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|Background: Previous research has found links between being a victim of bullying and reporting more unhealthyeatingbehaviours and cognitions, particularly in girls. However, little is known about the factors that might mediate these relationships. Aim: The present study compared the relationships between bullying, emotional adjustment,…
|Eating disorders than may beset teenagers and seriously affect their health are discussed. Facts about causes, symptoms, and treatments for anorexia nervosa and bulimia, a disorder which involves overeating, followed by self-induced vomiting or purging, are presented. (PP)|
Combatting chronic, lifestyle-related disease has become a healthcare priority in the developed world. The role personal responsibility should play in healthcare provision has growing pertinence given the growing significance of individual lifestyle choices for health. Media reporting focussing on the ‘bad behaviour’ of individuals suffering lifestyle-related disease, and policies aimed at encouraging ‘responsibilisation’ in healthcare highlight the importance of understanding the scope of responsibility ascriptions in this context. Research into the social determinants of health and psychological mechanisms of health behaviour could undermine some commonly held and tacit assumptions about the moral responsibility of agents for the sorts of lifestyles they adopt. I use Philip Petit's conception of freedom as ‘fitness to be held responsible’ to consider the significance of some of this evidence for assessing the moral responsibility of agents. I propose that, in some cases, factors outside the agent's control may influence behaviour in such a way as to undermine her freedom along the three dimensions described by Pettit: freedom of action; a sense of identification with one's actions; and whether one's social position renders one vulnerable to pressure from more powerful others.
Combatting chronic, lifestyle-related disease has become a healthcare priority in the developed world. The role personal responsibility should play in healthcare provision has growing pertinence given the growing significance of individual lifestyle choices for health. Media reporting focussing on the 'bad behaviour' of individuals suffering lifestyle-related disease, and policies aimed at encouraging 'responsibilisation' in healthcare highlight the importance of understanding the scope of responsibility ascriptions in this context. Research into the social determinants of health and psychological mechanisms of health behaviour could undermine some commonly held and tacit assumptions about the moral responsibility of agents for the sorts of lifestyles they adopt. I use Philip Petit's conception of freedom as 'fitness to be held responsible' to consider the significance of some of this evidence for assessing the moral responsibility of agents. I propose that, in some cases, factors outside the agent's control may influence behaviour in such a way as to undermine her freedom along the three dimensions described by Pettit: freedom of action; a sense of identification with one's actions; and whether one's social position renders one vulnerable to pressure from more powerful others. PMID:23315854
Unhealthyeating attitudes and poor body esteem often lead to adverse outcomes (e.g., eating disorders). Prior research has identified two risk factors for these outcomes – endorsement of the superhero ideal and maladaptive perfectionism – and has suggested that these factors may interact to predict unhealthyeating attitudes and body esteem. The current study examined the interaction between the superhero
Health psychologists have given surprisingly little attention to consumer behavior. This study focuses on the relationship between an impulsive consumer style and unhealthyeating. In a survey, moderate to strong correlations were found between low self-esteem, dispositional negative affect, impulse buying tendency, snacking habit, and eating disturbance propensity. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model of relations between
Bas Verplanken; Astrid G. Herabadi; Judith A. Perry; David H. Silvera
This study investigated whether eating disorders and the use of unhealthy weight control methods increased over time in male and female university undergraduate students. Data from three random sample surveys of college students were collected over a 13-year period to investigate trends in disordered eating and unhealthy weight control behaviors. Data were collected in 2008 from 641 male and female
Sabina White; Jocelyn B. Reynolds-Malear; Elizabeth Cordero
Background. Dissatisfaction with body weight and the use of unhealthy weight reduction practices have been reported among adolescent females. There is a need for methodologically rigorous studies using large representative samples of adolescent females to accu- rately assess the prevalence of these behaviors and attitudes. Methods.Eight hundred sixty-nine Australian school girls ages 14-16 years were administered a self-report questionnaire to
Background.Dissatisfaction with body weight and the use of unhealthy weight reduction practices have been reported among adolescent females. There is a need for methodologically rigorous studies using large representative samples of adolescent females to accurately assess the prevalence of these behaviors and attitudes.Methods.Eight hundred sixty-nine Australian school girls ages 14–16 years were administered a self-report questionnaire to determine the prevalence
Background Television viewing has been associated with poor eatingbehaviours in adolescents. Changing unhealthyeatingbehaviours is\\u000a most likely to be achieved by identifying and targeting factors shown to mediate the association between these behaviours.\\u000a However, little is known about the mediators of the associations between television viewing and eatingbehaviours. The aim\\u000a of this study was to examine mediators of
Many people change their eating behavior as a consequence of stress. One source of stress is intrapersonal psychological conflict as caused by discrepancies between implicit and explicit motives. In the present research, we examined whether eating behavior is related to this form of stress. Study 1 (N=53), a quasi-experimental study in the lab, showed that the interaction between the implicit achievement motive disposition and explicit commitment toward an achievement task significantly predicts the number of snacks consumed in a consecutive taste test. In cross-sectional Study 2 (N=100), with a sample of middle-aged women, overall motive discrepancy was significantly related to diverse indices of unsettled eating. Regression analyses revealed interaction effects specifically for power and achievement motivation and not for affiliation. Emotional distress further partially mediated the relationship between the overall motive discrepancy and eating behavior. PMID:20545817
The concern over increasing rates of obesity and associated health issues have led to calls for solutions to the potentially unhealthy influence of television and food advertising on children's diets. Research demonstrates that children's food preferences are acquired through learning processes, and that these preferences have long-lasting effects on diet. We examined food preferences and eating behaviors among college students, and assessed the relative influence of two potential contributors: parental communication and television experience. In line with previous studies with children, prior television experience continued to predict unhealthy food preferences and diet in early adulthood, and perceived taste had the most direct relationship to both healthy and unhealthy diets. In addition, both television experience and parenting factors independently influenced preferences and diet. These findings provide insights into the potential effectiveness of alternative media interventions to counteract the unhealthy influence of television on diet, including nutrition education, parental communication and media literacy education to teach children to defend against unwanted influence, and reduced exposure to unhealthy messages.
This paper investigates the possibility of intergenerational transmission of unhealthyeating habits from parents to adult children. It uses the 2003 Scottish Health Survey and estimates the association between the present healthy eatingbehaviour of adult children and the past parental death from cardiovascular disease (CVD). It uses parental CVD death as an adverse health signal which may cause a
Background: Previous studies have found significantly higher scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) which measures eating disorders\\u000a among second-generation British-Asian schoolgirls in comparison to their White counterparts. Further, high EAT-26 scores (an\\u000a indication of unhealthyeating attitudes and behaviours) are positively associated with parental overprotection scores on\\u000a the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). This study aimed to replicate and extend
Background Unhealthy weight control behaviours (UWCB) among adolescents have significant health and weight consequences. The current longitudinal study aimed to identify personal and socio-environmental predictors of initiation or persistence of adolescent UWCB, in order to inform development of programs aimed at both preventing and stopping UWCB. Methods A diverse sample included 1106 boys and 1362 girls from 31 middle schools and high schools in the United States who were enrolled in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Project EAT explored personal, behavioural, and socio-environmental factors associated with dietary intake and body weight in adolescence. Participants completed questionnaires to assess demographics, UWCB (including several methods of food restriction, purging by vomiting or medications, smoking to control weight, or food substitutions) and personal and socio-environmental variables at two time points, five years apart, between 1998 and 2004. Logistic regression models examined personal and socio-environmental predictors of initiation and persistence of UWCB among Project EAT participants. Results Results indicate that 15.5% of boys and 19.7% of girls initiated UWCB by Time 2, and 15.9% of boys and 43.3% of girls persisted with these behaviours from Time 1 to Time 2. After controlling for race/ethnicity and weight status changes between assessments, logistic regression models indicated that similar factors and patterns of factors were associated significantly with initiation and persistence of UWCB. For both boys and girls, personal factors had more predictive value than socio-environmental factors (Initiation models: for boys: R2 = 0.35 for personal vs. 0.27 for socio-environmental factors; for girls, R2 = 0.46 for personal vs. 0.26 for socio-environmental factors. Persistence models: for boys: R2 = 0.53 for personal vs. 0.33 for socio-environmental factors; for girls, R2 = 0.41 for personal vs. 0.19 for socio-environmental factors). The weight concerns model was the strongest predictor among all individual models [Initiation odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.84 (3.32-7.01) for boys and 5.09 (3.55-7.30) for girls; persistence OR (CI): 4.55 (2.86-7.14) for boys and 3.45 (2.50-4.76) for girls]. Conclusion In general, predictors of initiation and persistence of UWCB were similar, suggesting that universal and selective prevention programs can target similar risk factors.
Linde, Jennifer A; Wall, Melanie M; Haines, Jess; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Background: This report outlines our strategy to examine the influence of workplace stress on eatingbehaviour, discussing the current literature which explores the relationship between stress and eatingbehaviour. This research aims to add to and develop the current understanding of the links between stress and eatingbehaviour. Specifically the aims are to examine the effect of workplace stress in
|Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan
The aim of the current study was to examine and compare dieting and unhealthy weight-control behaviours (UWCB) in population-based samples in two large urban areas in Spain (Barcelona) and in the USA (Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota). Additionally, use of UWCB across weight categories was explored in both samples. Participants included 1501 adolescents from Barcelona (48% girls, 52% boys) and 2793 adolescents from the Twin Cities (53% girls, 47% boys). The main outcome measures were dieting, UWCB (less extreme and extreme) and weight status. Although dieting and UWCB were prevalent in both samples, particularly among girls, the prevalence was higher in the US sample. In both countries, the report of dieting and use of UWCB was highest among overweight and obese youth. Prevention interventions that address the broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems should be warranted in light of the high prevalence and co-occurrence of overweight and unhealthy weight-related behaviours. PMID:23055262
Orthorectic eatingbehaviour is characterised by a fixation on a healthy diet and rigidity regarding self-imposed nutrition standards. Besides malnutrition, subjective distress and social isolation might be consequences of clinical relevance. So far there are few reliable data about nosology and prevalence rates, so that it is not yet possible to evaluate the clinical significance of orthorectic eatingbehaviour. This article discusses nosological classifications of orthorexia and presents prevalence rates of extremely healthy eatingbehaviour in general population as well as in several specific subgroups. To summarise, orthorectic eatingbehaviour seems to be most likely an eating disorder with healthy dieting as an overvalued idea. Data on prevelance of orthorectic eatingbehaviour, assessed with the recently developed Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala, suggest a rate of 1 to 2% in general population. PMID:22700108
Background: This report outlines our strategy to examine the influence of workplace stress on eatingbehaviour, discussing the current literature which explores the relationship between stress and eatingbehaviour. This research aims to add to and develop the current understanding of the links between stress and eatingbehaviour. Specifically the aims are to examine the effect of workplace stress in both day workers and shift workers and their subsequent eatingbehaviour. Methods: The effect of healthy working environment initiatives on stress and eatingbehaviour will also be examined by comparing a workplace with such an initiative to one with no such initiative. The role of personality on both eatingbehaviour and stress susceptibility will be examined. In order to achieve this, 450 individuals from 3 public sector workplaces will be recruited. Anthropometric measurements (waist-hip ratio, BMI, visceral fat percentage) will be assessed, as well as personality, eatingbehaviour profiles, food intake (7-day weighed intake food diary) and both individual daily stressors as well as workplace stress assessed using the demand/control model of job strain will be assessed. Conclusions: Implications for policy and future research are also discussed. PMID:22647308
A study was conducted to investigate associations between ethnicity and acculturation status and risk factors for eating disorders among young adult women. A community sample of 14,779 women aged 18–23 completed a comprehensive mail-out survey, which incorporated questions on country of birth, length of time spent in Australia, body weight, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, binge eating, and compensatory disordered eatingbehaviours.
Background Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a global epidemic posing problems for both developed and developing nations. The prevalence is particularly alarming in developed nations, such as the United States, where approximately one in three school-aged adolescents (ages 12-19) are overweight or obese. Evidence suggests that weight gain in school-aged adolescents is related to energy imbalance exacerbated by the negative aspects of the school food environment, such as presence of unhealthy food choices. While a well-established connection exists between the food environment, presently there is a lack of studies investigating the impact of the social environment and associated interactions of school-age adolescents. This paper uses a mathematical modelling approach to explore how social interactions among high school adolescents can affect their eatingbehaviour and food choice. Methods In this paper we use a Cellular Automata (CA) modelling approach to explore how social interactions among school-age adolescents can affect eatingbehaviour, and food choice. Our CA model integrates social influences and transition rules to simulate the way individuals would interact in a social community (e.g., school cafeteria). To replicate these social interactions, we chose the Moore neighbourhood which allows all neighbours (eights cells in a two-dimensional square lattice) to influence the central cell. Our assumption is that individuals belong to any of four states; Bring Healthy, Bring Unhealthy, Purchase Healthy, and Purchase Unhealthy, and will influence each other according to parameter settings and transition rules. Simulations were run to explore how the different states interact under varying parameter settings. Results This study, through simulations, illustrates that students will change their eatingbehaviour from unhealthy to healthy as a result of positive social and environmental influences. In general, there is one common characteristic of changes across time; students with similar eatingbehaviours tend to form groups, represented by distinct clusters. Transition of healthy and unhealthyeatingbehaviour is non-linear and a sharp change is observed around a critical point where positive and negative influences are equal. Conclusions Conceptualizing the social environment of individuals is a crucial step to increasing our understanding of obesogenic environments of high-school students, and moreover, the general population. Incorporating both contextual, and individual determinants found in real datasets, in our model will greatly enhance calibration of future models. Complex mathematical modelling has a potential to contribute to the way public health data is collected and analyzed.
Background:Be Active Eat Well (BAEW) was a multifaceted community capacity-building program promoting healthy eating and physical activity for children (aged 4–12 years) in the Australian town of Colac.Objective:To evaluate the effects of BAEW on reducing children's unhealthy weight gain.Methods:BAEW had a quasi-experimental, longitudinal design with anthropometric and demographic data collected on Colac children in four preschools and six primary schools
A M Sanigorski; A C Bell; P J Kremer; R Cuttler; B A Swinburn
Objective The adipokine vaspin (visceral adipose tissue derived serine protease inhibitor, serpinA12) follows a meal-related diurnal variation in humans and intracerebroventricular vaspin administration leads to acutely reduced food intake in db/db mice. We therefore hypothesized that vaspin may play a role in human eatingbehaviour. Materials and Methods We measured serum vaspin concentrations in 548 subjects from a self-contained population of Sorbs (Germany) who underwent detailed metabolic testing including eatingbehaviour assessments using the three-factor eating questionnaire. In addition, genetic variation within vaspin was assessed by genotyping 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in all study subjects. Results Serum vaspin concentrations correlated positively with restraint, disinhibition and hunger (all P<0.05), although the correlations did not withstand further adjustments for age, gender and BMI (all P>0.05). Independent of observed correlations, genetic variants in vaspin were associated with serum vaspin levels but showed no significant association with any of the eatingbehaviour phenotypes after accounting for multiple testing (P?0.05 after adjusting for age, gender and BMI). Conclusion Our data suggest that serum vaspin concentrations might modulate human eatingbehaviour, which does not seem to be affected by common genetic variation in vaspin.
Background Television viewing has been associated with poor eatingbehaviours in adolescents. Changing unhealthyeatingbehaviours is most likely to be achieved by identifying and targeting factors shown to mediate the association between these behaviours. However, little is known about the mediators of the associations between television viewing and eatingbehaviours. The aim of this study was to examine mediators of the longitudinal associations between television viewing (TV) and eatingbehaviours among Australian adolescents. Method Eatingbehaviours were assessed using a web-based survey completed by a community-based sample of 1729 adolescents from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, at baseline (2004-2005) and two years later. TV viewing and the potential mediators (snacking while watching TV and perceived value of TV viewing) were assessed via the web-based survey at baseline. Results Adolescents who watched more than two hours of TV/day had higher intakes of energy-dense snacks and beverages, and lower intakes of fruit two years later. Furthermore, the associations between TV viewing and consumption of energy-dense snacks, energy-dense drinks and fruit were mediated by snacking while watching TV. Perceived value of TV viewing mediated the association between TV viewing and consumption of energy-dense snacks, beverages and fruit. Conclusion Snacking while watching TV and perceived value of TV viewing mediated the longitudinal association between TV viewing and eatingbehaviours among adolescents. The efficacy of methods to reduce TV viewing, change snacking habits while watching TV, and address the values that adolescents place on TV viewing should be examined in an effort to promote healthy eating among adolescents.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors (ability, motivation and the environment) that act as barriers to limiting fast-food consumption in women who live in an environment that is supportive of poor eating habits. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using self-reports of individual-level data and objectively measured environmental data. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with frequency of fast-food consumption. SETTING: Socio-economically disadvantaged areas in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. SUBJECTS: Women (n 932) from thirty-two socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods living within 3 km of six or more fast-food restaurants. Women were randomly sampled in 2007-2008 as part of baseline data collection for the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study. RESULTS: Consuming low amounts of fast food was less likely in women with lower perceived ability to shop for and cook healthy foods, lower frequency of family dining, lower family support for healthy eating, more women acquaintances who eat fast food regularly and who lived further from the nearest supermarket. When modelled with the other significant factors, a lower perceived shopping ability, mid levels of family support and living further from the nearest supermarket remained significant. Among those who did not perceive fruits and vegetables to be of high quality, less frequent fast-food consumption was further reduced for those with the lowest confidence in their shopping ability. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions designed to improve women's ability and opportunities to shop for healthy foods may be of value in making those who live in high-risk environments better able to eat healthily. PMID:23182344
Thornton, Lukar E; Jeffery, Robert W; Crawford, David A
The general public has acquired the belief that some foods promote healthfulness while others cause disease and death. Do\\u000a these beliefs about foods influence our perceptions of those who routinely eat a “good” or a “bad” food? For the present study\\u000a we attempted to expand our understanding of the impact of categorical thinking concerning the health value of foods. Respondents
Objective:To test the hypothesis that quantitative variation in eatingbehaviour traits shows a graded association with weight in children.Design:Cross-sectional design in a community setting.Subjects:Data were from 406 families participating in the Physical Exercise and Appetite in CHildren Study (PEACHES) or the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). Children were aged 7–9 years (PEACHES) and 9–12 years (TEDS).Measurements:Weights and heights were measured
L Webber; C Hill; J Saxton; C H M Van Jaarsveld; J Wardle
This study examined the utility of a transdiagnostic measure of safety behaviours [Brief Safety Behaviours Scale (BSBS)] in eating disorders. Prior to treatment, a group of 102 women with eating disorders completed the BSBS and well-validated measures of eating pathology, anxiety and intolerance of uncertainty. The BSBS had three factors, suggesting that avoidant, checking and social safety behaviours are distinct constructs in the eating disorders. This three-scale scoring system showed greater clinical precision in correlations with eating pathology than the original two-scale version. The pattern of safety behaviours in the eating disorders is more specific than had previously been shown in other clinical samples. While it is important to consider eating-related safety behaviours in the eating disorders (e.g. restriction, body checking), it is also necessary to consider the role of generic safety behaviours when assessing, formulating and treating eating disorders. PMID:23080085
The thrifty genotype and phenotype hypotheses were developed to explain the rapid increase in diabetes and obesity in developed countries around the world. Most subsequent "thrifty" research has focused on the early developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome and cardio-metabolic disease. The goal of this manuscript is to review an emerging line of research that uses a similar thrifty framework to understand the early developmental origins of eating-related phenotypes that have primary relevance to many psychiatric disorders. Given the important role of environmental adversity in various psychiatric disorders that involve overeating, and their early age of onset, it is likely that several thrifty mechanisms are relevant in this regard. Understanding the early origins of increased eatingbehaviour based on a thrifty model might point the way to highly targeted preventative interventions during critical periods of development, and provide a new way of addressing these common and difficult to treat disorders. PMID:24057159
This paper reports a study of gender differences in the components of the Theory of Reasoned Action in relation to eating sweet snacks, and the role of these components in predicting sweet-snacking in women and men. Totals of 65 women and 64 men completed questionnaires assessing attitudes and behaviours towards eating sweet snacks. Women were more ambivalent towards eating sweet
During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss\\/weight gain behaviour, internalization
Carmen Thompson; Shelly Russell-Mayhew; Reana Saraceni
It is unknown whether people use vitamin and mineral supplements (VMS) to compensate for unhealthy diets, or people whom already have a healthy diet use VMS. Therefore, this study aimed to examine correlates of VMS use and whether VMS users can be categorised into specific clusters based on dietary lifestyle variables. The data used came from the Swiss Food Panel
One hundred and twenty one participants reported sexual orientation, body mass index, body shape concerns, eating motives and eating styles. Measures of body dissatisfaction were greater in heterosexual women and homosexual men (ps <.05), while heterosexual women had smaller (ps <.001) ideal body shapes. Eating weight control motive was lower in heterosexual men compared to women (ps <.05). Restrained eating
Ballet dancers (n = 60) in full-time ballet training and school students (n = 216) completed questionnaires relating to body weight and eatingbehaviour. Dancers were at lower body weight and had less body fat. Dancers considered they were more preoccupied with thoughts of eating and body weight, felt they had greater difficulty controlling their body weight, used and abused
Background The role that healthy eating plays in good health is well documented. Government policy in Scotland recommends reducing salt, refined sugar and saturated fat in the diet and increasing the consumption of fruit and vege- tables, carbohydrates, fibre and oily fish. Methods Using data from the 1998 Scottish Health Survey a composite measure of healthy eatingbehaviour was derived
The Child EatingBehaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ; [Wardle, J., Guthrie, C.A., Sanderson, S., & Rapoport, L. (2001). Development of the children's eatingbehaviour questionnaire. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 963–970]) is a parent-report questionnaire designed to assess eating styles related to obesity risk. It has been shown to have a robust factor structure and good internal reliability, but has
The purpose of the study was to examine the abnormal eating attitudes in judoists and the possible relationships between eating attitudes, emotional intelligence, and body dissatisfaction. A total of 20 national judoists and 25 control participants were enrolled in the study. Subjects completed the following questionnaires: The Eating Attitudes Test, The Body Image Assessment Scale-Body Dimensions and the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. 30 % of the athletes (n=6) and 20% of the controls (n=5) presented disordered eating attitudes although these subjects were of normal weight. They also presented body dissatisfaction and had lower levels of emotional intelligence in comparison to the groups without disordered eating attitudes, particularly in factors such as intrapersonal (p<0.01), adaptability (p<0.05), stress tolerance (p<0.04) and general mood (p<0.04). The athletes reported using different weight loss methods such as self-induced vomiting (20%), fasting (40%), diuretics (15%), and laxatives (50%). Among disordered eating attitude groups (Controls+Judoists), Global EAT-26 was negatively correlated with stress tolerance (p<0.04: r=-0.64), emotional self-awareness (p<0.05: r=-0.70), general mood (p<0.01: r=-0.74), and positively correlated with body dissatisfaction (p<0.01: r=0.79). Results highlight the role of emotion in disordered eating attitudes, which is an important finding in terms of the prevention and management of disordered eating. PMID:21165809
In this article it is argued that people behave unhealthily or change their unhealthybehaviour, not primarily out of the\\u000a wish to be healthy, but to feel good and positive about themselves. First it is explained that people continue to perform\\u000a their health-related behaviours because they feel the need to be self-consistent. Second, it is demonstrated that people are\\u000a motivated
Pepijn van Empelen; Winifred A. Gebhardt; Arie Dijkstra
The brain bases of specific human behaviours in health and disease are not well established. In this voxel-based morphometric (VBM) study we demonstrate neuroanatomical signatures of different abnormalities of eatingbehaviour (pathological sweet tooth and increased food consumption, or hyperphagia) in individuals with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Sixteen male patients with FTLD were assessed using the Manchester and Oxford Universities
Jennifer L. Whitwell; Elizabeth L. Sampson; Clement T. Loy; Jane E. Warren; Martin N. Rossor; Nick C. Fox; Jason D. Warren
Objective:To discover whether eatingbehaviour traits show continuity and stability over childhood.Subjects\\/Methods:Mothers of 428 twin children from the Twins Early Development Study participated in a study of eating and weight in 1999 when the children were 4 years old. Families were contacted again in 2006 when the children were aged 10 years, with complete data on 322 children; a response
J Ashcroft; C Semmler; S Carnell; C H M van Jaarsveld; J Wardle
Using archival and experimental data, we showed that vicarious defeats experienced by fans when their favorite football team loses lead them to consume less healthy food. On the Mondays following a Sunday National Football League (NFL) game, saturated-fat and food-calorie intake increase significantly in cities with losing teams, decrease in cities with winning teams, and remain at their usual levels in comparable cities without an NFL team or with an NFL team that did not play. These effects are greater in cities with the most committed fans, when the opponents are more evenly matched, and when the defeats are narrow. We found similar results when measuring the actual or intended food consumption of French soccer fans who had previously been asked to write about or watch highlights from victories or defeats of soccer teams. However, these unhealthy consequences of vicarious defeats disappear when supporters spontaneously self-affirm or are given the opportunity to do so. PMID:23925307
During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss/weight gain behaviour, internalization of media ideals, weight based teasing, and communication, for a cohort of grade 8 girls. High-risk participants demonstrated trends toward decreased internalization of media ideals and increased body satisfaction at post-test. Implications and future research direction are discussed. PMID:22364343
Sex hormones play essential roles in the regulation of appetite, eatingbehaviour and energy metabolism and have been implicated in several major clinical disorders in women. Estrogen inhibits food intake, whereas progesterone and testosterone may stimulate appetite. This review describes recent findings concerning interactions between sex hormones and neuroendocrinological mechanisms in the control of appetite and eating in women. Furthermore, we are gaining insights into the roles played by sex hormones in the development of eating disorders and obesity. For instance, androgens may promote bulimia by stimulating appetite and reducing impulse control, a proposal supported by the observation that antiandrogenic treatment attenuates bulimic behaviour. Androgens are also involved in the pathophysiology of abdominal obesity in women. On the other hand, hormone replacement therapy with estrogen counteracts the weight gain and accumulation of abdominal fat associated with the menopausal transition. In conclusion, sex hormones and/or agents that exhibit similar activities may provide novel strategies for the treatment of eating disorders and android obesity, two of the most serious health problems for women today. PMID:22281161
BackgroundThis review synthesises evidence regarding associations between young people's social networks and their eatingbehaviours\\/bodyweight, and also explores how these vary according to the setting and sample characteristics.MethodsA systematic review of cross-sectional and longitudinal observational studies examining the association between measures of young people's social networks based on sociometric data and eatingbehaviours (including calorific intake) and\\/or bodyweight.ResultsThere is consistent
Disordered eating in athletes is an issue of concern given its prevalence and links with negative health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine female athletes’ perceived vulnerabilities to the development of disordered eating. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 female, competitive athletes from a variety of sports who self-reported disordered eatingbehaviours. The results confirm previous research
Disordered eating in athletes is an issue of concern given its prevalence and links with negative health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine female athletes’ perceived vulnerabilities to the development of disordered eating. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 female, competitive athletes from a variety of sports who self-reported disordered eatingbehaviours. The results confirm previous research
Body dissatisfaction is commonplace for teenage girls and is associated with dieting and unhealthy weight-control behaviours. The idealisation and pursuit of thinness are seen as the main drivers of body dissatisfaction, with the media prominent in setting thin body ideals. Television and consumer magazine production in the UK are extensive, annually releasing 1x10(6) h programming and >3000 magazine titles. Their engagement by adolescent girls is high, and in surveys girls identify thin and revealing body images as influential to the appeal of thinness and their pursuit of dieting. Experimental studies show a short-term impact of these images on body dissatisfaction, especially in teenagers who are already concerned about body image. Magazine images appear more influential than television viewing. For many adolescents selecting thin-image media is purposive, permitting comparison of themselves with the models or celebrities featured. Indeed, the impact of the media needs to be understood within a social context, as engagement is often a highly-social process. Media influence is uneven because of differences in its content and manner of communication, and individual differences in vulnerability to its content. Greater social responsibility on the part of the media and better media literacy by children would be beneficial. For those working in adolescent nutrition it is a reminder that adolescent food choice and intake are subject to many competing, contradictory and non-health-related determinants. PMID:17181904
Background The Children's EatingBehaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eatingbehaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version of the CEBQ, for use in an obesity intervention programme targeting preschool children 1-6 years. Further, the associations between eatingbehaviours and children's age, gender and relative weight (BMI SDS) and parental weight were investigated. Methods Parents to 174 children aged 1-6 years (50% girls, mean age 3.8 years), recruited from five kindergartens in Stockholm, completed the Swedish version of the CEBQ. Data on children's weight and height, parental weight, height and educational level was collected. Children's relative weight was calculated for a subpopulation (mean BMI SDS -0.4, n = 47). Factorial validation (Principal Component Analysis) on all CEBQ items was performed. Differences in eatingbehaviours by age, gender and parental weight were examined. Correlations between eatingbehaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analysed controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education in linear regression analyses. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven factor solution with good psychometric properties, similar to the original structure. The behaviour scales 'overeating'/'food responsiveness', 'enjoyment of food' and 'emotional undereating' decreased with age and 'food fussiness' increased with age. Eatingbehaviours did not differ between girls and boys. The children's relative weight was not related to any of the eatingbehaviours when controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education, and only associated with parental weight status. Conclusions Our results support the use of the CEBQ as a psychometric instrument for assessing children's eatingbehaviours in Swedish children aged 1-6 years. Measuring obesity related eatingbehaviours in longitudinal and interventional studies would offer opportunities for studying causal effects of eatingbehaviours in the development of obesity in children.
Introduction: Variables that predict the eatingbehaviour of teenagers are a high-priority objective of nutritional educational programmes. This research work is designed to verify whether the "Food Consumption, Intentions and Preferences Assessment Test" (FCIPAT) is useful when investigating the factors influencing adolescent eatingbehaviour…
|Introduction: Variables that predict the eatingbehaviour of teenagers are a high-priority objective of nutritional educational programmes. This research work is designed to verify whether the "Food Consumption, Intentions and Preferences Assessment Test" (FCIPAT) is useful when investigating the factors influencing adolescent eatingbehaviour…
A study of deviant eatingbehaviour among mentally handicapped adults in community placements is reported. Those individuals with a psychiatric disorder showed more deviant eatingbehaviour. Depressed subjects, in particular, showed an excess of the amount eaten and time spent searching for food, as well as the tendency to eat all sweet food presented to them. Non-food pica was uncommon, even among the autistic subjects. PMID:2224381
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eatingbehaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eatingbehaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eatingbehaviour. Males with disordered eatingbehaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating. PMID:20593479
Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V
Although the prevalence of fully expressed Eating Disorders is rare in young children, childhood eating disturbances are fairly common. Parents can play a facilitating role for the development of overweight and eating problems among their children. The aim of this study is to detect the possible relationships between children’s eating attitudes and behaviour and the parents’ beliefs about eating habits and body shape of their offspring. This survey was conducted in the area of Arezzo (Italy), on 900 children, aged 7-12, and on their parents/substitute caregivers. The Kids’ Eating Disorder Survey questionnaire, and the CIBUS questionnaire were administered. A fully expressed Eating Disorder was diagnosed in two kids only. KEDS total score and weight/dissatisfaction subscale score positively correlated with parents’ answers to the following CIBUS’ items (How do you consider the body shape of your son/daughter? How much does your son/daughter eats? Have you ever thought of putting your son/daughter on a diet?). Positive correlations between the children BMI, desired BMI and the aforementioned CIBUS’ items were found. The prevalence of formal Eating Disorders in children aged 7-12 is low. Children appear to be more preoccupied with their weight than with their body shape. Parents’ beliefs about the offspring’s body shape and eating habits have a relevant impact on children’s eating attitudes and behaviour.
Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) mutations are the most common known cause of monogenic obesity and an important contributor to polygenic obesity. MC4R mutations with partial or total loss of function, as well as the variant rs17782313 mapped near MC4R, are positively associated with obesity. MC4R is involved in the leptin-melanocortin signalling system, located in hypothalamic nuclei, that controls food intake via both anorexigenic or orexigenic signals. Impairment in this receptor might affect eatingbehaviours. Thus, in the case of MC4R mutation carriers, obesity could be related, at least partly, to inadequate control over eatingbehaviours. Many published studies address eatingbehaviours in MC4R mutation carriers. Most studies focus on binge eating disorder, whereas others examine various aspects of intake and motivation. Up to now, no evaluation of this literature has been performed. In this review, we examine the available literature on eatingbehaviours in carriers of MC4R mutations and variant rs17782313 near MC4R gene. We address binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, mealtime hyperphagia, snacking, psychological factors, satiety responsiveness and intake of energy and macro/micronutrient. In a small number of studies, MC4R mutations seem to impair eatingbehaviours or motivation, but no clear causal effects can be found in the balance of the evidence presented. Improvements in methodologies will be necessary to clarify the behavioural effects of MC4R mutations. PMID:23147118
Valette, M; Bellisle, F; Carette, C; Poitou, C; Dubern, B; Paradis, G; Hercberg, S; Muzard, L; Clément, K; Czernichow, S
The relationship between perfectionism and eating disorders is well established and is of theoretical interest. This study used an experimental design to test the hypothesis that manipulating personal standards, a central feature of perfectionism, would influence eating attitudes and behaviour. Forty-one healthy women were randomly assigned either to a high personal standards condition (n=18) or to a low personal standards condition for 24 h (n=23). Measures of personal standards, perfectionism, and eating attitudes and behaviour were taken before and after the experimental manipulation. The manipulation was successful. After the manipulation, participants in the high personal standards condition ate fewer high calorie foods, made more attempts to restrict the overall amount of food eaten, and had significantly more regret after eating than those in the low personal standards condition. Other variables remained unchanged. It is concluded that experimental analyses can be of value in elucidating causal connections between perfectionism and eating attitudes and behaviour.
Shafran, Roz; Lee, Michelle; Payne, Elizabeth; Fairburn, Christopher G.
Background Disordered eating attitudes and behaviours are common in older teens and young women in Western countries. Recent evidence suggests that the prevalence of these disorders is rising and that the age of onset has fallen. In the present study, disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours were evaluated in a large school-based population in Ontario in order to determine their prevalence and demographic distribution. Methods Females, aged 12–18 years, from schools in Toronto, Hamilton and Ottawa were invited to complete questionnaires, including 3 subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory (Drive for Thinness, Body Dissatisfaction, Bulimia), the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and the Diagnostic Survey for Eating Disorders (DSED). Results Questionnaires were completed by 1739 (70%) of the 2483 adolescent females who were approached. The mean age of subjects in the sample was 14.6 (standard deviation 1.9) years. Thirteen percent of those aged 12–14 years and 16% of those aged 15–18 years had scores above the recommended cut-off (? 20) for disordered eating on the EAT-26. Current dieting to lose weight was reported by 23% of participants. Binge eating with associated loss of control was reported by 15% of participants, self-induced vomiting by 8.2% and the use of diet pills by 2.4%. Laxative and diuretic misuse were uncommon. Dieting was associated with an increased risk of binge-eating and purging behaviours. Older age and body mass index in the highest quartile were independently related to symptoms of eating disorders. Interpretation Disordered eating attitudes and behaviours were present in over 27% of girls aged 12–18 years and were seen to increase gradually throughout adolescence. Prevention programs to diminish the progression and impact of these disorders should be implemented and assessed.
Jones, Jennifer M.; Bennett, Susan; Olmsted, Marion P.; Lawson, Margaret L.; Rodin, Gary
Objective:To examine levels of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions of young women with obesity in the Australian Capital Territory, Australia and assess the impact upon psychological status.Design:General population cross-sectional survey.Subjects:A total of 4891 young women from the community aged 18–42 years, of which 630 were in the obese weight range.Measurements:Body mass index (BMI), eating disorder psychopathology (eating disorder examination questionnaire),
Objective:The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationships between eatingbehaviours (picky eating, irregular eating and overeating), and dietary adequacy in accordance with nutrition recommendations and body weight during the preschool years.Design and setting:Our analyses were performed using data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec (1998–2002), a population-based birth cohort.Subjects:The study followed a representative sample
This article is based on a qualitative study exploring parents' attitudes and perceptions of their role in their children's eating habits in schools in Angus, Scotland. Parents believed they had different degrees of influence on their children's eating habits. This article will examine these different perceptions of parental responsibility for children's eating habits to explore how parents viewed their influence
This paper is concerned with the psychopathological processes that account for the persistence of severe eating disorders. Two separate but interrelated lines of argument are developed. One is that the leading evidence-based theory of the maintenance of eating disorders, the cognitive behavioural theory of bulimia nervosa, should be extended in its focus to embrace four additional maintaining mechanisms. Specifically, we
AimMaladaptive cognitions about food, weight and shape bias attention, memory and judgment and may be linked to disordered eatingbehaviour. This paper reviews information processing of food stimuli (words, pictures) in people with eating disorders (ED).
Samantha Brooks; Alexis Prince; Daniel Stahl; Iain C. Campbell; Janet Treasure
BACKGROUND: Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eatingbehaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating), child eatingbehaviour (food responsiveness, food
Are there differences in eatingbehaviour between obese and non-obese children? Using the parent version of the Dutch EatingBehaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ-parent version), the results of the present study suggest an affirmative answer to this question. The scores for obese children were significantly higher on the scales for emotional, external and restrained eatingbehaviour. Relationships were found between emotional eating
To assess children's food-related behaviours and their relationships with eating while watching television (TV), data were collected from 534 ten-year-old French-Canadian children. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Almost 18% of girls and over 25% of boys reported eating in front of the TV every day. Although, overall, the boys' eating pattern was less healthy than the girls', all of the children's food choices deteriorated with increased frequency of eating in front of the TV. Compared with girls, boys gave more importance to coloured and attractive foods, and to selecting foods similar to those eaten by others. Over 50% of children reported always receiving negative weight-related comments from family members. For boys, significant correlations were found between the frequency of eating in front of the TV, the importance given to a food's appearance, and their requests to parents for advertised foods. Significance was at the p<0.05 level for all findings. These results suggest that gender should be considered in attempts to understand children's food motivations and behaviours. The findings also indicate the need to document children's eating environments, and to inform children and their families about eatingbehaviours that may be associated with a given environment. PMID:15780151
|Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eatingbehaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…
Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eatingbehaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…
Abstract Purpose: Obesity is a major risk factor for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, a condition known causing lack of sleep continuity and daytime sleepiness. Weight loss interventions are recommended, however knowledge on what facilitate and impede eatingbehaviour change is lacking for this particular population. The aim of this study was to identify personal conceptions of prerequisites for eatingbehaviour change. Method: A qualitative study on 15 patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS; apnoea-hypopnoea index >15) and obesity (Mean body mass index 38.2). Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis with researcher triangulation for trustworthiness. Results: Data were organised according to barriers and facilitators for changing eatingbehaviour. Identified barriers were desire and reward, cravings and emotional control, low self-confidence, insufficient support, taxing behaviours, cost, lack of knowledge about healthy eating strategies, perceived helplessness and low susceptibility. Identified facilitators were positive expectations, fear of negative consequences, experience of success, support and follow-up, accessibility, applied skills for healthy eating, personal involvement and challenged self-image. Conclusion: This study adds knowledge on important barriers and facilitators of eatingbehaviour change according to individuals with obesity and OSAS. Information used to inform a tailored behavioural medicine intervention targeting eatingbehaviours. Implications for Rehabilitation Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) benefit from weight loss and eatingbehaviour changes are recommended. Patients' views on prerequisites for eatingbehaviour change are important to plan, conduct and tailor behaviour change interventions. These aspects have hitherto not been elaborated in patients with OSAS. Considerations on patient's self-image and perceived susceptibility along with providing strategies for controlling the desire and rewarding feeling associated with eating are emphasised. PMID:23651128
ObjectiveThe cognitive behavioural model of bulimia nervosa [Fairburn, C.G., Cooper, Z., & Cooper, P.J. (1986). The clinical features and maintenance of bulimia nervosa. In K.D. Brownell, and J.P. Foreyt (Eds.), Handbook of eating disorders: physiology, psychology and treatment of obesity, anorexia and bulimia (pp. 389–404). New York: Basic Books.] provides the theoretical framework for cognitive behaviour therapy of Bulimia Nervosa.
|Background: Poor nutritional practices and heightened levels of stress, two common attributes of university life, are strongly linked with weight gain and decreased health. Little research has examined the relationships between university students' lifestyle factors and campus eatingbehaviours; therefore, this study aimed to examine…
Jackson, Rebecca A.; Berry, Tanya R.; Kennedy, Michael D.
This study examined the trends in snacking behaviou rs and eating food-prepared-outside- the-home (FPOH) by Chinese children and adolescents using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. The sample consisted of 3223 subjects aged 6-18 in 1991 and 2836 in 1997. Three days of 24hr recall dietary data and per capita income (deflated to 1989) was used. The percentage
We have previously shown that a missense mutation (p.P73T) located in the neuromedin-? gene, a satiety peptide, was associated with higher levels of disinhibition, susceptibility to hunger, and body weight gain over time. In this study we compare caloric compensation, eatingbehaviour traits, food intake and adiposity between premenopausal women with (T73T) and without (P73P) mutation. Subjects (N=153) were screened to find homozygous women (T73T) that were matched for age, BMI and use of oral contraceptives with 7 women (P73P) not carrying the mutation. Eatingbehaviour traits were assessed with the Three-Factors Eating Questionnaire and habitual dietary intakes with a 3-day dietary record. A randomized single-blind cross-over design was used to test the effect of p.P73T on caloric compensation. We measured appetite sensations and ad libitum dietary intake following two different energy preloads. We found no difference in eatingbehaviour traits, adiposity, appetite sensations, ad libitum dietary intake and caloric compensation. However, T73T women had lower habitual energy and carbohydrate intakes than P73P. Differences in carbohydrate intakes disappeared when expressed in percentage of energy. These results suggest that the neuromedin-? p.P73T mutation modulates energy intake without effects on macronutrient. A lack of power resulting from our difficulty to recruit enough T73T women precludes any definitive conclusion regarding the impact of this mutation on caloric compensation. PMID:21527296
This study aimed to identify correlates of unhealthy weight-control behaviors in adolescents to guide the development of programs aimed at the primary prevention of disordered eating. A model explaining unhealthy weight-control behaviors was tested among 4,746 adolescents using structural equation modeling. Models fit the data well and explained 76% of the variance in unhealthy weight-control behaviors among girls and 63%
Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Melanie M. Wall; Mary Story; Cheryl L. Perry
This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eatingbehaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study.International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, Early Online, 1–5.] McPhie et al. (2011)’s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and mother–child interactions as predictors of child-eatingbehaviours, food habits and weight. A sample of 117 mothers of
Skye McPhie; Helen Skouteris; Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz; Marita McCabe; Lina A. Ricciardelli; Jeannette Milgrom; Louise A. Baur; Daniela DellAquila
The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between binge eating, behavioural problems and family-meal patterns in a sample of adolescents. Two hundred and fifty-nine adolescents from a public secondary school completed the Bulimic Investigatory test, Edinburgh (BITE) [Henderson, M., & Freeman, C. P. (1987). A self-rating scale for bulimia. The “BITE”. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 18–24.
Behavioural and psychological factors related to eating have been associated with obesity, although their relationship to anthropometric measures, more specifically fat mass, has not been fully examined. This study examined the relationship between fat mass (n=98; 75M, 23 F) and behavioural measures of eating and obesity related psychological traits (n=337; 226M, 111 F) in overweight and obese individuals (Mean BMI 30.5±4.0; BMI range 25-46kg/m(2)). Two sets of principal component analyses (PCA) were performed: one on validated questionnaires of eatingbehaviour and psychological traits and a second on fat mass and body weight related anthropometric measures (BMI, weight) and the aforementioned questionnaire measures. From the initial PCA (n=337), the primary principal component, P1 (R(2) value of 0.33), represented a latent variable associated with overeating or binge eatingbehaviour. In a second PCA (questionnaire measures augmented by anthropometric variables, n=98), a single component was identified, P1(+) (R(2) of 0.28), similar to that identified as P1 in the previous analysis and this component was highly correlated with fat mass (?=0.68). These findings suggest that levels of body fat and eatingbehaviour (namely, binging or overeating) are strongly related and, at least in a subgroup of individuals, obesity may be driven by behavioural factors associated with eating in combination with pre-existing environmental and genetic factors. PMID:22898608
O'Neill, Barry V; Bullmore, Edward T; Miller, Sam; McHugh, Simon; Simons, David; Dodds, Chris M; Koch, Annelize; Napolitano, Antonella; Nathan, Pradeep J
Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently 'healthy' meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together with large portion sizes, induces over consumption of calories. In addition, we have found it to be a myth that the typical fast-food meal is the same worldwide. Chemical analyses of 74 samples of fast-food menus consisting of French fries and fried chicken (nuggets/hot wings) bought in McDonalds and KFC outlets in 35 countries in 2005-2006 showed that the total fat content of the same menu varies from 41 to 65 g at McDonalds and from 42 to 74 g at KFC. In addition, fast food from major chains in most countries still contains unacceptably high levels of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (IP-TFA). IP-TFA have powerful biological effects and may contribute to increased weight gain, abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. The food quality and portion size need to be improved before it is safe to eat frequently at most fast-food chains. PMID:17452996
The aim of this study was to validate the Children's EatingBehaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) in three ethnically and culturally diverse samples of mothers in Australia. Confirmatory factor analysis utilising structural equation modelling examined whether the established 8-factor model of the CEBQ was supported in our three populations: (i) a community sample of first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH trial (mean child age=24months [SD=1]; N=244); (ii) a sample of immigrant Indian mothers of children aged 1-5years (mean age=34months [SD=14]; N=203), and (iii) a sample of immigrant Chinese mothers of children aged 1-4years (mean age=36months [SD=14]; N=216). The original 8-factor model provided an acceptable fit to the data in the NOURISH sample with minor post hoc re-specifications (two error covariances on Satiety Responsiveness and an item-factor covariance to account for a cross-loading of an item (Fussiness) on Satiety Responsiveness). The re-specified model showed reasonable fit in both the Indian and Chinese samples. Cronbach's ? estimates ranged from .73 to .91 in the Australian sample and .61-.88 in the immigrant samples. This study supports the appropriateness of the CEBQ in the multicultural Australian context. PMID:23333562
Research evidence has been accumulating for the efficacy of dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) for binge eating. However, support for its effectiveness and transportability beyond efficacy trials is lacking. The current study evaluated the feasibility of group-based DBT for binge eating within the context of an operating community clinic. Women ages 24-49 (M?=?39.60, SD?=?9.53) with either subthreshold and full-threshold binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa formed the group and comprised the sample (n?=?5 treatment completers). Positive outcomes included significant improvement in both binge eating and secondary outcomes with the Eating Disorder Inventory subscales of Bulimia, Ineffectiveness, Perfectionism and Interpersonal Distrust. Attrition was elevated compared with previous efficacy trials, suggesting the need for increased attention to how to improve retention within routine practice settings. Given our limited sample size, these findings are viewed as promising but preliminary. PMID:22367862
Klein, Angela S; Skinner, Jeremy B; Hawley, Kristin M
BACKGROUND: The Children's EatingBehaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a parent-report measure designed to assess variation in eating style among children. In the present study we translated the CEBQ and examined its factor structure in a sample of parents of 6- and 7-year-old children in the Netherlands. Additionally, associations between the mean scale scores of the instrument and children's body mass
Available data reveals inconsistent relationships between eatingbehaviour traits and markers of adiposity level. It is thus relevant to investigate whether other factors also need to be considered when interpreting the relationship between eatingbehaviour traits and adiposity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was thus to examine whether the associations between variables of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and adiposity are influenced by the level of physical activity participation. Information from the TFEQ and physical activity was obtained from 113 postmenopausal women (56.7 ± 4.2 years; 28.5 ± 5.9?kg/m2). BMI was compared between four groups formed on the basis of the physical activity participation and eatingbehaviour traits medians. In groups of women with higher physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women who presented higher dietary restraint when compared to women who had lower dietary restraint (25.5 ± 0.5 versus 30.3 ± 1.7?kg/m2, P < .05). In addition, among women with lower physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women presenting a lower external hunger than in those with a higher external hunger (27.5 ± 0.8 versus 32.4 ± 1.1?kg/m2, P < .001). Our results suggest that physical activity participation should also be taken into account when interpreting the relationship between adiposity and eatingbehaviour traits.
Given the suggestion that many potential anti-obesity drugs may enhance within-meal satiation, few studies have directly measured the effects of any drug on the microstructure of human eatingbehaviour. The effects of 7 days dosing with sibutramine 10 mg and 15 mg a day on appetite and energy balance were determined in 30 obese women (BMI 34.6 +/- 3.3 kg/m2, age 46.0 +/- 12.9 years) using a Universal Eating Monitor (UEM) and indirect calorimetry, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. At day 7, sibutramine 10 mg and 15 mg reduced food intake by 16.6% and 22.3%, respectively (p < 0.001), compared with placebo. Sibutramine reduced eating rate compared with placebo rather than meal length (10 mg p < 0.05; 15 mg p < 0.001). In addition, sibutramine 10 mg significantly reduced hunger later in the meal (p < 0.05) and sibutramine 15 mg increased fullness early in the meal (p < 0.01), both of which are consistent with enhanced within-meal satiation. Sibutramine had little effect on resting metabolic rate, although 15 mg did significantly reduce respiratory quotient at several time points during the test day. These results provide novel evidence that decreased consumption of a test meal induced by sibutramine is primarily because of reduced eating rate, enhancing the deceleration in cumulative food intake within a meal associated with the development of satiety. Changes in within-meal appetite ratings appear particularly sensitive to drug-induced enhancement of satiation, and may provide key indices for assessing the therapeutic potential of novel anti-obesity drugs. PMID:18755818
Halford, J C G; Boyland, E J; Cooper, S J; Dovey, T M; Huda, M S B; Dourish, C T; Dawson, G R; Wilding, J P H
The effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for eating disorders has established a link between cognitive processes and unhealthyeating behaviors. However, the relationship between individual differences in unhealthyeating behaviors that are not related to clinical eating disorders, such as overeating and restrained eating, and the processing of food related verbal stimuli remains undetermined. Furthermore, the cognitive processes that
OBJECTIVE. To assess whether weight-related teasing predicts the development of binge eating, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and frequent dieting among male and female adolescents. METHODS. A prospective study was conducted with an ethnically and socioeconom- ically diverse sample of 2516 adolescents who completed surveys at both time 1 (1998 -1999) and time 2 (2003-2004) of the Project EAT (Eating Among
Jess Haines; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Marla E. Eisenberg; Peter J. Hannan
|This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eatingbehaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…
|Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eatingbehaviours using a theoretically derived…
The present study investigated the efficacy of self-help based on cognitive behaviour therapy in combination with Internet support in the treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. After confirming the diagnosis with an in- person interview, 73 patients were randomly allocated to treatment or a waiting list control group. Treated individuals showed marked improvement after 12 weeks of self-help
B. Ljotssona; K. Mitsellb; P. Carlbring; A. Ghaderie
Background There remains controversy about the contribution of food advertising targeted at children to the epidemic of childhood obesity in the UK. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the ability to recognize brand logos featured in promotional campaigns of the food industry and eatingbehaviours, food knowledge and preferences in children aged 9-11 attending six
OBJECTIVE: To measure the effects of cognitive–behavioural therapy on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in obese patients, in relation to binge eating disorder.DESIGN: Longitudinal, clinical intervention study consisting of structured sessions of cognitive–behavioural therapy, preceded by sessions chaired by a psychologist in subjects with binge eating.SUBJECTS: Two groups of obese patients (92 treated by cognitive–behavioural therapy (77 females); 76 untreated
G Marchesini; S Natale; S Chierici; R Manini; L Besteghi; S Di Domizio; A Sartini; F Pasqui; L Baraldi; G Forlani; N Melchionda
The obesity epidemic is spreading to low-income and middle-income countries as a result of new dietary habits and sedentary ways of life, fuelling chronic diseases and premature mortality. In this report we present an assessment of public health strategies designed to tackle behavioural risk factors for chronic diseases that are closely linked with obesity, including aspects of diet and physical inactivity, in Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa. England was included for comparative purposes. Several population-based prevention policies can be expected to generate substantial health gains while entirely or largely paying for themselves through future reductions of health-care expenditures. These strategies include health information and communication strategies that improve population awareness about the benefits of healthy eating and physical activity; fiscal measures that increase the price of unhealthy food content or reduce the cost of healthy foods rich in fibre; and regulatory measures that improve nutritional information or restrict the marketing of unhealthy foods to children. A package of measures for the prevention of chronic diseases would deliver substantial health gains, with a very favourable cost-effectiveness profile. PMID:21074255
Cecchini, Michele; Sassi, Franco; Lauer, Jeremy A; Lee, Yong Y; Guajardo-Barron, Veronica; Chisholm, Daniel
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether home availability of energy-dense snack foods mediates the association between television (TV) viewing and energy-dense snack consumption among adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. SUBJECTS: Adolescents (n 2984) from Years 7 and 9 of secondary school completed a web-based survey, between September 2004 and July 2005, assessing their energy-dense snack food consumption, school-day and weekend-day TV viewing and home availability of energy-dense snack foods. RESULTS: School-day and weekend-day TV viewing were positively associated with energy-dense snack consumption among adolescent boys (? = 0·003, P < 0·001) and girls (? = 0·03, P < 0·001). Furthermore, TV viewing (school day and weekend day) were positively associated with home availability of energy-dense snack foods among adolescent boys and girls and home availability of energy-dense snack foods was positively associated with energy-dense snack food consumption among boys (? = 0·26, P < 0·001) and girls (? = 0·28, P < 0·001). Home availability partly mediated the association between TV viewing and energy-dense snack consumption. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest that TV viewing has a significant role to play in adolescent unhealthyeatingbehaviours. Future research should assess the efficacy of methods to reduce adolescent energy-dense snack food consumption by targeting parents to reduce home availability of energy-dense foods and by reducing TV viewing behaviours of adolescents. PMID:23195394
|Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eating disorders. Eating disorders frequently co-occur with…
Athletes with a spinal cord injury (SCI) appear to have relatively modest energy requirements despite demanding training regimes. Virtually nothing is known about the factors which influence the energy intake of those with a SCI including food related attitudes and behaviours. Using a cross-sectional observational design, three aspects of eating attitudes were measured using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) along with six days of self-reported dietary intake and anthropometrics. Between March 2007 and May 2009, a total of 32 Canadian athletes with a SCI (n=24 men, n=8 women) completed the study. The TFEQ scales showed a cognitive dietary restraint score of 10.8±4.7, disinhibition score of 2.8±1.8 and hunger score of 3.1±2.2. When the group was split into high and low restraint groups using a median of 11.5, no differences were detected in any of the absolute parameters of reported dietary intake although the higher restraint group had protein intakes account for a greater proportion of total energy. Those with higher restraint scores also had a relatively higher disinhibition score. While the cognitive dietary restraint scores for the women were similar to other able-bodied populations, the scores for men were higher than population norms from other studies. The scores for disinhibition and hunger were lower than reported ranges from able-bodied subjects. These athletes may be actively monitoring or limiting dietary intake to avoid the high prevalence of obesity associated with a SCI or perhaps to maintain an ideal body composition for their sport performance. PMID:22177393
The purpose of the current study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Spanish adaptation of the EatingBehaviours and Body Image Test for Preadolescent Girls (EBBIT), as well as its factor structure and internal consistency. A further objective was to determinate the convergent validity between measures of body mass index (BMI) and scores on the Body Dissatisfaction (BD) subscale, taking into account a wider questionnaire, known as the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-2). Once the original scale was translated, 525 girls (age range 7-12 years) were assessed by the EBBIT, and the BD subscale. Students were weighed and measured, using calibrated electronic instruments to calculate BMI scores. Factor analysis suggested two primary factors which represent body image dissatisfaction/ restrictive eating (BIDRE) and binge eatingbehaviours (BEB). The internal consistency of the EBBIT was 0.904. A multiple regression analysis was performed using BMI, age and BD subscale data (independent variables). Results suggest that scores on the EBBIT factors are related to body size satisfaction. Higher BMI and higher BD scores were associated with higher scores on the BIDRE, and BD scores were associated with higher scores on the BEB factor. PMID:19367133
Jáuregui, I; Perez-Lancho, C; Gomez-Capitan, M J; Duran, E; Garrido, O
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a 'single session' group, early intervention, multidisciplinary, education programme (entitled the Fun not Fuss with Food group programme) designed to improve children's problem eating and mealtime behaviours.Design A quasi-experimental time-series design incorporating data collection, twice before and twice following the intervention.Setting A health district within the southeast region of Queensland, Australia.Method Data were collected
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess long-term changes in food consumption and eatingbehaviour during and 2 y after dietary counselling in weight-reduced obese men.DESIGN: Observational study from a randomised controlled trial.SETTING: Outpatient clinic of a research institute.SUBJECTS: A total of 36 subjects with complete data on food intake during the study. Subjects were obese (mean body mass index (BMI)
The rate of obesity in adults and youth has doubled in the past 20 years; during this same period there has been an increase in the prevalence of “dysfunctional eating behaviors,” including eating disorders and unhealthy weight loss practices. Despite the fact that obesity, eating disorders, and unhealthy weight loss practices are cultivated in the same cultural context—an increasingly “toxic”
Coping skills are a subject that college students face everyday. These coping skills may be healthy or unhealthy. Eating disorders may be classified as both a coping skill and a disease. The prevalence of eating disorders is disproportionate among men and women attending college, and there is a wide continuum that includes the commonly recognized disorders, such as anorexia and
Adolescent athletes are especially vulnerable to developing disordered eating behaviors. Risk factors include participation in sports where weight and lean body type are important, high-intensity training, pressure from coaches, and training and dieting beginning at an early age. Medical complications associated with these unhealthy dietary and weight-control practices and eating disorders can be potentially dangerous. Prevention strategies include minimizing the
Dilip R. Patel; Donald E. Greydanus; Helen D. Pratt; Elaine L. Phillips
Purpose – This study aims to explore perceptions of healthy\\/unhealthyeating, and perceptions of various socializing agents encouraging healthy eating, amongst Chinese adolescents. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey was conducted of 152 seventh, eighth and ninth grade Hong Kong students. A structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions was distributed in three public secondary schools. Findings – Results showed that respondents frequently ate
Kara Chan; Gerard Prendergast; Alice Grønhøj; Tino Bech-Larsen
|Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)|
It is well known that persons of low socioeconomic position consume generally a less healthy diet. Key determinants of unhealthyeating among disadvantaged individuals include aspects of the family and external environment. Much less is known about family and environmental determinants of healthy eating among social disadvantaged children. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the family and environmental factors underlying resilience to poor nutrition among children and their mothers living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 mother-child pairs (N = 76) from disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Children were selected if they were a healthy weight, consumed adequate intakes of fruit and vegetables and were physically active. Two main themes emerged from the interviews: active strategies from parents to promote healthy eating and external barriers and supports to healthy eating. Mothers believed that exercising control over access to unhealthy food, providing education and encouragement for consumption of healthy food and enabling healthy food options aided their child to eat well. Children did not perceive food advertisements to be major influences on their eating preferences or behaviour. The results of the current study offer insight into potential avenues for nutrition promotion among disadvantaged children. PMID:21350037
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are primarily psychiatric disorders characterized by severe disturbances of eatingbehaviour.\\u000a Anorexia nervosa has been well documented in pre-pubertal children. Eating disorders are most prevalent in the Western cultures\\u000a where food is in abundance and for females attractiveness is equated with thinness. Eating disorders are rare in countries\\u000a like India. As Western socioculturel ideals become
Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently ‘healthy’ meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together
This study examined the efficacy of guided self-help based on dialectical behaviour therapy (DBTgsh) for binge eating disorder (BED). Individuals (88.3% female; mean 42.8 years) were randomized to DBTgsh (n = 30) or wait-list (WL; n = 30). DBTgsh participants received an orientation, DBT manual, and six 20-min support calls over 13 weeks. All participants were assessed pre- and post-treatment using interview and self-report; also, DBTgsh participants were re-assessed six months post-treatment. At treatment end, DBTgsh participants reported significantly fewer past-month binge eating episodes than WL participants (6.0 versus 14.4) and significantly greater rates of abstinence from binge eating (40.0% versus 3.3%). At six-month follow-up, DBTgsh participants reported significantly improved quality of life and reduced ED psychopathology compared to baseline scores. In addition, most improvements in the DBTgsh group were maintained, although binge eating abstinence rates decreased to 30%. These preliminary positive findings indicate that DBTgsh may offer an effective, low-intensity treatment option for BED. PMID:24029304
Masson, Philip C; von Ranson, Kristin M; Wallace, Laurel M; Safer, Debra L
A survey of 274 adolescents aged 14–16 years in rural Appalachia showed that unhealthyeating habits were prevalent. A few adolescents were teased about weight whereas 20.1% witnessed weight teasing almost everyday. Perception of parents’ healthy eating and better social support for healthy eating were associated with healthier eating habits.
