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Sample records for unhealthy eating behaviours

  1. Unhealthy eating behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Martn, A R; Nieto, J M; Jimnez, M A; Ruiz, J P; Vzquez, M C; Fernndez, Y C; Gmez, M A; Fernndez, C C

    1999-08-01

    In recent years, eating disorders (Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa) have increased and are appearing at increasingly younger ages. They affect predominantly adolescent females 12 to 25 years of age. The objective of this study of adolescents is to detect and discuss unhealthy eating behaviour, defined by either of two factors: (1) following a slimming diet not advised or supervised by any person trained in health care; or (2) eating very large quantities at irregular times, not related to anxiety or stress. A transversal study has been undertaken of 630 school children of 14-18 years of age (average: 15.9 years) in Cdiz (Andalucia, Spain), using an anonymous self-reporting questionnaire to collect data on personal and educational situation, on eating habits, on nutritive intake and knowledge of nutrition, and on dieting and physical exercise. The study has considered averages, ratios, statistical significance (chi2) and, as a measure of risk, the Disequality Ratio of Prevalence (DRP). Anomalous eating behaviour was detected in 46.3% (292), with females predominant by a ratio of 2:1. Comparing groups with anomalous and with normal eating habits, significant differences were detected in respect of: perception of body image (p < 0.001), frequency of weighing oneself (p < 0.05), periods of abstinence from eating (DRP 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66-2.37), provocation of vomiting (DRP 2.02; 95% CI: 1.13-3.65), use of laxatives (DRP 4.25: 95% CI: 1.08-9.63), and the exclusion of certain meals and types of food, mainly bread and cereals, fats and sugars. Conclusions are drawn on the substantial scale of unhealthy eating behaviour among adolescents in Cadiz. More adequate education on personal health and related social issues should be provided. PMID:10543354

  2. Gender Differences in the Relationships between Bullying at School and Unhealthy Eating and Shape-Related Attitudes and Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Claire V.; Fox, Claire L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research has found links between being a victim of bullying and reporting more unhealthy eating behaviours and cognitions, particularly in girls. However, little is known about the factors that might mediate these relationships. Aim: The present study compared the relationships between bullying, emotional adjustment,

  3. Associations between the use of social networking sites and unhealthy eating behaviours and excess body weight in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A

    2015-12-14

    Unhealthy eating behaviour and excess body weight have been related to sedentary behaviour, particularly screen time, in adolescents; however, little is known about their associations with the use of social networking sites (SNS). We investigated the associations between time spent using SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours (including breakfast skipping, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and energy drinks) and body weight in adolescents. Data on 9858 students (mean age: 15·2 (SD 1·9) years) in grades 7 through 12 were derived from the 2013 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey--a cross-sectional school-based survey of middle and high school students. The majority (81·5%) of students reported daily use of SNS and an additional 10·7% reported using them on an irregular basis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the use of SNS was associated with increased odds of skipping breakfast (P trend<0·01) and consuming SSB (P trend<0·01) and energy drinks (P trend<0·01) in a dose-response manner with adjustments for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status, tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use as well as BMI. However, there was no evidence of a significant association between use of SNS and BMI before or after adjusting for all the covariates and unhealthy eating behaviours. In conclusion, our results suggest associations between the use of SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours among youth. Given the popularity of SNS, more efforts are needed to better understand the impact of social networks on eating behaviours and risk of excess weight. PMID:26400488

  4. Unhealthy Behaviours: An International Comparison.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    In the current global economy, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the leading cause of death and a major health concern for both developed and developing countries. Among other factors, the worldwide spread of NCDs is driven by the globalisation of unhealthy habits. The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple statistic to measure, at the national level, the average population's exposure to the main NCDs modifiable risk factors. The approach and methodology followed by the United Nations Development Programme to compute the Human Development Index (HDI) is applied to four basic indicators of NCD-related preventable risk factors (alcohol consumption, excess caloric intake, non-balanced diet and tobacco use) in 112 countries worldwide in 2012-14. We obtain a summary composite index, which we call the Unhealthy Behaviour Index (UBI), which ranks countries by the average level of the unhealthy habits (drinking, eating and smoking) of their populations. We find that Belarus and Russian federation are the two countries with the unhealthiest NCD-related lifestyle. With the exception of Canada, the first twenty populations more exposed to the main NCDs preventable risk factors all live in European countries, and mainly in countries of Eastern Europe. Overall, the UBI tends to increase along with the level of human development. In medium, high and very high HDI countries, however, the same level of human development may be associated with very different kinds of NCD-related lifestyles. Finally, economic growth may push populations toward either more unhealthy or healthy habits, depending on the countries' level of development; the elasticity of unhealthy habits with respect to income per capita is positive (but less than one: on average 0.6) until $30,000, decreases as income rises, and becomes negative (around -0.3) in very high income countries. PMID:26512717

  5. Unhealthy Behaviours: An International Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Ferretti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    In the current global economy, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the leading cause of death and a major health concern for both developed and developing countries. Among other factors, the worldwide spread of NCDs is driven by the globalisation of unhealthy habits. The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple statistic to measure, at the national level, the average population’s exposure to the main NCDs modifiable risk factors. The approach and methodology followed by the United Nations Development Programme to compute the Human Development Index (HDI) is applied to four basic indicators of NCD-related preventable risk factors (alcohol consumption, excess caloric intake, non-balanced diet and tobacco use) in 112 countries worldwide in 2012–14. We obtain a summary composite index, which we call the Unhealthy Behaviour Index (UBI), which ranks countries by the average level of the unhealthy habits (drinking, eating and smoking) of their populations. We find that Belarus and Russian federation are the two countries with the unhealthiest NCD-related lifestyle. With the exception of Canada, the first twenty populations more exposed to the main NCDs preventable risk factors all live in European countries, and mainly in countries of Eastern Europe. Overall, the UBI tends to increase along with the level of human development. In medium, high and very high HDI countries, however, the same level of human development may be associated with very different kinds of NCD-related lifestyles. Finally, economic growth may push populations toward either more unhealthy or healthy habits, depending on the countries’ level of development; the elasticity of unhealthy habits with respect to income per capita is positive (but less than one: on average 0.6) until $30,000, decreases as income rises, and becomes negative (around -0.3) in very high income countries. PMID:26512717

  6. The value of unhealthy eating and the ethics of healthy eating policies.

    PubMed

    Barnhill, Anne; King, Katherine F; Kass, Nancy; Faden, Ruth

    2014-09-01

    Unhealthy eating can have value for individuals and groups, even while it has disvalue in virtue of being unhealthy. In this paper, we discuss some ways in which unhealthy eating has value and draw out implications for the ethics of policies limiting access to unhealthy food. Discussing the value and disvalue of unhealthy eating helps identify opportunities for reducing unhealthy eating that has little value, and helps identify opportunities for eliminating trade-offs between health and other values by making unhealthy food experiences healthier without eliminating their value. It also helps us think through when it is ethically acceptable, and when it might be ethically unacceptable, to limit valuable experience in order to promote health. Our discussion of the value and disvalue of eating is offered here as a necessary supplement to the familiar discussion of paternalism, autonomous choice, and public policy. PMID:25423848

  7. Defining Features of Unhealthy Exercise Associated with Disordered Eating and Eating Disorder Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Lauren A.; Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The current study sought to compare different features of unhealthy exercise on associations with disordered eating and their ability to identify individuals with eating disorders. A secondary aim of the study was to compare prevalence and overlap of different aspects of unhealthy exercise and potential differences in their gender distribution. Design Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Methods A community-based sample of men (n=592) and women (n=1468) completed surveys of health and eating patterns, including questions regarding exercise habits and eating disorder symptoms. Results Compulsive and compensatory features of exercise were the best predictors of disordered eating and eating disorder diagnoses compared to exercise that was excessive in quantity. Further, compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise represented overlapping, yet distinct qualities in both men and women. Conclusions Including the compulsive quality among the defining features of unhealthy exercise may improve identification of eating disorders, particularly in men. Results suggest that the compensatory aspect of unhealthy exercise is not adequately captured by the compulsive aspect of unhealthy exercise. Thus, interventions that target unhealthy exercise behaviors among high-risk individuals, such as athletes, may benefit from addressing both the compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise. Future prospective longitudinal studies will aid in determining the direction of the association between these features of unhealthy exercise and the onset of eating pathology. PMID:24391457

  8. When Teens' Eating Habits Become Unhealthy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Alexander R.

    1984-01-01

    Eating disorders than may beset teenagers and seriously affect their health are discussed. Facts about causes, symptoms, and treatments for anorexia nervosa and bulimia, a disorder which involves overeating, followed by self-induced vomiting or purging, are presented. (PP)

  9. Impulsivity and inhibitory control deficits are associated with unhealthy eating in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Jasinska, Agnes J.; Yasuda, Marie; Burant, Charles F.; Gregor, Nicolette; Khatri, Sara; Sweet, Matthew; Falk, Emily B.

    2012-01-01

    Heightened impulsivity and inefficient inhibitory control are increasingly recognized as risk factors for unhealthy eating and obesity but the underlying processes are not fully understood. We used structural equation modeling to investigate the relationships between impulsivity, inhibitory control, eating behavior, and body mass index (BMI) in 210 undergraduates who ranged from underweight to obese. We demonstrate that impulsivity and inhibitory control deficits are positively associated with several facets of unhealthy eating, including overeating in response to external food cues and in response to negative emotional states, and making food choices based on taste preferences without consideration of health value. We further show that such unhealthy eating is, for the most part, associated with increased BMI, with the exception of Restraint Eating, which is negatively associated with BMI. These results add to our understanding of the impact of individual differences in impulsivity and inhibitory control on key aspects of unhealthy eating and may have implications for the treatment and prevention of obesity. PMID:22885454

  10. Moral responsibility for (un)healthy behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rebecca C H

    2013-01-01

    Combatting chronic, lifestyle-related disease has become a healthcare priority in the developed world. The role personal responsibility should play in healthcare provision has growing pertinence given the growing significance of individual lifestyle choices for health. Media reporting focussing on the ‘bad behaviour’ of individuals suffering lifestyle-related disease, and policies aimed at encouraging ‘responsibilisation’ in healthcare highlight the importance of understanding the scope of responsibility ascriptions in this context. Research into the social determinants of health and psychological mechanisms of health behaviour could undermine some commonly held and tacit assumptions about the moral responsibility of agents for the sorts of lifestyles they adopt. I use Philip Petit's conception of freedom as ‘fitness to be held responsible’ to consider the significance of some of this evidence for assessing the moral responsibility of agents. I propose that, in some cases, factors outside the agent's control may influence behaviour in such a way as to undermine her freedom along the three dimensions described by Pettit: freedom of action; a sense of identification with one's actions; and whether one's social position renders one vulnerable to pressure from more powerful others. PMID:23315854

  11. Individual, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Healthy and Unhealthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapp, Georgina S. A.; Hickling, Siobhan; Christian, Hayley E.; Bull, Fiona; Timperio, Anna F.; Boruff, Bryan; Shrestha, Damber; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies use comprehensive ecological approaches considering multilevel factors to understand correlates of healthy (and unhealthy) dietary intake. The aim of this study was to examine the association between individual, social, and environmental factors on composite measures of healthy and unhealthy dietary intake in adults.…

  12. Individual, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Healthy and Unhealthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapp, Georgina S. A.; Hickling, Siobhan; Christian, Hayley E.; Bull, Fiona; Timperio, Anna F.; Boruff, Bryan; Shrestha, Damber; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies use comprehensive ecological approaches considering multilevel factors to understand correlates of healthy (and unhealthy) dietary intake. The aim of this study was to examine the association between individual, social, and environmental factors on composite measures of healthy and unhealthy dietary intake in adults.

  13. Effects of habit on intentional and reactive motivations for unhealthy eating.

    PubMed

    Ohtomo, Shoji

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the effect of unhealthy eating habits on behavior within the dual-process perspective, including intentional and reactive motivation. Previous studies assumed that habits elicit behavior directly. However, this study hypothesized that habits affect behavior through their effect on action control and reactive motivation. Longitudinal data were available from undergraduate students (n=286) who completed the first questionnaire assessing their habits, action control (internal and external), intentional motivation, and reactive motivation, and the second questionnaire accessing their actual eating behavior of high-calorie snacks in the 2 weeks following the first questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the predictors of their eating behavior. The results showed that habits inhibited internal control and promoted external control. These two sources of control affected intentional and reactive motivations, respectively, which determine behavior. It is concluded that habitual unhealthy eating behavior results from a decrease in conscious control leading to a switch from an intentional to a reactive route. PMID:23619314

  14. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit motivation and unhealthy eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Oertig, Daniela; Brandsttter, Veronika; Allemand, Mathias

    2010-08-01

    Many people change their eating behavior as a consequence of stress. One source of stress is intrapersonal psychological conflict as caused by discrepancies between implicit and explicit motives. In the present research, we examined whether eating behavior is related to this form of stress. Study 1 (N=53), a quasi-experimental study in the lab, showed that the interaction between the implicit achievement motive disposition and explicit commitment toward an achievement task significantly predicts the number of snacks consumed in a consecutive taste test. In cross-sectional Study 2 (N=100), with a sample of middle-aged women, overall motive discrepancy was significantly related to diverse indices of unsettled eating. Regression analyses revealed interaction effects specifically for power and achievement motivation and not for affiliation. Emotional distress further partially mediated the relationship between the overall motive discrepancy and eating behavior. PMID:20545817

  15. Food choices in the presence of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' eating partners.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-02-28

    Eating with others has been shown to influence the amount of food eaten in a meal or snack. We examined whether choosing food in the presence of another person who is choosing either predominantly low-energy-dense or high-energy-dense foods affects food choices. A between-subjects laboratory-based study was used. A group of 100 young females selected a lunch-time meal from a buffet consisting of a range of high-energy-dense and low-energy-dense foods, in the presence of an 'unhealthy' eating partner (who chose predominantly high-energy-dense foods) or a 'healthy' eating partner (who chose predominantly low-energy-dense foods) or when alone. Participants in the 'unhealthy' eating partner condition were significantly less likely to choose and consume a low-energy-dense food item (carrots), than when choosing alone or in the presence of a 'healthy' eater. Choice of high-energy-dense food did not differ across the conditions, nor did the total energy consumed. These data suggest that social influences on food choice are limited in this context but the presence of an 'unhealthy' eating partner may undermine intentions to consume low-energy-dense foods. PMID:22647276

  16. Promotion and Prevention Focused Feeding Strategies: Exploring the Effects on Healthy and Unhealthy Child Eating

    PubMed Central

    Melbye, Elisabeth L.; Hansen, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    There is a general lack of research addressing the motivations behind parental use of various feeding practices. Therefore, the present work aims to extend the current literature on parent-child feeding interactions by integrating the traditional developmental psychological perspective on feeding practices with elements of Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT) derived from the field of motivational psychology. In this paper, we seek to explain associations between parental feeding practices and child (un)healthy eating behaviors by categorizing parental feeding practices into promotion and prevention focused strategies, thus exploring parent-child feeding interactions within the framework of RFT. Our analyses partly supported the idea that (1) child healthy eating is positively associated with feeding practices characterized as promotion focused, and (2) child unhealthy eating is negatively associated with feeding practices characterized as prevention focused. However, a general observation following from our results suggests that parents' major driving forces behind reducing children's consumption of unhealthy food items and increasing their consumption of healthy food items are strategies that motivate rather than restrict. In particular, parents' provision of a healthy home food environment seems to be essential for child eating. PMID:26380269

  17. Feeling ‘too fat’ rather than being ‘too fat’ increases unhealthy eating habits among adolescents – even in boys

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet, Jolanda S.; Gustafsson, Per A.; Nelson, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a period of gender-specific physical changes, during which eating habits develop. To better understand what factors determine unhealthy eating habits such as dieting to lose weight, skipping meals, and consumption of unhealthy foods, we studied how physical measurements and body perception relate to eating habits in boys and girls, before and during adolescence. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we obtained data from both written questionnaires and physical measurements of height, weight, and waist circumference (WC). Results Dieting to lose weight and skipping breakfast were more common among adolescents than among younger boys and girls (p<0.05). The strongest risk factor for dieting in both boys and girls was perception of overweight, which persisted after adjusting for age and for being overweight (p<0.01). Another independent risk factor for dieting behaviour was overweight, as defined by body mass index (BMI) among boys (p<0.01) and WC among girls (p<0.05). In both boys and girls, skipping breakfast was associated with both a more negative body perception and higher BMI (p<0.05). Skipping breakfast was also associated with age- and gender-specific unhealthy eating habits such as skipping other meals, lower consumption of fruits and vegetables, and higher consumption of sweets and sugary drinks (p<0.05). Conclusion Body perception among adolescents is an important factor relating to unhealthy eating habits, not only in girls, but even in boys. Focus on body perception and eating breakfast daily is crucial for the development of healthy food consumption behaviours during adolescence and tracking into adulthood. PMID:26894992

  18. It's my party and I eat if I want to. Reasons for unhealthy snacking.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Aukje A C; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the reasons that people give for unhealthy snacking behavior is important for developing effective health interventions. Little research, however, has identified reasons that apply to a large audience and most studies do not integrate multiple factors, precluding any conclusions regarding their relative importance. The present study explored reasons for unhealthy snacking among a representative community sample. Participants (N?=?1544) filled out the newly developed Reasons to Snack inventory assessing an elaborate range of motives at baseline and 1-month follow-up. Exploratory and replication factor analyses identified six categories: opportunity induced eating, coping with negative emotions, enjoying a special occasion, rewarding oneself, social pressure, and gaining energy. The highest mean scores were obtained for enjoying a special occasion and opportunity induced eating. Regression analyses with participant characteristics as independent variables and each category of reasons as dependent variables showed differences for age. For all reasons except to enjoy a special occasion, younger people reported a higher score. Women indicated a higher score than men on coping with negative emotions, enjoying a special occasion and gaining energy. People who diet to a stronger extent reported a higher score for snacking because of social pressure, to reward oneself and to cope with negative emotions, with the latter also being related to a higher BMI. Finally, a higher education was associated with enjoying a special occasion. Future health interventions could allocate more attention to diminishing unhealthy snacking with regard to the six identified categories, specifically focusing on enjoying a special occasion and opportunity induced eating. PMID:25261101

  19. Teasing, depression and unhealthy weight control behaviour in obese children

    PubMed Central

    Madowitz, J.; Knatz, S.; Maginot, T.; Crow, S. J.; Boutelle, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Data were taken from 80 obese children (mean age = 10.03 years; mean body mass index = 27.37; %white = 29.37%; %female = 58.8%). Self-report surveys were used to collect data on rates of depressive symptoms, unhealthy weight control behaviours (UWCBs), teasing, sources of teasing and how much the teasing bothered the child. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate relationships between weight-related teasing and UWCBs and depression in obese children. Teasing by peers and/or family, negative feelings due to teasing, frequency of teasing, and number of teasing sources reported and associations with UWCBs and depression were analysed. Methods Logistical and linear regressions were used to evaluate relationships between the teasing variables, depression and UWCBs, controlling for age and gender. Results Results indicated that children teased by other children have significantly higher levels of depression (B = 6.1 [SE = 2.3]) and are five times more likely to engage in UWCBs (OR = 5.1 [CI = 1.517.4]). Children who endorsed that teasing by peers bothered them had significantly higher levels of depression (B = 2.3 [SE = 0.8]). The frequency of weight-related teasing was significantly associated with depression (B = 2.5 [SE = 0.8]), as was the number of teasing sources (B = 4.6 [SE = 1.5]). No significant relationships were found between familial teasing and depression or UWCBs. Conclusions Weight-related teasing, especially by other children, was associated with negative psychosocial measures in these obese children. Interventions are needed to reduce teasing, and longitudinal studies are recommended to understand the impact of teasing over time. PMID:22991215

  20. Eating Behaviours of British University Students: A Cluster Analysis on a Neglected Issue

    PubMed Central

    Tanton, Jina; Dodd, Lorna J.; Woodfield, Lorayne; Mabhala, Mzwandile

    2015-01-01

    Unhealthy diet is a primary risk factor for noncommunicable diseases. University student populations are known to engage in health risking lifestyle behaviours including risky eating behaviours. The purpose of this study was to examine eating behaviour patterns in a population of British university students using a two-step cluster analysis. Consumption prevalence of snack, convenience, and fast foods in addition to fruit and vegetables was measured using a self-report “Student Eating Behaviours” questionnaire on 345 undergraduate university students. Four clusters were identified: “risky eating behaviours,” “mixed eating behaviours,” “moderate eating behaviours,” and “favourable eating behaviours.” Nineteen percent of students were categorised as having “favourable eating behaviours” whilst just under a third of students were categorised within the two most risky clusters. Riskier eating behaviour patterns were associated with living on campus and Christian faith. The findings of this study highlight the importance of university microenvironments on eating behaviours in university student populations. Religion as a mediator of eating behaviours is a novel finding. PMID:26550495

  1. Unhealthy weight control behaviours in adolescent girls: a process model based on self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Thgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Nikitaras, Nikitas

    2010-06-01

    This study used self-determination theory (Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2000). The 'what' and 'why' of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.) to examine predictors of body image concerns and unhealthy weight control behaviours in a sample of 350 Greek adolescent girls. A process model was tested which proposed that perceptions of parental autonomy support and two life goals (health and image) would predict adolescents' degree of satisfaction of their basic psychological needs. In turn, psychological need satisfaction was hypothesised to negatively predict body image concerns (i.e. drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction) and, indirectly, unhealthy weight control behaviours. The predictions of the model were largely supported indicating that parental autonomy support and adaptive life goals can indirectly impact upon the extent to which female adolescents engage in unhealthy weight control behaviours via facilitating the latter's psychological need satisfaction. PMID:20204932

  2. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorder Symptoms and Unhealthy Weight Gain among Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…

  3. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorder Symptoms and Unhealthy Weight Gain among Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,

  4. Associating a prototypical forbidden food item with guilt or celebration: relationships with indicators of (un)healthy eating and the moderating role of stress and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A; Marshall, Emma M

    2015-01-01

    The increase in obesity and the many educational messages prompting us to eat a healthy diet have heightened people's concerns about the effects of food choice on health and weight. An unintended side effect may be that such awareness fuels feelings of guilt and worry about food. Although guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, it may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. The current study examined the relationship between a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake), indicators of healthy eating and choosing food for mood regulation reasons. Following a 'diathesis-stress' perspective, the moderating roles of depressive symptoms and stress were examined. Although a default association of guilt was found to be harmless under some circumstances (i.e. under low stress), those who associated chocolate cake with guilt (vs. celebration) reported unhealthier eating habits and lower levels of perceived behavioural control over healthy eating when under stress, rated mood regulation reasons for food choice as important irrespective of their current affective state, and did not have more positive attitudes towards healthy eating. Implications for public health messages and interventions will be discussed. PMID:25186250

  5. Unhealthy Weight-control Behaviours, Dieting and Weight Status: A Cross-cultural Comparison between North American and Spanish Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    López-Guimerà, Gemma; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter; Fauquet, Jordi; Loth, Katie; Sánchez-Carracedo, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine and compare dieting and unhealthy weight-control behaviours (UWCB) in population-based samples in two large urban areas in Spain (Barcelona) and in the USA (Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota). Additionally, use of UWCB across weight categories was explored in both samples. Participants included 1501 adolescents from Barcelona (48% girls, 52% boys) and 2793 adolescents from the Twin Cities (53% girls, 47% boys). The main outcome measures were dieting, UWCB (less extreme and extreme) and weight status. Although dieting and UWCB were prevalent in both samples, particularly among girls, the prevalence was higher in the US sample. In both countries, the report of dieting and use of UWCB was highest among overweight and obese youth. Prevention interventions that address the broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems should be warranted in light of the high prevalence and co-occurrence of overweight and unhealthy weight-related behaviours. PMID:23055262

  6. [Orthorectic eating behaviour - nosology and prevalence rates].

    PubMed

    Barthels, Friederike; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2012-12-01

    Orthorectic eating behaviour is characterised by a fixation on a healthy diet and rigidity regarding self-imposed nutrition standards. Besides malnutrition, subjective distress and social isolation might be consequences of clinical relevance. So far there are few reliable data about nosology and prevalence rates, so that it is not yet possible to evaluate the clinical significance of orthorectic eating behaviour. This article discusses nosological classifications of orthorexia and presents prevalence rates of extremely healthy eating behaviour in general population as well as in several specific subgroups. To summarise, orthorectic eating behaviour seems to be most likely an eating disorder with healthy dieting as an overvalued idea. Data on prevelance of orthorectic eating behaviour, assessed with the recently developed Dsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala, suggest a rate of 1 to 2% in general population. PMID:22700108

  7. I Eat Healthier Than You: Differences in Healthy and Unhealthy Food Choices for Oneself and for Others

    PubMed Central

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Kohlbrenner, Verena; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated self-other biases in actual eating behavior based on the observation of three different eating situations. To capture the complexity of real life food choices within a well-controlled setting, an ecologically valid fake food buffet with 72 different foods was employed. Sixty participants chose a healthy, a typical, and an unhealthy meal for themselves and for an average peer. We found that the typical meal for the self was more similar to the healthy than to the unhealthy meal in terms of energy content: The mean difference between the typical and healthy meals was MΔ = 1368 kJ (327 kcal) as compared to a mean difference between the typical and unhealthy meals of MΔ = 3075 kJ (735 kcal). Moreover, there was evidence that people apply asymmetrical standards for themselves and others: Participants chose more energy for a peer than for themselves (M = 4983 kJ or 1191 kcal on average for the peers’ meals vs. M = 3929 kJ or 939 kcal on average for the own meals) and more high-caloric food items for a typical meal, indicating a self-other bias. This comparatively positive self-view is in stark contrast to epidemiological data indicating overall unhealthy eating habits and demands further examination of its consequences for behavior change. PMID:26066013

  8. I Eat Healthier Than You: Differences in Healthy and Unhealthy Food Choices for Oneself and for Others.

    PubMed

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Kohlbrenner, Verena; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated self-other biases in actual eating behavior based on the observation of three different eating situations. To capture the complexity of real life food choices within a well-controlled setting, an ecologically valid fake food buffet with 72 different foods was employed. Sixty participants chose a healthy, a typical, and an unhealthy meal for themselves and for an average peer. We found that the typical meal for the self was more similar to the healthy than to the unhealthy meal in terms of energy content: The mean difference between the typical and healthy meals was MΔ = 1368 kJ (327 kcal) as compared to a mean difference between the typical and unhealthy meals of MΔ = 3075 kJ (735 kcal). Moreover, there was evidence that people apply asymmetrical standards for themselves and others: Participants chose more energy for a peer than for themselves (M = 4983 kJ or 1191 kcal on average for the peers' meals vs. M = 3929 kJ or 939 kcal on average for the own meals) and more high-caloric food items for a typical meal, indicating a self-other bias. This comparatively positive self-view is in stark contrast to epidemiological data indicating overall unhealthy eating habits and demands further examination of its consequences for behavior change. PMID:26066013

  9. Vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours across different age groups in Swedish Adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13–14, 15–16 and 17–18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15–16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in adolescents of different ages. Future studies should examine other factors that may contribute to the underlying vulnerability in different age groups. PMID:25750783

  10. Time orientation and eating behavior: Unhealthy eaters consider immediate consequences, while healthy eaters focus on future health.

