater cognitive efforts for consuming healthy foods than younger children, suggesting that development of dietary self-control contributes to healthy eating-decisions. The study also documents that healthy weight children with higher BMIs were more likely to choose to reject healthy foods. Overall, findings have important implications for how children make healthy eating choices and the role of dietary self-control in eating decisions. PMID:27349708

  3. Determinants of Information Behaviour and Information Literacy Related to Healthy Eating among Internet Users in Five European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Gennaro, Laura; Verbeke, Wim; Traill, W. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method: A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were grouped by age and sex (n = 3003, age +16) in Belgium,…

  4. Weight-related teasing and internalized weight stigma predict abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours in Emirati female university students.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Lily; Tahboub-Schulte, Sabrina; Thomas, Justin

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between abnormal eating attitudes, weight teasing, internalized weight stigma and self-esteem in the United Arab Emirates in a sample of 420 female Emirati undergraduate students (mean age = 23.12 years). Participants completed an online survey including validated and reliable measures. Regression and mediation analyses were used to test for relationships between the factors. Thirty percent of respondents had eating disorder symptomatology, and 44% of respondents reported being frequently teased about their weight. Eating disorder symptomatology was positively correlated with being bothered by teasing from family, friends and others, and internalized weight stigma. Weight- and body-related shame and guilt was the strongest predictor of eating disorder symptomatology. Public health authorities should consider these issues as priorities for action in order to improve the health and wellbeing of young women in the UAE. In addition, it is vital that public health and medical services do not inadvertently condone weight-based teasing or enhance weight stigma and shame. PMID:26774444

  5. The Social, Physical and Temporal Characteristics of Primary School Dining Halls and Their Implications for Children's Eating Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sue N.; Murphy, Simon; Tapper, Katy; Moore, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Social, physical and temporal characteristics are known to influence the eating experience and the effectiveness of nutritional policies. As the school meal service features prominently in UK nutritional and health promotion policy, the paper's aim is to investigate the characteristics of the primary school dining context and their…

  6. Break the Bonds of Emotional Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... evidence for a new perspective on weight-related shame. Appetite . 2012;49:570-575. PMID: 22810015 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22810015 . Cornil Y, Chandon P. From fan to fat? Vicarious losing increases unhealthy eating, but self-affirmation ...

  7. The Association of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Fast Food and Soda Consumption and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors Among Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study examines the association of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with fast food and soda consumption, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and body mass index (BMI) in a group of young women. Methods This study was conducted on cross-sectional data gathered from 3181 females 16–24 years of age attending five publicly funded clinics in Texas. The associations among PTSD, fast food consumption frequency, soda consumption frequency, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and BMI were examined using binary and ordinal logistic regression. Results PTSD symptoms were associated with an increased frequency of consumption of fast food and soda as well as unhealthy dieting behaviors but not with increased body mass index (BMI). Conclusions PTSD symptoms adversely affect both eating and dieting behaviors of young women. These behaviors may have negative long-term consequences for the health of females with PTSD symptoms. PMID:21751875

  8. Perceptions of Healthy Eating: A Qualitative Study of School-Going Children in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaminathan, S.; Thomas, T.; Kurpad, A. V.; Vaz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To document children's views on healthy eating, perceptions of healthy and unhealthy foods and health consequences of consuming unhealthy foods. Design: Baseline data from a three-year longitudinal study. Setting A purposive sample of 307 school children aged 7 to 15 years were recruited from three schools representing various…

  9. Eating among Teens: Do Family Mealtimes Make a Difference for Adolescents' Nutrition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents are at risk for poor dietary intake and unhealthy weight control behaviors. Family meals appear to play an important role in helping adolescents make healthier food choices and avoid engaging in unhealthy weight control and binge eating behaviors. (Contains 2 figures.)

  10. Predictors of physical activity, healthy eating and being smoke-free in teens: a theory of planned behaviour approach.

    PubMed

    Murnaghan, Donna A; Blanchard, Chris M; Rodgers, Wendy M; LaRosa, Jennifer N; MacQuarrie, Colleen R; MacLellan, Debbie L; Gray, Bob J

    2010-10-01

    This paper elicited context specific underlying beliefs for physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption and smoke-free behaviour from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), and then determined whether the TPB explained significant variation in intentions and behaviour over a 1 month period in a sample of grade 7-9 (age 12-16 years) adolescents. Eighteen individual interviews and one focus group were used to elicit student beliefs. Analyses of this data produced behavioural, normative and control beliefs which were put into a TPB questionnaire completed by 183 students at time 1 and time 2. The Path analyses from the main study showed that the attitude/intention relationship was moderately large for fruit and vegetable consumption and small to moderate for being smoke free. Perceived behavioural control had a large effect on being smoke free and a moderately large effect for fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Intention had a large direct effect on all three behaviours. Common (e.g. feel better, more energy) and behaviour-specific (e.g., prevent yellow fingers, control my weight) beliefs emerged across the three health behaviours. These novel findings, to the adolescent population, support the importance of specific attention being given to each of the behaviours in future multi-behavioural interventions. PMID:20204952

  11. Determinants of children's eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni, Silvia; Arrizza, Chiara; Vecchi, Fiammetta; Tedeschi, Sabrina

    2011-12-01

    Parents have a high degree of control over the environments and experiences of their children. Food preferences are shaped by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. This article is a review of current data on effective determinants of children's eating habits. The development of children's food preferences involves a complex interplay of genetic, familial, and environmental factors. There is evidence of a strong genetic influence on appetite traits in children, but environment plays an important role in modeling children's eating behaviors. Parents use a variety of strategies to influence children's eating habits, some of which are counterproductive. Overcontrol, restriction, pressure to eat, and a promise of rewards have negative effects on children's food acceptance. Parents' food preferences and eating behaviors provide an opportunity to model good eating habits. Satiety is closely related to diet composition, and foods with low energy density contribute to prevent overeating. Parents should be informed about the consequences of an unhealthy diet and lifestyle and motivated to change their nutritional habits. Parents should be the target of prevention programs because children model themselves on their parents' eating behaviors, lifestyles, eating-related attitudes, and dissatisfaction regarding body image. Pediatricians can have an important role in the prevention of diet-related diseases. Informed and motivated parents can become a model for children by offering a healthy, high-satiety, low-energy-dense diet and promoting self-regulation from the first years of life. PMID:22089441

  12. The impact of a new McDonald's restaurant on eating behaviours and perceptions of local residents: A natural experiment using repeated cross-sectional data.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Lukar E; Ball, Kylie; Lamb, Karen E; McCann, Jennifer; Parker, Kate; Crawford, David A

    2016-05-01

    Neighbourhood food environments are posited as an important determinant of eating behaviours; however causality is difficult to establish based on existing studies. Using a natural experiment study design (incorporating repeated cross-sectional data), we tested whether the development of a new McDonald's restaurant increased the frequency of consumption of McDonald's products amongst local residents in the suburbs of Tecoma (site of a new McDonald's restaurant development) and Monbulk (control site) in Victoria, Australia. Across both sites, the reported frequency of McDonald's consumption did not change during the follow-up surveys. In the context explored, the development of a new McDonald's restaurant has not resulted in an increased consumption of McDonald's products. PMID:26990945

  13. Psychosocial Factors of Different Health Behaviour Patterns in Adolescents: Association with Overweight and Weight Control Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Veloso, Susana M.; Matos, Margarida G.; Carvalho, Marina; Diniz, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviour combine to influence the risk of overweight among adolescents. This paper aims to identify psychosocial factors of different health behaviour patterns in adolescents and its association with overweight and weight control behaviours. The 3069 adolescents of both genders (average of 14.8 years old) from the 2010 Portuguese survey of Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC) answered the 2010 HBSC self-reported questionnaire. It used the cluster k-means (nonhierarchy method), qui-square, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three clusters with different behavioural patterns (physical activity, sedentary, and eating) composed the results obtained. The sedentary group (34%) had lower self-regulation, body satisfaction, health and wellness, family and classmates relationships, communication with the father than the other two groups. The active gamers (25%) had a smaller BMI but used more unhealthy weight control strategies than the other two groups. The healthy group (41%) was more motivated and more satisfied with school but was not different than the active gamers in most psychosocial variables. Differences were found between clusters for weight control behaviours and psychosocial variables. Different strategies for different patterns were necessary in order to promote obesity prevention and, simultaneously, target healthy lifestyle and wellbeing in adolescents. PMID:22811890

  14. Reflective and impulsive influences on unhealthy snacking. The moderating effects of food related self-control.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, Pirjo; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Verplanken, Bas; Tuu, Ho Huy

    2012-04-01

    This study proposes that snacking behaviour may be either reflective and deliberate or impulsive, thus following a dual-process account. We hypothesised that chronic individual differences in food related self-control would moderate the relationships between reflective and impulsive processes. The reflective route was represented by an attitude toward unhealthy snacking, while the impulsive route was represented by the tendency to buy snack on impulse. A web survey was conducted with 207 students and employees at a Norwegian university, and a moderated hierarchical regression analysis using structural equation modelling was used to estimate the theoretical model. The findings showed that both attitudes towards unhealthy snacking and impulsive snack buying tendency were positively related to snack consumption. Food related self-control moderated the relation between attitude and behaviour, as well as the relation between impulsive snack buying tendency and behaviour. The effect of attitude on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was strong, while the effect of impulsive snack buying on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was weak. The results thus suggest that while weak self-control exposes individuals vulnerable to impulsive tendencies, strong self-control does not necessarily lead to less unhealthy snacking, but this depends on the valence of an individual's attitude. PMID:22138115

  15. Eating Disorders in Late-life

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Antonina; Luca, Maria; Calandra2, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are a heterogeneous group of complex psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviours that lead to a high rate of morbidity, or even death, if underestimated and untreated. The main disorders enlisted in the chapter of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders-5 dedicated to “Feeding and Eating Disorders” are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Even though these abnormal behaviours are mostly diagnosed during childhood, interesting cases of late-life eating disorders have been reported in literature. In this review, these eating disorders are discussed, with particular attention to the diagnosis and management of those cases occurring in late-life. PMID:25657852

  16. Are proinflammatory cytokines involved in an increased risk for depression by unhealthy diets?

    PubMed

    Ekmekcioglu, Cem

    2012-02-01

    Depression is a highly prevalent mental illness, which is associated with substantial functional impairment. Many factors, like especially genetic risk and stressful life events, are being discussed to be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. There is also evidence that elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, which are frequently found in depressed individuals, could contribute to the development of the disease. Patients with metabolic syndrome also show a chronic low grade of inflammation. In addition, epidemiological studies suggest that an unhealthy dietary eating pattern, consisting of high amounts of refined grains and softdrinks, red and processed meat, fatty dairy products, and little amounts of vegetables, fruits and fish is associated with higher levels of major inflammatory cytokines, like Interleukin-6, and the acute phase C-reactive protein, even after controlling for body mass index. Furthermore, several recent studies suggest that an unhealthy diet quality is associated with an increased risk of depression. Therefore the connection between regular consumption of unhealthy foods, chronic inflammation, and increased risk for depression seems plausible. PMID:22153575

  17. Foods that are perceived as healthy or unhealthy differentially alter young women's state body image.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Jacqueline F; D'Anci, Kristen E; Kanarek, Robin B

    2011-10-01

    Body image can be influenced by day-to-day events, including food intake. The present study investigated the effects of foods typically perceived as "healthy" or "unhealthy" on state body image and mood. College-aged women were told the experiment was designed to assess the effects of food on cognition. Using a between-subjects design, participants consumed isocaloric amounts of foods perceived to be healthy (banana) or unhealthy (donut) or ate nothing. Next, participants completed three cognitive tasks. Prior to eating and following the cognitive tests, participants completed the BISS, POMS, the Figure Rating Scale, and the Restraint Scale. Body satisfaction decreased following intake of a donut, but was not altered in the other conditions. Depression scores significantly decreased after intake of either a donut or banana, but did not decrease in the no-food condition. Tension scores decreased significantly after consumption of a banana and in the no-food condition, but did not decrease following consumption of a donut. These results indicate that intake of a food that is perceived as unhealthy negatively affects state body image. PMID:21669241

  18. Iranian Female Adolescent’s Views on Unhealthy Snacks Consumption: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Shahanjarini, A; Omidvar, N; Bazargan3, M; Rashidian, A; Majdzadeh, R; Shojaeizadeh, D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Given the increasing prevalence of obesity among Iranian adolescents and the role of consumption of unhealthy snacks in this issue, interventions that focus on factors influencing food choice are needed. This study was designed to delineate factors associated with unhealthy snack use among female Iranian adolescents. Methods: The theory of Planned Behavior served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via nine focus group discussions in two middle schools (6th to 8th grades) in a socio-economically diverse district in the city of Tehran in spring 2008. The study sample included 90 female adolescents aged 12–15 years. The sampling strategy was purposive method. Data analyzed using the “framework” method. Results: Major factors identified by the respondents were taste, peer pressure, parental influence, easy access to unhealthy snacks, limited availability of healthy snacks, appeal of snacks, habit, high price of healthy snacks, and media advertisements. Nutritional value and healthiness was not one of the first priorities when buying snacks, as adolescents thought it was too early for them to worry about illness and adverse consequences of eating junk foods. Conclusions: For developing culturally sensitive evidence-based interventions that can motivate adolescents to choose healthy snacks, a broad range of factors should be taken into account. PMID:23113027

  19. Changing eating behaviours to treat childhood obesity in the community using Mandolean: the Community Mandolean randomised controlled trial (ComMando)--a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton-Shield, Julian; Goodred, Joanna; Powell, Lesley; Thorn, Joanna; Banks, Jon; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Montgomery, Alan; Turner, Katrina; Sharp, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Around one in five children in England is obese when they leave primary school. Thus far, it has not been demonstrated that primary care interventions to manage childhood obesity can achieve significant weight reduction. Training obese children to eat more slowly as an adjunct to other healthy lifestyle behaviour change has been shown to increase weight reduction in a hospital setting. OBJECTIVES This pilot study aimed to test recruitment strategies, treatment adherence, clinic attendance and participants' experiences of using a device [Mandolean® (previously Mandometer®, Mikrodidakt AB, Lund, Sweden)] to slow down speed of eating as an adjunct to dietary and activity advice in treating obesity in primary school-aged children. DESIGN A two-arm, parallel, randomised controlled trial with a qualitative study embedded within the pilot. Randomisation occurred after informed consent and baseline measures were collected. Participants were randomised by the Bristol Randomised Trials Collaboration randomisation service with allocation stratified by hub and minimised by age of the child, gender, and baseline body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (BMI z-value) of the child, and by BMI of the study parent (obese/not obese). SETTING General practices across Bristol, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire primary care trusts. PARTICIPANTS Children (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) aged 5-11 years and their families. INTERVENTION Standard care comprised dietary and activity advice by trained practice nurses. Adjunctive Mandolean training (the intervention) educated participants to eat meals more slowly and to rate levels of fullness (satiety). Mandolean is a small computer device attached to a weighing scale that provides visual and oral feedback during meals while generating a visual representation of levels of satiety during the meal. Participants were encouraged to eat their main meal each day from the Mandolean. One parent was also given a Mandolean to use

  20. Eating disorders and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J F

    1999-05-01

    Eating disorders are common and characteristically affect young women at what would otherwise be their peak of reproductive functioning. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa impinge on reproduction both behaviourally and physiologically, with effects on menstruation, ovarian function, fertility, sexuality and pregnancy. This review presents a summary of current knowledge and makes suggestions for future research, along with some clinical recommendations for the management of eating disorders in pregnancy. PMID:10755771

  1. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatments and Therapies Join a Study Learn More Eating Disorders Definition There is a commonly held view that ... can lead to stroke or heart attack Binge-eating disorder People with binge-eating disorder lose control over ...

  2. When group members go against the grain: An ironic interactive effect of group identification and normative content on healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Banas, Kasia; Cruwys, Tegan; de Wit, John B F; Johnston, Marie; Haslam, S Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Three studies were conducted to examine the effect of group identification and normative content of social identities on healthy eating intentions and behaviour. In Study 1 (N = 87) Australian participants were shown images that portrayed a norm of healthy vs. unhealthy behaviour among Australians. Participants' choices from an online restaurant menu were used to calculate energy content as the dependent variable. In Study 2 (N = 117), female participants were assigned to a healthy or unhealthy norm condition. The dependent variable was the amount of food eaten in a taste test. Social group identification was measured in both studies. In Study 3 (N = 117), both American identification and healthiness norm were experimentally manipulated, and participants' choices from an online restaurant menu constituted the dependent variable. In all three studies, the healthiness norm presented interacted with participants' group identification to predict eating behaviour. Contrary to what would be predicted under the traditional normative social influence account, higher identifiers chose higher energy food from an online menu and ate more food in a taste test when presented with information about their in-group members behaving healthily. The exact psychological mechanism responsible for these results remains unclear, but the pattern of means can be interpreted as evidence of vicarious licensing, whereby participants feel less motivated to make healthy food choices after being presented with content suggesting that other in-group members are engaging in healthy behaviour. These results suggest a more complex interplay between group membership and norms than has previously been proposed. PMID:27282543

  3. Risky eating behaviors and beliefs among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Sáez, Soledad; Pascual, Aitziber; Salaberria, Karmele; Etxebarria, Itziar; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of weight control and binge eating behaviors in a sample of 767 adolescent girls aged 16-20 years, and the differences between adolescents with and without altered eating behaviors regarding anthropometric and body image variables and beliefs associated with eating disorders. Adolescents who engaged in unhealthy strategies were found to be at a higher risk of eating disorders, since these behaviors were accompanied by higher levels of drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction, as well as by beliefs associated with the importance of weight and body shape as a means of personal and social acceptance. PMID:24058109

  4. [Abnormal eating behaviours are not associated with micronutrient deficiencies among women of childbearing age from Mexico City].

    PubMed

    Bojórquez-Chapela, Ietza; Mendoza-Flores, María Eugenia; Tolentino, Maricruz; Morales, Rosa Maria; De-Regil, Luz María

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the risk of abnormal eating behaviors (AEB) and vitamin and mineral deficiencies among women. Women of childbearing age (n = 282) were systematically sampled with a random start (21.9% adolescents) in 6 suburbs in the west side of Mexico City, they were non pregnant or breastfeeding. Vitamin A, C, E, B12, folic acid, hemoglobin, ferritin, cupper, iron and zinc concentrations were measured. A questionnaire validated in the Mexican population was used for screening AEB. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and by using Fisher's test. Approximately 68% of the sample belonged to a mid-low or lower socioeconomic status. 14% had risk of AEB, without statistical differences between adults and teenagers. 10% used diuretics or laxatives to reduce weight within the trimester preceding the survey. Vitamin E, zinc and iron were the most widespread deficiencies affecting 47%, 44% and 27% of the population, respectively. There was no association between the AEB and micronutrient deficiencies neither when AEB were analyzed globally nor individually. Considering these results and the high prevalence of the AEB and overweight in this population, it is important to promote the adoption or healthy behaviors to achieve an adequate weight. PMID:21090277

  5. Effects of grain source and marginal change in lucerne hay particle size on feed sorting, eating behaviour, chewing activity, and milk production in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahi, S M; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Yang, W Z

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of grain source and lucerne hay (LH) particle length on eating behaviour, chewing activity, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. Eight Holstein dairy cows (175 ± 21 days in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 21-days periods. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with barley grain alone or equal blend of barley and maize grains combined with short (15 mm) and long (30 mm) LH. Diets were fed ad libitum as total mixed ration with a concentrate to forage ratio of 60:40. Interactions between grain source and LH particle length on feed particle distributions, sorting index, chewing activity, and milk production were minimal. Partially replacing barley grain with maize in the diet overall did not change diurnal distributions of particles retained on the sieves of Penn State Particle Separator but reduced the proportion of particles on 1.18-sieve and increased that of particles on pan (p < 0.05). Grain source did not affect sorting index and chewing activity. However, feeding long LH increased (p < 0.01) intakes of long particles retained on 19- and 8-mm of sieve, prolonged (p < 0.05) eating time, and lowered eating rate (p < 0.05). Interestingly, cows fed with long LH ate more coarse particle during critical-early time post feeding (i. e. 1.5 h), where eating time increased and eating rate decreased (p < 0.05). Increasing particle length of dietary LH tended to increase milk fat-to-protein ratio (p = 0.08). The results suggested that the increased eating time and decreased eating rate as a result of marginally increasing LH particle length would be beneficial to alleviate reduction of ruminal pH and milk fat percentage following the ingestion of highly fermentable diets. PMID:24661569

  6. What Helps Children Eat Well? A Qualitative Exploration of Resilience among Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lauren K.; Veitch, Jenny; Ball, Kylie

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that persons of low socioeconomic position consume generally a less healthy diet. Key determinants of unhealthy eating among disadvantaged individuals include aspects of the family and external environment. Much less is known about family and environmental determinants of healthy eating among social disadvantaged children. The aim…

  7. "I'm ready to eat and grab whatever I can get": Determinants and patterns of African American men's eating practices.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Wooley, Alana M; Allen, Julie Ober

    2013-03-01

    This article examines determinants and patterns of African American men's dietary practices. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze data from nine exploratory focus groups conducted with 83 urban, middle-aged and older African American men from southeast Michigan. The men distinguished between healthy and unhealthy foods and "meals" versus other instances of eating. Eating patterns and content differed depending on the meal, work and family schedules, food availability, and whether it was a weekday or weekend. When eating alone or outside the home, men prioritized convenience and preferences for tasty, unhealthy foods. Men often reported skipping breakfast or lunch and grabbing snacks or fast food during the day. They emphasized sharing dinner with their spouses and families-usually a home-cooked, "healthy" meal. On weekends, spouses often cooked less and men snacked and dined out more frequently. Sunday dinners involving favorite, unhealthy comfort foods were the highlight of men's eating practices. African American men tended not to follow healthy eating recommendations because of their busy lives, reliance on spouses to prepare food, and preferences for unhealthy foods. These findings suggest that healthy eating interventions must consider how the contexts of African American men's lives shape their eating practices. PMID:22773618

  8. Eating to live or living to eat? Exploring the causal attributions of self-perceived food addiction.

    PubMed

    Ruddock, Helen K; Dickson, Joanne M; Field, Matt; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that many people perceive themselves to be addicted to food. However, little is known about how the concept of 'food addiction' is defined amongst members of the lay public. The current study examined beliefs about the cognitive and behavioural manifestations of food addiction. Participants (N = 210) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire in which they indicated whether or not they perceived themselves to be a food addict and provided a brief explanation for their response. Over a quarter of participants (28%) perceived themselves to be food addicts and self-diagnosis was predicted by increased BMI and younger age, but not by gender. Thematic analysis was conducted to explore the causal attributions provided by self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts. Six characteristics were identified: 1) Reward-driven eating (i.e. eating for psychological rather than physiological reasons), 2) A functional or psychological preoccupation with food, 3) A perceived lack of self-control around food, 4) Frequent food cravings, 5) Increased weight or an unhealthy diet, and 6) A problem with a specific type of food. The emergent themes, and their frequency, did not differ between self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts. However, self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts reported divergent cognitions, behaviours and attitudes within each common theme. This study is the first to provide qualitative insight into beliefs about food addiction in both self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts. The findings appear to reflect a view of food addiction that is identifiable through several core behaviours. PMID:26206173

  9. Weight stigma and eating behavior: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Porter, Alexis M

    2016-07-01

    Weight stigma is a pervasive social problem, and this paper reviews the evidence linking weight stigma to eating behavior. Correlational studies consistently find that experiences with weight stigma are associated with unhealthy eating behaviors and eating pathology (such as binge eating, skipping meals), although results vary somewhat depending on the sample being studied and the specific stigma/eating constructs being assessed. Experimental studies consistently find that manipulations such as priming overweight stereotypes, exposure to stigmatizing content, and social exclusion all lead to increased food intake, but whether or not those manipulations capture the impact of weight stigma experiences per se is less clear. Finally, studies of stigma experiences in daily life show that more frequent stigma experiences are associated with decreased motivation to diet and with less healthy eating behaviors. Overall, this research highlights the potential for weight stigma to negatively impact individuals' eating behavior, which in turn could have consequences for their overall health and well-being. PMID:26829371

  10. Fluctuations of healthy and unhealthy heartbeat intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Boon Leong; Toda, Mikito

    2013-04-01

    We show that the RR-interval fluctuations, defined as the difference between successive natural-logarithm of the RR interval, for healthy, congestive-heart-failure (CHF) and atrial-fibrillation (AF) subjects are well modeled by non-Gaussian stable distributions. Our results suggest that healthy or unhealthy RR-interval fluctuation can generally be modeled as a sum of a large number of independent physiological effects which are identically distributed with infinite variance. Furthermore, we show for the first time that one indicator —the scale parameter of the stable distribution— is sufficient to robustly distinguish the three groups of subjects. The scale parameters for healthy subjects are smaller than those for AF subjects but larger than those for CHF subjects —this ordering suggests that the scale parameter could be used to objectively quantify the severity of CHF and AF over time and also serve as an early warning signal for a healthy person when it approaches either boundary of the healthy range.

  11. Impact of Different Policies on Unhealthy Dietary Behaviors in an Urban Adult Population: An Agent-Based Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Giabbanelli, Philippe J.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Zimmerman, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Unhealthy eating is a complex-system problem. We used agent-based modeling to examine the effects of different policies on unhealthy eating behaviors. Methods. We developed an agent-based simulation model to represent a synthetic population of adults in Pasadena, CA, and how they make dietary decisions. Data from the 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey and other empirical studies were used to calibrate the parameters of the model. Simulations were performed to contrast the potential effects of various policies on the evolution of dietary decisions. Results. Our model showed that a 20% increase in taxes on fast foods would lower the probability of fast-food consumption by 3 percentage points, whereas improving the visibility of positive social norms by 10%, either through community-based or mass-media campaigns, could improve the consumption of fruits and vegetables by 7 percentage points and lower fast-food consumption by 6 percentage points. Zoning policies had no significant impact. Conclusions. Interventions emphasizing healthy eating norms may be more effective than directly targeting food prices or regulating local food outlets. Agent-based modeling may be a useful tool for testing the population-level effects of various policies within complex systems. PMID:24832414

  12. The non-advertising effects of screen-based sedentary activities on acute eating behaviours in children, adolescents, and young adults. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Samantha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph

    2013-12-01

    Sedentary screen time may be an important determinant of childhood obesity. A number of potential mechanisms to explain the link between screen time and increased bodyweight have been proposed; however, the relationship appears to be best explained by the effects on dietary intake, which is attributed to either food advertising or effects independent of food advertising. Technological advances have allowed for greater accessibility and exposure to advertisement-free screen-based media. This review was conducted to systematically synthesise the evidence from laboratory based studies which have investigated the non-advertising effects of screen time (TV viewing, sedentary video games, and computer use) on dietary intake in children, adolescents, and young adults. MEDLINE, PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Embase were searched from inception through 5 July 2013. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Risk of study bias was judged to range from low to high. Screen time in the absence of food advertising was consistently found to be associated with increased dietary intake compared with non-screen behaviours. Suggested explanations for this relationship included: distraction, interruption of physiologic food regulation, screen time as a conditioned cue to eat, disruption of memory formation, and the effects of the stress-induced reward system. Due to the limited number of high-quality studies available for this review, our findings are preliminary. More work is required to better establish the link between dietary intake and advertisement-free screen time and assess whether differences exist between the different screen-based activities. PMID:24001394

  13. Peer harassment and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marla; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review existing literature regarding peer harassment and its association with a range of weight-related attitudes and behaviors. We conceptualize peer harassment to include traditionally defined bullying behavior, other social and relational forms of bullying, as well as teasing and other verbal harassment. Weight-based teasing is particularly relevant to weight-related issues and has been associated with clinical eating disorders, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and weight-related attitudes, such as body dissatisfaction. Studies using both clinical samples of eating disorder patients and general samples of college students or adolescents have demonstrated these relations. Emerging issues in this field, including teasing by family members, research with males, teasing and weight-related issues in developing countries, and the measurement of teasing experience are also discussed. Interventions with healthcare providers, parents, school personnel, and policy can contribute to the prevention of teasing and its associated weight-related attitudes and behaviors. PMID:18714553

  14. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  15. [Eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363

  16. Healthy and Unhealthy Dietary Patterns Are Related to Depression: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Maryam; Majdzadeh, Reza; Nejati, Somayeh; Darabi, Samaneh; Raisi, Firoozeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Sorayani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Major depressive disorder is the leading cause of disability around the world. The relationship between depression and dietary patterns has been reported in a few studies but with controversial results. This study aimed to investigate this relationship in an Iranian population. Methods In our study, 330 depressed patients (cases) and healthy people (controls) (1:2) were individually matched according to age, sex and area of residence. New cases of depression were recruited from two psychiatric clinics in Tehran. Interviewers went to each patient's residential area, and invited qualified individuals to participate in the study as controls. Food intake over the past year was collected using a validated semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were determined by the principal components method. Binary logistic regression was used to test the effect of dietary patterns on depression. Results We identified two major dietary patterns by using factor analysis: the healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns. We categorized the scores of these patterns to quartiles. After adjusting for non-depression drug use, job, marital status, children number, and body mass index, the relations of depression and quartiles of two dietary patterns are significant (p=0.04 & p=0.01, respectively). Compared with participants in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile had significantly lower odds ratio (OR) for depression in healthy dietary pattern, and higher OR for depression in unhealthy dietary pattern. Conclusion This study indicates that healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns may be associated with the risk of depression. The results can be used for developing interventions that aim to promote healthy eating for the prevention of depression. PMID:26508953

  17. Tempting food words activate eating simulations

    PubMed Central

    Papies, Esther K.

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that tempting food words activate simulations of eating the food, including simulations of the taste and texture of the food, simulations of eating situations, and simulations of hedonic enjoyment. In a feature listing task, participants generated features that are typically true of four tempting foods (e.g., chips) and four neutral foods (e.g., rice). The resulting features were coded as features of eating simulations if they referred to the taste, texture, and temperature of the food (e.g., “crunchy”; “sticky”), to situations of eating the food (e.g., “movie”; “good for Wok dishes”), and to the hedonic experience when eating the food (e.g., “tasty”). Based on the grounded cognition perspective, it was predicted that tempting foods are more likely to be represented in terms of actually eating them, so that participants would list more features referring to eating simulations for tempting than for neutral foods. Confirming this hypothesis, results showed that eating simulation features constituted 53% of the features for tempting food, and 26% of the features for neutral food. Visual features, in contrast, were mentioned more often for neutral foods (45%) than for tempting foods (19%). Exploratory analyses revealed that the proportion of eating simulation features for tempting foods was positively correlated with perceived attractiveness of the foods, and negatively with participants’ dieting concerns, suggesting that eating simulations may depend on individuals’ goals with regard to eating. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for understanding the processes guiding eating behavior, and for interventions designed to reduce the consumption of attractive, unhealthy food. PMID:24298263

  18. Genetic Tests May Not Change People's Unhealthy Ways

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157806.html Genetic Tests May Not Change People's Unhealthy Ways But ... 16, 2016 WEDNESDAY, March 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Genetic tests that predict people's risk for disease are ...

  19. Pop Stars Often Hawk Unhealthy Foods to Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159222.html Pop Stars Often Hawk Unhealthy Foods to Kids: Study Katy ... Timberlake, Maroon 5: Some of America's biggest pop stars are making millions from ad campaigns for sugar- ...

  20. 10 Tips to Protect Yourself from Unhealthy Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor > Air Pollution 10 Tips to Protect Yourself from Unhealthy Air ... you and your family from the dangers of air pollution: Check daily air pollution forecasts in your area. ...

  1. Eating Well While Eating Out

    MedlinePlus

    ... energy strength weight future health Eating on the Go It's easier than you think to make good ... help you make wise choices when eating out: Go for balance. Choose meals that contain a balance ...

  2. The effectiveness of interventions to change six health behaviours: a review of reviews

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several World Health Organisation reports over recent years have highlighted the high incidence of chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer. Contributory factors include unhealthy diets, alcohol and tobacco use and sedentary lifestyles. This paper reports the findings of a review of reviews of behavioural change interventions to reduce unhealthy behaviours or promote healthy behaviours. We included six different health-related behaviours in the review: healthy eating, physical exercise, smoking, alcohol misuse, sexual risk taking (in young people) and illicit drug use. We excluded reviews which focussed on pharmacological treatments or those which required intensive treatments (e.g. for drug or alcohol dependency). Methods The Cochrane Library, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) and several Ovid databases were searched for systematic reviews of interventions for the six behaviours (updated search 2008). Two reviewers applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed the quality of the reviews. The results were discussed in a narrative synthesis. Results We included 103 reviews published between 1995 and 2008. The focus of interventions varied, but those targeting specific individuals were generally designed to change an existing behaviour (e.g. cigarette smoking, alcohol misuse), whilst those aimed at the general population or groups such as school children were designed to promote positive behaviours (e.g. healthy eating). Almost 50% (n = 48) of the reviews focussed on smoking (either prevention or cessation). Interventions that were most effective across a range of health behaviours included physician advice or individual counselling, and workplace- and school-based activities. Mass media campaigns and legislative interventions also showed small to moderate effects in changing health behaviours. Generally, the evidence related to short-term effects rather than sustained/longer-term impact and

  3. Binge eating disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorder - binge eating; Eating - binge; Overeating - compulsive; Compulsive overeating ... as having close relatives who also have an eating disorder Changes in brain chemicals Depression or other emotions, ...