Tiejian Wu; James Michael Stoots; James E. Florence; Michael R. Floyd; Jeromy Blake Snider; Ryan D. Ward
Background Most results on the prevalence rates of eating disorders and related adverse dieting attitudes have been published in North America and Western Europe and there have been only a few pioneering surveys conducted in Central and Eastern Europe in this domain. The authors investigated the prevalence rates for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and related adverse dieting attitudes and eating
Purpose To evaluate adolescents' perception of the causes of obesity, with emphasis on differences according to nutritional status and socioeconomic position. Methods We conducted qualitative research including 80 adolescents belonging to the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, and their mothers. We classified adolescent boys and girls into four groups (girls–obese, girls–eutrophic, boys–obese, and boys-eutrophic) according to body mass index for age and sex, and systematically selected them according to family income at age 15 years. Research techniques included semistructured interviews and history of life. Topics covered in the interviews included early experiences with weight management, effect of weight on social relationships, family history, eating habits, and values. Results Low-income obese adolescents and their mothers perceive obesity as a heritage, caused by family genes, side effects of medication use, and stressful life events. However, low-income eutrophic adolescents emphasize the role of unhealthy diets on obesity development. Among the high-income adolescents, those who are obese attribute it to genetic factors and emotional problems, whereas those who are eutrophic mention unhealthy diets and lack of physical activity as the main causes of obesity. Conclusions Perceptions of the causes of obesity in adolescents from a middle-income setting vary by gender, socioeconomic position, and nutritional status. Whereas some blame genetics as responsible for obesity development, others blame unhealthy diets and lifestyles, and others acknowledge the roles of early life experiences and family traditions in the process of obesity development.
Goncalves, Helen; Gonzalez, David A.; Araujo, Cora P.; Muniz, Ludmila; Tavares, Patricia; Assuncao, Maria C.; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Hallal, Pedro C.
Objective To identify disordered eatingbehaviour and attitudes in a large representative population in order to determine the relationship\\u000a with body weight status, and to assess associated psychopathology and health-related quality of life.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A total of 11–17 year-old adolescents (n = 1,895) were randomly selected from the national representative sample of 17,641 families participating in the German Health\\u000a Interview and Examination Survey for Children
Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann; Nora Wille; Heike Hölling; Timo D. Vloet; Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer
This study investigated the possibility that inducing a state of self-compassion would attenuate the tendency for restrained eaters to overeat after eating an un- healthy food preload (the disinhibition effect). College women completed mea- sures of two components of rigid restrained eating: restrictive eating (desire and effort to avoid eatingunhealthy foods) and eating guilt (tendency to feel guilty after
Although weight perception is associated with disordered eating correlates and unhealthyeating behavior, it is unclear whether these associations exist in specific female populations at greater risk of disordered eating (i.e., athletes). The aim of this study was to examine associations between weight perception and disordered eating correlates (perfectionism and social physique anxiety (SPA)) and eating behavior in female athletes.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) and social comparisons on body perception, and to identify their relationship to unhealthybehaviours and changing body structures, by assessing body perception in youths. A questionnaire was administered to 640 university students. The topics covered included SES, body definitions, behaviours related to body weight (such as
This paper reports on a Swedish research project Marketing of unhealthy food directed to children, the aim of which was to survey the nature, amount and placement of advertisements that encourage children to buy food in different media. We found that a lot of the marketing of foodstuff concerned unhealthy food. The Internet is a particularly seductive channel and the
Objectives: African American women suffer disproportionately from many chronic diseases, and it is well acknowledged that eating patterns and habits are important contributory factors. Our goal was to describe and understand how personal and contextual factors among African American women contribute to food choices that increase the risk for chronic disease. Design: Focus groups were conducted with 40 African American
Margaret K. Hargreaves; David G. Schlundt; Maciej S. Buchowski
The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…
Women in prison have high levels of impulsive damaging behaviours, including disordered eating. In addition, they display pathological levels of the emotional precursors that have been associated with eating disorders, particularly anger. The present study examines levels of disordered eatingbehaviours in female prisoners, and whether those behaviours are associated with anger. The sample consisted of 91 sentenced women at
Purpose – This article aims to examine young consumers' perceptions of healthy eating, contexts where healthy or unhealthyeating are practiced, and their evaluation of regulatory measures that discourage the consumption of unhealthy foods in two different markets. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A convenience sampled survey was conducted of 386 Danish and Chinese adolescents using a structured questionnaire. Findings – Results showed
Kara Chan; Gerard Prendergast; Alice Grønhøj; Tino Bech-Larsen
Body dissatisfaction and unhealthyeating practices are common among sports and activities that require low body fat or low body weight for enhanced performance. Competitive Bodybuilding is a sport that requires participants to be exceptionally lean and mesomorphic, thus participants may be vulnerable to developing unhealthyeating and weight control practices, as well as using anabolic steroids. This study compares
Individual chapters in this book provide different perspectives on the nutrition problems in the United States: what are the economic costs associated with unhealthyeating patterns; how do dietary patterns compare with dietary recommendations; how do national income and prices, advertising, health claims, and trends in eating away from home affect nutrient intake; how much do people know about nutrition
Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) revealed significant genetic influences on variance in an unhealthy
Kevin M. Beaver; Tori Flores; Brian B. Boutwell; Chris L. Gibson
Binge eating is a maladaptive eating practice associated with unhealthy weight control methods (vomiting, laxative abuse) and the development of weight gain and obesity. Isolating psychological and environmental variables that trigger binge eating can prevent or potentially moderate eating disturbance. Previous research implicates media exposure as an environmental contributor to psychological and eating disturbance. The current study sought to uncover
Background: The treatment of binge eating disorder (BED) is still the object of debate. In the present study, the effectiveness of antidepressant drugs (fluoxetine – FLX – 60 mg\\/day, fluvoxamine – FLV –300 mg\\/day), cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and combined treatments (CBT + FLX, CBT + FLV) has been evaluated in a randomized, clinical trial. Results at the end of the
Valdo Ricca; Edoardo Mannucci; Barbara Mezzani; Sandra Moretti; Milena Di Bernardo; Marco Bertelli; Carlo M. Rotella; Carlo Faravelli
|Investigated whether religious affiliation (Hindu or Muslim) and gender were important factors in explaining difference in unhealthyeating attitudes of Asian adolescents living in United Kingdom compared with Caucasians. Muslim adolescents had most characteristic pattern of eating psychopathology. Muslim boys' eating attitudes were particularly…
Investigated whether religious affiliation (Hindu or Muslim) and gender were important factors in explaining difference in unhealthyeating attitudes of Asian adolescents living in United Kingdom compared with Caucasians. Muslim adolescents had most characteristic pattern of eating psychopathology. Muslim boys' eating attitudes were particularly…
Prader–Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability, growth and sex-hormone deficiencies and a propensity to overeat that leads to severe obesity. The PWS phenotype changes from an early disinterest in food to an increasing pre-occupation with eating and a failure of the normal satiety response to food intake. The prevention of
This study is part of the larger Christina Barz Study, and it compared consecutively admitted patients with purging disorder (PurD; N?=?225) with consecutively admitted patients with anorexia nervosa binge eating/purging subtype (AN-bp; N?=?503) and bulimia nervosa purging subtype (BN-p; N?=?756). Participants answered self-rating questionnaires on admission, at the end of inpatient treatment, and in a 5-year follow-up. Patients with PurD reported lower severity of general psychopathology than patients with AN-bp and lower severity of eating disorder symptoms than patients with AN-bp and BN-p on admission. Eating disorder symptoms of patients with PurD improved less during the course than of the comparison groups. Diagnostic perseverance was stronger in the PurD group than for patients with AN-bp; mortality was higher than for patients with BN-p. Predictors for better outcome differed for the groups. Our results provide new data about the long-term course of patients with PurD and indicate clinical relevance of the disorder. PMID:23629831
Background High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages dominate sports sponsorship. However, as marketing goes beyond the use of brand livery, research examining how marketers support sponsorships that create brand associations encouraging consumer purchase is also required. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and extent of sponsorships and associated marketing by food and non-alcoholic beverage brands and companies through a case study of New Zealand sport. Methods We conducted a systematic review of 308 websites of national and regional New Zealand sporting organisations to identify food and beverage sponsors, which were then classified as healthy or unhealthy using nutrient criteria for energy, fat, sodium and fibre levels. We interviewed 18 key informants from national and regional sporting organisations about sponsorships. Results Food and beverage sponsorship of sport is not extensive in New Zealand. However, both healthy and unhealthy brands and companies do sponsor sport. Relatively few support their sponsorships with additional marketing. Interviews revealed that although many sports organisations felt concerned about associating themselves with unhealthy foods or beverages, others considered sponsorship income more important. Conclusions While there is limited food and beverage sponsorship of New Zealand sport, unhealthy food and beverage brands and companies do sponsor sport. The few that use additional marketing activities create repeat exposure for their brands, many of which target children. The findings suggest policies that restrict sponsorship of sports by unhealthy food and beverage manufacturers may help limit children’s exposure to unhealthy food marketing within New Zealand sports settings. Given the global nature of the food industry, the findings of this New Zealand case study may be relevant elsewhere.
Unhealthy interservice rivalry due to poor ethical conduct on the part of individuals and the general military bureaucratic system has long been, and continues to be, problematic for harmonious joint military activity. This paper argues a common code of m...
The concern over increasing rates of obesity and associated health issues has led to calls for solutions to the potentially unhealthy influence of television and food advertising on children's diets. Research demonstrates that children's food preferences are acquired through learning processes, and that these preferences have long-lasting effects on diet. We examined food preferences and eating behaviors among college students, and assessed the relative influence of 2 potential contributors: parental communication and television experience. In line with previous studies with children, prior television experience continued to predict unhealthy food preferences and diet in early adulthood, and perceived taste had the most direct relationship to both healthy and unhealthy diets. In addition, both television experience and parenting factors independently influenced preferences and diet. These findings provide insights into the potential effectiveness of alternative media interventions to counteract the unhealthy influence of television on diet, including a) nutrition education; b) parental communication and media literacy education to teach children to defend against unwanted influence; and c) reduced exposure to unhealthy messages. PMID:20183373
The role of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in unhealthy body change was examined in a sample of 143 women university students. They\\u000a completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), reported their level of concern with weight and with WHR,\\u000a and used unmarked measuring tapes to record their subjective (self-perceived), ideal, and objective (measured) waist and hip circumference.\\u000a Although body shape was reported
Background Research suggests that the growing prevalence of obesity may be related to the influence of the health behaviours of peers. We look at clustering of exercise and eatingbehaviours amongst a previously unstudied group, young adults in Sweden. Previous research has mainly been conducted in the United States and Britain, countries that have relatively high rates of obesity. Methods Using ego-alter dyads from the egocentric network data as the unit of analysis, we conduct logistic regressions to investigate the association between ego and alter exercise and eatingbehaviours. Results Respondents have a significantly greater probability of engaging in regular exercise and eating healthily if a nominated peer also does so. Furthermore, the degree to which this behavior is shared is modulated by the strength of the relationship between the two individuals, with a greater probability of engaging in these behaviours observed when the relationship with the nominated peer is strong relative to when the relationship is weak. However, we find that ego-alter homogeneity in terms of gender and migration status was not associated with a significantly greater probability of behaving in a similar manner to a nominated peer. Furthermore, the status of the nominated peer as a relative or not did not impact the probability that the ego would engage in similar health behaviours to that alter. Conclusions We observe strong associations between ego and alter health behaviours for young adults, consistent with previous research. Although we cannot draw causal inferences, these results suggest that the health behaviours of an individual’s peers may play a role in shaping their own health behaviours.
Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) programmes for bulimia nervosa (BN) have been considerably refined during the last 2 decades, and such a treatment is now extensively used. The present paper describes the treatment rationale and structure, and reviews the available evidence on its efficacy. Compared to any other psychological or pharmacological treatment for which controlled studies have been published, CBT is reported
Valdo Ricca; Edoardo Mannucci; Teresa Zucchi; Carlo M. Rotella; Carlo Faravelli
An experiment was conducted to examine the effect on adolescents of different health appeals (healthy versus unhealthy) in ads for healthy and unhealthy perceived foods. The results did not reveal a main effect of product or slogan, but indicated a significant interaction effect between slogan and product. The healthy slogan only led to significantly more positive attitudes and purchase intentions when it promoted a healthy food product. An unhealthy food product received better results in combination with an unhealthy slogan than with a healthy one. This indicates that adolescents react better to ads in which the health appeal is congruent with the health perception of the product. Moreover, we took into account gender and health concern as potential moderators in the relationship between slogan and ad responses. Gender did not lead to different responses to healthy or unhealthy food ads, whereas health concern did interact significantly with the slogan type. Highly concerned adolescents responded more favorably to a healthy slogan in terms of attitudes. A necessary first step seems to be making adolescents more health conscious. A following step is to reinforce their positive attitudes toward healthy foods and turn these into real behavior. PMID:17365358
Background Weight problems that arise in the first years of life tend to persist. Behavioral research in this period can provide information on the modifiable etiology of unhealthy weight. The present study aimed to replicate findings from previous small-scale studies by examining whether different aspects of preschooler’s eating behavior and parental feeding practices are associated with body mass index (BMI) and weight status -including underweight, overweight and obesity- in a population sample of preschool children. Methods Cross-sectional data on the Child EatingBehaviour Questionnaire, Child Feeding Questionnaire and objectively measured BMI was available for 4987 four-year-olds participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Results Thirteen percent of the preschoolers had underweight, 8% overweight, and 2% obesity. Higher levels of children’s Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food and parental Restriction were associated with a higher mean BMI independent of measured confounders. Emotional Undereating, Satiety Responsiveness and Fussiness of children as well as parents’ Pressure to Eat were negatively related with children’s BMI. Similar trends were found with BMI categorized into underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Part of the association between children’s eating behaviors and BMI was accounted for by parental feeding practices (changes in effect estimates: 20-43%), while children’s eating behaviors in turn explained part of the relation between parental feeding and child BMI (changes in effect estimates: 33-47%). Conclusions This study provides important information by showing how young children’s eating behaviors and parental feeding patterns differ between children with normal weight, underweight and overweight. The high prevalence of under- and overweight among preschoolers suggest prevention interventions targeting unhealthy weights should start early in life. Although longitudinal studies are necessary to ascertain causal directions, efforts to prevent or treat unhealthy child weight might benefit from a focus on changing the behaviors of both children and their parents.
The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing in many countries and confers risks for early type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. In the presence of potent 'obesogenic' environments not all children become obese, indicating the presence of susceptibility and resistance. Taking an energy balance approach, susceptibility could be mediated through a failure of appetite regulation leading to increased energy intake or via diminished energy expenditure. Evidence shows that heritability estimates for BMI and body fat are paralleled by similar coefficients for energy intake and preferences for dietary fat. Twin studies implicate weak satiety and enhanced food responsiveness as factors determining an increase in BMI. Single gene mutations, for example in the leptin receptor gene, that lead to extreme obesity appear to operate through appetite regulating mechanisms and the phenotypic response involves overconsumption and a failure to inhibit eating. Investigations of robustly characterized common gene variants of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARG) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) which contribute to variance in BMI also influence the variance in appetite factors such as measured energy intake, satiety responsiveness and the intake of palatable energy-dense food. A review of the evidence suggests that susceptibility to childhood obesity involving specific allelic variants of certain genes is mediated primarily through food consumption (appetite regulation) rather than through a decrease in activity-related energy expenditure. This conclusion has implications for early detection of susceptibility, and for prevention and management of childhood obesity. PMID:22724641
Although the causes of eating disorders remain unclear, epidemiological evidence suggests that peripubertal changes in body\\u000a shape and weight predispose young women to develop unhealthyeating attitudes. A psychiatric diagnosis of an eating disorder\\u000a can be made in up to 10% of young women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1 diabetes). Eating disorders, anorexia\\u000a nervosa and bulimia nervosa, pose a
A. Verrotti; M. Catino; F. A. De Luca; G. Morgese; F. Chiarelli
|Alarm about the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has focussed attention on individual lifestyle behaviours that may contribute to unhealthy weight. Television viewing is often a focus of the obesity debate. Not only is it sedentary, it also has the potential to influence other lifestyle behaviours either by displacing physical…
Brown, Judith E.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Broom, Dorothy H.; Bittman, Michael
Alarm about the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has focussed attention on individual lifestyle behaviours that may contribute to unhealthy weight. Television viewing is often a focus of the obesity debate. Not only is it sedentary, it also has the potential to influence other lifestyle behaviours either by displacing physical activities…
Brown, Judith E.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Broom, Dorothy H.; Bittman, Michael
|Background: Unhealthyeating contributes to morbidity in adolescents and college students and is an antecedent of premature mortality in adulthood. It has been suggested that the increase in independence (i.e., living away from parents) of adolescents contributes to their poor eating behaviors. Some literature reports that specific parenting…
Barnes, Seraphine Pitt; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Kromrey, Jeffrey
Abstract Objective This study examines the association of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with fast food and soda consumption, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and body mass index (BMI) in a group of young women. Methods This study was conducted on cross-sectional data gathered from 3181 females 16–24 years of age attending five publicly funded clinics in Texas. The associations among PTSD, fast food consumption frequency, soda consumption frequency, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and BMI were examined using binary and ordinal logistic regression. Results PTSD symptoms were associated with an increased frequency of consumption of fast food and soda as well as unhealthy dieting behaviors but not with increased body mass index (BMI). Conclusions PTSD symptoms adversely affect both eating and dieting behaviors of young women. These behaviors may have negative long-term consequences for the health of females with PTSD symptoms.
What are Eating Disorders? An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely ... recruiting participants with eating disorders . Science News About Eating Disorders Biology, Not Just Society, May Increase Risk of ...
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|This publication describes the importance of promoting healthy eating habits among school-age children, discussing the benefits of healthy eating (e.g., prevents child and adolescent health problems and health problems later in life) and noting the consequences of unhealthyeating (e.g., hungry childen are more likely to have behavioral,…
Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA. Adolescent and School Health Div.
A case control study was conducted to examine the theorized differences for eating and exercise behaviour among the obese and non-obese women from an urban health center in Saudi Arabia. Perceptions regarding actual and ideal body size were also determined. The obese were significantly more likely to eat under emotional conditions of stress and anger, in secrecy, and indulge in binge eating (P < 0.05). Frequent snacking and drinking of regular soda drinks was also more common in this group compared to the controls (P < 0.05). A weak association was observed for nibbling at food without being aware and preference of sweet foods compared to savoury ones by the obese (P < 0.1). A large group of the study population (75%) were either not exercising at all or doing so infrequently--a feature expected in the middle and lower social class group of women in this region. A sizable proportion of women either overestimated (28.6%) or underestimated (28.9%) their actual body weight with increasing education significantly related to overestimation of weight and vice versa (P < 0.05). A change in the concept of an ideal body image from the overweight female to that of the slim figure was also observed with advancing education. To control and prevent obesity in this region, it is suggested that health education related to an awareness of a healthy body size and appropriate eating and exercise behaviour should be given through primary health centers, other health facilities and schools. PMID:9883039
|Objective: To document children's views on healthy eating, perceptions of healthy and unhealthy foods and health consequences of consuming unhealthy foods. Design: Baseline data from a three-year longitudinal study. Setting A purposive sample of 307 school children aged 7 to 15 years were recruited from three schools representing various…
Swaminathan, S.; Thomas, T.; Kurpad, A. V.; Vaz, M.
BACKGROUND: Previous research has established that poor diets and eating patterns are associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. This study explored the relationships between two specific eatingbehaviours (daily junk food consumption and irregular eating) and self-reported physical and mental health of secondary school children, and their association with perceived parenting and child health. METHODS: 10?645 participants aged between 12 and 16 completed measures of junk food consumption, irregular eating, parental style, and mental and physical health through the use of an online survey implemented within 30 schools in a large British city. RESULTS: 2.9% of the sample reported never eating regularly and while 17.2% reported daily consumption of junk food. Young people who reported eating irregularly and consuming junk food daily were at a significantly greater risk of poorer mental (OR 5.41, 95% confidence interval 4.03-7.25 and 2.75, 95% confidence interval 1.99-3.78) and physical health (OR 4.56, 95% confidence interval 3.56-5.85 and 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.63-2.47). Authoritative parenting was associated with healthier eatingbehaviours, and better mental and physical health in comparison to other parenting styles. DISCUSSION: A worrying proportion of secondary school children report unhealthyeatingbehaviours, particularly daily consumption of junk food, which may be associated with poorer mental and physical health. Parenting style may influence dietary habits. Interventions to improve diet may be more beneficial if also they address parenting strategies and issues related to mental and physical health. PMID:23594136
This study proposes that snacking behaviour may be either reflective and deliberate or impulsive, thus following a dual-process account. We hypothesised that chronic individual differences in food related self-control would moderate the relationships between reflective and impulsive processes. The reflective route was represented by an attitude toward unhealthy snacking, while the impulsive route was represented by the tendency to buy snack on impulse. A web survey was conducted with 207 students and employees at a Norwegian university, and a moderated hierarchical regression analysis using structural equation modelling was used to estimate the theoretical model. The findings showed that both attitudes towards unhealthy snacking and impulsive snack buying tendency were positively related to snack consumption. Food related self-control moderated the relation between attitude and behaviour, as well as the relation between impulsive snack buying tendency and behaviour. The effect of attitude on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was strong, while the effect of impulsive snack buying on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was weak. The results thus suggest that while weak self-control exposes individuals vulnerable to impulsive tendencies, strong self-control does not necessarily lead to less unhealthy snacking, but this depends on the valence of an individual's attitude. PMID:22138115
Honkanen, Pirjo; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Verplanken, Bas; Tuu, Ho Huy
Skipping meals is particularly common during adolescence and can have a detrimental effect on multiple aspects of adolescent health. Understanding the correlates of meal-skipping behaviours is important for the design of nutrition interventions. The present study examined maternal and best friends' influences on adolescent meal-skipping behaviours. Frequency of skipping breakfast, lunch and dinner was assessed using a Web-based survey completed by 3001 adolescent boys and girls from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Perceived best friend and maternal meal skipping, modelling of healthy eating (eating healthy food, limiting junk food, eating fruit and vegetables) and weight watching were assessed. Best friend and maternal factors were differentially associated with meal-skipping behaviours. For example, boys and girls who perceived that their best friend often skipped meals were more likely to skip lunch (OR = 2·01, 95 % CI 1·33, 3·04 and OR = 1·93, 95 % CI 1·41, 2·65; P < 0·001). Boys and girls who perceived that their mother often skipped meals were more likely to skip breakfast (OR = 1·48, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·15; P < 0·05 and OR = 1·93, 95 % CI 1·42, 2·59; P < 0·001) and lunch (OR = 2·05, 95 % CI 1·35, 3·12 and OR = 2·02, 95 % CI 1·43, 2·86; P < 0·001). Educating adolescents on how to assess and interpret unhealthyeatingbehaviours that they observe from significant others may be one nutrition promotion strategy to reduce meal-skipping behaviour. The involvement of mothers may be particularly important in such efforts. Encouraging a peer subculture that promotes regular consumption of meals and educates adolescents on the detrimental impact of meal-skipping behaviour on health may also offer a promising nutrition promotion strategy. PMID:22289518
Background: Given the increasing prevalence of obesity among Iranian adolescents and the role of consumption of unhealthy snacks in this issue, interventions that focus on factors influencing food choice are needed. This study was designed to delineate factors associated with unhealthy snack use among female Iranian adolescents. Methods: The theory of Planned Behavior served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via nine focus group discussions in two middle schools (6th to 8th grades) in a socio-economically diverse district in the city of Tehran in spring 2008. The study sample included 90 female adolescents aged 12–15 years. The sampling strategy was purposive method. Data analyzed using the “framework” method. Results: Major factors identified by the respondents were taste, peer pressure, parental influence, easy access to unhealthy snacks, limited availability of healthy snacks, appeal of snacks, habit, high price of healthy snacks, and media advertisements. Nutritional value and healthiness was not one of the first priorities when buying snacks, as adolescents thought it was too early for them to worry about illness and adverse consequences of eating junk foods. Conclusions: For developing culturally sensitive evidence-based interventions that can motivate adolescents to choose healthy snacks, a broad range of factors should be taken into account.
Karimi-Shahanjarini, A; Omidvar, N; Bazargan3, M; Rashidian, A; Majdzadeh, R; Shojaeizadeh, D
What are eating disorders? An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely ... population. 5 What are the different types of eating disorders? Anorexia nervosa Anorexia nervosa is characterized by: Extreme ...
... normal weight or can be overweight. Continue Binge Eating Disorder This eating disorder is similar to anorexia and ... and celebrations involving food Back Continue What Causes Eating Disorders? No one is really sure what causes eating ...
Physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviour combine to influence the risk of overweight among adolescents. This paper aims to identify psychosocial factors of different health behaviour patterns in adolescents and its association with overweight and weight control behaviours. The 3069 adolescents of both genders (average of 14.8 years old) from the 2010 Portuguese survey of Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC) answered the 2010 HBSC self-reported questionnaire. It used the cluster k-means (nonhierarchy method), qui-square, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three clusters with different behavioural patterns (physical activity, sedentary, and eating) composed the results obtained. The sedentary group (34%) had lower self-regulation, body satisfaction, health and wellness, family and classmates relationships, communication with the father than the other two groups. The active gamers (25%) had a smaller BMI but used more unhealthy weight control strategies than the other two groups. The healthy group (41%) was more motivated and more satisfied with school but was not different than the active gamers in most psychosocial variables. Differences were found between clusters for weight control behaviours and psychosocial variables. Different strategies for different patterns were necessary in order to promote obesity prevention and, simultaneously, target healthy lifestyle and wellbeing in adolescents.
Veloso, Susana M.; Matos, Margarida G.; Carvalho, Marina; Diniz, Jose A.
Children with learning disabilities have increased risk of delayed development of oral-motor, feeding and social skills. Questionnaires on the eatingbehaviour of children 2 to 18 years of age with Down's syndrome, autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and cri du chat syndrome and their siblings were completed by their parents. Most children including the preschool children were reported to have some
MARGARET S. R. COLLINS; ROSALIND KYLE; SUZANNE SMITH; ANNE LAVERTY; SYLVIA ROBERTS; JILL EATON-EVANS
The transition to University has been identified as a possible period for weight gain but few studies have addressed the extent of this experience in UK Universities. The present study was conducted in four Universities in England and Scotland to directly measure changes in body weight, waist circumference and body composition in students during their first year. Two hundred and fifty first-year students completed psychometric eatingbehaviour questionnaires and a validated physical activity survey before attending one of the laboratories for standardised assessments of height, body weight, waist circumference and body composition at 0, 3, and 12-months. Significant but small and transitory increases in all weight outcomes (e.g. body weight=0.83±2.1 kg) were observed except for fat-free mass. Weight-related measures at baseline predicted changes in weight over 12-months but not 3-months. Disinhibition, power of food and binge eating were associated with change in fat mass while physical activity, cognitive restraint and sensitivity to reward were associated with change in fat-free mass. Weight gain occurs in the first year of University in the UK, but appears to be small and transitory. Changes in fat mass were related to opportunistic eating and the tendency to overconsume, while change in fat-free mass related to physical activity and low dietary restraint in conjunction with drive to experience reward. Psychological markers underlying changes in body composition can inform strategies to promote self-regulation in young adults during a critical life period for weight gain. PMID:22407132
Finlayson, Graham; Cecil, Joanne; Higgs, Suzanne; Hill, Andrew; Hetherington, Marion
Attitudes towards healthy eating were explored according to dietary, lifestyle and socio-demographic correlates in a random sample of 1256 Irish adults. Data were obtained from an Irish cross-sectional survey (1997–1999). A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain attitudinal information. Food consumption was estimated using a 7-d food diary. A majority of the sample had a positive attitude or motivation towards
Á. P. Hearty; S. N. McCarthy; J. M. Kearney; M. J. Gibney
Eating disorders are illnesses in which the victims suffer severe disturbances in their eating behaviors and related thoughts and emotions. Those suffering from eating disorders typically become obsessed with food and their body ...
... may occur on its own or with another eating disorder, such as bulimia. People with bulimia typically eat ... Treasure J, Claudino AM, Zucker N. Eating disorders. Lancet . ... for bulimia nervosa and binging. Cochrane Database Syst ...
It is well known that persons of low socioeconomic position consume generally a less healthy diet. Key determinants of unhealthyeating among disadvantaged individuals include aspects of the family and external environment. Much less is known about family and environmental determinants of healthy eating among social disadvantaged children. The aim…
This qualitative study is based on interviews with young Irish men living in London, regarding their diets and their views on healthy eating. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Interviewees gave various reasons for adopting unhealthyeating habits, including the cost of healthy foods, their lack of time and ability to cook, and their prioritisation of drinking alcohol. Views
Computer gamers are often categorized as being unhealthy due to lack of physical activity and poor eating habits. This mixed methods study revealed that computer gamers, specifically World of Warcraft players, are highly conscious of their food choices and eating decisions either because they value their health or because certain foods impede game play. In order to facilitate healthy behaviors
Children and adolescents are at an age where they are beginning to gain autonomy over choosing the foods they eat, yet may not have adequate support or information to make informed choices. This paper describes the design of a heuristic-based health game called MunchCrunch to help this age group learn more about healthy and unhealthy foods to develop balanced eating
Anna Mansour; Mugdha Barve; Sushama Bhat; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
|It is well known that persons of low socioeconomic position consume generally a less healthy diet. Key determinants of unhealthyeating among disadvantaged individuals include aspects of the family and external environment. Much less is known about family and environmental determinants of healthy eating among social disadvantaged children. The…
BACKGROUND: Several World Health Organisation reports over recent years have highlighted the high incidence of chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer. Contributory factors include unhealthy diets, alcohol and tobacco use and sedentary lifestyles. This paper reports the findings of a review of reviews of behavioural change interventions to reduce unhealthybehaviours or promote healthy behaviours. We
Ruth G Jepson; Fiona M Harris; Stephen Platt; Carol Tannahill
Binge eating disorder (BED) is a new proposed eating disorder in the DSM-IV. BED is not a formal diagnosis within the DSM-IV, but in day-to-day clinical practice the diagnosis seems to be generally accepted. People with the BED-syndrome have binge eating episodes as do subjects with bulimia nervosa, but unlike the latter they do not engage in compensatory behaviours. Although
College students may develop unhealthyeating habits during their freshman year. Poor eating habits or exercise regimens and lifestyle choices could lead to chronic disease later in life. We previously reported that 44 [18 males (41%) and 26 females (59%)] freshmen gained an average of 2.8±2.7kg (6.2±5.9?) during their first year of college, rather than the “The Freshman Fifteen” commonly
A 6-week longitudinal study with N?=?126 overweight women participating in a weight-loss programme investigated the hypothesis that focusing on the process (dietary behaviours) rather than on the outcome of dieting (weight loss) is associated with more successful goal pursuit and achievement. As expected, process focus was related positively to subjective daily success in dieting as well as to actual weight
An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. A person with an eating disorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amounts of ...