    PubMed

    Dassen, Fania C M; Houben, Katrijn; Jansen, Anita

    2015-08-01

    Time orientation could play an important role in eating behavior. The current study investigated whether eating behavior is associated with the Consideration of Future Consequences scale (CFC). Specifically, it was examined whether unhealthy eaters consider the future less and are more concerned with immediate gratification. A related measure of time orientation is delay discounting, a process by which a reinforcer becomes less valuable when considered later in time. Recent research argues that the relation between time orientation and health behaviors is measured best at a behavior-specific level. In the current study, we explored the relationships between CFC and discount rate - both general and food-specific - and their influence on healthy eating. Participants with ages 18 to 60 (N = 152; final sample N = 146) filled in an online questionnaire consisting of the CFC, a food-specific version of the CFC (CFC-food), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) and an adapted MCQ version with snack food as a reinforcer. Self-reported healthy eating was positively related to the future subscale (r = .48, p < .001) and negatively to the immediate subscale of the CFC-food (r = -.43, p < .001). The general CFC and discount rate (MCQ and MCQ-snack) were not related to healthy eating (all p > .05). In order to predict behavior, measurements of time orientation should thus be tailored to the behavior of interest. Based on current results, shifting one's concern from the immediate consequences of eating to a more future-oriented perspective may present an interesting target for future interventions aimed at promoting healthy eating and reducing overweight. PMID:25814191

  11. Paying people to eat or not to eat? Carryover effects of monetary incentives on eating behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Paul; Galizzi, Matteo M.; Navarro-Martinez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    There is no evidence comparing head-to-head the effects of monetary incentives to act and to abstain from acting on behaviour. We present an experiment, conducted between June and September 2012, that directly compares the effects of those two different monetary incentive schemes on eating behaviour: we evaluate incentives to eat against incentives not to eat. A large number of participants (n = 353) had bowls of sweets next to them while they watched different videos over two experimental sessions that were two days apart. Sweets eating was monitored and monetary incentives to eat or not to eat were introduced during one of the videos for participants randomly allocated to these conditions. Our results show that, while both types of incentives were effective in changing sweets-eating behaviour when they were in place, only incentives not to eat had significant carryover effects after they were removed. Those effects were still significant two days after the monetary incentives had been eliminated. We also present some additional results on personality and health-related variables that shed further light on these effects. Overall, our study shows that incentives not to eat can be more effective in producing carryover effects on behaviour in domains like the one explored here. PMID:25864152

  12. Paying people to eat or not to eat? Carryover effects of monetary incentives on eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paul; Galizzi, Matteo M; Navarro-Martinez, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    There is no evidence comparing head-to-head the effects of monetary incentives to act and to abstain from acting on behaviour. We present an experiment, conducted between June and September 2012, that directly compares the effects of those two different monetary incentive schemes on eating behaviour: we evaluate incentives to eat against incentives not to eat. A large number of participants (n = 353) had bowls of sweets next to them while they watched different videos over two experimental sessions that were two days apart. Sweets eating was monitored and monetary incentives to eat or not to eat were introduced during one of the videos for participants randomly allocated to these conditions. Our results show that, while both types of incentives were effective in changing sweets-eating behaviour when they were in place, only incentives not to eat had significant carryover effects after they were removed. Those effects were still significant two days after the monetary incentives had been eliminated. We also present some additional results on personality and health-related variables that shed further light on these effects. Overall, our study shows that incentives not to eat can be more effective in producing carryover effects on behaviour in domains like the one explored here. PMID:25864152

  13. Social interactions of eating behaviour among high school students: a cellular automata approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a global epidemic posing problems for both developed and developing nations. The prevalence is particularly alarming in developed nations, such as the United States, where approximately one in three school-aged adolescents (ages 12-19) are overweight or obese. Evidence suggests that weight gain in school-aged adolescents is related to energy imbalance exacerbated by the negative aspects of the school food environment, such as presence of unhealthy food choices. While a well-established connection exists between the food environment, presently there is a lack of studies investigating the impact of the social environment and associated interactions of school-age adolescents. This paper uses a mathematical modelling approach to explore how social interactions among high school adolescents can affect their eating behaviour and food choice. Methods In this paper we use a Cellular Automata (CA) modelling approach to explore how social interactions among school-age adolescents can affect eating behaviour, and food choice. Our CA model integrates social influences and transition rules to simulate the way individuals would interact in a social community (e.g., school cafeteria). To replicate these social interactions, we chose the Moore neighbourhood which allows all neighbours (eights cells in a two-dimensional square lattice) to influence the central cell. Our assumption is that individuals belong to any of four states; Bring Healthy, Bring Unhealthy, Purchase Healthy, and Purchase Unhealthy, and will influence each other according to parameter settings and transition rules. Simulations were run to explore how the different states interact under varying parameter settings. Results This study, through simulations, illustrates that students will change their eating behaviour from unhealthy to healthy as a result of positive social and environmental influences. In general, there is one common characteristic of changes across time; students with similar eating behaviours tend to form groups, represented by distinct clusters. Transition of healthy and unhealthy eating behaviour is non-linear and a sharp change is observed around a critical point where positive and negative influences are equal. Conclusions Conceptualizing the social environment of individuals is a crucial step to increasing our understanding of obesogenic environments of high-school students, and moreover, the general population. Incorporating both contextual, and individual determinants found in real datasets, in our model will greatly enhance calibration of future models. Complex mathematical modelling has a potential to contribute to the way public health data is collected and analyzed. PMID:23046793

  14. Eating Behaviour and Weight in Children

    PubMed Central

    Webber, L; Hill, C; Saxton, J; Van Jaarsveld, CHM; Wardle, J

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that quantitative variation in eating behaviour traits shows a graded association with weight in children. Design: Cross-sectional design in a community setting. Subjects: Data were from 406 families participating in the Physical Exercise and Appetite in CHildren Study (PEACHES) or the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). Children were aged 7 to 9 years (PEACHES) and 9 to 12 years old (TEDS). Measurements: Weights and heights were measured by researchers. BMI SD-scores were used to categorise participants into healthy-weight, overweight and obese groups, with an additional division of the healthy-weight group into higher- and lower-healthy-weight at the 50th centile. Eating behaviour traits were assessed with the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ), completed by the parent on behalf of their child. Linear trend analyses compared CEBQ sub-scale scores across the five weight groups. Results: Satiety Responsiveness/Slowness in Eating and Food Fussiness showed a graded negative association with weight, while Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating and Desire to Drink were positively associated. All effects were maintained after controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, parental education and sample. There was no systematic association with weight for Emotional Undereating. Conclusion: These results support the idea that approach-related and avoidance-related appetitive traits are systematically (and oppositely) related to adiposity, and not exclusively associated with obesity. Early assessment of these traits could be used as indicators of susceptibility to weight gain. PMID:19002146

  15. Mediators of longitudinal associations between television viewing and eating behaviours in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Television viewing has been associated with poor eating behaviours in adolescents. Changing unhealthy eating behaviours is most likely to be achieved by identifying and targeting factors shown to mediate the association between these behaviours. However, little is known about the mediators of the associations between television viewing and eating behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine mediators of the longitudinal associations between television viewing (TV) and eating behaviours among Australian adolescents. Method Eating behaviours were assessed using a web-based survey completed by a community-based sample of 1729 adolescents from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, at baseline (2004-2005) and two years later. TV viewing and the potential mediators (snacking while watching TV and perceived value of TV viewing) were assessed via the web-based survey at baseline. Results Adolescents who watched more than two hours of TV/day had higher intakes of energy-dense snacks and beverages, and lower intakes of fruit two years later. Furthermore, the associations between TV viewing and consumption of energy-dense snacks, energy-dense drinks and fruit were mediated by snacking while watching TV. Perceived value of TV viewing mediated the association between TV viewing and consumption of energy-dense snacks, beverages and fruit. Conclusion Snacking while watching TV and perceived value of TV viewing mediated the longitudinal association between TV viewing and eating behaviours among adolescents. The efficacy of methods to reduce TV viewing, change snacking habits while watching TV, and address the values that adolescents place on TV viewing should be examined in an effort to promote healthy eating among adolescents. PMID:21450065

  16. Parental modelling of eating behaviours: observational validation of the Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours scale (PARM).

    PubMed

    Palfreyman, Zoe; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    Parents are important role models for their children's eating behaviours. This study aimed to further validate the recently developed Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM) by examining the relationships between maternal self-reports on the PARM with the modelling practices exhibited by these mothers during three family mealtime observations. Relationships between observed maternal modelling and maternal reports of children's eating behaviours were also explored. Seventeen mothers with children aged between 2 and 6 years were video recorded at home on three separate occasions whilst eating a meal with their child. Mothers also completed the PARM, the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and provided demographic information about themselves and their child. Findings provided validation for all three PARM subscales, which were positively associated with their observed counterparts on the observational coding scheme (PARM-O). The results also indicate that habituation to observations did not change the feeding behaviours displayed by mothers. In addition, observed maternal modelling was significantly related to children's food responsiveness (i.e., their interest in and desire for foods), enjoyment of food, and food fussiness. This study makes three important contributions to the literature. It provides construct validation for the PARM measure and provides further observational support for maternal modelling being related to lower levels of food fussiness and higher levels of food enjoyment in their children. These findings also suggest that maternal feeding behaviours remain consistent across repeated observations of family mealtimes, providing validation for previous research which has used single observations. PMID:25111293

  17. Combined effects of eating alone and living alone on unhealthy dietary behaviors, obesity and underweight in older Japanese adults: Results of the JAGES.

    PubMed

    Tani, Yukako; Kondo, Naoki; Takagi, Daisuke; Saito, Masashige; Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2015-12-01

    We examined whether eating alone is associated with dietary behaviors and body weight status, and assessed the modifying effects of cohabitation status in older Japanese people. Data from the 2010 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study, with a self-reported questionnaire for 38,690 men and 43,674 women aged ?65 years, were used. Eating status was classified as eating with others, sometimes eating alone, or exclusively eating alone. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) of unhealthy dietary behaviors, obesity, and underweight, adjusting for age, education, income, disease, and dental status using Poisson regression. Overall, 16% of men and 28% of women sometimes or exclusively ate alone. Among those who exclusively ate alone, 56% of men and 68% of women lived alone. Men who exclusively ate alone were 3.74 times more likely to skip meals than men who ate with others. Among men who exclusively ate alone, those who lived alone had a higher APR than men who lived with others. Compared with subjects who ate and lived with others, the APRs of being obese (BMI ? 30.0 kg/m(2)) among men who exclusively ate alone were 1.34 (1.01-1.78) in those who lived alone and 1.17 (0.84-1.64) in those who lived with others. These combined effects of eating and living alone were weaker in women, with a potential increase in the APRs among those who ate alone despite living with others. Men who exclusively ate alone were more likely to be underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)) than men who ate with others in both cohabitation statuses. Eating alone and living alone may be jointly associated with higher prevalence of obesity, underweight and unhealthy eating behaviors in men. PMID:26116391

  18. Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Methods Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Results After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products. Conclusions This is the first European study examining perceived determinants of eating behaviour in university students and collecting ideas and recommendations for healthy eating interventions in a university specific setting. University characteristics (residency, exams, etc.) influence the relationships between individual as well as social environmental determinants and university students eating behaviour, and should therefore be taken into account when designing effective and tailored multilevel intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. PMID:24438555

  19. Cannabinoids, eating behaviour, and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of cannabis by western societies, its psychotropic effects overshadowed its medical benefits. However, investigation into the molecular action of the main constituents of cannabis has led to the discovery of an intercellular signalling system, called the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS comprises a set of molecular components, including enzymes, signalling lipids and G-protein coupled receptors, which has an outstanding role in modulating eating behaviour and energy homeostasis. Interestingly, evidence has shown that the ECS is present at the central and peripheral nervous system, modulating the function of the hypothalamus, the brain reward system and the brainstem, and coordinating the crosstalk between these brain structures and peripheral organs. Indeed, the ECS is present and functional in metabolically relevant peripheral tissues, directly modulating their physiology. In the context of a global obesity pandemic, these discoveries are highly suggestive in order to design novel pharmaceutical tools to fight obesity and related morbidities. In fact, a cannabinoid-based first generation of drugs was developed and marketed. Their failure, due to central side-effects, is leading to a second generation of these drugs unable to cross the blood-brain barrier, as well as other ECS-focused strategies that are still in the pipeline. In the next few years we will hopefully know whether such an important player in energy homeostasis can be successfully targeted without significantly affecting other vital processes related to mood and sense of well-being. PMID:24375977

  20. Emotional Openness, problematic eating behaviours, and overweight in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Walther, Mireille; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-04-01

    Overweight, a common health condition in adolescence, has been linked with difficulties in emotional processing. This study investigates associations between emotional processing, conceptualised through the model of Emotional Openness (EO), problematic eating behaviours, including Eating in the Absence of Hunger and disinhibited eating, and overweight in adolescents. Several self-report instruments were completed by 160 youngsters (mean age: 14.360.61years) from the community, including 39 overweight and obese adolescents (24.5%). In girls, bootstrap analyses supported a mediating effect of restrained eating on the relation between three EO dimensions and body mass index percentile, in particular the communication of emotions, the cognitive-conceptual representation of emotions, and the perception of bodily indicator of emotions. No mediating effect was found in boys. These results have important implications for psychological weight management interventions, as they underline the relevance of work on emotional processing in order to reduce problematic eating behaviours. PMID:25682365

  1. Two inhibitory control training interventions designed to improve eating behaviour and determine mechanisms of change.

    PubMed

    Allom, Vanessa; Mullan, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Inhibitory control training has been shown to influence eating behaviour in the laboratory; however, the reliability of these effects is not yet established outside the laboratory, nor are the mechanisms responsible for change in behaviour. Two online Stop-Signal Task training interventions were conducted to address these points. In Study 1, 72 participants completed baseline and follow-up measures of inhibitory control, self-regulatory depletion, fat intake and body-mass index. Participants were randomly assigned to complete one of three Stop-Signal Tasks daily for ten days: food-specific inhibition--inhibition in response to unhealthy food stimuli only, general inhibition--inhibition was not contingent on type of stimuli, and control--no inhibition. While fat intake did not decrease, body-mass index decreased in the food-specific condition and change in this outcome was mediated by changes in vulnerability to depletion. In Study 2, the reliability and longevity of these effects were tested by replicating the intervention with a third measurement time-point. Seventy participants completed baseline, post-intervention and follow-up measures. While inhibitory control and vulnerability to depletion improved in both training conditions post-intervention, eating behaviour and body-mass index did not. Further, improvements in self-regulatory outcomes were not maintained at follow-up. It appears that while the training paradigm employed in the current studies may improve self-regulatory outcomes, it may not necessarily improve health outcomes. It is suggested that this may be due to the task parameters, and that a training paradigm that utilises a higher proportion of stop-signals may be necessary to change behaviour. In addition, improvements in self-regulation do not appear to persist over time. These findings further current conceptualisations of the nature of self-regulation and have implications for the efficacy of online interventions designed to improve eating behaviour. PMID:25725487

  2. Stress-related eating, obesity and associated behavioural traits in adolescents: a prospective population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress-related eating is associated with unhealthy eating and drinking habits and an increased risk of obesity among adults, but less is known about factors related to stress-driven eating behaviour among children and adolescents. We studied the prevalence of stress-related eating and its association with overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, dietary and other health behaviours at the age of 16. Furthermore, we examined whether stress-related eating is predicted by early-life factors including birth size and maternal gestational health. Methods The study population comprised 3598 girls and 3347 boys from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986). Followed up since their antenatal period, adolescents underwent a clinical examination, and their stress-related eating behaviour, dietary habits and other health behaviours were assessed using a postal questionnaire. We examined associations using cross-tabulations followed by latent class analysis and logistic regression to profile the adolescents and explain the risk of obesity with behavioural traits. Results Stress-related eating behaviour was more common among girls (43%) than among boys (15%). Compared with non-stress-driven eaters, stress-driven eaters had a higher prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity. We found no significant associations between stress-eating and early-life factors. Among girls, tobacco use, shorter sleep, infrequent family meals and frequent consumption of chocolate, sweets, light sodas and alcohol were more prevalent among stress-driven eaters. Among boys, the proportions of those with frequent consumption of sausages, chocolate, sweets, hamburgers and pizza were greater among stress-driven eaters. For both genders, the proportions of those bingeing and using heavy exercise and strict diet for weight control were higher among stress-eaters. Besides a ‘healthy lifestyle’ cluster, latent class analysis revealed two other patterns (‘adverse habits’, ‘unbalanced weight control’) that significantly explained the risk of overweight among boys and girls. Conclusions Stress-related eating is highly prevalent among 16-year-old girls and is associated with obesity as well as adverse dietary and other health behaviours among both genders, but intrauterine conditions are seemingly uninvolved. In terms of obesity prevention and future health, adolescents who use eating as a passive way of coping could benefit from learning healthier strategies for stress and weight management. PMID:24708823

  3. The high prevalence of poor physical health and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours in individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Happell, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Recent mental health care policy has addressed the need for health care professionals to consider the physical health of consumers. Mental health nurses are particularly well-placed for this role. To provide mental health nurses with practical information, this narrative review summarises evidence from recent research on the physical health of individuals with Serious Mental Illness (SMI). In those with SMI, the international prevalence of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, symptoms of cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease all exceed that of the general population by at least two times, and HIV prevalence may be increased by as much as eight times. This increased prevalence of chronic disease may be largely responsible for an increased risk of death of up to five times, resulting in as much as 30 years of potential life lost. Of particular concern, the recent evidence suggests that for physical health and increased mortality, the gap between individuals with SMI and the general population is worsening. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours undoubtedly play a role in the development of poor physical health and chronic disease, and the present review indicates that low physical activity, poor diet, smoking, alcohol and substance abuse, and risky sexual behaviour are common in individuals with SMI. This narrative review demonstrates that the prevalence of poor physical health and health behaviours in people with SMI far exceed that observed in the general population, and reinforces the urgent need for mental health nurses to address physical health concerns in patients. PMID:21859410

  4. How to Improve Eating Behaviour during Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Green, Robin John; Samy, Gamal; Miqdady, Mohamad Saleh; Salah, Mohamed; Sleiman, Rola; Abdelrahman, Hatim Mohamed Ahmed; Al Haddad, Fatima; Reda, Mona M; Lewis, Humphrey; Ekanem, Emmanuel E; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2015-03-01

    Eating behaviour disorder during early childhood is a common pediatric problem. Many terminologies have been used interchangeably to describe this condition, hindering implementation of therapy and confusing a common problem. The definition suggests an eating behaviour which has consequences for family harmony and growth. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition does not cover the entire spectrum seen by pediatricians. Publications are substantive but level of evidence is most of the time low. This purpose of this review is to clarify terminology of eating behaviour problems during early childhood; including benign picky eating, limited diets, sensory food aversion, selective eating, food avoidance emotional disorder, pervasive refusal syndrome, tactile defensiveness, functional dysphagia, neophobia and toddler anorexia. This tool is proposed only to ease the clinical management for child care providers. Diagnostic criteria are set and management tools are suggested. The role of dietary counselling and, where necessary, behavioural therapy is clarified. It is hoped that the condition will make its way into mainstream pediatrics to allow these children, and their families, to receive the help they deserve. PMID:25866727

  5. How to Improve Eating Behaviour during Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Samy, Gamal; Miqdady, Mohamad Saleh; Salah, Mohamed; Sleiman, Rola; Abdelrahman, Hatim Mohamed Ahmed; Al Haddad, Fatima; Reda, Mona M.; Lewis, Humphrey; Ekanem, Emmanuel E.; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    Eating behaviour disorder during early childhood is a common pediatric problem. Many terminologies have been used interchangeably to describe this condition, hindering implementation of therapy and confusing a common problem. The definition suggests an eating behaviour which has consequences for family harmony and growth. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition does not cover the entire spectrum seen by pediatricians. Publications are substantive but level of evidence is most of the time low. This purpose of this review is to clarify terminology of eating behaviour problems during early childhood; including benign picky eating, limited diets, sensory food aversion, selective eating, food avoidance emotional disorder, pervasive refusal syndrome, tactile defensiveness, functional dysphagia, neophobia and toddler anorexia. This tool is proposed only to ease the clinical management for child care providers. Diagnostic criteria are set and management tools are suggested. The role of dietary counselling and, where necessary, behavioural therapy is clarified. It is hoped that the condition will make its way into mainstream pediatrics to allow these children, and their families, to receive the help they deserve. PMID:25866727

  6. Emotional eating and its effect on eating behaviour after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A

    2012-06-01

    Emotional eaters are hypothesised to overeat in response to negative emotions or stress. However, the empirical evidence for such a moderating role is mixed. This study examined the effect of emotional eating on eating behaviour before and after the occurrence of a natural disaster (an earthquake) in a sample of predominantly middle-aged and older women. As expected, women who scored high on emotional eating reported an increase in overeating after the earthquake. This effect was qualified by an interaction: emotional eaters who reported high levels of post-earthquake distress reported an increase in overeating, whereas non-stressed emotional eaters and non-emotional eaters did not. PMID:22369959

  7. Changes in eating attitudes, body esteem and weight control behaviours during adolescence in a South African cohort.

    PubMed

    Gitau, Tabither M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2014-01-01

    Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal 'ideal' body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26), body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001) and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the 'best', 'getting respect' and being the 'happiest', while the obese silhouette was associated with the 'worst' and the 'unhappiest', and the underweight silhouette with the "weakest". Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa. PMID:25310343

  8. From fan to fat? Vicarious losing increases unhealthy eating, but self-affirmation is an effective remedy.

    PubMed

    Cornil, Yann; Chandon, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Using archival and experimental data, we showed that vicarious defeats experienced by fans when their favorite football team loses lead them to consume less healthy food. On the Mondays following a Sunday National Football League (NFL) game, saturated-fat and food-calorie intake increase significantly in cities with losing teams, decrease in cities with winning teams, and remain at their usual levels in comparable cities without an NFL team or with an NFL team that did not play. These effects are greater in cities with the most committed fans, when the opponents are more evenly matched, and when the defeats are narrow. We found similar results when measuring the actual or intended food consumption of French soccer fans who had previously been asked to write about or watch highlights from victories or defeats of soccer teams. However, these unhealthy consequences of vicarious defeats disappear when supporters spontaneously self-affirm or are given the opportunity to do so. PMID:23925307

  9. Temperament Dispositions, Problematic Eating Behaviours and Overweight in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Walther, Mireille; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a common health condition in adolescence leading to severe medical complications, is assumed to be influenced by temperament factors. This paper investigates associations between reactive and regulative temperament, problematic eating behaviours and excess weight. Several self-report instruments were completed by 130 adolescents (mean age 14.13 ± 0.61 years), including 27 overweight and obese individuals (20.8%). Bootstrap analysis revealed a mediating effect of restrained eating on the relation between reactive temperament and body mass index percentile, which differed according to gender: Restrained eating, which predicted weight gain, was more present in girls having a higher sensitivity to reward and in boys showing a higher sensitivity to punishment. No effect of regulative temperament was found. These results have important implications for weight management programmes, as they suggest that reducing restrained eating by working on temperament may help to control weight. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26104832

  10. "Food addiction is real". The effects of exposure to this message on self-diagnosed food addiction and eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Rogers, Peter J; Dallas, Rebecca; Scott, Jade; Ruddock, Helen K; Robinson, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Food addiction is widely discussed in popular media in many Westernised societies. However, a potential concern is that endorsement of the food addiction model may cause people to perceive a lack of personal control over eating which could promote unhealthy dietary behaviours. To address this possibility, the current study investigated whether exposure to food addiction messages would, firstly, increase the number of participants who self-diagnosed as food addicts and, secondly, increase intake of indulgent foods. In a between-subjects design, participants (N?=?60) read an article which either claimed that food addiction is real ("Real" condition) or that food addiction is a myth ("Myth" condition). Intake of indulgent and non-indulgent foods was then assessed in a disguised taste test and participants also completed a measure of self-diagnosed food addiction. A significantly higher proportion of participants in the Real condition self-diagnosed as food addicts relative to participants in the Myth condition (57% and 27% of participants, respectively; p?=?.018). Variability in intake, but not mean intake, of indulgent food was higher in the Real condition than in the Myth condition. These findings suggest that endorsement of the concept of food addiction may encourage people to self-diagnose as food addicts and thus explain their eating behaviour in terms of addiction (an external attribution). The extent to which self-diagnosis of food addiction influences actual food intake and how this might vary with individual differences and eating context remains to be determined. PMID:25891042

  11. Effect of changes to the school food environment on eating behaviours and/or body weight in children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Driessen, C E; Cameron, A J; Thornton, L E; Lai, S K; Barnett, L M

    2014-12-01

    Previous school obesity-prevention reviews have included multi-component interventions. Here, we aimed to review the evidence for the effect of isolated food environment interventions on both eating behaviours (including food purchasing) and/or body weight. Five electronic databases were searched (last updated 30 November 2013). Of the 1,002 unique papers identified, 55 reported on school food environment changes, based on a review of titles and abstracts. Thirty-seven further papers were excluded, for not meeting the inclusion criteria. The final selection consisted of 18 papers (14 United States, 4 United Kingdom). Two studies had a body mass index (BMI) outcome, 14 assessed purchasing or eating behaviours and two studies assessed both weight and behaviour. Seventeen of 18 papers reported a positive outcome on either BMI (or change in BMI) or the healthfulness of food sold or consumed. Two studies were rated as strong quality and 11 as weak. Only three studies included a control group. A school environment supportive of healthy eating is essential to combat heavy marketing of unhealthy food. Modification of the school food environment (including high-level policy changes at state or national level) can have a positive impact on eating behaviours. A need exists, however, for further high-quality studies. PMID:25266705

  12. The associations between unhealthy behaviours, mental stress, and low socio-economic status in an international comparison of representative samples from Thailand and England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status is a recognised determinant of health status, and the association may be mediated by unhealthy behaviours and psychosocial adversities, which, in developed countries, both aggregate in low socioeconomic sectors of the population. We explored the hypothesis that unhealthy behavioural choices and psychological distress do not both aggregate in low socioeconomic status groups in developing countries. Methods Our study is based on a cross-sectional comparison between national population samples of adults in England and Thailand. Psychological distress was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) or three anxiety-oriented items from the Kessler scale (K6). Socioeconomic status was assessed on the basis of occupational status. We computed a health-behaviour score using information about smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity. Results The final sample comprised 40,679 participants. In both countries and in both genders separately, there was a positive association between poor health-behaviour and high psychological distress, and between high psychological distress and low socioeconomic status. In contrast, the association between low socioeconomic status and poor health-behaviour was positive in both English men and women, flat in Thai men, and was negative in Thai women (likelihood ratio test P <0.001). Conclusion The associations between socioeconomic status, behavioural choices, and psychological distress are different at the international level. Psychological distress may be consistently associated with low socioeconomic status, whereas poor health-behaviour is not. Future analyses will test whether psychological distress is a more consistent determinant of socioeconomic differences in health across countries. PMID:24555674

  13. Eating behaviour among undergraduate students. Comparing nutrition students with other courses.

    PubMed

    Poínhos, Rui; Alves, Diogo; Vieira, Elisée; Pinhão, Sílvia; Oliveira, Bruno M P M; Correia, Flora

    2015-01-01

    Our main aim was to compare eating behaviour between Portuguese undergraduate nutrition students and students attending other courses. Several eating behaviour dimensions were compared between 154 nutrition students and 263 students from other areas. Emotional and external eating were assessed by the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, dietary restraint was measured using the flexible and rigid control of eating behaviour subscales, binge eating was measured using the Binge Eating Scale, and eating self-efficacy using the General Eating Self-Efficacy Scale. Higher levels of flexible and rigid control were found in nutrition students from both sexes when compared to students from other courses. Female nutrition students also presented higher binge eating levels than their colleagues from other courses. To our knowledge no other work has previously assessed all eating behaviour dimensions considered in the current study among nutrition students. Besides the results by themselves, the data obtained from this study provide several clues to further studies to be developed regarding the still rarely approached issue of eating behaviour among nutrition students. PMID:25240638

  14. Eating Behaviour among Multi-Ethnic Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country as Measured by the Self-Reported Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Debbie Ann; Moy, Foong Ming; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2013-01-01

    Background Escalating weight gain among the Malaysian paediatric population necessitates identifying modifiable behaviours in the obesity pathway. Objectives This study describes the adaptation and validation of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) as a self-report for adolescents, investigates gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour and examines associations between eating behaviour and body mass index (BMI) z-scores among multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents. Methodology This two-phase study involved validation of the Malay self-reported CEBQ in Phase 1 (n = 362). Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests were performed. In Phase 2, adolescents completed the questionnaire (n = 646). Weight and height were measured. Gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour were investigated. Associations between eating behaviour and BMI z-scores were examined with complex samples general linear model (GLM) analyses, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and maternal educational level. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35-item, 9-factor structure with ‘food fussiness’ scale split into two. In confirmatory factor analysis, a 30-item, 8-factor structure yielded an improved model fit. Reliability estimates of the eight factors were acceptable. Eating behaviours did not differ between genders. Malay adolescents reported higher Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating and Food Fussiness 1 scores (p<0.05) compared to Chinese and Indians. A significant negative association was observed between BMI z-scores and Food Fussiness 1 (‘dislike towards food’) when adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Although CEBQ is a valuable psychometric instrument, adjustments were required due to age and cultural differences in our sample. With the self-report, our findings present that gender, ethnic and weight status influenced eating behaviours. Obese adolescents were found to display a lack of dislike towards food. Future longitudinal and qualitative studies are warranted to further understand behavioural phenotypes of obesity to guide prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:24349385

  15. Motivation for eating behaviour in adolescent girls: the body beautiful.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew J

    2006-11-01

    Body dissatisfaction is commonplace for teenage girls and is associated with dieting and unhealthy weight-control behaviours. The idealisation and pursuit of thinness are seen as the main drivers of body dissatisfaction, with the media prominent in setting thin body ideals. Television and consumer magazine production in the UK are extensive, annually releasing 1x10(6) h programming and >3000 magazine titles. Their engagement by adolescent girls is high, and in surveys girls identify thin and revealing body images as influential to the appeal of thinness and their pursuit of dieting. Experimental studies show a short-term impact of these images on body dissatisfaction, especially in teenagers who are already concerned about body image. Magazine images appear more influential than television viewing. For many adolescents selecting thin-image media is purposive, permitting comparison of themselves with the models or celebrities featured. Indeed, the impact of the media needs to be understood within a social context, as engagement is often a highly-social process. Media influence is uneven because of differences in its content and manner of communication, and individual differences in vulnerability to its content. Greater social responsibility on the part of the media and better media literacy by children would be beneficial. For those working in adolescent nutrition it is a reminder that adolescent food choice and intake are subject to many competing, contradictory and non-health-related determinants. PMID:17181904

  16. Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eating behaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version of the CEBQ, for use in an obesity intervention programme targeting preschool children 1-6 years. Further, the associations between eating behaviours and children's age, gender and relative weight (BMI SDS) and parental weight were investigated. Methods Parents to 174 children aged 1-6 years (50% girls, mean age 3.8 years), recruited from five kindergartens in Stockholm, completed the Swedish version of the CEBQ. Data on children's weight and height, parental weight, height and educational level was collected. Children's relative weight was calculated for a subpopulation (mean BMI SDS -0.4, n = 47). Factorial validation (Principal Component Analysis) on all CEBQ items was performed. Differences in eating behaviours by age, gender and parental weight were examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analysed controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education in linear regression analyses. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven factor solution with good psychometric properties, similar to the original structure. The behaviour scales 'overeating'/'food responsiveness', 'enjoyment of food' and 'emotional undereating' decreased with age and 'food fussiness' increased with age. Eating behaviours did not differ between girls and boys. The children's relative weight was not related to any of the eating behaviours when controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education, and only associated with parental weight status. Conclusions Our results support the use of the CEBQ as a psychometric instrument for assessing children's eating behaviours in Swedish children aged 1-6 years. Measuring obesity related eating behaviours in longitudinal and interventional studies would offer opportunities for studying causal effects of eating behaviours in the development of obesity in children. PMID:22152012

  17. The eating-related behaviours, disorders and expectations of candidates for bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Opolski, M; Chur-Hansen, A; Wittert, G

    2015-08-01

    It is important that clinicians and researchers understand the possible eating-related difficulties experienced by pre-bariatric surgery candidates, as well as their expectations of how their eating and hunger will change after surgery. This review examines English-language publications related to the eating-related behaviours, disorders and expectations of bariatric candidates. Seventy-five articles related to binge eating disorder, grazing, night eating syndrome, emotional eating, food cravings and addiction, and pre-surgical expectations of post-surgical eating in this population were critically reviewed. A variety of often problematic eating behaviours appear more common in bariatric candidates than in non-obese populations. The literature suggests that 4-45% of candidates may have binge eating disorder, 20-60% may graze, 2-42% may have night eating syndrome, 38-59% may engage in emotional eating and 17-54% may fit criteria for food addiction. Binge eating may also be more prevalent in bariatric candidates than in similarly obese non-surgical individuals. Expectations of surgery are high, with pre-surgical candidates believing their bariatric procedure will virtually guarantee significantly improved eating behaviours. Study replications are needed, and further investigation into prevalence, impacts and candidate characteristics related to disordered eating behaviours, as well as candidates' expectations of eating after surgery, will be important. Further comparisons of bariatric candidates to similarly obese non-bariatric populations will be important to understand eating-related characteristics of candidates beyond those related to their weight. Future research may be improved by the use of validated measures, replicable methodologies, minimization of data collected in circumstances where respondents may been motivated to 'fake good', use of prospective data and consistent definitions of key terminology. PMID:26173752

  18. Factors Influencing Adolescent Eating Behaviour: Application and Validation of a Diagnostic Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benarroch, Alicia; Perez, Silvia; Perales, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Variables that predict the eating behaviour of teenagers are a high-priority objective of nutritional educational programmes. This research work is designed to verify whether the "Food Consumption, Intentions and Preferences Assessment Test" (FCIPAT) is useful when investigating the factors influencing adolescent eating behaviour

  19. Pro-eating disorder search patterns: the possible influence of celebrity eating disorder stories in the media.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Stephen P; Klauninger, Laura; Marcincinova, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Pro eating disorder websites often contain celebrity-focused content (e.g., images) used as thinspiration to engage in unhealthy eating disorder behaviours. The current study was conducted to examine whether news media stories covering eating disorder disclosures of celebrities corresponded with increases in Internet searches for pro eating disorder material. Results indicated that search volumes for pro eating disorder terms spiked in the month immediately following such news coverage but only for particularly high-profile celebrities. Hence, there may be utility in providing recovery-oriented resources within the search results for pro-eating disorder Internet searches and within news stories of this nature. PMID:26941955