  4. Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Alcock, Joe; Maley, Carlo C; Aktipis, C Athena

    2014-01-01

    Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until we eat foods that enhance their fitness. We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain. We also review the evidence for alternative explanations for cravings and unhealthy eating behavior. Because microbiota are easily manipulatable by prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, fecal transplants, and dietary changes, altering our microbiota offers a tractable approach to otherwise intractable problems of obesity and unhealthy eating. PMID:25103109

  5. Meals and snacks: Children's characterizations of food and eating cues.

    PubMed

    Marx, Jenna M; Hoffmann, Debra A; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2016-02-01

    This study examined preschoolers' and their parents' categorizations of eating episodes based on cues used for defining these occasions (i.e., time, portion size, preparation, content, and emotion) as a meal or snack. Thirty-four children aged 4 to 6 saw pictorial representations of each cue, along with a short verbal description, and were asked to place the picture in one of three boxes: "meal", "snack", or "either meal or snack". One parent per child (85% mothers, Mean age = 35.1 years) separately categorized the same items in an online survey. Results illustrated which cues play a role in how parents and children categorize eating occasions as meals or snacks. Parents used 24 of the 32 cue-related items to distinguish between eating occasions as a meal or a snack, while children used only four. Parents and preschoolers were consistent in using cartoon character packaging to indicate a snack, and also used several of the same content cues. The current study highlights the various cues used to categorize an eating occasion, and the unhealthy character of snacks, as participants associated some unhealthy foods and very few healthy foods with snacks. Future research should focus on the role of parents, the home environment, and advertising media in shaping children's characterizations of eating occasions towards development of healthy eating habits and away from problematic eating behaviors that may persist later in life. PMID:26585635

  6. Brain lesions and eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Uher, R; Treasure, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relation between lesions of various brain structures and the development of eating disorders and thus inform the neurobiological research on the aetiology of these mental illnesses. Method: We systematically reviewed 54 previously published case reports of eating disorders with brain damage. Lesion location, presence of typical psychopathology, and evidence suggestive of causal association were recorded. Results: Although simple changes in appetite and eating behaviour occur with hypothalamic and brain stem lesions, more complex syndromes, including characteristic psychopathology of eating disorders, are associated with right frontal and temporal lobe damage. Conclusions: These findings challenge the traditional view that eating disorders are linked to hypothalamic disturbance and suggest a major role of frontotemporal circuits with right hemispheric predominance in the pathogenesis. PMID:15897510

  7. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Erzegovesi, Stefano; Bellodi, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Twenty years have passed from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and, in the meanwhile, a lot of research data about eating disorders has been published. This article reviews the main modifications to the classification of eating disorders reported in the "Feeding and Eating Disorders" chapter of the DSM-5, and compares them with the ICD-10 diagnostic guidelines. Particularly, we will show that DSM-5 criteria widened the diagnoses of anorexia and bulimia nervosa to less severe forms (so decreasing the frequency of Eating Disorders, Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) diagnoses), introduced the new category of Binge Eating Disorder, and incorporated several feeding disorders that were first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. On the whole, the DSM-5 revision should allow the clinician to make more reliable and timely diagnoses for eating disorders. PMID:27319605

  8. Unhealthy sleep practices, conduct problems, and daytime functioning during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Hsu; Yi, Chin-Chun

    2015-02-01

    Although sleep has been linked to activities in various domains of life, one under-studied link is the relationship between unhealthy sleep practices and conduct problems among adolescents. The present study investigates the influence of adolescents' unhealthy sleep practices-short sleep (e.g., less than 6 h a day), inconsistent sleep schedule (e.g., social jetlag), and sleep problems-on conduct problems (e.g., substance use, fighting, and skipping class). In addition, this study examines unhealthy sleep practices in relationship to adolescent emotional well-being, defiant attitudes, and academic performance, as well as these three domains as possible mediators of the longitudinal association between sleep practices and conduct problems. Three waves of the Taiwan Youth Project (n = 2,472) were used in this study. At the first time-point examined in this study, youth (51% male) were aged 13-17 (M = 13.3). The results indicated that all three measures of unhealthy sleep practices were related to conduct problems, such that short sleep, greater social jetlag, and more serious sleep problems were concurrently associated with greater conduct problems. In addition, short sleep and sleep problems predicted conduct problems one year later. Furthermore, these three unhealthy sleep practices were differently related to poor academic performance, low levels of emotional well-being, and defiant attitudes, and some significant indirect effects on later conduct problems through these three attributes were found. Cultural differences and suggestions for prevention are discussed. PMID:25148793

  9. Unhealthy food in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vilija, Malinauskiene; Romualdas, Malinauskas

    2014-03-01

    The linkage between mood states and unhealthy food consumption has been under investigation in the recent years. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms after lifetime traumatic experiences and daily unhealthy food consumption among adolescents, taking into account the possible effects of physical inactivity, smoking, and a sense of coherence. A self-administered questionnaire measured symptoms of PTS, lifetime traumatic experiences, food frequency scale, sense of coherence scale in a representative sample of eighth grade pupils of the Kaunas, Lithuania, secondary schools (N=1747; 49.3% girls and 50.7% boys). In the logistic regression models, all lifetime traumatic events were associated with PTS symptoms, as well as were unhealthy foods, (including light alcoholic drinks, spirits, soft and energy drinks, flavored milk, coffee, fast food, chips and salty snacks, frozen processed foods; excluding sweet snacks, biscuits and pastries) and sense of coherence weakened the strength of the associations. However, physical inactivity and smoking showed no mediating effect for the majority of unhealthy foods. In conclusion, we found that intervention and preventive programs on PTS symptoms may be beneficial while dealing with behavioral problems (unhealthy diet, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity) among adolescents. PMID:24326148

  10. Are diet-specific compensatory health beliefs predictive of dieting intentions and behaviour?

    PubMed

    Radtke, Theda; Kaklamanou, Daphne; Scholz, Urte; Hornung, Rainer; Armitage, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Compensatory Health Beliefs (CHBs) - beliefs that an unhealthy behaviour can be compensated for by healthy behaviour - are hypothesised to be activated automatically to help people resolve conflicts between their desires (e.g. eat chocolate) and their long-term goals (e.g. dieting). The aim of the present research was to investigate diet-specific CHBs within the context of a theoretical framework, the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA), to examine the extent to which diet-specific CHBs contribute to dieting intentions and dietary intake. Seventy-five dieting women were recruited in Switzerland and England and were asked to complete measures of diet-specific CHBs, risk perception, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, intention, and behaviour. Path modelling showed that, overall, diet-specific CHBs were not related to dieting intentions (β=.10) or behaviour (β=.06) over and above variables specified in the HAPA. However, risk perception moderated the relationship between diet-specific CHBs and intention (β=.26). Diet-specific CHBs positively predicted intention in women with high risk perception, but not in women with low risk perception. This positive relationship might be explained by the assumption that CHBs play different roles at different stages of the health-behaviour change process. Future studies should further examine moderators and stage-specific differences of the associations between CHBs, intention and health-behaviour change. PMID:24472827

  11. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Rome, Ellen S

    2003-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in girls and young women. Management of eating disorders typically requires a multidisciplinary team approach, often spear-headed by the clinician initially detecting the illness. This article addresses the definitions and prevalence of eating disorders, tips on recognition and management of medical complications, and reproductive health concerns for these young women. Issues surrounding care of the patient with the female athlete triad, or amenorrhea, osteopenia, and eating disorders, are also discussed. PMID:12836725

  12. Birth weight and later life adherence to unhealthy lifestyles in predicting type 2 diabetes: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Sylvia H; Tobias, Deirdre K; Chiuve, Stephanie E; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Curhan, Gary C; Willett, Walter C; Manson, JoAnn E; Hu, Frank B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively assess the joint association of birth weight and established lifestyle risk factors in adulthood with incident type 2 diabetes and to quantitatively decompose the attributing effects to birth weight only, to adulthood lifestyle only, and to their interaction. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010), Nurses’ Health Study (1980-2010), and Nurses’ Health Study II (1991-2011). Participants 149 794 men and women without diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline. Main outcome measure Incident cases of type 2 diabetes, identified through self report and validated by a supplementary questionnaire. Unhealthy lifestyle was defined on the basis of body mass index, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and the alternate healthy eating index. Results During 20-30 years of follow-up, 11 709 new cases of type 2 diabetes were documented. The multivariate adjusted relative risk of type 2 diabetes was 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.32 to 1.59) per kg lower birth weight and 2.10 (1.71 to 2.58) per unhealthy lifestyle factor. The relative risk of type 2 diabetes associated with a combination of per kg lower birth weight and per unhealthy lifestyle factor was 2.86 (2.26 to 3.63), which was more than the addition of the risk associated with each individual factor, indicating a significant interaction on an additive scale (P for interaction<0.001). The attributable proportions of joint effect were 22% (95% confidence interval 18.3% to 26.4%) to lower birth weight alone, 59% (57.1% to 61.5%) to unhealthy lifestyle alone, and 18% (13.9% to 21.3%) to their interaction. Conclusion Most cases of type 2 diabetes could be prevented by the adoption of a healthier lifestyle, but simultaneous improvement of both prenatal and postnatal factors could further prevent additional cases. PMID:26199273

  13. Health behaviour and safety in the construction sector.

    PubMed

    Meliá, José L; Becerril, Marta

    2009-08-01

    Workers' health behaviour includes habits or actions related to physical exercise, nutrition, smoking, and drug or alcohol consumption. Unhealthy behaviour, and especially alcohol consumption, has been considered a source of accidents and injuries among construction workers. However, unhealthy behaviour can also be seen as a result of the safety and risk conditions of these jobs. The purpose of this paper is to contrast the role of unhealthy behaviour as a source or as an outcome of safety and risk in the construction sector. Data was collected from 180 workers belonging to a Spanish construction company. Two path models representing these two hypotheses were tested. The model in which unhealthy behaviour is an antecedent of injuries did not fit the data (Chi square=73.798, df=3, p<0.001). Results support the hypothesis of unhealthy behaviour as a result of safety and risk factors through the mediating effect of the experience of tension (Chi-square=4.507, df=2, p=.212). This model not only corroborates the stressful nature of exposure to risk and the absence of supervisors' safety response, but it also makes it possible to consider injuries as a cause of tension that, in turn, affects the employees' unhealthy behaviour. PMID:19622324

  14. A Mediation Analysis of the ATHENA Intervention for Female Athletes: Prevention of Athletic-Enhancing Substance Use and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ranby, Krista W; Aiken, Leona S; Elliot, Diane L; Moe, Esther L; McGinnis, Wendy; Goldberg, Linn

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explain, through mediation analyses, the mechanisms by which ATHENA (Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise and Nutrition Alternatives), a primary prevention and health promotion intervention designed to deter unhealthy body shaping behaviors among female high school athletes, produced immediate changes in intentions for unhealthy weight loss and steroid/creatine use, and to examine the link to long-term follow-up intentions and behaviors. Methods In a randomized trial of 1668 athletes, intervention participants completed coach-led peer-facilitated sessions during their sport season. Participants provided pre-test, immediate post-test, and 9-month follow-up assessments. Results ATHENA decreased intentions for steroid/creatine use and intentions for unhealthy weight loss behaviors at post-test. These effects were most strongly mediated by social norms and self-efficacy for healthy eating. Low post-test intentions were maintained 9 months later and predicted subsequent behavior. Conclusions ATHENA successfully modified mediators that in turn related to athletic-enhancing substance use and unhealthy weight loss practices. Mediation analyses aid in the understanding of health promotion interventions and inform program development. PMID:19386771

  15. Excessive Eating and Compulsive Buying Behaviours in Women: An Empirical Pilot Study Examining Reward Sensitivity, Anxiety, Impulsivity, Self-Esteem and Social Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Kate; Houston, James E.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    "Mall disorders" such as excessive eating and compulsive buying appear to be increasing, particularly among women. A battery of questionnaires was used in an attempt to determine this association between specific personality traits (i.e., reward sensitivity, impulsivity, cognitive and somatic anxiety, self-esteem, and social desirability) and…

  16. Using health primes to reduce unhealthy snack purchases among overweight consumers in a grocery store

    PubMed Central

    Papies, E K; Potjes, I; Keesman, M; Schwinghammer, S; van Koningsbruggen, G M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Healthy-eating intentions of overweight individuals are often thwarted by the presence of attractive food temptations in grocery stores and the home environment. To support healthy-eating intentions, we tested the effectiveness of a simple health prime to reduce the purchases of energy-dense snack foods in a grocery store among overweight individuals. Design: This field experiment had a 2 (condition: health prime vs control) × 2 (weight status: overweight vs normal weight) between-participants design. Method: Customers of a grocery store were handed a recipe flyer that either contained a health and diet prime, or not. Participants' weight and height, as well as their attention to and awareness of the prime during shopping, were assessed by means of a questionnaire. The purchase of unhealthy snack foods was assessed by means of the receipt. Results: Results showed that the health prime reduced snack purchases compared with the control condition among overweight and obese participants. When primed, overweight and obese participants bought almost 75% fewer snacks than when not primed. Additional analyses showed that although the prime worked only when customers paid initial attention to the flyer that contained the health prime, no conscious awareness of the prime during grocery shopping was necessary for these effects. Conclusion: These findings suggest that health priming can lead to healthier grocery shopping among overweight consumers, without relying on conscious awareness during shopping. This makes priming a highly viable intervention tool to facilitate healthy food choices. Such tools are especially relevant in the setting of grocery shopping, given that they have direct effects on eating in the home environment and thus for longer-term weight management. PMID:23887063

  17. Development of an Intervention Programme to Encourage High School Students to Stay in School for Lunch Instead of Eating at Nearby Fast-Food Restaurants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2012-01-01

    Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present…

  18. Rural Adolescent Girls Negotiating Healthy and Unhealthy Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Toupey; Jenkins, Melissa; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2012-01-01

    The focused discussions of adolescent girls were analyzed to explore the processes of managing healthy and unhealthy aspects of dating relationships. Grounded theory methods were used to generate an outline of these processes. The core category elicited from discussions with participants was "wrestling with gender expectations". This category…

  19. Cultural Norming in Schools in "Healthy" and "Unhealthy" Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jon C.; Pritchard, Ruie J.; Gunderson, Betsey H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines processes that personnel go through to assimilate the cultural norms of their schools. These processes are compared according to the teaching and learning environments of healthy, high achieving school districts and unhealthy, low achieving school districts. Specifically, this paper examines the "basket of crabs" effect, a…

  20. Consumption stereotypes and impression management: how you are what you eat.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Herman, C Peter; Polivy, Janet

    2007-05-01

    Consumption stereotypes refer to judgments about others based on their food intake. We review the empirical research on stereotypes based on what and how much people eat. The characteristics stereotypically associated with food intake pertain to domains ranging from gender roles and social appeal to health and weight. For example, people who eat "healthy" foods and smaller meals are seen as more feminine; conversely, those who eat "unhealthy" foods and larger meals are seen as more masculine. We further discuss how these stereotypes can be exploited by the eater to convey a particular impression (e.g., femininity, social appeal). Finally, we discuss the ways in which using food intake as an impression-management tactic can lead to chronic food restriction and unhealthy eating habits. PMID:17157957

  1. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... and friends again. Eating disorders involve both the mind and body. So medical doctors, mental health professionals, and dietitians ...

  2. The Association between Health Behaviours and Academic Performance in Canadian Elementary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D.; Kirk, Sara F. L.; Kuhle, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA). Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Results: Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students. PMID:26610537

  3. Functional Assessment and Behavioural Intervention for Eating Difficulties in Children with Autism: A Study Conducted in the Natural Environment Using Parents and ABA Tutors as Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Catherine M.; Eikeseth, Svein; Rudrud, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Two functional assessments (interview and direct observation) were used with three children with autism to identify the functions maintaining mealtime behaviour including acceptance, mouth clean, refusal, and other disruptive behaviours such as crying and pushing the spoon. Based on results of the functional assessments it was hypothesized that…

  4. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Kontić, Olga; Vasiljević, Nadja; Trisović, Marija; Jorga, Jagoda; Lakić, Aneta; Gasić, Miroslava Jasović

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient's health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one's own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases. PMID:23289290

  5. Children's Eating Behavior: The Importance of Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children's health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children's eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch…

  6. Impact of food labelling systems on food choices and eating behaviours: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized studies.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, M; Warin, L

    2016-03-01

    Food labels are considered a crucial component of strategies tackling unhealthy diets and obesity. This study aims at assessing the effectiveness of food labelling in increasing the selection of healthier products and in reducing calorie intake. In addition, this study compares the relative effectiveness of traffic light schemes, Guideline Daily Amount and other food labelling schemes. A comprehensive set of databases were searched to identify randomized studies. Studies reporting homogeneous outcomes were pooled together and analysed through meta-analyses. Publication bias was evaluated with a funnel plot. Food labelling would increase the amount of people selecting a healthier food product by about 17.95% (confidence interval: +11.24% to +24.66%). Food labelling would also decrease calorie intake/choice by about 3.59% (confidence interval: -8.90% to +1.72%), but results are not statistically significant. Traffic light schemes are marginally more effective in increasing the selection of healthier options. Other food labels and Guideline Daily Amount follow. The available evidence did not allow studying the effects of single labelling schemes on calorie intake/choice. Findings of this study suggest that nutrition labelling may be an effective approach to empowering consumers in choosing healthier products. Interpretive labels, as traffic light labels, may be more effective. PMID:26693944

  7. Does adolescent media use cause obesity and eating disorders?

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy B; Kramer-Golinkoff, Emily K; Strasburger, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    In this article we examine media use and its relationship to adolescent overweight/obesity and adolescent eating disorders. We consider the potential mechanisms through which exposure to media during adolescence (both amount of time and choice of content) might exacerbate unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns. We consider strategies that health care providers can use to identify problematic media use and suggestions they might offer to adolescents and their parents for ways to make media a more positive agent in young people's healthy development. PMID:19227385

  8. The Association Between Unhealthy Lifestyle Behaviors and the Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in Middle-Aged and Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Michishita, Ryoma; Matsuda, Takuro; Kawakami, Shotaro; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Morito, Natsumi; Higaki, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study evaluated the association between unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle-aged and older men. Methods The subjects included 445 men without a history of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or dialysis treatment, who were not taking medications. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors were evaluated using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and were defined as follows: 1) lack of habitual moderate exercise, 2) lack of daily physical activity, 3) slow walking speed, 4) fast eating speed, 5) late-night dinner, 6) bedtime snacking, and 7) skipping breakfast. The participants were divided into four categories, which were classified into quartile distributions based on the number of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors (0–1, 2, 3, and ≥4 unhealthy behaviors). Results According to a multivariate analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for CKD (defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or proteinuria) was found to be significantly higher in the ≥4 group than in the 0–1 group (OR 4.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51–14.40). Moreover, subjects’ lack of habitual moderate exercise (OR 3.06; 95% CI, 1.13–8.32) and presence of late-night dinner (OR 2.84; 95% CI, 1.40–5.75) and bedtime snacking behaviors (OR 2.87; 95% CI, 1.27–6.45) were found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of CKD. Conclusions These results suggest that an accumulation of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, especially those related to lack of habitual moderate exercise and presence of late-night dinner and bedtime snacking may be associated with the prevalence of CKD. PMID:26947951

  9. Distraction, the desire to eat and food intake. Towards an expanded model of mindless eating.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Coop, Nicola; Cousins, Charlotte; Crump, Rebecca; Field, Laura; Hughes, Sarah; Woodger, Nigel

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the impact of different forms of distraction on eating behaviour with a focus on the mechanisms behind this association and the link between the amount consumed and changes in the desire to eat. Participants (n=81) were randomly allocated to four conditions: driving, television viewing, social interaction or being alone in which they took part in a taste test. Measures of the desire to eat (i.e. Hunger, fullness, motivation to eat) were assessed before and after the intervention. The results showed that those watching television consumed more than the social or driving conditions. Food intake was associated with a decreased desire to eat for those eating alone, but was unrelated to changes in the desire to eat for those driving. Watching television also created a decrease in the desire to eat commensurate with food intake whereas social eating resulted in the reverse relationship. The results are discussed in terms an expanded model of mindless eating and it is argued that eating more requires not only distraction away from the symptom of hunger but also sufficient cognitive capacity left to attend to the process of eating. PMID:23219989

  10. The Color Red Supports Avoidance Reactions to Unhealthy Food.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Michaela; Kamm, Friederike; Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Groeppel-Klein, Andrea; Wentura, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that the color red acts like an implicit avoidance cue in food contexts. Thus specific colors seem to guide the implicit evaluation of food items. We built upon this research by investigating the implicit meaning of color (red vs. green) in an approach-avoidance task with healthy and unhealthy food items. Thus, we examined the joint evaluative effects of color and food: Participants had to categorize food items by approach-avoidance reactions, according to their healthfulness. Items were surrounded by task-irrelevant red or green circles. We found that the implicit meaning of the traffic light colors influenced participants' reactions to the food items. The color red (compared to green) facilitated automatic avoidance reactions to unhealthy foods. By contrast, approach behavior toward healthy food items was not moderated by color. Our findings suggest that traffic light colors can act as implicit cues that guide automatic behavioral reactions to food. PMID:26592533

  11. Development of an intervention programme to encourage high school students to stay in school for lunch instead of eating at nearby fast-food restaurants.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2012-08-01

    Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present paper describes the development of a theory-based intervention programme aimed at encouraging high school students to stay in school for lunch. Intervention Mapping and the Theory of Planned Behaviour served as theoretical frameworks to guide the development of a 12-week intervention programme of activities addressing intention, descriptive norm, perceived behavioural control and attitude. It was offered to students and their parents with several practical applications, such as structural environmental changes, and educational activities, such as audio and electronic messages, posters, cooking sessions, pamphlets, improvisation play theatre, quiz, and conferences. The programme considers theoretical and empirical data, taking into account specific beliefs and contexts of the target population. This paper should help programme planners in the development of appropriate interventions addressing the problem. PMID:22306931

  12. Adolescent aesthetic athletes: a group at risk for eating pathology?

    PubMed

    Van Durme, Kim; Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline

    2012-04-01

    Previous research shows that leanness- and weight-dependent sports increase the risk of developing disturbed eating behaviour. This study investigated whether adolescent aesthetic athletes (n=68, M=14.6 years), particularly ballet dancers and figure skaters, exhibit more eating pathology compared to the general population. Furthermore, it was investigated whether sport-related factors have explanatory value for the dieting behaviour of aesthetic athletes. To asses eating pathology, reliable and valid self-report questionnaires were used including the Eating Disorder Inventory-II, the Children's Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Results show that female aesthetic athletes show more drive for thinness, features of bulimia, dieting behaviour and concerns about weight and shape compared to female adolescents from the general population. Concerning the explanation of dieting behaviour in aesthetic athletes, both sport-related factors (competition state anxiety) and general risk factors (eating concern) seem to be relevant. These results suggest that female aesthetic athletes show more disturbed eating behaviour and thoughts than female adolescents from the general population and therefore may have an enhanced risk of developing clinical eating disorders. PMID:22365793

  13. Digital marketing of unhealthy foods to Australian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Boelsen-Robinson, Tara; Backholer, Kathryn; Peeters, Anna

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of new media-including branded websites, social media and mobile applications-has created additional touch points for unhealthy food and beverage companies to target children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to perform an audit of new media for three top selling food and beverage brands in Australia. The top selling brand in three of the most advertised food and beverage categories was identified. Facebook, websites and mobile phone applications from these three brands were assessed using a combination of descriptive analyses and structured data collection during June and July 2013. Information on target audience, main focus of the activity, marketing strategies employed and connectivity were collected. Promotional activities were assessed against industry self-regulatory codes. McDonald's, Coca-Cola and Cadbury Dairy Milk were audited, with 21 promotional activities identified. These promotional activities appeared to use a number of marketing strategies, with frequent use of indirect product association, engagement techniques and branding. We identified strategic targeting of both children and adolescents. We found that while all promotional activities technically met self-regulatory codes (usually due to media-specific age restrictions) a number appeared to employ unhealthy food or beverage marketing directed to children. Brands are using engaging content via new media aimed at children and adolescents to promote unhealthy food and beverages. Given the limitations of self-regulatory codes in the context of new media, strategies need to be developed to reduce exposure of children and adolescents to marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products via these avenues. PMID:25769977

  14. Development and validation of the Healthy-Unhealthy Music Scale

    PubMed Central

    Saarikallio, Suvi; Gold, Christian; McFerran, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Background Music is an integral part of life in youth, and although it has been acknowledged that musical behavior reflects broader psychosocial aspects of adolescent behavior, no measurement instruments have been specifically designed for assessing musical engagement as an indicator of adolescent wellbeing and/or symptomatology. This study was conducted in order to develop and validate a scale for assessing musical engagement as an indicator of proneness for depression in youth. Method Items were developed based on the literature and a prior grounded theory analysis and three surveys (N = 54, N = 187, N = 211) were conducted to select, refine, test, and validate the items. Scale structure was investigated through interitem correlations, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA, CFA), and concurrent validity was tested with correlations to depression and wellbeing. Results The final Healthy-Unhealthy Music Scale (HUMS) consists of 13 items that are divided into Healthy and Unhealthy subscales. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were .78 for Healthy and .83 for Unhealthy. The concurrent validity of the HUMS was confirmed through correlations to wellbeing, happiness and school satisfaction on one hand and depression, rumination, and stress on the other. Conclusions The HUMS is as a promising instrument for screening musical engagement that is indicative of proneness for depression in youth. PMID:26726295

  15. German version of the intuitive eating scale: Psychometric evaluation and application to an eating disordered population.

    PubMed

    van Dyck, Zoé; Herbert, Beate M; Happ, Christian; Kleveman, Gillian V; Vögele, Claus

    2016-10-01

    Intuitive eating has been described to represent an adaptive eating behaviour that is characterised by eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues, rather than situational and emotional stimuli. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) has been developed to measure such attitudes and behaviours on four subscales: unconditional permission to eat (UPE), eating for physical rather than emotional reasons (EPR), reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues (RHSC), and body-food choice congruence (B-FCC). The present study aimed at validating the psychometric properties of the German translation of the IES-2 in a large German-speaking sample. A second objective was to assess levels of intuitive eating in participants with an eating disorder diagnosis (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder). The proposed factor structure of the IES-2 could be confirmed for the German translation of the questionnaire. The total score and most subscale scores were negatively related to eating disorder symptomatology, problems in appetite and emotional awareness, body dissatisfaction, and self-objectification. Women with eating disorders had significantly lower values on all IES-2 subscale scores and the total score than women without an eating disorder diagnosis. Women with a binge eating disorder (BED) diagnosis had higher scores on the UPE subscale compared to participants with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), and those diagnosed with AN had higher scores on the EPR subscale than individuals with BN or BED. We conclude that the German IES-2 constitutes a useful self-report instrument for the assessment of intuitive eating in German-speaking samples. Further studies are warranted to evaluate psychometric properties of the IES-2 in different samples, and to investigate its application in a clinical setting. PMID:27426620

  16. Reproductive functions in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Stewart, D E

    1992-08-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about the effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and partial syndromes on ovulation, menstruation, sexuality, fertility, pregnancy and fetal-infant health. Eating disorders may result in failure to ovulate, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, reduced sex drive, infertility, hyperemesis gravidarum, low maternal weight gain in pregnancy, small babies for gestational date, low birth weight infants, increased neonatal morbidity and problems in infant feeding. The available information suggests that clinicians should inquire about nutritional intake, a history of eating disorders and weight reducing behaviours as part of the routine assessment of patients with the disorders of reproductive function listed above. If an eating disorder is discovered before conception, the woman should be encouraged to delay pregnancy until the eating disorder is treated and effectively under control. If the woman is pregnant, early diagnosis and treatment are essential to reduce maternal and fetal complications. The infants of eating-disordered women should be carefully followed to ensure adequate nutritional intake. Problems in reproductive function related to eating disorders offer rich opportunities for multispecialty collaboration in primary and secondary prevention programmes directed toward both mother and infant. PMID:1389091

  17. Altered dynamics between neural systems sub-serving decisions for unhealthy food.

    PubMed

    He, Qinghua; Xiao, Lin; Xue, Gui; Wong, Savio; Ames, Susan L; Xie, Bin; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Using BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques, we examined the relationships between activities in the neural systems elicited by the decision stage of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and food choices of either vegetables or snacks high in fat and sugar. Twenty-three healthy normal weight adolescents and young adults, ranging in age from 14 to 21, were studied. Neural systems implicated in decision-making and inhibitory control were engaged by having participants perform the IGT during fMRI scanning. The Youth/Adolescent Questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire, was used to obtain daily food choices. Higher consumption of vegetables correlated with higher activity in prefrontal cortical regions, namely the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and lower activity in sub-cortical regions, namely the right insular cortex. In contrast, higher consumption of fatty and sugary snacks correlated with lower activity in the prefrontal regions, combined with higher activity in the sub-cortical, insular cortex. These results provide preliminary support for our hypotheses that unhealthy food choices in real life are reflected by neuronal changes in key neural systems involved in habits, decision-making and self-control processes. These findings have implications for the creation of decision-making based intervention strategies that promote healthier eating. PMID:25414630

  18. Taming temptation: Visual perspective impacts consumption and willingness to pay for unhealthy foods.

    PubMed

    Christian, Brittany M; Miles, Lynden K; Kenyeri, Sophie T; Mattschey, Jennifer; Macrae, C Neil

    2016-03-01

    While thinking about food is a ubiquitous facet of daily life, the perils of imaginary eating are well documented; food-related mental imagery elevates both cravings and consumption. Given the serious health issues that often arise from overeating and obesity, identifying strategies that can be used to combat the link between imagination and consumption is, therefore, of considerable theoretical and practical importance. Here we explored the possibility that a fundamental property of mental imagery-the visual perspective from which an event is viewed-may alter the appraisal of unhealthy foods. Specifically, because it is accompanied by attenuated sensorimotor activity, third-person (cf. first-person) imagery was expected to weaken the link between imagination and consumption. The results of 3 studies supported this prediction showing that third-person (cf. first-person) simulations decreased the mental representation, actual consumption, and willingness to pay for desirable items. Driving these effects was the natural reduction of sensory components furnished by third-person imagery. Together, these findings suggest that adoption of a third-person vantage point during mental imagery may be a viable and effective tactic for curbing consumption in everyday life. PMID:26844366

  19. Altered dynamics between neural systems sub-serving decisions for unhealthy food

    PubMed Central

    He, Qinghua; Xiao, Lin; Xue, Gui; Wong, Savio; Ames, Susan L.; Xie, Bin; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Using BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques, we examined the relationships between activities in the neural systems elicited by the decision stage of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and food choices of either vegetables or snacks high in fat and sugar. Twenty-three healthy normal weight adolescents and young adults, ranging in age from 14 to 21, were studied. Neural systems implicated in decision-making and inhibitory control were engaged by having participants perform the IGT during fMRI scanning. The Youth/Adolescent Questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire, was used to obtain daily food choices. Higher consumption of vegetables correlated with higher activity in prefrontal cortical regions, namely the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and lower activity in sub-cortical regions, namely the right insular cortex. In contrast, higher consumption of fatty and sugary snacks correlated with lower activity in the prefrontal regions, combined with higher activity in the sub-cortical, insular cortex. These results provide preliminary support for our hypotheses that unhealthy food choices in real life are reflected by neuronal changes in key neural systems involved in habits, decision-making and self-control processes. These findings have implications for the creation of decision-making based intervention strategies that promote healthier eating. PMID:25414630

  20. Eating habits and eating behaviors by family dinner frequency in the lower-grade elementary school students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seo Yeon; Ha, Seong Ah; Seo, Jung Sook; Sohn, Cheong Min; Park, Hae Ryun

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Recently, there has been an increased interest in the importance of family meals on children's health and nutrition. This study aims to examine if the eating habits and eating behaviors of children are different according to the frequency of family dinners. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were third-grade students from 70 elementary schools in 17 cities nationwide. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed. The survey questionnaire was composed of items that examined the general characteristics, family meals, eating habits, eating behaviors, and environmental influence on children's eating. The subjects responded to a self-reported questionnaire. Excluding the incomplete responses, the data (n = 3,435) were analyzed using χ2-test or t-test. RESULTS The group that had more frequent family dinners (≥ 5 days/week, 63.4%), compared to those that had less (≤ 4 days/week, 36.6%), showed better eating habits, such as eating meals regularly, performing desirable behaviors during meals, having breakfast frequently, having breakfast with family members (P < 0.001), and not eating only what he or she likes (P < 0.05). Those who had more frequent family dinners also consumed healthy foods with more frequency, including protein foods, dairy products, grains, vegetables, seaweeds (P < 0.001), and fruits (P < 0.01). However, unhealthy eating behaviors (e.g., eating fatty foods, salty foods, sweets, etc.) were not significantly different by the frequency of family dinners. CONCLUSIONS Having dinner frequently with family members was associated with more desirable eating habits and with healthy eating behaviors in young children. Thus nutrition education might be planned to promote family dinners, by emphasizing the benefits of having family meals on children's health and nutrition and making more opportunities for family meals. PMID:25489408

  1. Diet behaviour among young people in transition to adulthood (18–25 year olds): a mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    Poobalan, Amudha S.; Aucott, Lorna S.; Clarke, Amanda; Smith, William Cairns S.