This article describes five research-based recommendations for health care providers to help prevent both obesity and eating disorders among adolescents that they see within clinical, school, or other settings. The recommendations are based primarily upon findings from Project EAT, a large, population-based study of eating and weight-related issues in adolescents. Recommendations include the following: 1) discourage unhealthy dieting; instead encourage
Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) revealed significant genetic influences on variance in an unhealthyeating habits scale (h(2) = .42), a healthy eating habits scale (h(2) = .51), the number of meals eaten at a fast-food restaurant (h(2) = .33), and the total number of meals eaten per week (h(2) = .26). Most of the remaining variance was due to nonshared environmental factors. Additional analyses conducted separately for males and females revealed a similar pattern of findings. The authors note the limitations of the study and offer suggestions for future research. PMID:21750320
Beaver, Kevin M; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B; Gibson, Chris L
Objective To document children's views on healthy eating, perceptions of healthy and unhealthy foods and health consequences of consuming unhealthy foods.Design Baseline data from a three-year longitudinal study.Setting A purposive sample of 307 school children aged 7 to 15 years were recruited from three schools representing various socio-economic status (SES).Method An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information from children
The goals of the study were to compare anger expressions in individuals with eating disorders and healthy controls, and to explore the relation among eating disorder symptoms, comorbid psychopathology, personality traits, and impulsive behaviours. Participants comprised 135 eating disorder patients consecutively admitted to our unit and 103 healthy controls. Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 (EDI-2), Bulimic Investigatory
Isabel Krug; Cynthia M. Bulik; Olga Nebot Vall-Llovera; Roser Granero; Zaida Agüera; Cynthia Villarejo; Susana Jiménez-Murcia; Fernando Fernández-Aranda
Eating-related problems, particularly among college women, represent a significant health concern on university campuses. Body image dissatisfaction, weight preoccupation, and unhealthy weight management are prevalent among even normal-weight students, but discussions of broad college health interventions in this area have been limited. Two conceptual tools that are useful in developing a comprehensive health center response to eating disorders in the college setting are described. The diagnosis of Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified is suggested as a framework for defining target populations and eating problems requiring intervention, and a picture of the prototypical eating problem candidate is developed. A multiple-level model of intervention that includes preventive, intermediate, and remedial responses to varied forms of eating-related concerns is described. The intervention model is illustrated with examples, and limitations of the method are discussed. PMID:9558818
Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...
... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Eating disorders By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/eating-disorders/DS00294 Definition Symptoms Causes Risk factors Complications Preparing ...
\\u000a Emotional eating theory states that negative emotions can induce eating, because eating has the capacity to reduce their intensity.\\u000a This chapter summarizes the relevant research findings. It is demonstrated that emotional eating is fairly common, but that\\u000a individuals differ considerably in the quanty of food they consume in order to improve their mood. The causes of these differences\\u000a are unknown
This chapter focuses on the eating disorders that draw the attention of most clinicians and researchers: anorexia nervosa,\\u000a bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. For information about other, less well-known eating problems\\u000a in adolescents, and about the medical and nutritional effects of eating disorders in adolescents, see Lask and Bryant-Waugh\\u000a (2000) and Fisher et al. (1995).
The aim of the study was to assess the relation between health-related beliefs concerning the importance of risk factors in stomach cancer and positive health practices in eating habits. A multicentre hospital-based incident case-control study with 431 female stomach cancer cases aged less than 75 years and an equal number of age-matched controls without cancer has been carried out in Poland. The respondents were asked about their opinions on relevance in cancer prevention of such factors as protective role of raw vegetables and fresh fruit, consumption of fats, alcohol and coffee or using table salt. The data were compared with information on eating habits and diet behaviours in the reference group. It was shown in both groups that beliefs about the importance of raw vegetables and fresh fruit were closely associated with high frequency of everyday consumption of vegetables and fruit; however, statistically significant differences were found between cases and controls as regards the frequency of eating vegetables and fresh fruit at every meal. The same relation was observed between the belief in an unhealthy role of consumption of fats and using the animal fat in cooking. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that a relation between beliefs and behaviours existed in the cases with the same demographic and social determinants. PMID:9103316
|The focused discussions of adolescent girls were analyzed to explore the processes of managing healthy and unhealthy aspects of dating relationships. Grounded theory methods were used to generate an outline of these processes. The core category elicited from discussions with participants was "wrestling with gender expectations". This category…
Luft, Toupey; Jenkins, Melissa; Cameron, Catherine Ann
It is generally considered that parental lifestyle activities affect children. It is said that parents are an important influence on their children’s behavior and that the habits pass from generation to generation. It is true that children consider their parents as role-models and it is more likely to behave similar to them adopting their healthy or unhealthy activities. However, there
The focused discussions of adolescent girls were analyzed to explore the processes of managing healthy and unhealthy aspects of dating relationships. Grounded theory methods were used to generate an outline of these processes. The core category elicited from discussions with participants was "wrestling with gender expectations". This category…
Luft, Toupey; Jenkins, Melissa; Cameron, Catherine Ann
People are inundated with messages about foods' healthiness\\/unhealthiness and capacity for weight gain\\/loss. This study examined how people evaluate foods for ‘healthiness\\/unhealthiness’ or ‘capacity for weight gain\\/loss’ and whether these evaluations influence ‘caloric’ estimation accuracy. Fifty-five participants in a behavioral weight loss program rated eight ‘healthy’ and eight ‘unhealthy’ foods on perceived ‘healthiness\\/unhealthiness’, ‘capacity to influence weight loss or gain’
\\u000a Eating disorders are serious mental health conditions that are more common among women and present with well-documented physical\\u000a manifestations and psychiatric comorbidities. An estimated 5–10 million females are affected with some form of eating disorder\\u000a (Gordon 1990; Crowther et al. 1992; Fairburn et al. 1995; Hoek 2002). The American College of Physicians lists eating disorders\\u000a as one of the nine
What do you know about healthy eating? Check out the sites below to learn what you should and should not be eating on a daily basis. Before we get started let's see what knowledge you have about healthy eating. What do you think are some of the most healthy foods for you? Do you like to eat these foods? Now look at the sites below and answer the following questions. Blast Off Dining Decisions Nutrients Your Body Neeeds What were some good food choices ...
Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in girls and young women. Management of eating disorders typically requires a multidisciplinary team approach, often spear-headed by the clinician initially detecting the illness. This article addresses the definitions and prevalence of eating disorders, tips on recognition and management of medical complications, and reproductive health concerns for these young women. Issues surrounding care of the patient with the female athlete triad, or amenorrhea, osteopenia, and eating disorders, are also discussed. PMID:12836725
This study examined the prevalence of external, restrained and emotional eating and the relationship of these disturbed types of eatingbehaviours with perceived parental control of food intake (pressure to eat and restriction) in a group of 7- to 12-year-old boys and girls (n ¼ 596). External eating turned out to be the most prevalent disturbed eatingbehaviour for boys
Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present…
|Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present…
BACKGROUND: Higher prevalence rates of unhealthybehaviours among lower socioeconomic groups contribute substantially to socioeconomic inequalities in health in adults. Preventing the development of these inequalities in unhealthybehaviours early in life is an important strategy to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in health. Little is known however, about health promotion strategies particularly effective in lower socioeconomic groups in youth. It is
Frank J van Lenthe; Ilse de Bourdeaudhuij; Knut-Inge Klepp; Nanna Lien; Laurence Moore; Fabrizio Faggiano; Anton E Kunst; Johan P Mackenbach
We developed a survey to characterize dietitians’ involvement in the treatment of eating disorders and to determine the appropriateness of current training. The survey was mailed to 601 Florida Registered Dietitians. Completed surveys were returned by 170 dietitians. Respondents were asked to place themselves in one of three categories: Category A: participates in the identification\\/diagnosis of eating disorders (n=l 10);
A. P. Wittkowsky; R. E. Turner; L. B. Bobroff; G. D. Evans
Eating disorders are common problems affecting 5–10% of young people. The bulimic forms of eating disorders became dominant in the last half of the twentieth century and are caused in part by the tensions between the easy availability of high-palatability food and a culture that idealizes thinness. Genetic factors, high anxiety and environment stress also contribute. Anorexia nervosa is associated
HEALTH ISSUE: Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. KEY ISSUES: Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women.
Enza Gucciardi; Nalan Celasun; Farah Ahmad; Donna E Stewart
This commentary sets the article by Dubois on the ethical justification for charging higher insurance premiums for people\\u000a with unhealthy lifestyles in the context of US health care reform. It reviews the relevance and strength of normative concerns\\u000a identified by Dubois about the acceptability of such differentiated “means-tested” plans. It identifies key issues involving\\u000a whether certain health behaviors matter ethically,
A survey was conducted of 386 Danish and Hong Kong adolescents aged 11 to 16. Results showed that the consumption of relatively unhealthy food was common among respondents. Looking at socializing agents, respondents claimed that parents asked them to eat healthy food more often than the government publicity, teachers, or friends. Parents were also perceived as being the most effective
Kara Chan; Gerard Prendergast; Alice Grønhøj; Tino Bech-Larsen
The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of food-related beliefs about the healthiness of foods, restrained eating, and weight salience on actual food intake during an ad libitum snack. In a 2 (healthy vs. unhealthy) by 2 (restrained vs. unrestrained eaters) by 2 (weight salient vs. not salient) factorial design, 99 female undergraduate students were invited
Véronique Provencher; Janet Polivy; C. Peter Herman
|Background: To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children's health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children's eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch…
Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.
Our society is suffering from an epidemic of body image dissatisfaction and unhealthyeating behaviors. A false belief that anyone who tries hard enough can diet themselves into the desired lean look has been generated due to pervasive media reinforcing the thin standard of beauty (Kater, Rohwer, & Londre, 2002). Irving and Berel (2001) call this epidemic the \\
Current models of the nutrition transition focus on demographic changes and economic development. A further influence may be the adoption of western-based perceptions of beauty that lead to potentially harmful eatingbehaviours which contribute to overweight, obesity, and eating disorders. This paper proposes a comprehensive model of the nutrition transition that includes western influences on perceived attractiveness and subsequent eating
Steven R Hawks; Ray M Merrill; Hala N Madanat; Takeo Miyagawa BS; Jiraporn Suwanteerangkul
This article uses a population health perspective to examine the complex set of interactions among the determinants of healthy eating. An overview of current knowledge on determinants of healthy eating was organized as follows: 1) individual determinants of personal food choices and 2) collective determinants, including a) environmental determinants as the context for eatingbehaviours and b) public policies as
Objective: Male bodybuilders (MBB) exhibit more severe body dissatisfaction, bulimic eatingbehaviour, and negative psychological characteristics, compared with male athletic and nonathletic control subjects, but few studies have directly compared MBB and men with eating disorders. This study compared men with bulimia nervosa (MBN), competitive male bodybuilders (CMBB), and recreational male bodybuilders (RMBB) on a broad range of eating attitudes
Gary S Goldfield; Arthur G Blouin; D Blake Woodside
Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity. Twelve focus group discussions of single-sex groups of boys or girls ranging from early to-mid adolescence (N=73) were employed to identify key perceptions of, and influences upon, healthy eatingbehaviour. Thematic analysis identified four key factors as barriers to healthy eating. These factors were: physical and psychological reinforcement of eatingbehaviour; perceptions of food and eatingbehaviour; perceptions of contradictory food-related social pressures; and perceptions of the concept of healthy eating itself. Overall, healthy eating as a goal in its own right is notably absent from the data and would appear to be elided by competing pressures to eat unhealthily and to lose weight. This insight should inform the development of future food-related communications to adolescents. PMID:16730371
BACKGROUND: Families of people with eating disorders are often caught up in rule bound eating and safety behaviours that characterise the illness. The main aim of this study was to develop a valid and specific scale to measure family accommodation in the context of having a relative with an eating disorder. METHODS: A new scale, the Accommodation and Enabling Scale
In this article we examine media use and its relationship to adolescent overweight/obesity and adolescent eating disorders. We consider the potential mechanisms through which exposure to media during adolescence (both amount of time and choice of content) might exacerbate unhealthyeating and physical activity patterns. We consider strategies that health care providers can use to identify problematic media use and suggestions they might offer to adolescents and their parents for ways to make media a more positive agent in young people's healthy development. PMID:19227385
Jordan, Amy B; Kramer-Golinkoff, Emily K; Strasburger, Victor C
The news media has substantial influence on public perceptions of social and health issues. This study conducted a video content analysis to examine portrayals of obese persons in online news reports about obesity. The authors downloaded online news videos about obesity (N = 371) from 5 major news websites and systematically coded visual portrayals of obese and nonobese adults and youth in these videos. The authors found that 65% of overweight/obese adults and 77% of overweight/obese youth were portrayed in a negative, stigmatizing manner across multiple obesity-related topics covered in online news videos. In particular, overweight/obese individuals were significantly more likely than were nonoverweight individuals to be portrayed as headless, with an unflattering emphasis on isolated body parts, from an unflattering rear view of their excess weight, eatingunhealthy foods, engaging in sedentary behavior, and dressed in inappropriately fitting clothing. Nonoverweight individuals were significantly more likely to be portrayed positively. In conclusion, obese children and adults are frequently stigmatized in online news videos about obesity. These findings have important implications for public perceptions of obesity and obese persons and may reinforce negative societal weight bias. PMID:23421746
|"Mall disorders" such as excessive eating and compulsive buying appear to be increasing, particularly among women. A battery of questionnaires was used in an attempt to determine this association between specific personality traits (i.e., reward sensitivity, impulsivity, cognitive and somatic anxiety, self-esteem, and social desirability) and…
Davenport, Kate; Houston, James E.; Griffiths, Mark D.
\\u000a Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder (BED) all involve observable eating, and often purging, behaviors.\\u000a However, to develop a complete conceptual picture of each disorder, additional sociocultural, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional\\u000a processes must be considered. To complicate matters, altered physiological functioning may result from as well as cause emotional\\u000a and cognitive dysfunction. Thus, whereas interviewers will want to
Eating disorders and obesity are problems that dramatically impact psychological and medical well-being. These disorders carry some of the highest mortality rates in psychiatry. At the end of this chapter, the reader will be able to 1. Describe the medical approach to a patient presenting with an eating disorder 2. Compare the epidemiology, pathophysiology, DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria, clinical course, treatment,
Eating disorders are among the most common psychiatric problems in the United States. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa\\u000a in particular are associated with significant medical and psychiatric morbidity, with a mortality rate of 10%, the highest\\u000a of all psychiatric disorders. Although primary care providers are often the first to identify patients with eating disorders,\\u000a more than half of all cases
Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity. PMID:24074215
Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B
Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present paper describes the development of a theory-based intervention programme aimed at encouraging high school students to stay in school for lunch. Intervention Mapping and the Theory of Planned Behaviour served as theoretical frameworks to guide the development of a 12-week intervention programme of activities addressing intention, descriptive norm, perceived behavioural control and attitude. It was offered to students and their parents with several practical applications, such as structural environmental changes, and educational activities, such as audio and electronic messages, posters, cooking sessions, pamphlets, improvisation play theatre, quiz, and conferences. The programme considers theoretical and empirical data, taking into account specific beliefs and contexts of the target population. This paper should help programme planners in the development of appropriate interventions addressing the problem. PMID:22306931
This study investigates the underlying psychopathology of disordered eating and social phobia behaviours by examining the interrelationships between variables thought to be common to both. The participants were 252 female tertiary students. Each completed measures of eatingbehaviours, social phobia, body esteem, fear of negative evaluation, social support, self-acceptance, and general psychopathology. Structural equation modelling was used to determine if
Objective: To investigate the relationships between alexithymia and emotional eating in obese women with or without Binge Eating Disorder (BED).Research Methods and Procedures: One hundred sixty-nine obese women completed self-report questionnaires, including the Beck Depression Inventory, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Stress Perceived Scale, the Dutch EatingBehaviour Questionnaire, and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The presence of BED, screened
Sandrine Pinaquy; Henri Chabrol; Chantal Simon; Jean-Pierre Louvet; Pierre Barbe
Previous research shows that leanness- and weight-dependent sports increase the risk of developing disturbed eatingbehaviour. This study investigated whether adolescent aesthetic athletes (n=68, M=14.6 years), particularly ballet dancers and figure skaters, exhibit more eating pathology compared to the general population. Furthermore, it was investigated whether sport-related factors have explanatory value for the dieting behaviour of aesthetic athletes. To asses eating pathology, reliable and valid self-report questionnaires were used including the Eating Disorder Inventory-II, the Children's Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Dutch EatingBehaviour Questionnaire. Results show that female aesthetic athletes show more drive for thinness, features of bulimia, dieting behaviour and concerns about weight and shape compared to female adolescents from the general population. Concerning the explanation of dieting behaviour in aesthetic athletes, both sport-related factors (competition state anxiety) and general risk factors (eating concern) seem to be relevant. These results suggest that female aesthetic athletes show more disturbed eatingbehaviour and thoughts than female adolescents from the general population and therefore may have an enhanced risk of developing clinical eating disorders. PMID:22365793
Like traditional media, information on the World Wide Web may encourage both healthy and unhealthy behaviors. This study reports on the content analysis of a particular genre of Web site that promotes unhealthy behaviors: pro-eating disorder Web sites. Framed in message design theory, the results of this study indicate that messages on pro-eating disorder Web sites promote response efficacy in continuing disordered behaviors, but messages promoting severity and susceptibility to weight gain and self-efficacy were not common. Given the importance of combining response and self-efficacy messages for maximal effectiveness of messages, the pro-eating disorder sites may have limited effectiveness in effecting behavioral change among site visitors. PMID:17137416
The aim of the present study was to compare the long-term effects of two dietary approaches on changes in dietary intakes, eatingbehaviours and body weight: (1) approach using restrictive messages to limit high-fat foods (low-fat intake; LOFAT); (2) approach emphasising non-restrictive messages directed towards the inclusion of fruits and vegetables (high intake of fruits and vegetables; HIFV). A total of sixty-eight overweight or obese postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to one of the two dietary approaches. The 6-month dietary intervention included three group sessions and ten individual sessions with a dietitian. Dietary intakes, eatingbehaviours and anthropometrics were measured at baseline, at the end of the dietary intervention (T = 6) and 6 months and 12 months after the end of the intervention (T = 12 and T = 18). In the LOFAT group, energy and fat intakes were lower at T = 6 when compared with baseline and remained lower at T = 12 and T = 18. In the HIFV group, fruit and vegetable intakes increased significantly at T = 6 but were no longer significantly different from baseline at T = 12 and T = 18. Dietary restraint increased at T = 6 and remained higher than baseline at T = 18 in the LOFAT group while no significant change was observed in the HIFV group. At T = 6, body weight was significantly lower than baseline in both groups (LOFAT: - 3.7 (SD 2.8) kg; HIFV: - 1.8 (SD 3.0) kg) and no significant difference in body-weight change from baseline was found between groups at T = 18. We concluded that weight loss was similar at 1-year follow-up in both dietary approaches. Despite relatively good improvements in the short term, the adherence to a 6-month dietary intervention promoting high intakes of fruits and vegetables was difficult to maintain. PMID:20482930
... Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat ... help you manage your weight. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Subtitle Healthy Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating ...
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are complex disorders characterized by disordered eatingbehaviour. Attitudes towards weight and shape as well as the perception of body shape are disturbed. A substantial genetic influence on these disorders has been suggested by formal genetic studies. Obsessive-compulsive behaviour, perfectionism and anxious personality traits seem to occur premorbidly in several patients. Disturbances of neurotransmitter, neuropeptide
Anke Hinney; Helmut Remschmidt; Johannes Hebebrand
Psychosocial variables associated with health-related behaviours for diet, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking were examined in 18 year-old Australian men (n = 301) and women (n = 282). These psychosocial variables included Type A behaviour and depression, perceived self-efficacy for engaging in healthy behaviours and perceived barriers to performing these behaviours. Self-efficacy for following a healthy diet and moderating alcohol intake was greater in females but males had higher self-efficacy for physical activity. Self-efficacy for smoking did not differ according to gender. Lack of willpower was perceived as a barrier to desirable dietary, smoking and physical activity behaviours. Other perceived diet-related barriers included buying suitable foods when eating out, ignorance about appropriate foods and, in young women, perceived expense. Barriers for desirable levels of physical activity included planning time, tiredness, limiting social life and lack of social support. Social occasions were the main perceived barriers preventing both alcohol moderation and quitting smoking. Lack of family support, stress and concerns about weight gain, particularly in women, were perceived barriers to smoking cessation. Type A behaviour was associated with smoking and "unsafe" drinking in both men and women, generally unhealthy dietary choices in young women but with greater physical activity in young men. Depressive affect was significantly higher in female smokers and "unsafe" drinkers and tended to have an inverse relationship with physical activity in men and women. Depressive affect was inversely related to self-efficacy in both men and women for each of the health behaviours examined. Health promotion in young adults should therefore attempt to increase self-efficacy and address perceived barriers to change, taking into account gender-related differences in attitudes and the influence of depression and Type A characteristics on health-related behaviours. PMID:9351145
Milligan, R A; Burke, V; Beilin, L J; Richards, J; Dunbar, D; Spencer, M; Balde, E; Gracey, M P
Aim:The purpose of this research was to examine the attitudes, beliefs and behaviours related to obesity risk reduction in Chinese Americans.Methods:A questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 300 US-born and foreign-born Chinese Americans residing in the New York metropolitan area, ranging from 18 to 40 years of age. Obesity risk reduction behaviours and psychosocial variables derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Health Belief Model were measured. Acculturation was assessed using a modified Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale. Frequency distributions were delineated and stepwise regression analyses were analysed for different acculturation groups.Results:65% of the respondents were female and the mean age of the sample was 26 years. Respondents indicated the most commonly practised behaviour to be eating home-cooked meals instead of restaurant-prepared foods. Perceived barriers to adopting obesity risk-reduction behaviours included convenience of consuming fast foods, cost, lack of time to prepare home-cooked meals, and the physical environment of unhealthy foods. In predicting intention to perform obesity risk-reduction behaviours, attitude was significant for 'western-identified' individuals. In 'Asian-identified' individuals, perceived behavioural control, self-efficacy and perceived benefits were salient.Conclusions:Nutrition educators working with Chinese Americans need to address self-efficacy in preparing plant-based, home-cooked meals and making healthy choices at fast-food restaurants with portion control. Concrete and perceived barriers such as lack of time and convenience need to be addressed in nutrition education interventions. Educators need to identify new channels and media outlets to disseminate practical, easy-to-implement behaviours for obesity risk reduction that are socially acceptable. PMID:23696236
Diving behaviour of air-breathing vertebrates may be influenced by a variety of factors including age, body size, and changes in prey behaviour and (or) abundance over both short and long timescales. We studied the diving be- haviour of a highly sexually dimorphic odontocete cetacean, the killer whale, Orcinus orca (L., 1758), using suction- cup-attached time-depth recorders (TDRs). We tested the
Robin W. Baird; M. Bradley Hanson; Lawrence M. Dill
The gap between the awareness and understanding of healthful eating on the one hand and actual eating practices on the other has been addressed in several ways in the literature. In this paper, we consider it from an everyday life perspective. Using discourse analysis, we analyse how Dutch consumers account for their everyday food choices. We show how Dutch consumers use three interpretative repertoires to confirm the importance of health, while not portraying themselves as too self- and health-conscious eaters. The first repertoire associates healthful eating with common knowledge and 'scripted' actions, thereby suggesting that such eating is self-evident rather than difficult. The second repertoire constructs eating for health and pleasure as uncomplicated, by emphasizing consumers' relaxed way of dealing with both. The third repertoire constructs unhealthful eating practices as naturally requiring compensation in the form of certain products or pills. We discuss how the use of these repertoires may pose socio-interactional barriers to the pursuance of healthful eatingbehaviour. The depiction of one's eating habits as uncomplicated, self-evidently healthful and - when bad - easy to compensate for, does not seem to provide a basis for critical considerations about these eating habits. If structural change in eating practices is to be achieved, nutrition promotion must invest in creating a new social standard that both avoids 'overdoing' bio-medical health and challenges people's construction of their eating habits as naturally healthful. PMID:19698753
Bouwman, Laura I; te Molder, Hedwig; Koelen, Maria M; van Woerkum, Cees M J
Eating disorders are common chronic conditions in adolescent women. The causes remain uncertain, but probably arise as a consequence of psychosocial stress in those with an innate vulnerability (e.g. compulsive personality traits in anorexia nervosa, robust appetite in bulimia nervosa). A culture that both fosters obesity and stigmatizes it predisposes to bulimia nervosa. Anorexia nervosa carries the highest mortality of
... dessert as the prize for eating the meal. Don't use food as a way of showing love. When you want to show love, give kids a hug, some of your time, or praise. Get Kids Involved Most kids will enjoy deciding what to make for ...
An emerging body of research comparing body image disturbance and eating problems among African American and white women suggests that there are major ethnic differences in these areas. African American women appear to be more satisfied with their weight and appearance than are white women, and they are less likely to engage in unhealthy weight control practices, yet they are
|Objective: The goal of this study was to identify factors that college students perceived as contributing to healthy and unhealthyeating patterns, physical activity (PA) levels, and weight change. Participants: Forty-nine 18- to 22-year-old students at a midwestern university participated. Methods: Six focus groups (3 with each gender) were…
LaCaille, Lara J.; Dauner, Kim Nichols; Krambeer, Rachel J.; Pedersen, Jon
Objective: The goal of this study was to identify factors that college students perceived as contributing to healthy and unhealthyeating patterns, physical activity (PA) levels, and weight change. Participants: Forty-nine 18- to 22-year-old students at a midwestern university participated. Methods: Six focus groups (3 with each gender) were…
LaCaille, Lara J.; Dauner, Kim Nichols; Krambeer, Rachel J.; Pedersen, Jon
Background. Unhealthy nutritional habits are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Research indicates that regular physical activity can influence dietary habits of adults. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine whether university students' involvement in healthy eating differed based on current exercise status and reported reasons for exercising. Methods. A sample of 204 university
Keith A. King; Krista Mohl; Amy L. Bernard; Rebecca A. Vidourek
ome athletes spend hours of intense training for their sport while practicing dangerous eating pat- terns in an attempt to lose weight. This practice often leads to eating disorders among athletes. This fact sheet will give signs and symptoms of eating disorders. Parents, coaches, and trainers need to recognize ath- letes with disordered eating patterns and refer them to appropriate
In the period stretching from the birth of the German Empire through the rise of Nazism and the Third Reich, the article explores the themes of unhealthiness, acclimatization, and disease in Brazil as found in the writings of German-speaking travelers who were involved with the immigration question. On the one hand, Brazil was considered quite suitable as an immigration destination, especially in comparison to Africa and the United States; on the other, immigrants might be scared off by its climate and by the menace of diseases like yellow fever, malaria, tuberculosis, and worms, along with insect plagues and venomous animals. The question here is how authors with different profiles - 'colonial politicians,' immigrants, men of letters who were forced to emigrate, and scientists - approached these 'threats,' considering that their readers would be (potential) immigrants. PMID:23559049
The ‘rubber-hand’ illusion, in which individuals misattribute tactile sensations felt by their hand to a rubber prosthetic hand that they see being stimulated, was employed to examine the relationship between perceptual body image and unhealthy body change in 128 volunteers. Variance in unhealthy body development in males (22%) and in bulimic symptomatology in both females and males (10%), was explained
Three and a half years ago an editorial in the NZMJ called for restrictions on marketing of unhealthy food to New Zealand children. This paper discusses progress since then. There has been a seemingly relentless documentation of adverse health consequences of the obesity epidemic in the intervening years, increasing evidence that marketing of unhealthy food contributes to the epidemic, growing
BACKGROUND: Unhealthy substance use is the spectrum from use that risks harm, to use associated with problems, to the diagnosable conditions of substance abuse and dependence, often referred to as substance abuse disorders. Despite the prevalence and impact of unhealthy substance use, medical education in this area remains lacking, not providing physicians with the necessary expertise to effectively address one
Angela H Jackson; Daniel P Alford; Catherine E Dubé; Richard Saitz
Summary This research investigated the relationship between personality and the tendency towards developing eating disorders in adolescent\\u000a females Personality traits were assessed using the High School Personality Questionnaire (HSPQ) and dysfunctional eating attitudes\\u000a and behaviours were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). The sample\\u000a consisted of 244 students from a high school in Johannesburg,
... a vegetarian), fruits and vegetables (fries and potato chips don't qualify as veggies!), and whole grains (like whole- ... energy drinks usually contain "empty" calories that you don't need — not to mention other stuff, like ... Tips for Eating at a Restaurant Most restaurant portions are way larger than the average ...
This article examines the link between loneliness and eating disorders. This concept is evaluated through a systematic review of the literature that links loneliness and eating disorders and through a survey of themes connecting the 2 conditions. Eating disorders—including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders that are not otherwise specified, which include binge eating disorder—are challenging health issues. Each
\\u000a Eating disorders cause substantial morbidity and mortality in children, adolescents, and adults.\\u000a \\u000a Individuals with AN refuse to keep a minimally normal body weight. They fear gaining weight and have a severely disturbed\\u000a perception of their body shape or size. Postmenarcheal females with AN are amenorrheic. Persons with the disorder maintain\\u000a a body weight that is below minimally normal standards for
Background Eating disorders (EDs) are an important public health problem in developed countries. Despite the amount of epidemiological\\u000a studies and causal theories, there is a great disparity of estimates and many questions remain still unclear. The aim of this\\u000a study was to estimate the prevalence of the population at risk of developing EDs and describe the risk profiles among adolescents\\u000a and
Agustín Tomás Vega Alonso; María Ángeles Rasillo Rodríguez; José Eugenio Lozano Alonso; Gloria Rodríguez Carretero; Manuel Franco Martín
Objective Research was conducted to obtain a profile of nutrition therapy currently in practice for patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia\\/bulimia (mixed diagnosis) and to identify the areas of dietetics education and research regarding eating disorders that need more attention.Design A cross-sectional correlational survey was conducted by mailing a questionnaire composed of open- and closed-ended questions to US
The aim of this study was to evaluate perceptions, barriers, and characteristics of teaching materials to promote healthy eating, as described by teenagers. Four focus groups were conducted with 25 adolescents, including questions on: perceptions regarding diet and motivations to change; concepts of (and barriers to) healthy eating; and characteristics needed for teaching materials to promote healthy eating. The teens were often undecided when attempting to classify a diet as healthy. They generally reported feeling insecure about making dietary changes, but showed adequate notions of healthy eating. The main barriers involved personal and social characteristics: temptation, food flavors, parental influence, and lack of time and options for healthy snacks at school. According to these teenagers, educational materials for promotion of healthy eating should emphasize the immediate benefits and emphasize high-impact messages on the health risks of unhealthy diet. PMID:19936477
Toral, Natacha; Conti, Maria Aparecida; Slater, Betzabeth
Background Research indicates that those who are worried about their health are more likely to change their in-appropriate behavioural-related risk factors. A national survey was undertaken to determine adults who correctly perceive and actually undertake in-appropriate behavioural-related risk factors (smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, fruit and vegetable consumption, weight and psychological distress) and are worried about their health. Methods Australian 2010 CATI survey of 3003 randomly selected adults. Perception and self-reported levels of each risk factor, and whether they worried that the level was affecting their health were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results The comparisons between perception of healthy behaviour and actual behaviour varied for each risk factor with 44.1% of people in the un-healthy weight range and 72.9% of those eating less than sufficient fruit and vegetables having the perception that their behaviour was healthy. The demographic and other related variables in the multivariate analyse for each risk factor varied considerably. For example the variables in the final multivariate model for smokers who were worried about their risk factor were markedly different to the other risk factor models and 45 to 54 year olds were more likely to be included in the final models for nearly all of the risk factor analyses. Conclusion By limiting this analyses to those who are acknowledging (correctly or otherwise) that their perception of behaviour is making their health worse, this study has shown that the profile for each risk factor varies considerably. As such, evidence suggests specific targeted programs are required rather than a broad brush approach.