  20. Eating behaviours are different in youth with obesity and severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Gross, A C; Fox, C K; Rudser, K D; Foy, A M H; Kelly, A S

    2016-02-01

    The study purposes were to: (i) Investigate eating behaviours among patients in a paediatric weight management clinical practice and (ii) Compare eating behaviour phenotypes between children with severe obesity and obesity. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using data collected during clinical encounters. Participants were included if they were 2-12 years old, had a body mass index ?95th percentile and if a parent or guardian completed the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ). Participants (n?=?149) were children with severe obesity (n?=?108) and obesity (n?=?41). The mean Satiety Responsiveness score was significantly lower for children with severe obesity than for children with obesity. Girls with severe obesity had significantly higher Enjoyment of Food and significantly lower Satiety Responsiveness and Slowness in Eating than girls with obesity. The findings demonstrate the potential clinical utility of the CEBQ for informing tailored treatment strategies through identifying eating behaviour phenotypes. PMID:26639078

  1. The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students.

    PubMed

    Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eating behaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating behaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eating behaviour. Males with disordered eating behaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating. PMID:20593479

  2. Eating behaviour in obese patients with melanocortin-4 receptor mutations: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Valette, M; Bellisle, F; Carette, C; Poitou, C; Dubern, B; Paradis, G; Hercberg, S; Muzard, L; Clément, K; Czernichow, S

    2013-08-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) mutations are the most common known cause of monogenic obesity and an important contributor to polygenic obesity. MC4R mutations with partial or total loss of function, as well as the variant rs17782313 mapped near MC4R, are positively associated with obesity. MC4R is involved in the leptin-melanocortin signalling system, located in hypothalamic nuclei, that controls food intake via both anorexigenic or orexigenic signals. Impairment in this receptor might affect eating behaviours. Thus, in the case of MC4R mutation carriers, obesity could be related, at least partly, to inadequate control over eating behaviours. Many published studies address eating behaviours in MC4R mutation carriers. Most studies focus on binge eating disorder, whereas others examine various aspects of intake and motivation. Up to now, no evaluation of this literature has been performed. In this review, we examine the available literature on eating behaviours in carriers of MC4R mutations and variant rs17782313 near MC4R gene. We address binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, mealtime hyperphagia, snacking, psychological factors, satiety responsiveness and intake of energy and macro/micronutrient. In a small number of studies, MC4R mutations seem to impair eating behaviours or motivation, but no clear causal effects can be found in the balance of the evidence presented. Improvements in methodologies will be necessary to clarify the behavioural effects of MC4R mutations. PMID:23147118

  3. Eating behaviours in youths: A comparison between female and male athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Fortes, L de S; Kakeshita, I S; Almeida, S S; Gomes, A R; Ferreira, M E C

    2014-02-01

    This study compared the different factors associated with eating behaviors among young female and male athletes and non-athletes. A total of 580 female and male athletes and 362 female and male non-athletes between 10 and 19 years old participated. We used the subscales of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) to evaluate the factors associated with unhealthy eating behaviors. We found higher scores for females on the diet subscale compared with males, regardless of athletic group (P?eating compared with athletes of the same sex (P?eating behaviors differ with regard to sex and group. PMID:23889336

  4. Factors Influencing Adolescent Eating Behaviour: Application and Validation of a Diagnostic Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benarroch, Alicia; Perez, Silvia; Perales, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Variables that predict the eating behaviour of teenagers are a high-priority objective of nutritional educational programmes. This research work is designed to verify whether the "Food Consumption, Intentions and Preferences Assessment Test" (FCIPAT) is useful when investigating the factors influencing adolescent eating behaviour…

  5. Children's Eating Attitudes and Behaviour: A Study of the Modelling and Control Theories of Parental Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rachael; Ogden, Jane

    2004-01-01

    The present study compared the modelling and control theories of parental influence on children's eating attitudes and behaviour with a focus on snack foods. Matched questionnaires describing reported snack intake, eating motivations and body dissatisfaction were completed by 112 parent/child pairs. Parents completed additional items relating to

  6. Restoring normal eating behaviour in adolescents with anorexia nervosa: A video analysis of nursing interventions.

    PubMed

    Beukers, Laura; Berends, Tamara; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; van Elburg, Annemarie A; van Meijel, Berno

    2015-12-01

    An important part of inpatient treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa is to restore normal eating behaviour. Health-care professionals play a significant role in this process, but little is known about their interventions during patients' meals. The purpose of the present study was to describe nursing interventions aimed at restoring normal eating behaviour in patients with anorexia nervosa. The main research question was: 'Which interventions aimed at restoring normal eating behaviour do health-care professionals in a specialist eating disorder centre use during meal times for adolescents diagnosed with anorexia nervosa? The present study was a qualitative, descriptive study that used video recordings made during mealtimes. Thematic data analysis was applied. Four categories of interventions emerged from the data: (i) monitoring and instructing; (ii) encouraging and motivating; (iii) supporting and understanding; and (iv) educating. The data revealed a directive attitude aimed at promoting behavioural change, but always in combination with empathy and understanding. In the first stage of clinical treatment, health-care professionals focus primarily on changing patients' eating behaviour. However, they also address the psychosocial needs that become visible in patients as they struggle to restore normal eating behaviour. The findings of the present study can be used to assist health-care professionals, and improve multidisciplinary guidelines and health-care professionals' training programmes. PMID:26223764

  7. Common genetic variation near MC4R is associated with eating behaviour patterns in European populations.

    PubMed

    Stutzmann, F; Cauchi, S; Durand, E; Calvacanti-Proença, C; Pigeyre, M; Hartikainen, A-L; Sovio, U; Tichet, J; Marre, M; Weill, J; Balkau, B; Potoczna, N; Laitinen, J; Elliott, P; Järvelin, M-R; Horber, F; Meyre, D; Froguel, P

    2009-03-01

    Both rs17782313 (near MC4R) and rs1421085 (FTO) polymorphisms have been consistently associated with increased risk of obesity and with body mass index (BMI) variation. An effect of both polymorphisms on satiety has recently been suggested. We genotyped rs17782313 and rs1421085 in 5764 relatives from 1109 French pedigrees with familial obesity, 1274 Swiss class III obese adults as well as in 4877 French adults and 5612 Finnish teenagers from two randomly selected population cohorts. In all subjects, eating behaviour traits were documented through questionnaires. We first assessed the association of both single nucleotide polymorphisms with BMI and then studied eating behaviour. Under an additive model, the rs17782313-C MC4R allele showed a trend towards higher percentages of snacking in both French obese children (P=0.01) and Swiss obese adults (P=0.04) as well as in adolescents from the Finnish general population (P=0.04). In French adults with familial obesity, this allele tended to be also associated with a higher Stunkard hunger score (P=0.02) and in obese children with a higher prevalence of eating large amounts of food (P=0.04). However, no consistent association of the FTO rs1421085-C allele and available eating behaviour trait was found in our studied populations. The rs17782313-C allele nearby MC4R may modulate eating behaviour-related phenotypes in European obese and randomly selected populations, in both children and adults, supporting a regulatory role of this genetic variant on eating behaviour, as previously shown for MC4R non-synonymous loss-of-function mutations. The potential effect of the obesity-associated FTO gene on eating behaviour deserves additional investigation. PMID:19153581

  8. Eating behaviour in treatment-seeking obese subjects - Influence of sex and BMI classes.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Barbara; Wilms, Britta; Thurnheer, Martin; Schultes, Bernd

    2015-12-01

    Obese subjects frequently show an adversely altered eating behaviour. However, little is known on differences in eating behaviour across different degree of obesity. We analysed data on the three factor eating questionnaire assessing cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger that were filled in by 664 obese patients (469 women) who seeked treatment in our Interdisciplinary Obesity Center. Patients were divided in five BMI classes (30 - <35 kg/m(2), 35 - <40 kg/m(2), 40 - <50 kg/m(2), and >50 kg/m(2)). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that sex was significantly related to all three eating behaviour traits (all P < 0.042) but no significant relation to BMI (as a continuous variable) was observed. Women in comparison to men showed significantly higher cognitive restraint (9.7 4.3 vs. 7.7 4.4; P < 0.001) and disinhibition (9.0 3.5 vs. 7.7 3.5; P < 0.001) scores and also showed higher hunger scores (6.9 3.7 vs. 6.3 3.5; P = 0.042). Analyses on different BMI classes revealed that cognitive restraint decreased (P = 0.016) while disinhibition (P = 0.010) and hunger (P = 0.044) increased independently of sex with increasing BMI classes. However, above the obesity grade I class (i.e. BMI 30 - < 35 kg/m(2)) there were no differences in eating behaviour variables between the remaining BMI classes. Data indicate profound differences in eating behaviour between women and men that persist across a wide range of obesity. Furthermore, data suggest that while grade I obese patients show higher cognitive restraint and less disinhibition and hunger scores than more severe obese patients these dimensions of eating behaviour do not systematically vary across higher BMI classes. PMID:26145273

  9. Systematic review of the relationship between childcare educators' practices and preschoolers' physical activity and eating behaviours.

    PubMed

    Ward, S; Bélanger, M; Donovan, D; Carrier, N

    2015-12-01

    The role of childcare educators is important given that 81% of preschoolers living in developed countries receive childcare outside their home. Since children learn by observing and imitating others, childcare educators may play a role in promoting healthy eating behaviours and physical activity in young children. Six databases were searched for quantitative peer-reviewed, English or French primary studies reporting the correlates, predictors or effectiveness of childcare educators' practices on preschoolers' healthy eating and physical activity behaviours. Risk of bias was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Fifteen articles were included in this review: 10 measured physical activity levels and five assessed eating behaviours. The quality score was rated as low for eight of these articles, and as moderate for the remaining seven. Two of four cross-sectional studies reported a positive relationship between educators and children's behaviours. Eleven intervention studies reported significant favourable effects of interventions. Educators may play a positive role in promoting healthy behaviours in children, but this is mainly based on a small number of intervention type studies of low or moderate quality. The influence of specific components of educators' practices on children's healthy eating and physical activity behaviours remains inconclusive. PMID:26345462

  10. An Investigation into the Eating Behaviour of International Students Studying at an Australian University: Should We Be Concerned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomes, Susan; Croft, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study provides a snapshot of the eating behaviour of more than 300 international students studying across four campuses of an Australian university. It explores what the students are eating and drinking, their knowledge of nutrition, the extent to which they prepare their own food or rely on fast food and if their behaviour is…

  11. An Investigation into the Eating Behaviour of International Students Studying at an Australian University: Should We Be Concerned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomes, Susan; Croft, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study provides a snapshot of the eating behaviour of more than 300 international students studying across four campuses of an Australian university. It explores what the students are eating and drinking, their knowledge of nutrition, the extent to which they prepare their own food or rely on fast food and if their behaviour is

  12. Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that

  13. Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…

  14. Changes in Eating Behaviours among Czech Children and Adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC Study)

    PubMed Central

    Voráčová, Jaroslava; Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were examined by frequency of breakfast (on weekdays and weekends), fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption using data obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to analyze changes in eating behaviours. The findings showed a significant increase (only in girls, p ≤ 0.001) in prevalence of breakfast consumption (on weekdays) and a decrease in daily consumption of soft drinks (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.001), sweets (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.01) and fruit (in boys, p ≤ 0.01; in girls, p ≤ 0.001) between 2002 and 2014. Daily vegetable and breakfast on weekends consumption remained statistically unchanged over time. More frequent daily fruit, vegetable and breakfast (on weekends) consumption was reported by girls and younger children, whereas daily soft drink intake was more prevalent in boys and older children. There is a need for re-evaluation of current policies and new initiatives to improve the eating habits of Czech children. PMID:26694428

  15. Changes in Eating Behaviours among Czech Children and Adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC Study).

    PubMed

    Voráčová, Jaroslava; Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were examined by frequency of breakfast (on weekdays and weekends), fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption using data obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to analyze changes in eating behaviours. The findings showed a significant increase (only in girls, p ≤ 0.001) in prevalence of breakfast consumption (on weekdays) and a decrease in daily consumption of soft drinks (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.001), sweets (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.01) and fruit (in boys, p ≤ 0.01; in girls, p ≤ 0.001) between 2002 and 2014. Daily vegetable and breakfast on weekends consumption remained statistically unchanged over time. More frequent daily fruit, vegetable and breakfast (on weekends) consumption was reported by girls and younger children, whereas daily soft drink intake was more prevalent in boys and older children. There is a need for re-evaluation of current policies and new initiatives to improve the eating habits of Czech children. PMID:26694428

  16. Transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the treatment of adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) is a potential option as it is a treatment for adult patients with eating disorders of this type and it has been shown to be effective with adolescent patients who are underweight. The aim of the present cohort study was to evaluate the effects of CBT-E on non-underweight adolescents with an eating disorder. Sixty-eight adolescent patients with an eating disorder and a body mass index (BMI) centile corresponding to an adult BMI ? 18.5 were recruited from consecutive referrals to a community-based eating disorder clinic. Each was offered 20 sessions of CBT-E over 20 weeks. Three-quarters completed the full 20 sessions. There was a marked treatment response with two-thirds (67.6%, intent-to-treat) having minimal residual eating disorder psychopathology by the end of treatment. CBT-E therefore appears to be a promising treatment for those adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. PMID:26275760

  17. Transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight

    PubMed Central

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the treatment of adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) is a potential option as it is a treatment for adult patients with eating disorders of this type and it has been shown to be effective with adolescent patients who are underweight. The aim of the present cohort study was to evaluate the effects of CBT-E on non-underweight adolescents with an eating disorder. Sixty-eight adolescent patients with an eating disorder and a body mass index (BMI) centile corresponding to an adult BMI?18.5 were recruited from consecutive referrals to a community-based eating disorder clinic. Each was offered 20 sessions of CBT-E over 20 weeks. Three-quarters completed the full 20 sessions. There was a marked treatment response with two-thirds (67.6%, intent-to-treat) having minimal residual eating disorder psychopathology by the end of treatment. CBT-E therefore appears to be a promising treatment for those adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. PMID:26275760

  18. The Relationship between Lifestyle and Campus Eating Behaviours in Male and Female University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Rebecca A.; Berry, Tanya R.; Kennedy, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Poor nutritional practices and heightened levels of stress, two common attributes of university life, are strongly linked with weight gain and decreased health. Little research has examined the relationships between university students' lifestyle factors and campus eating behaviours; therefore, this study aimed to examine relationships

  19. The Relationship between Lifestyle and Campus Eating Behaviours in Male and Female University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Rebecca A.; Berry, Tanya R.; Kennedy, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Poor nutritional practices and heightened levels of stress, two common attributes of university life, are strongly linked with weight gain and decreased health. Little research has examined the relationships between university students' lifestyle factors and campus eating behaviours; therefore, this study aimed to examine relationships…

  20. The Role of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Binge-Eating/Purging Behaviours in Family Functioning in Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Depestele, Lies; Claes, Laurence; Dierckx, Eva; Baetens, Imke; Schoevaerts, Katrien; Lemmens, Gilbert M D

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate family functioning of restrictive and binge-eating/purging eating disordered adolescents with or without non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), as perceived by the patients and their parents (mothers and fathers). In total, 123 patients (between 14 and 24 years), 98 mothers and 79 fathers completed the Family Assessment Device. Patients completed the Self-Injury Questionnaire-Treatment Related and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. No main effects were found of restrictive versus binge-eating/purging behaviour nor of presence/absence of NSSI. For the parents, a significant interaction between binge-eating/purging behaviour and NSSI emerged: Mothers and fathers reported worse family functioning in the binge-eating/purging group in presence of NSSI, whereas mothers reported worse family functioning in the restrictive group without NSSI. Parental perception of family functioning is affected by the combined presence of binge-eating/purging behaviour and NSSI. This finding should be taken into account when treating families living with eating disorders. PMID:26084562

  1. Hormonal and neural mechanisms of food reward, eating behaviour and obesity.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan; Tulloch, Alastair; Gold, Mark S; Avena, Nicole M

    2014-09-01

    With rising rates of obesity, research continues to explore the contributions of homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms related to eating behaviour. In this Review, we synthesize the existing information on select biological mechanisms associated with reward-related food intake, dealing primarily with consumption of highly palatable foods. In addition to their established functions in normal feeding, three primary peripheral hormones (leptin, ghrelin and insulin) play important parts in food reward. Studies in laboratory animals and humans also show relationships between hyperphagia or obesity and neural pathways involved in reward. These findings have prompted questions regarding the possibility of addictive-like aspects in food consumption. Further exploration of this topic may help to explain aberrant eating patterns, such as binge eating, and provide insight into the current rates of overweight and obesity. PMID:24958311

  2. The impact of early symptom change and therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioural therapy for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel; Marshall, Emily

    2015-10-01

    The present study explored the impact of early symptom change (cognitive and behavioural) and the early therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders. Participants were 94 adults with diagnosed eating disorders who completed a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment, following the 6th session and at the end of treatment. They also completed a measure of therapeutic alliance following the 6th session. Greater early reduction in dietary restraint and eating concerns, and smaller levels of change in shape concern, significantly predicted later reduction in global eating pathology. The early therapeutic alliance was strong across the three domains of tasks, goals and bond. Early symptom reduction was a stronger predictor of later reduction in eating pathology than early therapeutic alliance. The early therapeutic alliance did not mediate the relationship between early symptom reduction and later reduction in global eating pathology. Instead, greater early symptom reduction predicted a strong early therapeutic alliance. Early clinical change was the strongest predictor of treatment outcome and this also facilitated the development of a strong early alliance. Clinicians should be encouraged to deliver all aspects of evidence-based CBT, including behavioural change. The findings suggest that this will have a positive impact on both the early therapeutic alliance and later change in eating pathology. PMID:26334452

  3. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia: distinct and overlapping changes in eating behaviour and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rebekah M; Irish, Muireann; Piguet, Olivier; Halliday, Glenda M; Ittner, Lars M; Farooqi, Sadaf; Hodges, John R; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic changes incorporating fluctuations in weight, insulin resistance, and cholesterol concentrations have been identified in several neurodegenerative disorders. Whether these changes result from the neurodegenerative process affecting brain regions necessary for metabolic regulation or whether they drive the degenerative process is unknown. Emerging evidence from epidemiological, clinical, pathological, and experimental studies emphasises a range of changes in eating behaviours and metabolism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In ALS, metabolic changes have been linked to disease progression and prognosis. Furthermore, changes in eating behaviour that affect metabolism have been incorporated into the diagnostic criteria for FTD, which has some clinical and pathological overlap with ALS. Whether the distinct and shared metabolic and eating changes represent a component of the proposed spectrum of the two diseases is an intriguing possibility. Moreover, future research should aim to unravel the complex connections between eating, metabolism, and neurodegeneration in ALS and FTD, and aim to understand the potential for targeting modifiable risk factors in disease development and progression. PMID:26822748

  4. Effects of the mu-opioid receptor antagonist GSK1521498 on hedonic and consummatory eating behaviour: a proof of mechanism study in binge-eating obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ziauddeen, H; Chamberlain, S R; Nathan, P J; Koch, A; Maltby, K; Bush, M; Tao, W X; Napolitano, A; Skeggs, A L; Brooke, A C; Cheke, L; Clayton, N S; Sadaf Farooqi, I; O'Rahilly, S; Waterworth, D; Song, K; Hosking, L; Richards, D B; Fletcher, P C; Bullmore, E T

    2013-01-01

    The opioid system is implicated in the hedonic and motivational processing of food, and in binge eating, a behaviour strongly linked to obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4 weeks of treatment with the mu-opioid receptor antagonist GSK1521498 on eating behaviour in binge-eating obese subjects. Adults with body mass index ⩾30 kg m−2 and binge eating scale scores ⩾19 received 1-week single-blind placebo run-in, and were then randomized to 28 days with either 2 mg day−1 GSK1521498, 5 mg day−1 GSK1521498 or placebo (N=21 per arm) in a double-blind parallel group design. The outcome measures were body weight, fat mass, hedonic and consummatory eating behaviour during inpatient food challenges, safety and pharmacokinetics. The primary analysis was the comparison of change scores in the higher-dose treatment group versus placebo using analysis of covariance at each relevant time point. GSK1521498 (2 mg and 5 mg) was not different from placebo in its effects on weight, fat mass and binge eating scores. However, compared with placebo, GSK1521498 5 mg day−1 caused a significant reduction in hedonic responses to sweetened dairy products and reduced calorific intake, particularly of high-fat foods during ad libitum buffet meals, with some of these effects correlating with systemic exposure of GSK1521498. There were no significant effects of GSK1521498 2 mg day−1 on eating behaviour, indicating dose dependency of pharmacodynamics. GSK1521498 was generally well tolerated and no previously unidentified safety signals were detected. The potential for these findings to translate into clinically significant effects in the context of binge eating and weight regain prevention requires further investigation. PMID:23147384

  5. Effects of the mu-opioid receptor antagonist GSK1521498 on hedonic and consummatory eating behaviour: a proof of mechanism study in binge-eating obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Ziauddeen, H; Chamberlain, S R; Nathan, P J; Koch, A; Maltby, K; Bush, M; Tao, W X; Napolitano, A; Skeggs, A L; Brooke, A C; Cheke, L; Clayton, N S; Sadaf Farooqi, I; O'Rahilly, S; Waterworth, D; Song, K; Hosking, L; Richards, D B; Fletcher, P C; Bullmore, E T

    2013-12-01

    The opioid system is implicated in the hedonic and motivational processing of food, and in binge eating, a behaviour strongly linked to obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4 weeks of treatment with the mu-opioid receptor antagonist GSK1521498 on eating behaviour in binge-eating obese subjects. Adults with body mass index ≥ 30 kg m(-2) and binge eating scale scores ≥ 19 received 1-week single-blind placebo run-in, and were then randomized to 28 days with either 2 mg day(-1) GSK1521498, 5 mg day(-1) GSK1521498 or placebo (N=21 per arm) in a double-blind parallel group design. The outcome measures were body weight, fat mass, hedonic and consummatory eating behaviour during inpatient food challenges, safety and pharmacokinetics. The primary analysis was the comparison of change scores in the higher-dose treatment group versus placebo using analysis of covariance at each relevant time point. GSK1521498 (2 mg and 5 mg) was not different from placebo in its effects on weight, fat mass and binge eating scores. However, compared with placebo, GSK1521498 5 mg day(-1) caused a significant reduction in hedonic responses to sweetened dairy products and reduced calorific intake, particularly of high-fat foods during ad libitum buffet meals, with some of these effects correlating with systemic exposure of GSK1521498. There were no significant effects of GSK1521498 2 mg day(-1) on eating behaviour, indicating dose dependency of pharmacodynamics. GSK1521498 was generally well tolerated and no previously unidentified safety signals were detected. The potential for these findings to translate into clinically significant effects in the context of binge eating and weight regain prevention requires further investigation. PMID:23147384

  6. Body-related sport and exercise motives and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Therme, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting-purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting-Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises. PMID:25974271

  7. Implicit shopping: attitudinal determinants of the purchasing of healthy and unhealthy foods.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, Andrew; Hurling, Robert; Baker, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Implicit attitudes, evaluations that can occur without effort, quickly and without conscious intent, have been shown to predict self-reported diets and objectively measured food choices within the laboratory. We present two studies which extend the literature by demonstrating that implicit attitudes predict objective purchasing of healthy and unhealthy foods. Both Study 1 (N=40) and Study 2 (N=36) utilised an online shopping paradigm and concerned purchasing of fruit and chocolate. In both studies, implicit attitudes predicted purchases. Explicit attitudes towards buying or eating fruit versus chocolate did not predict purchase behaviour. These studies represent an original test of whether implicit attitudes predict healthy consumer behaviour, which involves participants paying for products. This research provides the strongest evidence yet that implicit attitudes play a role in predicting health food purchases. A comprehensive model of health behaviour should take into account the role of implicit attitudes. PMID:21432730

  8. Adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions: gender-specific effects of child, maternal and family risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Micali, N.; De Stavola, B.; Ploubidis, G.; Simonoff, E.; Treasure, J.; Field, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors. Aims To investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children. Method Data were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions. Results Childhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys. Conclusions Risk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26206865

  9. Effects of restrained eating behaviour on insulin sensitivity in normal-weight individuals.

    PubMed

    Martins, C; Morgan, L M; Robertson, M D

    2009-03-23

    Restrained eating behaviour has been linked to abnormalities in metabolic and endocrine functions. However, the impact of restraint on fasting insulin and glucose plasma levels and insulin sensitivity remains controversial. Moreover, the few postprandial studies to date are limited by an inappropriate sampling time frame and a low "net" energy and carbohydrate load. The aims of this study are to assess the role of dietary restraint on fasting and postprandial plasma levels of insulin, glucose, triacylglycerol (TAG) and non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in healthy volunteers with a normal and stable body weight and to determine whether the effect of restraint on the plasma levels of the previous hormones/metabolites is load dependent. Normal-weight participants (21 women and 12 men) were classified as restrained/unrestrained based on the restraint scale of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-18R and Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. The impact of restraint on the plasma levels of different hormones/metabolites was measured, in response to a 500 kcal and 1000 kcal breakfast, using a randomised crossover design. Restraint was associated with lower fasting insulin plasma levels (P<0.05) and a lower insulin (P<0.015) and glucose (P<0.05) plasma levels in the postprandial state, but did not impact on TAG or NEFA. Moreover, restrained eaters showed a better fasting (P<0.05) and postprandial insulin sensitivity (P<0.01). Restrained eating behaviour has, therefore, a significant impact on both fasting and postprandial glucose metabolism, being associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These findings suggest the need for adjusting for restraint level in studies where glucose metabolism is a major outcome. PMID:19385024

  10. The Role and Impact of Student Leadership on Participants in a Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutuskey, Lila; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo; Centeio, Erin; Garn, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In the USA there are rising rates of obesity among children, at least in part due to unhealthy eating and physical inactivity. Implementing school-based health interventions with elementary school children focused on youth empowerment could lead to improved health environments and behaviours. The purpose of the present study was to…

  11. The Role and Impact of Student Leadership on Participants in a Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutuskey, Lila; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo; Centeio, Erin; Garn, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In the USA there are rising rates of obesity among children, at least in part due to unhealthy eating and physical inactivity. Implementing school-based health interventions with elementary school children focused on youth empowerment could lead to improved health environments and behaviours. The purpose of the present study was to

  12. Predictors of outcome for cognitive behaviour therapy in binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Mirjam W; Vroling, Maartje S; Ouwens, Machteld A; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this naturalistic study was to identify pretreatment predictors of response to cognitive behaviour therapy in treatment-seeking patients with binge eating disorder (BED; N = 304). Furthermore, we examined end-of-treatment factors that predict treatment outcome 6 months later (N = 190). We assessed eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, personality characteristics and demographic variables using self-report questionnaires. Treatment outcome was measured using the bulimia subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory 1. Predictors were determined using hierarchical linear regression analyses. Several variables significantly predicted outcome, four of which were found to be both baseline predictors of treatment outcome and end-of-treatment predictors of follow-up: Higher levels of drive for thinness, higher levels of interoceptive awareness, lower levels of binge eating pathology and, in women, lower levels of body dissatisfaction predicted better outcome in the short and longer term. Based on these results, several suggestions are made to improve treatment outcome for BED patients. PMID:25802175

  13. Effect of gender and school level on disordered eating behaviours and attitudes in Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mancilla-Daz, J M; Lpez-Aguilar, X; Franco-Paredes, K; Alvarez-Rayn, G; Vzquez-Arvalo, R; Trinidad Ocampo Tllez-Girn, M

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess eating behaviours and attitudes in a community sample of 615 adolescent Mexican students recruited at a middle school (192 boys and 226 girls; mean age +/- standard deviation 13.56+/-0.09) and high school (90 boys and 107 girls; mean age 16.04+/-0.12 years), who completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), the Bulimia Test (BULIT) and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Multiple analysis of variance revealed the significant effect of gender on the negative feelings, body dissatisfaction, drive of thinness and perceived social pressure subscales, and school level on the body dissatisfaction and food preoccupation subscales. Among the high school girls, the gender x school level interaction had a significant effect on negative feelings, body dissatisfaction, drive of thinness, food preoccupation and perceived social pressure subscales. These data support previous findings concerning gender, and also suggest that perceived social pressure in the case of girls and food preoccupation in the case of boys could be important factors in the natural development of eating disorders. PMID:20179402

  14. Implication of corticotropic hormone axis in eating behaviour pattern in obese and type 2 diabetic participants.

    PubMed

    Benbaibeche, Hassiba; Haffaf, El Mahdi; Kacimi, Ghouti; Oudjit, Brahim; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Koceïr, Elhadj Ahmed

    2015-04-28

    In Algeria, eating behaviour has been increasingly deviated from its traditional Mediterranean diet to modern fast food style. The present study examines the interactions between eating behaviour pattern (EBP), corticotropic hormone axis and the metabolic syndrome. Our Algerian population cohort comprised of 410 participants (130 obese, 170 type 2 diabetics and 110 healthy participants). The EBP was evaluated by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire test. The anthropometric and metabolic parameters (glucose, TAG, HDL, LDL and cholesterol) and the concentrations of hormones (insulin, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone) were determined by biometrics, spectrophotometry and RIA, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed a high correlation between the EBP and the metabolic syndrome, particularly between insulin-resistant state and hypertrophy of visceral adipose tissue. Compared with healthy participants, obese ones showed the hyperphagic type of EBP, i.e. disinhibition and hunger disorders. Conversely, the diabetics showed both the hypophagic and hyperphagic type of EBP. In diabetic and obese participants, cortisol and ACTH secretions were significantly altered, leading to metabolic disorders. The present study confirms the role of EBP in obesity and diabetes. PMID:25782454

  15. A narrative review of psychological and educational strategies applied to young children's eating behaviours aimed at reducing obesity risk.