    2014-01-01

    Background : Young people (18–25 years) during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, diet behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore diet behaviour among 18–25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods: An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at University/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) were included. An initial quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted and the results from this were incorporated into the qualitative phase. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi-staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. ‘Framework Analysis’ was used to analyse the focus groups. Results: 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22%, increasing with age, particularly in males. Based on the survey, 40% of young people reported eating an adequate amount of fruits and vegetables and 59% eating regular meals, but 32% reported unhealthy snacking. Based on the statistical modelling, positive attitudes towards diet and high intention (89%), did not translate into healthy diet behaviour. From the focus group discussions, the main motivators for diet behaviour were ‘self-appearance’ and having ‘variety of food’. There were mixed opinions on ‘cost’ of food and ‘taste’. Conclusion: Elements deemed really important to young people have been identified. This mixed method study is the largest in this vulnerable and neglected group covering a wide spectrum of the

  2. I eat healthfully but I am not a freak. Consumers' everyday life perspective on healthful eating.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Laura I; te Molder, Hedwig; Koelen, Maria M; van Woerkum, Cees M J

    2009-12-01

    The gap between the awareness and understanding of healthful eating on the one hand and actual eating practices on the other has been addressed in several ways in the literature. In this paper, we consider it from an everyday life perspective. Using discourse analysis, we analyse how Dutch consumers account for their everyday food choices. We show how Dutch consumers use three interpretative repertoires to confirm the importance of health, while not portraying themselves as too self- and health-conscious eaters. The first repertoire associates healthful eating with common knowledge and 'scripted' actions, thereby suggesting that such eating is self-evident rather than difficult. The second repertoire constructs eating for health and pleasure as uncomplicated, by emphasizing consumers' relaxed way of dealing with both. The third repertoire constructs unhealthful eating practices as naturally requiring compensation in the form of certain products or pills. We discuss how the use of these repertoires may pose socio-interactional barriers to the pursuance of healthful eating behaviour. The depiction of one's eating habits as uncomplicated, self-evidently healthful and - when bad - easy to compensate for, does not seem to provide a basis for critical considerations about these eating habits. If structural change in eating practices is to be achieved, nutrition promotion must invest in creating a new social standard that both avoids 'overdoing' bio-medical health and challenges people's construction of their eating habits as naturally healthful. PMID:19698753

  3. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... easy for kids to choose healthy snacks by keeping fruits and vegetables on hand and ready to eat. ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping ... Award-Winning Cafeteria Recipes Garden-Fresh Lunches Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Kid's Guide ...

  4. Eating disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  5. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    PubMed

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity. PMID:24074215

  6. [Cognitive behavior therapy in eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Tölgyes, Tamás; Unoka, Zsolt

    2009-01-01

    Author's aim is to give a comprehensive review of the behavioural and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapeutic development in the treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, on the base of the literature as well as on own clinical experiences. Behavioural therapies, currently applied as part of integrative therapies mainly, will be shown, and theoretical background and techniques of classical cognitive behavioural therapy of anorexia and bulimia nervosa will be shortly summarized. Theory and therapeutic techniques of the schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, applied in the treatment of eating disorders more frequently in the last few years, will be made acquainted in details. Indications and contraindications of classic cognitive behavioural therapy and schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy in eating disorders will be discussed. Stress will be laid on the fact, that schema-focused cognitive behaviour therapy is to be chosen mostly in the cases where comorbid dissociation, personality disorder, very low self-esteem or traumatic history diminishes the applicability of traditional cognitive behavioural therapy. Authors emphasize the importance of further controlled efficacy studies in the field of schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, to define the indication fields regarding different subgroups of eating disorders. PMID:20450144

  7. [Cognitive behavior therapy in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Tölgyes, Tamás; Unoka, Zsolt

    2009-01-01

    Author's aim is to give a comprehensive review of the behavioural and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapeutic development in the treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, on the base of the literature as well as on own clinical experiences. Behavioural therapies, currently applied as part of integrative therapies mainly, will be shown, and theoretical background and techniques of classical cognitive behavioural therapy of anorexia and bulimia nervosa will be shortly summarized. Theory and therapeutic techniques of the schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, applied in the treatment of eating disorders more frequently in the last few years, will be made acquainted in details. Indications and contraindications of classic cognitive behavioural therapy and schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy in eating disorders will be discussed. Stress will be laid on the fact, that schema-focused cognitive behaviour therapy is to be chosen mostly in the cases where comorbid dissociation, personality disorder, very low self-esteem or traumatic history diminishes the applicability of traditional cognitive behavioural therapy. Authors emphasize the importance of further controlled efficacy studies in the field of schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, to define the indication fields regarding different subgroups of eating disorders. PMID:20057003

  8. Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gucciardi, Enza; Celasun, Nalan; Ahmad, Farah; Stewart, Donna E

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and self-concept disturbances, are more prevalent among women than men. Women with eating disorders are also at risk for long-term psychological and social problems, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse and suicide. For instance, in 2000, the prevalence of depression among women who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of anorexia (11.5%) or bulimia (15.4 %) was more than twice the rate of depression (5.7 %) among the general population of Canadian women. The highest incidence of depression was found in women aged 25 to 39 years for both anorexia and bulimia. Data Gaps and Recommendations Hospitalization data are the most recent and accessible information available. However, this data captures only the more severe cases. It does not include the individuals with eating disorders who may visit clinics or family doctors, or use hospital outpatient services or no services at all. Currently, there is no process for collecting this information systematically across Canada; consequently, the number of cases obtained from hospitalization data is underestimated. Other limitations noted during the literature review include the overuse of clinical samples, lack of longitudinal data, appropriate comparison groups, large samples, and ethnic group analysis. PMID:15345084

  9. Unhealthy Weight Control Practices: Culprits and Clinical Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Zachary Michael; Patterson, Sean; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Preoccupation with weight status and a desire to lose weight appears common. Many individuals seek “magic bullet” approaches to weight loss and waive the risks of using these products. In this paper, we review the challenges of weight maintenance, highlight some unhealthy weight control practices, and discuss the futility and potential danger of unregulated weight control agents. Novel clinical strategies are discussed that health care providers may use to triage patients with obesity in an attempt to make ethical and personalized treatment decisions. PMID:25733947

  10. Relational competence and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, F; Ostuzzi, R

    2007-06-01

    Eating Disorders are very widespread within the adolescent population. A possible interpretation and the comprehension of such forms of psychopathology may revolve around the failure to develop a well-defined personal identity, an incapacity to achieve a sense of differentiation with respect to others, an incapacity to measure oneself against others, dependence on others, the fear of rejection and a sense of inadequacy. This study explores the relational styles and behaviour of individuals suffering from eating disorders and their influence on the development of the personality, with reference being made in particular to self-valuation, dependence on others and levels of differentiation. A sample population of 90 women with eating disorders was studied. The subjects were subdivided into 3 groups (30 with restricting anorexia nervosa, 30 with binge-eating/purging anorexia nervosa and 30 with bulimia nervosa), overlapping in terms of age, duration of disorders and interrelation style, using the Relational Competence Test. The most significant results of this study concern the question of the definition of an autonomous personal identity. This process seems to be in progress in young women suffering from bulimia nervosa who appear to be driven towards a "definition of the self in opposition" with the consequent tendency towards relational experiences outside their own family. In women with binge-eating/purging AN moreover an awareness of the difference between the self and others and of their state of dependence would appear to be present, however behaviour aimed at the determination of an autonomous self is not evident. In women with restricting anorexia nervosa a definition of the identity is totally absent; these women develop an omnipotent self in their 'oneness' with others. These relational aspects lead to the identification of a continuum between restricting anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in an evolutionary

  11. Age moderates the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol use in the National Guard.

    PubMed

    Sahker, Ethan; Acion, Laura; Arndt, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Unhealthy drinking is a significant problem contributing to poor health and performance of military personnel. The Iowa Army National Guard and the Iowa Department of Public Health have collaborated with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration to better identify unhealthy substance use via Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment program (SBIRT). Yet, little research has been conducted on the Guard's use of SBIRT. This study examined depression, age, deployment status, and sex as factors contributing to unhealthy drinking. Of the Guardsmen who took part in SBIRT, 3.7% (n=75) met the criteria for unhealthy drinking and 3.9% (n=78) had some level of depression. The overall multivariate model significantly predicted unhealthy drinking (χ(2)(5)=41.41, p<0.001) with age moderating the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol (Wald χ(2)(1)=7.16, p=0.007). These findings add to the existing understanding of factors contributing to unhealthy drinking suggesting the association between the presence of depression and unhealthy drinking depends on age of the Guradsman. This age and depression interaction may be an important diagnostic feature to consider for unhealthy drinking in the Guard. Furthermore, previous research on the general military population finds similar percentages, providing support for SBIRT as an effective screening tool in the Guard. PMID:27450908

  12. Preschool children with lower executive function may be more vulnerable to emotional-based eating in the absence of hunger

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decreased executive function has been linked to unhealthy eating behaviors and obesity in older children and adults, however little is known about this relationship in young children. A pilot project in a research-based preschool was conducted to examine the relationships between executive function...

  13. Psychosocial and Environmental Determinants of Eating Behaviors, Physical Activity, and Weight Change among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaille, Lara J.; Dauner, Kim Nichols; Krambeer, Rachel J.; Pedersen, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to identify factors that college students perceived as contributing to healthy and unhealthy eating patterns, physical activity (PA) levels, and weight change. Participants: Forty-nine 18- to 22-year-old students at a midwestern university participated. Methods: Six focus groups (3 with each gender) were…

  14. Binge eating disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... though they are not hungry. Eats alone (in secret). Feels guilty, disgusted, ashamed, or depressed after eating ... large amounts of high-calorie foods, often in secret. After this binge eating, they often force themselves ...

  15. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... ePublications > Binge eating disorder fact sheet ePublications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...

  16. Kids and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Kids and Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Kids and Eating Disorders Print ... withdrawing from social activities previous continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ...

  17. Influence of unhealthy food and beverage marketing on children's dietary intake and preference: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Sadeghirad, B; Duhaney, T; Motaghipisheh, S; Campbell, N R C; Johnston, B C

    2016-10-01

    Marketing of foods and beverages high in fat, sugar and salt are suggested to contribute to poor dietary behaviours in children and diet-related diseases later in life. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials aimed to assess the effects of unhealthy food and beverage marketing on dietary intake (grams or kilocalories) and dietary preference (preference score or percentage of participants who selected specific foods/beverages) among children 2 to 18 years of age. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO up to January 2015 for terms related to advertising, unhealthy foods or beverages among children. Randomized trials that assessed the effects of unhealthy food and beverage marketing compared with non-dietary advertisement or no advertisement in children were considered eligible. Two authors independently extracted information on study characteristics and outcomes of interest and assessed risk of bias and the overall quality of evidence using grade methodology. Meta-analysis was conducted separately for dietary intake and preference using a random-effects model. We identified 29 eligible studies, of which 17 studies were included for meta-analysis of dietary preference and nine for meta-analysis of dietary intake. Almost half of the studies were at high risk of bias. Our meta-analysis showed that in children exposed to unhealthy dietary marketing, dietary intake significantly increased (mean difference [MD] = 30.4 kcal, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9 to 57.9, and MD = 4.8 g, 95%CI 0.8 to 8.8) during or shortly after exposure to advertisements. Similarly, children exposed to the unhealthy dietary marketing had a higher risk of selecting the advertised foods or beverages (relative risk = 1.1, 95%CI 1.0 to 1.2; P = 0.052). The evidence indicates that unhealthy food and beverage marketing increases dietary intake (moderate quality evidence) and preference (moderate to low quality evidence) for energy-dense, low-nutrition food

  18. Predicting healthy and unhealthy behaviors through physical education: A self-determination theory-based longitudinal approach.

    PubMed

    Ferriz, R; González-Cutre, D; Sicilia, Á; Hagger, M S

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations between three dimensions of the structured teaching environment (promotion of theoretical knowledge, physical learning, and health improvement) in physical education (PE) and the adoption of health-related behaviors by students. The study adopted a two-occasion longitudinal design based on self-determination theory (SDT). PE students (N = 654, mean age = 16.13, SD = .77) completed measures of perceived structured teaching environment, satisfaction of basic psychological needs and motivation for PE, and healthy (physical activity, sport participation, and healthy eating) and unhealthy (consumption of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs) behaviors at the beginning and end of the first year of post-compulsory secondary education. Path analysis of the proposed relations among variables supported SDT tenets and showed positive relations between the three dimensions of the structured teaching environment, the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and autonomous motivation in PE. Autonomous motivation contributed to an explanation of variance in two healthy behaviors, physical activity and sport participation. However, no relation was found among motivation in PE, healthy eating, and consumption of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs. These results show negligible trans-contextual influence of SDT motivational factors in PE on other healthy behaviors beyond physical activity. PMID:25916345

  19. Sasang types may differ in eating rate, meal size, and regular appetite: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Pham, Duong Duc; Lee, Jae Chul; Lee, Myeong Soo; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2012-01-01

    Eating behaviours may be implicated in the increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders. The Sasang typology, a unique form of traditional Korean medicine, classifies individuals into four constitutional types that differ in a distinctive complex of external manifestations and innate natures, including eating behaviours. Our aim is to portray a picture of the distinguishing characteristics of eating behaviours across Sasang types and to provide suggestions for future studies. Six Korean and one English database were searched to acquire relevant articles. Ten peer-reviewed relevant research articles were found. The extracted data were categorised into the domains of i) food preferences; ii) eating rate; iii) eating initiation and termination; iv) meal size; v) regularity of eating; vi) regular appetite; vii) eating disorders; and viii) psychological factors. Eating rate and meal size were the issues of most concern that more frequently were different among Sasang types. The TaeEum type seemed to have obesity-linked eating behaviours, including a rapid eating rate, large meal sizes, and a strong appetite, whereas those attitudes seemed to be in contrast with those of the SoEum type. The SoYang type shared similarities with both the TaeEum and SoEum types. Future studies should be conducted with more reliable, objective, and quantitative assessment tools such as the Three Eating Factor Questionnaire or the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. PMID:22705421

  20. A review of interventions that promote eating by internal cues.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Julie T; Magnuson, Amy B

    2014-05-01

    Traditional diet programs that encourage individuals to consciously restrict their dietary intake have not only been ineffective in terms of weight outcomes, but have also been counterproductive, promoting psychological distress and unhealthy eating behaviors. Nondiet approaches shift the focus away from weight outcomes to the improvement of health outcomes and psychological well-being. One such approach, intuitive eating, promotes dietary intake based on internal cues of hunger and fullness, body acceptance, and making behavior choices based on health as well as enjoyment. Several studies have implemented such ideas into intervention programs. The purpose of our review was to examine the physical and psychological effects of these programs. Twenty interventions were identified. Overall, studies had positive results, demonstrating improvements in eating habits, lifestyle, and body image as measured by dietary restraint, restrictive dieting, physical activity, body satisfaction, and drive for thinness. Participants also experienced improved psychological health as measured by depression, ineffectiveness, anxiety, self-esteem, negative affect, and quality of life. Several improvements were sustained through follow-up periods as long as 2 years. Completion rates were as high as 92% in nondieting groups. In addition, improvements in eating behaviors and maintaining a nondiet approach, increased self-esteem, and decreased body dissatisfaction were sustained long-term. Overall, studies that encourage individuals to eat intuitively help participants abandon unhealthy weight control behaviors, improve metabolic fitness, increase body satisfaction, and improve psychological distress. Results from our review favor the promotion of programs that emphasize a nonrestrictive pattern of eating, body acceptance, and health rather than weight loss. PMID:24631111

  1. Is parenting style related to children's healthy eating and physical activity in Latino families?

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Elva M; Elder, John P; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Campbell, Nadia; Baquero, Barbara; Duerksen, Susan

    2006-12-01

    Parenting styles influence a child's risk for obesity. The goals of this study are to evaluate the influence of (i) parenting style on children's health behaviors (physical activity and dietary intake), (ii) children's sociodemographic characteristics on parenting style and on children's health behaviors and (iii) parents' sociodemographic characteristics on their use of controlling styles to promote a healthy home environment. Survey and anthropometric data were collected from a community sample of Latino parents (n = 812) and their children in kindergarten through second grade. Parental use of positive reinforcement and monitoring was associated with children's healthy eating and exercise. Also, parents' use of appropriate disciplining styles was associated with healthier eating, while parental use of control styles was associated with unhealthy eating. The daughters of parents who used controlling styles ate more unhealthy foods than did the sons. Older, employed and more acculturated parents used less controlling styles than their counterparts. Parenting interventions targeting children's dietary intake and physical activity should encourage parents to use more positive reinforcement and monitor their children's health behaviors as these parenting styles are associated with healthier behaviors. Moreover, intervention researchers may want to encourage Latino parents to use less controlling styles with girls as this parenting style increased girls' risk for unhealthy eating. PMID:17032706

  2. Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age) from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p <0.001). Furthermore, compared to participants from the high-income neighbourhood, people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to report buying food from street vendors while less likely to dine out at both fast food and non-fast food restaurants (p<0.001). Although the high-income neighbourhood group was more likely to report enjoying eating at fast food restaurants than their low-income neighbourhood counterparts, there were no significant differences in the reasons for visiting fast food restaurants (convenience, price, social enjoyment, and quality of meals) between the two groups. Both groups preferred home cooked over restaurant meals, and they recognized that home cooked food was healthier. Conclusions Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more

  3. Weight-related abuse: Perceived emotional impact and the effect on disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; Bannon, Sarah M; O'Leary, K Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate theories that (1) weight-related abuse (WRA) plays a unique role in the development of disordered eating, above and beyond general childhood verbal abuse and weight-related teasing, and (2) the perceived emotional impact of WRA mediates the relationship between WRA and current disordered eating. Self-report questionnaires on childhood trauma, weight-related teasing, WRA, and current eating behaviors were administered to a total of 383 undergraduate students. In initial regressions, WRA significantly predicted binge eating, emotional eating, night eating, and unhealthy weight control. WRA continued to significantly predict all 4 forms of disordered eating following the introduction of measures of weight-related teasing and childhood verbal abuse into the regression. Latent variable analysis confirmed that perceived emotional impact of WRA mediated the relationship between WRA and disordered eating, and tests for indirect effects yielded a significant indirect effect of WRA on disordered eating through perceived emotional impact. In sum, WRA is a unique construct and the content of childhood or adolescent maltreatment is important in determining eventual psychopathology outcomes. These findings support the necessity of incorporating information on developmental history and cognitive factors into assessment and treatment of individuals with disordered eating. PMID:25636523

  4. Eating behaviors and their relationship with cardiovascular disease. A case/case-control study.

    PubMed

    Konidari, Zoe; Kastorini, Christina-Maria; Milionis, Haralampos J; Bika, Eftychia; Nikolaou, Vassilios; Vemmos, Konstantinos N; Goudevenos, John A; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the combined role of eating behaviors and to investigate their effect on the likelihood of developing an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or an ischemic stroke. During 2009-2010, 1000 participants were enrolled; 250 consecutive patients with a first ACS (83% males, 60 ± 12 years) and 250 control subjects, as well as 250 consecutive patients with a first ischemic stroke (56% males, 77 ± 9 years) and 250 controls. The controls were population-based and age-sex matched with the patients. Detailed information regarding their anthropometric data, medical records and lifestyle characteristics (dietary and smoking habits, physical activity, psychological state and eating practices -using a special questionnaire-) were recorded. Five eating behaviors were selected to compose an eating behavior score for the purposes of this work: adherence to the Mediterranean diet (using the MedDietScore), frequency of breakfast consumption, eating while being stressed, eating while working and skipping meals. Eating behaviors with beneficial health effects were scored with 0, while those with negative effects were assigned score 1. The total range of the score was between 0 and 5. Higher scores reveal "unhealthier" eating practices. After controlling for potential confounding factors, each unit increase of the eating behavior score was associated with 70% (95% CI: 1.29-2.22) higher likelihood of developing an ACS. Insignificant associations were observed regarding ischemic stroke. The overall adoption of specific "unhealthy" eating practices seems to have a detrimental effect on cardiovascular health, and especially coronary heart disease. PMID:24819341

  5. A risky occupation? (Un)healthy lifestyle behaviors among Danish seafarers.

    PubMed

    Hjarnoe, Lulu; Leppin, Anja

    2014-12-01

    Sedentary working conditions, smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lack of exercise are some of the lifestyle risk factors that form a potentially growing problem for seafarers within certain parts of the maritime sector creating a heightened risk for chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Health promotion initiatives to combat this negative development requires as a first step identifying the magnitude of the different risk factors. A survey was conducted in 2007-08 with two Danish shipping companies on seafarers' health, wellbeing, diet, smoking and physical activity. In addition, a health profile was offered to the respondents, consisting of physiological measurements, such as fitness rating, body mass index (BMI), cholesterol measurement and blood pressure. The response rate in the questionnaire study was 57% (n = 360) of which 76% (n = 272) of the respondents received a health profile. Results (males) showed 44% daily smokers compared with 32% in the general Danish adult male population. Twenty-five percent of the seafarers were obese with a BMI > 30 compared with 12% of the Danish adult male population. Fifty-one percent of the respondents were defined as having metabolic syndrome, compared with 20% of the Danish adult male population. Seafaring is a risky occupation when looking at the seafarers' health and wellbeing. The results of this survey confirm the need for health promotion interventions such as smoking cessation courses, healthy cooking courses and physical exercise programs, etc. that can enable healthier lifestyle. The challenge will be to take into account the special seafaring conditions when implementing the interventions. PMID:23630132

  6. Can a statin neutralize the cardiovascular risk of unhealthy dietary choices?

    PubMed

    Ferenczi, Emily A; Asaria, Perviz; Hughes, Alun D; Chaturvedi, Nishi; Francis, Darrel P

    2010-08-15

    The cardiovascular risk reduction associated with different statins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and the cardiovascular risk increase associated with excess dietary intake of fat have been quantified. However, these relative risks have never been directly juxtaposed to determine whether an increase in relative risk by 1 activity could be neutralized by an opposing change in relative risk from a second activity. The investigators compared the increase in relative risk for cardiovascular disease associated with the total fat and trans fat content of fast foods against the relative risk decrease provided by daily statin consumption from a meta-analysis of statins in primary prevention of coronary artery disease (7 randomized controlled trials including 42,848 patients). The risk reduction associated with the daily consumption of most statins, with the exception of pravastatin, is more powerful than the risk increase caused by the daily extra fat intake associated with a 7-oz hamburger (Quarter Pounder) with cheese and a small milkshake. In conclusion, statin therapy can neutralize the cardiovascular risk caused by harmful diet choices. In other spheres of human activity, individuals choosing risky pursuits (motorcycling, smoking, driving) are advised or compelled to use measures to minimize the risk (safety equipment, filters, seatbelts). Likewise, some individuals eat unhealthily. Routine accessibility of statins in establishments providing unhealthy food might be a rational modern means to offset the cardiovascular risk. Fast food outlets already offer free condiments to supplement meals. A free statin-containing accompaniment would offer cardiovascular benefits, opposite to the effects of equally available salt, sugar, and high-fat condiments. Although no substitute for systematic lifestyle improvements, including healthy diet, regular exercise, weight loss, and smoking cessation, complimentary statin packets would add, at little cost, 1 positive

  7. Integrating messages from the eating disorders field into obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-12-01

    Weight-related problems, including unhealthy weight control behaviors, binge eating, overweight and obesity, and eating disorders, are prevalent in youth. Furthermore, many young people exhibit more than one of these problems. Therefore, it is essential to consider how to simultaneously work toward the prevention of a broad range of weight-related problems in youth. Dieting, body dissatisfaction, weight talk, and weight-related teasing are commonly addressed risk factors within eating disorder prevention interventions, whereas low levels of physical activity and high intakes of foods high in fat and sugar are commonly addressed within interventions aimed at obesity prevention. Empirical data to be presented in this article demonstrate why risk factors such as dieting and body dissatisfaction, which are typically addressed within the eating disorder field, need to also be addressed within the obesity field. Although dieting and body dissatisfaction strongly predict weight gain over time, these findings are not always taken into account in the design of obesity interventions for youth. Possible reasons as to why risk factors such as dieting, body dissatisfaction, and weight stigmatization may be not adequately addressed within interventions addressing obesity are discussed. Suggestions for how physicians and other nonphysician clinicians might link messages from the fields of both eating disorders and obesity into their work with youth are provided. Finally, the potential for work on mindfulness and yoga to decrease risk factors for both eating disorders and obesity are explored. PMID:23437686

  8. In good company. The effect of an eating companion's appearance on food intake.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Mitsuru; Johnson, Katie; Wansink, Brian

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not the presence of an overweight eating companion influences healthy and unhealthy eating behavior, and to determine if the effect is moderated by how the companion serves herself. A professional actress either wore an overweight prosthesis (i.e., "fatsuit") or did not wear one, and served herself either healthily (i.e., a small amount of pasta and a large amount of salad) or unhealthily (i.e., a large amount of pasta and a small amount of salad) for lunch. After observing her, male and female participants were asked to serve themselves pasta and salad to eat. Results demonstrated that regardless of how the confederate served, participants served and ate a larger amount of pasta when she was wearing the prosthesis than when she was not. In addition, when the confederate served herself healthily, participants served and ate a smaller amount of salad when she was wearing the prosthesis than when she was not. Consistent with the "lower health commitment" hypothesis, these results demonstrated that people may eat larger portions of unhealthy food and smaller portions of healthy food when eating with an overweight person, probably because the health commitment goal is less activated. More generally, this study provides evidence that the body type of an eating companion, as well as whether she serves herself healthily or unhealthily, influences the quantity of food intake. PMID:25218720

  9. The effects of "thin ideal" media on women's body image concerns and eating-related intentions: the beneficial role of an autonomous regulation of eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mask, Lisa; Blanchard, Céline M

    2011-09-01

    The present study examines the protective role of an autonomous regulation of eating behaviors (AREB) on the relationship between trait body dissatisfaction and women's body image concerns and eating-related intentions in response to "thin ideal" media. Undergraduate women (n=138) were randomly assigned to view a "thin ideal" video or a neutral video. As hypothesized, trait body dissatisfaction predicted more negative affect and size dissatisfaction following exposure to the "thin ideal" video among women who displayed less AREB. Conversely, trait body dissatisfaction predicted greater intentions to monitor food intake and limit unhealthy foods following exposure to the "thin ideal" video among women who displayed more AREB. PMID:21783443

  10. Barriers and Facilitators to the Uptake and Maintenance of Healthy Behaviours by People at Mid-Life: A Rapid Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Sarah; Martin, Steven; Kuhn, Isla; Cowan, Andy; Brayne, Carol; Lafortune, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background With an ageing population, there is an increasing societal impact of ill health in later life. People who adopt healthy behaviours are more likely to age successfully. To engage people in health promotion initiatives in mid-life, a good understanding is needed of why people do not undertake healthy behaviours or engage in unhealthy ones. Methods Searches were conducted to identify systematic reviews and qualitative or longitudinal cohort studies that reported mid-life barriers and facilitators to healthy behaviours. Mid-life ranged from 40 to 64 years, but younger adults in disadvantaged or minority groups were also eligible to reflect potential earlier disease onset. Two reviewers independently conducted reference screening and study inclusion. Included studies were assessed for quality. Barriers and facilitators were identified and synthesised into broader themes to allow comparisons across behavioural risks. Findings From 16,426 titles reviewed, 28 qualitative studies, 11 longitudinal cohort studies and 46 systematic reviews were included. Evidence was found relating to uptake and maintenance of physical activity, diet and eating behaviours, smoking, alcohol, eye care, and other health promoting behaviours and grouped into six themes: health and quality of life, sociocultural factors, the physical environment, access, psychological factors, evidence relating to health inequalities. Most of the available evidence was from developed countries. Barriers that recur across different health behaviours include lack of time (due to family, household and occupational responsibilities), access issues (to transport, facilities and resources), financial costs, entrenched attitudes and behaviours, restrictions in the physical environment, low socioeconomic status, lack of knowledge. Facilitators include a focus on enjoyment, health benefits including healthy ageing, social support, clear messages, and integration of behaviours into lifestyle. Specific issues

  11. Eating habits and behaviors

    MedlinePlus

    ... down what you eat, how much, and what times of the day you are eating. Include notes about what else you were doing ... meals: Know what you will eat ahead of time so you can avoid ... buying) or eating at fast-food restaurants. Plan your dinners at ...