... Special Issues / Pregnancy and Eating Disorders Pregnancy and Eating Disorders Pregnancy and motherhood require a great deal of ... required for a healthy pregnancy, for women with eating disorders, having to gain this amount can be very ...
... here Home / Contributing Factors & Prevention / Eating Disorder Prevention Eating Disorder Prevention Prevention is any systematic attempt to change ... that promote, initiate, sustain, or intensify problems like eating disorders. This may involve reducing negative risk factors (such ...
... withdrawing from social activities Back Continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ... own appearance or body. Can Somebody Catch an Eating Disorder? You can't catch an eating disorder from ...
... files require the free Adobe Acrobat Reader Binge Eating Disorder How common is binge eating disorder? How do ... how to get help. How common is binge eating disorder? What is obesity? Obesity is usually defined as ...
Health habits are linked to nearly half of U.S. and British deaths annually. While a legacy of research suggests that marriage has important positive consequences for health habits, recent work emphasizes that intimate ties can also deter from healthy habits and promote unhealthy habits. However, few studies examine the mechanisms through which unhealthy habits are promoted in marriage. Moreover, little research explores how unhealthy habits are promoted in intimate ties other than marriage-such as in gay and lesbian cohabiting relationships. The present study analyzes the mechanisms through which gay, lesbian, and straight long-term partners (N = 120) contribute to one another's unhealthy habits. Three distinct mechanisms emerge. First, respondents identify a process of unilateral health habit diffusion wherein one partner's health habits directly influence the other partners' habits. Second, respondents describe bilateral unhealthy habit diffusion, wherein both partner's unhealthy habits are reinforced via mutual pleasure seeking or mutual failed motivation. Third, respondents describe a discourse of personal responsibility, wherein both partners purposefully fail to deter one another's unhealthy habits. Analysis further illustrates how these mechanisms operate differently for men and women in gay, lesbian, and straight relationships. PMID:22703888
Although previous research showed that the thin ideal provided by the media affects body image and eatingbehaviour in young children, less is known about specific media contents that are related to body image and eatingbehaviour. This study tested the associations between watching soaps and music television and body dissatisfaction and restrained eating directly, and indirectly through thin ideal
Doeschka Anschutz; Rutger Engels; J. F. J. van Leeuwe; Tatjana van Strien
Background Thin children are less muscular, weaker, less active, and have lower performance in measures of physical fitness than their\\u000a normal weight peers. Thin children are also more frequently subjected to teasing and stigmatization. Little is known about\\u000a thin children's weight perceptions, desired weight and attitudes and behaviours towards food and exercise. The study aimed\\u000a to compare perceived weight status, desired
It's important to eat the right things to keep our bodies happy and healthy. As you explore these sites, look for ways you can better give your body what it needs. There's still an hour until lunch, and you're hungry. You do have a candy bar that you got for your birthday. It looks really tasty, but is that really what your body needs. Your mom always says they're bad for you, and they'll make you sick. Is that ...
ObjectiveTo describe the incidence of hypoglycaemia, and variables associated with hypoglycaemia, in eating disorder patients following a mixed meal stimulus.MethodsPostprandial blood glucose values of patients admitted to a specialist eating disorder hospital for treatment of an eating disorder between 2000 and 2006 were reviewed and compared to body mass index (BMI), electrolytes, and weight losing behaviours. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Susan Hart; Suzanne Abraham; Richard C Franklin; Stephen M Twigg; Janice Russell
Bottle feeding beyond the recommended weaning age of 12 months is a risk factor for childhood obesity. This paper describes a sample of toddlers at high risk for obesity: prolonged bottle users from a low-income multi-ethnic community. We report here baseline mealtime and feeding behaviour, 24?h dietary recall and bottle intake data for Feeding Young Children Study (FYCS) participants, by overweight (?85% weight-for-length) status. FYCS enrolled 12-13-month-olds from urban nutrition programmes for low-income families in the United States who were consuming ?2 bottles per day. Our sample was predominately Hispanic (62%), 44% of mothers were born outside of the United States and 48% were male. Overall, 35% were overweight. Overweight status was not associated with mealtime/feeding behaviours, bottle use or dietary intake. Most (90%) children ate enough, were easily satisfied and did not exhibit negative (e.g. crying, screaming) mealtime behaviours, per parent report. The sample's median consumption of 4 bottles per day accounted for 50% of their total calories; each bottle averaged 7 ounces and contained 120 calories. Mean daily energy intake, 1098.3?kcal day(-1) (standard deviation?=?346.1), did not differ by weight status, nor did intake of fat, saturated fat, protein or carbohydrates. Whole milk intake, primarily consumed via bottles, did not differ by weight status. Thus, overweight 12-13-month-olds in FYCS were remarkably similar to their non-overweight peers in terms of several obesity risk factors. Findings lend support to the set-point theory and prior work finding that weight and intake patterns in the first year of life alter subsequent obesity risk. PMID:23556429
OBJECTIVETo test predictions that frontotemporal dementia and semantic dementia give rise to distinct patterns of behavioural change.METHODSAn informant based semistructured behavioural interview, covering the domains of basic and social emotions, social and personal behaviour, sensory behaviour, eating and oral behaviour, repetitive behaviours, rituals, and compulsions, was administered to carers of 41 patients with semantic dementia and with apathetic (FTD-A) and
J S Snowden; D Bathgate; A Varma; A Blackshaw; Z C Gibbons; D Neary
Beliefs about foods and binge eating may influence the development and maintenance of eating disorders and the likelihood that people will seek treatment. We found that the majority of a random sample of members of a large health maintenance organization considered binge eating a problem for which there are effective treatments. Self-reported binge eaters, however, were significantly less likely to
G. Terence Wilson; Nancy A. Perrin; Francine Rosselli; Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Lynn L. DeBar; Helena C. Kraemer
Despite the importance of affective processes in eatingbehaviour, it remains difficult to predict how emotions affect eating. Emphasizing individual differences, previous research did not pay full attention to the twofold variability of emotion-induced changes of eating (variability across both individuals and emotions). By contrast, the present paper takes into account both individual characteristics and emotion features, and specifies five classes of emotion-induced changes of eating: (1) emotional control of food choice, (2) emotional suppression of food intake, (3) impairment of cognitive eating controls, (4) eating to regulate emotions, and (5) emotion-congruent modulation of eating. These classes are distinguished by antecedent conditions, eating responses and mediating mechanisms. They point to basic functional principles underlying the relations between emotions and biologically based motives: interference, concomitance and regulation. Thus, emotion-induced changes of eating can be a result of interference of eating by emotions, a by-product of emotions, and a consequence of regulatory processes (i.e., emotions may regulate eating, and eating may regulate emotions). PMID:17707947
The majority of all medical illnesses. and associated costs, can be prevented through personal decisions not to use unhealthy lifestyle practices (e.g., smoking, not exercising). A statistical analysis was conducted to examine whether there was a cost imp...
Eating in response to an increasingly obesogenic environment has been strongly implicated as a salient aspect of eatingbehaviour, arguably influenced by learning and experience. Interindividual differences in susceptibility to weight gain may be due, in part, to variability in response to environmental triggers. The phenomenon of food craving may also be an important factor influencing appetite control. The present
The eating disorders anorexia and bulimia nervosa have traditionally been regarded as entirely separate from obesi- ty. Eating disorders have been regarded as Western culture-bound syndromes, arising in societies with excessive emphasis on weight, shape and appearance, and best treated by psychological therapies, in particular cognitive behavioural therapy or family- based interventions. In contrast, obesity has been considered a medical
In this paper, we carry out a theoretical analysis of the strategic choice made by firms regarding the type of food they market\\u000a when they face consumers who care about the healthy\\/unhealthy attributes of the product but incur in emotional\\/health costs\\u000a when the food they consume has unhealthy attributes. We consider a two-stage game. In the first stage, one of
BackgroundRoma people are commonly described as having an unhealthy lifestyle—for example, an unhealthy diet, intensive smoking, frequent alcohol consumption and a lack of physical activity. However, data about such health-endangering behaviours among Roma adolescents are scarce and of poor quality. The aim of our study is to assess the occurrence of health-endangering behaviours among Slovak Roma adolescents in comparison to
P. Kolarcik; A. M. Geckova; O. Orosova; J. P. van Dijk; S. A. Reijneveld
This review outlines the state of knowledge and research gaps in the area of determinants of healthy eating among children and youth. The article is structured around individual and collective determinants that affect healthy eating in children and youth. We defined healthy eating as "eating practices and behaviours that are consistent with improving, maintaining and/or enhancing health." Relevant databases were searched for papers published between January 1992 and March 2003 that focussed on children or youth and reported at least one factor relevant to healthy eating. Among collective factors, familial factors and the nature of foods available in the physical environment, including at home, schools and in fast-food establishments, stand out as significant influences on healthy eating in children and youth. The media, particularly television, also have an enormous potential influence and can overshadow familial influences. Individual factors identified include knowledge, attitudes and food preferences; only the latter have been identified as a strong determinant of healthy eating in both children and adolescents. The results of the review identified a significant body of literature in the area of determinants of healthy eating in children and youth; however, very little of this research has taken place in Canada. Only a few determinants, such as economic factors and food security, the content of media nutritional messages, and the issue of flavours, neophobia and food preferences, have undergone some examination by Canadian researchers. Research priorities for Canada in the area of determinants of healthy eating and surveillance of eatingbehaviours are identified. PMID:16042160
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of perceived weight-teasing and associations with unhealthy weight-control behaviors and binge eating in a population-based sample of youth. Particular focus was placed on overweight youth, who may be most vulnerable to weight-teasing.METHODS: The study population included 4746 adolescents from St Paul\\/Minneapolis public schools who completed surveys and anthropometric measurements as part of
D Neumark-Sztainer; N Falkner; M Story; C Perry; PJ Hannan; S Mulert
|Investigated the relationship between reading women's health and fitness magazines and using eating disordered diet methods (laxatives, appetite suppressants/diet pills, vomiting, and over-restricting calories) among adolescent high school girls. Student surveys found positive associations between reading frequency and use of unhealthy weight…
Thomsen, Steven R.; Weber, Michele M.; Brown, Lora Beth
Objective To examine associations between participating in mind-body activities (yoga/Pilates) and body dissatisfaction and disordered eating (unhealthy and extreme weight control practices and binge eating) in a population-based sample of young adults. Method The sample included 1030 young men and 1257 young women (mean age: 25.3 years, SD=1.7) who participated in Project EAT-III (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Results Among women, disordered eating was prevalent in yoga/Pilates participants and non-participants, with no differences between the groups. Men participating in yoga/Pilates were more likely to use extreme weight control behaviors (18.6% vs. 6.8%, p=.006) and binge eating (11.6% vs. 4.2%, p=.023), and marginally more likely to use unhealthy weight control behaviors (49.1% vs. 34.5%; p=.053), than non-participants after adjusting for sociodemographics, weight status, and overall physical activity. Discussion Findings suggest the importance of helping yoga/Pilates instructors recognize that their students may be at risk for disordered eating.
Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Wall, Melanie; Loth, Katie A.
Individual differences in sensitivity of neural reward systems to external appetitive cues may determine normal and pathological eatingbehaviour. In the current study we investigated the relationship between cognitive biases for food cues and the trait predisposition of external eating (eating in response to external food cues). Biases in attention, approach and subjective evaluation of food cues were assessed on
Catherine Brignell; Tanya Griffiths; Brendan P. Bradley; Karin Mogg
This study aimed to describe the course of early onset eating disorders in a population-based sample followed from 14 to 20 years; identify variables that could account for the persistence of eating disorders from 14 to 20 years; and describe outcome of early onset eating disorders with reference to general and psychological functioning at age 20. Participants (N?=?1,383; 49 % male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, which has followed children from pre-birth to young adulthood. Eating disorder symptoms were assessed using an adapted version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, at ages 14, 17 and 20. At age 14, 70 participants met DSM-IV criteria for a binge eating or purging eating disorder. Nearly half (44 %) of these adolescents ceased to meet criteria for an eating disorders at ages 17 and 20, whilst one-quarter still met criteria for an eating disorder at age 20 and one-fifth met criteria for an eating disorder at all three time points. Purging at age 17 and externalising behaviour problems at age 14 were the strongest predictors of eating disorder persistence to age 20. Participants who experienced a persistent eating disorder were less likely to complete high school than other participants, and reported pronounced depressive and anxiety symptoms at age 20. This study provides new data the course and outcome of early onset eating disorders at a population level. Behavioural difficulties in early adolescence and purging in middle adolescence may predict persistent eating pathology to young adulthood. PMID:23605960
Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Oddy, Wendy H; Crosby, Ross D
A social marketing approach used both qualitative and quantitative methods to develop a hygiene behaviour intervention in rural north-east Thailand. Behaviours were preselected from a previous study and the intervention was designed to promote hand washing, especially before feeding a baby, cooking, eating, and after defaecation or cleaning a baby's bottom, and dish washing immediately after eating. A bacteriological indicator
Does exercise promote weight loss? One of the key problems with studies assessing the efficacy of exercise as a method of weight management and obesity is that mean data are presented and the individual variability in response is overlooked. Recent data have highlighted the need to demonstrate and characterise the individual variability in response to exercise. Do people who exercise compensate for the increase in energy expenditure via compensatory increases in hunger and food intake? The authors address the physiological, psychological and behavioural factors potentially involved in the relationship between exercise and appetite, and identify the research questions that remain unanswered. A negative consequence of the phenomena of individual variability and compensatory responses has been the focus on those who lose little weight in response to exercise; this has been used unreasonably as evidence to suggest that exercise is a futile method of controlling weight and managing obesity. Most of the evidence suggests that exercise is useful for improving body composition and health. For example, when exercise-induced mean weight loss is <1.0 kg, significant improvements in aerobic capacity (+6.3 ml/kg/min), systolic (-6.00 mm Hg) and diastolic (-3.9 mm Hg) blood pressure, waist circumference (-3.7 cm) and positive mood still occur. However, people will vary in their responses to exercise; understanding and characterising this variability will help tailor weight loss strategies to suit individuals. PMID:21596715
King, N A; Horner, K; Hills, A P; Byrne, N M; Wood, R E; Bryant, E; Caudwell, P; Finlayson, G; Gibbons, C; Hopkins, M; Martins, C; Blundell, J E
The objective of this study was to investigate disordered eating among female college students. The study sought to establish a predictive model for the risk of eating disorders in young female university students in Taiwan. A group of 336 student participants were recruited with the results showing that more than one third (43.2%) of the college women surveyed were identified to be at risk for developing an eating disorder. The results of multiple logistic regression showed that bulimia score, elevated depression index, eating binges, the use of laxatives and medicine to control weight, and having lost 20 lb, or more, in the past 6 months were all considered to be risk factors for developing an eating disorder (the corresponding area under receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.905). The results demonstrate that unhealthy dietary behaviors are rapidly spreading among young Taiwanese female students. For the sample described in this article, 67.6% of the female college students had lost weight: 51% had dieted at least once to lose weight, 43% used exercise to lose weight, 24% used low-calorie diets to lose weight, 11% used healthy food to lose weight, 9.2% used rubber clothing and a diet patch to lose weight, 17.9% of the students used weight-loss drugs, and a few students sought medical assistance from weight-loss clinics or actually underwent liposuction (1.5%). PMID:19926025
To better understand availability and price of beverages in Hawai'i, the prices of healthy (milk, orange juice, unsweetened tea, unsweetened coffee, diet soda) and unhealthy beverages (regular soda, fruit drink, sports drink, sweetened tea, flavored water) were collected and the beverage prices in lower per capita income areas and higher per capita income areas were compared. Cross-sectional data on prices of healthy and unhealthy beverages were collected from supermarkets, convenience stores, and quick serve restaurants from two lower per capita income areas (Waimanalo and Wai'anae) and two higher per capita income areas (Hawai'i Kai and Manoa) on O'ahu, Hawai'i from May 15 to June 10, 2012. Using composite data from across all areas, there was a significant difference of $0.58 (95% CI 0.46, 0.70) between the healthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.76 ± $0.86) and the unhealthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.18 ± $0.38) (P <.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference between per capita income areas, the lower per capita income areas' mean price per 20 ounces of healthy beverages was slightly higher and mean price per 20 ounces of unhealthy beverages was slightly lower than the higher per capita income areas. Pricing strategies that enable healthy beverages to be less expensive than unhealthy beverages is one method to increase consumption of healthy beverages and decrease consumption of unhealthy beverages. Reduction in unhealthy beverage consumption is needed to help reduce obesity, especially in the lower per capita income areas that have higher obesity prevalence. PMID:23520564
Watters, Corilee A; Corrado, Rachel S; Chaloupka, Frank J
This article examines the link between loneliness and eating disorders. This concept is evaluated through a systematic review of the literature that links loneliness and eating disorders and through a survey of themes connecting the 2 conditions. Eating disorders-including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders that are not otherwise specified, which include binge eating disorder-are challenging health issues. Each of these diagnoses specifically relates to loneliness. This negative emotion contributes to and fuels eating disorder symptoms. Negative interpersonal relationships, both real experiences and individuals' skewed perceptions, exacerbate eating disorders and feelings of loneliness. Characteristics that have been associated with loneliness clearly relate to eating disorders. Understanding this relationship is vital, so that we can appreciate our patients' struggles and work to target these intense emotions within the treatment setting. We need to be aware of the power of loneliness as it applies to individuals in general and specifically to those struggling with disordered eating. PMID:22303623
Adolescents face stress in relation to normal growing up, to cultural pressures in looking slim and having a body image that mirrors peers' norms and values. Many adolescents make it through their youth without showing significant behavioural difficulties. Others negotiate these pressures through eating disorders. Both quantitative and qualitative data are used to identify adolescents' experiences and meanings in relation
Anger and aggressive behaviours, especially those self-directed, are frequent in subjects suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. They increase the complexity of the clinical features, change the prognosis and cause a more difficult management of these disorders. In order to elucidate the complex relationships between eating disorders, anger and aggressiveness, the history of traumatic experiences, the prevalence of dissociative,
Elisabetta Truglia; Edoardo Mannucci; Stefano Lassi; Carlo Maria Rotella; Carlo Faravelli; Valdo Ricca
Athletic identity is the extent to which an individual identifies with being an athlete. Strong “running” role identity may contribute to increased restrictive dieting behaviours, potentially placing such individuals at risk for eating disorders. In this study, we examined differences in eating and exercise behaviours\\/attitudes and athletic identity in obligatory versus non-obligatory runners. Male and female participants completed a battery
An addiction model of both eating disorders and obesity has received increasing attention in the popular and scientific literature. The addiction is viewed as a brain disease that must be directly targeted if treatment is to succeed. Evidence from laboratory feeding studies, epidemiology, genetic and familial research, psychopathological mechanisms, and treatment outcome research on cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is inconsistent with the clinical validity or utility of the addiction model of eating disorders. Neurobiological research has shown commonalities in brain reward processes between obesity and substance abuse disorders. Yet emphasis on apparent similarities overlooks important differences between obesity and drug addiction. Interest in obesity as a brain disease should not detract from a public health focus on the 'toxic food environment' that is arguably responsible for the obesity epidemic and related nutrition-based chronic disease. PMID:20821736
It is estimated that 5.4 million Australians get sick annually from eating contaminated food and that up to 20% of this illness results from food handling behaviour. A study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) including past behaviour in predicting safe food handling intention and behaviour. One hundred and nine participants completed questionnaires
Elite dancers are at increased risk of eating disorders. The authors hypothesized that specific learning about thinness in dance class, rather than simple participation in dance training, tends to be an important aspect of the risk process. Approximately 500 college women reported on their previous dance experiences, their dance-related learning about thinness, their eatingbehaviours and attitudes and their thinness expectancies. Results showed that lifetime amount of time spent in dance class was unrelated to adult eating disturbance, women's reports of learning experiences concerning thinness during their dance classes predicted adult disordered eating concurrently, and thinness expectancies appeared to mediate the relationship between learning about thinness and adult eating disturbance. Learning experiences about thinness in dance class seem more important than time spent in dance class when examining the relationship between dance study and eating disorders. PMID:18729131
Objective To compare cancer screening and flu vaccination among persons with and without unhealthy substance use. Design The authors analysed data from 4804 women eligible for mammograms, 4414 eligible for Papanicolou (Pap) smears, 7008 persons eligible for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and 7017 persons eligible for flu vaccination. All patients were screened for unhealthy substance use. The main outcome was completion of cancer screening and flu vaccination. Results Among the 9995 patients eligible for one or more of the preventive services of interest, 10% screened positive for unhealthy substance use. Compared with women without unhealthy substance use, women with unhealthy substance use received mammograms less frequently (75.4% vs 83.8%; p<0.0001), but Pap smears no less frequently (77.9% vs 78.1%). Persons with unhealthy substance use received CRC screening no less frequently (61.7% vs 63.4%), yet received flu vaccination less frequently (44.7% vs 50.4%; p=0.01). In multivariable analyses, women with unhealthy substance use were less likely to receive mammograms (adjusted odds ratio 0.68; 95% CI 0.52 to 0.89), and persons with unhealthy substance use were less likely to receive flu vaccination (adjusted odds ratio 0.81; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.97). Conclusions Unhealthy substance use is a risk factor for not receiving all appropriate preventive health services. PMID:22021737
Lasser, Karen E; Kim, Theresa W; Alford, Daniel P; Cabral, Howard; Saitz, Richard; Samet, Jeffrey H
... Home Living with Bowel Control Problems Resources Bowel Control Awareness Campaign Home Resources for Health Care Providers ... Home : Eating and Bowel Control Eating and Bowel Control Some bowel control problems improve simply by changing ...
Eating disorders during pregnancy, once thought to be rare, occur in a significant number of women. The incidences of the major eating disorders-anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa-are increasing because of cultural pressures on the drive for thinness. Because the age range for these major eating disorders overlaps with the age range for reproductive function, it is not unusual for a clinician to encounter a pregnant patient with a major eating disorder. Eating disorders attributable to the pregnant state include pregnancy sickness, pica, and ptyalism. The diagnostic criteria, etiology, nutritional behavioral influences, evolutionary psychological considerations where elucidated, and treatment of these disorders will be presented. Target Audience: Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians Learning Objectives: After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to review how the major eating disorders impact pregnancy, to diagnose eating disorders during pregnancy using the diagnostic criteria, and to treat eating disorders during pregnancy. PMID:23943041
The clinical eating disorders are only the most extreme form of pathological eating attitudes and behaviors. Many people engage\\u000a in pathological weight-control behaviors without meeting the current diagnostic criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa and\\u000a may be regarded as having subclinical eating disorders. As described by Fairburn and Beglin (1), a broad spectrum of eating disorders appears to exist in
Background Unhealthy substance use is the spectrum from use that risks harm, to use associated with problems, to the diagnosable conditions of substance abuse and dependence, often referred to as substance abuse disorders. Despite the prevalence and impact of unhealthy substance use, medical education in this area remains lacking, not providing physicians with the necessary expertise to effectively address one of the most common and costly health conditions. Medical educators have begun to address the need for physician training in unhealthy substance use, and formal curricula have been developed and evaluated, though broad integration into busy residency curricula remains a challenge. Discussion We review the development of unhealthy substance use related competencies, and describe a curriculum in unhealthy substance use that integrates these competencies into internal medicine resident physician training. We outline strategies to facilitate adoption of such curricula by the residency programs. This paper provides an outline for the actual implementation of the curriculum within the structure of a training program, with examples using common teaching venues. We describe and link the content to the core competencies mandated by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, the formal accrediting body for residency training programs in the United States. Specific topics are recommended, with suggestions on how to integrate such teaching into existing internal medicine residency training program curricula. Summary Given the burden of disease and effective interventions available that can be delivered by internal medicine physicians, teaching about unhealthy substance use must be incorporated into internal medicine residency training, and can be done within existing teaching venues.
Anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED) are psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviors that often result in dramatic physical consequences for the patients. The etiology of eating disorders (EDs) is currently unknown; however, a strong genetic contribution is likely involved. In the last 10 years, several polymorphic variants of genes coding substances involved in the
Binge eating, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, anorexia-bulimia are terms often used without really knowing what precisely one is referring to. Otherwise, there are many articles concerning anorexia nervosa in medical literature, a disease, which can be seen and fascinates. These eating disorders are frequent in today's society; medical, psychological and social consequences are important. PMID:24090668
The outcome in eating disorders remains poor and commonly used methods of treatment have little, if any effect. It is suggested that this situation has emerged because of the failure to realize that the symptoms of eating disorder patients are epiphenomena to starvation and the associated disordered eating. Humans have evolved to cope with the challenge of starvation and the
This paper explores the profile of healthy and unhealthyeating consumers in terms of demographic, psychographic and communicative variables. Data from 3,388 respondents to the 1999 DDB Needham Life Style Study were analyzed. The results show the healthy eaters to be environmentally conscious and health-oriented, suggesting an underlying theme of personal and social responsibility. The communicative activities of healthy eaters demonstrate an information orientation while unhealthy eaters are more entertainment oriented. Practical and social implications are discussed for social marketers regarding target segmentation and message design. PMID:15018003
Purpose – Health is becoming an increasingly important issue in the UK as well as the rest of Europe. Emphasis on the importance of healthy eating is ongoing for many reasons, including the growing concern about childhood obesity resulting in the ban of advertising of unhealthy foods to children in the UK in April 2007. However, although legislation has been
Cognitions are of crucial importance in the -aetiology and the maintenance of eating disorders. Dysfunctional cognitions in eating disorders are related to body image, self-esteem and feeding. The aim of this paper is to review the actual knowledge in this area. First, we will display -cognitive models in eating disorders. Cognitive factors in -eating disorders are logical errors, cognitive slippage and conceptual complexity. Eating disorder patients seem to have a deficient cognitive development. Some cognitive models stipulate that eating disorder patients may develop organised cognitive structures schemas concerning the issues of weight and its implications for the self. These schemas can account for the persistence and for the understanding the "choice of the eating disorder symptomatology. Cognitive pheno-mena of interest are self-schema, weight-related schema and weight-related self-schema. The maintenance model of ano-rexia nervosa argued that, initially there is an extreme need to control eating which is supported by low self-esteem. The maintenance of the disorder is reinforced by three mechanisms: dietary restriction enhances the sense of being in control; aspects of starvation encourage further dietary restriction; concerns about shape and weight encourage restriction. The development and maintenance of bulimic symptomatology are explained by placing a high value on attaining an idealised weight and body shape accompanied by inaccurate beliefs. The cognitive model of specific family of origin experiences puts forward the development of -maladaptative expectancies for eating and thinness. Second, we discuss distortions in information processing. a) In feeding laboratories, bulimics show a wide range of caloric intake and a disruption of circadian feeding patterns. In overeating bulimics, large meals occurred mainly during afternoon and evening with high fat and carbohydrate intake, but the majority of meals were of normal size and frequency. Responsivity to food cues indicates that bulimics were more responsive to sight, smell and taste of their favourite binge food, and a greater responsivity was associated with increasing -cue salience. Eating disorder patients appear to have internalised a mediated social rule concerning "good food" and make drastic selections thus removing the possibility of choice of foodstuffs. b) Experimental processes: temporal factors in the processing of threat seem to be of importance in patients with high levels of eating psychopathology. There is no evidence for preattentive processing biases among anorectics. Changes in information processing speed after treatment were not linked to treatment condition or treatment response. c) Judgement and emotions: in eating disorder patients, distortions of depressogenic nature are found that influence the cognitive style; thoughts about eating, weight and shape are characterised by negative affective tone; negative emotions could account for bulimic behaviour; anxiety and distress are correlated to thought control strategies. Information treating seems to be impaired in a non-homogeneous way. d) Cognitive schemas are seriously maladaptive and not well investigated. In eating disorder patients, core beliefs are absolute, unconditional and dichotomous cognitions about oneself and the world. There are only few studies in this field moreover showing controversial results. Core beliefs can explain links between personality disorders and eating psychopathology. Pathological core beliefs have to be taken in to account because they influence the outcome and the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy. Third, the last part of this paper summarises actually available rating scales eva-luating distorted cognitions in eating disorders. There are different methods for evaluation: specific and non-specific self-report questionnaires, thought-sampling procedures, -methods derived from cognitive psychology. The Mizes Anorectic Cognition questionnaire (MAC) is a well-known self-rating scale with good psychometric properties. The revised form
Rewarding behaviours such as sexual activity, eating, nursing, parenting, social interactions, and play activity are conserved strongly in evolution, and they are essential for development and survival. All of these behaviours are enjoyable and represent pleasant experiences with a high reward value. Remarkably, rewarding behaviours activate the same brain circuits that mediate the positive reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse
Liana Fattore; Miriam Melis; Paola Fadda; Marco Pistis; Walter Fratta
Many young adults have an over pessimist view of old age because their fail to predict correctly their ability to adapt cognitively to the bad conse quences of aging. This may lead them to adopt eithe r long- term healthy practises or, on the contrary risky an d unhealthy practises in which case we can speak of fatalist behaviour. This
This study aimed to explore the manifestation of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms in a sample of people with eating disorders and to investigate possible associations between body dysmorphia and alexithymia. Forty patients currently seeking treatment for an eating disorder completed a battery of six measures assessing alexithymia, mood, eatingbehaviours, weight-related body image, body dysmorphia and non-weight related body image.
Excessive intake of sugar-sweetened beverages by undergraduates is closely related to the increasing prevalence of obesity, making investigations of the substitution of healthy for unhealthy beverages imperative. According to the concept of price elasticity in behavioral economics, the choice of healthy over unhealthy behaviors is facilitated by increasing the cost of less-healthy alternatives or reducing the cost of healthier alternatives.