    PubMed

    Gibson, E L; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Vögele, C; Summerbell, C D; Nixon, C; Moore, H; Douthwaite, W; Manios, Y

    2012-03-01

    Strategies to reduce risk of obesity by influencing preschool children's eating behaviour are reviewed. The studies are placed in the context of relevant psychological processes, including inherited and acquired preferences, and behavioural traits, such as food neophobia, 'enjoyment of food' and 'satiety responsiveness'. These are important influences on how children respond to feeding practices, as well as predictors of obesity risk. Nevertheless, in young children, food environment and experience are especially important for establishing eating habits and food preferences. Providing information to parents, or to children, on healthy feeding is insufficient. Acceptance of healthy foods can be encouraged by five to ten repeated tastes. Recent evidence suggests rewarding healthy eating can be successful, even for verbal praise alone, but that palatable foods should not be used as rewards for eating. Intake of healthier foods can be promoted by increasing portion size, especially in the beginning of the meal. Parental strategies of pressuring to eat and restriction do not appear to be causally linked to obesity, but are instead primarily responses to children's eating tendencies and weight. Moderate rather than frequent restriction may improve healthy eating in children. Actively positive social modelling by adults and peers can be effective in encouraging healthier eating. PMID:22309067

  16. A comparison of parental views of their pre-school children's 'healthy' versus 'unhealthy' diets. A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jacqueline; Parletta, Natalie; Lynch, John; Campbell, Karen

    2014-05-01

    Despite recommended dietary guidelines, recent population surveys have recorded low fruit and vegetable and high non-core food consumption by Australian children. Young children rely on parents or primary carers to provide their diets; therefore pre-school age is an optimal time to promote and encourage healthy child eating behaviours. Identified contributing factors to a child's eating behaviour and diet in the home environment include parenting style, parent feeding practices and attitudes, parent nutrition knowledge, and home food availability. The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore perceptions, perceived influences, facilitators and barriers when providing healthy foods for young children via focus groups with parents of children with 'healthy' versus 'unhealthy' diets. Thematic analysis identified similarities across both groups including an intention to provide healthy food for their children with most parents involving their child in some level of meal preparation and most families dining together for the evening meal. Main points of difference included parents in the 'healthy' group having more partner support in relation to child diet, a willingness to say 'no' without wavering, and considering their child's daily physical activity when deciding appropriate food options. A majority of parents in the 'unhealthy' group attempted to disguise vegetables and healthy foods for their child and reported experiencing increased levels of stress regarding their child's fussy eating. PMID:24524974

  17. Development of the eating behaviour in Prader-Willi Syndrome: advances in our understanding.

    PubMed

    McAllister, C J; Whittington, J E; Holland, A J

    2011-02-01

    Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability, growth and sex-hormone deficiencies and a propensity to overeat that leads to severe obesity. The PWS phenotype changes from an early disinterest in food to an increasing pre-occupation with eating and a failure of the normal satiety response to food intake. The prevention of severe obesity is primarily through strict control of access to food and it is this aspect that most limits the independence of those with PWS. This review considers the eating disorder in PWS, specifically how the as yet uncertain genetics of the syndrome and the transition from the early to the later phenotype might account for the later hyperphagia. On the basis of behavioural and imaging studies, a failure of satiety and excessive activation of neural reward pathways have both been suggested. We speculate that the overeating behaviour, consequent upon one or other of the above, could either be due to a direct effect of the PWS genotype on the feeding pathways of the hypothalamus or a consequence of prenatal changes in the regulation of genes responsible for energy balance that sets a high satiation threshold. Understanding the overeating in PWS will lead to more focused and successful management and ultimately, treatment of this life-threatening behaviour. PMID:20680019

  18. Maternal report of young children's eating styles. Validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire in three ethnically diverse Australian samples.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Liu, Wei-Hong; Mehta, Rati Jani; Daniels, Lynne A; Magarey, Anthea; Battistutta, Diana

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) in three ethnically and culturally diverse samples of mothers in Australia. Confirmatory factor analysis utilising structural equation modelling examined whether the established 8-factor model of the CEBQ was supported in our three populations: (i) a community sample of first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH trial (mean child age=24months [SD=1]; N=244); (ii) a sample of immigrant Indian mothers of children aged 1-5years (mean age=34months [SD=14]; N=203), and (iii) a sample of immigrant Chinese mothers of children aged 1-4years (mean age=36months [SD=14]; N=216). The original 8-factor model provided an acceptable fit to the data in the NOURISH sample with minor post hoc re-specifications (two error covariances on Satiety Responsiveness and an item-factor covariance to account for a cross-loading of an item (Fussiness) on Satiety Responsiveness). The re-specified model showed reasonable fit in both the Indian and Chinese samples. Cronbach's α estimates ranged from .73 to .91 in the Australian sample and .61-.88 in the immigrant samples. This study supports the appropriateness of the CEBQ in the multicultural Australian context. PMID:23333562

  19. Eating and rumination behaviour of Scottish Highland cattle on pasture and in loose housing during the winter.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Storni, E; Hssig, M; Nuss, K

    2014-09-01

    This study examined eating and rumination behaviour in 13 Scottish Highland cattle for 13 days on a winter pasture and then for 13 days in a loose housing barn during winter. The cows were fed hay ad libitum and each was fitted with a pressure-sensitive transducer integrated into the noseband of the halter. The endpoints for each cow at both locations were calculated per day and included eating and rumination times, number of chewing cycles related to eating and rumination, number of regurgitated cuds and number of chewing cycles per cud. Air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, barometric pressure and precipitation were recorded. Pastured cows had significantly longer eating and rumination times, more chewing cycles related to eating and rumination, more regurgitated cuds and more chewing cycles per cud than housed cows. Meteorological conditions were very similar at both locations. PMID:25183674

  20. Fast food: unfriendly and unhealthy.

    PubMed

    Stender, S; Dyerberg, J; Astrup, A

    2007-06-01

    Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently 'healthy' meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together with large portion sizes, induces over consumption of calories. In addition, we have found it to be a myth that the typical fast-food meal is the same worldwide. Chemical analyses of 74 samples of fast-food menus consisting of French fries and fried chicken (nuggets/hot wings) bought in McDonalds and KFC outlets in 35 countries in 2005-2006 showed that the total fat content of the same menu varies from 41 to 65 g at McDonalds and from 42 to 74 g at KFC. In addition, fast food from major chains in most countries still contains unacceptably high levels of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (IP-TFA). IP-TFA have powerful biological effects and may contribute to increased weight gain, abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. The food quality and portion size need to be improved before it is safe to eat frequently at most fast-food chains. PMID:17452996

  1. The Association of Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Behavioural Difficulties with Pre-Adolescent Problematic Eating Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Rebecca C.; Skugarevsky, Oleg; Yang, Seungmi; Kramer, Michael S.; Wade, Kaitlin H.; Patel, Rita; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Sergeichick, Natalia; Smith, George Davey; Oken, Emily; Martin, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Few studies have prospectively investigated associations of child cognitive ability and behavioural difficulties with later eating attitudes. We investigated associations of intelligence quotient (IQ), academic performance and behavioural difficulties at 6.5 years with eating attitudes five years later. Methods We conducted an observational cohort study nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, Belarus. Of 17,046 infants enrolled at birth, 13,751 (80.7%) completed the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) at 11.5 years, most with information on IQ (n = 12,667), academic performance (n = 9,954) and behavioural difficulties (n = 11,098) at 6.5 years. The main outcome was a ChEAT score ≥85th percentile, indicative of problematic eating attitudes. Results Boys with higher IQ at 6.5 years reported fewer problematic eating attitudes, as assessed by ChEAT scores ≥85th percentile, at 11.5 years (OR per SD increase in full-scale IQ = 0.87; 0.79, 0.94). No such association was observed in girls (1.01; 0.93, 1.10) (p for sex-interaction = 0.016). In both boys and girls, teacher-assessed academic performance in non-verbal subjects was inversely associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per unit increase in mathematics ability = 0.88; 0.82, 0.94; and OR per unit increase in ability for other non-verbal subjects = 0.86; 0.79, 0.94). Behavioural difficulties were positively associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per SD increase in teacher-assessed rating = 1.13; 1.07, 1.19). Conclusion Lower IQ, worse non-verbal academic performance and behavioural problems at early school age are positively associated with risk of problematic eating attitudes in early adolescence. PMID:25102171

  2. Growth and Development in Chinese Pre-Schoolers with Picky Eating Behaviour: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yong; Zhao, Ai; Cai, Li; Yang, Baoru; Szeto, Ignatius M. Y.; Ma, Defu; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations between picky eating behaviour and pre-schoolers’ growth and development. Corresponding potential mechanisms, such as nutrient and food subgroup intake, as well as micronutrients in the blood, will be considered. Methods Picky eating behaviour was present if it was reported by parents. From various areas of China, 937 healthy children of 3-7 years old were recruited using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Children and their mothers’ socio-demographic information and children’s anthropometry, intelligence, blood samples, one 24-hour dietary intake record and food frequency questionnaire were collected. Z-scores and intelligence tests were used to evaluate growth and development (cognitive development). Multilevel models were employed to verify the associations between picky eating behaviour and growth and development. Results The prevalence of picky eating as reported by parents was 54% in pre-schoolers. Compared with the non-picky eaters, weight for age in picky eaters was 0.14 z-score (95% CI: -0.25, -0.02; p = 0.017) lower while no significant difference was found in intelligence (p > 0.05). Picky eating behaviour lasting over two years was associated with lower weight for age, as was nit-picking meat (the prevalence from parents’ perception was 23% in picky eaters) (p < 0.05). Picky eaters consumed fewer cereals, vegetables, and fish (p < 0.05), and had a lower dietary intake of protein, dietary fibre, iron, and zinc (p < 0.05). There were no differences in the concentrations of essential minerals in whole blood (p > 0.05). Conclusions Picky eating behaviour is reported by parents in half of the Chinese pre-schoolers, which is negatively associated with growth (weight for age). Lower protein and dietary fibre as well as lower iron and zinc intakes were associated with picky eating as were lower intakes of vegetables, fish and cereals. PMID:25875004

  3. Neurobehavioural correlates of body mass index and eating behaviours in adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Vainik, Uku; Dagher, Alain; Dubé, Laurette; Fellows, Lesley K

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide increase in obesity has spurred numerous efforts to understand the regulation of eating behaviours and underlying brain mechanisms. These mechanisms can affordably be studied via neurobehavioural measures. Here, we systematically review these efforts, evaluating neurocognitive tests and personality questionnaires based on: a) consistent relationship with obesity and eating behaviour, and b) reliability. We also considered the measures’ potential to shed light on the brain mechanisms underlying these individual differences. Sixty-six neurocognitive tasks were examined. Less than 11%, mainly measures of executive functions and food motivation, yielded both replicated and reliable effects. Several different personality questionnaires were consistently related to BMI. However, further analysis found that many of these questionnaires relate closely to Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Neuroticism within the Five-Factor Model of personality. Both neurocognitive tests and personality questionnaires suggest that the critical neural systems related to individual differences in obesity are lateral prefrontal structures underpinning self-control and striatal regions implicated in food motivation. This review can guide selection of the highest yield neurobehavioural measures for future studies. PMID:23261403

  4. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Fennis, Bob M; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose weight on snack purchase behavior were explored. Participants included in the study were instructed to report every snack they bought over the course of one week. The dependent variables were the number of healthy and unhealthy snacks purchased. The results of the present study demonstrate that depletion sensitivity predicts the amount of unhealthy (but not healthy) snacks bought. The more sensitive people are to depletion, the more unhealthy snacks they buy. Moreover, there was some tentative evidence that this relation is more pronounced for people with a weak as opposed to a strong goal to lose weight, suggesting that a strong goal to lose weight may function as a motivational buffer against self-control failures. All in all, these findings provide evidence for the external validity of depletion sensitivity and the relevance of this construct in the domain of eating behavior. PMID:26321417

  5. Impact of childhood experience and adult well-being on eating preferences and behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Simon J; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relative contribution of childhood experience, measured by childhood violence and childhood happiness, and adult well-being on adult eating preferences and behaviours, independent of proximal factors such as current deprivation. Design A cross-sectional, stratified, randomised sample survey using retrospective measures of childhood violence and happiness and self-reported measures of current well-being. Setting The North West Region of England between September 2012 and March 2013. Participants Individuals aged 18–95-year-olds from randomly selected households (participation was successful for 90% of eligible households and 78% of the total visited addresses; n=11 243). Outcomes Dichotomised measures for preference of healthy foods or ‘feel good’ foods and low or high daily fruit and vegetable consumption. Results After correcting for demographics, combined categories for childhood experience and dichotomised measures of adult well-being were found to be significantly related to adult food preferences and eating behaviours. Participants with unhappy and violent childhoods compared to those with happy and non-violent childhoods had adjusted ORs (95% CI, significance) of 2.67 (2.15 to 3.06, p<0.001) of having low daily fruit and vegetable intake (two or less portions) and 1.53 (1.29 to 1.81, p<0.001) of choosing ‘feel good’ foods over foods which were good for their long term health. Conclusions Daily intake of fruit and vegetables, linked to non-communicable diseases, and preference for ‘feel good’ foods, linked to obesity, are affected by childhood experience and adult well-being independent of demographic factors. Preventative interventions which support parent–child relationships and improve childhood experience are likely to reduce the development of poor dietary and other health-risk behaviours. PMID:26743696

  6. Eating disorder symptoms do not just disappear: the implications of adolescent eating-disordered behaviour for body weight and mental health in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Dempfle, Astrid; Konrad, Kerstin; Klasen, Fionna; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    This study reports the outcomes of childhood and adolescent eating-disordered behaviour on the development of body mass index (BMI) and psychological functioning in young adulthood in a population-based sample in Germany (the BELLA study). Information at baseline and follow-up was obtained through a telephone interview and mailed self-report questionnaires. At both measurement points, BMI, eating disorder symptoms (SCOFF questionnaire), and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in the same cohort of 771 participants (n=420 females, n=351 males). The age range at baseline was 11-17years, and the age range at follow-up was 17-23years. High scores for eating-disordered behaviour in childhood or adolescence significantly predicted eating-disordered behaviour in young adulthood (multiplicative effect estimate: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.2-1.42, p<0.0001), although there was a decline in prevalence (from 19.3 to 13.8%, p=0.002) and severity (mean decrease in SCOFF 0.07, 95% CI: -0.01-0.14, p=0.06). After accounting for potentially confounding variables at baseline (SES, probands' BMI, parental BMI, depressive symptoms), participants with more eating disorder symptoms at baseline had a higher risk of developing overweight (odds ratio (OR): 1.58; 95% CI: 1.19-2.09, p=0.001), obesity (OR=1.67; 95% CI: 1.03-2.66, p=0.03), and depressive symptoms at follow-up (additive effect estimate: 0.45; 95%CI: 0.19-0.7, p=0.0006). Early symptoms of depression showed a significant relationship with extreme underweight in young adulthood (OR=1.13; 95%CI: 1.01-1.25, p=0.02). The high stability of eating disorder symptoms and the significant association with overweight and worse mental health in adulthood underscore the need for early detection and intervention during childhood and adolescence. Youth with depression should be monitored for the development of restrictive eating disorders. PMID:25209691

  7. The effects of GLP-1 analogues in obese, insulin-using type 2 diabetes in relation to eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Stefanie Amarens; Lefrandt, Joop Daniel; Petersen, Japke Frida; Boersma, Hendrikus Hessel; Mulder, Douwe Johannes; Hoogenberg, Klaas

    2016-02-01

    Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) added to insulin in type 2 diabetes patients have shown to lower body weight, improve glycaemic control and reduce total daily insulin dose in short term studies, although the individual response greatly varies. Objective To evaluate GLP-1 RA treatment on body weight, glycaemic control and total daily insulin dose in obese, insulin-using type 2 diabetes patients after 2 years follow-up in a real life setting and to explore a possible relation with eating behaviour. Setting The Martini Hospital and the University Medical Center in Groningen in the Netherlands. Methods Eligible patients were at least 18 years of age, were on insulin therapy and obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2)), started GLP-1 RA treatment. At baseline eating behaviour was classified according to the validated Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. A 2 years follow-up was performed. Main outcome measures Body weight, HbA1c and total daily insulin dose. Results 151 Patients started with exenatide or liraglutide. 120 patients completed the 2 years follow-up. From baseline to 2 years, body weight (mean ± SD) changed from 117.9 ± 22.1 to 107.9 ± 22.9 kg (P < 0.0001), HbA1c (median, IQR) changed from 7.9 (7.2-8.9) to 7.6 (6.9-8.3) % [63 (55-74) to 60 (52-67) mmol/mol] (P < 0.0001), total daily insulin dose changed from 90 (56-150) to 60 (0-100) Units/day (P < 0.0001). Weight change differed between eating behaviour groups (P < 0.001) in which external eating behaviour (n = 17) resulted in the smallest decline (-3.1 %) and restrained (n = 41) in the greatest (-10.3 %) in comparison with emotional (n = 37, -8.5 %) and indifferent (n = 25, -9.6 %) eating behaviours. Conclusion Two year of GLP-1 RA treatment resulted in a sustained reduction of weight, HbA1c and total daily insulin dose in obese, insulin-using type 2 diabetes patients in a real life setting. Largest weight loss was achieved in patients with a predominant restraint eating pattern while a predominant external eating pattern resulted in the smallest weight reduction. PMID:26597956

  8. Improving Children's Problem Eating and Mealtime Behaviours: An Evaluative Study of a Single Session Parent Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kim; Wallis, Marianne; St. John, Winsome

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a "single session" group, early intervention, multidisciplinary, education programme (entitled the "Fun not Fuss with Food" group programme) designed to improve children's problem eating and mealtime behaviours. Design: A quasi-experimental time-series design incorporating data collection, twice before

  9. Can Social Cognitive Theory Constructs Explain Socio-Economic Variations in Adolescent Eating Behaviours? A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, K.; MacFarlane, A.; Crawford, D.; Savige, G.; Andrianopoulos, N.; Worsley, A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eating behaviours using a theoretically derived…

  10. Improving Children's Problem Eating and Mealtime Behaviours: An Evaluative Study of a Single Session Parent Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kim; Wallis, Marianne; St. John, Winsome

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a "single session" group, early intervention, multidisciplinary, education programme (entitled the "Fun not Fuss with Food" group programme) designed to improve children's problem eating and mealtime behaviours. Design: A quasi-experimental time-series design incorporating data collection, twice before…

  11. Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…

  12. Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and

  13. Can Social Cognitive Theory Constructs Explain Socio-Economic Variations in Adolescent Eating Behaviours? A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, K.; MacFarlane, A.; Crawford, D.; Savige, G.; Andrianopoulos, N.; Worsley, A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eating behaviours using a theoretically derived

  14. Associations of Television Viewing With Eating Behaviors in the 2009 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Leah M.; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of television viewing with eating behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Public and private schools in the United States during the 20092010 school year. Participants A total of 12 642 students in grades 5 to 10 (mean [SD] age, 13.4[0.09] years; 86.5% participation). Main Exposures Television viewing (hours per day) and snacking while watching television (days per week). Main Outcome Measures Eating (?1 instance per day) fruit, vegetables, sweets, and sugary soft drinks; eating at a fast food restaurant (?1 d/wk); and skipping breakfast (?1 d/wk). Results Television viewing was inversely related to intake of fruit (adjusted odds ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.880.96) and vegetables (0.95; 0.911.00) and positively related to intake of candy (1.18; 1.141.23) and fast food (1.14; 1.091.19) and skipping breakfast (1.06; 1.021.10) after adjustment for socioeconomic factors, computer use, and physical activity. Television snacking was related to increased intake of fruit (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.021.10), candy (1.20; 1.161.24), soda (1.15; 1.111.18), and fast food (1.09; 1.061.13), independent of television viewing. The relationships of television viewing with fruit and vegetable intake and with skipping breakfast were essentially unchanged after adjustment for television snacking; the relationships with intake of candy, soda, and fast food were moderately attenuated. Age and race/ethnicity modified relationships of television viewing with soda and fast food intake and with skipping breakfast. Conclusion Television viewing was associated with a cluster of unhealthy eating behaviors in US adolescents after adjustment for socioeconomic and behavioral covariates. PMID:22566548

  15. Binge eating, purging and non-purging compensatory behaviours decrease from adolescence to adulthood: A population-based, longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Subclinical forms of eating disorders (ED) are highly prevalent, but relatively little is known about age trends, gender differences and distinctions among symptoms. This study investigates age trends and gender difference in binge eating, purging and non-purging compensatory behaviours (CB) and the relationship of such behaviours to psychosocial problems. Methods Data from the national representative longitudinal study "Young in Norway" (ages 14-34 years) were analysed using ?2 tests, logistic random intercept models and analyses of covariance. Results For both genders, a decrease was found in the prevalence of CB from age 14-16 years to 23 years and over. For binging, however, a significant decrease was found only for females, whose binge eating also declined more markedly over time than did males'. A significant gender difference was detected for purging, with females at higher risk. Purging was related to particularly serious symptoms of psychosocial problems: Those who purged had significantly higher levels of appearance dissatisfaction, anxiety and depressive symptoms, alcohol consumption, self-concept instability and loneliness than those with symptoms of other forms of disordered eating. Conclusions Individuals affected by purging need to be targeted as a high-risk group. The distinction in severity among the subclinical ED may indicate the need for the reformulation of the eating disorder not otherwise specified category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V. PMID:22244266

  16. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for outpatients with eating disorders: effectiveness for a transdiagnostic group in a routine clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah; Marshall, Emily; Stopa, Lusia; Waller, Glenn

    2015-05-01

    Whilst there is a growing evidence to support the impact of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in the treatment of adults with eating disorders, much of this evidence comes from tightly controlled efficacy trials. This study aimed to add to the evidence regarding the effectiveness of CBT when delivered in a routine clinical setting. The participants were 203 adults presenting with a range of eating disorder diagnoses, who were offered CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed measures of eating disorder pathology at the start of treatment, following the sixth session, and at the end of treatment. Symptoms of anxiety, depression, and psychosocial functioning were measured pre- and post-treatment. Approximately 55% of patients completed treatment, and there were no factors that predicted attrition. There were significant improvements in eating disorder psychopathology, anxiety, depression and general functioning, with particular changes in eating attitudes in the early part of therapy. Effect sizes were medium to large for both completer and intention to treat analyses. These findings confirm that evidence-based forms of CBT can be delivered with strong outcomes in routine clinical settings. Clinicians should be encouraged to deliver evidence-based treatments when working in these settings. PMID:25816766

  17. Chocolate cake. Guilt or celebration? Associations with healthy eating attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and weight-loss.

    PubMed

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A

    2014-03-01

    Food and eating are often associated with ambivalent feelings: pleasure and enjoyment, but also worry and guilt. Guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, but may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. This study firstly examined whether a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake) was related to differences in attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and intentions in relation to healthy eating, and secondly whether the default association was related to weight change over an 18month period (and short term weight-loss in a subsample of participants with a weight-loss goal). This study did not find any evidence for adaptive or motivational properties of guilt. Participants associating chocolate cake with guilt did not report more positive attitudes or stronger intentions to eat healthy than did those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Instead, they reported lower levels of perceived behavioural control over eating and were less successful at maintaining their weight over an 18month period. Participants with a weight-loss goal who associated chocolate cake with guilt were less successful at losing weight over a 3month period compared to those associating chocolate cake with celebration. PMID:24275670

  18. Yoga and eating disorders: is there a place for yoga in the prevention and treatment of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviours?

    PubMed Central

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: what can the practice of yoga offer the field of eating disorders in terms of prevention and treatment? Regarding prevention, preliminary research suggests that yoga may be effective in decreasing risk factors, and increasing protective factors, for eating disorders. Yoga was also found to be helpful in a small number of treatment studies. However, findings are not consistent across studies, which are limited in number, and due to the preliminary nature of this body of research, most studies have weaknesses in their designs (e.g. observational design, no control groups, or small sample sizes). The basic tenets of yoga, anecdotal reports of its effectiveness, its high accessibility and low cost, and initial research findings suggest that yoga may offer promise for the field of eating disorders. Two options are suggested for prevention: (1) eating disorder prevention can be integrated into ongoing yoga classes and (2) yoga can be integrated into eating disorder prevention programmes. Regarding treatment, it is important to examine the effectiveness of different teaching styles and practices for different eating disorders. Potential harms of yoga should also be explored. Further research, using stronger study designs, such as randomised, controlled trials, is needed. PMID:24955291

  19. The Moderating Role of Purging Behaviour in the Relationship Between Sexual/Physical Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disorder Patients.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara; Silva, Cátia; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Cao, Li; Machado, Paulo P P

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to examine predictors of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in eating disorder patients and to evaluate the moderating role of purging behaviours in the relationship between a theorised predictor (i.e. sexual/physical abuse) and NSSI. Participants in this study were 177 female patients with eating disorders (age range = 14-38 years) who completed semistructured interviews assessing eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related risk factors (e.g. history of sexual and physical abuse, history of NSSI and feelings of fatness). Results revealed that 65 participants (36.7%) reported lifetime engagement in NSSI, and 48 participants (27.1%) reported a history of sexual/physical abuse. Early onset of eating problems, lower BMI, feeling fat, a history of sexual/physical abuse and the presence of purging behaviours were all positively associated with the lifetime occurrence of NSSI. The relationship between sexual/physical abuse before eating disorder onset and lifetime NSSI was moderated by the presence of purging behaviours, such that the relationship was stronger in the absence of purging. These findings are consistent with the notion that purging and NSSI may serve similar functions in eating disorder patients (e.g. emotion regulation), such that the presence of purging may attenuate the strength of the association between sexual/physical abuse history (which is also associated with elevated NSSI risk) and engagement in NSSI behaviours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26606864

  20. Novel methods to help develop healthier eating habits for eating and weight disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Turton, Robert; Bruidegom, Kiki; Cardi, Valentina; Hirsch, Colette R; Treasure, Janet

    2016-02-01

    This paper systematically reviews novel interventions developed and tested in healthy controls that may be able to change the over or under controlled eating behaviours in eating and weight disorders. Electronic databases were searched for interventions targeting habits related to eating behaviours (implementation intentions; food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification). These were assessed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. In healthy controls the implementation intention approach produces a small increase in healthy food intake and reduction in unhealthy food intake post-intervention. The size of these effects decreases over time and no change in weight was found. Unhealthy food intake was moderately reduced by food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification post-intervention. This work may have important implications for the treatment of populations with eating and weight disorders. However, these findings are preliminary as there is a moderate to high level of heterogeneity in implementation intention studies and to date there are few food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification studies. PMID:26695383

  1. Eating Disorders: Facts about Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eating disorders. Eating disorders frequently co-occur with…

  2. The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1 km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1 km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1 km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). Conclusions There was a strong relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. Results from the goodness of fit analysis suggests that road network buffers provide a more optimal measure of school neighbourhood food environments relative to circular buffers. PMID:23391296

  3. UnAdulterated — Children and adults' visual attention to healthy and unhealthy food

    PubMed Central

    Junghans, Astrid F.; Hooge, Ignace T.C.; Maas, Josje; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T.D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Visually attending to unhealthy food creates a desire to consume the food. To resist the temptation people have to employ self-regulation strategies, such as visual avoidance. Past research has shown that self-regulatory skills develop throughout childhood and adolescence, suggesting adults' superior self-regulation skills compared to children. Methods This study employed a novel method to investigate self-regulatory skills. Children and adults' initial (bottom-up) and maintained (top-down) visual attention to simultaneously presented healthy and unhealthy food were examined in an eye-tracking paradigm. Results Results showed that both children and adults initially attended most to the unhealthy food. Subsequently, adults self-regulated their visual attention away from the unhealthy food. Despite the children's high self-reported attempts to eat healthily and importance of eating healthily, children did not self-regulate visual attention away from unhealthy food. Children remained influenced by the attention-driven desire to consume the unhealthy food whereas adults visually attended more strongly to the healthy food thereby avoiding the desire to consume the unhealthy option. Conclusions The findings emphasize the necessity of improving children's self-regulatory skills to support their desire to remain healthy and to protect children from the influences of the obesogenic environment. PMID:25679367

  4. Relationship between eating behaviours and food and drink consumption in healthy postmenopausal women in a real-life context.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Julie; Provencher, Vronique; Pich, Marie-Eve; Lapointe, Annie; John Weisnagel, S; Nadeau, Andr; Bergeron, Jean; Lemieux, Simone

    2008-10-01

    Associations between eating behaviours and dietary variables have not been thoroughly investigated in healthy postmenopausal women in a real life uncontrolled context. To investigate how eating behaviours (cognitive dietary restraint, disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger) were associated with food and drink consumption, energy density and meal pattern in 112 healthy postmenopausal women (age 56.8 (SD 4.4) years) not on.hormonal therapy. Women completed a 3 d weighed food record and filled out the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. The sample was divided according to the median of the distribution of cognitive dietary restraint and disinhibition (9 and 6 respectively). Both subgroups of women with high restraint level (presenting either high or low disinhibition) consumed a diet with a lower energy density than subgroups of women with lower restraint level. Women with high restraint-low disinhibition had a lower consumption of red meat and processed meat and a lower consumption of diet soft drinks than women with low restraint-high disinhibition. They were also characterised by a higher intake of whole grains than women with high restraint-high disinhibition and than women with lower restraint level (with either high or low disinhibition). Women with high restraint-high disinhibition levels showed differences in dietary variables when compared with subgroups of women with lower restraint level, namely for refined grains and diet soft drinks. We conclude that in healthy postmenopausal women, dietary consumption of specific food and drink may be related to particular eating behaviours. Women with high restraint and low disinhibition levels generally showed the most healthy dietary pattern. PMID:18279556

  5. A transdiagnostic comparison of enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) and interpersonal psychotherapy in the treatment of eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fairburn, Christopher G.; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Basden, Shawnee; Doll, Helen A.; Jones, Rebecca; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E.; Cooper, Zafra

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders may be viewed from a transdiagnostic perspective and there is evidence supporting a transdiagnostic form of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E). The aim of the present study was to compare CBT-E with interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), a leading alternative treatment for adults with an eating disorder. One hundred and thirty patients with any form of eating disorder (body mass index >17.5 to <40.0) were randomized to either CBT-E or IPT. Both treatments involved 20 sessions over 20 weeks followed by a 60-week closed follow-up period. Outcome was measured by independent blinded assessors. Twenty-nine participants (22.3%) did not complete treatment or were withdrawn. At post-treatment 65.5% of the CBT-E participants met criteria for remission compared with 33.3% of the IPT participants (p<0.001). Over follow-up the proportion of participants meeting criteria for remission increased, particularly in the IPT condition, but the CBT-E remission rate remained higher (CBT-E 69.4%, IPT 49.0%; p=0.028). The response to CBT-E was very similar to that observed in an earlier study. The findings indicate that CBT-E is potent treatment for the majority of outpatients with an eating disorder. IPT remains an alternative to CBT-E, but the response is less pronounced and slower to be expressed. Current controlled trials ISRCTN 15562271. PMID:26000757

  6. Choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Skov, L R; Lourenço, S; Hansen, G L; Mikkelsen, B E; Schofield, C

    2013-03-01

    The primary objective of this review was to investigate the current evidence base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reduce calorie intake. Twelve databases were searched systematically for experimental studies with predefined choice architecture interventions in the period of June 2011-March 2012. The 12 included studies were grouped according to type of interventions and underwent a narrative synthesis. The evidence indicates that (i) health labelling at point of purchase is associated with healthier food choice, while (ii) manipulating the plate and cutlery size has an inconclusive effect on consumption volume. Finally, (iii) assortment manipulation and (iv) payment option manipulation was associated with healthier food choices. The majority of studies were of very weak quality and future research should emphasize a real-life setting and compare their results with the effect of other more well-established interventions on food behaviour in self-service eating settings. PMID:23164089

  7. Eating Behaviour in the General Population: An Analysis of the Factor Structure of the German Version of the Three-Factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Its Association with the Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Lffler, Antje; Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S.; Sikorski, Claudia; Kovacs, Peter; Bttcher, Yvonne; Breitfeld, Jana; Tnjes, Anke; Horstmann, Annette; Lffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Stumvoll, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2015-01-01

    The Three-Factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ) is an established instrument to assess eating behaviour. Analysis of the TFEQ-factor structure was based on selected, convenient and clinical samples so far. Aims of this study were (I) to analyse the factor structure of the German version of the TFEQ and (II)based on the refined factor structureto examine the association between eating behaviour and the body mass index (BMI) in a general population sample of 3,144 middle-aged and older participants (4079 years) of the ongoing population based cohort study of the Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE Health Study). The factor structure was examined in a split-half analysis with both explorative and confirmatory factor analysis. Associations between TFEQ-scores and BMI values were tested with multiple regression analyses controlled for age, gender, and education. We found a three factor solution for the TFEQ with an uncontrolled eating, a cognitive restraint and an emotional eating domain including 29 of the original 51 TFEQ-items. Scores of the uncontrolled eating domain showed the strongest correlation with BMI values (partial r = 0.26). Subjects with scores above the median in both uncontrolled eating and emotional eating showed the highest BMI values (mean = 29.41 kg/m), subjects with scores below the median in all three domains showed the lowest BMI values (mean = 25.68 kg/m; F = 72.074, p<0.001). Our findings suggest that the TFEQ is suitable to identify subjects with specific patterns of eating behaviour that are associated with higher BMI values. Such information may help health care professionals to develop and implement more tailored interventions for overweight and obese individuals. PMID:26230264

  8. Prevention of Disordered Eating among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey-Stokes, Marilyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)

  9. From perceived autonomy support to intentional behaviour: Testing an integrated model in three healthy-eating behaviours.