  12. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes With Body Composition and Anthropometric Indices in Physical Education Students

    PubMed Central

    Rouzitalab, Tohid; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Amirsasan, Ramin; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Farsad Naeimi, Alireza; Sanoobar, Meisam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal eating behavior, unhealthy weight control methods, and eating disordered symptoms have risen among college students. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine disordered eating attitudes and their relationship with anthropometric and body composition indices in physical education students in Tabriz, the capital of East Azerbaijan province, Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 physical education students, 105 males and 105 females aged 18 to 25, who were selected by systematic random sampling from physical education faculty of Tabriz University in Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. Eating attitude test (EAT-26) was used for the assessment of disordered eating attitudes. In addition, anthropometric and body composition indices were assessed. Results: About 10% of the studied subject had disturbed eating attitudes; significantly more males (15.4%) reported an EAT-26 ≥ 20 (disordered eating attitudes) than females (4.8%) (P < 0.05). In males, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weist perimeter (WP) (r = 0.21, P < 0.05) and the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.26, P < 0.01). In females, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weight (r = 0.19, P < 0.05) and the WP (r = 0.28, P < 0.01). In females, weight (P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05), WP (P < 0.01), and waist-to-hip ratio (P < 0.05) were significantly different between disordered eating attitude and healthy subjects, while in males there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the anthropometric and body composition indices. Conclusions: Abnormal eating attitude was notable among physical education students in Tabriz, Iran. It seems that some anthropometric indices such as BMI and central obesity indices were related to the increase of disordered eating attitude. PMID:26734482

  13. Healthy eating habits protect against temptations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Wood, Wendy; Monterosso, John

    2016-08-01

    Can healthy food-choice habits protect people against temptations of consuming large portion sizes and unhealthy foods? In two studies, we show that the answer is yes, good habits serve this protective role, at least in contexts in which people are not deliberating and thus fall back on habitual responses. In the first study, participants trained with unhealthy habits to approach eating chocolate, but not those trained with healthy habits, succumbed to temptation and ate more chocolates when their self-control resources were depleted. Study 2 extended and clarified these findings by demonstrating the role of environmental cues in eliciting healthy habits when self-control resources are depleted. Participants who had been trained to choose carrots habitually to a pictorial stimulus (i.e., habit cue) subsequently resisted choosing M&Ms as long as the cue was present. This effect of habit cues on healthy food choices suggests the usefulness of manipulating such cues as a means of meeting self-regulatory goals such as portion control. PMID:26585633

  14. Food as Risk: How Eating Habits and Food Knowledge Affect Reactivity to Pictures of Junk and Healthy Foods.

    PubMed

    Yegiyan, Narine S; Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how people respond to images of junk versus healthy food as a function of their eating habits and food knowledge. The experiment reported here proposed and tested the idea that those with unhealthy eating habits but highly knowledgeable about healthy eating would feel more positive and also more negative toward junk food images compared to images of healthy food because they may perceive them as risky--desirable but potentially harmful. The psychophysiological data collected from participants during their exposure to pictures of junk versus healthy food supported this idea. In addition, unhealthy eaters compared to healthy eaters with the same degree of food knowledge responded more positively to all food items. The findings are critical from a health communication perspective. Because unhealthy eaters produce stronger emotional responses to images of junk food, they are more likely to process information associated with junk food with more cognitive effort and scrutiny. Thus, when targeting this group and using images of junk food, it is important to combine these images with strong message claims and relevant arguments; otherwise, if the arguments are perceived as irrelevant or weak, the motivational activation associated with junk food itself may transfer into an increased desire to consume the unhealthy product. PMID:26503541

  15. A "Healthy" Color: Information About Healthy Eating Attenuates the "Red Effect".

    PubMed

    Gilston, Alyssa; Privitera, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the color red on our evaluative processes and psychological, emotional, and cognitive decision making is known as the "red effect." The present study tested the hypothesis that this "red effect" could be attenuated by information about the healthfulness of an individual's diet. To test this hypothesis 122 participants rated the attractiveness and healthfulness of a picture of the same female wearing a red or white (neutral color) shirt who was described as eating a healthy or unhealthy food.  Results showed that participants did rate the female wearing the red shirt as more attractive (evidence of the "red effect"). However, when the female was described as eating an unhealthy food, the red effect was not significant. These findings suggest that the red effect is robust, but can be attenuated by manipulating the perceptions of health. PMID:26234987

  16. A “Healthy” Color: Information About Healthy Eating Attenuates the “Red Effect”

    PubMed Central

    Gilston, Alyssa; Privitera, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the color red on our evaluative processes and psychological, emotional, and cognitive decision making is known as the “red effect.” The present study tested the hypothesis that this “red effect” could be attenuated by information about the healthfulness of an individual’s diet. To test this hypothesis 122 participants rated the attractiveness and healthfulness of a picture of the same female wearing a red or white (neutral color) shirt who was described as eating a healthy or unhealthy food. Results showed that participants did rate the female wearing the red shirt as more attractive (evidence of the “red effect”). However, when the female was described as eating an unhealthy food, the red effect was not significant. These findings suggest that the red effect is robust, but can be attenuated by manipulating the perceptions of health. PMID:26234987

  17. Weight misperception and its association with dieting methods and eating behaviors in South Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyunjung; Park, Sangshin; Kim, Cho-il; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Oh, Sang Woo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES There is little information on the association between weight misperception and eating behavior in Korean adolescents. Therefore, we investigated the association of food intake habits and dieting method and disturbed eating behavior (DEB) in relation to weight misperception. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data was collected by using a nationwide online panel survey from 6,943 adolescents enrolled in middle/high school. DEB was measured with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and those who scored ≥ 20 on the EAT-26 were considered to have eating disorder. Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the association between weight misperception based on self-reported weight status and dieting method and eating behaviors. RESULTS The proportion of weight underestimation was 23.5% and that of overestimation was 24.0%. Weight overestimating girls were more likely to engage in various unhealthy dieting practices (OR = 1.69 for fasting; OR = 1.88 for laxative or diuretic use; OR = 2.05 for self-induced vomiting after meals; P < 0.05). Moreover, there was a strong association between overestimation and undesirable eating behaviors, especially among girls, e.g.: having breakfast (OR = 0.85), high consumption of fast foods (OR = 1.28) and regular sodas (OR = 1.39), but not among boys. In both genders, weight overestimation appears to be a major risk factor for DEB (OR = 1.34 for boys and OR = 1.41 for girls; P < 0.05). CONSLUSIONS Weight overestimation is associated with unhealthy weight control practices and eating behaviors. We particularly found a significant association between weight overestimation and DEB among nationwide Korean adolescents. PMID:24741407

  18. The promotion of unhealthy habits in gay, lesbian, and straight intimate partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Reczek, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Health habits are linked to nearly half of U.S. and British deaths annually. While a legacy of research suggests that marriage has important positive consequences for health habits, recent work emphasizes that intimate ties can also deter from healthy habits and promote unhealthy habits. However, few studies examine the mechanisms through which unhealthy habits are promoted in marriage. Moreover, little research explores how unhealthy habits are promoted in intimate ties other than marriage—such as in gay and lesbian cohabiting relationships. The present study analyzes the mechanisms through which gay, lesbian, and straight long-term partners (N = 120) contribute to one another’s unhealthy habits. Three distinct mechanisms emerge. First, respondents identify a process of unilateral health habit diffusion wherein one partner’s health habits directly influence the other partners’ habits. Second, respondents describe bilateral unhealthy habit diffusion, wherein both partner’s unhealthy habits are reinforced via mutual pleasure seeking or mutual failed motivation. Third, respondents describe a discourse of personal responsibility, wherein both partners purposefully fail to deter one another’s unhealthy habits. Analysis further illustrates how these mechanisms operate differently for men and women in gay, lesbian, and straight relationships. PMID:22703888

  19. Healthy vs. unhealthy food: a strategic choice for firms and consumers.

    PubMed

    Antoñanzas, Fernando; Rodríguez-Ibeas, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we carry out a theoretical analysis of the strategic choice made by firms regarding the type of food they market when they face consumers who care about the healthy/unhealthy attributes of the product but incur in emotional/health costs when the food they consume has unhealthy attributes. We consider a two-stage game. In the first stage, one of the firms chooses the unhealthy content of its product. In the second stage, both firms simultaneously decide their prices. We find that, depending on the parameters of the model, product differentiation can be maximal or less than maximal. The firm that produces the unhealthy food charges a higher price and obtains a larger share of the market unless the emotional/health costs and the unhealthy food production costs are relatively high. We also find that educational campaigns will not always reduce the demand for the unhealthy food or the degree of the unhealthy attribute.JEL Classification:I10, I18, L11. PMID:22828271

  20. Healthy vs. unhealthy food: a strategic choice for firms and consumers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we carry out a theoretical analysis of the strategic choice made by firms regarding the type of food they market when they face consumers who care about the healthy/unhealthy attributes of the product but incur in emotional/health costs when the food they consume has unhealthy attributes. We consider a two-stage game. In the first stage, one of the firms chooses the unhealthy content of its product. In the second stage, both firms simultaneously decide their prices. We find that, depending on the parameters of the model, product differentiation can be maximal or less than maximal. The firm that produces the unhealthy food charges a higher price and obtains a larger share of the market unless the emotional/health costs and the unhealthy food production costs are relatively high. We also find that educational campaigns will not always reduce the demand for the unhealthy food or the degree of the unhealthy attribute. JEL Classification:I10, I18, L11 PMID:22828271

  1. Does temporal discounting explain unhealthy behavior? A systematic review and reinforcement learning perspective.

    PubMed

    Story, Giles W; Vlaev, Ivo; Seymour, Ben; Darzi, Ara; Dolan, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    The tendency to make unhealthy choices is hypothesized to be related to an individual's temporal discount rate, the theoretical rate at which they devalue delayed rewards. Furthermore, a particular form of temporal discounting, hyperbolic discounting, has been proposed to explain why unhealthy behavior can occur despite healthy intentions. We examine these two hypotheses in turn. We first systematically review studies which investigate whether discount rates can predict unhealthy behavior. These studies reveal that high discount rates for money (and in some instances food or drug rewards) are associated with several unhealthy behaviors and markers of health status, establishing discounting as a promising predictive measure. We secondly examine whether intention-incongruent unhealthy actions are consistent with hyperbolic discounting. We conclude that intention-incongruent actions are often triggered by environmental cues or changes in motivational state, whose effects are not parameterized by hyperbolic discounting. We propose a framework for understanding these state-based effects in terms of the interplay of two distinct reinforcement learning mechanisms: a "model-based" (or goal-directed) system and a "model-free" (or habitual) system. Under this framework, while discounting of delayed health may contribute to the initiation of unhealthy behavior, with repetition, many unhealthy behaviors become habitual; if health goals then change, habitual behavior can still arise in response to environmental cues. We propose that the burgeoning development of computational models of these processes will permit further identification of health decision-making phenotypes. PMID:24659960

  2. Does temporal discounting explain unhealthy behavior? A systematic review and reinforcement learning perspective

    PubMed Central

    Story, Giles W.; Vlaev, Ivo; Seymour, Ben; Darzi, Ara; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The tendency to make unhealthy choices is hypothesized to be related to an individual's temporal discount rate, the theoretical rate at which they devalue delayed rewards. Furthermore, a particular form of temporal discounting, hyperbolic discounting, has been proposed to explain why unhealthy behavior can occur despite healthy intentions. We examine these two hypotheses in turn. We first systematically review studies which investigate whether discount rates can predict unhealthy behavior. These studies reveal that high discount rates for money (and in some instances food or drug rewards) are associated with several unhealthy behaviors and markers of health status, establishing discounting as a promising predictive measure. We secondly examine whether intention-incongruent unhealthy actions are consistent with hyperbolic discounting. We conclude that intention-incongruent actions are often triggered by environmental cues or changes in motivational state, whose effects are not parameterized by hyperbolic discounting. We propose a framework for understanding these state-based effects in terms of the interplay of two distinct reinforcement learning mechanisms: a “model-based” (or goal-directed) system and a “model-free” (or habitual) system. Under this framework, while discounting of delayed health may contribute to the initiation of unhealthy behavior, with repetition, many unhealthy behaviors become habitual; if health goals then change, habitual behavior can still arise in response to environmental cues. We propose that the burgeoning development of computational models of these processes will permit further identification of health decision-making phenotypes. PMID:24659960

  3. The promotion of unhealthy habits in gay, lesbian, and straight intimate partnerships.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne

    2012-09-01

    Health habits are linked to nearly half of U.S. and British deaths annually. While a legacy of research suggests that marriage has important positive consequences for health habits, recent work emphasizes that intimate ties can also deter from healthy habits and promote unhealthy habits. However, few studies examine the mechanisms through which unhealthy habits are promoted in marriage. Moreover, little research explores how unhealthy habits are promoted in intimate ties other than marriage-such as in gay and lesbian cohabiting relationships. The present study analyzes the mechanisms through which gay, lesbian, and straight long-term partners (N = 120) contribute to one another's unhealthy habits. Three distinct mechanisms emerge. First, respondents identify a process of unilateral health habit diffusion wherein one partner's health habits directly influence the other partners' habits. Second, respondents describe bilateral unhealthy habit diffusion, wherein both partner's unhealthy habits are reinforced via mutual pleasure seeking or mutual failed motivation. Third, respondents describe a discourse of personal responsibility, wherein both partners purposefully fail to deter one another's unhealthy habits. Analysis further illustrates how these mechanisms operate differently for men and women in gay, lesbian, and straight relationships. PMID:22703888

  4. The impact of nutritional policy on socioeconomic disparity in the unhealthy food intake among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kirang; Park, Sun Min; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the trend in unhealthy food intake by socioeconomic position (SEP) and to determine whether the government's nutritional policies affect socioeconomic disparity in the food intake among adolescents. Data were from the six independent cross-sectional survey data (2006-2011) of Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey and included 445,287 subjects aged 12-18 years. The unhealthy food intake was assessed by food frequency intake and SEP was evaluated with the family affluence scale. We observed that unhealthy food intakes decreased through the years, showing the apparent decline when nutritional policies focusing on the restriction of unhealthy foods were implemented, and the trend was all same in the different SEP groups. The pattern of unhealthy food intakes by SEP has changed before and after implementation of the policies. The intakes of carbonated beverages, fast food, and confectioneries were higher in the higher SEP group before implementation of the policies but the difference was not shown after implementation of the policies. The intake of instant noodles was consistently higher in the lower SEP group. The risk of frequent consumption of unhealthy foods was generally more decreased through the years in the higher SEP group than the lower SEP group. In conclusion, this study found the positive effect of nutritional policy on unhealthy food intake among adolescents and the high SEP group appeared to undergo greater desirable changes in dietary behaviors after implementation of nutritional policies than the low SEP group. PMID:24056208

  5. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vainik, Uku; Dubé, Laurette; Lu, Ji; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied. Methods A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner). The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation. Results Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment. PMID:26633707

  6. Self-governance: treatment for an unhealthy nursing culture.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L M

    1987-05-01

    The concept of participatory management for nurses is based on the premise that nurses' education and experience qualify them for a leading role in the decision making that affects patient care. Rose Medical Center, Denver, initiated a self-governance model in 1980. The Nursing Congress, which is recognized by the board of trustees and the medical executive committee, represents all nursing division employees who have satisfactorily completed the probation period. Its bylaws provide for four officers, three members at large, and representatives from the committees and councils on nursing standards and practice, audit/quality assurance, continuing education and research, career ladders, collaborative practice, human resources, rules and regulations, and bylaws. Since implementing the shared-governance structure, the medical center has documented an annual attrition rate of less than 12 percent, a significant 5-year retention rate, and above-average satisfaction with working conditions. Nursing administrators who seek to improve the working conditions that influence staff retention must avoid thinking that relegates nurses to second-class status and limits their decision-making capacity. This does not mean, however, ignoring the fact that organizational change can be threatening to some individuals. Participatory management models can help nurses translate existing skills into strengths, enabling them to view change as a catalyst for improved conditions. Nursing shortages themselves are not the problem but rather a symptom of the problem, an unhealthy nursing culture. Unless leaders step forward to push for change, the shortage of qualified, talented nurses will persist. PMID:10281759

  7. Presenteeism--unhealthy extra presence in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska, Karolina

    2014-01-01

    Modifications of working conditions and difficult labour market situation have an influence on employee's health status. Consequently, new psychological phenomena can be observed in the workplace. One of them is presenteeism (sickness presence), i.e. situation when sick employee is present at work. It is associated with the decrease of productivity. The symptoms have an effect on work, its quality and amount by decreasing the productivity, generating the possibilities to make mistakes and distracting the employee from work. In case of the infectious diseases, there is a risk of disease transmission to colleagues and close contacts. Presenteeism can be defined as 'unhealthy officiousness'. It may frequently result from uncertainty, decreased possibilities for finding new work, activities aimed at reducing the absenteeism (especially sickness absenteeism) and associated costs. From the studies transpires that hidden costs of presenteeism exceed the costs of treatment, absenteeism and disability. The chronic presenteeism results in decreasing employee's productivity and potential disability. Initial pilot studies confirm that presenteeism is also observed in Poland. Thus, there is a necessity to conduct further studies on presence of sick employees in the workplace. PMID:25004636

  8. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia. PMID:27553980

  9. The Relationship bBetween Health and Fitness Magazine Reading and Eating-Disordered Weight-Loss Methods among High School Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.; Weber, Michele M.; Brown, Lora Beth

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between reading women's health and fitness magazines and using eating disordered diet methods (laxatives, appetite suppressants/diet pills, vomiting, and over-restricting calories) among adolescent high school girls. Student surveys found positive associations between reading frequency and use of unhealthy weight…

  10. Does maternal history of eating disorders predict mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating?

    PubMed

    de Barse, Lisanne M; Tharner, Anne; Micali, Nadia; Jaddoe, Vincent V W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning; Jansen, Pauline W

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to examine whether a maternal history of eating disorders predicted mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating patterns. Data were available from 4851 mothers and their children, who participated in a Dutch population-based cohort study (the Generation R Study). Maternal history of lifetime eating disorders was assessed during pregnancy using a self-report questionnaire. Mothers filled out the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire when children were four years old. Linear regression analyses were performed, adjusting for potential confounders. Of all mothers, 8.6% had a history of an eating disorder (2.5% anorexia nervosa (AN); 3.9% bulimia nervosa (BN); 2.2% both AN and BN). Compared to mothers without a history of eating disorders, mothers with a history of eating disorders, in particular AN, used less pressuring feeding strategies (standardized B = -0.30; 95% CI: -0.49, -0.11). Children of mothers with a history of AN had relatively high levels of emotional overeating (standardized B = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.39). Maternal history of BN was not related to mothers' feeding practices or children's emotional eating. Overall, the levels of emotional overeating among children of mothers with a history of eating disorders are noteworthy, particularly considering the young age (4 years) of participating children. This finding may reflect an effect of maternal eating disorders on the development of disordered eating patterns, but could also be subject to mothers' perception. PMID:25450896

  11. Promoting Healthy Eating Attitudes Among Uninsured Primary Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Tabler, Jennifer; Nourian, Maziar M; Jess, Allison; Stephens, Tamara; Aguilera, Guadalupe; Wright, Lindsey; Ashby, Jeanie

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is associated with a number of chronic health problems such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. While common prevention and treatment strategies to control unhealthy weight gain tend to target behaviors and lifestyles, the psychological factors which affect eating behaviors among underserved populations also need to be further addressed and included in practice implementations. The purpose of this study is to examine positive and negative emotional valence about food among underserved populations in a primary care setting. Uninsured primary care patients (N = 621) participated in a self-administered survey from September to December in 2015. Higher levels of perceived benefits of healthy food choice were associated with lower levels of a negative emotional valence about food while higher levels of perceived barriers to healthy food choice are related to higher levels of a negative emotional valence about food. Greater acceptance of motivation to eat was associated with higher levels of positive and negative emotional valence about food. Spanish speakers reported greater acceptance of motivation to eat and are more likely to have a negative emotional valence about food than US born or non-US born English speakers. The results of this study have important implications to promote healthy eating among underserved populations at a primary care setting. Healthy food choice or healthy eating may not always be achieved by increasing knowledge. Psychological interventions should be included to advance healthy food choice. PMID:26831483

  12. Beliefs about eating and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G Terence; Perrin, Nancy A; Rosselli, Francine; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Debar, Lynn L; Kraemer, Helena C

    2009-08-01

    Beliefs about foods and binge eating may influence the development and maintenance of eating disorders and the likelihood that people will seek treatment. We found that the majority of a random sample of members of a large health maintenance organization considered binge eating a problem for which there are effective treatments. Self-reported binge eaters, however, were significantly less likely to agree that there are effective treatments. Two thirds of the sample reported that certain foods are addictive and also believed that strict dieting is an effective means of reducing binge eating. Therapeutic implications of these attitudes are discussed. PMID:19665098

  13. Eating habits, physical activity, consumption of substances and eating disorders in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Quiles-Marcos, Yolanda; Balaguer-Solá, Isabel; Pamies-Aubalat, Lidia; Quiles-Sebastián, María José; Marzo-Campos, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between adolescents with a high or low risk of developing an eating disorder (ED) in different health behaviors (eating habits, physical activity and the consumption of substances) per gender. The EAT-40 and the Inventory of Behavioral Health in Scholars were applied to 2142 middle school students from Alicante (Spain), of whom 52.8% were girls and 47.2% were boys, with an average age of 13.92 years old (Sd = 1.34). Results indicated that girls with a high risk of developing an ED consumed fewer meals, ate fewer unhealthy foods, followed more diets and paid more attention to nutritional components. Furthermore, they also performed more physical activity with the objective of losing weight, and consumed more tobacco, alcohol and medicines. Boys at high risk of developing an ED followed more diets and paid more attention to nutritional components. For boys, no more differences were found. These results suggest that any program directed at the prevention of ED should not only include nutritional education, but should also seek to promote regular physical activity with objectives other than weight loss or the burning of calories. PMID:22059317

  14. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and men also are vulnerable. Boys with eating disorders show the same types of ... as girls, but for a variety of reasons, boys are less likely to be diagnosed with what ...

  15. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  16. Tracheostomy tube - eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000464.htm Tracheostomy tube - eating To use the sharing features on ... when you swallow foods or liquids. Eating and Tracheostomy Tubes When you get your tracheostomy tube, or ...

  17. Eating right during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000584.htm Eating right during pregnancy To use the sharing features on ... is hard work for a woman's body. Eating right is one of the best things you can ...

  18. Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviors Related to Eating Out among University Students in China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Huang, Wenjie; Bai, Ruixue; Zhang, Fan; Sharma, Manoj; Shi, Zumin; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Abdullah, Abu S.; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In many countries the frequency of eating out has steadily increased over the last few decades, and this behavioris often associated with unhealthy dietary patterns. This study aimed to describe the levels of knowledge, attitude, and behaviors (KAB) related to eating out among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the college town in Chongqing, China with a total of 1634 participants. The mean eating out related KAB scores were: knowledge 11.5 ± 2.9, attitude 17.0 ± 2.8, and behaviors 24.2 ± 4.8 (possible total scores: 20, 24, 40 respectively). As the level of knowledge increased, the percentage of highly satisfactory attitude and behaviors increased. Only 10% of the participants did not eat out for lunch and dinner during weekends in the last month. Gender, ethnicity, mother’s education, monthly boarding expenses, living place during the study, and the frequency of eating out for breakfast were statistically associated with the scores of KAB. In conclusion, Chinese junior students had poor knowledge of and behaviors towards eating out and ate out frequently. Educational interventionsto improve knowledge related eating out are needed in order to promote healthy eating out behaviors among Chinese university students. PMID:27420075

  19. Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviors Related to Eating Out among University Students in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Huang, Wenjie; Bai, Ruixue; Zhang, Fan; Sharma, Manoj; Shi, Zumin; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Abdullah, Abu S; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In many countries the frequency of eating out has steadily increased over the last few decades, and this behavioris often associated with unhealthy dietary patterns. This study aimed to describe the levels of knowledge, attitude, and behaviors (KAB) related to eating out among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the college town in Chongqing, China with a total of 1634 participants. The mean eating out related KAB scores were: knowledge 11.5 ± 2.9, attitude 17.0 ± 2.8, and behaviors 24.2 ± 4.8 (possible total scores: 20, 24, 40 respectively). As the level of knowledge increased, the percentage of highly satisfactory attitude and behaviors increased. Only 10% of the participants did not eat out for lunch and dinner during weekends in the last month. Gender, ethnicity, mother's education, monthly boarding expenses, living place during the study, and the frequency of eating out for breakfast were statistically associated with the scores of KAB. In conclusion, Chinese junior students had poor knowledge of and behaviors towards eating out and ate out frequently. Educational interventionsto improve knowledge related eating out are needed in order to promote healthy eating out behaviors among Chinese university students. PMID:27420075

  20. Derailing the streetcar named desire. Cognitive distractions reduce individual differences in cravings and unhealthy snacking in response to palatable food.

    PubMed

    van Dillen, Lotte F; Andrade, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    People who are sensitive to food temptations are prone to weight gain and obesity in food-rich environments. Understanding the factors that drive their desire to eat is key to limiting their reactions to available food. This study tested whether individual differences in sensitivity to hedonic food cues are cognitively based and, accordingly, can be regulated by blocking cognitive resources. To this end, one lab study (Study 1; N = 91) and one field study (Study 2; N = 63) measured sensitivity to hedonic food cues using the Power of Food Scale (PFS; Lowe et al., 2009) and assessed participants' appetitive responses to high-calorie food options. To test the role of cognitive elaboration of food cues, participants completed a menu-selection task to induce food cravings and then were free to elaborate those cravings (control group) or were blocked from doing so by cognitive distraction (playing Tetris, solving puzzles; experimental group). Compared to non-sensitive participants, sensitive participants displayed a greater attentional bias to high-calorie food (Study 1), reported stronger cravings (Study 2), and more often chose an unhealthy snack (Studies 1 & 2), but only when they had not been distracted. When distracted, all participants were similarly unresponsive to high-calorie food. This finding suggests that temptation can be effectively controlled by blocking people's cognitive resources, even for people highly sensitive to hedonic food cues. PMID:26375358

  1. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Urban Adolescents’ Technology Use and Cravings for Unhealthy Snacks and Drinks: Differences by Ethnicity and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Borgogna, Nicholas; Lockhart, Ginger; Grenard, Jerry L.; Barrett, Tyson; Shiffman, Saul; Reynolds, Kim D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Adolescents’ technology use is generally associated with food cravings, but it is not clear whether specific types of technology elicit particular types of cravings, and whether personal characteristics play a role in these associations. We examined whether momentary associations between four technology types (television, video games, computer messaging, and phone messaging) and cravings for unhealthy snack foods and sweetened drinks were moderated by youths’ gender, ethnicity, BMI, and age. Methods Urban adolescents (N=158) aged 14–17 provided momentary information about their technology use and food cravings over the course of one week and completed survey reports of their personal characteristics. We used multilevel modeling to determine momentary associations and interactions. Results Non-Hispanic adolescents showed stronger associations between television exposure and cravings for sweet snacks, salty snacks, and sweetened drinks. Being Hispanic was associated with stronger associations between phone messaging and cravings for sweet snacks, salty snacks, and sweetened drinks. Males showed stronger associations between video game use and salty snack cravings. Conclusions As the public health field continues to monitor the effects of technology use on adolescents’ eating and overall health, it will be important to determine the extent to which these groups are differentially affected by different forms of technology. PMID:25482855

  2. The Unique and Additive Associations of Family Functioning and Parenting Practices with Disordered Eating Behaviors in Diverse Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the unique and additive associations of family functioning and parenting practices with adolescent disordered eating behaviors (i.e., dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors, binge eating). Methods Data from EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens) 2010, a population-based study assessing eating and activity among racially/ethnically and socio-economically diverse adolescents (n = 2,793; mean age = 14.4, SD = 2.0; age range = 11–19) was used. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between adolescent dieting and disordered eating behaviors and family functioning and parenting variables, including interactions. All analyses controlled for demographics and body mass index. Results Higher family functioning, parent connection, and parental knowledge about child’s whereabouts (e.g. who child is with, what they are doing, where they are at) were significantly associated with lower odds of engaging in dieting and disordered eating behaviors in adolescents, while parent psychological control was associated with greater odds of engaging in dieting and disordered eating behaviors. Although the majority of interactions were non-significant, parental psychological control moderated the protective relationship between family functioning and disordered eating behaviors in adolescent girls. Conclusions Clinicians and health care providers may want to discuss the importance of balancing specific parenting behaviors, such as increasing parent knowledge about child whereabouts while decreasing psychological control in order to enhance the protective relationship between family functioning and disordered eating behaviors in adolescents. PMID:23196919

  3. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... from a weight-loss program that also offers treatment for eating disorders. However, some people with binge eating disorder may ... disorder should get help from a specialist in eating disorders, such as a psychiatrist or a psychologist. Treatment may include the use of behavior change therapy, ...

  4. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Binge Eating Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Binge Eating Disorder Print A A A Text Size What's in ... takes a combination of things to develop an eating disorder — including a person's genes, emotions, and behaviors (such ...

  5. Eating disorder symptoms pre- and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Cecilia Brundin; Zandian, Modjtaba; Clinton, David

    2016-08-01

    The study aimed to investigate symptoms of disordered eating pre- and postpartum using a standardised and widely used measure of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology. A consecutive series of women attending either prenatal (N = 426) or postnatal (N = 345) clinics in metropolitan Stockholm were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Assessments were conducted at either the first visit to prenatal clinics (10-12 weeks of pregnancy) or 6 to 8 months postpartum. An optimised shortened version of the EDE-Q was best suited for studying eating disorders pre- and postpartum. Using the optimised version of the instrument with 14 items and a cut-off score of ≥2.8, it was estimated that 5.3 % of prepartum and 12.8 % of postpartum mothers were suffering from clinical eating disorders. Seriously disordered eating behaviour during, and especially after, pregnancy may be more common than previously thought. It is imperative that health services focus increased attention on these problems by raising awareness, developing and extending specialist services, as well as through implementing educational programmes and training directed toward frontline healthcare services. PMID:26961005

  6. Predictive Effects of Mother and Peer Influences on Increases in Adolescent Eating Disorder Risk Factors and Symptoms: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Linville, Deanna; Stice, Eric; Gau, Jeff; O'Neil, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation of maternal and peer attitudes and behaviors to changes in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms in adolescent females. Method We tested whether maternal and peer eating attitudes, behaviors, and deficits in social support at baseline predicted subsequent increases in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms among 483 late adolescent females followed over 3 years. Results Data provide partial support for hypotheses, as eating disorder risk factors and symptoms increased over time and maternal thin ideal internalization significantly predicted a future increases in adolescent bulimic symptoms. There were no significant predictors of adolescent thin ideal internalization or body dissatisfaction. Discussion Findings only partially support the hypothesis that unhealthy attitudes and behaviors of mothers increase risk for eating disorder symptoms in their late adolescent daughters. These results underscore why eating disorder prevention programs should be based on risk factor research that has used prospective and rigorous designs. PMID:21344465

  7. Eating Disorders: Symptoms and Warning Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... from diuretic abuse severe dehydration from purging Binge Eating Disorder frequently eating large amounts of food (binge-eating) ... can lead to more binge-eating Read More "Eating Disorders" Articles Understanding Eating Disorders: Anorexia, Bulemia, and Binge- ...

  8. [The treatment of binge eating disorder - a review].

    PubMed

    Papp, Ildikó; Szumska, Irena; Túry, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    The binge eating disorder is a relatively new type of eating disorders, which was first described in 1992, and became a distinct nosological entity in the system of DSM-5 in 2013. Its central symptom is the binge, which is not followed by compensatory behaviours as in bulimia nervosa. Therefore, the patients are generally obese. The prevalence of the disorder is 1-3% in the general population, but much higher in help-seeking obese subjects. The two main goals of the therapy is body weight reduction, and the cessation of binges. In the pharmacotherapy of binge eating disorder the antidepressants are recommended mainly in the case of unsuccessful psychotherapy, and in treating comorbid depression. In the field of psychotherapy data are available mainly on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy, dialectic behaviour therapy, behavioural weight loss, and interpersonal therapy. Effectivity studies on new therapeutic methods and treatment combinations are needed as well as long term follow-up studies. PMID:26471029

  9. Eating disorders in males.

    PubMed

    Robb, Adelaide S; Dadson, Michele J

    2002-04-01

    Eating disorders are one of the rare psychiatric disorders with a large preponderance of female patients. The other articles in this issue review eating disorders in children and adolescents and focus primarily on female patients. This article reviews the eating disorders that occur in male children and teenagers, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder named muscle dysmorphobia, and obesity. This article reviews subgroups of boys who are at higher risk for developing eating disorders. The article commences with the difference in male perceptions of body image and dieting behaviors. PMID:12109328

  10. [Eating disorders in men].

    PubMed

    Bak, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Despite of being perceived as 'woman's diseases', eating disorders were described among boys and adult men. This article presents epidemiological data on anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder in men. The clinical presentation of eating disorders in men was described and compared with similar data from the female population. Moreover, a significance of selected risk factors, specifically those referring to men, was discussed. These are: the disturbance of body perception, personality traits and potential association of eating disorders with sexual orientation. Efficacy of different psychotherapy approaches aimed at eating disorders was summarized. Rules governing psychotherapy of men suffering from eating disorders were described. Specific features of eating disorders' aetiology were taken into account together with characteristic difficulties influencing treatment. PMID:19697523

  11. Preadolescent Disordered Eating Predicts Subsequent Eating Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Carolyn M.; Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This article tested whether disordered eating in the spring of sixth grade can be predicted by the behaviors of fifth grade elementary school children. Method Measurements of disordered eating were collected from 1906 children (mean age = 10.86 years) at Time 1 (spring of fifth grade), Time 2 (fall of sixth grade), and Time 3 (spring of sixth grade). Results A number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating during the previous 2 weeks: 12.1% reported objective binge episodes, 4.8% reported purging food, and 9.8% reported restricting food intake. These behaviors predicted disordered eating during the spring of sixth grade. In addition, fifth grade pubertal onset predicted higher levels of restricting for girls. Conclusion A substantial number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating behaviors, and these behaviors predicted disordered eating behaviors in the spring of sixth grade. Disordered eating can be studied at least as early as fifth grade. PMID:22961314

  12. Health behaviour, risk awareness and emotional well-being in students from Eastern Europe and Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, A; Wardle, J

    2001-12-01

    Life expectancy and other indices of health have deteriorated markedly in the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe over recent decades. The possible roles of lifestyles, knowledge about health and behaviour, emotional wellbeing and perceptions of control were assessed in a cross-sectional survey of young adults of similar educational status in Eastern and Western Europe. As part of the European Health and Behaviour Survey, data were collected in 1989-1991 from 4170 university students aged 18-30 years from Austria, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland, and from 2293 students from the German Democratic Republic, Hungary and Poland. Measures were obtained of health behaviours, awareness of the role of lifestyle factors in health, depression, social support, health locus of control, and the value placed on health. After adjustment for age and sex, East European students had less healthy lifestyles than Western Europeans according to a composite index of 11 health behaviours, with significant differences for seven activities: regular exercise, drinking alcohol, avoiding dietary fat, eating fibre, adding salt to food, wearing a seat-belt, and using sunscreen protection. East European students were less likely to be aware of the relationship between lifestyle factors (smoking, exercise, fat and salt consumption) and cardiovascular disease risk. In addition, they were more depressed (adjusted odds of elevated scores on the Beck Depression Inventory of 2.46, 95% C.I. 1.95-3.09), reported lower social support, and had higher beliefs in the "chance" and "powerful others" locus of control. Internal locus of control levels did not differ across regions, and Eastern Europeans placed a higher valuation on their health. Unhealthy lifestyles associated with lack of information about health and behaviour, greater beliefs in uncontrollable influences, and diminished emotional well-being, may contribute to poor health status in Eastern

  13. Screening and Brief Intervention for Unhealthy Drug Use: Little or No Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Saitz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy drug use ranges from use that risks health harms through severe drug use disorders. This narrative review addresses whether screening and brief intervention (SBI), efficacious for risky alcohol use, has efficacy for reducing other drug use and consequences. Brief intervention among those seeking help shows some promise. Screening tools have been validated though most are neither brief nor simple enough for use in general health settings. Several randomized trials have tested the efficacy of brief intervention for unhealthy drug use identified by screening in general health settings (i.e., in people not seeking help for their drug use). Substantial evidence now suggests that efficacy is limited or non-existent. Reasons likely include a range of actual and perceived severity (or lack of severity), concomitant unhealthy alcohol use and comorbid mental health conditions, and the wide range of types of unhealthy drug use (e.g., from marijuana, to prescription drugs, to heroin). Although brief intervention may have some efficacy for unhealthy drug users seeking help, the model of SBI that has effects in primary care settings on risky alcohol use may not be efficacious for other drug use. PMID:25228887

  14. A descriptive narrative of healthy eating: a social marketing approach using psychographics in conjunction with interpersonal, community, mass media and new media activities.