Life expectancy and other indices of health have deteriorated markedly in the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe over recent decades. The possible roles of lifestyles, knowledge about health and behaviour, emotional wellbeing and perceptions of control were assessed in a cross-sectional survey of young adults of similar educational status in Eastern and Western Europe. As part of the European Health and Behaviour Survey, data were collected in 1989-1991 from 4170 university students aged 18-30 years from Austria, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland, and from 2293 students from the German Democratic Republic, Hungary and Poland. Measures were obtained of health behaviours, awareness of the role of lifestyle factors in health, depression, social support, health locus of control, and the value placed on health. After adjustment for age and sex, East European students had less healthy lifestyles than Western Europeans according to a composite index of 11 health behaviours, with significant differences for seven activities: regular exercise, drinking alcohol, avoiding dietary fat, eating fibre, adding salt to food, wearing a seat-belt, and using sunscreen protection. East European students were less likely to be aware of the relationship between lifestyle factors (smoking, exercise, fat and salt consumption) and cardiovascular disease risk. In addition, they were more depressed (adjusted odds of elevated scores on the Beck Depression Inventory of 2.46, 95% C.I. 1.95-3.09), reported lower social support, and had higher beliefs in the "chance" and "powerful others" locus of control. Internal locus of control levels did not differ across regions, and Eastern Europeans placed a higher valuation on their health. Unhealthy lifestyles associated with lack of information about health and behaviour, greater beliefs in uncontrollable influences, and diminished emotional well-being, may contribute to poor health status in Eastern Europe. PMID:11762888
BACKGROUND To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children’s health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children’s eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch programs on children’s overall (both in- and out-of-school) eating behavior. METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in which 2039 students in 12 elementary and 10 middle schools reported their eating behavior and the frequencies with which they purchased meals and à la carte items in the school cafeteria. Food service managers from each school provided information on the availability of foods and beverages during school lunch periods. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to identify school- and student-level predictors of children’s eating behavior. RESULTS The availability of nutritious foods during school lunch periods was associated with healthier eating behavior among students. However, this effect was observed only among children who infrequently purchased à la carte food items, and not among those who were frequent purchasers. CONCLUSION Increased availability of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products as components of school meals may be an effective strategy to promote healthy eating behaviors among children. Improving the nutrition standards for foods offered in competition with federally reimbursable school meals may enhance the positive effects of school meal programs on student eating behavior.
Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.
By drawing on interviews with administrators, faculty and staff at one school in the northeastern United States, this qualitative work considers the ways in which school leaders negotiate, resist or draw upon discourses associated with health, weight, nutrition and fitness to understand and experience their own bodies and interpret their roles and responsibilities at the school. Analysis of the narratives
|By drawing on interviews with administrators, faculty and staff at one school in the northeastern United States, this qualitative work considers the ways in which school leaders negotiate, resist or draw upon discourses associated with health, weight, nutrition and fitness to understand and experience their own bodies and interpret their roles…
By drawing on interviews with administrators, faculty and staff at one school in the northeastern United States, this qualitative work considers the ways in which school leaders negotiate, resist or draw upon discourses associated with health, weight, nutrition and fitness to understand and experience their own bodies and interpret their roles and…
Previous research has shown that people tend to consume less from foods they consider more tempting. However, the underlying mechanism for these counterintuitive findings is still unknown. The current paper is the first to test the theoretically implied suggestion that the effect of food temptation strength on consumption is indirect and can be explained through temptations' perceived unhealthiness. Two studies were conducted among female students who were concerned about their weight to test the effect of food temptation strength on perceived unhealthiness as well as the amount that was consumed of the products. Results showed that temptation strength was associated with unhealthiness such that weak temptations were - unjustly - perceived to be less unhealthy compared to strong temptations, while perceived unhealthiness was negatively related to indulgence. As a consequence, people may consume more from weak than from strong temptations. It is concluded that weak temptations tend to be underestimated and can be more challenging for successful self-regulation than strong temptations. PMID:24183149
Kroese, Floor M; Evers, Catharine; de Ridder, Denise T D
Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…
Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook
|The authors investigated the relationship between abuse in adult relationships and the tendency to engage in unhealthy weight loss behaviors. Undergraduate women responded to questions regarding weight loss behaviors, whether or not they had recently been in an abusive relationship, and perceived body image. Results indicated that women who had…
Ferrier, Amanda G.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cimini, M. Dolores
Adherence to lifestyle recommendations for prevention of cardiovascular disease remains a critical issue. We examined the association of anxiety and depression with healthy behaviors in a large population of subjects at risk of cardiovascular disease.We studied 1612 consecutive subjects referred for evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors. Separated scores reflecting unhealthy behaviors (physical inactivity, smoking and poor diet) were combined to
Fabrice Bonnet; Kate Irving; Jean-Louis Terra; Patrice Nony; François Berthezène; Philippe Moulin
Discrepancies in definitions of health exist. These discrepancies, if not acknowledged, create major communication gaps between health-care professionals and their clients, which interferes with the provision of culturally responsive care. The purpose of this study was to understand how Native American Indians experiencing persistent mental illness (PMI) define\\/describe being healthy and being unhealthy. Grounded theory design was used in conducting
Implicit attitudes, evaluations that can occur without effort, quickly and without conscious intent, have been shown to predict self-reported diets and objectively measured food choices within the laboratory. We present two studies which extend the literature by demonstrating that implicit attitudes predict objective purchasing of healthy and unhealthy foods. Both Study 1 (N?=?40) and Study 2 (N?=?36) utilised an online
|The present paper describes a study in which 13 children aged 9-11 years, of diverse ethnic, linguistic, and socio-economic backgrounds, were asked to use a digital camera and small notebook to document the range of things they consider to be healthy and unhealthy. Using open-ended interview questions, the children were then asked to explain each…
|Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…
Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook
We studied whether readiness to change predicts alcohol consumption (drinks per day) 3 months later in 267 medical inpatients with unhealthy alcohol use. We used 3 readiness to change measures: a 1 to 10 visual analog scale (VAS) and two factors of the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale: Perception of Problems (PP) and Taking Action (TA). Subjects with
Nicolas Bertholet; Debbie M. Cheng; Tibor P. Palfai; Jeffrey H. Samet; Richard Saitz
Background HIV-infected patients with substance use experience suboptimal health outcomes, possibly to due to variations in care. Objectives To assess the association between substance use and the quality of HIV care (QOC) received. Research Design Retrospective cohort study. Subjects HIV-infected patients enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Measures We collected self-report substance use data and abstracted 9 HIV quality indicators (QIs) from medical records. Independent variables were unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C score ?4) and illicit drug use (self-report of stimulants, opioids, or injection drug use in past year). Main outcome was the percentage of QIs received, if eligible. We estimated associations between substance use and QOC using multivariable linear regression. Results The majority of the 3,410 patients were male (97.4%) and Black (67.0%) with a mean age of 49.1 years (SD 8.8). Overall, 25.8% reported unhealthy alcohol use, 22% illicit drug use, and participants received 81.5% (SD=18.9) of QIs. The mean percentage of QIs received was lower for those with unhealthy alcohol use vs. not (59.3% vs. 70.0%, p<.001) and those using illicit drugs vs. not (57.8% vs. 70.7%, p<.001). In multivariable models, unhealthy alcohol use (adjusted ? ?2.74; 95% CI ?4.23, ?1.25) and illicit drug use (adjusted ? ?3.51 95% CI ?4.99, ?2.02) remained inversely associated with the percentage of QIs received. Conclusions Though the overall QOC for these HIV-infected Veteran patients was high, gaps persist for those with unhealthy alcohol and illicit drug use. Interventions that address substance use in HIV-infected patients may improve the QOC received.
Korthuis, P. Todd; Fiellin, David A.; McGinnis, Kathleen A.; Skanderson, Melissa; Justice, Amy C.; Gordon, Adam J.; Doebler, Donna Almario; Asch, Steven M.; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Bryant, Kendall; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Crystal, Stephen; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Kraemer, Kevin L.
The phenomenon of 'pro-eating disorder' websites remains relatively unexplored by researchers in published formats. Supporters of the sites claim beneficial effects but health professionals worry that the sites propagate disordered behaviours. The present study addressed visitor characteristics and perceived impact of visits. A 24-item questionnaire supplemented with the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) was developed and posted on the website of the UK mental health charity SANE. Participants who interacted with others on the sites and sought emotional support reported improved mental state after visiting, and for them, evidence was found of reduced impact from potentially damaging content. 'Silent browsing' in order to sustain a disorder was found to be mainly harmful. 'Silent browsers' may be particularly vulnerable to a worsening of their symptoms in the absence of beneficial effects from emotional support, but those who interact and find support could face a danger of a different sort. PMID:17676689
Picky eating is a relatively common problem during childhood, and parents lack clear strategies with which to decrease picky eating. This study examined whether increasing eating enjoyment and cooking enjoyment might give opportunities to decrease picky eating. Parents (n=305), mainly mothers with children between 6 and 12 years of age (53.8% boys; 46.2% girls), completed a questionnaire on pressure and restriction, eating enjoyment, and picky eating, and cooking enjoyment. Path analyses were performed to examine the mediating role of eating enjoyment. The final model provided a good fit to the data and explained 33% variance in picky eating. A strong inverse association between eating enjoyment and picky eating was found (?=-.44). Significant direct effects were found between cooking enjoyment and picky eating (?=-.16) and restriction and picky eating (?=.18). Eating enjoyment partly mediated the association between cooking enjoyment and picky eating. Results showed pressure had only an indirect effect on picky eating through eating enjoyment. Eating enjoyment serves as an important and central factor in children's picky-eating behavior. High controlling practices might create a negative environment around food and healthy eating and so decrease eating enjoyment and increase picky eating. PMID:22245133
As can be seen throughout this book, childhood and adolescent obesity is of great concern. Obesity during childhood and adolescence\\u000a has been associated with physical, behavioral, and academic difficulties (Anderson & Butcher, 2006; Datar & Sturm, 2006).\\u000a This chapter will discuss developmental patterns related to normative eating habits as well as eating patterns associated\\u000a with problematic eating. Given that the
|The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…
Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.
The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several established measures. Depressive symptoms were greater in the
Kelly C. Allison; Carlos M. Grilo; Robin M. Masheb; Albert J. Stunkard
There is evidence from case studies suggesting that adapted dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and eating disorders (ED) might improve disorder related complaints. Twenty-four women with BPD (9 with comorbid anorexia nervosa [AN] and 15 with bulimia nervosa [BN]), who already had failed to respond to previous eating-disorder related inpatient treatments were consecutively admitted to an
Christoph Kröger; Ulrich Schweiger; Valerija Sipos; Sören Kliem; Ruediger Arnold; Tanja Schunert; Hans Reinecker
Objectives. We sought to determine whether unhealthy behaviors play a stress-buffering role in observed racial disparities in physical and mental health. Methods. We conducted logistic regressions by race on data from the first 2 waves of the Americans' Changing Lives Survey to determine whether unhealthy behaviors had buffering effects on the relationship between major stressors and chronic health conditions, and on the relationship between major stressors and meeting the criteria for major depression. Results. Among Whites, unhealthy behaviors strengthened the relationship between stressors and meeting major-depression criteria. Among Blacks, however, the relationship between stressors and meeting major-depression criteria was stronger among those who had not engaged in unhealthy behaviors than among those who had. Among both race groups there was a positive association between stressors and chronic health conditions. Among Blacks there was an additional positive association between number of unhealthy behaviors and number of chronic conditions. Conclusions. Those who live in chronically stressful environments often cope with stressors by engaging in unhealthy behaviors that may have protective mental-health effects. However, such unhealthy behaviors can combine with negative environmental conditions to eventually contribute to morbidity and mortality disparities among social groups.
... to eat well but safely. When you eat eggs: Yolks and whites should be cooked solid. Do not ... cooked for at least 5 minutes. When eating chicken and other poultry: Cook whole pieces of poultry ...
... Dental Complications of Eating Disorders Dental Complications of Eating Disorders Dietary habits can and do play a role ... associated with dental complications that causes individuals with eating disorders to seek treatment. Signs & Symptoms Loss of tissue ...
Contemporary Western society emphasizes thinness for women, and the ideal female body size has become progressively smaller over the past half century. Meanwhile, the actual female body size has increased steadily, and rates of aberrant attitudes and behaviours surrounding food and weight have risen and tend to be much more common in overweight individuals. Thus disordered eating and excess body weight may perpetuate each other's development. We have synthesized the literature concerning female body size and disordered eating within a sociocultural context. Eight cognitions and behaviours that occur in women were examined: media exposure, weight stereotypes, body dissatisfaction, dieting, "fat talk," emotional eating, perfectionism, and the "superwoman" ideal. The research literature suggests that these factors may play a role in both disordered eating and obesity. Furthermore, these factors may induce triggers, exacerbated by perfectionism and excess weight, that increase the risk of binge eating. These triggers include interpersonal discrepancies, low interpersonal esteem, depressive affect, and dietary restraint. Comprehensive interventions targeting the indicated sociocultural cognitions and behaviours, combined with healthy living education, may be the most effective strategy for reducing the prevalence of disordered eating and obesity among females. PMID:21382233
Recently, researchers have debated two views on the connection between lifestyle and health. In the first, health-related lifestyles including tobacco and alcohol use, diet, and physical activity are seen as primary influences on health. In the second, social stratification is the dominant influence with lifestyles simply markers of social status. Neither approach leads to interventions that can reverse the world's most serious health problems. This article proposes that corporate practices are a dominant influence on the lifestyles that shape patterns of health and disease. Modifying business practices that promote unhealthy lifestyles is a promising strategy for improving population health. Corporations shape lifestyles by producing and promoting healthy or unhealthy products, creating psychological desires and fears, providing health information, influencing social and physical environments, and advancing policies that favor their business goals. Public officials and health professionals can promote health by advocating policies to modify these corporate practices. PMID:22258282
Using GPS devices and digital cameras, we surveyed outdoor advertisements in Austin, Los Angeles and Philadelphia. GIS and hot spot analysis revealed that unhealthy ads were clustered around child-serving institutions in Los Angeles and Philadelphia but not in Austin. Multivariate generalized least square (GLS) regression models showed that percent black (p<0.04) was a significant positive predictor of clustering in Philadelphia and percent white (p<0.06) was a marginally significant negative predictor of clustering in Los Angeles after controlling for several land use variables. The results emphasize the importance of zoning and land use regulations to protect children from exposure to unhealthy commercial messages, particularly in neighborhoods with significant racial/ethnic minority populations. PMID:19369111
Hillier, Amy; Cole, Brian L; Smith, Tony E; Yancey, Antronette K; Williams, Jerome D; Grier, Sonya A; McCarthy, William J
Increasing habitual physical activity and decreasing sedentary behaviour have both been identified as targets for the prevention of unhealthy weight gain and obesity. To improve health monitoring in the context of nutrition-related disease prevention, there is a need to better define relevant indicators of sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between indicators of physical
Jean-Michel Oppert; Adrien Kettaneh; Jean-Michel Borys; Arnaud Basdevant; Pierre Ducimetière; Marie-Aline Charles
Objectives of review. The goal of this review is to highlight advances in research on the psychobiology of eating disorders during the period 2005- 2006. Summary of recent findings. Studies on the function of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine in eating disorders have demonstrated the presence of state- and trait-related alterations and their associations with behavioral and comorbid characteristics.
Angela Favaro; Palmiero Monteleone; Paolo Santonastaso; Mario Maj
ObjectiveSmoking has been reported as an appetite and weight control method in eating disorders; however, few studies have explored patterns of smoking across subtypes of eating disorders. The aim of this paper was to explore the patterns and prevalence of smoking behavior in 1524 women from two of the multisite Price Foundation Genetic studies.
Doris Anzengruber; Kelly L. Klump; Laura Thornton; Harry Brandt; Steve Crawford; Manfred M. Fichter; Katherine A. Halmi; Craig Johnson; Allan S. Kaplan; Maria LaVia; James Mitchell; Michael Strober; D. Blake Woodside; Alessandro Rotondo; Wade H. Berrettini; Walter H. Kaye; Cynthia M. Bulik
|Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…
Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…
Eating disorders have become extremely common in today's society. The individuals most commonly affected by eating disorders have been women. This is often the result of societal demands, and can be greatly influenced by the relationships a woman has with her parents. The purpose of this study was to focus specifically on the father-daughter relationship of college women diagnosed with
|Case examples are presented of typical pressures felt by aerobic dance instructors, cheerleaders and majorettes, and wrestlers to illustrate how they may become susceptible to eating disorders. Suggestions are presented for coaches, parents, and administrators in preventing or intervening in eating disorders among athletes. (CB)|
The purpose of this study is to examine conformity to traditional feminine norms as a predictor of eating disorder (ED) symptomatology. Eight subscales of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory (CFNI) were examined as predictors of ED symptomatology as assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Findings indicate the Thinness subscale of the CFNI predicted significant portions of the variance
Melinda A. Green; Christopher M. Davids; Anna K. Skaggs; Cori M. Riopel; Jada J. Hallengren
Objectives of review. This chapter reviews research findings from 2005 and 2006 regarding dimensional personality traits, categorical personality disorders and dimensional personality pathology, and categorical person- ality subtypes in eating disorders. Summary of recent findings. Approaches linking specific personality traits to eating pathology have demonstrated the predictive validity of perfec- tionism and impulsiveness. Impulsive behaviors are associated with com- pulsivity
Studies the relationship between incest and bulimic behavior. Indicates incest victims are significantly more likely to binge, vomit, experience a loss of control over eating, and report body dissatisfaction than control subjects. Suggests incest may increase risk of bulimic behavior, and that eating problems may be a part of a larger pattern of…
Many publications have been produced recently from centres across the world dealing with the prevalence of eating disorders in their cultures. This type of research suggests that eating disorders are no longer limited to the western culture and have now assumed a worldwide dimension. A number of global cultural forces have been implicated in this spread including the power of
The cultivation of the body ideal and promotion of thinness values in fashion, media and the diet industry have been repeatedly shown to account for the increased prevalence of eating disorders. It is evident in women in certain sub-cultures where the demand for thinness for career advancement is endemic. There is also a correlation between eating disorders and the level
Contemporary ideals of health and nutrition conspire to render the consumption of chocolate and similar snacks problematic. Individuals who self-define as ‘chocoholics’ therefore present an ideal opportunity to investigate how ostensibly unhealthy acts are defined, defended and maintained within a health-conscious climate. This article reports on an interview-based study with five self-professed chocoholics. A Foucauldian form of discourse analysis was
It is well documented that immigrants are in better health upon arrival in the United States than their American counterparts\\u000a but that this health advantage erodes over time. We study the potential determinants of this “healthy immigrant effect,” with\\u000a a particular focus on the tendency of immigrants to converge to unhealthy American BMI levels. Using data from the National\\u000a Health
Lifestyle risk factors are important precursors of old age disease and disability, and the population level impact of these\\u000a factors likely differs across countries that vary in their economic growth and the attributes of the populations that adopt\\u000a and abandon unhealthy lifestyles. This paper describes the stage of “lifestyle transition” among older adults in two countries\\u000a with vastly different trajectories
Rebeca Wong; Mary Beth Ofstedal; Kathryn Yount; Emily M. Agree
Using GPS devices and digital cameras, we surveyed outdoor advertisements in Austin, Los Angeles and Philadelphia. GIS and hot spot analysis revealed that unhealthy ads were clustered around child-serving institutions in Los Angeles and Philadelphia but not in Austin. Multivariate generalized least square (GLS) regression models showed that percent black (p<0.04) was a significant positive predictor of clustering in Philadelphia
Amy Hillier; Brian L. Cole; Tony E. Smith; Antronette K. Yancey; Jerome D. Williams; Sonya A. Grier; William J. McCarthy
Two studies investigated the stress–eating relationship. The first examined self-reported changes in intake of snack foods, whilst the second investigated stress-induced overconsumption in a laboratory setting comparing high (HF) and low-fat (LF) snacks. Eighty-nine females completed the Dutch EatingBehaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) [Van Strien, T., Fritjers, J. E. R., Bergers, G. P. A., & Defares, P. B. (1986). Dutch Eating
OBJECTIVE: To describe some biological, behavioural and psychological correlates of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and to determine the relationship between dietary restraint, binge eating, and leptin among obese women seeking treatment.DESIGN: Consecutive series of obese women enrolled in a clinical program for weight reduction treatment.SUBJECTS: Forty-two obese women. Eight participants met the criteria for ‘severe binge eating’ as measured by
A d'Amore; C Massignan; P Montera; A Moles; A De Lorenzo; S Scucchi
Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a growing boy's risk of developing an eating disorder. Issues of body image and sexual development can complicate and can distort previously normal eating habits. Students may use powerful and dangerous drugs readily available via the Internet, including growth hormone, creatine, testosterone, and aminophylline, to build muscle and to eliminate fat, potentially causing serious health consequences. School nurses can partner with health and physical education teachers, coaches, school staff, parents, and students to identify and to support boys with eating disorders PMID:16419341
Maintenance of healthy mitochondria prevents aging, cancer, and a variety of degenerative diseases that are due to the result of defective mitochondrial quality control (MQC). Recently, we discovered a novel mechanism for MQC, in which Mieap induces intramitochondrial lysosome-like organella that plays a critical role in the elimination of oxidized mitochondrial proteins (designated MALM for Mieap-induced accumulation of lysosome-like organelles within mitochondria). However, a large part of the mechanisms for MQC remains unknown. Here, we report additional mechanisms for Mieap-regulated MQC. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers completely inhibited MALM. A mitochondrial outer membrane protein NIX interacted with Mieap in a ROS-dependent manner via the BH3 domain of NIX and the coiled-coil domain of Mieap. Deficiency of NIX also completely impaired MALM. When MALM was inhibited, Mieap induced vacuole-like structures (designated as MIV for Mieap-induced vacuole), which engulfed and degraded the unhealthy mitochondria by accumulating lysosomes. The inactivation of p53 severely impaired both MALM and MIV generation, leading to accumulation of unhealthy mitochondria. These results suggest that (1) mitochondrial ROS and NIX are essential factors for MALM, (2) MIV is a novel mechanism for lysosomal degradation of mitochondria, and (3) the p53-Mieap pathway plays a pivotal role in MQC by repairing or eliminating unhealthy mitochondria via MALM or MIV generation, respectively. PMID:21264228
Bulimia nervosa and related syndromes are common, and occur in up to 5% of women who attend general practitioners. Young women in First World countries, particularly those who "diet", are at increased risk. Behaviours, such as binge eating and induced vomiting, are typically kept well hidden. Only a minority of those with these disorders present for treatment. General practitioners play a key role in primary and secondary prevention. Effective treatments include psychotherapies that focus on the patient's attitudes and relationships, not just the binge eatingbehaviour. About 50% of patients make a complete recovery, but the long term outcome is unknown. PMID:9847902
Hay, P J; Gilchrist, P N; Ben-Tovim, D I; Kalucy, R S; Walker, M K
Eating in response to an increasingly obesogenic environment has been strongly implicated as a salient aspect of eatingbehaviour, arguably influenced by learning and experience. Interindividual differences in susceptibility to weight gain may be due, in part, to variability in response to environmental triggers. The phenomenon of food craving may also be an important factor influencing appetite control. The present study tested a model, in which food craving was hypothesised to be an intervening causal variable, on a causal pathway between responsivity to environmental cues and the development of obesity. One hundred and twenty four participants (aged 21-71 years, 83 females and 41 males) completed the study. Participants completed the Dutch eatingbehaviour questionnaire (DEBQ), measuring external eating (externality), emotional eating (emotionality) and restrained eatingbehaviour (restraint), and an adapted form of the food craving inventory (FCI), assessing cravings for carbohydrate, fats, sweets and fast food fats, in addition to total food cravings. Initial analysis showed positive correlations between FCI-tot and body mass index (BMI), FCI-fats and BMI and FCI-fast food fats and BMI in both men and women, and between FCI-carbohydrates and BMI in men only. Multiple regression analyses showed externality as the principal predictor of food craving, which was greater in males compared to females, but differential for different food groups between genders. Restrained eating and cravings for fats and fast food fats were negatively associated in women only. As predicted, total cravings, and cravings for fats and fast food foods mediated the positive association between external eating and BMI. It is concluded that appetitive response to external cues as an important risk factor in appetite control is mediated through cravings for particular food groups and is gender-dependent. PMID:17349717
The present study sought to identify psychological factors that predict onset and maintenance of eating disorders. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from an epidemiological study of health and eatingbehaviours in men and women (N = 1320; 72% female) to examine the prospective and independent influence of the Eating Disorder Inventory Perfectionism, Interpersonal Distrust, and Maturity Fears subscales in predicting the onset and maintenance of eating disorders at 10-year follow-up. Multivariate models indicated higher Perfectionism (p = .025), lower Interpersonal Distrust (p < .001), and higher Maturity Fears (p = .037) predicted increased risk for eating disorder onset at 10-year follow-up, but only Perfectionism (p = .004) predicted eating disorder maintenance. Differential prediction of eating disorder onset versus maintenance highlights potentially different psychological foci for prevention versus treatment efforts. PMID:23847146
Holland, Lauren A; Bodell, Lindsay P; Keel, Pamela K
There is growing concern over commercial promotions of products that are unhealthy or unsafe. In some cases, policy recommendations have called for restrictions on promotional activities, such as event sponsorship, when used to promote products like alcohol, tobacco, and fast (\\
|The Satter Eating Competence Model (ecSatter) conceptualizes eating competence as having 4 components: eating attitudes, food acceptance, regulation of food intake and body weight, and management of the eating context (including family meals). According to ecSatter, supporting nutritional health requires establishing and maintaining positive…
The results suggest that linear eaters, who eat at a constant rate, are unable to adjust their intake when challenged to eat at a rate that differs from their baseline rate. This is referred to as disinhibition, which is shown by those at risk for both eating disorders (too little food when eating slowly) and obesity (too much food when
The study was to examine the eating habits of baby boomers and to investigate the relationship of these and other lifestyle habits on their reported body mass indices (BMI). A questionnaire was administered by mail to a random sample of people aged 40 years and above, drawn from the Electoral Rolls in Victoria, Australia. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about the respondents' eating habits, smoking status and alcohol use, as well as self reported heights and weights and demographic characteristics. Eight hundred and forty-four people (out of 1470) returned usable questionnaires. Statistically significant differences were found between the eating habits of men and women. Generally, more women snacked on high energy dense foods (e.g., confectionery). More men took larger mouthfuls than women. The eating habits of women appeared to be more formal than men's. Four constructs named: unconstrained eating, traditional eating style, gulping, and chocolate and junk food were derived from the eatingbehaviour literature. Structural equation modelling showed that eatingbehaviour was associated with BMI along with current smoking, ex-smoking status, alcohol consumption, and demographics. Eating habits and other lifestyle behaviours appear to be associated with BMI though in different pathways for men and women. PMID:21986185
|The Revised Children's EatingBehaviour Inventory, the Parenting Stress Index, and the Krug Autism Behavior Checklist were used to assess eating/mealtime problems and related variables in 33 young high functioning autistic children (mean age 5 years, 3 months), 295 normally developing children (mean age 5 years, 8 months) and 11 young boys (mean…
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of amenorrhoea self-reported by patients who are suffering or recovering from eating or exercise disorders. METHODS: Menstrual status, eating and exercise behaviours and feelings, and weight history of 268 female patients, 16-40 years old and not taking oral contraception or hormone replacement, were assessed on admission to hospital or
Suzanne F. Abraham; Bianca Pettigrew; Catherine Boyd; Janice Russell
|Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…
Biochemical and haematological reference intervals (RIs) have been reported for sea turtles, but their value for ante-mortem disease diagnosis may be limited due to small sample sizes and outdated statistical analyses. In the present study, 290 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were captured, clinically assessed and blood sampled. Of these, 211 were classified as 'clinically healthy' and 25 as 'clinically unhealthy'. RIs were estimated using data from the healthy turtles and compared with blood values from the unhealthy animals. All of the unhealthy animals had plasma biochemical and haematological values outside one or more RIs (albumin, 48% of unhealthy animals; alkaline phosphatase, 35%; aspartate transaminase, 13%; creatinine, 30%; globulin, 3%; glucose, 34%; lactic dehydrogenase, 26%; phosphorus, 22%; sodium, 13%; thrombocytes, 57%; and monocytes, 5%). Among small immature turtles, those with Chelonibia testudinaria plastron barnacle counts 20 were three times more likely to be unhealthy than those with no barnacles. In addition, small immature and mature turtles were more likely to be unhealthy than large immature turtles. PMID:19709912
Flint, Mark; Morton, John M; Limpus, Colin J; Patterson-Kane, Janet C; Murray, Peter J; Mills, Paul C
Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating) differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eatingbehaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eatingbehaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating.
Objective To examine the literature on binge eating to gain a better understanding of its biological foundations and their role in the eating disorders. Method Literature review and synthesis. Results Research using animal models has revealed several factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of binge eating. These factors, including stress, food restriction, the presence of palatable foods, and environmental conditioning, parallel many of the precursory circumstances leading to binge eating in individuals with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Discussion The animal literature has opened a new avenue to aid in the understanding of the neurobiological basis of binge eating. Future endeavors examining the genetic and environmental correlates of binge eating behavior will further contribute the understanding the biological foundations of binge eating and assist with establishing diagnostic criteria and the development of novel treatments for eating disorders marked by binge eating.
Emotional eating is part of the eating disorder spectrum. It requires specific, scientifically-valid treatments that address its biological, psychological, social\\/cultural, and spiritual aspects. Remuda's Emotional Eating Program offers this package for those who eat emotionally, whether overweight or not. Patients participate in a Biblically-based program that promotes healthy eating and a balanced lifestyle. The program integrates portions of Dialectical Behavior
... Tumblr. Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is the DASH Eating Plan? Dietary Approaches ... Rate This Content: Join us for a sodium Twitter chat on January 25! Have questions about sodium? ...
... to which someone brought cupcakes Stopping at a fast-food restaurant for breakfast and choosing high fat, high ... plan to buy (impulse buying) or eat at fast-food restaurants. Planning dinners at the beginning of the ...