    PubMed

    Girelli, Laura; Hagger, Martin; Mallia, Luca; Lucidi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    A motivational model integrating self-determination theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the health action process approach was tested in three samples in three behavioural contexts: fruit and vegetable, breakfast, and snack consumption. Perceived support for autonomous (self-determined) forms of motivation from parents and autonomous motivation from self-determination theory were hypothesised to predict intention and behaviour indirectly via the mediation of attitude and perceived behavioural control from the theory of planned behaviour. It was also expected that planning strategies would mediate the effect of intention on behaviour. Relations in the proposed models were expected to be similar across the behaviours. A two-wave prospective design was adopted. Three samples of high-school students (total N = 1041; 59.60% female; M age = 17.13 years ± 1.57) completed measures of perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation, theory of planned behaviour constructs, planning strategies and behaviour for each of the three behavioural contexts. Three months later, 816 participants (62,24% female; M age: 17.13 years, SD = 1.58) of the initial sample self-reported their behaviour referred to the previous three months. Structural equation models provided support for the key hypothesised effects of the proposed model for the three health-related behaviours. Two direct effects were significantly different across the three behaviours: the effect of perceived autonomy support on perceived behavioural control and the effect of attitude on intention. In addition, planning strategies mediated the effect of intention on behaviour in fruit and vegetable sample only. Findings extend knowledge of the processes by which psychological antecedents from the theories affect energy-balance related behaviours. PMID:26423363

  10. Adjusting to motherhood. The importance of BMI in predicting maternal well-being, eating behaviour and feeding practice within a cross cultural setting.

    PubMed

    Shloim, Netalie; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard; Hetherington, Marion

    2014-10-01

    Maternal body mass index (BMI) is associated with negative body image and restrained eating which are experienced differently across cultures. The present study aimed to: 1) examine if self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction changed from early pregnancy to 2-6 months after giving birth; 2) explore changes according to country (Israel vs. UK) and BMI; and 3) determine any relationship between these measurements and infant feeding. Participants completed questionnaires assessing self-esteem, body image and eating/feeding behaviours. Multilevel linear modelling was used to account for change and to assess the independent impact of BMI on outcomes. Seventy-three women and infants participated in the study in early pregnancy and again 16 (9) weeks following birth. Women gained 1.5 kg (range -12 + 23) and UK mothers reported significantly greater body dissatisfaction, but self-esteem and eating behaviours remained stable. BMI was the main predictor of self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction. Mothers' perceptions of infant's eating did not vary according to BMI or country; however, heavier mothers reported feeding their infants according to a schedule. The first months after giving birth are a key time to assess adjustment to motherhood but later assessments are necessary in order to track changes beyond the early period post-pregnancy. PMID:24933685

  11. Eating As Treatment (EAT) study protocol: a stepped-wedge, randomised controlled trial of a health behaviour change intervention provided by dietitians to improve nutrition in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Ben; McCarter, Kristen; Baker, Amanda; Wolfenden, Luke; Wratten, Chris; Bauer, Judith; Beck, Alison; McElduff, Patrick; Halpin, Sean; Carter, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Maintaining adequate nutrition for Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) patients is challenging due to both the malignancy and the rigours of radiation treatment. As yet, health behaviour interventions designed to maintain or improve nutrition in patients with HNC have not been evaluated. The proposed trial builds on promising pilot data, and evaluates the effectiveness of a dietitian-delivered health behaviour intervention to reduce malnutrition in patients with HNC undergoing radiotherapy: Eating As Treatment (EAT). Methods and analysis A stepped-wedge cluster randomised design will be used. All recruitment hospitals begin in the control condition providing treatment as usual. In a randomly generated order, oncology staff at each hospital will receive 2 days of training in EAT before switching to the intervention condition. Training will be supplemented by ongoing supervision, coaching and a 2-month booster training provided by the research team. EAT is based on established behaviour change counselling methods, including motivational interviewing, cognitive–behavioural therapy, and incorporates clinical practice change theory. It is designed to improve motivation to eat despite a range of barriers (pain, mucositis, nausea, reduced or no saliva, taste changes and appetite loss), and to provide patients with practical behaviour change strategies. EAT will be delivered by dietitians during their usual consultations. 400 patients with HNC (nasopharynx, hypopharynx, oropharynx, oral cavity or larynx), aged 18+, undergoing radiotherapy (>60 Gy) with curative intent, will be recruited from radiotherapy departments at 5 Australian sites. Assessments will be conducted at 4 time points (first and final week of radiotherapy, 4 and 12 weeks postradiotherapy). The primary outcome will be a nutritional status assessment. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval from all relevant bodies has been granted. Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Trial registration number ACTRN12613000320752. PMID:26231757

  12. Impact of an Intuitive Eating Education Program on High School Students' Eating Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Nicole; Joram, Elana; Matvienko, Oksana; Woolf, Suzanne; Knesting, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is a growing need for school-based nutritional educational programs that promote healthy eating attitudes without increasing an unhealthy focus on restrictive eating or promoting a poor body image. Research suggests that "intuitive eating" ("IE") approaches, which encourage individuals to focus on internal body

  13. Impact of an Intuitive Eating Education Program on High School Students' Eating Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Nicole; Joram, Elana; Matvienko, Oksana; Woolf, Suzanne; Knesting, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is a growing need for school-based nutritional educational programs that promote healthy eating attitudes without increasing an unhealthy focus on restrictive eating or promoting a poor body image. Research suggests that "intuitive eating" ("IE") approaches, which encourage individuals to focus on internal body…

  14. The Encultured Body: Policy Implications for Healthy Body Image and Disordered Eating Behaviours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskill, Deanne, Ed.; Sanders, Fran, Ed.

    The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…

  15. Preterm born 9-year-olds have elevated IGF-1 and low prolactin, but levels vary with behavioural and eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kistner, A; Deschmann, E; Legnevall, L; Vanpee, M

    2014-01-01

    Aim This study examined the relationship between hypothalamic-associated hormones and behavioural and eating disorders in children with low birthweight. Methods We included 100 children (mean age 9.7 years): 39 were born preterm at <32 gestational weeks, 28 were full-term, but small for gestational age, and 33 were full-term controls. Behavioural histories were analysed, together with fasting blood samples of leptin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), prolactin, glucagon and cortisol. Results Preterm children had lower prolactin (p = 0.01) and higher IGF-I than controls (p < 0.05, adjusted for confounders), despite being significantly shorter than the predicted target height (p < 0.001). More preterm children displayed behavioural disorders (38% versus 10%, p < 0.001) and eating disorders (26% versus 8%, p < 0.05) than full-term children. These disorders were associated with lower leptin (p < 0.01), insulin (p < 0.05) and IGF-I (p < 0.05), but correlations between these hormones and leptin were similar among the groups. Combined behavioural and eating disorders were only observed in preterm children, who were also the shortest in height. Conclusion Behavioural and eating disorders among preterm children were associated with low leptin, insulin and IGF-1. Low prolactin in all preterm children indicated an increased dopaminergic tonus, which might inhibit body weight incrementation. This raises speculation about IGF-I receptor insensitivity. PMID:25040495

  16. Adolescents' Perception of Causes of Obesity: Unhealthy Lifestyles or Heritage?

    PubMed Central

    Gonalves, Helen; Gonzlez, David A.; Arajo, Cora P.; Muniz, Ludmila; Tavares, Patrcia; Assuno, Maria C.; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate adolescents' perception of the causes of obesity, with emphasis on differences according to nutritional status and socioeconomic position. Methods We conducted qualitative research including 80 adolescents belonging to the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, and their mothers. We classified adolescent boys and girls into four groups (girlsobese, girlseutrophic, boysobese, and boys-eutrophic) according to body mass index for age and sex, and systematically selected them according to family income at age 15 years. Research techniques included semistructured interviews and history of life. Topics covered in the interviews included early experiences with weight management, effect of weight on social relationships, family history, eating habits, and values. Results Low-income obese adolescents and their mothers perceive obesity as a heritage, caused by family genes, side effects of medication use, and stressful life events. However, low-income eutrophic adolescents emphasize the role of unhealthy diets on obesity development. Among the high-income adolescents, those who are obese attribute it to genetic factors and emotional problems, whereas those who are eutrophic mention unhealthy diets and lack of physical activity as the main causes of obesity. Conclusions Perceptions of the causes of obesity in adolescents from a middle-income setting vary by gender, socioeconomic position, and nutritional status. Whereas some blame genetics as responsible for obesity development, others blame unhealthy diets and lifestyles, and others acknowledge the roles of early life experiences and family traditions in the process of obesity development. PMID:23283160

  17. Prevalence of picky eating behaviour in Chinese school-age children and associations with anthropometric parameters and intelligence quotient. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yong; Lee, Eva; Ning, Ke; Zheng, Yingdong; Ma, Defu; Gao, Hongchong; Yang, Baoru; Bai, Ying; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of eating behaviour regarding dietary variety and nutrient intake of children. However, the association between picky eating and growth of children is still a topic of debate. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of picky eating and to identify possible associations with the growth of school-age children in China. In this survey, 793 healthy children aged 7-12 years were recruited from nine cities and rural areas in China using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data collected included socio-demographic information and parents' perceptions of picky eating using a structured questionnaire, nutrient intake using 24-hour dietary recall, weight and height using body measurements, and intelligence using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Blood samples were collected and analysed for minerals. The prevalence of picky eating reported by parents was 59.3% in children. Compared with non-picky eaters, picky eaters had a lower dietary intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates, most vitamins and minerals, and lower levels of magnesium, iron, and copper in the blood (p?eating behaviour towards meat, eggs and vegetables showed negative associations with growth. Picky eating behaviour is prevalent in school-age children in China and may have a negative effect on growth. PMID:25934087

  18. Testing the cognitive-behavioural maintenance models across DSM-5 bulimic-type eating disorder diagnostic groups: a multi-centre study.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, Maria Assunta; Gaudio, Santino; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    The original cognitive-behavioural (CB) model of bulimia nervosa, which provided the basis for the widely used CB therapy, proposed that specific dysfunctional cognitions and behaviours maintain the disorder. However, amongst treatment completers, only 40-50 % have a full and lasting response. The enhanced CB model (CB-E), upon which the enhanced version of the CB treatment was based, extended the original approach by including four additional maintenance factors. This study evaluated and compared both CB models in a large clinical treatment seeking sample (N = 679), applying both DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for bulimic-type eating disorders. Application of the DSM-5 criteria reduced the number of cases of DSM-IV bulimic-type eating disorders not otherwise specified to 29.6 %. Structural equation modelling analysis indicated that (a) although both models provided a good fit to the data, the CB-E model accounted for a greater proportion of variance in eating-disordered behaviours than the original one, (b) interpersonal problems, clinical perfectionism and low self-esteem were indirectly associated with dietary restraint through over-evaluation of shape and weight, (c) interpersonal problems and mood intolerance were directly linked to binge eating, whereas restraint only indirectly affected binge eating through mood intolerance, suggesting that factors other than restraint may play a more critical role in the maintenance of binge eating. In terms of strength of the associations, differences across DSM-5 bulimic-type eating disorder diagnostic groups were not observed. The results are discussed with reference to theory and research, including neurobiological findings and recent hypotheses. PMID:25416408

  19. Unhealthy weight control behaviors and related risk factors in Massachusetts middle and high school students.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Diane; Hawk, Helen; Goodenow, Carol

    2014-10-01

    Unhealthy weight control behaviors may be precursors to clinical eating disorders; therefore, it is important to identify these actions, and what may trigger them, as early as possible. We used 2009 and 2011 Massachusetts Youth Health Survey data for middle and high school students. We studied age, sex, and race disparities related to unhealthy weight control behaviors in conjunction with other risk factors such as body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, involvement in bullying, and depressive symptoms. The surveys were completed in public schools. Bivariate and multinomial regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between weight control behaviors and BMI categories, body weight perception, bullying involvement, and depressive symptoms. Poor body weight perception, bullying involvement, and depressive symptoms were associated with significantly elevated odds of reporting unhealthy weight control behaviors in both middle and high school students. Most patterns were consistent for middle and high school students, with obesity and bullying involvement being prevailing risks for high school students. Though females were more likely to report unhealthy weight control behaviors we also showed the rarely presented prevalence of male involvement in disordered eating behaviors including those who perceived themselves to be underweight. Health education classes and school-based interventions may be two strategies to help prevent the development of unhealthy weight control behaviors. Continuation of youth surveys that gather data on weight control behaviors and known risk factors is essential for observing changes in behaviors over time. PMID:24357083

  20. Validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire in a low-income preschool-aged sample in the United States.

    PubMed

    Domoff, Sarah E; Miller, Alison L; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-12-01

    The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ; Wardle, Guthrie, Sanderson, & Rapoport, 2001) is a widely used measure of child eating behaviors. Yet, only one study has examined the factor structure of the CEBQ among low-income children. In the current study, we examined the internal consistency, factor structure, and validity of the CEBQ among 1002 low-income preschool-age children recruited from Head Start locations in the United States. Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicated the CEBQ evidenced a reasonable fit to the data. Results also indicate that CEBQ subscales demonstrate good internal reliability (α's ≥ .70) and validity, with 7 of the 8 subscales associated with children's BMI z-scores in the expected directions. Equivalent factor loadings and indicator means across White and Black non-Hispanic participants were found, supporting measurement invariance between these two groups. In sum, our study supports the factor structure of the CEBQ among low-income preschool-aged children in the United States. PMID:26247701

  1. Associations between psychological stress, eating, physical activity, sedentary behaviours and body weight among women: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increased risk of obesity amongst socioeconomically disadvantaged populations and emerging evidence suggests that psychological stress may be a key factor in this relationship. This paper reports the results of cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of relationships between perceived stress, weight and weight-related behaviours in a cohort of socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Methods This study used baseline and follow-up self-report survey data from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, comprising a cohort of 1382 women aged 18 to 46years from 80 of the most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. Women reported their height (baseline only), weight, sociodemographic characteristics, perceived stress, leisure-time physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviours at baseline and three-year follow-up. Linear and multinomial logistic regression were used to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between stress (predictor) and weight, and weight-related behaviours. Results Higher perceived stress in women was associated with a higher BMI, and to increased odds of being obese in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were found between stress and both less leisure-time physical activity, and more frequent fast food consumption. Longitudinal associations were also found between stress and increased television viewing time. Conclusion The present study contributes to the literature related to the effects of stress on weight and weight-related behaviours. The findings suggest that higher stress levels could contribute to obesity risk in women. Further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms underlying these associations. However, interventions that incorporate stress management techniques might help to prevent rising obesity rates among socioeconomically disadvantaged women. PMID:24020677

  2. Medications for Unhealthy Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Stephanie S.; O’Connor, Patrick G.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of unidentified or untreated unhealthy alcohol use remains high. With the advent of pharmacotherapy and models of counseling appropriate for use in primary care settings as well as in specialty care, clinicians have new tools to manage the range of alcohol problems across the spectrum of health care settings. By extending treatment to primary care, many people who do not currently receive specialty care may have increased access to treatment. In addition, primary care providers, by virtue of their ongoing relationship with patients, may be able to provide continuing treatment over time. Extending the spectrum of care to hazardous drinkers who may not be alcohol dependent could result in earlier intervention and reduce the consequences of excessive drinking. PMID:23580015

  3. Peer clustering of exercise and eating behaviours among young adults in Sweden: a cross-sectional study of egocentric network data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that the growing prevalence of obesity may be related to the influence of the health behaviours of peers. We look at clustering of exercise and eating behaviours amongst a previously unstudied group, young adults in Sweden. Previous research has mainly been conducted in the United States and Britain, countries that have relatively high rates of obesity. Methods Using ego-alter dyads from the egocentric network data as the unit of analysis, we conduct logistic regressions to investigate the association between ego and alter exercise and eating behaviours. Results Respondents have a significantly greater probability of engaging in regular exercise and eating healthily if a nominated peer also does so. Furthermore, the degree to which this behavior is shared is modulated by the strength of the relationship between the two individuals, with a greater probability of engaging in these behaviours observed when the relationship with the nominated peer is strong relative to when the relationship is weak. However, we find that ego-alter homogeneity in terms of gender and migration status was not associated with a significantly greater probability of behaving in a similar manner to a nominated peer. Furthermore, the status of the nominated peer as a relative or not did not impact the probability that the ego would engage in similar health behaviours to that alter. Conclusions We observe strong associations between ego and alter health behaviours for young adults, consistent with previous research. Although we cannot draw causal inferences, these results suggest that the health behaviours of an individuals peers may play a role in shaping their own health behaviours. PMID:23981951

  4. Meals described as healthy or unhealthy match public health education in England.

    PubMed

    Laguna-Camacho, Antonio; Booth, David A

    2015-04-01

    Dietary guidelines for the general public aim to lower the incidence of nutrition-related diseases by influencing habitual food choices. Yet little is known about how well the guidelines are matched by the actual practices that people regard as healthy or unhealthy. In the present study, British residents were asked in a cognitive interview to write a description of an occasion when either they ate in an unhealthy way or the eating was healthy. The reported foods and drinks, as well as sort of occasion, location, people present and time of day, were categorised by verbal and semantic similarities. The number of mentions of terms in each category was then contrasted between groups in exact probability tests. Perceived unhealthy and healthy eating occasions differed reliably in the sorts of foods and the contexts reported. There was also full agreement with the national guidelines on eating plenty of fruit and vegetables, eating small amounts of foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar, drinking plenty of water, and cutting down on alcohol. There was a tendency to regard choices of bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods as healthy. Reported healthy and unhealthy eating did not differ in incidences of meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein or of dairy foods and milk. These results indicate that operationally clear recommendations by health professionals are well understood in this culture but members of the public do not make clear distinctions in the case of foods that can be included in moderate amounts in a healthy diet. PMID:25596040

  5. Psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical, and nutritional proposals about how to encourage eating a healthy breakfast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Even if more and more evidences have highlighted the importance of breakfast in the growth and development of children, from 10 to 30% of US and European children and adolescents regularly skip breakfast. Thus, there is still a lot to be done before breakfast becomes a daily habit. The aim of this paper is to try and understand how it is possible to overcome the real or imaginary difficulties associated with skipping breakfast by psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical and nutritional proposals. Discussion Schools are the best context where perform healthy interventions because it is here that children learn about the importance of good health at an age when the school still plays a major role in their education. Some school interventions, based on solid theories as the Self Determination Theory and the Behaviour Analysis, have been implemented in the last years to promote health behaviour such as intake of fruit and vegetables and physical activities. Cognitive behaviour therapy is the most closely monitored type of treatment/cure for obesity in randomised controlled trials. Moreover some associations such as the National Association of Food Science Specialists have drawn an own method to encourage food education at school and promote the importance of prevention. These projects could be used as starting point to perform interventions focus on breakfast. Summary Increase the consumption of breakfast between children is very important. Efforts should be done to drawn new school projects based on scientific-evidences. PMID:25125024

  6. Relationship between body mass index and women's body image, self-esteem and eating behaviours in pregnancy: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Shloim, Netalie; Hetherington, Marion M; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-esteem, restrained eating, body image and body mass index during pregnancy. A total of 110 pregnant Israeli and UK women completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire, the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, scales to assess body image and demographics. Body mass index was calculated from antenatal records. Regression modelling determined the relationship between variables, countries and body mass index categories. High correlations were found between body image and body mass index with significantly higher body dissatisfaction for Israeli women. Self-esteem scores for pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant women. Poorer body image and higher prevalence of restrained eating were found in healthy weight Israeli women. PMID:24140617

  7. Pertussis toxin expression in Drosophila alters the visual response and blocks eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fitch, C L; de Sousa, S M; O'Day, P M; Neubert, T A; Plantilla, C M; Spencer, M; Yarfitz, S; Apte, D; Hurley, J B

    1993-03-01

    Pertussis toxin inactivates certain G-proteins by introducing an ADP-ribose group near the carboxyl-terminus of the alpha-subunit. The major pertussis toxin substrate in Drosophila tissues is Go alpha. We introduced a pertussis toxin gene under control of the hsp70 heat-shock promoter into the Drosophila genome. When heat-shocked, transformed flies produce active pertussis toxin which ADP-ribosylates endogenous Go alpha. Pertussis toxin is expressed in photoreceptors, in the lamina of the eye and in epithelial cells lining the gut. As expected from the absence of Go alpha in photoreceptors, pertussis toxin does not affect the photoreceptor component of the Drosophila visual response. However, it abolishes light on- and off-transients in the electroretinogram. These transients normally arise from the lamina, a tissue where Go alpha transcripts have been detected. Pertussis toxin expression also blocks embryonic development and shortens the lifetime of adult Drosophila. Following heat-shock, transformed adults are active, but they fail to take up nutrients because they stop eating. High energy metabolites are significantly depleted shortly after pertussis toxin expression is induced and the flies die within 48 h. PMID:8499226

  8. Obesity and eating behaviour in children and adolescents: contribution of common gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Joanne; Dalton, Michelle; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John; Hetherington, Marion; Palmer, Colin

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing in many countries and confers risks for early type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. In the presence of potent 'obesogenic' environments not all children become obese, indicating the presence of susceptibility and resistance. Taking an energy balance approach, susceptibility could be mediated through a failure of appetite regulation leading to increased energy intake or via diminished energy expenditure. Evidence shows that heritability estimates for BMI and body fat are paralleled by similar coefficients for energy intake and preferences for dietary fat. Twin studies implicate weak satiety and enhanced food responsiveness as factors determining an increase in BMI. Single gene mutations, for example in the leptin receptor gene, that lead to extreme obesity appear to operate through appetite regulating mechanisms and the phenotypic response involves overconsumption and a failure to inhibit eating. Investigations of robustly characterized common gene variants of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARG) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) which contribute to variance in BMI also influence the variance in appetite factors such as measured energy intake, satiety responsiveness and the intake of palatable energy-dense food. A review of the evidence suggests that susceptibility to childhood obesity involving specific allelic variants of certain genes is mediated primarily through food consumption (appetite regulation) rather than through a decrease in activity-related energy expenditure. This conclusion has implications for early detection of susceptibility, and for prevention and management of childhood obesity. PMID:22724641

  9. A sad mood increases attention to unhealthy food images in women with food addiction.

    PubMed

    Frayn, Mallory; Sears, Christopher R; von Ranson, Kristin M

    2016-05-01

    Food addiction and emotional eating both influence eating and weight, but little is known of how negative mood affects the attentional processes that may contribute to food addiction. The purpose of this study was to compare attention to food images in adult women (N = 66) with versus without food addiction, before and after a sad mood induction (MI). Participants' eye fixations were tracked and recorded throughout 8-s presentations of displays with healthy food, unhealthy food, and non-food images. Food addiction was self-reported using the Yale Food Addiction Scale. The sad MI involved watching an 8-min video about a young child who passed away from cancer. It was predicted that: (1) participants in the food addiction group would attend to unhealthy food significantly more than participants in the control group, and (2) participants in the food addiction group would increase their attention to unhealthy food images following the sad MI, due to increased emotional reactivity and poorer emotional regulation. As predicted, the sad MI had a different effect for those with versus without food addiction: for participants with food addiction, attention to unhealthy images increased following the sad MI and attention to healthy images decreased, whereas for participants without food addiction the sad MI did not alter attention to food. These findings contribute to researchers' understanding of the cognitive factors underlying food addiction. PMID:26873452

  10. Food, fizzy, and football: promoting unhealthy food and beverages through sport - a New Zealand case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages dominate sports sponsorship. However, as marketing goes beyond the use of brand livery, research examining how marketers support sponsorships that create brand associations encouraging consumer purchase is also required. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and extent of sponsorships and associated marketing by food and non-alcoholic beverage brands and companies through a case study of New Zealand sport. Methods We conducted a systematic review of 308 websites of national and regional New Zealand sporting organisations to identify food and beverage sponsors, which were then classified as healthy or unhealthy using nutrient criteria for energy, fat, sodium and fibre levels. We interviewed 18 key informants from national and regional sporting organisations about sponsorships. Results Food and beverage sponsorship of sport is not extensive in New Zealand. However, both healthy and unhealthy brands and companies do sponsor sport. Relatively few support their sponsorships with additional marketing. Interviews revealed that although many sports organisations felt concerned about associating themselves with unhealthy foods or beverages, others considered sponsorship income more important. Conclusions While there is limited food and beverage sponsorship of New Zealand sport, unhealthy food and beverage brands and companies do sponsor sport. The few that use additional marketing activities create repeat exposure for their brands, many of which target children. The findings suggest policies that restrict sponsorship of sports by unhealthy food and beverage manufacturers may help limit childrens exposure to unhealthy food marketing within New Zealand sports settings. Given the global nature of the food industry, the findings of this New Zealand case study may be relevant elsewhere. PMID:23399019

  11. Eating behaviour, insulin resistance and cluster of metabolic risk factors in European adolescents. The HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Ses, Maria A; Jimnez-Pavn, David; Gilbert, Chantal C; Gonzlez-Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frdric; de Henauw, Stefaan; Breidenassel, Christina; Wrnberg, Julia; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Dnes; Manios, Yannis; Cuenca-Garca, Magdalena; Kafatos, Anthony; Moreno, Luis A

    2012-08-01

    The present study examined the associations of food behaviours and preferences with markers of insulin resistance and clustered metabolic risk factors score after controlling for potential confounders, including body fat in European adolescents. A cross-sectional study "Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study" of 3546 European adolescents aged 12.5-17.5 years was conducted, using a complete dataset on at least glucose, insulin and "Food Choice Questionnaire". Results indicated skipping breakfast, as well as the preference of some foods such as nuts, chocolate, burgers and pizzas, soft drinks or juices, explain part of homeostasis model assessment index variance. In addition, snacking regularly during school day is associated with higher metabolic risk score in females. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that intervention studies aimed to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in youth should focus not only in influencing food and drink preferences, but also to ensure healthy food behaviour in adolescents. The harmful consequences in the choice of certain foods or drinks and food habits can be countered with proper planning and intervention programs to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors. PMID:22524997

  12. To eat and not be eaten: optimal foraging behaviour in suspension feeding copepods

    PubMed Central

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, Houshuo

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton feed on microscopic prey that they either entrain in a feeding current or encounter as they cruise through the water. They generate fluid disturbances as they feed and move, thus elevating their risk of being detected and encountered by predators. Different feeding modes generate different hydrodynamic signals to predators and different predator encounter speeds but may also differ in their efficiency; the optimal behaviour is that which maximizes the net energy gain over the predation risk. Here, we show by means of flow visualization and simple hydrodynamic and optimization models that copepods with a diversity of feeding behaviours converge on optimal, size-independent specific clearance rates that are consistent with observed clearance rates of zooplankton, irrespective of feeding mode, species and size. We also predict magnitudes and size-scaling of swimming speeds that are consistent with observations. The rationalization of the magnitude and scaling of the clearance rates of zooplankton makes it more suitable for development of models of marine ecosystems, and is particularly relevant in predicting the size structure and biomass of pelagic communities. PMID:23075546

  13. Promoting healthy behaviours – do we need to practice what we preach?

    PubMed Central

    While, Alison E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The UK faces a public health challenge arising from unhealthy behaviours. Some health care workers engage in the same unhealthy behaviours as the general population. This paper explores the issues arising from some primary care staff adopting unhealthy behaviours upon healthcare organisations, professional practice and patient perceptions in terms of the promotion of health in the primary care setting. PMID:26807154

  14. Paediatric nurses' attitudes towards the promotion of healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Blake, Holly; Patterson, Joanna

    This study assessed paediatric nurses' attitudes towards promoting healthy eating and their opinions regarding nurses as role models for health. In all, 67 nurses from 14 wards at an acute hospital trust completed questionnaires on weight, diet, physical activity, self-efficacy and attitudes towards nurses as role models for health. Forty-eight percent felt that they could incorporate health promotion into their patient care better, and 84% believed that nurses should present themselves as role models for health. Nurses felt that their own health behaviours influenced the quality of their care: 77% reported that patients and families would heed advice better from those who appeared to follow it themselves, and 48% reported difficulties in promoting health behaviours they did not adhere to themselves. These views were inconsistent with their own lifestyle choices, since one third of respondents did not meet physical-activity guidelines, almost half were an unhealthy weight, and the majority did not consume five portions of fruits/vegetables per day. Paediatric nurses identified barriers and facilitators to promoting healthy eating. Education, training and access to evidence-based resources may help to increase paediatric nurses' confidence to promote healthy eating to children and their families. Hospital workplaces should make provision to support nurses who seek to improve their own health. PMID:25615996

  15. Social support influences on eating awareness in children and adolescents: the mediating effect of self-regulatory strategies.