    PubMed

    Dutta-Bergman, Mohar J

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the profile of healthy and unhealthy eating consumers in terms of demographic, psychographic and communicative variables. Data from 3,388 respondents to the 1999 DDB Needham Life Style Study were analyzed. The results show the healthy eaters to be environmentally conscious and health-oriented, suggesting an underlying theme of personal and social responsibility. The communicative activities of healthy eaters demonstrate an information orientation while unhealthy eaters are more entertainment oriented. Practical and social implications are discussed for social marketers regarding target segmentation and message design. PMID:15018003

  15. [Why do men eat how they eat? : Considerations from a nutritional- and gender-sociological perspective].

    PubMed

    Büning-Fesel, Margareta; Rückert-John, Jana

    2016-08-01

    There are nutritional differences between the sexes: eating behavior in men is often rated as "unhealthy" compared with that in women. Nutrition in men and women is rather more of an expression of social gender roles and expectations than biologically determined. Meat and alcohol, for instance, are regarded as "powerful" foods and thus have masculine connotations. Fruit and vegetables, on the other hand, are considered "weak" and therefore feminine foods. This overlooks the fact that a "typically" female diet is often oriented toward attractiveness and is associated with restricted eating behavior. The so-called "healthier" nutrition of women is also accompanied by greater nutritional knowledge and competence. However, it needs to be questioned whether male family or household members are absolved from responsibility for their own health or whether they are happy to leave this to women because of the socially perceived feminine responsibility for all aspects of nutrition, sustenance and care-giving. The advanced knowledge and competence of women in questions of healthy eating and food preparation compared with men often act as an obstacle to men engaging and actively participating in nutritional issues.Emphasizing the observed gender differences is not expedient in terms of effective communication on nutrition and health and can run the risk of reproducing gender stereotypes and neglecting other more powerful social categories. Alternative strategies consist of focusing more on the "eating person" and following a gender-neutral communication and counseling strategy. PMID:27334501

  16. Emotional eating moderates the relationship of night eating with binge eating and body mass.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Allison, Kelly C; Platte, Petra

    2014-03-01

    Night eating syndrome is marked by substantial evening or nocturnal food intake, insomnia, morning anorexia, and depressed mood. Night eating severity has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI), binge eating frequency, and emotional eating tendencies. We conducted an online questionnaire study among students (N=729) and explored possible interactive effects between those variables. Night eating severity, binge eating frequency, BMI and emotional eating were all positively correlated with each other. Regression analyses showed that night eating severity was particularly related to more frequent binge episodes and higher BMI at high levels of emotional eating but unrelated to those variables at low levels of emotional eating. Thus, eating as a means of emotion regulation appears to be an important moderator of the relationship between night eating and both binge eating and BMI. PMID:24293184

  17. Atypical eating disorder in a male patient.

    PubMed

    Bailer, U; De Zwaan, M; Kasper, S

    1999-01-01

    In the literature there is evidence that a substantial proportion of patients with bulimia nervosa can be helped by cognitive behavioural self-help manuals. As there are no specific recommendations or strategies for the treatment of males with eating disorders we were therefore especially interested in the way a man might deal with such a self-help manual. In this case the book Getting better bit(e) by bit(e) by Treasure and Schmidt (also available in German translation) was given to a young man with an atypical eating disorder (atypical anorexia nervosa according to ICD-10). The patient was offered a maximum of 16 short visits and was seen by a first-year psychiatry resident. Treatment with this self-help manual was effective and the patient succeeded in changing his former eating behaviour. The case report provides preliminary evidence that a self-help manual may be a useful addition to the range of possible interventions in the treatment of eating disorders in men. Self-help manuals are less intensive and less costly than other forms of treatment and might be the lowest-step intervention in a stepped-care approach to treatment. PMID:24941097

  18. The night-eating syndrome and obesity.

    PubMed

    Gallant, A R; Lundgren, J; Drapeau, V

    2012-06-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity is a global concern. Eating behaviour and circadian rhythm are proving to be important factors in the aetiology of obesity. The night-eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by increased late-night eating, insomnia, a depressed mood and distress. It is evident that prevalence is higher among weight-related populations than the general community. The exact relationship between this syndrome and obesity remains unclear. The reasons for the discrepancies found in the literature likely include varying diagnostic criteria and a wide range of study population characteristics. NES does not always lead to weight gain in thus certain individuals may be susceptible to night-eating-related weight gain. Weight loss through surgical and behavioural treatments has shown success in diminishing symptoms. The increasing literature associating obesity with circadian imbalances strengthens the link between the NES and obesity. Circadian genes may play a role in this syndrome. This review will examine different aspects of obesity in the context of the NES. PMID:22222118

  19. Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…

  20. Sleep restriction increases the neuronal response to unhealthy food in normal-weight individuals

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, M-P; Wolfe, S; Sy, M; Shechter, A; Hirsch, J

    2013-01-01

    Context Sleep restriction alters responses to food. However, the underlying neural mechanisms for this effect are not well understood. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a neural system that is preferentially activated in response to unhealthy compared with healthy foods. Participants Twenty-five normal-weight individuals, who normally slept 7–9 h per night, completed both phases of this randomized controlled study. Intervention Each participant was tested after a period of five nights of either 4 or 9 h in bed. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in the fasted state, presenting healthy and unhealthy food stimuli and objects in a block design. Neuronal responses to unhealthy, relative to healthy food stimuli after each sleep period were assessed and compared. Results After a period of restricted sleep, viewing unhealthy foods led to greater activation in the superior and middle temporal gyri, middle and superior frontal gyri, left inferior parietal lobule, orbitofrontal cortex, and right insula compared with healthy foods. These same stimuli presented after a period of habitual sleep did not produce marked activity patterns specific to unhealthy foods. Further, food intake during restricted sleep increased in association with a relative decrease in brain oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activity observed in the right insula. Conclusion This inverse relationship between insula activity and food intake and enhanced activation in brain reward and food-sensitive centers in response to unhealthy foods provides a model of neuronal mechanisms relating short sleep duration to obesity. PMID:23779051

  1. [Comorbidity of eating disorders and bipolar affective disorders].

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Katarzyna; Rybakowski, Filip

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders--anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) occur usually in young females. The significant pathogenic differences between patients who only restrict food, and patients with binge eating and compensatory behaviours, such as vomiting and purging were described. The prevalence of bipolar affective disorders--especially bipolar II and bipolar spectrum disorders (BS) may reach 5% in the general population. About half of the depressive episodes are associated with a "mild" bipolar disorder, and such a diagnosis is suggested by impulsivity and mood-instability. Previously, majority of research on the comorbidity between eating and affective disorders focused on depressive symptomatology, however difficulties in the reliable assessment of hypomania may obfuscate the estimation of the co-occurrence of eating disorders with BS. Epidemiological studies suggest the association between BS and eating disorders with binge episodes (bulimia nervosa, anorexia- bulimic type and EDNOS with binge episodes). Co-occurrence of such disorders with depressive symptoms probably suggests the diagnosis of BS, not recurrent depression. Bulimic behaviours, impulsivity and affective disorders might be related to the impairment of the serotonergic neurotransmission, which may result from the genetic vulnerability and early life trauma. Currently, the first-line pharmacological treatment of co-occurring eating disorders with binge episodes and BS are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. However in some cases, the use of mood-stabilising agents as monotherapy or in combination with serotonergic drugs may be helpful. PMID:17037812

  2. Influence of Peers and Friends on Children’s and Adolescents’ Eating and Activity Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Bowker, Julie C.; Hermans, Roel C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity during childhood and adolescence is a growing problem in the United States, Canada, and around the world that leads to significant physical, psychological, and social consequences. Peer experiences have been theoretically and empirically related to the “Big Two” contributors to the obesity epidemic, unhealthy eating and physical inactivity [1]. In this article, we synthesize the empirical literature on the influence of peers and friends on youth’s eating and physical activity. Limitations and issues in the theoretical and empirical literatures are also discussed, along with future research directions. In conclusion, we argue that the involvement of children’s and adolescents’ peer networks in prevention and intervention efforts may be critical for promoting and maintaining positive behavioral health trajectories. However, further theoretical and empirical work is needed to better understand the specific mechanisms underlying the effects of peers on youth’s eating and physical activity. PMID:22480733

  3. What is the public appetite for healthy eating policies? Evidence from a cross-European survey.

    PubMed

    Mazzocchi, Mario; Cagnone, Silvia; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Niedźwiedzka, Barbara; Saba, Anna; Shankar, Bhavani; Verbeke, Wim; Traill, W Bruce

    2015-07-01

    World Health Organization estimates that obesity accounts for 2-8% of health care costs in different parts of Europe, and highlights a key role for national policymaking in curbing the epidemic. A variety of healthy-eating policy instruments are available, ranging from more paternalistic policies to those less intrusive. Our aim is to measure and explain the level of public support for different types of healthy eating policy in Europe, based on data from a probabilistic sample of 3003 respondents in five European countries. We find that the main drivers of policy support are attitudinal factors, especially attribution of obesity to excessive availability of unhealthy foods, while socio-demographic characteristics and political preferences have little explanatory power. A high level of support for healthy eating policy does not translate into acceptance of higher taxes to fund them, however. PMID:25170630

  4. [The perception of values in food commercials on the part of young people with and without eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Mas-Manchón, Lluís; Rodríguez-Bravo, Ángel; Montoya-Vilar, Norminanda; Morales-Morante, Fernando; Lopes, Elaine; Añaños, Elena; Peres, Rafaella; Martínez, María Eugenia; Grau, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    Advertising uses stereotyped body images to promote physical ideals and unhealthy eating habits related to food products which are targeted especially at young people. The purpose of this study, carried out in Barcelona (Spain) in May 2013, was to test the perception of 139 young people of university age - with and without eating disorders - regarding 25 values in seven food commercials that did and did not use body image strategies. Results show that only the group of young people with eating disorders considered commercials using body image strategies to have a very negative influence on values such as health, well-being, family and effort. In contrast, the assessment of the two groups regarding the rest of the commercials greatly coincided. These results show that today’s university youth have accepted as normal a beauty canon based on the prevailing social and economic order, while young people in treatment for eating disorders have learned to denaturalize such messages. PMID:26418097

  5. Using food to soothe: Maternal attachment anxiety is associated with child emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Christiansen, Paul; Wilkinson, Laura L

    2016-04-01

    Attachment anxiety (fear of abandonment) is associated with disinhibited eating in adults. Both maternal disinhibited eating and use of emotional feedings strategies are associated with emotional eating in children. On this basis, the current study sought to determine whether attachment anxiety is an underlying maternal characteristic that predicts parental reports of child emotional over-eating via its effects on maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding. Mothers of a preadolescent child (N = 116) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire. Maternal attachment anxiety and dietary disinhibition were assessed by the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, respectively. The Parental Feeding Strategies Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire were used to quantify emotional feeding and child emotional over-eating, respectively. Bias-corrected bootstrapping indicated a significant direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating (i.e., controlling for maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding). There was also a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating via emotional feeding strategies. In a subsequent model to investigate bi-directional relationships, the direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies was not statistically significant after controlling for child emotional over-eating. There was, however, a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies via child emotional over-eating. These findings highlight the influence of maternal attachment anxiety on parental reports of aberrant eating behaviour in children. While this may be partly due to use of emotional feeding strategies, there is stronger evidence for a "child-responsive" model whereby anxiously-attached mothers use these feeding practices in response to perceived

  6. Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults with Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Passananti, V.; Siniscalchi, M.; Zingone, F.; Bucci, C.; Tortora, R.; Iovino, P.; Ciacci, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2), and Symptom Check List (SCL-90). Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC. PMID:24369457

  7. Body Image, Anthropometric Measures, and Eating-Disorder Prevalence in Auxiliary Unit Members

    PubMed Central

    Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Green, James M; Leeper, James D; Leaver-Dunn, Deidre; Richardson, Mark; Bishop, Phillip A

    2009-01-01

    auxiliary unit members may have an unacceptable prevalence of eating disorders. Our results validate concerns that auxiliary members may exhibit an unacceptable eating-disorder risk, highlighting the need to examine and address unhealthy weight-management behaviors independent of eating-disorder status. PMID:19593425

  8. Dialectical behaviour therapy and an added cognitive behavioural treatment module for eating disorders in women with borderline personality disorder and anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa who failed to respond to previous treatments. An open trial with a 15-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Christoph; Schweiger, Ulrich; Sipos, Valerija; Kliem, Sören; Arnold, Ruediger; Schunert, Tanja; Reinecker, Hans

    2010-12-01

    There is evidence from case studies suggesting that adapted dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and eating disorders (ED) might improve disorder related complaints. Twenty-four women with BPD (9 with comorbid anorexia nervosa [AN] and 15 with bulimia nervosa [BN]), who already had failed to respond to previous eating-disorder related inpatient treatments were consecutively admitted to an adapted inpatient DBT program. Assessment points were at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 15-month follow-up. At follow-up, the remission rate was 54% for BN, and 33% for AN. Yet 44% of women with AN crossed over to BN and one woman additionally met the criteria of AN. For women with AN, the mean weight was not significantly increased at post-treatment, but had improved at follow-up. For women with BN, the frequency of binge-eating episodes was reduced at post-treatment as well as at follow-up. Self-rated eating-related complaints and general psychopathology, as well as ratings on global psychosocial functioning, were significantly improved at post-treatment and at follow-up. Although these findings support the assumption that the adapted DBT inpatient program is a potentially efficacious treatment for those who failed to respond to previous eating-disorder related inpatient treatments, remission rates and maintained eating-related psychopathology also suggest that this treatment needs further improvement. PMID:20444442

  9. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  10. Eating Disorders among Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks, George

    1987-01-01

    Case examples are presented of typical pressures felt by aerobic dance instructors, cheerleaders and majorettes, and wrestlers to illustrate how they may become susceptible to eating disorders. Suggestions are presented for coaches, parents, and administrators in preventing or intervening in eating disorders among athletes. (CB)

  11. Eating Disturbances and Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonderlich, Stephen; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studies the relationship between incest and bulimic behavior. Indicates incest victims are significantly more likely to binge, vomit, experience a loss of control over eating, and report body dissatisfaction than control subjects. Suggests incest may increase risk of bulimic behavior, and that eating problems may be a part of a larger pattern of…

  12. Wilderness Eating Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Proper nutrition and eating habits are critical components when facilitating safe, enjoyable expeditions. The author asserts that outdoor leaders must be diligent in overseeing the health of their participants through proper nutrition. Leaders in training with a history of eating issues face a special challenge. The author discusses how these…

  13. Beat (Beat Eating Disorders).

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    This charity website provides a comprehensive range of information on eating disorders. There is an overview section about different types of eating disorders, which is in clear and easily understood terms, giving readers the option to seek more detailed information. PMID:26419568

  14. Boys with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

  15. Adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook.

    PubMed

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Al-Shagga, Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi; Yadav, Hematram; Arokiasamy, John T

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7) years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7). Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P < 0.005). The average hours spent on Facebook were significantly associated with holding urination and defecation while online, surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P < 0.005). The average hours spent on Facebook were associated with adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students, as well as social isolation from the family and community. PMID:24453859

  16. Children's Self-Documentation and Understanding of the Concepts "Healthy" and "Unhealthy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Suzanne; Bell, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The present paper describes a study in which 13 children aged 9-11 years, of diverse ethnic, linguistic, and socio-economic backgrounds, were asked to use a digital camera and small notebook to document the range of things they consider to be healthy and unhealthy. Using open-ended interview questions, the children were then asked to explain each…

  17. The Relationship between Physical, Sexual, and Emotional Abuse and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Amanda G.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cimini, M. Dolores

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between abuse in adult relationships and the tendency to engage in unhealthy weight loss behaviors. Undergraduate women responded to questions regarding weight loss behaviors, whether or not they had recently been in an abusive relationship, and perceived body image. Results indicated that women who had…

  18. Dissociation from beloved unhealthy brands decreases preference for and consumption of vegetables.

    PubMed

    Trump, Rebecca K; Connell, Paul M; Finkelstein, Stacey R

    2015-09-01

    Many people form strong bonds with brands, including those for unhealthy foods. Thus, prompting people to dissociate from beloved but unhealthy food brands is an intuitively appealing means to shift consumption away from unhealthy options and toward healthy options. Contrary to this position, we demonstrate that dissociating from unhealthy but beloved brands diminishes people's interest in consuming vegetables because the dissociation depletes self-regulatory resources. Across three experimental studies, we manipulate dissociation from two beloved brands both implicitly (studies 1-2) and explicitly (study 3) and observe effects on both preference for vegetables (studies 2-3) and actual vegetable consumption (study 1). In study 1, participants consumed fewer vegetables following dissociation from (vs. association with) a beloved candy brand. Study 2 demonstrates that the effect of depletion on preference for vegetables is more pronounced for those who strongly identify with the brand, as these individuals are most depleted by the dissociation attempt. Finally, study 3 illustrates that the difficulty experienced when trying to dissociate from beloved brands drives the observed effects on vegetable preference and consumption for those who strongly (vs. weakly) identify with the brand. PMID:26009206

  19. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  20. The Association Between Smoking and Unhealthy Behaviors Among a National Sample of Mexican-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesa, Jacqueline A.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relationship between smoking and participation in unhealthy behaviors among Mexican-American adolescents. Analysis of data from the 1993 Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey indicated that Mexican-American adolescents who smoke may be at higher risk for engaging in behaviors that could compromise their health and safety and for not…

  1. Lifestyle behaviors in metabolically healthy and unhealthy overweight and obese women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To determine whether physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior and/or diet quality differ between metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Methods: Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI =25 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian women 19-35 ...

  2. Adverse Health Effects and Unhealthy Behaviors among Medical Students Using Facebook

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Al-Shagga, Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi; Yadav, Hematram; Arokiasamy, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7) years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7). Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P < 0.005). The average hours spent on Facebook were significantly associated with holding urination and defecation while online, surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P < 0.005). The average hours spent on Facebook were associated with adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students, as well as social isolation from the family and community. PMID:24453859

  3. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P < .05). A multidimensional eating style approach based on the CEBQ is needed to promote healthy eating behaviors in order to prevent excessive weight gain and obesity problems among Malaysian children. PMID:27252248

  4. Eating Competence: Nutrition Education with the Satter Eating Competence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satter, Ellyn

    2007-01-01

    The Satter Eating Competence Model (ecSatter) conceptualizes eating competence as having 4 components: eating attitudes, food acceptance, regulation of food intake and body weight, and management of the eating context (including family meals). According to ecSatter, supporting nutritional health requires establishing and maintaining positive…

  5. Understanding barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and active living in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Rebecca; Connor, Leah; Nelson, Miriam; LaCroix, Andrea; Eldridge, Galen

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Studies demonstrate that people's food and physical activity (PA) environments influence behavior, yet research examining this in rural communities is limited. Methods. Focus groups of 8-15 women were conducted in rural communities in seven US states. Questions were designed to identify factors within residents' food and PA environments they felt helped or hindered them from eating healthfully and being physically active. Results. Participants were aged 30-84 years; mean (SD) = 61 (14) (N = 95). On average, communities had fewer than 5,000 residents. Limited time, social norms, and distances from or lack of exercise facilities were common PA barriers. Facilitators for PA included social support, dog walking, and availability of affordable facilities. Healthy eating barriers included the perception that healthy foods were too expensive; calorically dense large portion sizes served at family meals; and frequency of eating foods away from home, which were perceived as generally unhealthy. Healthy eating supports included culture/value around local food gathering (e.g., hunting and gardening) and preservation (e.g., canning and smoking). Friends and family were frequently identified as key influencers of eating and PA behavior. Conclusions. Targeting both social and built environment factors, particularly those unique to rural locales, may enhance support for healthy eating and PA behavior change interventions. PMID:25574386

  6. A Sensor-Enabled Smartphone Application to Collect Eating Behavior Data for Population Screening.

    PubMed

    Maramis, Christos; Moulos, Ioannis; Ioakeimidis, Ioannis; Nolstam, Jenny; Lekka, Irini; Bergh, Cecilia; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide extent of obesity and eating disorders (ED) today highlights the necessity for efficient treatment, but also early prevention of eating-related diseases. A promising category of therapeutic and preventive interventions comes from the domain of behavioral informatics (BI), whose purpose is to monitor and modify harmful behaviors - unhealthy eating in the particular case - with the help of information and communication technologies. Smartphones have already shown great promise in delivering such BI interventions in the field of obesity and ED. In fact, plenty of smartphone applications aiming to monitor and support the change of eating behavior with the help of built-in or external sensors have been proposed in the scientific literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, no smartphone application up to date has been designed to collect eating behavior data for the purpose of population screening against obesity or ED. In this work we describe a novel, sensor-enabled smartphone application that captures in-meal behavioral data from multiple subjects in a brief data collection process, with the end goal of recording, in detail, the user's eating style throughout a cooked meal. These data can later be employed for assessing the subjects' risk for obesity or ED. The proposed application has undergone preliminary evaluation with respect to its usability and technical soundness, yielding promising results. PMID:27225568

  7. Understanding Barriers and Facilitators to Healthy Eating and Active Living in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, Rebecca; Nelson, Miriam; LaCroix, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Studies demonstrate that people's food and physical activity (PA) environments influence behavior, yet research examining this in rural communities is limited. Methods. Focus groups of 8–15 women were conducted in rural communities in seven US states. Questions were designed to identify factors within residents' food and PA environments they felt helped or hindered them from eating healthfully and being physically active. Results. Participants were aged 30–84 years; mean (SD) = 61 (14) (N = 95). On average, communities had fewer than 5,000 residents. Limited time, social norms, and distances from or lack of exercise facilities were common PA barriers. Facilitators for PA included social support, dog walking, and availability of affordable facilities. Healthy eating barriers included the perception that healthy foods were too expensive; calorically dense large portion sizes served at family meals; and frequency of eating foods away from home, which were perceived as generally unhealthy. Healthy eating supports included culture/value around local food gathering (e.g., hunting and gardening) and preservation (e.g., canning and smoking). Friends and family were frequently identified as key influencers of eating and PA behavior. Conclusions. Targeting both social and built environment factors, particularly those unique to rural locales, may enhance support for healthy eating and PA behavior change interventions. PMID:25574386

  8. Healthy-unhealthy weight and time preference. Is there an association? An analysis through a consumer survey.

    PubMed

    Cavaliere, Alessia; De Marchi, Elisa; Banterle, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Individual time preference has been recognized as key driver in explaining consumers' probability to have a healthy weight or to incur excess weight problems. The term time preference refers to the rate at which a person is disposed to trade a current satisfaction for a future benefit. This characteristic may affect the extent at which individuals invest in health and may influence diet choices. The purpose of this paper is to analyse which could be the role of time preference (measured in terms of diet-related behaviours) in explaining consumers' healthy or unhealthy body weight. The analysis also considers other drivers predicted to influence BMI, specifically information searching, health-related activities and socio-demographic conditions. The survey was based on face-to-face interviews on a sample of 240 consumers living in Milan. In order to test the hypothesis, we performed a set of seven ORM regressions, all having consumers' BMI as the dependent variable. Each ORM contains a different block of explanatory variables, while time preference is always included among the regressors. The results suggest that the healthy weight condition is associated with a high orientation to the future, with a high interest in nutrition claims, a low attention to health-related claims, and a high level of education. On the opposite, the probability to be overweight or obese increases when consumers are less future-concerned and is associated with a low searching for nutrition claims and to a high interest in health claims. PMID:25152435

  9. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  10. Unhealthy Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use are Associated with Decreased Quality of HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    Korthuis, P. Todd; Fiellin, David A.; McGinnis, Kathleen A.; Skanderson, Melissa; Justice, Amy C.; Gordon, Adam J.; Doebler, Donna Almario; Asch, Steven M.; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Bryant, Kendall; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Crystal, Stephen; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Kraemer, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV-infected patients with substance use experience suboptimal health outcomes, possibly to due to variations in care. Objectives To assess the association between substance use and the quality of HIV care (QOC) received. Research Design Retrospective cohort study. Subjects HIV-infected patients enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Measures We collected self-report substance use data and abstracted 9 HIV quality indicators (QIs) from medical records. Independent variables were unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C score ≥4) and illicit drug use (self-report of stimulants, opioids, or injection drug use in past year). Main outcome was the percentage of QIs received, if eligible. We estimated associations between substance use and QOC using multivariable linear regression. Results The majority of the 3,410 patients were male (97.4%) and Black (67.0%) with a mean age of 49.1 years (SD 8.8). Overall, 25.8% reported unhealthy alcohol use, 22% illicit drug use, and participants received 81.5% (SD=18.9) of QIs. The mean percentage of QIs received was lower for those with unhealthy alcohol use vs. not (59.3% vs. 70.0%, p<.001) and those using illicit drugs vs. not (57.8% vs. 70.7%, p<.001). In multivariable models, unhealthy alcohol use (adjusted β −2.74; 95% CI −4.23, −1.25) and illicit drug use (adjusted β −3.51 95% CI −4.99, −2.02) remained inversely associated with the percentage of QIs received. Conclusions Though the overall QOC for these HIV-infected Veteran patients was high, gaps persist for those with unhealthy alcohol and illicit drug use. Interventions that address substance use in HIV-infected patients may improve the QOC received. PMID:22820808

  11. Palatable Eating Motives Scale in a college population: Distribution of scores and scores associated with greater BMI and binge-eating.

    PubMed

    Boggiano, Mary M

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to provide distributive data for the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) on a large (N=1947) ethnically-diverse college student population along with motive scores characteristic of obesity and binge-eating severity. Students completed the PEMS, or a revised version of the PEMS, the Binge Eating Scale, and reported height and weight for a body mass index (BMI). The PEMS identified Coping, Reward Enhancement, Social, and Conformity motives for eating tasty but unhealthy foods for reasons other than hunger. The revised PEMS (included here) had better goodness-of-fit with the motives. Percentile rankings are presented for each of the motive scores. Separate Coping scores are presented for females and males given a modest effect size for females to score higher. Generally, scores on Coping, Reward Enhancement, Conformity, and a total PEMS score in the 70th percentile (those scoring higher than 70% of the sample) were associated with obesity and severe binge-eating. Unlike these motives, Social scores were the highest at each percentile rank but unassociated with BMI or binge-eating, reflecting the culturally-normative intake of these foods for social reasons. These distribution scores on PEMS motives in college students along with scores linked to higher BMI and binge-eating severity represent the first reported data of this type. Knowledge of these scores can be used to individualize and correspondingly improve current strategies aimed at preventing and treating obesity, binge-eating, maladaptive use of food to regulate internal and external pressures, and to improve overall nutritional health. PMID:26826648

  12. Appetite sensations, appetite signaling proteins, and glucose in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Kristi B; Wilson, Shanna L; Ferraro, Zachary M; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Doucet, Eric; Goldfield, Gary S

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to investigate potential differences in appetite sensations, ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose and their relationship with energy and macronutrient intake in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Methods. Fifteen obese adolescents (six and nine individuals with and without subclinical binge eating disorder, resp.) qualified for this study. Visual analog scales and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaires were used to assess eating behaviours. Circulating ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose were measured after fasting and at multiple time points postprandially following a standardized breakfast meal. Energy and macronutrient intake were measured with an ad libitum lunch buffet. Results. Emotional eating scores were significantly higher in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Hunger levels rose and satiety levels fell significantly over the course of the monitoring period but there was no difference between the two groups. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder did not have significantly different levels of appetite signaling proteins or glucose. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder had a nonsignificantly higher energy and macronutrient intake. Conclusions. A significant difference between the two groups in terms of their emotional eating scores highlights the important role that psychological factors play in relation to eating behaviours. PMID:25006530

  13. Eating Disorders in Paraguayan Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the…

  14. The Impact of a Behavioral Weight Management Program on Disordered Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Janicke, David M.; Sallinen, Bethany J.

    2010-01-01

    that behavioral interventions lead to an increase in unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviors. Future research should examine the impact of incorporating eating disorder prevention in pediatric weight management programs. PMID:21034878

  15. Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Main Outcome Measures Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Results Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone. PMID:19594263

  16. A review on eating disorders and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Kandel, I; Merrick, J

    2007-06-01

    Eating disorders in adolescence are a public health concern with both personal costs and a financial burden for the community health services. This paper is a review of incidence and gender differences of eating disorders; comorbid psychopathology, including substance abuse, mood disorders, anxiety disorders and personality disorders; developmental and intellectual factors; family, socio-cultural functioning and birth order; self-injury and suicidal behaviour with health outcome and therapy success rate. We have also asked several questions from our clinical experience and tried to answer them with our clinical knowledge and based on literature review. Overall, there is an indication that therapy success is significantly correlated with (low) manifestation, specifically for social problems and aggressivity. Due to the complexity of factors involved in the manifestation of eating disorders, the inclusion of cognitive-behavioural therapy as well as family-oriented therapeutic concepts coupled with medical treatment would appear to offer an intervention inventory, which would be most effective in offering adolescents optimal treatment programmes. The implications of our review is discussed in terms of psychotherapeutic treatment plans for adolescents in clinical care. PMID:17519869

  17. Are eating habits effective screening indicators for anemia in elderly Japanese people? The Kyushu-Asakura Project (KAP)

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore whether the presence of unhealthy eating habits is an effective indicator of anemia among older people or not. Methods: We used data from a prospective observational cohort study of all users who underwent an annual health checkup at a public clinic in a rural area. The subjects of the present study were 150 users aged 75 years and older who underwent the checkup between January and September 2010. The subjects were first divided by gender and further separated into anemic and non-anemic subgroups according to their estimated anemia prevalences: Hb < 130 g/L for males and Hb < 120 g/L for females. For each category, we compared the subjects’ lifestyles including eating habits between the anemic and non-anemic groups. Results: Both among the women and the men aged 75 and over, there were no significant differences in any items including eating habits between the two anemic subgroups. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the presence of unhealthy eating habits is not an effective indicator of anemia among older people. PMID:26380591

  18. Nutritional advice from George Orwell. Exploring the social mechanisms behind the overconsumption of unhealthy foods by people with low socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Morten H

    2015-08-01

    Despite a general consensus and recognition of the importance of the "social gradient" on nutritional standards and ultimately people's health, (Budrys, 2003; Marmot & Wilkinson, 1999; Marmot et al., 1991; Ross & Wu, 1995), the body of literature identifying and describing the actual underlying social mechanisms which could explain this association is small, fragmented and not contained within one single discipline of thought - the effects of this conundrum seem easier to describe than to explain. The aim of this article is therefore to explore and identify social mechanisms, which could help explain why people with low socio-economic status consume a disproportionate amount of unhealthy foods and therefore also observe poorer diets. It is therefore in many ways an exploration into the nature of (relative) poverty. The point of departure for this exploration and identification is historical descriptions (in the form of excerpts) from George Orwell's (1937) book "The Road to Wigan Pier" on the living conditions of the British working classes. These descriptions will be aligned with results from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour. Strong similarities are identified between George Orwell's historical descriptions of the working-class's unhealthy diet and the findings from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour of people with a low socio-economic status. Certain social mechanisms influencing nutritional choices are readily identifiable across disciplines, and even partly reproduced in different historical, social and spatial contexts, with stronger negative (nutritional) consequences for people with low socio-economic status. The disregard of social mechanisms, and therefore implicitly issues of class, could indicate a general "de-socialization" of nutritional advice also in its dispersal through various health-promotion initiatives and campaigns, which raises serious questions about the usefulness of much nutritional advice, already

  19. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  20. Healthy Eating for Preschoolers

    MedlinePlus

    ... 4 ounces yogurt ¾ ounce cheese 1 string cheese Some foods are easy for your child to choke on while eating. Skip hard, small, whole foods, such as popcorn, nuts, seeds, and hard candy. Cut up foods such ...

  1. Eating during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... minerals, and plenty of water. The U.S. government publishes dietary guidelines that can help you determine how ... canned light tuna, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that you eat no more than ...

  2. Eating during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... eat other fish. Because canned albacore (or white) tuna and tuna steaks are generally considered to be higher in mercury than canned light tuna, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends ...

  3. Eat More, Weigh Less?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Eat More, Weigh Less? ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español (Spanish) ...