Among seniors, food choice and related activities are affected by health status, biological changes wrought by aging and functional abilities, which are mediated in the larger arena by familial, social and economic factors. Determinants of healthy eating stem from individual and collective factors. Individual components include age, sex, education, physiological and health issues, psychological attributes, lifestyle practices, and knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours, in addition to other universal dietary determinants such as income, social status and culture. Collective determinants of healthy eating, such as accessible food labels, an appropriate food shopping environment, the marketing of the "healthy eating" message, adequate social support and provision of effective, community-based meal delivery services have the potential to mediate dietary habits and thus foster healthy eating. However, there is a startling paucity of research in this area, and this is particularly so in Canada. Using search and inclusion criteria and key search strings to guide the research, this article outlines the state of knowledge and research gaps in the area of determinants of healthy eating among Canadian seniors. In conclusion, dietary self-management persists in well, independent seniors without financial constraints, whatever their living arrangements, whereas nutritional risk is high among those in poor health and lacking in resources. Further study is necessary to clarify contributors to healthy eating in order to permit the development and evaluation of programs and services designed to encourage and facilitate healthy eating in older Canadians. PMID:16042161
Due to the significant increase in overweight and obese people, action is needed to raise eatingbehaviour awareness. A significant main meal (lunch) is witnessing a growing trend in the catering (part of the out-of-home nutrition). The aim of this study is to determine whether the selection of lunch menus is affected through the display of nutritional information in the form of number of calories or a traffic light model.In this exploratory study, quantitative data were collected in a cross-sectional design. In addition to the established measurement instruments, socio-demographic and socio-economic information of the subjects based on the study were evaluated. The survey took place in 2008 in 2 passes (time t A/t B). The identical lunch menu of a catering company was applied twice respectively for 4 weeks. In the second run (t B) the lunch menu contained additional nutritional information (big 4 instructions) in the form of calories or a traffic light nutrition. The test of group differences was based on scientific statistical analysis in SPSS.The overall results for the illustration of kilocalories or traffic light do not have a unique significance in the direction of a low average number of calories at the time t B in comparison to the time t A. The food participants, on average, choose a lower calorie-containing menu, when a combination of traffic light and calories is given.The nutrition behaviour is accompanied by an oversupply of unhealthy foods. Lunch participants are sensitised for the selection of healthier lunch menus by a traffic light nutrition information or calories information. Nutrition labelling for lunch menus in the form of calories nutrition information or a coloured traffic light could trigger preventive effects. PMID:23172598
Adolescents are exposed to images depicting the thin or muscular ideal almost on a daily basis. When the body perfect ideal is adopted, adolescents are at increased risk for developing unhealthy and disordered eating behaviors. The aim of the current 3-wave longitudinal study among adolescents (N = 418; 54 % girls) was to investigate whether different styles of identity exploration (i.e., information-oriented, normative, and diffuse-avoidant) are associated differentially with changes in adoption of the body perfect ideal, which, in turn, would relate to changes in appearance-focused and health-focused eating regulation. Results indicated that the information-oriented style predicted decreases and the normative style predicted increases in adoption of the body perfect ideal. In turn, adoption of the body perfect ideal predicted significant increases in appearance-focused eating regulation but not in health-focused eating regulation. A diffuse-avoidant style was unrelated to changes in adoption of the body perfect, yet directly predicted decreases in health-focused eating regulation. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23584860
Objective: To compare eating behaviors and alcohol drinking habits between 2 groups of female college students: varsity athletes and controls (nonathletes). Design and Setting: We obtained descriptive data using an anonymous, self-report survey instrument. The instrument assessed eating habits and behaviors as well as alcohol consumption and drinking behaviors. Subjects: One hundred forty-nine female varsity athletes and 209 female controls (nonathletes) from 2 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I universities. Measurements: Data collected included weight and desired weight, meal patterns, methods of gaining or losing weight, details of past or current eating problem, 2-week alcohol consumption quantity and frequency (binge drinking), and problem alcohol behaviors. We used chi-square analysis for nominal data and t tests and multivariate analysis of variance for interval data. Results: Compared with athletes, nonathletes ate fewer meals, and more of them reported feeling that they were too heavy and lied about their weight-control practices. Neither group reported high rates of pathologic behaviors such as vomiting. Nearly 18% of athletes and 26% of controls reported a past or current eating disorder. Athletes did not differ from controls in reported 2-week alcohol consumption, including binge drinking (nearly 50% of both groups). Conclusions: Self-reported problem drinking and eating behaviors exist in both athletes and controls but not at different rates. This finding may be a result of coach, athletic trainer, and peer-group counseling at these 2 schools or a general trend for lower rates of unhealthy behaviors among female athletes.
In the beginning of 2014 a new service (residential and non residential) for eating disorders is being planned to open in Malta. A telephone based survey was conducted between 30 May and 11 June 2012. A randomized sample of 6000 of the population between 15 and 50 years old was chosen. 2.9 per cent of respondents have suffered from an eating disorder at some point in time. 2.0 percent of these had suffered from an eating disorder in the past, while the remaining (0.9 per cent) were suffering from an eating disorder at the time of study. Out of these 2,008 individuals participated in the study. Binge Eating was the most common eating disorder, with 55.8 per cent of respondents having this condition, followed by Anorexia (34.3 per cent) and Bulimia (13.3 per cent). These results were comparable to those of other European countries. Awareness of these conditions in the general population was generally good, higher in females and in those with a higher educational level. PMID:23995188
Obesity is a major health issue in developed as well as developing countries. While obesity is associated with relatively good health status in some individuals, it may become a health issue for others. Obesity in the context of inflammation has been studied extensively. However, whether obesity in its various forms has the same adverse effects is a matter of debate and requires further research. During its natural history, metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) converts into metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). What causes this transition to occur and what is the role of obesity-related mediators of inflammation during this transition is discussed in this paper.
Prevailing models of the association between expressed emotion (EE) and relapse conceptualize EE as a form of stress for patients. In eating disorders (ED), there is no research addressed to evaluate the degree to which patients feel stress due to their relatives’ EE. It has been neither investigated how the EE and the subsequent stress relate to disordered behaviours and
Cristina Medina-Pradas; J. Blas Navarro; Steven. R. López; Antoni Grau; Jordi E. Obiols
BACKGROUND: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, lack of exercise and an unhealthy diet are the key modifiable factors contributing to premature morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Brief interventions in health care consultations can be effective in changing single health behaviours. General Practice holds considerable potential for primary prevention through modifying patients' multiple risk behaviours, but feasible, acceptable and effective
Clio Spanou; Sharon A Simpson; Kerry Hood; Adrian Edwards; David Cohen; Stephen Rollnick; Ben Carter; Jim McCambridge; Laurence Moore; Elizabeth Randell; Timothy Pickles; Christine Smith; Fiona Wood; Hazel Thornton; Chris C Butler
The study applied the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to study the determinants of Swedish children's intentions and actual breakfast choices, the focus being upon healthy vs. unhealthy choices. Children from three age groups (10, 13, and 16 years) participated by completing a questionnaire based on the TPB and a 4-day diary of breakfast choices (total N = 218). For
... to Eating Disorders Factors That May Contribute to Eating Disorders Eating disorders are complex conditions that arise from a combination ... issues that can contribute to the development of eating disorders. NEDA acknowledges that there may be a difference ...
A disturbance in eating behavior is the defining characteristic of the clinical eating disorders, Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder. Surprisingly little research has been devoted to assessing objectively the nature of the eating disturbances in these disorders, to elucidating what factors contribute to the development and persistence of these disturbances, or to describing how they change with treatment. This review, which is based on a Mars lecture delivered at the 2010 meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior, reviews objective information about the nature of the disturbances of eating behavior in eating disorders. These data suggest that more detailed knowledge of eating behavior is an essential component of a full understanding of eating disorders and may provide a foundation for studies of pathophysiology and for the development of new treatment methods.
Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:23756285
Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Four focus group interview sessions were conducted with 22 eighth and ninth grade adolescents (aged 13 to
Kara Chan; Gerard Prendergast; Alice Grønhøj; Tino Bech-Larsen
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…
The perfectionism model of binge eating is an integrative model explaining why perfectionism is tied to binge eating. This study extended and tested this emerging model by proposing daughters' socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., perceiving one's mother is harshly demanding perfection of oneself) and mothers' psychological control (i.e., a negative parenting style involving control and demandingness) contribute indirectly to daughters' binge eating by generating situations or experiences that trigger binge eating. These binge triggers include discrepancies (i.e., viewing oneself as falling short of one's mother's expectations), depressive affect (i.e., feeling miserable and sad), and dietary restraint (i.e., behaviors aimed at reduced caloric intake). This model was tested in 218 mother-daughter dyads studied using a mixed longitudinal and daily diary design. Daughters were undergraduate students. Results largely supported hypotheses, with bootstrapped tests of mediation suggesting daughters' socially prescribed perfectionism and mothers' psychological control contribute to binge eating through binge triggers. For undergraduate women who believe their mothers rigidly require them to be perfect and whose mothers are demanding and controlling, binge eating may provide a means of coping with or escaping from an unhealthy, unsatisfying mother-daughter relationship. PMID:23557815
Obesity is a growing problem in the United States. Research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of obesity is vital. One past study examined four eating behaviors in relation to obesity: eating beyond satiety, snacking, night eating, and feeling hungry within three hours of eating. Only eating beyond satiety was associated with obesity. The present study examined these same eating
Current statistics on children's eating patterns and obesity rates are consistent with the idea that genetic taste predispositions, traditional feeding practices, and the obesogenic environment combine to increase the likelihood of unhealthy outcomes in many individuals. In this paper, we focus on one particular level of analysis through which this unhealthy combination of factors may begin to be disassembled: children's learning about food and flavors. Much of the research on children's learning about food and flavors has been inspired by the animal literature, which has a long history of carefully controlled studies elucidating the mechanisms through which rats and other animals learn to prefer and avoid foods and flavors. This literature provides many clues as to the processes by which learning paradigms may be used to encourage the intake of healthy foods, altering the implicit learning of obesogenic eating patterns that is likely to occur without intervention in the current environment. Overall, the implications of the literature are that children should be repeatedly exposed to a variety of flavors early in life, and that new flavors should be paired with already-liked flavors and positive contexts. This message is consistent with recent research results from our laboratory, showing that familiarization and associative learning paradigms may be used to increase young children's acceptance of, preference for, and intake of previously-unfamiliar, healthy foods.
To investigate the relationship between eating problems and dissociation, 142 college women completed the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Bulimia Test, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Perceptual Alteration Scale, and a demographic information worksheet. The two eating-disorder inventories were strongly correlated (rs = .71). The two dissociation scales, however, were only moderately correlated (rs = .32), suggesting they are measuring different underlying experiences. The pattern of the correlations of the subscales of the dissociation scales with the eating disorder scales suggested that cognitive distortions were not as important in the relationship with eating disorders (all correlations were less than .21) as were dissociation of feelings and loss of control (the correlations for eating related subscales ranged as high as .51). These results were interpreted to suggest that dissociation of feelings might underlie eating problems. These results indicate the value of the use of hypnotherapy in working with eating-disordered clients. PMID:8203354
... Treatment Treatment Treatment is available. Recovery is possible. Eating disorders are serious health conditions that can be both physically and emotionally destructive. People with eating disorders need to seek professional help. Early diagnosis and ...
How can I eat without harming others? Motivated by this question, I ask Torontonians active in the local food movement about the food they eat and the work they do. Listening to their stories, I learn that \\
Dieting, unhealthy weight control and muscle-enhancing behaviors are common among adolescents: friends are a probable source of influence on these behaviors. The present study uses data provided by nominated friends to examine associations between friends' disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors and participants' own behaviors in a diverse sample of American youth. Male and female adolescents (mean age = 14.4) completed surveys and identified their friends from a class roster; friends' survey data were then linked to each participant. Participants (N = 2126) who had at least one nominated friend were included in the analytic sample. Independent variables were created using the same weight control and muscle-enhancing behaviors reported by nominated friends, and were used in logistic regression models to test associations between participants' and their friends' behaviors, stratified by gender. Results indicated that dieting, disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors were common in this sample, and selected friends' behaviors were associated with the same behaviors in participants. For example, girls whose friends reported extreme weight control behaviors had significantly greater odds of using these behaviors than girls whose friends did not report these same behaviors (OR = 2.39). This research suggests that friends' weight- and shape-related behaviors are a feature of social relationships, and is the first report demonstrating these associations for muscle-enhancing behaviors. Capitalizing on the social element may be important to the development of increasingly effective intervention and prevention programs. PMID:23010337
Differentiated examination of eating attitudes and behaviours of female and male German ballet school students with particular\\u000a reference to their age and analysis of common points with and differences from female Anorexia nervosa (A.n.) patients. The\\u000a Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) was used. Male and female adolescent students of a ballet school and a high school as well\\u000a as anorectic patients
K.-J. Neumärker; N. Bettle; O. Bettle; U. Dudeck; U. Neumärker
The current study sought to better characterize eating behavior, binge-eating behavior, and other potentially problematic, distracting behaviors while driving in patients with eating disorders. Forty patients with eating disorders who reported eating in their car at least once per week were included. Thirty subjects with eating disorders reported binge-eating while driving. A surprisingly high number of subjects reported engaging in
John Glass; James E Mitchell; Martina de Zwaan; Steve Wonderlich; Ross D Crosby; James Roerig; Melissa Burgard; Kathryn Lancaster; Janeen Voxland
This project will get kids to explore what it means to be healthy. The students will go through various websites to learn about healthy eating and exercise. Students you will answer the various questions and go to each website to explore what you need to do to be a healthy eater and what your body needs to function daily. Use the following website to explore your body and what the foods you eat really do for your body. Why you need certain foods Use ...
Objective The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) in a representative school population of\\u000a early adolescents of both sexes and to evaluate persistence and incidence after two years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method An initial sample of 1336 (mean age = 11.37) was assessed in a two-phase design. The Children Eating Attitudes Test was used\\u000a to select 258 participants (T1) from
|Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…
|In the past 10 years, eating disorders among adolescent females have become of increasing concern. To assess the prevalence of eating disorders, unusual eating-related behaviors and attitudes, and psychological states among college women, 677 women, from three private northeastern United States colleges, completed a questionnaire assessing…
Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…
Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is applicable to all eating disorders but has been most intensively studied in the treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN). CBT is designed to alter abnormal attitudes about body shape and weight, replace dysfunctional dieting with normal eating habits, and develop coping skills for resisting binge eating and purging. CBT is effective in reducing all core features of
As central nervous system serotonergic dysregulation has been postulated to exist in both eating and aggression disorders, we hypothesized that anger attacks would be more common among patients with eating disorders than among control subjects. In addition, we wanted to examine possible relationships between the presence of anger attacks and the type or severity of the eating disorder. Subjects were
Maurizio Fava; Sandra M. Rappe; Jennifer West; David B. Herzog
BACKGROUND: Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters,
Annabelle M Wilson; Anthea M Magarey; Nadia Mastersson
The characteristics of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were studied in ballet dancers in full-time training and compared with other young women at school. Dancers had higher scores on the Eating Attitudes Test. Dancers were more likely to have an eating disorder when strict modified DSM-3-R criteria were applied. Currently 1 dancer (1.6%) and no student had anorexia nervosa, 1 dancer (1.6%) and 3 students (1.3%) had bulimia nervosa and 5 dancers (8.3%) and 9 students (4.2%) had an unclassified eating disorder. Another dancer had been treated for anorexia nervosa in the past. One dancer was treated for bulimia nervosa and 6 for weight loss. Dancers were more likely to have been told to increase their body weight. Dancers were not more likely to be afraid of losing control of their weight and becoming obese if they attempted weight gain, to ignore the advice to gain weight or resist gaining weight. Regular self-induced vomiting was reported by 4% of women. Dancers are at risk for the development of eating disorders. Ballet dancers are under pressure to maintain low body weight. The low body weight and menstrual disturbance found among young dancers during training are two of the characteristics of anorexia nervosa Ballet dancers use behaviours aimed at weight control and weight loss. In dancers and professional groups under intense pressure to diet, low body weight and amenorrhoea are not sufficient criteria to diagnose anorexia nervosa. These behaviours can result in binge eating and multiple behaviours aimed at preventing binge eating. Whether the characteristics of bulimia among dancers are sufficient for a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa to be made is unknown. The aim of this paper is to study the characteristics of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified among young ballet dancers in full-time ballet training and to provide information about the risk of development of eating disorders among young women required to maintain below average body weight while continuing above average exercise. PMID:8865353
The behaviour of an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) eating from an adult Linnaeus’ two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus) was described. Observation was made at the Viruá National Park of northern Brazil. The sloth had an estimated weight of 7kg and a portion of its hairs were plucked after the kill. The ocelot began to eat its prey by the braincase. Three days
Miguel Delibes; Javier Calzada; Cuauhtémoc Chávez; Eloy Revilla; Beatriz A. Ribeiro; Denise Prado; Claudia Keller; Francisco Palomares
|Objective: The aims of the study were to examine weight concerns, dieting and eatingbehaviours in a group of Israeli-Arab schoolgirls as compared with Israeli-Jewish schoolgirls, as well as to investigate the reliability of the Arabic (Palestinian) version of the eating disorder inventory-2 (EDI-2). Method: The sample consisted of 2548 Israeli…
Rationale Serotonin (5-HT) is involved in the control of eatingbehaviour by inhibiting food intake. Obese women with binge-eating disorder\\u000a (OB-BED) were recently found to have reduced 5-HT transporter binding.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a successful treatment on 5-HT transporters in OB-BED.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The 5-HT transporter binding of seven OB-BED was measured by single-photon emission
Liisa I. Tammela; Aila Rissanen; Jyrki T. Kuikka; Leila J. Karhunen; Kim A. Bergström; Eila Repo-Tiihonen; Hannu Naukkarinen; Esko Vanninen; Jari Tiihonen; Matti Uusitupa
The purpose of this explorative research was to examine how the COPE (Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced Inventory),\\u000a an established instrument for measuring coping styles, and EDI-2 (Eating Disorder Inventory-2), a widely used questionnaire\\u000a for assessing psychological and behavioural features of eating disorders (ED), discriminate among healthy individuals, inpatients\\u000a with anorexia nervosa (AN) and inpatients with bulimia nervosa (BN). A
Valentina Villa; Gian Mauro Manzoni; Francesco Pagnini; Gianluca Castelnuovo; Gian Luca Cesa; Enrico Molinari
Binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) are putative eating disorders frequently seen in obese individuals. Data suggest that BED fulfills criteria for a mental disorder. Criteria for NES are evolving but at present do not require distress or functional impairment. It remains unclear whether BED and NES, as they are currently defined, are optimally useful for characterizing
... of fat called omega-3 (oh-MAY-guh) fatty acids. Research suggests that eating omega-3 fatty acids lowers your chances of dying from heart disease. ... mackerel, anchovies, and sardines) have more omega-3 fatty acids than lean fish (such as cod, haddock, and ...
Objectives of review. This review summarizes twin and genetic studies of eating disorders (EDs) published in 2005 and 2006. Summary of recent findings. Twin studies highlight important gender differences in genetic liability to ED symptoms and possible shared genetic transmission between EDs and anxiety disorders. Association and linkage analyses have suggested the presence of distinct genetic risk factors for anorexia
Kristen M Culbert; Jennifer D Slane; Kelly L Klump
The Internet has become a means of disseminating information to consumers about nutrition. Numerous Web sites from universities, clinics, hospitals, and non-profit organizations offer nutrition advice to consumers. Although Internet users should beware of misinformation, nutrition Web sites and newsgroups can provide a wealth of information if used with caution. Sites covering such topics as healthy eating, food values, weight
Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG) are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/ increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eating disorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eating disorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images).
Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with receptors may be persistent after respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 recovering from an eating disorder.
|The psychosomatic theory of obesity assumes that binging, eating in response to emotional distress, is characteristic of obese individuals, yet experimental attempts to demonstrate binging have yielded weak support for this assumption. The incidence of binging was investigated by means of structured interviews on food habits with 41 male and 39…
This Geotimes article highlights recent work done by Derek Lovley on the microbe Geobacter. The article discusses the ability of Geobacter to eat metal wastes as well as the prospect of using Geobacter as a microbial fuel cell. The web site also contains links to the Geotimes' home page, the American Geological Institute (AGI) home, and other useful AGI links.
|Explains the value of harvesting garden weeds and eating them. Discusses antioxidant and other nutritional qualities of weeds, weeds that are especially useful as raw or cooked vegetables, the importance of weed identification, and the dangers of weed-killing herbicides. Highlights purslane. (PVD)|
... better in any other skill, sometimes you need the support of a coach, trainer, or family member to get you where you need to ... Do? Eating Disorders Our Friend Might Have Anorexia. How Can We Help? What Can I Do About ...
Most people with a tracheostomy tube will be able to eat normally. However, swallowing food or liquid may feel differently. ... When you get your tracheostomy tube, or trach, you will not be able ... Instead, you will get nutrients through an IV (a intravenous ...
Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…
|Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…
PURPOSE. To identify environmental barriers and facilitators of children's physical activity and healthy eating in a rural county. DESIGN. Community-based participatory research using mixed methods, primarily qualitative. SETTING. A rural Oregon county. SUBJECTS. Ninety-five adults, 6 high school students, and 41 fifth-grade students. MEASURES. In-depth interviews, focus groups, Photovoice, and structured observations using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment, System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity, Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit, and School Food and Beverage Marketing Assessment Tool. ANALYSIS. Qualitative data were coded by investigators; observational data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings were triangulated to produce a composite of environmental barriers and assets. RESULTS. Limited recreational resources, street-related hazards, fear of strangers, inadequate physical education, and denial of recess hindered physical activity, whereas popularity of youth sports and proximity to natural areas promoted physical activity. Limited availability and high cost of healthy food, busy lifestyles, convenience stores near schools, few healthy meal choices at school, children's being permitted to bring snacks to school, candy used as incentives, and teachers' modeling unhealthyeating habits hindered healthy eating, whereas the agricultural setting and popularity of gardening promoted healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS. This study provides data on a neglected area of research, namely environmental determinants of rural childhood obesity, and points to the need for multifaceted and multilevel environmental change interventions. PMID:22040399
Findholt, Nancy E; Michael, Yvonne L; Jerofke, Linda J; Brogoitti, Victoria W
Marketing that targets children with energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods is a likely contributor to the childhood obesity crisis. High-sugar ready-to-eat cereals are the packaged food most frequently promoted in child-targeted food advertising on television. The authors combined content analysis of product nutritional quality and messages presented in cereal television advertisements with syndicated data on exposure to those ads. The analysis quantifies children's exposure to specific products and messages that appear in advertisements and compares it with adult exposure. Children viewed 1.7 ads per day for ready-to-eat cereals, and 87% of those ads promoted high-sugar products; adults viewed half as many ads, and ads viewed were equally likely to promote high- and low-sugar cereals. In addition, the messages presented in high-sugar ads viewed by children were significantly more likely to convey unrealistic and contradictory messages about cereal attributes and healthy eating. For example, 91% of high-sugar cereal ads viewed by children ascribed extraordinary powers to these products, and 67% portrayed healthy and unhealthyeating behaviors. Given children's vulnerability to the influence of advertising, the emotional and mixed messages used to promote high-sugar cereals are confusing and potentially misleading. PMID:24175878
Lodolce, Megan E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B
Due to the substantial health burden and costs caused by malnutrition in Germany, for instance as a result of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, the taxation of unhealthy foods/nutrients has been proposed as a possible health promoting measure. In order to evaluate whether such a fiscal intervention constitutes an effective and suitable measure to promote population health in Germany, the article outlines central empirical findings regarding malnutrition in Germany. Subsequently, the economic background (price elasticity of demand) is explained, and empirical evidence on the influence of changes in price on changes in consumption and health is presented. As a result of findings from the international literature being heterogeneous, and because very little research has been conducted in Germany on this matter until now, the taxation/subsidization of foods in order to promote population health is difficult to justify at this point. PMID:23467848
Introduction: A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship between body satisfaction, self esteem and unhealthy weight control behaviors between women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 408 women employees in Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 1390. They were chosen according to the stratified random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were 1) willing to participate in the study and 2) lack of serious physical defect 3) not being in pregnancy or breastfeeding course. Exclusion criteria was filling out questionnaires incompletely. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised of 4 sections as following: demographic (5items), A self-administrative questionnaire for body Satisfaction (7 items), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items) and a standard Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Cranach's alpha was 0.9 or higher for the different sections. Finally, collected data was analyzed with SPSS18 using the independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, Spearman correlation. Results: Frequencies of participants by weight category were 14.1% for obese, 35.3% for overweight, 47.6% for normal weight. The mean body satisfaction score in the studied women was 63.26 ± 16.27 (from 100). Mean score of self esteem was 76.70 ± 10.45. 51.5% of women had medium self esteem, 47.5% had high self esteem. Pearson correlation showed that the variables of body Satisfaction (r = 0.3, P = 0.02), BMI (r = - 0.14, P < 0.003), education level (r = 0.22, P < 0.001), income (r = 0.14, P < 0.004), consumption of fruit (r = 0.13, P < 0.008) all correlated with self-esteem significantly. Women with higher self esteem used higher fruits had a good nutrition overall (r = 0.11, P = 0.02). 92.15%, 10.8% of women respectively participated in one of healthy and unhealthy weight control behavior. There was not any Relationship between self esteem and healthy weight control behavior while finding showed reverse relationship between self esteem and Unhealthy Dieting Behaviors. Conclusion: It seemed women identity in our society tied to social appreciations that formed and supported by body satisfaction. When they feel their current appearance is differ from ideal appearance, they feel down and have lower self esteem and used unhealthy dieting behavior and low fruits daily. Due to importance of precise self evaluation, self esteem can be used to design and conduct public health programs, especially for women.
Oxygen is the most essential molecule for life; since it is a strong oxidizing agent, it can aggravate the damage within the cell by a series of oxidative events including the generation of free radicals. Antioxidative agents are the only defense mechanism to neutralize these free radicals. Free radicals are not only generated internally in our body system but also trough external sources like environmental pollution, toxic metals, cigarette smoke, pesticides, etc., which add damage to our body system. Inhaling these toxic chemicals in the environment has become unavoidable in modern civilization. Antioxidants of plant origin with free radical scavenging properties could have great importance as therapeutic agents in several diseases caused by environmental pollution. This review summarizes the generation of reactive oxygen species and damage to cells by exposure to external factors, unhealthy lifestyle, and role of herbal plants in scavenging these reactive oxygen species. PMID:23636598
Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Sivasudha, T; Jeyadevi, R; Arul Ananth, D
Background Preventive service use among older adults is suboptimal. Unhealthy drinking may constitute a risk factor for failure to receive these services. Objectives To determine the relationship between unhealthy drinking and receipt of recommended preventive services among elderly Medicare beneficiaries, applying the framework of current alcohol consumption guidelines. Design/Methods The data source is the nationally representative 2003 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. The sample included community-dwelling, fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries 65 years and older (N = 10,523). Based on self-reported drinking, respondents were categorized as nondrinkers, within-guidelines drinkers, exceeding monthly but not daily limits, or heavy episodic drinkers. Using survey and claims data, influenza vaccination, pneumonia vaccination, glaucoma screening, and mammogram receipt were determined. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results Overall, 70.3% received flu vaccination and 49% received glaucoma screening during the year, 66.8% received pneumonia vaccination, and 56.2% of women received a mammogram over 2 years. In logistic regression, heavy episodic drinking was associated with lower likelihood of service receipt compared to drinking within guidelines: flu vaccination (OR 0.75, CI 0.59–0.96), glaucoma screening (OR 0.74, CI 0.58–0.95), and pneumonia vaccination (OR 0.75, CI 0.59–0.96). Nondrinkers when compared with those reporting drinking within guidelines were less likely to receive a mammogram (OR 0.83, CI 0.69–1.00). Conclusions Heavy episodic drinking is associated with lower likelihood of receiving several preventive services. Practitioners should be encouraged to screen all elders regarding alcohol intake and in addition to appropriate intervention, consider elders reporting heavy episodic drinking at higher risk for non-receipt of preventive services.
Hodgkin, Dominic; Garnick, Deborah W.; Horgan, Constance M.; Panas, Lee; Ryan, Marian; Saitz, Richard; Blow, Frederic C.
One purpose of 'identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants' (IDEFICS) is to implement a standardized community-based multi-component healthy eating intervention for younger children in eight different countries. The present study describes important influencing factors for dietary behaviors among children aged 2-8 years old in order to determine the best approaches for developing the dietary components of the standardized intervention. Twenty focus groups with children (74 boys, 81 girls) and 36 focus groups with 189 parents (28 men, 161 women) were conducted. Only in two countries, children mentioned receiving nutrition education at school. Rules at home and at school ranged from not allowing the consumption of unhealthy products to allowing everything. The same diversity was found for availability of (un)healthy products at home and school. Parents mentioned personal (lack of time, financial constraints, preferences), socio-environmental (family, peer influences), institutional (school policies) and physical-environmental (availability of unhealthy products, price, season) barriers for healthy eating. This focus group research provided valuable information to guide the first phase in the IDEFICS intervention development. There was a large variability in findings within countries. Interventions should be tailored at the personal and environmental level to increase the likelihood of behavioral change. PMID:18603656
Haerens, L; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Barba, G; Eiben, G; Fernandez, J; Hebestreit, A; Kovács, E; Lasn, H; Regber, S; Shiakou, M; De Henauw, S
|This study investigated the relationship between age of first drink (AFD) and a broad range of negative alcohol-related outcomes among college students exhibiting unhealthy alcohol use. We conducted an anonymous on-line survey to collect self-report data from first-year college students at a large northeastern university. Among 1,792 respondents…
Rothman, Emily F.; Dejong, William; Palfai, Tibor; Saitz, Richard
In an article that forms part of the PLoS Medicine series on Big Food, David Stuckler and colleagues report that unhealthy packaged foods are being consumed rapidly in low- and middle-income countries, consistent with rapid expansion of multinational food companies into emerging markets and fueling obesity and chronic disease epidemics.