    PubMed

    Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Palmeira, Antonio L; Gaspar, Tania; De Wit, John B F; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2016-04-01

    The impact of the social environment on healthy eating awareness results from complex interactions among physical, economic, cultural, interpersonal and individual characteristics. This study investigated the impact of social support and social influence on healthy eating awareness, controlling for socio-economic status, gender and age. Additionally, the mediating effect of self-regulation strategies was examined. A total of 2764 children and adolescents aged 10-17 from four European countries completed self-report measures on healthy eating awareness, social influence and the use of self-regulation strategies. Healthy eating awareness and the use of self-regulation strategies were more likely to occur among younger participants. An interaction between gender and age was related to the use of some self-regulation strategies; compared to girls, boys decreased the use of self-regulation strategies more from pre-adolescence to adolescence. Peer social influence was associated with more unhealthy eating in older participants. Results suggest a need to promote self-regulatory competences among young people in order to assist them with regulating their eating behaviours, especially in the presence of peers. Both school-based interventions and family-based interventions, focusing on self-regulation cognitions and social (peer) influence, could help children and adolescents to use self-regulatory strategies which are essential to eat healthier. PMID:26564992

  16. Dispositional and situational factors as determinants of food eating behaviour among sedentary and blue-collar workers in Nigeria's premier teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Adejumo, Adebayo O

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey investigated the role of dispositional (self-efficacy and self esteem), and situational factors (distractibility and perceived food variety) as determinants of food eating behaviour (FEB). Hospital employees (N500) in Nigeria's premier teaching Hospital participated. Results showed that self-efficacy and self-esteem jointly predicted cognitive restraint dimension of FEB (F(2499) = 26.00; R2 = 0.10; p < .05). Dispositional variables also jointly predicted uncontrolled eating (F(2499) = 17.41; R2 = 0.07; p < .05), emotional eating (F(2499)= 28.58; R2 = 0.10; p < .05), and cognitive restraint (F(2499) = 35.60; R2 = 0.13; p < .05) dimensions of FEB. Age (chi2 = 64.81; df = 1; p < .05), and marital status (chi2 = 32.74; df = 4; p < .05) were associated with FEB. Therefore, dispositional and situational variables are predictors of FEB as evidenced in previous literatures. The need for primary prevention, and assertiveness to reduce distractibility and eating disorders was highlighted towards maintaining health and efficiency at work is recommended. PMID:22073876

  17. Cognitive behaviour therapy response and dropout rate across purging and nonpurging bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder: DSM-5 implications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the imminent publication of the new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), there has been a growing interest in the study of the boundaries across the three bulimic spectrum syndromes [bulimia nervosa-purging type (BN-P), bulimia nervosa-non purging type (BN-NP) and binge eating disorder (BED)]. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine differences in treatment response and dropout rates following Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) across the three bulimic-spectrum syndromes. Method The sample comprised of 454 females (87 BED, 327 BN-P and 40 BN-NP) diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria who were treated with 22 weekly outpatient sessions of group CBT therapy. Patients were assessed before and after treatment using a food and binging/purging diary and some clinical questionnaires in the field of ED. Full remission was defined as total absence of binging and purging (laxatives and/or vomiting) behaviors and psychological improvement for at least 4 (consecutive). Results Full remission rate was found to be significantly higher in BED (69.5%) than in both BN-P (p?

  18. Early problematic eating behaviours are associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake and less dietary variety at 4-5 years of age. A prospective analysis of three European birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A; Jones, L; de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Emmett, P; Moreira, P; Charles, M A; Lopes, C

    2015-09-14

    Problematic eating behaviours during early childhood could be mediators of poor dietary habits. This study aims to prospectively relate early eating behaviours with fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and a healthy diet variety score of children aged between 4 and 5 years. Eating behaviours were assessed in three European birth cohorts (Generation XXI from Portugal, ALSPAC from the UK and EDEN from France) at 4-6, 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age, based on the child's feeding difficulties, mother's perception of child's poor eating (eating small quantities at each meal, not eating enough or needing to be stimulated to eat), food refusal and difficulties in the establishment of daily food routines. Daily servings of F&V (>1 v. ≤1 serving/d, except in Generation XXI: >3 v. ≤3) and the Healthy Plate Variety Score (categorised by the median score of each sample) were calculated using FFQ. Associations were tested by logistic regressions adjusted for maternal age, education, smoking during pregnancy, any breast-feeding and the child's z-score BMI at 4-5 years of age. Children with more feeding difficulties, poor eating, food refusal/neophobia and difficulties in establishing a daily routine at 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age had in general lower F&V intake at 4-5 years of age. The association with vegetables was slightly stronger than with fruits. These early feeding problems were also inversely associated with the variety score at 4-5 years of age, particularly when eating behaviours were reported after 12-15 months of age. A better understanding of these early feeding difficulties may help define strategies to increase the dietary quality in children. PMID:26195187

  19. Television Viewing by School-Age Children: Associations with Physical Activity, Snack Food Consumption and Unhealthy Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judith E.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Broom, Dorothy H.; Bittman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Alarm about the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has focussed attention on individual lifestyle behaviours that may contribute to unhealthy weight. Television viewing is often a focus of the obesity debate. Not only is it sedentary, it also has the potential to influence other lifestyle behaviours either by displacing physical activities…

  20. Television Viewing by School-Age Children: Associations with Physical Activity, Snack Food Consumption and Unhealthy Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judith E.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Broom, Dorothy H.; Bittman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Alarm about the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has focussed attention on individual lifestyle behaviours that may contribute to unhealthy weight. Television viewing is often a focus of the obesity debate. Not only is it sedentary, it also has the potential to influence other lifestyle behaviours either by displacing physical activities

  1. Family affluence and cultural capital as indicators of social inequalities in adolescents eating behaviours: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary inequality, via socio-economic inequality, may involve several mechanisms. Different aspects of adolescents socio-economic circumstances should therefore be considered in order to make effective interventions to promote healthy eating in the young population. Indicators designed to tap socio-economic status among adolescents in particular will facilitate a better understanding of the concept of socio-economic status and how it influences health behaviour among young people. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if material capital and cultural capital individually and independently contribute to the prediction of eating habits in the Norwegian adolescent population. Methods The analysis is based on survey data from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study. The Family Affluence Scale (number of cars, holidays, PC and bedrooms) and number of books in the household were used as indicators of socio-economic status, respectively measuring material capital and cultural capital. Their influence on adolescents consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets, soft drinks, and consumption of breakfast and dinner was evaluated. Pearsons correlation, logistic regression and ridit transformation analysis were used to analyse the data. Results Higher family affluence was shown to predict consumption of more fruit (OR 1.52) and vegetables (OR 1.39) and consumption of breakfast (OR 1.61) and dinner (1.35). Cultural capital was significantly associated to consumption of fruit (OR 1.85), vegetables (OR 2.38) sweets (OR .45), sugary soft drinks (OR .26), breakfast (OR 2.13) and dinner (OR 1.54). Cultural capital was the strongest predictor to healthy eating among adolescents in Norway. Conclusions Material capital and cultural capital individually and independently contributed to the prediction of healthy eating patterns among adolescents in Norway. Cultural capital is an understudied dimension of the socio-economic status concept and the influence on health behaviour needs to be explored in future studies. Initiatives to promote healthy eating should focus on education, habits and consciousness of a healthy diet, but also at reducing the high cost of fruit and vegetables. There is further a need for developing appropriate indicators for adolescent socio-economic status. PMID:23190697

  2. Boredom proneness and emotion regulation predict emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Amanda C; Myhre, Samantha K; Rokke, Paul D

    2015-05-01

    Emotional eating is considered a risk factor for eating disorders and an important contributor to obesity and its associated health problems. It has been suggested that boredom may be an important contributor to overeating, but has received relatively little attention. A sample of 552 college students was surveyed. Linear regression analyses found that proneness to boredom and difficulties in emotion regulation simultaneously predicted inappropriate eating behavior, including eating in response to boredom, other negative emotions, and external cues. The unique contributions of these variables to emotional eating were discussed. These findings help to further identify which individuals could be at risk for emotional eating and potentially for unhealthy weight gain. PMID:25903253

  3. Perceived Parenting Style and the Eating Practices of College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Seraphine Pitt; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Kromrey, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy eating contributes to morbidity in adolescents and college students and is an antecedent of premature mortality in adulthood. It has been suggested that the increase in independence (i.e., living away from parents) of adolescents contributes to their poor eating behaviors. Some literature reports that specific parenting…

  4. Promoting Lifelong Healthy Eating: An Overview. CDC's Guidelines for School Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA. Adolescent and School Health Div.

    This publication describes the importance of promoting healthy eating habits among school-age children, discussing the benefits of healthy eating (e.g., prevents child and adolescent health problems and health problems later in life) and noting the consequences of unhealthy eating (e.g., hungry childen are more likely to have behavioral,…

  5. Gender, school and academic year differences among Spanish university students at high-risk for developing an eating disorder: An epidemiologic study

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Ana R; Carrobles, Jose A; Gandarillas, Ana M

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of the university population at high-risk of developing an eating disorder and the prevalence of unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviours amongst groups at risk; gender, school or academic year differences were also explored. Methods A cross-sectional study based on self-report was used to screen university students at high-risk for an eating disorder. The sample size was of 2551 university students enrolled in 13 schools between the ages of 18 and 26 years. The instruments included: a social-demographic questionnaire, the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), the Symptom Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R), and the Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). The sample design is a non-proportional stratified sample by academic year and school. The prevalence rate was estimated controlling academic year and school. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate adjusted associations between gender, school and academic year. Results Female students presented unhealthy weight-control behaviours as dieting, laxatives use or self-induced vomiting to lose weight than males. A total of 6% of the females had a BMI of 17.5 or less or 2.5% had amenorrhea for 3 or more months. In contrast, a higher proportion of males (11.6%) reported binge eating behaviour. The prevalence rate of students at high-risk for an eating disorder was 14.9% (11.618) for males and 20.8% (18.722.8) for females, according to an overall cut-off point on the EDI questionnaire. Prevalence rates presented statistically significant differences by gender (p < 0.001) but not by school or academic year. Conclusion The prevalence of eating disorder risk in university students is high and is associated with unhealthy weight-control practices, similar results have been found in previous studies using cut-off points in questionnaires. These results may be taken into account to encourage early detection and a greater awareness for seeking treatment in order to improve the diagnosis, among students on university campuses. PMID:18373852

  6. The Association of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Fast Food and Soda Consumption and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors Among Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study examines the association of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with fast food and soda consumption, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and body mass index (BMI) in a group of young women. Methods This study was conducted on cross-sectional data gathered from 3181 females 1624 years of age attending five publicly funded clinics in Texas. The associations among PTSD, fast food consumption frequency, soda consumption frequency, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and BMI were examined using binary and ordinal logistic regression. Results PTSD symptoms were associated with an increased frequency of consumption of fast food and soda as well as unhealthy dieting behaviors but not with increased body mass index (BMI). Conclusions PTSD symptoms adversely affect both eating and dieting behaviors of young women. These behaviors may have negative long-term consequences for the health of females with PTSD symptoms. PMID:21751875

  7. Perceptions of Healthy Eating: A Qualitative Study of School-Going Children in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaminathan, S.; Thomas, T.; Kurpad, A. V.; Vaz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To document children's views on healthy eating, perceptions of healthy and unhealthy foods and health consequences of consuming unhealthy foods. Design: Baseline data from a three-year longitudinal study. Setting A purposive sample of 307 school children aged 7 to 15 years were recruited from three schools representing various

  8. Perceptions of Healthy Eating: A Qualitative Study of School-Going Children in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaminathan, S.; Thomas, T.; Kurpad, A. V.; Vaz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To document children's views on healthy eating, perceptions of healthy and unhealthy foods and health consequences of consuming unhealthy foods. Design: Baseline data from a three-year longitudinal study. Setting A purposive sample of 307 school children aged 7 to 15 years were recruited from three schools representing various…

  9. Eating among Teens: Do Family Mealtimes Make a Difference for Adolescents' Nutrition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents are at risk for poor dietary intake and unhealthy weight control behaviors. Family meals appear to play an important role in helping adolescents make healthier food choices and avoid engaging in unhealthy weight control and binge eating behaviors. (Contains 2 figures.)

  10. Determinants of Information Behaviour and Information Literacy Related to Healthy Eating among Internet Users in Five European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Gennaro, Laura; Verbeke, Wim; Traill, W. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method: A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were grouped by age and sex (n = 3003, age +16) in Belgium,…

  11. The Social, Physical and Temporal Characteristics of Primary School Dining Halls and Their Implications for Children's Eating Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sue N.; Murphy, Simon; Tapper, Katy; Moore, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Social, physical and temporal characteristics are known to influence the eating experience and the effectiveness of nutritional policies. As the school meal service features prominently in UK nutritional and health promotion policy, the paper's aim is to investigate the characteristics of the primary school dining context and their

  12. Are interventions for low-income groups effective in changing healthy eating, physical activity and smoking behaviours? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Eleanor R; Dombrowski, Stephan U; McCleary, Nicola; Johnston, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of behavioural interventions targeting diet, physical activity or smoking in low-income adults. Design Systematic review with random effects meta-analyses. Studies before 2006 were identified from a previously published systematic review (searching 1995–2006) with similar but broader inclusion criteria (including non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs)). Studies from 2006 to 2014 were identified from eight electronic databases using a similar search strategy. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials, Cochrane Systematic Review and DARE. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies RCTs and cluster RCTs published from 1995 to 2014; interventions targeting dietary, physical activity and smoking; low-income adults; reporting of behavioural outcomes. Main outcome measures Dietary, physical activity and smoking cessation behaviours. Results 35 studies containing 45 interventions with 17 000 participants met inclusion criteria. At postintervention, effects were positive but small for diet (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.22, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.29), physical activity (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.36) and smoking (relative risk (RR) of 1.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.89). Studies reporting follow-up results suggested that effects were maintained over time for diet (SMD 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25) but not physical activity (SMD 0.17, 95% CI −0.02 to 0.37) or smoking (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.34). Conclusions Behaviour change interventions for low-income groups had small positive effects on healthy eating, physical activity and smoking. Further work is needed to improve the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions for deprived populations. PMID:25432903

  13. Early Eating Behaviours and Food Acceptance Revisited: Breastfeeding and Introduction of Complementary Foods as Predictive of Food Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Harris, Gillian; Coulthard, Helen

    2016-03-01

    Current dietary advice for children is that they should eat at least five portions of fruit and vegetables a day (Department of Health. National Diet and Nutrition Survey, 2014). However, many parents report that children are reluctant to eat vegetables and often fail to comply with the five-a-day rule. In fact, in surveys carried out in areas in the UK, the number of children eating according to the five-a-day rule has been found to be as low as 16 % (Cockroft et al. Public Health Nutr 8(7):861-69, 2005). This narrative review looks at those factors which contribute to food acceptance, especially fruit and vegetables, and how acceptance might be enhanced to contribute to a wider dietary range in infancy and later childhood. The questions we address are whether the range of foods accepted is determined by the following: innate predispositions interacting with early experience with taste and textures, sensitive periods in infancy for introduction, breastfeeding and the pattern of introduction of complementary foods. Our conclusions are that all of these factors affect dietary range, and that both breastfeeding and the timely introduction of complementary foods predict subsequent food acceptance. PMID:26956951

  14. Reflective and impulsive influences on unhealthy snacking. The moderating effects of food related self-control.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, Pirjo; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Verplanken, Bas; Tuu, Ho Huy

    2012-04-01

    This study proposes that snacking behaviour may be either reflective and deliberate or impulsive, thus following a dual-process account. We hypothesised that chronic individual differences in food related self-control would moderate the relationships between reflective and impulsive processes. The reflective route was represented by an attitude toward unhealthy snacking, while the impulsive route was represented by the tendency to buy snack on impulse. A web survey was conducted with 207 students and employees at a Norwegian university, and a moderated hierarchical regression analysis using structural equation modelling was used to estimate the theoretical model. The findings showed that both attitudes towards unhealthy snacking and impulsive snack buying tendency were positively related to snack consumption. Food related self-control moderated the relation between attitude and behaviour, as well as the relation between impulsive snack buying tendency and behaviour. The effect of attitude on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was strong, while the effect of impulsive snack buying on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was weak. The results thus suggest that while weak self-control exposes individuals vulnerable to impulsive tendencies, strong self-control does not necessarily lead to less unhealthy snacking, but this depends on the valence of an individual's attitude. PMID:22138115

  15. Iranian Female Adolescent’s Views on Unhealthy Snacks Consumption: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Shahanjarini, A; Omidvar, N; Bazargan3, M; Rashidian, A; Majdzadeh, R; Shojaeizadeh, D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Given the increasing prevalence of obesity among Iranian adolescents and the role of consumption of unhealthy snacks in this issue, interventions that focus on factors influencing food choice are needed. This study was designed to delineate factors associated with unhealthy snack use among female Iranian adolescents. Methods: The theory of Planned Behavior served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via nine focus group discussions in two middle schools (6th to 8th grades) in a socio-economically diverse district in the city of Tehran in spring 2008. The study sample included 90 female adolescents aged 12–15 years. The sampling strategy was purposive method. Data analyzed using the “framework” method. Results: Major factors identified by the respondents were taste, peer pressure, parental influence, easy access to unhealthy snacks, limited availability of healthy snacks, appeal of snacks, habit, high price of healthy snacks, and media advertisements. Nutritional value and healthiness was not one of the first priorities when buying snacks, as adolescents thought it was too early for them to worry about illness and adverse consequences of eating junk foods. Conclusions: For developing culturally sensitive evidence-based interventions that can motivate adolescents to choose healthy snacks, a broad range of factors should be taken into account. PMID:23113027

  16. Psychosocial Factors of Different Health Behaviour Patterns in Adolescents: Association with Overweight and Weight Control Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Veloso, Susana M.; Matos, Margarida G.; Carvalho, Marina; Diniz, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviour combine to influence the risk of overweight among adolescents. This paper aims to identify psychosocial factors of different health behaviour patterns in adolescents and its association with overweight and weight control behaviours. The 3069 adolescents of both genders (average of 14.8 years old) from the 2010 Portuguese survey of Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC) answered the 2010 HBSC self-reported questionnaire. It used the cluster k-means (nonhierarchy method), qui-square, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three clusters with different behavioural patterns (physical activity, sedentary, and eating) composed the results obtained. The sedentary group (34%) had lower self-regulation, body satisfaction, health and wellness, family and classmates relationships, communication with the father than the other two groups. The active gamers (25%) had a smaller BMI but used more unhealthy weight control strategies than the other two groups. The healthy group (41%) was more motivated and more satisfied with school but was not different than the active gamers in most psychosocial variables. Differences were found between clusters for weight control behaviours and psychosocial variables. Different strategies for different patterns were necessary in order to promote obesity prevention and, simultaneously, target healthy lifestyle and wellbeing in adolescents. PMID:22811890

  17. Eating Behaviors and Negative Affect in College Women’s Everyday Lives

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Kristin E.; Scott, Stacey B.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A growing body of research seeks to understand the relationship between mood and eating behaviors. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) methods provide a method for assessing these processes in natural settings. We used EMA to examine the relationship between mood and eating behaviors in everyday life among women with subclinical disordered eating behaviors. Method Participants (N=127, age M=19.6, BMI M=25.5) completed 5 daily EMA reports on palmtop computers for 1 week. Assessments included measures of negative affect (NA) and eating-related behavior during eating (eating large amounts of food, loss of control over eating, restricting food intake) and non-eating episodes (skip eating to control weight/shape). Time-lagged multi-level models tested mood-eating behavior relationships. Results Higher NA did not precede any unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors. However, NA was higher when women reported eating large quantities of food, losing control over eating, and restricting food intake during their most recent eating episode, but not after skipping eating to control weight/shape. Discussion These findings elucidate processes in daily life that may influence the development and maintenance of unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors that, in turn, can inform interventions. PMID:24797029

  18. Eating Disorders in Late-life

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Antonina; Luca, Maria; Calandra2, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are a heterogeneous group of complex psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviours that lead to a high rate of morbidity, or even death, if underestimated and untreated. The main disorders enlisted in the chapter of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders-5 dedicated to “Feeding and Eating Disorders” are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Even though these abnormal behaviours are mostly diagnosed during childhood, interesting cases of late-life eating disorders have been reported in literature. In this review, these eating disorders are discussed, with particular attention to the diagnosis and management of those cases occurring in late-life. PMID:25657852

  19. Time to eat: measurements of feeding behaviour in a large marine predator, the northern elephant seal Mirounga angustirostris.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Carey E; Crocker, Daniel E; Tremblay, Yann; Costa, Daniel P

    2009-05-01

    1. The at-sea behaviour of marine predators is often described based on changes in behavioural states, such as transit, searching, and feeding. However, to distinguish between these behaviours, it is necessary to know the actual functions of the behaviours recorded. Specifically, to understand the foraging behaviour of marine predators, it is necessary to measure prey consumption. Therefore, the at-sea feeding behaviour of northern elephant seals (N = 13) was examined using satellite transmitters, time-depth recorders, and stomach temperature recorders. In addition, stomach temperature telemetry allowed for the validation of indirect measures of feeding behaviour used for marine predators, including decreases in transit rate and changes in dive shape. 2. Feeding data were recorded for the early phase of the migration (2.2-21 days). The first feeding events occurred shortly after animals departed (4.0 +/- 1.5 h) and close to the rookery (58.6 +/- 21.9 km), but these feedings were followed by extended periods without prey consumption (14.5 +/- 2.5 h). Continuous (bout) feeding did not occur until on average 7.5 +/- 1.8 days after the females left the rookery. Females showed significant differences in the feeding rate while feeding in a bout (1.3-2.1 feeding events hour(-1)). 3. There was a significant negative relationship between interpolated transit rate and feeding events (r(2) = 0.62, P < 0.01). Feeding, which was associated with all dive types, occurred most often during the foraging type dive shape (74.2%). Finally, successful feeding only occurred between 18-24% of the time when females displayed the foraging type dive shape suggesting that the use of dive shape alone, while indicative of behaviours associated with foraging (searching and catching prey) overestimates actual feeding behaviour. 4. This study showed females not only feed extensively during the early migration, but there was individual variation in both foraging locations and foraging success. In addition, by combining direct and indirect measures of feeding, this study has provided support for the use of foraging indicators in marine predators. PMID:19040681

  20. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and/or maintain an imaginary appearance. Related information Anorexia nervosa fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet ... your area. Eating disorders are serious medical problems. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder are ...

  1. Changing eating behaviours to treat childhood obesity in the community using Mandolean: the Community Mandolean randomised controlled trial (ComMando)--a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton-Shield, Julian; Goodred, Joanna; Powell, Lesley; Thorn, Joanna; Banks, Jon; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Montgomery, Alan; Turner, Katrina; Sharp, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Around one in five children in England is obese when they leave primary school. Thus far, it has not been demonstrated that primary care interventions to manage childhood obesity can achieve significant weight reduction. Training obese children to eat more slowly as an adjunct to other healthy lifestyle behaviour change has been shown to increase weight reduction in a hospital setting. OBJECTIVES This pilot study aimed to test recruitment strategies, treatment adherence, clinic attendance and participants' experiences of using a device [Mandolean® (previously Mandometer®, Mikrodidakt AB, Lund, Sweden)] to slow down speed of eating as an adjunct to dietary and activity advice in treating obesity in primary school-aged children. DESIGN A two-arm, parallel, randomised controlled trial with a qualitative study embedded within the pilot. Randomisation occurred after informed consent and baseline measures were collected. Participants were randomised by the Bristol Randomised Trials Collaboration randomisation service with allocation stratified by hub and minimised by age of the child, gender, and baseline body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (BMI z-value) of the child, and by BMI of the study parent (obese/not obese). SETTING General practices across Bristol, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire primary care trusts. PARTICIPANTS Children (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) aged 5-11 years and their families. INTERVENTION Standard care comprised dietary and activity advice by trained practice nurses. Adjunctive Mandolean training (the intervention) educated participants to eat meals more slowly and to rate levels of fullness (satiety). Mandolean is a small computer device attached to a weighing scale that provides visual and oral feedback during meals while generating a visual representation of levels of satiety during the meal. Participants were encouraged to eat their main meal each day from the Mandolean. One parent was also given a Mandolean to use when eating with the child. OUTCOME MEASURES Outcomes for the pilot were recruitment of 36 families to the trial in the 9-month pilot phase, that meals would be eaten at least five times a week off a Mandolean by 90% of patients randomised to the intervention arm, that 80% of patients in both arms would attend the weight management clinic appointment 3 months post randomisation and that > 60% of children using Mandolean would demonstrate a reduction in speed of eating from baseline within 3 months of randomisation. RESULTS None of the criteria for progression to the main trial were reached. Despite numerous pathways being available for referral, only 21 (13 to standard care, eight to intervention arm; 58%) of the target 36 families were recruited in the pilot phase. Less than 20% of those randomised to Mandolean used the device at least five times a week. The > 60% target for slowing down of eating speed by 3 months was unmet. Attendance at the weight management clinic in general practice hubs for both arms of the study at 3 months was 44% against a target of 80%. CONCLUSIONS This pilot trial failed to meet its objectives in terms of recruitment, treatment adherence, demonstration of a reduction in speed of eating in sufficient numbers of children, and attendance at follow-up appointments. Despite a high prevalence of childhood obesity in the geographical area and practices signing up for the trial, this study, like many others, demonstrates a failure of families to engage with and respond to primary care weight management interventions. We need to understand why the target population seems inured to the health message that childhood obesity is a significant health-care issue and identify the barriers to seeking help and then acting on positive health behaviour retraining. Only when we have fully understood the general public's perceptions of childhood obesity and have identified ways of engaging target populations can we hope to develop interventions that can work in a primary or community-based setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN90561114. FUNDING This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 18, No. 47. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. PMID:25043221

  2. What Helps Children Eat Well? A Qualitative Exploration of Resilience among Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lauren K.; Veitch, Jenny; Ball, Kylie

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that persons of low socioeconomic position consume generally a less healthy diet. Key determinants of unhealthy eating among disadvantaged individuals include aspects of the family and external environment. Much less is known about family and environmental determinants of healthy eating among social disadvantaged children. The aim

  3. "I'm ready to eat and grab whatever I can get": Determinants and patterns of African American men's eating practices.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Wooley, Alana M; Allen, Julie Ober

    2013-03-01

    This article examines determinants and patterns of African American men's dietary practices. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze data from nine exploratory focus groups conducted with 83 urban, middle-aged and older African American men from southeast Michigan. The men distinguished between healthy and unhealthy foods and "meals" versus other instances of eating. Eating patterns and content differed depending on the meal, work and family schedules, food availability, and whether it was a weekday or weekend. When eating alone or outside the home, men prioritized convenience and preferences for tasty, unhealthy foods. Men often reported skipping breakfast or lunch and grabbing snacks or fast food during the day. They emphasized sharing dinner with their spouses and families-usually a home-cooked, "healthy" meal. On weekends, spouses often cooked less and men snacked and dined out more frequently. Sunday dinners involving favorite, unhealthy comfort foods were the highlight of men's eating practices. African American men tended not to follow healthy eating recommendations because of their busy lives, reliance on spouses to prepare food, and preferences for unhealthy foods. These findings suggest that healthy eating interventions must consider how the contexts of African American men's lives shape their eating practices. PMID:22773618

  4. Effects of grain source and marginal change in lucerne hay particle size on feed sorting, eating behaviour, chewing activity, and milk production in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahi, S M; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Yang, W Z

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of grain source and lucerne hay (LH) particle length on eating behaviour, chewing activity, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. Eight Holstein dairy cows (175 21 days in milk) were used in a replicated 4 4 Latin square design with four 21-days periods. The experiment was a 2 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with barley grain alone or equal blend of barley and maize grains combined with short (15 mm) and long (30 mm) LH. Diets were fed ad libitum as total mixed ration with a concentrate to forage ratio of 60:40. Interactions between grain source and LH particle length on feed particle distributions, sorting index, chewing activity, and milk production were minimal. Partially replacing barley grain with maize in the diet overall did not change diurnal distributions of particles retained on the sieves of Penn State Particle Separator but reduced the proportion of particles on 1.18-sieve and increased that of particles on pan (p < 0.05). Grain source did not affect sorting index and chewing activity. However, feeding long LH increased (p < 0.01) intakes of long particles retained on 19- and 8-mm of sieve, prolonged (p < 0.05) eating time, and lowered eating rate (p < 0.05). Interestingly, cows fed with long LH ate more coarse particle during critical-early time post feeding (i. e. 1.5 h), where eating time increased and eating rate decreased (p < 0.05). Increasing particle length of dietary LH tended to increase milk fat-to-protein ratio (p = 0.08). The results suggested that the increased eating time and decreased eating rate as a result of marginally increasing LH particle length would be beneficial to alleviate reduction of ruminal pH and milk fat percentage following the ingestion of highly fermentable diets. PMID:24661569

  5. Eating to live or living to eat? Exploring the causal attributions of self-perceived food addiction.

    PubMed

    Ruddock, Helen K; Dickson, Joanne M; Field, Matt; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that many people perceive themselves to be addicted to food. However, little is known about how the concept of 'food addiction' is defined amongst members of the lay public. The current study examined beliefs about the cognitive and behavioural manifestations of food addiction. Participants (N = 210) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire in which they indicated whether or not they perceived themselves to be a food addict and provided a brief explanation for their response. Over a quarter of participants (28%) perceived themselves to be food addicts and self-diagnosis was predicted by increased BMI and younger age, but not by gender. Thematic analysis was conducted to explore the causal attributions provided by self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts. Six characteristics were identified: 1) Reward-driven eating (i.e. eating for psychological rather than physiological reasons), 2) A functional or psychological preoccupation with food, 3) A perceived lack of self-control around food, 4) Frequent food cravings, 5) Increased weight or an unhealthy diet, and 6) A problem with a specific type of food. The emergent themes, and their frequency, did not differ between self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts. However, self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts reported divergent cognitions, behaviours and attitudes within each common theme. This study is the first to provide qualitative insight into beliefs about food addiction in both self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts. The findings appear to reflect a view of food addiction that is identifiable through several core behaviours. PMID:26206173

  6. Combined effects of cognitive bias for food cues and poor inhibitory control on unhealthy food intake.

    PubMed

    Kakoschke, Naomi; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the combined effects of cognitive bias (attentional and approach biases) and inhibitory control on unhealthy snack food intake. Cognitive biases reflect automatic processing, while inhibitory control is an important component of controlled processing. Participants were 146 undergraduate women who completed a dot probe task to assess attentional bias and an approach-avoidance task to assess approach bias. Inhibitory control was measured with a food-specific go/no-go task. Unhealthy snack food intake was measured using a so-called "taste test". There was a significant interaction between approach bias and inhibitory control on unhealthy snack food intake. Specifically, participants who showed a strong approach bias combined with low inhibitory control consumed the most snack food. Theoretically, the results support contemporary dual-process models which propose that behaviour is guided by both automatic and controlled processing systems. At a practical level, the results offer potential scope for an intervention that combines re-training of both automatic and controlled processing. PMID:25592403

  7. Fluctuations of healthy and unhealthy heartbeat intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Boon Leong; Toda, Mikito

    2013-04-01

    We show that the RR-interval fluctuations, defined as the difference between successive natural-logarithm of the RR interval, for healthy, congestive-heart-failure (CHF) and atrial-fibrillation (AF) subjects are well modeled by non-Gaussian stable distributions. Our results suggest that healthy or unhealthy RR-interval fluctuation can generally be modeled as a sum of a large number of independent physiological effects which are identically distributed with infinite variance. Furthermore, we show for the first time that one indicator —the scale parameter of the stable distribution— is sufficient to robustly distinguish the three groups of subjects. The scale parameters for healthy subjects are smaller than those for AF subjects but larger than those for CHF subjects —this ordering suggests that the scale parameter could be used to objectively quantify the severity of CHF and AF over time and also serve as an early warning signal for a healthy person when it approaches either boundary of the healthy range.