  4. Eating Well with Scleroderma

    MedlinePlus

    ... try their best to eat a healthy diet. Malnutrition in scleroderma is caused either by inadequate intake ... chew- ing, swallowing, and/or preparing Symptoms of Malnutrition The following symptoms can also describe the underlying ...

  5. Longitudinal Stability of Binge-Eating Type in Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Carol B.; Swanson, Sonja A.; Crow, Scott J.; Mitchell, James E.; Agras, W. Stewart; Halmi, Katherine A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Berg, Kelly C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the 2-year longitudinal stability of objective bulimic (binge eating) episodes (OBEs) and subjective bulimic (binge eating) episodes (SBEs) in a multisite eating disorders sample. Method Participants included 288 females with eating disorder symptoms who were assessed every 6 months using the Eating Disorder Examination. Results Markov modeling revealed considerable longitudinal variability between types of binge eating over 6-month time intervals with relatively higher probability estimates for consistency between OBEs and SBEs than specific transitions between types for the overall sample as well as for eating disorder diagnostic groups. Transition patterns examining all five time points indicated notable variability in binge-eating patterns among participants. Discussion These findings suggest that although longitudinal patterns of binge types are variable among individuals with eating disorders, consistency in OBEs and SBEs was the most common pattern observed. PMID:22407944

  6. Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L

    2013-05-01

    Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:23756285

  7. Nocturnal Eating: Association with Binge Eating, Obesity, and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Rosselli, Francine; Wilson, G. Terence; Perrin, Nancy; Harvey, Kate; DeBar, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine clinical correlates of nocturnal eating, a core behavioral symptom of night eating syndrome. Method Data from 285 women who had participated in a two-stage screening for binge eating were utilized. Women (n = 41) who reported one or more nocturnal eating episodes in the past 28 days on the Eating Disorder Examination and women who did not report nocturnal eating (n =244) were compared on eating disorder symptomatology, Body Mass Index (BMI), and on measures of psychosocial adjustment. Results Nocturnal eaters were significantly more likely to report binge eating and differed significantly from non-nocturnal eaters (with responses indicating greater disturbance) on weight and shape concern, eating concern, self-esteem, depression, and functional impairment, but not on BMI or dietary restraint. Group differences remained significant in analyses adjusting for binge eating. Conclusions This study confirms the association between nocturnal eating and binge eating previously found in treatment seeking samples yet also suggests that the elevated eating disorder symptoms and decreased psychosocial adjustment observed in nocturnal eaters is not simply a function of binge eating. PMID:19708071

  8. Eating disorders and bone.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Dale; Morgan, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent and often-overlooked consequence of eating disorders, in particular anorexia nervosa and eating disorders associated with the female athlete triad. The causes of low BMD are multifactorial and include low peak bone mass accrual, accelerated bone resorption, and changes in bone microarchitecture. Early diagnosis and interventions focused on nutritional rehabilitation and weight gain reduce the risk of further BMD deficits and fractures. PMID:24094471

  9. Depression and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Casper, R C

    1998-01-01

    Both depressive disorders and eating disorders are multidimensional and heterogeneous disorders. This paper examines the nature of their relationship by reviewing clinical descriptive, family-genetic, treatment, and biological studies that relate to the issue. The studies confirm the prominence of depressive symptoms and depressive disorders in eating disorders. Other psychiatric syndromes which occur with less frequency, such as anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders in anorexia nervosa, or personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in bulimia nervosa, also play an important role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Since few studies have controlled for starvation-induced physical, endocrine, or psychological changes which mimic the symptoms considered diagnostic for depression, further research will be needed. The evidence for a shared etiology is not compelling for anorexia nervosa and is at most suggestive for bulimia nervosa. Since in contemporary cases dieting-induced weight loss is the principal trigger, women with self-critical or depressive features will be disproportionately recruited into eating disorders. The model that fits the data best would accommodate a relationship between eating disorders and the full spectrum of depressive disorders from no depression to severe depression, with somewhat higher rates of depression in bulimic anorectic and bulimia nervosa patients than in restricting anorexia nervosa patients, but the model would admit a specific pathophysiology and psychopathology in each eating disorder. PMID:9809221

  10. Unhealthy diets: a common soil for the association of metabolic syndrome and cancer.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Katherine; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Giugliano, Dario

    2014-05-01

    The association between metabolic syndrome and cancer continues to be acknowledged. Metabolic syndrome is a common long-term complication in cancer survivors; on the other hand, findings from several recent meta-analyses suggest that the presence of metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of future cancer at specific sites. Approximately one-third of cancer deaths occurring in the USA each year may be caused by unhealthy lifestyle habits, including poor nutrition. Worldwide, diets low in fruits rank third for deaths attributable to individual risk factors. Metabolic syndrome may be a surrogate marker for dietary risk factors for cancer, a sentinel for the deleterious effect of unhealthy diet in susceptible individuals, who may first manifest metabolic consequences (visceral obesity, dysglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia), and then an increased risk of cancer. From the standpoint of preventive oncology, people with the metabolic syndrome should be encouraged, more than sex- and age-matched counterparts, to undergo appropriate cancer screenings. PMID:24408049

  11. Clustering of unhealthy outdoor advertisements around child-serving institutions: a comparison of three cities.

    PubMed

    Hillier, Amy; Cole, Brian L; Smith, Tony E; Yancey, Antronette K; Williams, Jerome D; Grier, Sonya A; McCarthy, William J

    2009-12-01

    Using GPS devices and digital cameras, we surveyed outdoor advertisements in Austin, Los Angeles and Philadelphia. GIS and hot spot analysis revealed that unhealthy ads were clustered around child-serving institutions in Los Angeles and Philadelphia but not in Austin. Multivariate generalized least square (GLS) regression models showed that percent black (p<0.04) was a significant positive predictor of clustering in Philadelphia and percent white (p<0.06) was a marginally significant negative predictor of clustering in Los Angeles after controlling for several land use variables. The results emphasize the importance of zoning and land use regulations to protect children from exposure to unhealthy commercial messages, particularly in neighborhoods with significant racial/ethnic minority populations. PMID:19369111

  12. The manufacture of lifestyle: the role of corporations in unhealthy living.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2012-05-01

    Recently, researchers have debated two views on the connection between lifestyle and health. In the first, health-related lifestyles including tobacco and alcohol use, diet, and physical activity are seen as primary influences on health. In the second, social stratification is the dominant influence with lifestyles simply markers of social status. Neither approach leads to interventions that can reverse the world's most serious health problems. This article proposes that corporate practices are a dominant influence on the lifestyles that shape patterns of health and disease. Modifying business practices that promote unhealthy lifestyles is a promising strategy for improving population health. Corporations shape lifestyles by producing and promoting healthy or unhealthy products, creating psychological desires and fears, providing health information, influencing social and physical environments, and advancing policies that favor their business goals. Public officials and health professionals can promote health by advocating policies to modify these corporate practices. PMID:22258282

  13. Evaluation of a planned behavior theory-based intervention programme to promote healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness of an intervention program based on the theoretical framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior, with the addition of attitude strength and role identity. The aim was to alter adolescents' healthy eating attitudes and behaviour. In the sample were 335 high school students, who were divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and included posters and lectures promoting healthy eating. The measures included a questionnaire assessing the hypothesis and a food frequency questionnaire which measured eating habits. Analysis showed the intervention was effective in proving attitudes toward healthy eating and attitude strength, intention, perceived behavioral control, and healthy eating behaviour, but not effective in predicting subjective norms and role identity. Results provide evidence that intervention changed attitudes toward a behavior in a school setting. PMID:16383096

  14. Nutritional and Unhealthy Behaviors in Women With and Without Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ataollahi, Maryam; Sedighi, Sedigheh; Masoumi, Seyyedeh Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Global statistics indicate increasing rates of this cancer. Nutrition, diet, and healthy behaviors are among influential factors in prevalence of breast cancer, and possibly affect its incidence through inflammatory and immune system responses. Objectives: This study was designed to compare nutritional and unhealthy behaviors in women with and without breast cancer referred to Mahdieh Imaging Center in Hamadan in 2013. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study is conducted on 232 women with r and without breast cancer referred to Mahdieh Imaging Center of Hamadan, Iran) in 2013 using random sampling method. Data were collected using nutritional and unhealthy behaviors questionnaires, and analyzed with SPSS-17 software using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney, independent t, and chi-square tests. Results: The mean scores of feeding type in the patients with and without breast cancer was 56.14 and 66.25, respectively. Results obtained from data analysis showed that there was statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of nutrition (P < 0.001), but no relationship was observed between breast cancer and unhealthy behaviors. Conclusions: Given the results, improving skills, training and awareness is necessary for women and emphasis on modified diet is recommended as a non-medical option for prevention of breast cancer. PMID:25593731

  15. Alteration in unhealthy nutrition behaviors in adolescents through community intervention: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadifard, Noushin; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Ghassemi, Gholam Reza; Nouri, Fatemeh; Pashmi, Rezvan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Primary prevention of chronic diseases has been suggested to initiate health promotion activities from childhoods. The impact of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), a comprehensive community trial, on unhealthy snacks and fast food intake changes was evaluated in Iranian adolescents between 2001 and 2007. METHODS Healthy Heart Promotion from Childhood (HHPC) as one of the IHHP interventional projects was conducted in adolescents aged 11-18 years, selected randomly by multistage random sampling. Isfahan and Najafabad districts were intervention areas (IA) and Arak district was reference area (RA). The baseline and post-intervention surveys were conducted on 1941 and 1997 adolescents, respectively. Healthy lifestyle interventions were performed during the 2nd phase of the study targeting about 410000 students in urban and rural areas of the IA via education, environmental and legislation activities. Dietary intake was assessed annually using a fifty-item food frequency questionnaire in both communities. RESULTS The interaction of year×area demonstrated that the consumption of unhealthy snacks decreased significantly in middle school boys of RA compared to IA (P for interaction=0.01). However, middle school girls (P for interaction = 0.002) and both sexes of high school students in IA showed a significant reduction in fast food consumption against RA (P for interaction < 0.001). CONCLUSION The HHPC interventions made some improvement in fast food consumption. It did not show significant decrease regarding unhealthy snacks in adolescents. Proper and higher dose of interventions may be effective in achieving this goal. PMID:23696765

  16. The body perfect ideal and eating regulation goals: investigating the role of adolescents' identity styles.

    PubMed

    Verstuyf, Joke; Van Petegem, Stijn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Boone, Liesbet

    2014-02-01

    Adolescents are exposed to images depicting the thin or muscular ideal almost on a daily basis. When the body perfect ideal is adopted, adolescents are at increased risk for developing unhealthy and disordered eating behaviors. The aim of the current 3-wave longitudinal study among adolescents (N = 418; 54% girls) was to investigate whether different styles of identity exploration (i.e., information-oriented, normative, and diffuse-avoidant) are associated differentially with changes in adoption of the body perfect ideal, which, in turn, would relate to changes in appearance-focused and health-focused eating regulation. Results indicated that the information-oriented style predicted decreases and the normative style predicted increases in adoption of the body perfect ideal. In turn, adoption of the body perfect ideal predicted significant increases in appearance-focused eating regulation but not in health-focused eating regulation. A diffuse-avoidant style was unrelated to changes in adoption of the body perfect, yet directly predicted decreases in health-focused eating regulation. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23584860

  17. Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge ...

  18. Validity of the Greek Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire 6.0 (EDE-Q-6.0) among Greek adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pliatskidou, S; Samakouri, M; Kalamara, E; Papageorgiou, E; Koutrouvi, K; Goulemtzakis, C; Nikolaou, E; Livaditis, M

    2015-01-01

    scale the instrument screens with a sensitivity (Se) of 89.5% and a specificity (Sp) of 73.1%, a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 34.7% and a Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of 97.8% The same analyses for both sexes revealed a cut-off point of 2.612 for females and of 3.125 for males on the global EDE-Q-6.0 score (Se=84.62%, Sp=73.33% for females and Se=83.33%, Sp= 84.09% for males), yielding a PPV and a NPV of 35.5% and of 96.5% for females and 41.7% and 97.4% for males, respectively. A very low agreement level, between EDE-Q and interview, was observed regarding the presence of objective bulimic episodes (OBEs) [k=0.191 (SE=0.057)] and the unhealthy weight control behaviors [k=0.295 (SE=0.073)]. Positive correlations were found between EAT-26 and EDE-Q-6.0 for both global scale and subscales (rho=0.50-0.57). The results suggest that EDE-Q-6.0, when using its global score, appears to be a proper screening tool for assessing the core psychopathology of eating disorders in community samples in two-stage screening studies since it distinguishes very well the cases from the non-cases. However, the assessment of the presence and frequency of pathological behaviours which characterize EDs appears to be problematic since adolescents, especially the younger ones, misunderstood terms like large amount of food and loss of control or misinterpret the motivation for excessive exercise. Therefore, marked discrepancies were observed between pathological behaviors self-reported at questionnaire and those detected at interview. We may assume that giving participants more information regarding the definition of these concepts may increase the accuracy with which the participants report these behaviors. PMID:26480225

  19. Eating disorders in women.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A Shyam

    2015-07-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  20. [Sleep related eating disorder].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuichi; Komada, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) or night eating syndrome (NES). Critical reviews of the literature on both disorders have suggested that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. The feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with amnesia. Conversely, NES could be considered as an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Both conditions clearly concentrate to occur during young adulthood, and are often relentless and chronic. Misunderstanding and low awareness of SRED and NES have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of the two disorders. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias such as sleep walking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ineffective, but pharmacotherapy is very effective in controlling SRED. Especially, studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED. PMID:21077298

  1. Eating disorders in women

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  2. Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…

  3. Most Americans Are Eating Better

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159481.html Most Americans Are Eating Better But government programs needed to ... 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- More than half of Americans were eating healthier in 2012 than they were ...

  4. Eat Healthier | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    */ 6 Tips for Managing Portion Size Eating healthy is about enjoying your food while also managing portion size. Most people eat and drink more than their bodies need especially when they are served larger portions

  5. Diet and eating after esophagectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000294.htm Diet and eating after esophagectomy To use the sharing features on ... a feeding tube, or even when you start eating regular foods again. If specific foods are causing ...

  6. Eating disorders and obesity: two sides of the same coin?

    PubMed

    Day, Jemma; Ternouth, Andrew; Collier, David A

    2009-01-01

    The eating disorders anorexia and bulimia nervosa have traditionally been regarded as entirely separate from obesity. Eating disorders have been regarded as Western culture-bound syndromes, arising in societies with excessive emphasis on weight, shape and appearance, and best treated by psychological therapies, in particular cognitive behavioural therapy or family-based interventions. In contrast, obesity has been considered a medical illness with metabolic and genetic origins, and thought to be best treated by mainstream medicine, involving dietary, drug or surgical treatment. We believe that this polarisation is fundamentally flawed, and research and treatment of both types of disorder would be better served by greater appreciation of the psychosocial components of obesity and the biological and genetic components of eating disorders. There are similarities in phenotype (such as excessive attempts at weight control, binge eating behaviours) and in risk factors (such as low self-esteem, external locus of control, childhood abuse and neglect, dieting, media exposure, body image dissatisfaction, weight-related teasing and shared susceptibility genes). One example of shared genetic risk is the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) gene, in which the valine allele of the Val66Met amino acid polymorphism predisposes to obesity, whereas the methionine allele predisposes to eating disorders. Thus the evidence suggests that these disorders will have both shared and distinct susceptibility factors; some will predispose to both types of disorder, some will push in opposite directions, and some will separate them. PMID:19526739

  7. Eat healthily, stay healthy.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    HIV and poor nutrition destroys the immune system. A well-nourished HIV infected person is less likely to develop an opportunistic infection than those with poor nutrition. Emotional stress and opportunistic infections can decrease one's appetite. Eating can become difficult and painful in persons with oropharyngeal infections. HIV-related wasting reduces protein and fat reserves. Vitamin A maintains a healthy immune system. Adding nuts, oil, mashed fish, dark green or orange fruits and vegetables, or fruit juice and replacing some water with fresh milk or coconut milk makes porridge more energy-rich. Fermenting or malting porridge makes it thinner, easier to swallow, and more nutritious. Fermentation allows for increased absorption of some nutrients (e.g., iron and zinc). The diet for persons with HIV-related infections should increase their appetite, and they should ingest enough nutrients to help the gastrointestinal tract manage and recover from diarrhea and to regain weight and strength lost during illness. All HIV-infected persons should eat as much as possible, particularly easy-to-eat and easily-absorbed foods. Those with mouth sores should avoid spicy and peppery foods. Those with a poor appetite should eat small amounts more often than usual. Those with diarrhea should eat easily digestible foods (e.g., soups) and, in some cases, avoid fatty or oily foods and milk. They should drink extra fluids to prevent dehydration. HIV-infected pregnant women should eat foods rich in vitamin A (dark green leaves or orange fruits and vegetables, liver, or egg yolk) and iron. Maternal vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of vertical HIV transmission 3-4 fold. Breast milk is the best food for all infants, particularly during diarrhea. In some communities, nongovernmental organizations provide those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS with food, food production maintenance, and nutrition counseling through their home care services. PMID:12290562

  8. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  9. Testing the perfectionism model of binge eating in mother-daughter dyads: a mixed longitudinal and daily diary study.

    PubMed

    Mushquash, Aislin R; Sherry, Simon B

    2013-04-01

    The perfectionism model of binge eating is an integrative model explaining why perfectionism is tied to binge eating. This study extended and tested this emerging model by proposing daughters' socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., perceiving one's mother is harshly demanding perfection of oneself) and mothers' psychological control (i.e., a negative parenting style involving control and demandingness) contribute indirectly to daughters' binge eating by generating situations or experiences that trigger binge eating. These binge triggers include discrepancies (i.e., viewing oneself as falling short of one's mother's expectations), depressive affect (i.e., feeling miserable and sad), and dietary restraint (i.e., behaviors aimed at reduced caloric intake). This model was tested in 218 mother-daughter dyads studied using a mixed longitudinal and daily diary design. Daughters were undergraduate students. Results largely supported hypotheses, with bootstrapped tests of mediation suggesting daughters' socially prescribed perfectionism and mothers' psychological control contribute to binge eating through binge triggers. For undergraduate women who believe their mothers rigidly require them to be perfect and whose mothers are demanding and controlling, binge eating may provide a means of coping with or escaping from an unhealthy, unsatisfying mother-daughter relationship. PMID:23557815

  10. Comparative Study of Eating-Related Attitudes and Psychological Traits between Israeli-Arab and -Jewish Schoolgirls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzer, Yael; Tzischinsky, Orna; Geraisy, Nabil

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aims of the study were to examine weight concerns, dieting and eating behaviours in a group of Israeli-Arab schoolgirls as compared with Israeli-Jewish schoolgirls, as well as to investigate the reliability of the Arabic (Palestinian) version of the eating disorder inventory-2 (EDI-2). Method: The sample consisted of 2548 Israeli…

  11. A Pilot Study of Obesogenic Eating Behaviors in Children With Migraine.

    PubMed

    Ray, Stephen; Singh, Shashi Bhushan; Halford, Jason C G; Harrold, Joanne A; Kumar, Ram

    2016-06-01

    We studied associations between migraine severity and obesogenic eating behaviors in children with a prospective cross-sectional, clinic-based study. Migraine severity was quantified using the PedMIDAS tool and attack frequency. Eating behaviors were assessed using the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Food intake was assessed using a Food Intake Questionnaire. Statistical tests of association between eating behavior, food intake, and adiposity with migraine severity were performed. Sixty children (mean age = 10.9 years, standard deviation = 3.1; 26 males) were recruited. There was a positive correlation between the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire desire to drink subscale and PedMIDAS scores (r = 0.41, P = .01). Attack frequency was associated with higher intake of high fat or sugar content food and drink (r = 0.27, P = .04). No association between migraine severity and adiposity was found. Suggestion that migraine severity in children is associated with certain obesogenic eating behaviors requires further large study investigation. PMID:26863998

  12. Culturally-Based Communication about Health, Eating, and Food: Development and validation of the CHEF scale.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Rebecca R; Palmberg, Allison; Lydecker, Janet; Green, Brooke; Kelly, Nichole R; Trapp, Stephen; Bean, Melanie K

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority populations in the United States are disproportionately affected by obesity. To address this disparity, research has begun to investigate the role of culture, ethnicity, and experiences with racism on food choices and health interventions. The aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate a new scale measuring the extent to which individuals' culture, as they perceive it, influences perceptions of food-related health messages. A diverse sample of 422 college students responded to the item pool, as well as surveys on race-related stress, self-efficacy in making healthy food choices, ethnic identity, and social support for health-related behaviors. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses produced a five-factor model: Connection (the extent to which food connected individuals with their culture), Authority (beliefs that health care providers were familiar with individuals' cultural foods), Unhealthy Food Perceptions (beliefs that individuals' cultural foods were perceived as unhealthy), Healthy Food Perceptions (beliefs that others perceive individuals' cultural foods to be healthy), and Social Value (the extent to which social relationships are improved by shared cultural food traditions). Authority and Healthy Food Perceptions were related to individuals' confidence in their ability to make healthy food choices. Authority was inversely correlated with negative coping with racism-related events. Ethnic identity was significantly correlated with all but Unhealthy Food Perceptions. Race/ethnicity differences were identified for Healthy Food Perceptions, Unhealthy Food Perceptions, Social Value, Connection, but not Authority. Applications and suggestions for further research using the Culturally-based Communication about Health, Eating, and Food (CHEF) Scale are proposed. PMID:26409643

  13. Associations between friends' disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Wall, Melanie; Shim, Jin Joo; Bruening, Meg; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Dieting, unhealthy weight control and muscle-enhancing behaviors are common among adolescents: friends are a probable source of influence on these behaviors. The present study uses data provided by nominated friends to examine associations between friends' disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors and participants' own behaviors in a diverse sample of American youth. Male and female adolescents (mean age = 14.4) completed surveys and identified their friends from a class roster; friends' survey data were then linked to each participant. Participants (N = 2126) who had at least one nominated friend were included in the analytic sample. Independent variables were created using the same weight control and muscle-enhancing behaviors reported by nominated friends, and were used in logistic regression models to test associations between participants' and their friends' behaviors, stratified by gender. Results indicated that dieting, disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors were common in this sample, and selected friends' behaviors were associated with the same behaviors in participants. For example, girls whose friends reported extreme weight control behaviors had significantly greater odds of using these behaviors than girls whose friends did not report these same behaviors (OR = 2.39). This research suggests that friends' weight- and shape-related behaviors are a feature of social relationships, and is the first report demonstrating these associations for muscle-enhancing behaviors. Capitalizing on the social element may be important to the development of increasingly effective intervention and prevention programs. PMID:23010337

  14. Perception and Sense of Control Over Eating Behaviors Among a Diverse Sample of Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Lindgren, Teri G.; Bonnet, Kemberlee; Kamitani, Emiko

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to explore and understand knowledge and attitudes about food, diet, and weight control, focusing on barriers and motivators to reduce risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Methods Six focus groups were conducted in May and June 2010. The groups were stratified by sex. A total of 35 ethnically diverse samples with a high risk for type 2 diabetes participated. The average age was 51 ± 10.6 years, and 57% of the sample represented women. Results Four themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) demonstrated knowledge and source of knowledge, including participants’ basic understanding of “good” and “bad” food and what constitutes a “healthy diet” and trusted sources of information; (2) perceptions of food and diet, encompassing how participants expressed their perception of and interaction with food and diet; (3) sense of control over dietary intake, reflecting participants’ discussion of their perceived ability to control their eating patterns and food choices; and (4) eating behaviors, describing participants’ patterns of eating and perceived barriers to eating a healthy diet. Conclusions Study findings demonstrate that eating healthy requires a complex interaction between individual perceptions of food and sense of control over eating patterns and socio-political and economic structural factors that restrict healthy eating options while promoting unhealthy ones. Programs for long-term eating behavioral change necessary to reduce type 2 diabetes and obesity need to incorporate strategies that address individual-level factors of perception of food and sense of control over eating patterns, as well as structural level factors such as poverty and food insecurity. PMID:24525569

  15. The consumption of unhealthy foods by Brazilian children is influenced by their mother’s educational level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between the consumption of unhealthy foods in children under one year and the education level of the mothers, data obtained from participants of the II Survey on the prevalence of breastfeeding in the Brazilian capitals and the Federal District in 2008 was analyzed. Methods During the second stage of the campaign for multi-vaccination, a questionnaire on food consumption in the last 24 hours was given to mothers or guardians of children under one year old. We analyzed the consumption of unhealthy foods according to age group, maternal education, region of residence and breastfeeding status. The state capitals and the Federal District were grouped according to the five macro-regions of the country (North, Northeast, Southeast, South and West). Processed juice, soda, coffee, cookies/salted snacks and sugar and/or honey were defined as unhealthy foods. Prevalence ratios (RP) for the association between the consumption of unhealthy foods and maternal education were estimated using Poisson regression models. Results: The study included 34,366 children. The consumption of sweet foods started early and was predominant until the age of six months; after this age, the consumption of biscuits and/or snacks became more prevalent. The consumption of these foods also differs in relation to the macro-region of residence. Consumption of unhealthy foods was higher among mothers with lower education levels. Conclusions The consumption of unhealthy foods by Brazilian children under one year old was high, indicating a need for developing effective strategies to combat the consumption of unhealthy foods in Brazilian children as a way of preventing obesity and other future disorders. PMID:24708610

  16. Healthy food subsidies and unhealthy food taxation: A systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Niebylski, Mark L; Redburn, Kimbree A; Duhaney, Tara; Campbell, Norm R

    2015-06-01

    The Global Burden of Disease Study and related studies report unhealthy diet is the leading risk for death and disability globally. Given the evidence associating diet and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), international and national health bodies including the World Health Organization and United Nations have called for population health interventions to improve diet as a means to target NCDs. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods/beverages are more accessible to purchasers and unhealthy ones less accessible via fiscal policy, namely taxation and subsidies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base to assess the effect of healthy food/beverage subsidies and unhealthy food/beverage taxation. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed publications and seventy-eight studies were identified for inclusion in this review. This review was performed in keeping with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance. Although moderate in quality, there was consistent evidence that taxation and subsidy intervention influenced dietary behaviors. The quality, level and strength of evidence along with identified gaps in research support the need for further policies and ongoing evaluation of population-wide food/beverage subsidies and taxation. To maximize success and effect, this review suggests that food taxes and subsidies should be a minimum of 10 to 15% and preferably used in tandem. Implementation of population-wide polices for taxation and subsides with ongoing evaluation of intended and unintended effects are supported by this review. PMID:25933484

  17. Unhealthy Substance Use Behaviors as Symptom-Related Self-Care in HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Brion, John M.; Rose, Carol Dawson; Nicholas, Patrice K.; Sloane, Rick; Voss, Joachim G.; Corless, Inge B.; Lindgren, Teri G.; Wantland, Dean J.; Kemppainen, Jeanne K.; Sefcik, Elizabeth F.; Nokes, Kathleen M.; Kirksey, Kenn M.; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Holzemer, William L.; Portillo, Carmen J.; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Robinson, Linda M.; Moezzi, Shanaz; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Arudo, John; Ros, Ana Viamonte; Nicholas, Thomas P.; Cuca, Yvette; Huang, Emily; Bain, Catherine; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Zang, Sheryl M.; Shannon, Maureen; Peters-Lewis, Angelleen

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of symptoms in HIV disease can be associated with HIV disease itself, comorbid illness, and/or antiretroviral therapy. Unhealthy substance use behaviors, particularly substance-use behaviors including heavy alcohol intake, marijuana use, other illicit drug use, and cigarette smoking, are engaged in by many HIV-positive individuals, often as a way to manage disease-related symptoms. This study is a secondary data analysis of baseline data from a larger randomized-controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual. In the present study, the prevalence and characteristics of unhealthy substance use behaviors in relation to HIV/AIDS symptoms are examined. Subjects were recruited from a variety of settings which provide HIV/AIDS care and treatment. The mean age of the sample (n=775) was 42.8 years (SD=9.6) and nearly thirty-nine percent (38.5%) of the sample was female. The racial demographics of the sample were: 28% African American, 28% Hispanic, 21% White/Caucasian, 16% African from Kenya or South Africa, 1% Asian, and 5% self-described as “Other.” The mean number of years living with HIV was reported to be 9.1 years (SD=6.6).Specific self-reported unhealthy substance-use behaviors were use of marijuana (n= 111; 14.3%), cigarette smoking (n=355; 45.8%), heavy alcohol use (n= 66; 8.5%), and illicit drugs (n= 98; 12.6%). A subset of individuals who identified high levels of specific symptoms also reported significantly higher substance use behaviors including amphetamine and injection drug use in addition to heavy alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. Implications for clinical practice include assessment of self-care behaviors, screening for substance abuse, and education of persons related to self-management across the trajectory of HIV disease. PMID:21352430

  18. Biological correlates of binge eating.

    PubMed

    Yanovski, S Z

    1995-01-01

    Eating disorders are associated with numerous biological perturbations; however, sorting out cause from effect is difficult. Neuroendocrine and metabolic abnormalities are seen in both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, but they have not been described in binge eating disorder, in which neither starvation nor compensatory behaviors are present. Although these findings may reflect biologic differences among subgroups of binge eaters, an alternative explanation is that many of the biological correlates of binge eating are the result of metabolic derangement secondary to starvation and/or purging. The identification of binge eating disorder provides an opportunity to study the causes and concomitants of binge eating in the absence of compensatory behaviors. PMID:8820523

  19. Eating for Your Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  20. Eating Disorder Prevention Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapia, Jennifer L.

    This paper provides information for school psychologists regarding the necessity and benefits of school-based prevention programming for students at risk for developing eating disorders (i.e., females). School-based programming is a cost-effective means of reaching the largest number of individuals at once and identifying those individuals…

  1. Eating disorders in men.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Damon B; Williams, Jeffrey

    2016-09-22

    Eating disorders are traditionally thought of as a problem specific to women, but evidence suggests the disorders also occur in men. Identifying the problem and referring patients for treatment can be difficult. Understanding the nuances of these disorders and realizing the incidence in men is important, as it is often overlooked as a differential diagnosis. PMID:27552690

  2. Eating Disorders and Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…

  3. Eat Well, Learn Well.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Child Nutrition and Food Distribution Div.

    New research has found a clear connection between nutrition and learning. This document highlights the importance of good nutrition in preparing children to learn and identifies California schools' crucial role in building healthy eating habits. The role of nutrition services in a comprehensive school health system--including the development of a…

  4. Eat Your Weedies!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, James

    2001-01-01

    Explains the value of harvesting garden weeds and eating them. Discusses antioxidant and other nutritional qualities of weeds, weeds that are especially useful as raw or cooked vegetables, the importance of weed identification, and the dangers of weed-killing herbicides. Highlights purslane. (PVD)

  5. 'I want to lose weight': Early risk for disordered eating?

    PubMed

    Gusella, Joanne; Goodwin, Jacqueline; van Roosmalen, Erica

    2008-02-01

    The present study examined the risk of disordered eating and its relation to attempts to lose weight by surveying a Maritime Canadian sample of 247 girls and boys in grades 6, 7 and 8. Current attempts to lose weight were highest in grade 8 girls (41% of girls and 9% of boys) compared with grade 6 (14% of girls and 24% of boys) and grade 7 (21% of girls and 13% of boys) children. Of those trying to lose weight, 71.4% were in the average range for weight and height, 12.2% were overweight and 16.3% were obese. The Children's version of the Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) was used to assess eating attitudes and behaviours, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used as a measure of self-esteem. The results showed that 8.5% of the children fell in the high-risk group for disordered eating (ChEAT score 20 or higher). Those in the high-risk group were significantly more likely to fear being overweight (90%), to have tried to lose weight in the past (81%), to be currently trying to lose weight (76%), and to have engaged in binge eating (38%) and self-induced vomiting (24%). The best predictor of membership in the high-risk group for girls was current attempts at weight loss and having lower self-esteem. Only two boys fell in the high-risk group. Body mass index and current weight category (underweight, average, overweight and obese) could not explain the differences between the low- and high-risk groups. Knowing that a child is trying to lose weight can aid in identifying youth at risk for disordered eating, and can provide an opportunity for preventive education. PMID:19183713

  6. Financial penalties for the unhealthy? Ethical guidelines for holding employees responsible for their health.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Steven D; Lieber, Sarah R

    2009-01-01

    As health care costs continue to rise, an increasing number of self-insured employers are using financial rewards or penalties to promote healthy behavior and control costs. These incentive programs have triggered a backlash from those concerned that holding employees responsible for their health, particularly through the use of penalties, violates individual liberties and discriminates against the unhealthy. This paper offers an ethical analysis of employee health incentive programs and presents an argument for a set of conditions under which penalties can be used in an ethical and responsible way to contain health care costs and encourage healthy behavior among employees. PMID:19414897

  7. Maladaptive eating patterns in children.

    PubMed

    Wildermuth, Sarah A; Mesman, Glenn R; Ward, Wendy L

    2013-01-01

    Given the increasing frequency of obesity and related maladaptive eating patterns in pediatric populations, health care professionals in a variety of settings must find ways to treat persons who are obese and have maladaptive eating patterns. The authors summarized literature related to binge eating disorder, boredom eating, emotional eating, and night eating syndrome and developed educational handouts designed for children/adolescents and their families who present with these eating problems. These educational handouts may be used by primary care physicians, psychologists, psychiatrists, nurses, and other specialists in medical settings. They are free for use in educational purposes, with permission from the authors, but are not intended to replace appropriate health care and follow-up. PMID:23414976

  8. Changes in problematic and disordered eating after gastric bypass, adjustable gastric banding and vertical sleeve gastrectomy: a systematic review of pre-post studies.