David Stuckler; Martin McKee; Shah Ebrahim; Sanjay Basu
|This study used clustering to classify Chinese gifted students based on their scores on the High Standards and Discrepancy subscales of the Almost Perfect Scale--Revised (APS-R). The interpretation of the three clusters as nonperfectionists, unhealthy perfectionists, and healthy perfectionists was supported by results comparing these groups on…
This study investigated the relationship between age of first drink (AFD) and a broad range of negative alcohol-related outcomes among college students exhibiting unhealthy alcohol use. We conducted an anonymous on-line survey to collect self-report data from first-year college students at a large northeastern university. Among 1,792 respondents…
Rothman, Emily F.; Dejong, William; Palfai, Tibor; Saitz, Richard
Excessive intake of sugar-sweetened beverages by undergraduates is closely related to the increasing prevalence of obesity, making investigations of the substitution of healthy for unhealthy beverages imperative. According to the concept of price elasticity in behavioral economics, the choice of healthy over unhealthy behaviors is facilitated by increasing the cost of less-healthy alternatives or reducing the cost of healthier alternatives. Furthermore, evoking health concerns by using health claims may induce substitution of healthy for unhealthy beverages. A total of 108 18-22-year-old undergraduates participated in a laboratory experiment and were given a certain amount of money and allowed to purchase a healthy beverage and a less-healthy beverage with or without receiving health claims. Increasing the price of a type of beverage was shown to reduce purchases of that beverage type and lead to substitution with the alternative type. Moreover, the effect of price elasticity on healthy beverage substitution was more pronounced when participants' health concerns were evoked. The results suggest that lowering the cost of alternative commodities and evoking health concerns by health-related claims would foster the substitution of healthier for unhealthy beverages among college students. PMID:20156500
Children residing in care (hereafter referred to as childcare residents) are a risk-group for emotional disturbances and behaviour problems. Based on existing knowledge of risk factors one would also expect this population to be a high-risk group for eating disorders and related body-image disorders. The objective of this study was to describe pathological eatingbehaviour, dysfunctional body focusing and psychological
The present study explored the relationships among dietary style (ranging from meat eating to veganism), cognitive restraint and feminist values. Two-hundred and twenty-seven participants with varying dietary styles completed the restraint subscale of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Attitudes Towards Feminism Scale (ATFS). Results indicated that among males, those who are high in cognitive restraint are more likely to exhibit a vegetarian dietary style than those low in cognitive restraint. Among women who are high in feminist values, those with high cognitive restraint are more likely to exhibit a vegetarian dietary style than those with low cognitive restraint, whereas for women low in feminist values those with high and low cognitive restraint are equally likely to exhibit vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary styles. It is suggested that for some individuals, adoption of a vegetarian dietary style is an attempt to mask their dieting behaviour from others. PMID:9989924
Self-starvation as well as binge eating appears to be far more complex than the uniformity of eating disorders clinical features let us predict. One reason is that these "body-centred" behaviours generate severe biological effects, the complications playing a great part in the recovery process. Furthermore, these disorders which origins are likely to be multi-factorial seem to arise from physiological (ephebic modifications, gene pool...), family and sociocultural factors, psychological features predominating in a synergy always leading to a specificity that cannot be ignored. The progression towards mixed forms made the distinction between anorexia and bulimia nervosa, insufficiently accurate, leading to examine the addictive dimension these troubles have in common. Despite different theoretical surroundings, it has been suggested that an insecure style of attachment may be highly implicated in the disorders occurring. Moreover, a great number of surveys insisted on identity disturbance, and predisposition to intemperate dependency, resulting from the poor quality of internalized relationships. From that viewpoint, both fasting and binge eating appear as a form of addiction meant to mitigate the defense mechanisms failure and the flaws of the psychological organization. Impulsivity appears as a way to avoid processing affects, acting-out being here to balance the ego weakness deriving from the lack of inner security. The fluctuations in the sense of self lead them to self-damaging behaviours meant to vent their pervasive, chronic feeling of emptiness. Occurring whereas the subject still depends on his parents, puberty reactivates a vivid anguish of passivity, and generates attempts to take the control back. Therefore, these patients re-enact in their dealings with food and their body dissatisfaction the pattern of unstable relationships established with their kin, characterized by alternating between merging and rejection, engulfment and remoteness. PMID:18361275
Alarm about the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has focussed attention on individual lifestyle behaviours that may contribute to unhealthy weight. More distal predictors such as maternal employment may also be implicated since working mothers have less time to supervise children's daily activities. The research reported here used two waves of data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children to
Judith E. Brown; Dorothy H. Broom; Jan M. Nicholson; Michael Bittman
The purpose of this study was to assess the association of perceived racial discrimination with emotional eating behaviors, weight status, and stress levels among obese African-American women, who volunteered to enter a weight control study (SisterTalk) in the New England region of the United States. The sample of women was taken from the baseline data of participants in SisterTalk, a randomized, controlled trial of a cable TV-delivered weight control program. Using the Krieger instrument, telephone and in-person surveys were used to assess perceived discrimination, emotional eating behaviors, and stress. Height and weight were measured to calculate BMI in order to assess weight status. ANOVA models were constructed to assess the association of discrimination with demographics. Correlations were calculated for discrimination, stress, emotional eating, and weight variables. ANOVA models were also constructed to assess discrimination with emotional eating, after adjusting for appropriate demographic variables. Perceived discrimination was associated with education and stress levels but was not associated with weight status (BMI). The frequency of eating when depressed or sad, and eating to manage stress, were both significantly higher among women who reported higher perceived discrimination and higher stress levels. Discrimination may contribute to stress that leads to eating for reasons other than hunger among African-American women, although the causal direction of associations cannot be determined with cross sectional data. Associations of discrimination with weight status were not found, although it is likely that emotional eating behaviors related to perceived discrimination are unhealthy. Future research should examine these relationships more closely in longitudinal studies. PMID:23061168
Johnson, Portia; Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M; Kirtania, Usree; Kumanyika, Shiriki K
Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) selectively eat more carbohydrates (CHO), particularly sweets but also starch-rich foods, during their depression in winter. The Dutch EatingBehaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was administered to female SAD patients, healthy female controls, and female medical students to determine their eating style, together with the modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ+). SAD patients showed higher values for "emotional" (EMOT) eating than the students, and these in turn had higher values than the controls. In comparison to controls, SAD patients and students head high values for the factor "external" (EXT) eating, but there was no difference between the groups with respect to "restraint" (REST) eating. This is in strong contrast to patients with bulimia and anorexia nervosa, who are high REST eaters, indicating that SAD patients do not have a similar eating disorder. Additional items showed that SAD patients selectively eat sweets under emotionally difficult conditions (when depressed, anxious, or lonely). Configural frequency analysis showed that seasonal body weight change (SBWC) is high in subjects with high EMOT and REST eating together with a high body mass index (BMI). This result is in accordance with the concept of disinhibition of dietary restraint in extreme emotional situations, e.g., the depressive state. PMID:9056125
Night eating syndrome is a common disorder in eating behaviors that occurs in close relation to the night time sleep cycle. Although eating disorders are common in society, night eating syndrome has been left neglected by health care professionals. In this report we present a case of eating disorder that exhibits some novel features of night eating syndrome. Our case was a progressed type of eating disorder which may increase awareness among physicians about sleep-related eating disorders. PMID:22930387
Bulimia, an eating disorder, recently has emerged as a major mental health problem, especially among adolescent females. The bulimic experiences periods of compulsive binge eating followed by purges to rid the body of unwanted calories. Binges are triggered by intense emotional experiences, such as loneliness, anger, rejection, or stress. Associated features of bulimia are secretiveness, depression, drug abuse, preoccupation with body image and sexual attractiveness, and an awareness that the behavior is abnormal. The physical side effects include dental problems, inflamed esophagus, EEG abnormalities, abdominal or urinary disturbances, and changes in blood sugar level. Cognitive disturbances related to binging and purging are perfectionistic, egocentric, and distorted thinking, misconceptions about nutritional requirements, unreasonable goals and expectations, and disturbed affect. Bulimics resist treatment; however, such methods as cognitive, group, family, behavior, and drug therapy, and hospitalization appear promising. PMID:3461693
Eating epilepsy (EE), where seizures are triggered by eating, is rare and has not been reported in the Gulf region. In EE, the ictal semiology includes partial or generalised seizures. Focal brain changes on imaging, if present, are often confined to the temporal lobe or perisylvian region. Therapeutic options, especially in those patients who are refractory to pharmacotherapy, have not been well-established. We report a series of five patients with EE from Oman, a country located in the eastern part of the Arabian Gulf region, and highlight the usefulness of temporal lobectomy in one patient who had medically-intractable EE. Surgical intervention could be considered as a potential therapeutic option in carefully selected patients with medically-intractable seizures.
Gujjar, Arunodaya R.; Jacob, P. C.; Ramanchandiran, Nandhagopal; Al-Asmi, Abdullah
Objective To develop an index of overall diet quality.Design The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was developed based on a 10-component system of five food groups, four nutrients, and a measure of variety in food intake. Each of the 10 components has a score ranging from 0 to 10, so the total possible index score is 100.Methods\\/subjects Data from the 1989
EILEEN T KENNEDY; JAMES OHLS; STEVEN CARLSON; KATHRYN FLEMING
The Food and Nutrition Service of the US Department of Agriculture offers online educational material as part of "Eat Smart. Play Hard." -- a public information campaign designed to promote healthy living in American children. While the site and its materials are geared for use by state and local program coordinators, anyone is welcome to download the available information and activity sheets. Click on Cool Stuff for Kids for nutrition-related puzzles and games. Parents Place offers informational brochures and an educational bookmark.
Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders…
|Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating…
Objective: Discrimination can have a negative impact on psychological well-being, attitudes and behaviour. This research evaluates the impact of experiences of weight-based discrimination upon emotional eating and body dissatisfaction, and also explores whether people's beliefs about an ingroup's social consensus concerning how favourably overweight people are regarded can moderate the relationship between experiences of discrimination and negative eating and weight-related
In order to establish norms for the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) among young adult women, the questionnaire was administered to a large general population sample of women aged 18–42 yr in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) region of Australia. Normative data were derived for EDE-Q subscales and for the occurrence of specific eating disorder behaviours, for each of five
BackgroundPeople with eating disorders (ED) frequently present with inflexible behaviours, including eating related issues which contribute to the maintenance of the illness. Small scale studies point to difficulties with cognitive set-shifting as a basis. Using larger scale studies will lend robustness to these data.Methodology\\/Principal Findings542 participants were included in the dataset as follows: Anorexia Nervosa (AN) n = 171; Bulimia
Kate Tchanturia; Helen Davies; Marion Roberts; Amy Harrison; Michiko Nakazato; Ulrike Schmidt; Janet Treasure; Robin Morris
\\u000a The eating disorders anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder and allied diagnoses such as eating\\u000a disorder not otherwise specified are common, complex psychiatric disorders with a significant genetic component. Aetiology\\u000a is unknown, but both phenotypic characteristics and genetic factors appear to be shared across these disorders, and indeed\\u000a patients often change between diagnostic categories. Molecular studies have
Background Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters, used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention project. Methods The development of the 14-item questionnaire was informed by the aims of the obesity prevention project. A sub-sample of children aged 10–12 years from primary schools involved in the intervention was recruited at the project's baseline data collection (Test 1). Questionnaires were readministered (Test 2) following which students completed a 7-day food diary designed to reflect the questionnaire. Twelve scores were derived to assess consumption of fruit, vegetables, water, noncore foods and sweetened beverages plus food knowledge, behaviours, attitudes and environments. Reliability was assessed using (a) the intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95% confidence intervals to compare scores from Tests 1 and 2 (test-retest reliability) and (b) Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency). Validity was assessed with Spearman correlations, bias and limits of agreement between scores from Test 1 and the 7-day diaries. The Wilcoxon signed rank test checked for significant differences between mean scores. Results One hundred and forty one students consented to the study. Test 2 (n = 134) occurred between eight and 36 days after Test 1. For 10/12 scores ICCs ranged from 0.47–0.66 (p < 0.001) while for two scores ICCs were < 0.4 (p < 0.05). Spearman correlations ranged from 0.34–0.48 (p < 0.01) and Cronbach's alpha 0.50–0.80. Three scores were modified based on this analysis. The Wilcoxon signed rank test found no evidence of a difference between means (p > 0.05) for 10/12 (test-retest reliability) and 3/7 (validity) scores. Conclusion This child nutrition questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance, and food behaviours, attitudes and environments in Australian school children aged 10–12 years. Thus it can be used to monitor secular changes in these parameters and measure the effectiveness of this and other obesity prevention projects with similar aims.
Wilson, Annabelle M; Magarey, Anthea M; Mastersson, Nadia
|A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.|
Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel
Eating disorders, such as anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder, commonly involve a dysregulation of behavior (e.g., a lack or excess of inhibition and impulsive eating patterns) that is suggestive of prefrontal dysfunction. Functional neuro-imaging studies show that prefrontal-subcortical systems play a role in eating behavior and appetite in healthy individuals, and that people with eating disorders have altered activity in these systems. Eating behavior is often disturbed by illnesses and injuries that impinge upon prefrontal-subcortical systems. This study examined relationships between executive functioning and eating behavior in healthy individuals using validated behavioral rating scales (Frontal Systems Behavior Scale and Eating Inventory). Correlations demonstrated that increased dysexecutive traits were associated with disinhibited eating and greater food cravings. There was also a positive association with cognitive restraint of eating, suggesting that increased compensatory behaviors follow disinhibited eating. These psychometric findings reinforce those of other methodologies, supporting a role for prefrontal systems in eating. PMID:14660070
A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.
Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel
Background Cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika exhibit remarkable diversity in their feeding habits. Among them, seven species in the genus Perissodus are known for their unique feeding habit of scale eating with specialized feeding morphology and behaviour. Although the origin of the scale-eating habit has long been questioned, its evolutionary process is still unknown. In the present study, we conducted interspecific phylogenetic analyses for all nine known species in the tribe Perissodini (seven Perissodus and two Haplotaxodon species) using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses of the nuclear DNA. On the basis of the resultant phylogenetic frameworks, the evolution of their feeding habits was traced using data from analyses of stomach contents, habitat depths, and observations of oral jaw tooth morphology. Results AFLP analyses resolved the phylogenetic relationships of the Perissodini, strongly supporting monophyly for each species. The character reconstruction of feeding ecology based on the AFLP tree suggested that scale eating evolved from general carnivorous feeding to highly specialized scale eating. Furthermore, scale eating is suggested to have evolved in deepwater habitats in the lake. Oral jaw tooth shape was also estimated to have diverged in step with specialization for scale eating. Conclusion The present evolutionary analyses of feeding ecology and morphology based on the obtained phylogenetic tree demonstrate for the first time the evolutionary process leading from generalised to highly specialized scale eating, with diversification in feeding morphology and behaviour among species.
Takahashi, Rieko; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Nishida, Mutsumi; Hori, Michio
The relationship between healthy lifestyle and personality and attitudinal variables was analyzed with data collected from 809 men and 996 women aged 18–30 years in England, Belgium, Finland and Norway as part of the European Health and Behaviour Survey. A health practices index was constructed on the basis of performance of sixteen behaviours including smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, sleep time
Andrew Steptoe; Jane Wardle; Jan Vinck; Martti Tuomisto; Arne Holte; Lars Wichstrøm
There is currently no clear understanding of the ways in which predisposing and maintaining variables exert their influence\\u000a on eating attitudes and behaviours. This study investigated two potentially meaningful variables: parental bonding and perfectionistic\\u000a schemas. Both variables have been implicated in the onset and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (e.g. Bruch 1978; Davis et al. 2000). A cross-sectional design was employed,
Suzanne Deas; Kevin Power; Paula Collin; Alex Yellowlees; David Grierson
Aims Increased body weight and disordered eating attitudes/behaviours are common in adolescent girls with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Disordered eating increases risks for diabetes-related complications. This study aimed to identify a rapid screening approach for disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescent girls with T1D and to examine the relationship between disordered eating and body weight in this population. Methods Ninety adolescent girls, aged 12–19 years, provided a self-assessment of weight status. Participants also completed questionnaires to assess attitudes/behaviours toward food and eating, appetitive responsiveness to the food environment, disinhibition in eating and weight history. Results Forty-three per cent of participants reported a history of overweight. Compared with participants who reported never being overweight, those who reported ever being overweight were significantly older, scored significantly higher on all measures of disordered eating attitudes/behaviours (P ? 0.009) and were 4.8 times more likely to be currently overweight or obese (P < 0.001). Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was similar between those who did and did not report ever being overweight. Conclusions Because of the ill-health effects of disordered eating and the higher rate of overweight in adolescent girls with T1D, effective screening tools are warranted. The single question ‘Have you ever been overweight?’ may be sufficient as a first question to screen for those at high risk for disordered eating attitudes/behaviours and to provide early intervention and prevention.
Markowitz, J. T.; Lowe, M. R.; Volkening, L. K.; Laffel, L. M. B.
Problem dietary patterns in adolescent girls could lead to poor nutrient intake and subsequent adverse health effects. Little is known about actual food intake patterns of those with subclinical eating disorders. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine relationships between food intake patterns of adolescent girls and indicators of problem eating behaviors. Nine hundred eighty adolescent girls (X
M. K. Hoy; I. Contento; J. Books-Gunn; J. Graber; M. P. Warren
Non-human animal studies demonstrate relationships between stress and selective intake of palatable food. In humans, exposure to laboratory stressors and self-reported stress are associated with greater food intake. Large studies have yet to examine chronic stress exposure and eating behavior. The current study assessed the relationship between stress (perceived and chronic), drive to eat, and reported food frequency intake (nutritious food vs. palatable non-nutritious food) in women ranging from normal weight to obese (N = 457). Greater reported stress, both exposure and perception, was associated with indices of greater drive to eat— including feelings of disinhibited eating, binge eating, hunger, and more ineffective attempts to control eating (rigid restraint; r’s from .11 to .36, p ’s < .05). These data suggest that stress exposure may lead to a stronger drive to eat and may be one factor promoting excessive weight gain. Relationships between stress and eating behavior are of importance to public health given the concurrent increase in reported stress and obesity rates.
A cognitive behavioural theory of the maintenance of anorexia nervosa is proposed. It is argued that an extreme need to control eating is the central feature of the disorder, and that in Western societies a tendency to judge self-worth in terms of shape and weight is superimposed on this need for self-control. The theory represents a synthesis and extension of
Expansion of adipose tissue mass, predominantly in the visceral depot, strongly associates with the development of metabolic complications that are often observed in obesity. In addition, in obesity, an increased prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness are observed. However, not all obese individuals develop metabolic abnormalities. To better understand the molecular mechanisms that predispose obese humans to the development of metabolic diseases, comparing the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) vs an unhealthy obese phenotype (MUO) may be of great value. A new study by Esser et al (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-013-3023-9 ) now provides important evidence that the MHO phenotype is associated with a lower activation of the NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing-3 (NLPR3) inflammasome in macrophages of visceral adipose tissue and a more favourable inflammatory profile as compared with the MUO phenotype. This finding could promote novel studies in humans to decipher stimuli and mechanisms leading to increased inflammasome activity, not only in adipose tissue, but also in other organs that are involved in the regulation of metabolism. PMID:23995473
Unhealthy diets can lead to various diseases, which in turn can translate into a bigger burden for the state in the form of health services and lost production. Obesity alone has enormous costs and claims thousands of lives every year. Although diet quality in the European Union has improved across countries, it still falls well short of conformity with the World Health Organization dietary guidelines. In this review, we classify types of policy interventions addressing healthy eating and identify through a literature review what specific policy interventions are better suited to improve diets. Policy interventions are classified into two broad categories: information measures and measures targeting the market environment. Using this classification, we summarize a number of previous systematic reviews, academic papers, and institutional reports and draw some conclusions about their effectiveness. Of the information measures, policy interventions aimed at reducing or banning unhealthy food advertisements generally have had a weak positive effect on improving diets, while public information campaigns have been successful in raising awareness of unhealthyeating but have failed to translate the message into action. Nutritional labeling allows for informed choice. However, informed choice is not necessarily healthier; knowing or being able to read and interpret nutritional labeling on food purchased does not necessarily result in consumption of healthier foods. Interventions targeting the market environment, such as fiscal measures and nutrient, food, and diet standards, are rarer and generally more effective, though more intrusive. Overall, we conclude that measures to support informed choice have a mixed and limited record of success. On the other hand, measures to target the market environment are more intrusive but may be more effective. PMID:22590970
Brambila-Macias, Jose; Shankar, Bhavani; Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Verbeke, Wim; Traill, W Bruce
Earlier studies assessing the possible moderator effect of self-reported emotional eating on the relation between stress and actual food intake have obtained mixed results. The null findings in some of these studies might be attributed to misclassification of participants due to the use of the median splits and/or insufficient participants with extreme scores. The objective of the two current studies was to test whether it is possible to predict distress-induced eating with a self-report emotional eating scale by using extreme scorers. In study 1 (n=45) we used a between-subjects design and emotional eating was assessed after food intake during a negative or a neutral mood (induced by a movie). In study 2 (n=47) we used a within-subjects design and emotional eating was assessed well before food intake, which occurred after a control or stress task (Trier Social Stress Task). The main outcome measure was actual food intake. In both studies self-reported emotional eating significantly moderated the relation between distress and food intake. As expected, low emotional eaters ate less during the sad movie or after stress than during the neutral movie or after the control task, whereas high emotional eaters ate more. No such moderator effect was found for emotional eating in the entire sample (n=124) of study 1 using the median-split procedure or the full range of emotional eating scores. We conclude that it is possible to predict distress-induced food intake using self-reports of emotional eating provided that the participants have sufficiently extreme emotional eating scores. PMID:22037008
van Strien, Tatjana; Herman, C Peter; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; de Weerth, Carolina
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between family meals and parental encouragement of healthy eating overall and by ethnicity. DESIGN: Family meal frequency was measured with one item asking how many times in the past 7 d all or most of the family ate a meal together, which was then categorized to represent three levels of family meals (?2 times, 3-6 times and ?7 times). Parental encouragement of healthy eating assessed how often parents encouraged the student to eat fruits and vegetables, drink water, eat wholegrain bread, eat breakfast and drink low-fat milk (never to always). An overall scale of parental encouragement of healthy eating was created. Mixed-effect regression analyses were run controlling for gender, ethnicity, age and socio-economic status. Moderation by ethnicity was explored. SETTING: Middle schools. SUBJECTS: Participants included 2895 US eighth grade students participating in the Central Texas CATCH (Coordinated Approach To Child Health) Middle School Project (mean age 13·9 years; 24·5 % White, 52·7 % Hispanic, 13·0 % African-American, 9·8 % Other; 51·6 % female). RESULTS: Eating more family meals was significantly associated with having parents who encouraged healthy eatingbehaviours (P for trend <0·001). The number of family meals was positively associated with encouragement of each of the healthy eatingbehaviours (P for trend <0·0001). There were no differences in the relationships by ethnicity of the students. CONCLUSIONS: Families who eat together are more likely to encourage healthy eating in general. Interventions which promote family meals may include tips for parents to increase discussions about healthy eating. PMID:23651952
Poulos, Natalie S; Pasch, Keryn E; Springer, Andrew E; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H
\\u000a \\u000a Objectives: This chapter reviews brain imaging findings in anorexia and bulimia nervosa which characterize brain circuitry that may\\u000a contribute to the pathophysiology of eating disorders (EDs).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Summary of recent findings: Recent imaging studies provide evidence of disturbed gustatory processing in EDs which involve the anterior insula as well\\u000a as striatal regions. These results raise the possibility that individuals with anorexia
Walter H. Kaye; Angela Wagner; Julie L. Fudge; Martin Paulus
Many aspects of the motivation to eat are involved in the impairment of adequate food intake and body weight control. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by adopting widely used eating questionnaires, the Three Factors EatingBehaviour Questionnaire (TFEQ) and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), the associations of different antipsychotic medications with the food attitudes of 153 schizophrenic patients: we compared 93 individuals treated with atypical antipsychotics, 27 treated with conventional neuroleptics and 33 untreated patients. We did not find any difference according to sex, but the mean body mass index varied significantly among the three groups of patients. The DEBQ external eating factor was higher in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics than in patients who received conventional neuroleptics (P=0.035). The TFEQ disinhibition and DEBQ emotional eating scores tended to change among the three types of treatment. Patients with metabolic syndrome (19%) had lower DEBQ external eating scores (P=0.044) and a tendency of higher TFEQ disinhibition scores. The TFEQ disinhibition and hunger scores increased according to the body mass index (P=0.003; P=0.017). The main outcome of this study is that the patients treated with atypical antipsychotics were more reactive to external eating cues, which could partly explain the higher weight gain often reported in these patients. PMID:19606055
Sentissi, Othman; Viala, Annie; Bourdel, Marie C; Kaminski, Flaminia; Bellisle, France; Olié, Jean P; Poirier, Marie F
This paper examines the interactive effect between the price of unhealthy foods and Food Stamp Program participation on body\\u000a weight status among low-income women in the United States. We merged the panel data of the National Longitudinal Survey of\\u000a Youth 1979 cohort in 1985–2002 and the Cost of Living Index data compiled by the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers\\u000a Association
Qi ZhangZhuo; Zhuo Chen; Norou Diawara; Youfa Wang
Dieting is common among adolescent girls and may place them at risk of using unhealthy weight-control behaviors (UWCBs), such as self-induced vomiting, laxatives, diet pills, or fasting. Research has suggested that social factors, including friends and broader cultural norms, may be associated with UWCBs. The present study examines the relationship between the school-wide prevalence of current weight loss efforts among
Marla E. Eisenberg; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Mary Story; Cheryl Perry
Unhealthy alcohol use (the spectrum of risky use through dependence) is common in HIV-infected persons, yet it can interfere with HIV medication adherence, may lower CD4 cell count, and can cause hepatic injury. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), often measured as %CDT, can detect heavy drinking but whether it does in people with HIV is not well established. We evaluated the operating
Julia Ireland; Debbie M. Cheng; Jeffrey H. Samet; Carly Bridden; Emily Quinn; Richard Saitz
Sees cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as applicable to all eating disorders but most intensively studied in treatment of bulimia nervosa. Briefly reviews most commonly used cognitive treatments for eating disorders, provides critical evaluation of their effectiveness, and speculates about their mechanisms of action. Notes that CBT has not been…
|Because of the unpredictability of food in nature, humans have evolved to eat to their physiological limits when food is plentiful. Discrepancies between the environment in which the hunger and eating system evolved and the food-replete environments in which many people live have led to the current problem of overconsumption. This evolutionary…
Pinel, John P. J.; Assanand, Sunaina; Lehman, Darrin R.
Across the UK there is a great deal of concern about the quality of children's diets and the growing problem of children's obesity. There is also anxiety about the rise of dieting and eating disorders at younger ages. Both obesity and eating disorders can be treated through educational, medical and therapeutic means with varying degrees of…
Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy…
Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.
Summary The role of socio-cultural factors in the pathogenesis of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia has been the object of recent interest. The phenomena, mainly described in the West, were partly attributed to the idealisation of thinness in Western culture. The paper reviews published epidemiological research from non-western countries in the area of eating disorders to elucidate the difference
The association between the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) and substance use disorder (SUD) has been widely investigated, however, our understanding of the relationship between the disorders remains unclear. Explanatory models have tended to focus on behaviors, yet, little is currently known about the patterns of association among disordered eating and substance use behaviors. In
To better understand how dental practitioners identify, counsel, and refer patients with eating disorders. A questionnaire was mailed to 625 dental practitioners, 54 (19%) of the dentists and 69 (20%) of the dental hygienists responded. Most dental practitioners were aware of eating disorder patients in their practices and most discussed their findings with their patients or parents. However, one of
MELISSA BURGARD; AMY CANEVELLO; JAMES MITCHELL; MARTINA DE ZWAAN; ROSS CROSBY; STEVE WONDERLICH; JAMES ROERIG; NANCY ADDY
|This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…
Investigates male attitudes towards healthy eating and makes comparisons with a group of women of similar age and socio-economic status. Claims the results indicate that men are less likely to use books and magazines as a source of nutrition information and are less likely to buy or eat products advertised as “low calorie”, “diet” or “lite”. However, products which are
|Across the UK there is a great deal of concern about the quality of children's diets and the growing problem of children's obesity. There is also anxiety about the rise of dieting and eating disorders at younger ages. Both obesity and eating disorders can be treated through educational, medical and therapeutic means with varying degrees of…
Because of the unpredictability of food in nature, humans have evolved to eat to their physiological limits when food is plentiful. Discrepancies between the environment in which the hunger and eating system evolved and the food-replete environments in which many people live have led to the current problem of overconsumption. This evolutionary…
Pinel, John P. J.; Assanand, Sunaina; Lehman, Darrin R.
Hypothesized that individual differences in eating behavior based on the distinction between obese and normal Ss could be demonstrated within a population of normal Ss classified as to the extent of restraint chronically exercised with respect to eating. Ss were 42 female college students. Restrained Ss resembled the obese behaviorally, and unrestrained Ss resembled normals. This demonstration was effected in
Eating disorders are associated with numerous biological perturbations; however, sorting out cause from effect is difficult. Neuroendocrine and metabolic abnormalities are seen in both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, but they have not been described in binge eating disorder, in which neither starvation nor compensatory behaviors are present. Although these findings may reflect biologic differences among subgroups of binge eaters,
|Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family…
Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.
This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…
Men with anorexia and bulimia nervosa account for 10% of people with this condition and for binge eating disorder they account for as many as 25%. Risk factors in men include athletics, sexuality, psychiatric co-morbidity and negative life experiences. Differences in eating disorders exist between men and women relating to behavior and psychological symptoms. Men are much more likely than
Theodore E. Weltzin; Nicolette Weisensel; David Franczyk; Kevin Burnett; Christine Klitz; Pamela Bean
Objective: To evaluate the relation between lesions of various brain structures and the development of eating disorders and thus inform the neurobiological research on the aetiology of these mental illnesses.Method: We systematically reviewed 54 previously published case reports of eating disorders with brain damage. Lesion location, presence of typical psychopathology, and evidence suggestive of causal association were recorded.Results: Although simple
The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances in understanding the etiology of eating disorders require
Objectives of review. This chapter reviews articles published in 2005 and 2006 on the influence of culture, ethnicity and gender on eating disorders. Specific social environmental factors, including media portrayals of body ideals and peer and family environment, are also reviewed. Summary of recent findings. Certain non-Western values may increase the risk of eating disorders. Ethnicity and gender may moderate
Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Important challenges remain. Even the
G. Terence Wilson; Carlos M. Grilo; Kelly M. Vitousek
During the last 50 years, eating disorders have developed to a complicated and widespread medical and social issue. The latest research results indicate that eating disorders have a quite complicated and multifactorial etiology. According to the multifactorial etiological model, the impact of mass media can be regarded mainly as a precipitating factor. The literature review showed that mass media have a considerable impact on the development and perpetuation of eating disorders. Mass media contribute to the promotion of the thinness ideal as a way to achieve social approval, recognition and success. Mass media also promote dieting and food deprivation, as a successful way of life or as a socially agreeable practice. Furthermore, the literature review showed that mass media remain the main source of information about eating disorders. Considering the above result, mass media could play a major role in the promotion of prevention practices and early diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders. PMID:21971198
Immediate effects of low-, medium-, and high-energy foods on the emotional state of normal-weight and overweight women were studied experimentally. Nineteen normal-weight (body mass index [BMI]: 19-25 kg/m2) and 19 overweight women (BMI: 26-40 kg/m2) aged 18-40 years received samples of food that differed in energy content (low vs. medium vs. high energy) and rated their emotional state immediately after eating. Perceived characteristics of the foods and associations elicited by the foods were also obtained. Negative emotions (anger, fear, shame, and sadness) and sleepiness increased, while happiness decreased with energy of foods. Emotionally negative associations were more frequent, while positive emotions were less frequent the higher the energy content of the foods. Sadness, shame, fear, and sleepiness after eating high-energy food tended to be more intense in overweight women. Additional analyses demonstrated influences of eating habits, e.g., disinhibition. The higher the energy content of a food stimulus, the more it was viewed as "unhealthy" and "dangerous." It is suggested that immediate food-induced changes of emotions can be explained by activation of associative emotion networks. PMID:14637237