  8. Impact of Different Policies on Unhealthy Dietary Behaviors in an Urban Adult Population: An Agent-Based Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Giabbanelli, Philippe J.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Zimmerman, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Unhealthy eating is a complex-system problem. We used agent-based modeling to examine the effects of different policies on unhealthy eating behaviors. Methods. We developed an agent-based simulation model to represent a synthetic population of adults in Pasadena, CA, and how they make dietary decisions. Data from the 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey and other empirical studies were used to calibrate the parameters of the model. Simulations were performed to contrast the potential effects of various policies on the evolution of dietary decisions. Results. Our model showed that a 20% increase in taxes on fast foods would lower the probability of fast-food consumption by 3 percentage points, whereas improving the visibility of positive social norms by 10%, either through community-based or mass-media campaigns, could improve the consumption of fruits and vegetables by 7 percentage points and lower fast-food consumption by 6 percentage points. Zoning policies had no significant impact. Conclusions. Interventions emphasizing healthy eating norms may be more effective than directly targeting food prices or regulating local food outlets. Agent-based modeling may be a useful tool for testing the population-level effects of various policies within complex systems. PMID:24832414

  9. Healthy and Unhealthy Dietary Patterns Are Related to Depression: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Maryam; Majdzadeh, Reza; Nejati, Somayeh; Darabi, Samaneh; Raisi, Firoozeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Sorayani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Major depressive disorder is the leading cause of disability around the world. The relationship between depression and dietary patterns has been reported in a few studies but with controversial results. This study aimed to investigate this relationship in an Iranian population. Methods In our study, 330 depressed patients (cases) and healthy people (controls) (1:2) were individually matched according to age, sex and area of residence. New cases of depression were recruited from two psychiatric clinics in Tehran. Interviewers went to each patient's residential area, and invited qualified individuals to participate in the study as controls. Food intake over the past year was collected using a validated semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were determined by the principal components method. Binary logistic regression was used to test the effect of dietary patterns on depression. Results We identified two major dietary patterns by using factor analysis: the healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns. We categorized the scores of these patterns to quartiles. After adjusting for non-depression drug use, job, marital status, children number, and body mass index, the relations of depression and quartiles of two dietary patterns are significant (p=0.04 & p=0.01, respectively). Compared with participants in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile had significantly lower odds ratio (OR) for depression in healthy dietary pattern, and higher OR for depression in unhealthy dietary pattern. Conclusion This study indicates that healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns may be associated with the risk of depression. The results can be used for developing interventions that aim to promote healthy eating for the prevention of depression. PMID:26508953

  10. Sleep Apnea Treatment May Reverse Unhealthy Brain Changes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 154616.html Sleep Apnea Treatment May Reverse Unhealthy Brain Changes In small study, continuous positive airway pressure ... News) -- Sleep apnea treatment may reverse changes in brain stem activity associated with increased risk of heart ...

  11. 10 Tips to Protect Yourself from Unhealthy Air

    MedlinePLUS

    ... www.lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor > Air Pollution 10 Tips to Protect Yourself from Unhealthy Air ... you and your family from the dangers of air pollution: Check daily air pollution forecasts in your area. ...

  12. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  13. Tempting food words activate eating simulations

    PubMed Central

    Papies, Esther K.

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that tempting food words activate simulations of eating the food, including simulations of the taste and texture of the food, simulations of eating situations, and simulations of hedonic enjoyment. In a feature listing task, participants generated features that are typically true of four tempting foods (e.g., chips) and four neutral foods (e.g., rice). The resulting features were coded as features of eating simulations if they referred to the taste, texture, and temperature of the food (e.g., “crunchy”; “sticky”), to situations of eating the food (e.g., “movie”; “good for Wok dishes”), and to the hedonic experience when eating the food (e.g., “tasty”). Based on the grounded cognition perspective, it was predicted that tempting foods are more likely to be represented in terms of actually eating them, so that participants would list more features referring to eating simulations for tempting than for neutral foods. Confirming this hypothesis, results showed that eating simulation features constituted 53% of the features for tempting food, and 26% of the features for neutral food. Visual features, in contrast, were mentioned more often for neutral foods (45%) than for tempting foods (19%). Exploratory analyses revealed that the proportion of eating simulation features for tempting foods was positively correlated with perceived attractiveness of the foods, and negatively with participants’ dieting concerns, suggesting that eating simulations may depend on individuals’ goals with regard to eating. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for understanding the processes guiding eating behavior, and for interventions designed to reduce the consumption of attractive, unhealthy food. PMID:24298263

  14. Eating Well While Eating Out

    MedlinePLUS

    ... energy strength weight future health Eating on the Go It's easier than you think to make good ... help you make wise choices when eating out: Go for balance. Choose meals that contain a balance ...

  15. Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Alcock, Joe; Maley, Carlo C; Aktipis, C Athena

    2014-10-01

    Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until we eat foods that enhance their fitness. We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain. We also review the evidence for alternative explanations for cravings and unhealthy eating behavior. Because microbiota are easily manipulatable by prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, fecal transplants, and dietary changes, altering our microbiota offers a tractable approach to otherwise intractable problems of obesity and unhealthy eating. PMID:25103109

  16. Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Alcock, Joe; Maley, Carlo C; Aktipis, C Athena

    2014-01-01

    Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until we eat foods that enhance their fitness. We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain. We also review the evidence for alternative explanations for cravings and unhealthy eating behavior. Because microbiota are easily manipulatable by prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, fecal transplants, and dietary changes, altering our microbiota offers a tractable approach to otherwise intractable problems of obesity and unhealthy eating. PMID:25103109

  17. Automatic Classification of Tongueprints in Healthy and Unhealthy Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaohui; Li, Naimin

    Tongueprints are fissile texture on tongue and one of observational contents of tongue diagnosis, which is an important diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). With deep researches on tongueprints, three basic problems emerge: (1) TCM has always held that healthy individuals do not exhibit tongueprints, but in the recent years some medical researchers have found some healthy individuals in their small sample (< 1000 cases) tongue image database do exhibit tongueprints. How about do tongueprints in a large amount of healthy individuals (> 2000 cases)? (2) If about a third of a large amount of healthy individuals have tongueprints, mainstream diagnosis by inspecting tongueprints should lead to an over-diagnosis problem and some healthy individuals are diagnosed mistakenly as unhealthy individuals because it holds tongueprints themselves declare publicly diseases. Thus it is necessary to diagnose definitely a tongueprint image belong to an unhealthy individual based on tongueprint features. This is a basic problem and is of theoretical and practical importance for diagnosis by inspecting tongueprints. And which features of tongueprints can be used to diagnose definitely a tongueprint image belong to an unhealthy individual? (3) Actually, the second problem is recognition and classification of tongueprints in healthy and unhealthy individuals. To further promote the modernization process of the traditional tongue diagnosis Chow are the researches done on automatic classification of tongueprints in healthy and unhealthy individuals? After further making sure there appear tongueprints in healthy individuals and finding which features of tongueprints can be used to diagnose definitely a tongueprint image belong to an unhealthy individual by statistic analysis on a large database of tongue images (more than 3000 cases), this paper do the researches about automatic classification of tongueprints in healthy and unhealthy individuals based on the large database. Firstly tongeprint regions are extracted by multi-direction synthetic tongueprint extraction. Then a SVM classifier is used to recognize a tongueprint image belong to a healthy or unhealthy individual based on tongueprint features. Recognition accurate rate of tongueprints in healthy and unhealthy individuals respectively are 75.81% and 74.61% based on the large database.

  18. The effectiveness of interventions to change six health behaviours: a review of reviews

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several World Health Organisation reports over recent years have highlighted the high incidence of chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer. Contributory factors include unhealthy diets, alcohol and tobacco use and sedentary lifestyles. This paper reports the findings of a review of reviews of behavioural change interventions to reduce unhealthy behaviours or promote healthy behaviours. We included six different health-related behaviours in the review: healthy eating, physical exercise, smoking, alcohol misuse, sexual risk taking (in young people) and illicit drug use. We excluded reviews which focussed on pharmacological treatments or those which required intensive treatments (e.g. for drug or alcohol dependency). Methods The Cochrane Library, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) and several Ovid databases were searched for systematic reviews of interventions for the six behaviours (updated search 2008). Two reviewers applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed the quality of the reviews. The results were discussed in a narrative synthesis. Results We included 103 reviews published between 1995 and 2008. The focus of interventions varied, but those targeting specific individuals were generally designed to change an existing behaviour (e.g. cigarette smoking, alcohol misuse), whilst those aimed at the general population or groups such as school children were designed to promote positive behaviours (e.g. healthy eating). Almost 50% (n = 48) of the reviews focussed on smoking (either prevention or cessation). Interventions that were most effective across a range of health behaviours included physician advice or individual counselling, and workplace- and school-based activities. Mass media campaigns and legislative interventions also showed small to moderate effects in changing health behaviours. Generally, the evidence related to short-term effects rather than sustained/longer-term impact and there was a relative lack of evidence on how best to address inequalities. Conclusions Despite limitations of the review of reviews approach, it is encouraging that there are interventions that are effective in achieving behavioural change. Further emphasis in both primary studies and secondary analysis (e.g. systematic reviews) should be placed on assessing the differential effectiveness of interventions across different population subgroups to ensure that health inequalities are addressed. PMID:20825660

  19. Unhealthy sleep practices, conduct problems, and daytime functioning during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Hsu; Yi, Chin-Chun

    2015-02-01

    Although sleep has been linked to activities in various domains of life, one under-studied link is the relationship between unhealthy sleep practices and conduct problems among adolescents. The present study investigates the influence of adolescents' unhealthy sleep practices-short sleep (e.g., less than 6 h a day), inconsistent sleep schedule (e.g., social jetlag), and sleep problems-on conduct problems (e.g., substance use, fighting, and skipping class). In addition, this study examines unhealthy sleep practices in relationship to adolescent emotional well-being, defiant attitudes, and academic performance, as well as these three domains as possible mediators of the longitudinal association between sleep practices and conduct problems. Three waves of the Taiwan Youth Project (n = 2,472) were used in this study. At the first time-point examined in this study, youth (51% male) were aged 13-17 (M = 13.3). The results indicated that all three measures of unhealthy sleep practices were related to conduct problems, such that short sleep, greater social jetlag, and more serious sleep problems were concurrently associated with greater conduct problems. In addition, short sleep and sleep problems predicted conduct problems one year later. Furthermore, these three unhealthy sleep practices were differently related to poor academic performance, low levels of emotional well-being, and defiant attitudes, and some significant indirect effects on later conduct problems through these three attributes were found. Cultural differences and suggestions for prevention are discussed. PMID:25148793

  20. Unhealthy food in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vilija, Malinauskiene; Romualdas, Malinauskas

    2014-03-01

    The linkage between mood states and unhealthy food consumption has been under investigation in the recent years. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms after lifetime traumatic experiences and daily unhealthy food consumption among adolescents, taking into account the possible effects of physical inactivity, smoking, and a sense of coherence. A self-administered questionnaire measured symptoms of PTS, lifetime traumatic experiences, food frequency scale, sense of coherence scale in a representative sample of eighth grade pupils of the Kaunas, Lithuania, secondary schools (N=1747; 49.3% girls and 50.7% boys). In the logistic regression models, all lifetime traumatic events were associated with PTS symptoms, as well as were unhealthy foods, (including light alcoholic drinks, spirits, soft and energy drinks, flavored milk, coffee, fast food, chips and salty snacks, frozen processed foods; excluding sweet snacks, biscuits and pastries) and sense of coherence weakened the strength of the associations. However, physical inactivity and smoking showed no mediating effect for the majority of unhealthy foods. In conclusion, we found that intervention and preventive programs on PTS symptoms may be beneficial while dealing with behavioral problems (unhealthy diet, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity) among adolescents. PMID:24326148

  1. Meals and snacks: Children's characterizations of food and eating cues.

    PubMed

    Marx, Jenna M; Hoffmann, Debra A; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2016-02-01

    This study examined preschoolers' and their parents' categorizations of eating episodes based on cues used for defining these occasions (i.e., time, portion size, preparation, content, and emotion) as a meal or snack. Thirty-four children aged 4 to 6 saw pictorial representations of each cue, along with a short verbal description, and were asked to place the picture in one of three boxes: "meal", "snack", or "either meal or snack". One parent per child (85% mothers, Mean age = 35.1 years) separately categorized the same items in an online survey. Results illustrated which cues play a role in how parents and children categorize eating occasions as meals or snacks. Parents used 24 of the 32 cue-related items to distinguish between eating occasions as a meal or a snack, while children used only four. Parents and preschoolers were consistent in using cartoon character packaging to indicate a snack, and also used several of the same content cues. The current study highlights the various cues used to categorize an eating occasion, and the unhealthy character of snacks, as participants associated some unhealthy foods and very few healthy foods with snacks. Future research should focus on the role of parents, the home environment, and advertising media in shaping children's characterizations of eating occasions towards development of healthy eating habits and away from problematic eating behaviors that may persist later in life. PMID:26585635

  2. Birth weight and later life adherence to unhealthy lifestyles in predicting type 2 diabetes: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Sylvia H; Tobias, Deirdre K; Chiuve, Stephanie E; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Curhan, Gary C; Willett, Walter C; Manson, JoAnn E; Hu, Frank B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively assess the joint association of birth weight and established lifestyle risk factors in adulthood with incident type 2 diabetes and to quantitatively decompose the attributing effects to birth weight only, to adulthood lifestyle only, and to their interaction. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010), Nurses’ Health Study (1980-2010), and Nurses’ Health Study II (1991-2011). Participants 149 794 men and women without diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline. Main outcome measure Incident cases of type 2 diabetes, identified through self report and validated by a supplementary questionnaire. Unhealthy lifestyle was defined on the basis of body mass index, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and the alternate healthy eating index. Results During 20-30 years of follow-up, 11 709 new cases of type 2 diabetes were documented. The multivariate adjusted relative risk of type 2 diabetes was 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.32 to 1.59) per kg lower birth weight and 2.10 (1.71 to 2.58) per unhealthy lifestyle factor. The relative risk of type 2 diabetes associated with a combination of per kg lower birth weight and per unhealthy lifestyle factor was 2.86 (2.26 to 3.63), which was more than the addition of the risk associated with each individual factor, indicating a significant interaction on an additive scale (P for interaction<0.001). The attributable proportions of joint effect were 22% (95% confidence interval 18.3% to 26.4%) to lower birth weight alone, 59% (57.1% to 61.5%) to unhealthy lifestyle alone, and 18% (13.9% to 21.3%) to their interaction. Conclusion Most cases of type 2 diabetes could be prevented by the adoption of a healthier lifestyle, but simultaneous improvement of both prenatal and postnatal factors could further prevent additional cases. PMID:26199273

  3. Maternal and best friends' influences on meal-skipping behaviours.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Natalie; Williams, Lauren; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2012-09-01

    Skipping meals is particularly common during adolescence and can have a detrimental effect on multiple aspects of adolescent health. Understanding the correlates of meal-skipping behaviours is important for the design of nutrition interventions. The present study examined maternal and best friends' influences on adolescent meal-skipping behaviours. Frequency of skipping breakfast, lunch and dinner was assessed using a Web-based survey completed by 3001 adolescent boys and girls from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Perceived best friend and maternal meal skipping, modelling of healthy eating (eating healthy food, limiting junk food, eating fruit and vegetables) and weight watching were assessed. Best friend and maternal factors were differentially associated with meal-skipping behaviours. For example, boys and girls who perceived that their best friend often skipped meals were more likely to skip lunch (OR = 2·01, 95 % CI 1·33, 3·04 and OR = 1·93, 95 % CI 1·41, 2·65; P < 0·001). Boys and girls who perceived that their mother often skipped meals were more likely to skip breakfast (OR = 1·48, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·15; P < 0·05 and OR = 1·93, 95 % CI 1·42, 2·59; P < 0·001) and lunch (OR = 2·05, 95 % CI 1·35, 3·12 and OR = 2·02, 95 % CI 1·43, 2·86; P < 0·001). Educating adolescents on how to assess and interpret unhealthy eating behaviours that they observe from significant others may be one nutrition promotion strategy to reduce meal-skipping behaviour. The involvement of mothers may be particularly important in such efforts. Encouraging a peer subculture that promotes regular consumption of meals and educates adolescents on the detrimental impact of meal-skipping behaviour on health may also offer a promising nutrition promotion strategy. PMID:22289518

  4. A Mediation Analysis of the ATHENA Intervention for Female Athletes: Prevention of Athletic-Enhancing Substance Use and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ranby, Krista W; Aiken, Leona S; Elliot, Diane L; Moe, Esther L; McGinnis, Wendy; Goldberg, Linn

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explain, through mediation analyses, the mechanisms by which ATHENA (Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise and Nutrition Alternatives), a primary prevention and health promotion intervention designed to deter unhealthy body shaping behaviors among female high school athletes, produced immediate changes in intentions for unhealthy weight loss and steroid/creatine use, and to examine the link to long-term follow-up intentions and behaviors. Methods In a randomized trial of 1668 athletes, intervention participants completed coach-led peer-facilitated sessions during their sport season. Participants provided pre-test, immediate post-test, and 9-month follow-up assessments. Results ATHENA decreased intentions for steroid/creatine use and intentions for unhealthy weight loss behaviors at post-test. These effects were most strongly mediated by social norms and self-efficacy for healthy eating. Low post-test intentions were maintained 9 months later and predicted subsequent behavior. Conclusions ATHENA successfully modified mediators that in turn related to athletic-enhancing substance use and unhealthy weight loss practices. Mediation analyses aid in the understanding of health promotion interventions and inform program development. PMID:19386771

  5. Using health primes to reduce unhealthy snack purchases among overweight consumers in a grocery store

    PubMed Central

    Papies, E K; Potjes, I; Keesman, M; Schwinghammer, S; van Koningsbruggen, G M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Healthy-eating intentions of overweight individuals are often thwarted by the presence of attractive food temptations in grocery stores and the home environment. To support healthy-eating intentions, we tested the effectiveness of a simple health prime to reduce the purchases of energy-dense snack foods in a grocery store among overweight individuals. Design: This field experiment had a 2 (condition: health prime vs control) 2 (weight status: overweight vs normal weight) between-participants design. Method: Customers of a grocery store were handed a recipe flyer that either contained a health and diet prime, or not. Participants' weight and height, as well as their attention to and awareness of the prime during shopping, were assessed by means of a questionnaire. The purchase of unhealthy snack foods was assessed by means of the receipt. Results: Results showed that the health prime reduced snack purchases compared with the control condition among overweight and obese participants. When primed, overweight and obese participants bought almost 75% fewer snacks than when not primed. Additional analyses showed that although the prime worked only when customers paid initial attention to the flyer that contained the health prime, no conscious awareness of the prime during grocery shopping was necessary for these effects. Conclusion: These findings suggest that health priming can lead to healthier grocery shopping among overweight consumers, without relying on conscious awareness during shopping. This makes priming a highly viable intervention tool to facilitate healthy food choices. Such tools are especially relevant in the setting of grocery shopping, given that they have direct effects on eating in the home environment and thus for longer-term weight management. PMID:23887063

  6. Rural Adolescent Girls Negotiating Healthy and Unhealthy Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Toupey; Jenkins, Melissa; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2012-01-01

    The focused discussions of adolescent girls were analyzed to explore the processes of managing healthy and unhealthy aspects of dating relationships. Grounded theory methods were used to generate an outline of these processes. The core category elicited from discussions with participants was "wrestling with gender expectations". This category…

  7. Cultural Norming in Schools in "Healthy" and "Unhealthy" Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jon C.; Pritchard, Ruie J.; Gunderson, Betsey H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines processes that personnel go through to assimilate the cultural norms of their schools. These processes are compared according to the teaching and learning environments of healthy, high achieving school districts and unhealthy, low achieving school districts. Specifically, this paper examines the "basket of crabs" effect, a

  8. Rural Adolescent Girls Negotiating Healthy and Unhealthy Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Toupey; Jenkins, Melissa; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2012-01-01

    The focused discussions of adolescent girls were analyzed to explore the processes of managing healthy and unhealthy aspects of dating relationships. Grounded theory methods were used to generate an outline of these processes. The core category elicited from discussions with participants was "wrestling with gender expectations". This category

  9. Development of an Intervention Programme to Encourage High School Students to Stay in School for Lunch Instead of Eating at Nearby Fast-Food Restaurants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2012-01-01

    Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present…

  10. Development of an Intervention Programme to Encourage High School Students to Stay in School for Lunch Instead of Eating at Nearby Fast-Food Restaurants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2012-01-01

    Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present

  11. Excessive Eating and Compulsive Buying Behaviours in Women: An Empirical Pilot Study Examining Reward Sensitivity, Anxiety, Impulsivity, Self-Esteem and Social Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Kate; Houston, James E.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    "Mall disorders" such as excessive eating and compulsive buying appear to be increasing, particularly among women. A battery of questionnaires was used in an attempt to determine this association between specific personality traits (i.e., reward sensitivity, impulsivity, cognitive and somatic anxiety, self-esteem, and social desirability) and

  12. Adolescents' views of food and eating: identifying barriers to healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T; Trew, Karen

    2007-06-01

    Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity. Twelve focus group discussions of single-sex groups of boys or girls ranging from early to-mid adolescence (N=73) were employed to identify key perceptions of, and influences upon, healthy eating behaviour. Thematic analysis identified four key factors as barriers to healthy eating. These factors were: physical and psychological reinforcement of eating behaviour; perceptions of food and eating behaviour; perceptions of contradictory food-related social pressures; and perceptions of the concept of healthy eating itself. Overall, healthy eating as a goal in its own right is notably absent from the data and would appear to be elided by competing pressures to eat unhealthily and to lose weight. This insight should inform the development of future food-related communications to adolescents. PMID:16730371

  13. Emotional Eating

    MedlinePLUS

    ... emotional eating has already led to weight and self-esteem issues. So don't go it alone when ... a Healthy Weight Smart Snacking About Overweight and Obesity Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  14. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... and friends again. Eating disorders involve both the mind and body. So medical doctors, mental health professionals, and dietitians ...

  15. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... binge eating of calorie-dense foods. People with anorexia nervosa may excessively exercise or excessively stand, pace ... a medical condition can be the gateway to anorexia nervosa or bulimia. For those who are genetically ...

  16. Family Meals and Disordered Eating in Adolescents: Are the Benefits the Same for Everyone?

    PubMed Central

    Loth, Katie; Wall, Melanie; Choi, Chien-Wen; Bucchianeri, Michaela; Quick, Virginia; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between family meals and disordered eating behaviors within a diverse sample of adolescents and further investigate whether family-level variables moderate this association. Method Data from adolescents (EAT 2010: Eating and Activity in Teens) and their parents (Project F-EAT: Families and Eating and Activity among Teens) were collected in 2009–2010. Surveys were completed by 2,382 middle and high school students (53.2% girls, mean age = 14.4 years) from Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN, public schools. Parents/guardians (n = 2,792) completed surveys by mail or phone. Results Greater frequency of family meals was associated with decreased odds of engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors in boys, and dieting, unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors in girls. Results indicate that the protective effects of family meals are, in general, robust to family-level variables; 64 interactions were examined and only seven were statistically significant. For example, among girls, the protective nature of family meals against dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors was diminished if they also reported family weight-related teasing (both p < .01). Discussion The results confirmed previous research indicating that participation in family meals is protective against disordered eating for youth, particularly girls. However, results suggest that in some cases, the protection offered by family meals may be modified by family-level variables. PMID:25130186

  17. The Color Red Supports Avoidance Reactions to Unhealthy Food.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Michaela; Kamm, Friederike; Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Groeppel-Klein, Andrea; Wentura, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that the color red acts like an implicit avoidance cue in food contexts. Thus specific colors seem to guide the implicit evaluation of food items. We built upon this research by investigating the implicit meaning of color (red vs. green) in an approach-avoidance task with healthy and unhealthy food items. Thus, we examined the joint evaluative effects of color and food: Participants had to categorize food items by approach-avoidance reactions, according to their healthfulness. Items were surrounded by task-irrelevant red or green circles. We found that the implicit meaning of the traffic light colors influenced participants' reactions to the food items. The color red (compared to green) facilitated automatic avoidance reactions to unhealthy foods. By contrast, approach behavior toward healthy food items was not moderated by color. Our findings suggest that traffic light colors can act as implicit cues that guide automatic behavioral reactions to food. PMID:26592533

  18. Children's Eating Behavior: The Importance of Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children's health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children's eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch

  19. Moral Overtones of Food: Judgments of Others Based on What They Eat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Richard I.; Nemeroff, Carol J.

    1995-01-01

    Investigated whether eating healthy or unhealthy foods gives rise to moral judgments about the consumer. Subjects were presented one of four bogus profiles of a person, differing only in gender and foods consumed, and rated the target on morality. Results confirmed that food choices influenced the raters' moral judgments. (RJM)

  20. Development and validation of the Healthy-Unhealthy Music Scale

    PubMed Central

    Saarikallio, Suvi; Gold, Christian; McFerran, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Background Music is an integral part of life in youth, and although it has been acknowledged that musical behavior reflects broader psychosocial aspects of adolescent behavior, no measurement instruments have been specifically designed for assessing musical engagement as an indicator of adolescent wellbeing and/or symptomatology. This study was conducted in order to develop and validate a scale for assessing musical engagement as an indicator of proneness for depression in youth. Method Items were developed based on the literature and a prior grounded theory analysis and three surveys (N = 54, N = 187, N = 211) were conducted to select, refine, test, and validate the items. Scale structure was investigated through interitem correlations, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA, CFA), and concurrent validity was tested with correlations to depression and wellbeing. Results The final Healthy-Unhealthy Music Scale (HUMS) consists of 13 items that are divided into Healthy and Unhealthy subscales. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were .78 for Healthy and .83 for Unhealthy. The concurrent validity of the HUMS was confirmed through correlations to wellbeing, happiness and school satisfaction on one hand and depression, rumination, and stress on the other. Conclusions The HUMS is as a promising instrument for screening musical engagement that is indicative of proneness for depression in youth. PMID:26726295

  1. The Association between Health Behaviours and Academic Performance in Canadian Elementary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D.; Kirk, Sara F. L.; Kuhle, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA). Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Results: Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students. PMID:26610537

  2. Functional Assessment and Behavioural Intervention for Eating Difficulties in Children with Autism: A Study Conducted in the Natural Environment Using Parents and ABA Tutors as Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Catherine M.; Eikeseth, Svein; Rudrud, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Two functional assessments (interview and direct observation) were used with three children with autism to identify the functions maintaining mealtime behaviour including acceptance, mouth clean, refusal, and other disruptive behaviours such as crying and pushing the spoon. Based on results of the functional assessments it was hypothesized that…

  3. Functional Assessment and Behavioural Intervention for Eating Difficulties in Children with Autism: A Study Conducted in the Natural Environment Using Parents and ABA Tutors as Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Catherine M.; Eikeseth, Svein; Rudrud, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Two functional assessments (interview and direct observation) were used with three children with autism to identify the functions maintaining mealtime behaviour including acceptance, mouth clean, refusal, and other disruptive behaviours such as crying and pushing the spoon. Based on results of the functional assessments it was hypothesized that

  4. Impact of food labelling systems on food choices and eating behaviours: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized studies.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, M; Warin, L

    2016-03-01

    Food labels are considered a crucial component of strategies tackling unhealthy diets and obesity. This study aims at assessing the effectiveness of food labelling in increasing the selection of healthier products and in reducing calorie intake. In addition, this study compares the relative effectiveness of traffic light schemes, Guideline Daily Amount and other food labelling schemes. A comprehensive set of databases were searched to identify randomized studies. Studies reporting homogeneous outcomes were pooled together and analysed through meta-analyses. Publication bias was evaluated with a funnel plot. Food labelling would increase the amount of people selecting a healthier food product by about 17.95% (confidence interval: +11.24% to +24.66%). Food labelling would also decrease calorie intake/choice by about 3.59% (confidence interval: -8.90% to +1.72%), but results are not statistically significant. Traffic light schemes are marginally more effective in increasing the selection of healthier options. Other food labels and Guideline Daily Amount follow. The available evidence did not allow studying the effects of single labelling schemes on calorie intake/choice. Findings of this study suggest that nutrition labelling may be an effective approach to empowering consumers in choosing healthier products. Interpretive labels, as traffic light labels, may be more effective. PMID:26693944

  5. Distraction, the desire to eat and food intake. Towards an expanded model of mindless eating.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Coop, Nicola; Cousins, Charlotte; Crump, Rebecca; Field, Laura; Hughes, Sarah; Woodger, Nigel

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the impact of different forms of distraction on eating behaviour with a focus on the mechanisms behind this association and the link between the amount consumed and changes in the desire to eat. Participants (n=81) were randomly allocated to four conditions: driving, television viewing, social interaction or being alone in which they took part in a taste test. Measures of the desire to eat (i.e. Hunger, fullness, motivation to eat) were assessed before and after the intervention. The results showed that those watching television consumed more than the social or driving conditions. Food intake was associated with a decreased desire to eat for those eating alone, but was unrelated to changes in the desire to eat for those driving. Watching television also created a decrease in the desire to eat commensurate with food intake whereas social eating resulted in the reverse relationship. The results are discussed in terms an expanded model of mindless eating and it is argued that eating more requires not only distraction away from the symptom of hunger but also sufficient cognitive capacity left to attend to the process of eating. PMID:23219989

  6. Taming temptation: Visual perspective impacts consumption and willingness to pay for unhealthy foods.

    PubMed

    Christian, Brittany M; Miles, Lynden K; Kenyeri, Sophie T; Mattschey, Jennifer; Macrae, C Neil

    2016-03-01

    While thinking about food is a ubiquitous facet of daily life, the perils of imaginary eating are well documented; food-related mental imagery elevates both cravings and consumption. Given the serious health issues that often arise from overeating and obesity, identifying strategies that can be used to combat the link between imagination and consumption is, therefore, of considerable theoretical and practical importance. Here we explored the possibility that a fundamental property of mental imagery-the visual perspective from which an event is viewed-may alter the appraisal of unhealthy foods. Specifically, because it is accompanied by attenuated sensorimotor activity, third-person (cf. first-person) imagery was expected to weaken the link between imagination and consumption. The results of 3 studies supported this prediction showing that third-person (cf. first-person) simulations decreased the mental representation, actual consumption, and willingness to pay for desirable items. Driving these effects was the natural reduction of sensory components furnished by third-person imagery. Together, these findings suggest that adoption of a third-person vantage point during mental imagery may be a viable and effective tactic for curbing consumption in everyday life. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844366