    PubMed

    Opozda, M; Chur-Hansen, A; Wittert, G

    2016-08-01

    Despite differences in their mechanisms and outcomes, little is known about whether postsurgical changes in eating behaviours also differ by bariatric procedure. Following a systematic search, 23 studies on changes in binge eating disorder (BED) and related behaviours, bulimia nervosa and related behaviours, night eating syndrome, grazing and emotional eating after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), adjustable gastric banding (AGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) were reviewed. Significant methodological problems and a dearth of literature regarding many behaviours and VSG were seen. Regarding BED and related behaviours, although later re-increases were noted, short to medium-term reductions after RYGB were common, and reported changes after AGB were inconsistent. Short to medium-term reductions in emotional eating, and from a few studies, short to long-term reductions in bulimic symptoms, were reported after RYGB. Reoccurrences and new occurrences of problem and disordered eating, especially BED and binge episodes, were apparent after RYGB and AGB. Further conclusions and comparisons could not be made because of limited or low-quality evidence. Long-term comparison studies of changes to problematic and disordered eating in RYGB, AGB and VSG patients are needed. It is currently unclear whether any bariatric procedure leads to long-term improvement of any problematic or disordered eating behaviours. PMID:27296934

  9. The moderating role of state inhibitory control in the effect of evaluative conditioning on temptation and unhealthy snacking.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Ashleigh; Kemps, Eva; Moffitt, Robyn

    2015-12-01

    The current study sought to test the effect of a brief evaluative conditioning intervention on experienced temptation to indulge, and consumption of, unhealthy snack foods. We expected that a training task associating unhealthy food with negative affect would result in lower experienced temptation across the sample, but would lead to lower snack consumption only among individuals with low state inhibitory control. Undergraduate women (N=134) aged 17-25 years were randomised to complete an evaluative conditioning procedure pairing unhealthy food with either positive or negative affect. Snack consumption was subsequently assessed using a taste-test procedure which offered four snack foods for ad libitum consumption. Participants also reported the strength of their experienced temptation to indulge in the foods presented. Additionally, they completed a Stop Signal Task as a measure of state inhibitory control. As predicted, participants in the food negative condition ate less than those in the food positive condition, but this effect was only observed among individuals with low inhibitory control. The same moderation pattern was observed for the effect of evaluative conditioning on temptation: only participants with low inhibitory control reported feeling less tempted by the snack foods in the food negative condition compared to the food positive condition. In addition, temptation mediated the effect of evaluative conditioning on intake for individuals with low inhibitory control. Findings suggest that evaluative conditioning of unhealthy food stimuli could be especially useful for reducing temptation and consumption of unhealthy snacks in situations where individuals experience low inhibitory control capacity. PMID:26409213

  10. Environmental influences on children's physical activity and eating habits in a rural Oregon County.

    PubMed

    Findholt, Nancy E; Michael, Yvonne L; Jerofke, Linda J; Brogoitti, Victoria W

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To identify environmental barriers and facilitators of children's physical activity and healthy eating in a rural county. DESIGN. Community-based participatory research using mixed methods, primarily qualitative. SETTING. A rural Oregon county. SUBJECTS. Ninety-five adults, 6 high school students, and 41 fifth-grade students. MEASURES. In-depth interviews, focus groups, Photovoice, and structured observations using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment, System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity, Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit, and School Food and Beverage Marketing Assessment Tool. ANALYSIS. Qualitative data were coded by investigators; observational data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings were triangulated to produce a composite of environmental barriers and assets. RESULTS. Limited recreational resources, street-related hazards, fear of strangers, inadequate physical education, and denial of recess hindered physical activity, whereas popularity of youth sports and proximity to natural areas promoted physical activity. Limited availability and high cost of healthy food, busy lifestyles, convenience stores near schools, few healthy meal choices at school, children's being permitted to bring snacks to school, candy used as incentives, and teachers' modeling unhealthy eating habits hindered healthy eating, whereas the agricultural setting and popularity of gardening promoted healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS. This study provides data on a neglected area of research, namely environmental determinants of rural childhood obesity, and points to the need for multifaceted and multilevel environmental change interventions. PMID:22040399

  11. Sugar as part of a balanced breakfast? What cereal advertisements teach children about healthy eating.

    PubMed

    LoDolce, Megan E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-01-01

    Marketing that targets children with energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods is a likely contributor to the childhood obesity crisis. High-sugar ready-to-eat cereals are the packaged food most frequently promoted in child-targeted food advertising on television. The authors combined content analysis of product nutritional quality and messages presented in cereal television advertisements with syndicated data on exposure to those ads. The analysis quantifies children's exposure to specific products and messages that appear in advertisements and compares it with adult exposure. Children viewed 1.7 ads per day for ready-to-eat cereals, and 87% of those ads promoted high-sugar products; adults viewed half as many ads, and ads viewed were equally likely to promote high- and low-sugar cereals. In addition, the messages presented in high-sugar ads viewed by children were significantly more likely to convey unrealistic and contradictory messages about cereal attributes and healthy eating. For example, 91% of high-sugar cereal ads viewed by children ascribed extraordinary powers to these products, and 67% portrayed healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors. Given children's vulnerability to the influence of advertising, the emotional and mixed messages used to promote high-sugar cereals are confusing and potentially misleading. PMID:24175878

  12. Two Facets of Stress And Indirect Effects on Child Diet via Emotion-Driven Eating

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pickering, Trevor A.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Objective Stress has been associated with high-calorie, low-nutrient food intake (HCLN) and emotion-driven eating (EDE). However, effects on healthy food intake remain unknown. This study examined two facets of stress (self-efficacy, perceived helplessness) and food consumption, mediated by EDE. Methods Cross-sectional data from fourth-graders (n = 978; 52% female, 28% Hispanic) in an obesity intervention used self-report to assess self-efficacy, helplessness, EDE, fruit/vegetable (FV) intake, and high-calorie/low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Results Higher stress self-efficacy was associated with higher FV intake, β = .354, p < 0.001, and stress perceived helplessness had an indirect effect on HCLN intake through emotion-driven eating, indirect effect = .094, p < 0.001; χ2(347) = 659.930, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.940, TLI = 0.930, RMSEA = 0.030, p = 1.00, adjusting for gender, ethnicity, BMI z-score, and program group. Conclusions and Implications Stress self-efficacy may be more important for healthy food intake and perceived helplessness may indicate emotion-driven eating and unhealthy snack food intake. Obesity prevention programs may consider teaching stress management techniques to avoid emotion-driven eating. PMID:26004248

  13. Eating habits and attitudes of mothers of children with non-organic failure to thrive.

    PubMed Central

    McCann, J B; Stein, A; Fairburn, C G; Dunger, D B

    1994-01-01

    The eating habits and attitudes concerning body shape and weight among 26 mothers of children with non-organic failure to thrive (the index group) were studied using the eating disorder examination. They were compared with equivalent data on 26 individually matched women who participated in a large community survey. The index mothers' views of their child's weight and shape were also studied. The principal findings were, firstly, that when compared with the comparison group, mothers of children with non-organic failure to thrive had higher levels of dietary restraint. Secondly, despite their child's low weight, 50% of the index mothers were restricting their child's intake of 'sweet' foods, and a further 30% were restricting foods they considered 'fattening' or 'unhealthy'. These results raise the question of whether maternal eating habits and attitudes have a causal role in the genesis of non-organic failure to thrive. They suggest that careful inquiry about the mothers' eating habits and attitudes is needed when assessing children with non-organic failure to thrive. PMID:8135570

  14. Association of Unhealthy Exercise Patterns with Overweight and Obesity in Kuwaiti Adults

    PubMed Central

    R ALLAFI, Ahmad; WASLIEN, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Our aim was to investigate the frequency of the behaviors that are most often associated with excess weight gain in Kuwaitis and to determine which gender and age groups are at highest risk for each behavior. Methods A questionnaire developed to identify barriers to exercise in western populations was modified for use with Kuwaitis and posted online during September through December 2012. Data from 1370 adults 18 to 59 years old with BMIs ranging from 15.1–70.8 was collected. The prevalence of seven behavior patterns was examined for age, BMI, and gender groups as well as the odds ratio of each behavior for each BMI group. Results Both individual unhealthy exercise behaviors and the sum of all such behaviors were more frequent in over-weight and obese individuals. For all behaviors the odds ratio was significantly greater for those with BMIs of 30-39 than for those with BMIs below 25 (P< 0.05). Some exercise avoidance behaviors were more frequent in older age groups and in overweight females. Conclusion Unhealthy exercise behavior patterns were highly prevalent in obese individuals. Tailoring programs and counseling to the most common of these patterns in Kuwaiti obese should facilitate greater success in weight management. PMID:26060716

  15. Does severe dietary energy restriction increase binge eating in overweight or obese individuals? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    da Luz, F Q; Hay, P; Gibson, A A; Touyz, S W; Swinbourne, J M; Roekenes, J A; Sainsbury, A

    2015-08-01

    Severe dietary energy restriction is often used for overweight or obese individuals to achieve rapid weight loss and related health improvements. However, the extent of putative adverse effects on eating behaviour is unknown. We thus systematically searched seven databases for studies that assessed binge eating before and after severe dietary energy restriction (low or very low energy diets) in overweight or obese individuals. Fifteen clinically supervised interventions from 10 publications (nine of which involved only women) were included. Among individuals with clinically relevant pre-treatment binge eating disorder, severe dietary energy restriction significantly decreased binge eating in all four interventions involving this population, at least during the weight loss programme. In contrast, no consistent association between severe dietary energy restriction and the onset of bingeing was found in 11 interventions involving individuals without pre-treatment binge eating disorder, with four such interventions showing significant increases, two showing no change, and five showing significant decreases in binge eating. We conclude that clinically supervised severe dietary energy restriction appears safe and beneficial for overweight or obese individuals with pre-treatment binge eating disorder, and does not necessarily trigger binge eating in those without binge eating disorder. PMID:26094791

  16. Eating style in seasonal affective disorder: who will gain weight in winter?

    PubMed

    Kräuchi, K; Reich, S; Wirz-Justice, A

    1997-01-01

    Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) selectively eat more carbohydrates (CHO), particularly sweets but also starch-rich foods, during their depression in winter. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was administered to female SAD patients, healthy female controls, and female medical students to determine their eating style, together with the modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ+). SAD patients showed higher values for "emotional" (EMOT) eating than the students, and these in turn had higher values than the controls. In comparison to controls, SAD patients and students head high values for the factor "external" (EXT) eating, but there was no difference between the groups with respect to "restraint" (REST) eating. This is in strong contrast to patients with bulimia and anorexia nervosa, who are high REST eaters, indicating that SAD patients do not have a similar eating disorder. Additional items showed that SAD patients selectively eat sweets under emotionally difficult conditions (when depressed, anxious, or lonely). Configural frequency analysis showed that seasonal body weight change (SBWC) is high in subjects with high EMOT and REST eating together with a high body mass index (BMI). This result is in accordance with the concept of disinhibition of dietary restraint in extreme emotional situations, e.g., the depressive state. PMID:9056125

  17. Restless Eating, Restless Legs, and Sleep Related Eating Disorder.

    PubMed

    Howell, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) often presents with a primary complaint of sleep initiation difficulty with only ambiguous allusions to motor symptoms. This may result in the condition being misdiagnosed as a psychophysiological insomnia. Further, nocturnal eating is common in RLS and like the classic motor symptoms, patients will describe an inability to initiate sleep until their urge (to eat) is addressed. Restless nocturnal eating arises, intensifies, and subsides in parallel to motor symptoms. Once misdiagnosed as psychophysiological insomnia, RLS patients are frequently treated with benzodiazepine receptor agonists. The CNS actions of these sedating agents, suppression of memory and executive function, unleash predisposed amnestic behaviors. In the case of RLS this would be expected to include the inappropriate ambulatory and eating behaviors of sleep related eating disorder (SRED). The evidence and implications of a link between the restless eating of RLS and SRED is presented here. PMID:26626472

  18. Eating patterns in patients with spectrum binge eating disorder

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Kate; Rosselli, Francine; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We sought to describe meal and snack frequencies of individuals with recurrent binge eating and examine the association between these eating patterns and clinical correlates. Method Data from 106 women with a minimum diagnosis of recurrent binge eating were utilized. Meal and snack frequencies were correlated with measures of weight, eating disorder features, and depression. Participants who ate breakfast every day (n=25) were compared with those who did not (n=81) on the same measures. Results Breakfast was the least, and dinner the most, commonly consumed meal. Evening snacking was the most common snacking occasion. Meal patterns were not significantly associated with clinical correlates; however, evening snacking was associated with binge eating. Discussion Our findings largely replicated those reported in earlier research. More research is needed to determine the role of breakfast consumption in binge eating. PMID:21661003

  19. Eating Disorders in Athletes: Weighing the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Susan; Martin, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Defines different eating disorders, discusses athlete eating problems, and presents the signs physicians should look for that signal the presence of an eating disorder. The article also discusses the tailoring of treatment programs, questions to ask athletes about eating habits, and society's influence on an athlete's eating behavior. (GLR)

  20. Adolescent eating disorder: bulimia.

    PubMed

    Muuss, R E

    1986-01-01

    Bulimia, an eating disorder, recently has emerged as a major mental health problem, especially among adolescent females. The bulimic experiences periods of compulsive binge eating followed by purges to rid the body of unwanted calories. Binges are triggered by intense emotional experiences, such as loneliness, anger, rejection, or stress. Associated features of bulimia are secretiveness, depression, drug abuse, preoccupation with body image and sexual attractiveness, and an awareness that the behavior is abnormal. The physical side effects include dental problems, inflamed esophagus, EEG abnormalities, abdominal or urinary disturbances, and changes in blood sugar level. Cognitive disturbances related to binging and purging are perfectionistic, egocentric, and distorted thinking, misconceptions about nutritional requirements, unreasonable goals and expectations, and disturbed affect. Bulimics resist treatment; however, such methods as cognitive, group, family, behavior, and drug therapy, and hospitalization appear promising. PMID:3461693

  1. Relationship of age of first drink to alcohol-related consequences among college students with unhealthy alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; DeJong, William; Palfai, Tibor; Saitz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between age of first drink (AFD) and a broad range of negative alcohol-related outcomes among college students exhibiting unhealthy alcohol use. We conducted an anonymous on-line survey to collect self-report data from first-year college students at a large northeastern university. Among 1,792 respondents who reported ever drinking, 14% reported an AFD before age 14. These early onset drinkers were more likely than later onset drinkers to report frequent drinking, heavy drinking, and other unhealthy alcohol use behaviors. Among the subset of drinkers with unhealthy alcohol use (36%), early drinkers were more likely than later onset drinkers to report experiencing five out of 13 alcohol-related consequences, including driving while intoxicated, missing work or school due to drinking, getting into trouble at work or school due to drinking, receiving lower grades than they should have due to drinking, and developing a tolerance to alcohol. PMID:19042317

  2. Prevention program for disturbed eating and body dissatisfaction in a Spanish university population: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, A R; Carrobles, J A; Gandarillas, A; Poveda, J; Pastor, V

    2007-09-01

    A pilot study was carried out in university students to evaluate the effect of a health promotion program for eating disturbances and body dissatisfaction. A subgroup of 135 medical students of both sexes in their second year was selected. There were divided in three groups, high-risk students (EDI >40) and low-risk students (EDI <40) who participated in the program and nonparticipants as comparison group. Program had a total of 16 workshops of 90 min. A year later the different assessment measurements were compared, body image, attitudes and eating behaviours, psychopathological levels and self-esteem. Differences by gender were found on the impact of the intervention. The program presented a statistical significant improvement in body-image satisfaction, eating attitudes only in high-risk female students in the intervention group. This pilot program for eating disorder prevention in university populations can be considered effective, mainly in female populations at risk for developing an eating disorder. PMID:18089278

  3. Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders…

  4. Emotions and eating. Self-reported and experimentally induced changes in food intake under stress.

    PubMed

    Wallis, D J; Hetherington, M M

    2009-04-01

    Two studies investigated the stress-eating relationship. The first examined self-reported changes in intake of snack foods, whilst the second investigated stress-induced overconsumption in a laboratory setting comparing high (HF) and low-fat (LF) snacks. Eighty-nine females completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) [Van Strien, T., Fritjers, J. E. R., Bergers, G. P. A., & Defares, P. B. (1986). Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire for assessment of restrained, emotional and external eating behaviour. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5, 295-315] and a self-report measure designed to evaluate changes in eating in response to stress. Increased intake of HF snacks was associated with high emotional eating but not with restraint. A laboratory-based experiment compared intake of HF and LF snacks after ego-threatening and neutral Stroop colour-naming tasks. Intake was suppressed by 31.8% in restrained compared to unrestrained eaters across tasks. Restrained eaters consumed significantly less after ego-threat than after the neutral manipulation, but this was associated only with intake of the LF snack. Restrained eaters' intake of dried fruit was suppressed by 33.2% after ego-threat relative to the neutral task, despite a significant increase in hunger for this group following ego-threat. These results suggest that the type and variety of foods offered influences the link between stress and eating in laboratory settings. Further research should aim to replicate and extend these findings, with a view to informing potential interventions for stress-related eating. PMID:19071171

  5. [Treatment of eating disorders in adolescents--the view of a child and adolescence psychiatric hospital].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Ernst; Hansen, Berit; Korte, Alexander; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike

    2005-04-01

    The paper presents--in the sense of clinical guidelines--reality of clinical care in a child and adolescence university hospital specialised on eating disorders. Need of a multimodal therapeutic approach is emphasized, including normalisation of weight and eating behaviour, nursing and pedagogical measures, individual, group and family therapy, completed by body therapy, art and music therapy and in case psychopharmacotherapy. Recommendations for overcoming weak spots are made. PMID:15918540

  6. [Cognitive function in eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yuri

    2014-04-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by uncontrolled eating behaviors. The core psychopathology is expressed in a variety of ways: body image distortion, preoccupation with food and weight, fear of weight gain, and so on. Brain-imaging techniques provide many opportunities to study neural circuits related symptoms in eating disorder. The present article focuses studies about functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of eating disorders. Studies of anorexia nervosa suggest 1) relationship between amygdala activation and fear of weight gain, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive flexibility. Studies of bulimic eating disorder (bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and so on) suggest 1) relationship between brain reward system and overeating, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and impulse control. PMID:24796094

  7. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Lorna; Power, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a leading evidence-based treatment for those eating disorders in which binge eating is a feature. This article begins with a consideration of the rationale for using IPT to treat patients with eating disorders. This is followed by a review of the evidence supporting its use and a brief description of treatment including an illustrative clinical case vignette. The article closes with a discussion of possible future directions for research on IPT for eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message IPT for eating disorders (IPT-ED) closely resembles IPT for depression and primarily focuses on current interpersonal problems. It is well suited for helping patients to address interpersonal difficulties which appear to be maintaining the eating disorder. PMID:22362599

  8. Developing the IDEFICS community-based intervention program to enhance eating behaviors in 2- to 8-year-old children: findings from focus groups with children and parents.

    PubMed

    Haerens, L; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Barba, G; Eiben, G; Fernandez, J; Hebestreit, A; Kovács, E; Lasn, H; Regber, S; Shiakou, M; De Henauw, S

    2009-06-01

    One purpose of 'identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants' (IDEFICS) is to implement a standardized community-based multi-component healthy eating intervention for younger children in eight different countries. The present study describes important influencing factors for dietary behaviors among children aged 2-8 years old in order to determine the best approaches for developing the dietary components of the standardized intervention. Twenty focus groups with children (74 boys, 81 girls) and 36 focus groups with 189 parents (28 men, 161 women) were conducted. Only in two countries, children mentioned receiving nutrition education at school. Rules at home and at school ranged from not allowing the consumption of unhealthy products to allowing everything. The same diversity was found for availability of (un)healthy products at home and school. Parents mentioned personal (lack of time, financial constraints, preferences), socio-environmental (family, peer influences), institutional (school policies) and physical-environmental (availability of unhealthy products, price, season) barriers for healthy eating. This focus group research provided valuable information to guide the first phase in the IDEFICS intervention development. There was a large variability in findings within countries. Interventions should be tailored at the personal and environmental level to increase the likelihood of behavioral change. PMID:18603656

  9. Impulsivity is associated with the disinhibition but not restraint factor from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Yeomans, Martin R; Leitch, Margaret; Mobini, Sirous

    2008-01-01

    Recent data implicate impulsivity as a personality trait associated with obesity, binge eating and restrained eating. However, impulsivity is recognised as having multiple dimensions, and it remains unclear which aspects of impulsive behaviour best predict disordered eating. To try and elucidate further the relationship between impulsivity and eating behaviour, 147 women completed a behavioural measure and two self-report measures of impulsivity along with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Overall scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-II), along with scores on the Non-planning and Motor Subscales of the BIS-II, were higher in women scoring high on the TFEQ disinhibition (TFEQ-D) scale. Likewise, women scoring high on the TFEQ-D showed more impulsive choice when discounting hypothetical monetary awards. However, responses to measures of functional relative to dysfunctional impulsivity did not differ depending on TFEQ-D score. No measure of impulsivity was related to scores on the TFEQ restraint scale. These data suggest that a tendency to act impulsively is associated with a tendency to overeat, and may be a factor which predicts the likelihood of the development of binge eating and the breakdown of dieting. PMID:18069081

  10. Body image dissatisfaction and eating-related psychopathology in trans individuals: a matched control study.

    PubMed

    Witcomb, Gemma L; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Richards, Christina; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2015-07-01

    High levels of body dissatisfaction have already been reported in the trans population; however, the root of this dissatisfaction, and its association with eating disordered behaviours, has not been studied in-depth. This study aims to assess eating disorder risk by comparing 200 trans people, 200 people with eating disorders and 200 control participants' scores on three subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and to further explore dissatisfaction in the trans participants using the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (HBDS). The results showed that overall participants with eating disorders scored higher than trans or control groups on all EDI-2 measures, but that trans individuals had greater body dissatisfaction than control participants and, importantly, trans males had comparable body dissatisfaction scores to eating disordered males. Drive for thinness was greater in females (cis and trans) compared with males. In relation to HBDS body dissatisfaction, both trans males and trans females reported greatest dissatisfaction not only for gender-identifying body parts but also for body shape and weight. Overall, trans males may be at particular risk for eating disordered psychopathology and other body image-related behaviours. PMID:25944170

  11. Bad eating habits as the main cause of obesity among children.

    PubMed

    Kuźbicka, Karolina; Rachoń, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is undoubtedly one of the biggest medical problems of the 21st century. Regrettably, the problem affects more and more children and adolescents. 10% of world's school-aged children have an excess body weight and a quarter of these children are obese. In Europe every fifth school-aged child suffers from an excess body weight. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Polish adolescents is about 14%. An excess body weight can be the consequence of genetic factors, endocrine disorders or certain drugs. However, "simple obesity" is the most common, consequence of providing too much energy from food products in comparison to energy expenditure (caloric excess). Today's lifestyle promotes the development of obesity. The lack of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle and energy-rich diet are the main causes of an excess body fat accumulation. Because of improper eating behaviours children consume an excess amount of energy; and their diet is deficient in elements necessary for proper development. The examples of such bad eating habits are: snacking highly processed and calorie-rich foods between meals eating in front of the TV screen, skipping breakfasts, drinking sugar-sweetened beverages, "eating out" frequently and "emotional eating". Bad eating behaviours are crucial factors for the development of obesity. Eating habits are usually formed in early childhood and parents play a very important role in their development. PMID:25577898

  12. [Selected lifestyle and health condition indices of adults with varied models of eating].

    PubMed

    Gacek, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyse certain lifestyle parameters and health condition indices among people with traditional and vegetarian models of eating. The research conducted shows that vegetarians present a higher level of caring about their health, which is expressed on a scale of pro-health behaviours, than people with traditional model of eating. A higher percentage of them take up physical activity in their free time (80% vs. 70%), additionally, they more seldom drink alcohol and smoke cigarettes. Alcohol abstinence is declared by 75% of vegans, 25% of lacto-ovo vegetarians and only 8% of people with traditional model of eating. Tobacco non-smoking is declared by 94% of vegans, 74% of lacto-ovo vegetarians and 67% of traditional eating people. It has also been shown that some psychosomatic health indices, especially concerning digestive duct/system, remain varied in regard to the model of eating followed. The research has proven that vegetarian model of eating influences other--non-eating--pro-health behaviours and in this way it shapes healthy lifestyle of research subjects. PMID:20803902

  13. A prevention program for disturbed eating and body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls: a 1 year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Paxton, S J

    1993-03-01

    This study evaluated an intervention program to reduce moderate and extreme weight loss behaviors, disordered eating and low body image. The Body Image and Eating Behavior Intervention Program consisted of five specialized classes addressing media images of women, determinants of body size, healthy and unhealthy weight control methods, and emotional eating. The program was conducted in year 9 in Schools 1 (n = 80) and 2 (n = 27), while students from the same year in School 3 (n = 29) were control subjects. Participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing eating behavior and body image attitudes prior to the program, 1 months after the program and at 12 months follow-up, while control subjects completed the questionnaires at the same time but did not receive the program. Data were analyzed using groups (Schools 1, 2 and 3) by testing occasion (pre, post and follow-up) analyses of variance with repeated measures on testing occasion. Measures of disordered eating and frequency of use of extreme weight loss behaviors were constant over testing occasion and showed no effect of the intervention program. Body dissatisfaction was consistently lower in School 1 but increased across all subjects over the year. The implications of these data for school-based intervention programs in this area are examined. PMID:11067184

  14. Eating Disorders: About More Than Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders? Where can I find more information? Share Eating Disorders: About More Than Food Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy What are eating disorders? The eating disorders anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and ...

  15. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  16. Recent advances in psychological therapies for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Waller, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen substantial consolidation and development of the evidence base for psychological therapies for eating disorders. This review summarises the key changes over that time period. Specific forms of cognitive behavioural therapy and family-based treatment have consolidated and extended their positions as treatments of choice despite the development of novel approaches. However, there is still a significant need for further development and testing to improve recovery rates, particularly in anorexia nervosa. PMID:27134740

  17. Recent advances in psychological therapies for eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen substantial consolidation and development of the evidence base for psychological therapies for eating disorders. This review summarises the key changes over that time period. Specific forms of cognitive behavioural therapy and family-based treatment have consolidated and extended their positions as treatments of choice despite the development of novel approaches. However, there is still a significant need for further development and testing to improve recovery rates, particularly in anorexia nervosa. PMID:27134740

  18. Sex Differences and Correlates of Pain in Patients with Comorbid Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder.

    PubMed

    Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences and correlates of pain were examined in a sample of patients with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. One hundred fifty-two treatment-seeking patients with BED completed the Brief Pain Inventory. Analysis of covariance was utilized to compare women and men on pain, and correlational analysis, overall and by sex, was performed to examine relationships among pain, eating behaviour and metabolic risk factors. Women reported significantly greater pain severity and pain interference than men. Among women, eating behaviour and metabolic markers were not associated with pain. Among men, however, binge frequency was significantly associated with pain, as was high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting glucose. In sum, while women in this sample had more pain than men, the presence of pain in men was associated with increased behavioural and metabolic risk factors. Findings have clinical implications for the assessment of comorbid pain and obesity-related health risks among individuals with BED. PMID:26841114

  19. Sex Differences and Correlates of Pain in Patients with Comorbid Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences and correlates of pain were examined in a sample of patients with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. One hundred fifty-two treatment-seeking patients with BED completed the Brief Pain Inventory. Analysis of covariance was utilized to compare women and men on pain, and correlational analysis, overall and by sex, was performed to examine relationships among pain, eating behaviour and metabolic risk factors. Women reported significantly greater pain severity and pain interference than men. Among women, eating behaviour and metabolic markers were not associated with pain. Among men, however, binge frequency was significantly associated with pain, as was high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting glucose. In sum, while women in this sample had more pain than men, the presence of pain in men was associated with increased behavioural and metabolic risk factors. Findings have clinical implications for the assessment of comorbid pain and obesity-related health risks among individuals with BED. PMID:26841114

  20. The impact of a rural or urban context in eating awareness and self-regulation strategies in children and adolescents from eight European countries.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Tania; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Baban, Adriana; Wit, John

    2014-06-01

    Complex relationships exist between eating behaviour and personal and environmental factors. Rural and urban geographic contexts seem to play a role in eating behaviour, and therefore deserve a deeper study. A healthy eating behaviour and the conditions that promote it are a major issue in the promotion of adolescent health. The study aims to investigate the associations between the area of residence (urban vs. rural), self-regulation strategies (TESQ-E) and eating behaviours among children and adolescents. A total of 11,820 adolescents (50.6% girls) participated in the study, with a mean age of 13.30 years (SD= 2.13). Nine countries (The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Poland, Portugal, Denmark, Romania, Germany, Finland and Belgium) completed a questionnaire in the school context, asking about the use of self-regulation strategies, eating behaviour awareness/care and sociodemographic questions such as age, gender and residential area. Both areas of residence (urban vs. rural) are associated with eating awareness/care in Romania and Portugal, controlling for age, gender and self-regulation strategies. In some European countries at least, and most probably around the world, health promotion should focus on an ecological approach that includes the understanding of the effect of both environmental factors and personal skills on eating behaviour/awareness. PMID:24821504

  1. Eating disorders in midlife women: A perimenopausal eating disorder?

    PubMed

    Baker, Jessica H; Runfola, Cristin D

    2016-03-01

    Eating disorders afflict women across the lifespan with peak onset during critical or sensitive developmental periods of reproductive hormone change, such as puberty. A growing body of research supports the role of reproductive hormones, specifically estrogen, in the risk for eating disorders and related symptomatology in adolescence and young adulthood. Like puberty, perimenopause is characterized by estrogen change and may also present a window of vulnerability to eating disorder development. Here, we discuss the evidence that suggests perimenopause indeed may be a vulnerable period for the development or redevelopment of an eating disorder for midlife women. Drawing from what is known about the influence of estrogen on eating disorders at younger ages and from other psychiatric disorders with similar risk trajectories (i.e., perimenopausal depression), we describe a potential mechanism of risk for a perimenopausal eating disorder and how this can be explored in future research. Investigating vulnerability to perimenopausal eating disorders will clarify eating disorder etiology, identify reproductive stage-specific risk profiles, and guide future treatment directions. PMID:26857889

  2. Binge eating onset in obese patients with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Marcus, M D; Moulton, M M; Greeno, C G

    1995-01-01

    In this study we examined whether obese women with binge eating disorder (BED) reporting earlier onset binge eating differed from those with later onset binge eating on salient clinical parameters. Subjects were 112 women who sought treatment for BED. Subjects with early (< or = age 18) and later onset (> age 18) did not differ in age, weight, body mass index, or severity of binge eating. Participants were interviewed using the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, and completed a weight and diet history questionnaire. Early-onset binge eaters were more likely than those with later-onset to binge-eat before dieting, to have early onset of obesity and dieting, to have longer binge-free periods, and more paternal obesity and binge eating. Early-onset binge eaters also reported more eating-disorders psychopathology, and they were more likely to report a lifetime history of bulimia nervosa and DSM-III-R mood disorder. These data suggest that there are marked differences among BED patients presenting for treatment. Further research is needed to determine whether these differences reflect a different etiology or have implications for treatment. PMID:8820527

  3. Evolving eating disorder psychopathology: conceptualising muscularity-oriented disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stuart B; Griffiths, Scott; Mond, Jonathan M

    2016-05-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be largely confined to females, are increasingly common in males. However, the presentation of disordered eating among males is often distinct to that observed in females and this diversity is not accommodated in current classification schemes. Here, we consider the diagnostic and clinical challenges presented by these distinctive presentations. PMID:27143005

  4. Relationship between body satisfaction with self esteemand unhealthy body weight management

    PubMed Central

    Daniali, Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship between body satisfaction, self esteem and unhealthy weight control behaviors between women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 408 women employees in Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 1390. They were chosen according to the stratified random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were 1) willing to participate in the study and 2) lack of serious physical defect 3) not being in pregnancy or breastfeeding course. Exclusion criteria was filling out questionnaires incompletely. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised of 4 sections as following: demographic (5items), A self-administrative questionnaire for body Satisfaction (7 items), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items) and a standard Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Cranach's alpha was 0.9 or higher for the different sections. Finally, collected data was analyzed with SPSS18 using the independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, Spearman correlation. Results: Frequencies of participants by weight category were 14.1% for obese, 35.3% for overweight, 47.6% for normal weight. The mean body satisfaction score in the studied women was 63.26 ± 16.27 (from 100). Mean score of self esteem was 76.70 ± 10.45. 51.5% of women had medium self esteem, 47.5% had high self esteem. Pearson correlation showed that the variables of body Satisfaction (r = 0.3, P = 0.02), BMI (r = - 0.14, P < 0.003), education level (r = 0

  5. A hierarchy of unhealthy food promotion effects: identifying methodological approaches and knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; King MPsy, Lesley; Chapman Mnd, Kathy; Boyland, Emma; Bauman, Adrian E; Baur, Louise A

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the evidence for a conceptual "hierarchy of effects" of marketing, to guide understanding of the relationship between children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing and poor diets and overweight, and drive the research agenda. We reviewed studies assessing the impact of food promotions on children from MEDLINE, Web of Science, ABI Inform, World Health Organization library database, and The Gray Literature Report. We included articles published in English from 2009 to 2013, with earlier articles from a 2009 systematic review. We grouped articles by outcome of exposure and assessed outcomes within a framework depicting a hierarchy of effects of marketing exposures. Evidence supports a logical sequence of effects linking food promotions to individual-level weight outcomes. Future studies should demonstrate the sustained effects of marketing exposure, and exploit variations in exposures to assess differences in outcomes longitudinally. PMID:25713968

  6. Environmental factors and unhealthy lifestyle influence oxidative stress in humans--an overview.

    PubMed

    Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Sivasudha, T; Jeyadevi, R; Arul Ananth, D

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen is the most essential molecule for life; since it is a strong oxidizing agent, it can aggravate the damage within the cell by a series of oxidative events including the generation of free radicals. Antioxidative agents are the only defense mechanism to neutralize these free radicals. Free radicals are not only generated internally in our body system but also trough external sources like environmental pollution, toxic metals, cigarette smoke, pesticides, etc., which add damage to our body system. Inhaling these toxic chemicals in the environment has become unavoidable in modern civilization. Antioxidants of plant origin with free radical scavenging properties could have great importance as therapeutic agents in several diseases caused by environmental pollution. This review summarizes the generation of reactive oxygen species and damage to cells by exposure to external factors, unhealthy lifestyle, and role of herbal plants in scavenging these reactive oxygen species. PMID:23636598

  7. Unhealthy Body Weight, Illness Absence, Presenteeism, Medical Payments, and Disability Leave: A Longitudinal View.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Brian

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study is to examine how much of the relationships between unhealthy body weight, and health and productivity outcomes are attributable to health status, and how much can be ameliorated by weight loss or improvements in health. Cross-sectional and first-difference regressions were conducted of employees' body mass index (BMI) category, illness absences, presenteeism, medical spending, and disability leaves. Employees in the obese BMI category have significantly worse outcomes than employees in the healthy and overweight BMI categories. Controlling for physical and emotional health status mediates much of the observed relationships. Improved health, stress, and psychological distress are associated with reduced illness absence and presenteeism among overweight and obese employees. Obese employees who lost weight experienced reduced presenteeism. The findings suggest that overweight and obese employees can realize improved productivity without weight loss. PMID:25375972

  8. [Taxing unhealthy foods. A measure to promote public health in Germany?].

    PubMed

    Lehnert, T; Riedel-Heller, S; König, H-H

    2013-04-01

    Due to the substantial health burden and costs caused by malnutrition in Germany, for instance as a result of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, the taxation of unhealthy foods/nutrients has been proposed as a possible health promoting measure. In order to evaluate whether such a fiscal intervention constitutes an effective and suitable measure to promote population health in Germany, the article outlines central empirical findings regarding malnutrition in Germany. Subsequently, the economic background (price elasticity of demand) is explained, and empirical evidence on the influence of changes in price on changes in consumption and health is presented. As a result of findings from the international literature being heterogeneous, and because very little research has been conducted in Germany on this matter until now, the taxation/subsidization of foods in order to promote population health is difficult to justify at this point. PMID:23467848

  9. Exposure to Famine at a Young Age and Unhealthy Lifestyle Behavior Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Heidi P.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; de Wit, G. Ardine; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Elias, Sjoerd G.; May, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background A healthy diet is important for normal growth and development. Exposure to undernutrition during important developmental periods such as childhood and adolescence can have effects later in life. Inhabitants of the west of the Netherlands were exposed to severe undernutrition during the famine in the last winter of the second World War (1944–1945). Objective We investigated if exposure of women to the Dutch famine during childhood and adolescence was associated with an unhealthy lifestyle later in life. Design We studied 7,525 women from the Prospect-EPIC cohort, recruited in 1993–97 and aged 0–18 years during the Dutch famine. An individual famine score was calculated based on self-reported information about experience of hunger and weight loss. We investigated the association between famine exposure in early life and four lifestyle factors in adulthood: smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity level and a Mediterranean-style diet. Results Of the 7,525 included women, 46% were unexposed, 38% moderately exposed and 16% severely exposed to the Dutch famine. Moderately and severely exposed women were more often former or current smokers compared to women that did not suffer from the famine: adjusted prevalence ratio 1.10 (95% CI: 1.05; 1.14) and 1.18 (1.12; 1.25), respectively. They also smoked more pack years than unexposed women. Severely exposed women were more often physically inactive than unexposed women, adjusted prevalence ratio 1.32 (1.06; 1.64). Results did not differ between exposure age categories (0–9 and 10–17 years). We found no associations of famine exposure with alcohol consumption and no dose-dependent relations with diet. Conclusions Exposure to famine early in female life may be associated with higher prevalence of smoking and physical inactivity later in life, but not with unhealthy diet and alcohol consumption. PMID:27244088

  10. Picky eating: Associations with child eating characteristics and food intake.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Klazine; Deming, Denise M; Lesniauskas, Ruta; Carr, B Thomas; Reidy, Kathleen C

    2016-08-01

    Food rejection behaviors such as picky eating are of concern for many parents and attempts to increase healthy food intake can cause distress at mealtimes. An important limitation in most of the picky eating studies is that they cover few characteristics of picky eating behaviors and use limited measures of food intake. The objective of this study was to explore the associations between picky eating, child eating characteristics, and food intake among toddlers 12-47.9 months old (n = 2371) using data from the 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS). Logistic regression was used to examine associations between demographic and feeding characteristics and picky eater status. Differences in food group intake between picky and non-picky eaters were analyzed. Picky eaters were more likely to be neophobic, texture resistant, and to eat only favorite foods, In addition, the parents of picky eaters tend to offer new food a greater number of times than those of non-picky eaters before deciding that the child does not like it. Picky eaters showed significant lower intakes of eggs, burritos/tacos/enchiladas/nachos and sandwiches than non-picky eaters. Picky eaters consumed fewer vegetables from the "other vegetables" category and less raw vegetables than non-picky eaters. Neophobia, eating only favorite foods and difficulties with texture are all important characteristics of picky eaters which need to be integrated in studies measuring picky eating behaviors. Food intake of picky eaters differs only slightly from non-picky eaters. Because picky eating is a major parental concern, feeding strategies and advice related to the relevant characteristics of picky eating behavior need to be developed and assessed for their effectiveness. PMID:27120094

  11. Relationship of Age of First Drink to Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students with Unhealthy Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Dejong, William; Palfai, Tibor; Saitz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between age of first drink (AFD) and a broad range of negative alcohol-related outcomes among college students exhibiting unhealthy alcohol use. We conducted an anonymous on-line survey to collect self-report data from first-year college students at a large northeastern university. Among 1,792 respondents…

  12. Mapping Unhealthy Behavior Among Economically Active Men Using GIS in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Padmaka

    2016-01-01

    The burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and certain behavioral risk factors related to NCDs (unhealthy behaviors) are becoming more common. This survey aims to map out such common unhealthy behaviors among all men 35 to 50 years old in a Medical Officer of Health area in the Western Province of Sri Lanka using a geographical information system (GIS) and an interviewer administered questionnaire by visiting all households in the study area. Data were analyzed with ARC GIS and SPSS software. Geographical areas where men with unhealthy behaviors cluster together (clusters) were identified and visually and statistically related to locations of schools, places of religious worship, and factories in the area. It was revealed that clusters of unhealthy behaviors are mostly seen in areas with less population density. Smoking and alcohol are clustering in estate areas occupied by Tamils. This way GIS mapping could be used to identify and reduce the burden of NCDs by visualizing clusters and how certain locations affect their spread. PMID:26489433

  13. Mapping Unhealthy Behavior Among Economically Active Men Using GIS in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Silva, J Padmaka; Gunathunga, M W; Jayasinghe, S

    2016-01-01

    The burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and certain behavioral risk factors related to NCDs (unhealthy behaviors) are becoming more common. This survey aims to map out such common unhealthy behaviors among all men 35 to 50 years old in a Medical Officer of Health area in the Western Province of Sri Lanka using a geographical information system (GIS) and an interviewer administered questionnaire by visiting all households in the study area. Data were analyzed with ARC GIS and SPSS software. Geographical areas where men with unhealthy behaviors cluster together (clusters) were identified and visually and statistically related to locations of schools, places of religious worship, and factories in the area. It was revealed that clusters of unhealthy behaviors are mostly seen in areas with less population density. Smoking and alcohol are clustering in estate areas occupied by Tamils. This way GIS mapping could be used to identify and reduce the burden of NCDs by visualizing clusters and how certain locations affect their spread. PMID:26489433

  14. Examination of Classroom Observations and Educator Perceptions of Classroom Interventions of Middle School Gifted Students Exhibiting Unhealthy Perfectionist Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drawdy, LaTease

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy perfectionist tendencies plague many gifted middle school students, and this type of perfectionism can lead to a lack of classroom success. Identifying effective interventions that educators can utilize is important in assisting middle school gifted students who demonstrate these maladaptive tendencies in their achievement in the…

  15. Substitution of healthy for unhealthy beverages among college students. A health-concerns and behavioral-economics perspective.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Chin; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-06-01

    Excessive intake of sugar-sweetened beverages by undergraduates is closely related to the increasing prevalence of obesity, making investigations of the substitution of healthy for unhealthy beverages imperative. According to the concept of price elasticity in behavioral economics, the choice of healthy over unhealthy behaviors is facilitated by increasing the cost of less-healthy alternatives or reducing the cost of healthier alternatives. Furthermore, evoking health concerns by using health claims may induce substitution of healthy for unhealthy beverages. A total of 108 18-22-year-old undergraduates participated in a laboratory experiment and were given a certain amount of money and allowed to purchase a healthy beverage and a less-healthy beverage with or without receiving health claims. Increasing the price of a type of beverage was shown to reduce purchases of that beverage type and lead to substitution with the alternative type. Moreover, the effect of price elasticity on healthy beverage substitution was more pronounced when participants' health concerns were evoked. The results suggest that lowering the cost of alternative commodities and evoking health concerns by health-related claims would foster the substitution of healthier for unhealthy beverages among college students. PMID:20156500

  16. Life Satisfaction, Happiness, and the Growth Mindset of Healthy and Unhealthy Perfectionists among Hong Kong Chinese Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This study used clustering to classify Chinese gifted students based on their scores on the High Standards and Discrepancy subscales of the Almost Perfect Scale--Revised (APS-R). The interpretation of the three clusters as nonperfectionists, unhealthy perfectionists, and healthy perfectionists was supported by results comparing these groups on…

  17. [Avoidance coping style and the risk of developing an eating disorder in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Pamies Aubalat, Lidia; Quiles Marcos, Yolanda

    2012-05-01

    The first aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between coping styles and strategies in Spanish adolescents of both genders, with high and low eating disorder risk. Secondly, this study aims to examine the relation of coping styles and coping strategies with eating disorder risk. The sample comprised 2142 adolescents (1.130 girls and 1.012 boys), mean age 13,96 years (SD= 1.34). They completed the Adolescent Coping Scale (ACS) and the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-40). The results showed high use of intropunitive avoidance coping in both female and male adolescents with high EAT-40 scores. The regression analysis indicated that, in both girls and boys, the intropunitive avoidance and the tension reduction coping strategy explained a high percentage of variance of eating disorder risk. The results of this study have implications for the prevention of these behaviours in adolescents, because people with a high risk of developing an eating disorder present a maladaptive coping style before the onset of the eating disorder. PMID:22420350

  18. Exploring child-feeding style in childcare settings: how might nursery practitioners affect child eating style and weight?

    PubMed

    Elford, L; Brown, A

    2014-04-01

    Although considerable research has explored the role of parents in affecting child eating habits and weight, there has been little consideration of the impact of other key care providers in the early years. A controlling maternal child-feeding style (e.g. use of pressure to eat or restricting certain foods) has been associated with over consumption, fussy eating and weight issue. Conversely, responsive child-feeding styles whereby children are allowed to regulate their own intake but encouraged to eat a range of foods and try new tastes are associated with healthier eating styles and weight. Increasing numbers of preschool children now spend time in day care settings, many for up to fifty hours a week but interactions with caregivers during mealtimes remain unexplored. The aim of the current study was to begin to explore child-feeding styles of nursery practitioners working with children aged 0-5 years. Sixty three nursery practitioners completed an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire to examine their interactions with children during mealtimes. Themes included pressure to eat, encouragement to eat and use of reward. Typically practitioners reported responsive child-feeding styles with low levels of pressure to eat but high levels of encouragement to try new foods. Use of reward to eat certain foods or as a bribe to modify behaviour was however more common. The findings have important implications for understanding the role of childcare providers in affecting child eating habits and weight. PMID:24854825

  19. Cognitive Treatments for Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    1993-01-01

    Sees cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as applicable to all eating disorders but most intensively studied in treatment of bulimia nervosa. Briefly reviews most commonly used cognitive treatments for eating disorders, provides critical evaluation of their effectiveness, and speculates about their mechanisms of action. Notes that CBT has not been…

  20. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  1. Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy…

  2. Hunger, Eating, and Ill Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinel, John P. J.; Assanand, Sunaina; Lehman, Darrin R.

    2000-01-01

    Because of the unpredictability of food in nature, humans have evolved to eat to their physiological limits when food is plentiful. Discrepancies between the environment in which the hunger and eating system evolved and the food-replete environments in which many people live have led to the current problem of overconsumption. This evolutionary…

  3. Healthy Eating in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Across the UK there is a great deal of concern about the quality of children's diets and the growing problem of children's obesity. There is also anxiety about the rise of dieting and eating disorders at younger ages. Both obesity and eating disorders can be treated through educational, medical and therapeutic means with varying degrees of…

  4. Binge eating and menstrual dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ålgars, Monica; Huang, Lu; Von Holle, Ann F.; Peat, Christine M.; Thornton, Laura; Lichtenstein, Paul; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The relation between eating disorders and menstrual function has been widely studied, but it is unknown whether the behavior of binge eating itself is related to menstrual dysfunction. Methods The 11,503 women included in this study were from the Swedish Twin study of Adults: Genes and Environment. The associations between menstrual dysfunction and binge eating were analyzed using logistic regression or multiple linear regression models with generalized estimation equations. Results Women who reported lifetime binge eating were more likely to report either amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea than women who reported no binge eating. These results persisted when controlling for compensatory behaviors including self-induced vomiting, laxative use, and diuretic use. No differences between women with and without a history of binge eating were observed for age at menarche. Conclusion Even when controlling for the effect of compensatory behaviors, the behavior of binge eating is associated with menstrual dysfunction. Metabolic and endocrinological factors could underlie this association. Careful evaluation of menstrual status is warranted for women with all eating disorders, not just anorexia nervosa. PMID:24360136

  5. Should I pay for your risky behaviours? Evidence from London.

    PubMed

    Miraldo, Marisa; Galizzi, Matteo M; Merla, Anna; Levaggi, Rosella; Schulz, Peter J; Auxilia, Francesco; Castaldi, Silvana; Gelatti, Umberto

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the extent to which respondents from a general population sample in London (July-August 2011) agree or disagree with the NHS covering the healthcare costs related to five risky health behaviours: overeating, unhealthy diet, sedentary life, excess of alcohol, and smoking. For each behaviour, we also directly explore the main factors associated with the likelihood to agree or disagree. Half of the respondents (N=146) manifest agreement with the idea. Wider agreement exists for covering the costs associated smoking, heavy drinking, and sedentary lives than with overeating, or poor diets. With the exception of alcohol drinking and sedentary life, there is an almost one-to-one relationship between the agreement that the NHS should pay the healthcare costs associated with a specific behaviour, and the respondents' actual engagement in that behaviour. Those at higher risk of depending on publicly funded healthcare, are more likely to agree. PMID:24945692

  6. Protein supplementation and dietary behaviours of resistance trained men and women attending commercial gyms: a comparative study between the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is anecdotally recognized that commercial gym users assume supplements in order to improve performance or health. However, dietary behaviours of people and athletes attending commercial gyms have been poorly studied. The exact amount and frequency of dietary supplements consumption are still needed to be investigated. The main purpose of this study is to understand the quantity and quality of food intake, as well as dietary supplementation in people attending commercial gyms. Secondly to compare the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire was administered to 561 subjects, 207 from the city centre (CC) and 354 from the suburbs (SB) of Palermo, Italy. Frequency of protein supplements use and association with dietary behaviours were investigated. Subsequently, the frequency distribution was used for demographic assessment. Results Frequency of protein consumption was similar in both groups (30% for CC and 28.8% for SB). Males show greater consumption percentages than females (30.5% in males and 6.9% in females). Milk and chicken are the most frequently consumed foods. Data show that non-supplement users (NSU) consume significantly more snacks and bakery products than supplement users (SU) (P < 0.001). While, SU consume significantly higher quantities of vegetables, nuts, fresh fish, eggs and canned tuna (P < 0.001). SU consume less low protein food and higher protein foods than NSU. No differences were found between CC and SB. Conclusions Protein consumption among commercial gym users is 30% for the CC and 28.8% for the SB. Significant differences were found between CC and SB females, underlining an interesting discrepancy, indicating to dietary supplement industries regarding regional implications. Subjects that use protein supplements also consume larger quantities of high protein food compared to NSU. NSU also eat higher proportions of unhealthy food compared to SU. PMID:24976800

  7. Biological Therapies for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, James E.; Roerig, James; Steffen, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide a comprehensive review of pharmacotherapy and other biological treatments for eating disorders. Method Literature on this topic was systematically reviewed. Results The bulimia nervosa literature underscores the utility of antidepressants, particularly SSRIs, in improving the symptoms of the disorder. The literature on binge eating disorder supports efficacy on reduction in binge eating frequency for a variety of compounds. However, such compounds have only modest effects on weight. Certain antiepileptic agents such as topiramate, if tolerated, are probably more useful in terms of weight loss. The number of controlled trials in patients with anorexia nervosa in particular has been quite small, and recent meta-analyses show disappointing results using atypical antipsychotics in anorexia nervosa. Discussion The pharmacological treatment of eating disorders remains an underdeveloped field although drug therapy clearly plays a role in the treatment of those with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Other biological therapies have not been adequately studied. PMID:23658094

  8. Family weight talk and dieting: How much do they matter for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors in adolescent girls?

    PubMed Central

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Bauer, Katherine W.; Friend, Sarah; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary; Berge, Jerica M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To learn about parent weight talk, parent dieting, and family weight-teasing in the homes of adolescent girls at risk for obesity and weight-related problems. To examine associations between these family variables and girls’ weight status, body satisfaction, and disordered eating behaviors. Methods Data were collected at baseline from girls participating in a school-based intervention to prevent weight-related problems. Participants included 365 adolescent girls from 12 high schools. The girls’ mean age was 15.8 years; 46% were overweight or obese; and over 75% were racial/ethnic minorities. Results A high percentage of girls reported parent weight talk (i.e., comments about one’s own weight and encouragement of daughter to diet), parent dieting, and family weight-teasing. For example, 45% of the girls reported that their mothers encouraged them to diet and 58% reported weight-teasing by family members. Weight-teasing was strongly associated with higher BMI, body dissatisfaction, unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors, and binge eating with loss of control in the girls. Parent weight talk, particularly by mothers, was associated with a number of disordered eating behaviors. Mother dieting was associated with girls’ unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors. In no instances were family weight talk and dieting variables associated with better outcomes in the girls. Conclusions Parent weight-related comments and dieting behaviors, and family weight-teasing, may contribute to disordered eating behaviors in adolescent girls. Health care providers can help parents provide a supportive home environment by discouraging weight-based comments, which may be intended to be helpful, but can have unintentional harmful consequences. PMID:20708566

  9. Using three-phase theory-based formative research to explore healthy eating in Australian truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Vayro, Caitlin; Hamilton, Kyra

    2016-03-01

    In Australia, fruit and vegetable consumption is lower than recommended while discretionary foods (i.e., foods high in fat, sugar, and salt) are eaten in excess. Long-haul truck drivers are a group at risk of unhealthy eating but have received limited attention in the health literature. We aimed to examine long-haul truck drivers eating decisions in order to develop theory-based and empirically-driven health messages to improve their healthy food choices. Drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior, three-phased formative research was conducted using self-report surveys. Phase 1 (N = 30, Mage = 39.53, SDage = 10.72) identified modal salient beliefs about fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and limiting discretionary choices (DC). There were nine behavioral and seven normative beliefs elicited for both FV and DC; while nine and five control beliefs were elicited for FV and DC, respectively. Phase 2 (N = 148, Mage = 44.23, SDage = 12.08) adopted a prospective design with one week follow-up to examine the predictors of FV and DC intention and behavior. A variety of behavioral and control beliefs were predictive of FV and DC intention and behavior. Normative beliefs were predictive of FV intention and behavior and DC intention only. Phase 3 (N = 20, Mage = 46.9, SDage = 12.85) elicited the reasons why each belief is held/solutions to negative beliefs, that could be used as health messages. In total, 40 reasons/solutions were identified: 26 for FV and 14 for DC. In summary, we found that specific behavioral, normative and control beliefs influenced FV and DC eating decisions. These results have implications for truck driver's health and provide formative research to inform future interventions to improve the food choices of a unique group who are at risk of unhealthy eating behaviors. PMID:26710674

  10. Children eat their school lunch too quickly: an exploratory study of the effect on food intake

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Speed of eating, an important aspect of eating behaviour, has recently been related to loss of control of food intake and obesity. Very little time is allocated for lunch at school and thus children may consume food more quickly and food intake may therefore be affected. Study 1 measured the time spent eating lunch in a large group of students eating together for school meals. Study 2 measured the speed of eating and the amount of food eaten in individual school children during normal school lunches and then examined the effect of experimentally increasing or decreasing the speed of eating on total food intake. Methods The time spent eating lunch was measured with a stop watch in 100 children in secondary school. A more detailed study of eating behaviour was then undertaken in 30 secondary school children (18 girls). The amount of food eaten at lunch was recorded by a hidden scale when the children ate amongst their peers and by a scale connected to a computer when they ate individually. When eating individually, feedback on how quickly to eat was visible on the computer screen. The speed of eating could therefore be increased or decreased experimentally using this visual feedback and the total amount of food eaten measured. Results In general, the children spent very little time eating their lunch. The 100 children in Study 1 spent on average (SD) just 7 (0.8) minutes eating lunch. The girls in Study 2 consumed their lunch in 5.6 (1.2) minutes and the boys ate theirs in only 6.8 (1.3) minutes. Eating with peers markedly distorted the amount of food eaten for lunch; only two girls and one boy maintained their food intake at the level observed when the children ate individually without external influences (258 (38) g in girls and 289 (73) g in boys). Nine girls ate on average 33% less food and seven girls ate 23% more food whilst the remaining boys ate 26% more food. The average speed of eating during school lunches amongst groups increased to 183 (53

  11. Towards the pharmacotherapy of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Kristine J; Roerig, James L; Mitchell, James E

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss pharmacological options for the treatment of patients with eating disorders. Sequentially described are pharmacotherapy studies of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED). The quantity of drug trials performed with AN patients has been very limited. While the majority of studies have failed to show medication efficacy for the acute treatment of AN, there is data which suggests that fluoxetine hydrochloride may play a role in preventing relapse during maintenance therapy. Atypical antipsychotics, most often olanzapine, have shown promise in a number of uncontrolled studies. BN has been most extensively studied, with the majority of pharmacological trials focusing on antidepressants. Fluoxetine, at a dose of 60 mg/day, is FDA-approved for the treatment of BN. Psychotherapy, particularly cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is of well-established utility in BN and data suggests that the combination of an antidepressant plus CBT is superior to either treatment alone. Recently, there has been interest in the 5-HT3 antagonist, ondansetron, and the anticonvulsant, topiramate. BED investigators have focused largely on antidepressants, which may reduce symptoms of depression and augment psychotherapy. While sibutramine and topiramate have both been associated with weight loss in controlled trials, the former appears to be fairly well-tolerated and the latter appears to be responsible for the emergence of significant cognitive and peripheral nervous system side effects in some patients. Further pharmacological research with eating disorder patients is needed, particularly in the areas of AN and BED. Also, pharmacological augmentation strategies for those not responding to primary therapies should be explored. PMID:14521477

  12. Health behaviour and body mass index among problem gamblers: results from a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Algren, Maria H; Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael; Larsen, Christina V L; Juel, Knud

    2015-06-01

    Problem gambling is a serious public health issue. The objective of this study was to investigate whether past year problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among Danes aged 16 years or older. Data were derived from the Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010. Past year problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between past year problem gambling and health behaviour and BMI. Problem gambling was associated with unhealthy behaviour and obesity. The odds of smoking was significantly higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. Further, the odds of high-risk alcohol drinking and illicit drug use were significantly higher among problem gamblers. The prevalence of sedentary leisure activity, unhealthy diet pattern and obesity was higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. The associations found in this study remained significant after adjustment for sex, age, educational and cohabiting status as well as other risk factors. Our findings highlight the presence of a potential, public health challenge and elucidate the need for health promotion initiatives targeted at problem gamblers. Furthermore, more research is needed in order to understand the underlying social mechanism of the association between problem gamblers and unhealthy behaviour. PMID:24390713

  13. Eating disorder or disordered eating? Non-normative eating patterns in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Susan Z

    2004-09-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) are putative eating disorders frequently seen in obese individuals. Data suggest that BED fulfills criteria for a mental disorder. Criteria for NES are evolving but at present do not require distress or functional impairment. It remains unclear whether BED and NES, as they are currently defined, are optimally useful for characterizing distinct patient subgroups. We propose that a distinction be made between "eating disorders" and "non-normative" eating patterns without associated distress or impairment. Although non-normative eating patterns may not be considered mental disorders, they may be very important in terms of their impact on body weight and health. More precise behavioral and metabolic characterization of subgroups with eating disorders and non-normative eating behaviors has important implications for understanding the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of obesity. Ultimately, better understanding of the many pathways to increased energy intake may lead to targeted strategies for prevention of overweight and obesity in at-risk individuals and populations. PMID:15483199

  14. Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among school-age children.

    PubMed

    Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight. PMID:27090341

  15. Policy interventions to promote healthy eating: a review of what works, what does not, and what is promising.

    PubMed

    Brambila-Macias, Jose; Shankar, Bhavani; Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Verbeke, Wim; Traill, W Bruce

    2011-12-01

    Unhealthy diets can lead to various diseases, which in turn can translate into a bigger burden for the state in the form of health services and lost production. Obesity alone has enormous costs and claims thousands of lives every year. Although diet quality in the European Union has improved across countries, it still falls well short of conformity with the World Health Organization dietary guidelines. In this review, we classify types of policy interventions addressing healthy eating and identify through a literature review what specific policy interventions are better suited to improve diets. Policy interventions are classified into two broad categories: information measures and measures targeting the market environment. Using this classification, we summarize a number of previous systematic reviews, academic papers, and institutional reports and draw some conclusions about their effectiveness. Of the information measures, policy interventions aimed at reducing or banning unhealthy food advertisements generally have had a weak positive effect on improving diets, while public information campaigns have been successful in raising awareness of unhealthy eating but have failed to translate the message into action. Nutritional labeling allows for informed choice. However, informed choice is not necessarily healthier; knowing or being able to read and interpret nutritional labeling on food purchased does not necessarily result in consumption of healthier foods. Interventions targeting the market environment, such as fiscal measures and nutrient, food, and diet standards, are rarer and generally more effective, though more intrusive. Overall, we conclude that measures to support informed choice have a mixed and limited record of success. On the other hand, measures to target the market environment are more intrusive but may be more effective. PMID:22590970

  16. An Effectiveness Trial of a New Enhanced Dissonance Eating Disorder Prevention Program among Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Butryn, Meghan L.; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Efficacy trials indicate that a dissonance-based prevention program in which female high school and college students with body image concerns critique the thin-ideal reduced risk factors, eating disorder symptoms, and future eating disorder onset, but weaker effects emerged from an effectiveness trial wherein high school clinicians recruited students and delivered the program under real-world conditions. The present effectiveness trial tested whether a new enhanced dissonance version of this program produced larger effects when college clinicians recruited students and delivered the intervention using improved procedures to select, train, and supervise clinicians. Method Young women recruited from seven universities across the US (N = 408, M age = 21.6, SD = 5.64) were randomized to the dissonance intervention or an educational brochure control condition. Results Dissonance participants showed significantly greater decreases in risk factors (thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, negative affect) and eating disorder symptoms versus controls at posttest and 1-year follow-up, resulting in medium average effect size (d = .60). Dissonance participants also reported significant improvements in psychosocial functioning, but not reduced healthcare utilization or unhealthy weight gain. Conclusions This novel multisite effectiveness trial with college clinicians found that the enhanced dissonance version of this program and the improved facilitator selection/training procedures produced average effects that were 83% larger than effects observed in the high school effectiveness trial. PMID:24189570

  17. Eating patterns and cardiovascular disease risk in a Detroit Mexican American population.

    PubMed

    Artinian, Nancy T; Schim, Stephanie Myers; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Nies, Mary A

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Hispanic adults living in Southwest Detroit. A descriptive design was used. Self-report baseline data were collected using The Rate Your Plate and Personal Health Risk Assessment questionnaires. A nonrandom sample of 32 Mexican American adults was recruited from a large Roman Catholic Church in Southwest Detroit. Participants were selected if they were enrolled in the larger parent research study to test the effects of a lay health educator intervention and planned to participate in the nutrition education portion of the intervention. Unhealthy eating patterns outnumbered heart healthy eating practices. The majority used higher fat salad dressings; ate fried foods, sweets, and high fat snacks; consumed greater than the desired amounts of regular cheese; drank whole milk; and ate few fruits and vegetables. Lack of physical activity, being overweight, and exposure to second-hand smoke were the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors. The data suggest that effective community-based heart disease prevention programs that emphasize risk factor screening and cardiovascular risk reduction through heart healthy eating are needed. PMID:15363023

  18. Zolpidem-induced compulsive evening eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Ki; Kwon, Jun Tack; Baek, Jeehun; Park, Duck Su; Yang, Kwang Ik

    2013-01-01

    Zolpidem is associated with an amnestic sleep-related eating disorder, but not with compulsive eating behaviors. A 57-year-old woman receiving zolpidem for insomnia showed compulsive evening eating behavior under a wakeful state. Her compulsive evening eating behavior disappeared when zolpidem treatment was halted. Here, we report her case. PMID:24045611

  19. Dopamine and binge eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Nicholas T.; Hajnal, Andras

    2010-01-01

    Central dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in the motivational aspects of eating and food choices. This review focuses on human and animal data examining the importance of dopamine on binge eating behaviors. Early works examining dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of bulimic individuals suggested decreased dopamine turnover during the active phase of the illness. While neuroimaging studies of dopamine mechanisms in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are limited, genetic studies in humans have implicated an increased frequency of dopamine transporter and associated D2 receptor polymorphisms with binge pathology. Recent examinations of rodent models of dietary-induced binge eating (DIBE) have investigated plausible dopamine mechanisms involved in sustaining binge eating behaviors. In DIBE models, highly palatable foods (fats, sugars and their combination), as well as restricted access conditions appear to promote ingestive responses and result in sustained dopamine stimulation within the nucleus accumbens. Taken together with studies examining the comorbidity of illicit drug use and eating disorders, the data reviewed here support a role for dopamine in perpetuating the compulsive feeding patterns of BN and BED. As such, we propose that sustained stimulation of the dopamine systems by bingeing promoted by preexisting conditions (e.g., genetic traits, dietary restraint, stress, etc.) results in progressive impairments of dopamine signaling. To disrupt this vicious cycle, novel research-based treatment options aiming at the neural substrates of compulsive eating patterns are necessary. PMID:20417658

  20. Sudden death in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Garrido, Beatriz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds) must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients. PMID:22393299