  7. Altered dynamics between neural systems sub-serving decisions for unhealthy food

    PubMed Central

    He, Qinghua; Xiao, Lin; Xue, Gui; Wong, Savio; Ames, Susan L.; Xie, Bin; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Using BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques, we examined the relationships between activities in the neural systems elicited by the decision stage of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and food choices of either vegetables or snacks high in fat and sugar. Twenty-three healthy normal weight adolescents and young adults, ranging in age from 14 to 21, were studied. Neural systems implicated in decision-making and inhibitory control were engaged by having participants perform the IGT during fMRI scanning. The Youth/Adolescent Questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire, was used to obtain daily food choices. Higher consumption of vegetables correlated with higher activity in prefrontal cortical regions, namely the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and lower activity in sub-cortical regions, namely the right insular cortex. In contrast, higher consumption of fatty and sugary snacks correlated with lower activity in the prefrontal regions, combined with higher activity in the sub-cortical, insular cortex. These results provide preliminary support for our hypotheses that unhealthy food choices in real life are reflected by neuronal changes in key neural systems involved in habits, decision-making and self-control processes. These findings have implications for the creation of decision-making based intervention strategies that promote healthier eating. PMID:25414630

  8. Adolescent aesthetic athletes: a group at risk for eating pathology?

    PubMed

    Van Durme, Kim; Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline

    2012-04-01

    Previous research shows that leanness- and weight-dependent sports increase the risk of developing disturbed eating behaviour. This study investigated whether adolescent aesthetic athletes (n=68, M=14.6 years), particularly ballet dancers and figure skaters, exhibit more eating pathology compared to the general population. Furthermore, it was investigated whether sport-related factors have explanatory value for the dieting behaviour of aesthetic athletes. To asses eating pathology, reliable and valid self-report questionnaires were used including the Eating Disorder Inventory-II, the Children's Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Results show that female aesthetic athletes show more drive for thinness, features of bulimia, dieting behaviour and concerns about weight and shape compared to female adolescents from the general population. Concerning the explanation of dieting behaviour in aesthetic athletes, both sport-related factors (competition state anxiety) and general risk factors (eating concern) seem to be relevant. These results suggest that female aesthetic athletes show more disturbed eating behaviour and thoughts than female adolescents from the general population and therefore may have an enhanced risk of developing clinical eating disorders. PMID:22365793

  9. Eating habits and eating behaviors by family dinner frequency in the lower-grade elementary school students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seo Yeon; Ha, Seong Ah; Seo, Jung Sook; Sohn, Cheong Min; Park, Hae Ryun

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Recently, there has been an increased interest in the importance of family meals on children's health and nutrition. This study aims to examine if the eating habits and eating behaviors of children are different according to the frequency of family dinners. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were third-grade students from 70 elementary schools in 17 cities nationwide. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed. The survey questionnaire was composed of items that examined the general characteristics, family meals, eating habits, eating behaviors, and environmental influence on children's eating. The subjects responded to a self-reported questionnaire. Excluding the incomplete responses, the data (n = 3,435) were analyzed using ?2-test or t-test. RESULTS The group that had more frequent family dinners (? 5 days/week, 63.4%), compared to those that had less (? 4 days/week, 36.6%), showed better eating habits, such as eating meals regularly, performing desirable behaviors during meals, having breakfast frequently, having breakfast with family members (P < 0.001), and not eating only what he or she likes (P < 0.05). Those who had more frequent family dinners also consumed healthy foods with more frequency, including protein foods, dairy products, grains, vegetables, seaweeds (P < 0.001), and fruits (P < 0.01). However, unhealthy eating behaviors (e.g., eating fatty foods, salty foods, sweets, etc.) were not significantly different by the frequency of family dinners. CONCLUSIONS Having dinner frequently with family members was associated with more desirable eating habits and with healthy eating behaviors in young children. Thus nutrition education might be planned to promote family dinners, by emphasizing the benefits of having family meals on children's health and nutrition and making more opportunities for family meals. PMID:25489408

  10. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    PubMed

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity. PMID:24074215

  11. Unhealthy Weight Control Practices: Culprits and Clinical Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Zachary Michael; Patterson, Sean; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Preoccupation with weight status and a desire to lose weight appears common. Many individuals seek “magic bullet” approaches to weight loss and waive the risks of using these products. In this paper, we review the challenges of weight maintenance, highlight some unhealthy weight control practices, and discuss the futility and potential danger of unregulated weight control agents. Novel clinical strategies are discussed that health care providers may use to triage patients with obesity in an attempt to make ethical and personalized treatment decisions. PMID:25733947

  12. Eating disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  13. Eating the elephant whole or in slices: views of participants in a smoking cessation intervention trial on multiple behaviour changes as sequential or concurrent tasks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper explores smoking cessation participants’ perceptions of attempting weight management alongside smoking cessation within the context of a health improvement intervention implemented in Glasgow, Scotland. Methods One hundred and thirty-eight participants were recruited from smoking cessation classes in areas of multiple deprivation in Glasgow and randomised to intervention, receiving dietary advice, or to control groups. The primary outcome of the study was to determine the % change in body weight. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 15 intervention and 15 control participants at weeks 6 (during the intervention) and 24 (at the end of the intervention). The current paper, though predominantly qualitative, links perceptions of behaviour modification to % weight change and cessation rates at week 24 thereby enabling a better understanding of the mediators influencing multiple behaviour change. Results Our findings suggest that participants who perceive separate behaviour changes as part of a broader approach to a healthier lifestyle, and hence attempt behaviour changes concurrently, may be at comparative advantage in positively achieving dual outcomes. Conclusions These findings highlight the need to assess participants’ preference for attempting multiple behaviour changes sequentially or simultaneously in addition to assessing their readiness to change. Further testing of this hypothesis is warranted. Trial Registration ISRCTN94961361 PMID:22759785

  14. Does maternal history of eating disorders predict mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating?

    PubMed

    de Barse, Lisanne M; Tharner, Anne; Micali, Nadia; Jaddoe, Vincent V W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning; Jansen, Pauline W

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to examine whether a maternal history of eating disorders predicted mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating patterns. Data were available from 4851 mothers and their children, who participated in a Dutch population-based cohort study (the Generation R Study). Maternal history of lifetime eating disorders was assessed during pregnancy using a self-report questionnaire. Mothers filled out the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire when children were four years old. Linear regression analyses were performed, adjusting for potential confounders. Of all mothers, 8.6% had a history of an eating disorder (2.5% anorexia nervosa (AN); 3.9% bulimia nervosa (BN); 2.2% both AN and BN). Compared to mothers without a history of eating disorders, mothers with a history of eating disorders, in particular AN, used less pressuring feeding strategies (standardized B?=?-0.30; 95% CI: -0.49, -0.11). Children of mothers with a history of AN had relatively high levels of emotional overeating (standardized B?=?0.19; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.39). Maternal history of BN was not related to mothers' feeding practices or children's emotional eating. Overall, the levels of emotional overeating among children of mothers with a history of eating disorders are noteworthy, particularly considering the young age (4 years) of participating children. This finding may reflect an effect of maternal eating disorders on the development of disordered eating patterns, but could also be subject to mothers' perception. PMID:25450896

  15. Diet behaviour among young people in transition to adulthood (1825 year olds): a mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    Poobalan, Amudha S.; Aucott, Lorna S.; Clarke, Amanda; Smith, William Cairns S.

    2014-01-01

    Background : Young people (1825 years) during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, diet behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore diet behaviour among 1825 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods: An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at University/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) were included. An initial quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted and the results from this were incorporated into the qualitative phase. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi-staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. Framework Analysis was used to analyse the focus groups. Results: 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22%, increasing with age, particularly in males. Based on the survey, 40% of young people reported eating an adequate amount of fruits and vegetables and 59% eating regular meals, but 32% reported unhealthy snacking. Based on the statistical modelling, positive attitudes towards diet and high intention (89%), did not translate into healthy diet behaviour. From the focus group discussions, the main motivators for diet behaviour were self-appearance and having variety of food. There were mixed opinions on cost of food and taste. Conclusion: Elements deemed really important to young people have been identified. This mixed method study is the largest in this vulnerable and neglected group covering a wide spectrum of the community. It provides evidence base to inform tailored interventions for a healthy diet within this age group. PMID:25750826

  16. Psychosocial and Environmental Determinants of Eating Behaviors, Physical Activity, and Weight Change among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaille, Lara J.; Dauner, Kim Nichols; Krambeer, Rachel J.; Pedersen, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to identify factors that college students perceived as contributing to healthy and unhealthy eating patterns, physical activity (PA) levels, and weight change. Participants: Forty-nine 18- to 22-year-old students at a midwestern university participated. Methods: Six focus groups (3 with each gender) were

  17. Preschool children with lower executive function may be more vulnerable to emotional-based eating in the absence of hunger

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decreased executive function has been linked to unhealthy eating behaviors and obesity in older children and adults, however little is known about this relationship in young children. A pilot project in a research-based preschool was conducted to examine the relationships between executive function...

  18. Psychosocial and Environmental Determinants of Eating Behaviors, Physical Activity, and Weight Change among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaille, Lara J.; Dauner, Kim Nichols; Krambeer, Rachel J.; Pedersen, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to identify factors that college students perceived as contributing to healthy and unhealthy eating patterns, physical activity (PA) levels, and weight change. Participants: Forty-nine 18- to 22-year-old students at a midwestern university participated. Methods: Six focus groups (3 with each gender) were…

  19. Eating traits questionnaires as a continuum of a single concept. Uncontrolled eating.

    PubMed

    Vainik, Uku; Neseliler, Selin; Konstabel, Kenn; Fellows, Lesley K; Dagher, Alain

    2015-07-01

    Research on eating behaviour has identified several potentially relevant eating-related traits captured by different questionnaires. Often, these questionnaires predict Body Mass Index (BMI), but the relationship between them has not been explicitly studied. We studied the unity and diversity of questionnaires capturing five common eating-related traits: Power of Food, Eating Impulsivity, emotional eating, Disinhibition, and binge eating in women from Estonia (n?=?740) and Canada (n?=?456). Using bifactor analysis, we showed that a) these questionnaires are largely explained by a single factor, and b) relative to this shared factor, only some questionnaires offered additional variance in predicting BMI. Hence, these questionnaires seemed to characterise a common factor, which we label Uncontrolled Eating. Item Response Theory techniques were then applied to demonstrate that c) within this common factor, the questionnaires could be placed on a continuum of Uncontrolled Eating. That is, Eating Impulsivity focused on the milder degree, Power of Food Scale, emotional eating scales, and Disinhibition on intermediate degrees, and the Binge Eating Scale on the most severe degrees of Uncontrolled Eating. In sum, evidence from two samples showed that questionnaires capturing five common BMI-related traits largely reflected the same underlying latent trait - Uncontrolled Eating. In Estonia, some questionnaires focused on different severities of this common construct, supporting a continuum model of Uncontrolled Eating. These findings provide a starting point for developing better questionnaires of the neurobehavioural correlates of obesity, and provide a unifying perspective from which to view the existing literature. R scripts and data used for the analysis are provided. PMID:25769975

  20. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and may promote weight loss.​ What are the health risks of binge eating disorder? People with binge eating ... binge eating disorder try to lose weight? What health risks are linked to excess weight? Excess weight may ...

  1. Kids and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Kids and Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Kids and Eating Disorders Print ... withdrawing from social activities previous continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ...

  2. A survey to assist in targeting the adults who undertake risky behaviours, know their health behaviours are not optimal and who acknowledge being worried about their health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research indicates that those who are worried about their health are more likely to change their in-appropriate behavioural-related risk factors. A national survey was undertaken to determine adults who correctly perceive and actually undertake in-appropriate behavioural-related risk factors (smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, fruit and vegetable consumption, weight and psychological distress) and are worried about their health. Methods Australian 2010 CATI survey of 3003 randomly selected adults. Perception and self-reported levels of each risk factor, and whether they worried that the level was affecting their health were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results The comparisons between perception of healthy behaviour and actual behaviour varied for each risk factor with 44.1% of people in the un-healthy weight range and 72.9% of those eating less than sufficient fruit and vegetables having the perception that their behaviour was healthy. The demographic and other related variables in the multivariate analyse for each risk factor varied considerably. For example the variables in the final multivariate model for smokers who were worried about their risk factor were markedly different to the other risk factor models and 45 to 54 year olds were more likely to be included in the final models for nearly all of the risk factor analyses. Conclusion By limiting this analyses to those who are acknowledging (correctly or otherwise) that their perception of behaviour is making their health worse, this study has shown that the profile for each risk factor varies considerably. As such, evidence suggests specific targeted programs are required rather than a broad brush approach. PMID:23390925

  3. [Healthy eating according to teenagers: perceptions, barriers, and expected characteristics of teaching materials].

    PubMed

    Toral, Natacha; Conti, Maria Aparecida; Slater, Betzabeth

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate perceptions, barriers, and characteristics of teaching materials to promote healthy eating, as described by teenagers. Four focus groups were conducted with 25 adolescents, including questions on: perceptions regarding diet and motivations to change; concepts of (and barriers to) healthy eating; and characteristics needed for teaching materials to promote healthy eating. The teens were often undecided when attempting to classify a diet as healthy. They generally reported feeling insecure about making dietary changes, but showed adequate notions of healthy eating. The main barriers involved personal and social characteristics: temptation, food flavors, parental influence, and lack of time and options for healthy snacks at school. According to these teenagers, educational materials for promotion of healthy eating should emphasize the immediate benefits and emphasize high-impact messages on the health risks of unhealthy diet. PMID:19936477

  4. A risky occupation? (Un)healthy lifestyle behaviors among Danish seafarers.

    PubMed

    Hjarnoe, Lulu; Leppin, Anja

    2014-12-01

    Sedentary working conditions, smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lack of exercise are some of the lifestyle risk factors that form a potentially growing problem for seafarers within certain parts of the maritime sector creating a heightened risk for chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Health promotion initiatives to combat this negative development requires as a first step identifying the magnitude of the different risk factors. A survey was conducted in 2007-08 with two Danish shipping companies on seafarers' health, wellbeing, diet, smoking and physical activity. In addition, a health profile was offered to the respondents, consisting of physiological measurements, such as fitness rating, body mass index (BMI), cholesterol measurement and blood pressure. The response rate in the questionnaire study was 57% (n = 360) of which 76% (n = 272) of the respondents received a health profile. Results (males) showed 44% daily smokers compared with 32% in the general Danish adult male population. Twenty-five percent of the seafarers were obese with a BMI > 30 compared with 12% of the Danish adult male population. Fifty-one percent of the respondents were defined as having metabolic syndrome, compared with 20% of the Danish adult male population. Seafaring is a risky occupation when looking at the seafarers' health and wellbeing. The results of this survey confirm the need for health promotion interventions such as smoking cessation courses, healthy cooking courses and physical exercise programs, etc. that can enable healthier lifestyle. The challenge will be to take into account the special seafaring conditions when implementing the interventions. PMID:23630132

  5. Is overweight at 12 months associated with differences in eating behaviour or dietary intake among children selected for inappropriate bottle use?

    PubMed

    Bonuck, Karen; Avraham, Sivan Ben; Hearst, Mary; Kahn, Richard; Hyden, Christel

    2014-04-01

    Bottle feeding beyond the recommended weaning age of 12 months is a risk factor for childhood obesity. This paper describes a sample of toddlers at high risk for obesity: prolonged bottle users from a low-income multi-ethnic community. We report here baseline mealtime and feeding behaviour, 24 h dietary recall and bottle intake data for Feeding Young Children Study (FYCS) participants, by overweight (≥85% weight-for-length) status. FYCS enrolled 12-13-month-olds from urban nutrition programmes for low-income families in the United States who were consuming ≥2 bottles per day. Our sample was predominately Hispanic (62%), 44% of mothers were born outside of the United States and 48% were male. Overall, 35% were overweight. Overweight status was not associated with mealtime/feeding behaviours, bottle use or dietary intake. Most (90%) children ate enough, were easily satisfied and did not exhibit negative (e.g. crying, screaming) mealtime behaviours, per parent report. The sample's median consumption of 4 bottles per day accounted for 50% of their total calories; each bottle averaged 7 ounces and contained 120 calories. Mean daily energy intake, 1098.3 kcal day(-1) (standard deviation = 346.1), did not differ by weight status, nor did intake of fat, saturated fat, protein or carbohydrates. Whole milk intake, primarily consumed via bottles, did not differ by weight status. Thus, overweight 12-13-month-olds in FYCS were remarkably similar to their non-overweight peers in terms of several obesity risk factors. Findings lend support to the set-point theory and prior work finding that weight and intake patterns in the first year of life alter subsequent obesity risk. PMID:23556429

  6. In good company. The effect of an eating companion's appearance on food intake.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Mitsuru; Johnson, Katie; Wansink, Brian

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not the presence of an overweight eating companion influences healthy and unhealthy eating behavior, and to determine if the effect is moderated by how the companion serves herself. A professional actress either wore an overweight prosthesis (i.e., "fatsuit") or did not wear one, and served herself either healthily (i.e., a small amount of pasta and a large amount of salad) or unhealthily (i.e., a large amount of pasta and a small amount of salad) for lunch. After observing her, male and female participants were asked to serve themselves pasta and salad to eat. Results demonstrated that regardless of how the confederate served, participants served and ate a larger amount of pasta when she was wearing the prosthesis than when she was not. In addition, when the confederate served herself healthily, participants served and ate a smaller amount of salad when she was wearing the prosthesis than when she was not. Consistent with the "lower health commitment" hypothesis, these results demonstrated that people may eat larger portions of unhealthy food and smaller portions of healthy food when eating with an overweight person, probably because the health commitment goal is less activated. More generally, this study provides evidence that the body type of an eating companion, as well as whether she serves herself healthily or unhealthily, influences the quantity of food intake. PMID:25218720

  7. Integrating messages from the eating disorders field into obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-12-01

    Weight-related problems, including unhealthy weight control behaviors, binge eating, overweight and obesity, and eating disorders, are prevalent in youth. Furthermore, many young people exhibit more than one of these problems. Therefore, it is essential to consider how to simultaneously work toward the prevention of a broad range of weight-related problems in youth. Dieting, body dissatisfaction, weight talk, and weight-related teasing are commonly addressed risk factors within eating disorder prevention interventions, whereas low levels of physical activity and high intakes of foods high in fat and sugar are commonly addressed within interventions aimed at obesity prevention. Empirical data to be presented in this article demonstrate why risk factors such as dieting and body dissatisfaction, which are typically addressed within the eating disorder field, need to also be addressed within the obesity field. Although dieting and body dissatisfaction strongly predict weight gain over time, these findings are not always taken into account in the design of obesity interventions for youth. Possible reasons as to why risk factors such as dieting, body dissatisfaction, and weight stigmatization may be not adequately addressed within interventions addressing obesity are discussed. Suggestions for how physicians and other nonphysician clinicians might link messages from the fields of both eating disorders and obesity into their work with youth are provided. Finally, the potential for work on mindfulness and yoga to decrease risk factors for both eating disorders and obesity are explored. PMID:23437686

  8. Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age) from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p <0.001). Furthermore, compared to participants from the high-income neighbourhood, people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to report buying food from street vendors while less likely to dine out at both fast food and non-fast food restaurants (p<0.001). Although the high-income neighbourhood group was more likely to report enjoying eating at fast food restaurants than their low-income neighbourhood counterparts, there were no significant differences in the reasons for visiting fast food restaurants (convenience, price, social enjoyment, and quality of meals) between the two groups. Both groups preferred home cooked over restaurant meals, and they recognized that home cooked food was healthier. Conclusions Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more frequently and were more likely to perceive Western-style food as fast food compared to their counterparts from the low-income neighbourhood. PMID:23289746

  9. Clustering and Correlates of Multiple Health Behaviours in 910 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Corpeleijn, Eva; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Atkin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep, physical activity, screen time and dietary behaviours influence health during childhood, but few studies have looked at all of these behaviours simultaneously and previous research has relied predominantly on self- or proxy-reports of physical activity and food frequency questionnaires for the assessment of diet. Purpose To assess the prevalence and clustering of health behaviours and examine the socio-demographic characteristics of children that fail to meet multiple health behaviour guidelines. Methods Data are from the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) study. Participants (n?=?1472, 42.9% male) were dichotomized based on whether or not they met public health guidelines for accelerometer-assessed physical activity, diet-diary assessed fruit/vegetable intake and fat/non-milk extrinsic sugar (NMES) intake, and self-reported screen time and sleep duration. Behavioural clustering was assessed using an observed over expected ratio (O/E). Socio-demographic characteristics of participants that failed to meet multiple health behaviour guidelines were examined using ordinal logistic regression. Data were analysed in 2013. Results 83.3% of children failed to meet guidelines for two or more health behaviours. The O/E ratio for two behavioural combinations significantly exceeded 1, both of which featured high screen time, insufficient fruit/vegetable consumption and excessive fat/NMES intake. Children who were older (Proportional odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.69 (1.21,2.37)) and those that attended a school with a physical activity or diet-related policy (1.28 (1.01,1.62)) were more likely to have a poor health behaviour profile. Girls (0.80 (0.64,0.99)), participants with siblings (0.76 (0.61,0.94)) and those with more highly educated parents (0.73 (0.56,0.94)) were less likely to have a poor health behaviour profile. Conclusions A substantial proportion of children failed to meet guidelines for multiple health behaviours and there was evidence of clustering of screen viewing and unhealthy dietary behaviours. Sub-groups at greatest risk may be targeted for intervention. PMID:24923793

  10. Team-level approaches to addressing disordered eating: a qualitative study of two female collegiate cross country running teams.

    PubMed

    Kroshus, Emily; Goldman, Roberta E; Kubzansky, Laura D; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to consider strategies used by two similarly competitive female collegiate cross country running teams to address teammate eating behaviors perceived to be unhealthy and problematic. Data were obtained through semi-structured individual interviews with team members (n?=?35). Teams differed in how they addressed problematic eating behaviors: members of one team described a collaborative, positive, team-focused and direct approach, while the most commonly described strategy for the other team was to do nothing. Possible contextual and compositional reasons for between-team differences and implications for prevention and detection of disordered eating among female athletes are discussed. PMID:24392949

  11. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes With Body Composition and Anthropometric Indices in Physical Education Students

    PubMed Central

    Rouzitalab, Tohid; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Amirsasan, Ramin; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Farsad Naeimi, Alireza; Sanoobar, Meisam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal eating behavior, unhealthy weight control methods, and eating disordered symptoms have risen among college students. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine disordered eating attitudes and their relationship with anthropometric and body composition indices in physical education students in Tabriz, the capital of East Azerbaijan province, Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 physical education students, 105 males and 105 females aged 18 to 25, who were selected by systematic random sampling from physical education faculty of Tabriz University in Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. Eating attitude test (EAT-26) was used for the assessment of disordered eating attitudes. In addition, anthropometric and body composition indices were assessed. Results: About 10% of the studied subject had disturbed eating attitudes; significantly more males (15.4%) reported an EAT-26 ≥ 20 (disordered eating attitudes) than females (4.8%) (P < 0.05). In males, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weist perimeter (WP) (r = 0.21, P < 0.05) and the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.26, P < 0.01). In females, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weight (r = 0.19, P < 0.05) and the WP (r = 0.28, P < 0.01). In females, weight (P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05), WP (P < 0.01), and waist-to-hip ratio (P < 0.05) were significantly different between disordered eating attitude and healthy subjects, while in males there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the anthropometric and body composition indices. Conclusions: Abnormal eating attitude was notable among physical education students in Tabriz, Iran. It seems that some anthropometric indices such as BMI and central obesity indices were related to the increase of disordered eating attitude. PMID:26734482

  12. Eating for Sports

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fasts (not eating at all or eating very little) can be harmful to kids. Being busy can make it difficult to eat ... you practice or compete. You might get a little energy boost, but it will fade fast, leaving you feeling drained. But eating and drinking the right ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Is Dieting ...

  13. Does temporal discounting explain unhealthy behavior? A systematic review and reinforcement learning perspective.

    PubMed

    Story, Giles W; Vlaev, Ivo; Seymour, Ben; Darzi, Ara; Dolan, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    The tendency to make unhealthy choices is hypothesized to be related to an individual's temporal discount rate, the theoretical rate at which they devalue delayed rewards. Furthermore, a particular form of temporal discounting, hyperbolic discounting, has been proposed to explain why unhealthy behavior can occur despite healthy intentions. We examine these two hypotheses in turn. We first systematically review studies which investigate whether discount rates can predict unhealthy behavior. These studies reveal that high discount rates for money (and in some instances food or drug rewards) are associated with several unhealthy behaviors and markers of health status, establishing discounting as a promising predictive measure. We secondly examine whether intention-incongruent unhealthy actions are consistent with hyperbolic discounting. We conclude that intention-incongruent actions are often triggered by environmental cues or changes in motivational state, whose effects are not parameterized by hyperbolic discounting. We propose a framework for understanding these state-based effects in terms of the interplay of two distinct reinforcement learning mechanisms: a "model-based" (or goal-directed) system and a "model-free" (or habitual) system. Under this framework, while discounting of delayed health may contribute to the initiation of unhealthy behavior, with repetition, many unhealthy behaviors become habitual; if health goals then change, habitual behavior can still arise in response to environmental cues. We propose that the burgeoning development of computational models of these processes will permit further identification of health decision-making phenotypes. PMID:24659960

  14. Healthy vs. unhealthy food: a strategic choice for firms and consumers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we carry out a theoretical analysis of the strategic choice made by firms regarding the type of food they market when they face consumers who care about the healthy/unhealthy attributes of the product but incur in emotional/health costs when the food they consume has unhealthy attributes. We consider a two-stage game. In the first stage, one of the firms chooses the unhealthy content of its product. In the second stage, both firms simultaneously decide their prices. We find that, depending on the parameters of the model, product differentiation can be maximal or less than maximal. The firm that produces the unhealthy food charges a higher price and obtains a larger share of the market unless the emotional/health costs and the unhealthy food production costs are relatively high. We also find that educational campaigns will not always reduce the demand for the unhealthy food or the degree of the unhealthy attribute. JEL Classification:I10, I18, L11 PMID:22828271

  15. Does temporal discounting explain unhealthy behavior? A systematic review and reinforcement learning perspective

    PubMed Central

    Story, Giles W.; Vlaev, Ivo; Seymour, Ben; Darzi, Ara; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The tendency to make unhealthy choices is hypothesized to be related to an individual's temporal discount rate, the theoretical rate at which they devalue delayed rewards. Furthermore, a particular form of temporal discounting, hyperbolic discounting, has been proposed to explain why unhealthy behavior can occur despite healthy intentions. We examine these two hypotheses in turn. We first systematically review studies which investigate whether discount rates can predict unhealthy behavior. These studies reveal that high discount rates for money (and in some instances food or drug rewards) are associated with several unhealthy behaviors and markers of health status, establishing discounting as a promising predictive measure. We secondly examine whether intention-incongruent unhealthy actions are consistent with hyperbolic discounting. We conclude that intention-incongruent actions are often triggered by environmental cues or changes in motivational state, whose effects are not parameterized by hyperbolic discounting. We propose a framework for understanding these state-based effects in terms of the interplay of two distinct reinforcement learning mechanisms: a “model-based” (or goal-directed) system and a “model-free” (or habitual) system. Under this framework, while discounting of delayed health may contribute to the initiation of unhealthy behavior, with repetition, many unhealthy behaviors become habitual; if health goals then change, habitual behavior can still arise in response to environmental cues. We propose that the burgeoning development of computational models of these processes will permit further identification of health decision-making phenotypes. PMID:24659960

  16. The promotion of unhealthy habits in gay, lesbian, and straight intimate partnerships.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne

    2012-09-01

    Health habits are linked to nearly half of U.S. and British deaths annually. While a legacy of research suggests that marriage has important positive consequences for health habits, recent work emphasizes that intimate ties can also deter from healthy habits and promote unhealthy habits. However, few studies examine the mechanisms through which unhealthy habits are promoted in marriage. Moreover, little research explores how unhealthy habits are promoted in intimate ties other than marriage-such as in gay and lesbian cohabiting relationships. The present study analyzes the mechanisms through which gay, lesbian, and straight long-term partners (N = 120) contribute to one another's unhealthy habits. Three distinct mechanisms emerge. First, respondents identify a process of unilateral health habit diffusion wherein one partner's health habits directly influence the other partners' habits. Second, respondents describe bilateral unhealthy habit diffusion, wherein both partner's unhealthy habits are reinforced via mutual pleasure seeking or mutual failed motivation. Third, respondents describe a discourse of personal responsibility, wherein both partners purposefully fail to deter one another's unhealthy habits. Analysis further illustrates how these mechanisms operate differently for men and women in gay, lesbian, and straight relationships. PMID:22703888

  17. Food as Risk: How Eating Habits and Food Knowledge Affect Reactivity to Pictures of Junk and Healthy Foods.

    PubMed

    Yegiyan, Narine S; Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-05-01

    This study explores how people respond to images of junk versus healthy food as a function of their eating habits and food knowledge. The experiment reported here proposed and tested the idea that those with unhealthy eating habits but highly knowledgeable about healthy eating would feel more positive and also more negative toward junk food images compared to images of healthy food because they may perceive them as risky-desirable but potentially harmful. The psychophysiological data collected from participants during their exposure to pictures of junk versus healthy food supported this idea. In addition, unhealthy eaters compared to healthy eaters with the same degree of food knowledge responded more positively to all food items. The findings are critical from a health communication perspective. Because unhealthy eaters produce stronger emotional responses to images of junk food, they are more likely to process information associated with junk food with more cognitive effort and scrutiny. Thus, when targeting this group and using images of junk food, it is important to combine these images with strong message claims and relevant arguments; otherwise, if the arguments are perceived as irrelevant or weak, the motivational activation associated with junk food itself may transfer into an increased desire to consume the unhealthy product. PMID:26503541

  18. Barriers and Facilitators to the Uptake and Maintenance of Healthy Behaviours by People at Mid-Life: A Rapid Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Sarah; Martin, Steven; Kuhn, Isla; Cowan, Andy; Brayne, Carol; Lafortune, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background With an ageing population, there is an increasing societal impact of ill health in later life. People who adopt healthy behaviours are more likely to age successfully. To engage people in health promotion initiatives in mid-life, a good understanding is needed of why people do not undertake healthy behaviours or engage in unhealthy ones. Methods Searches were conducted to identify systematic reviews and qualitative or longitudinal cohort studies that reported mid-life barriers and facilitators to healthy behaviours. Mid-life ranged from 40 to 64 years, but younger adults in disadvantaged or minority groups were also eligible to reflect potential earlier disease onset. Two reviewers independently conducted reference screening and study inclusion. Included studies were assessed for quality. Barriers and facilitators were identified and synthesised into broader themes to allow comparisons across behavioural risks. Findings From 16,426 titles reviewed, 28 qualitative studies, 11 longitudinal cohort studies and 46 systematic reviews were included. Evidence was found relating to uptake and maintenance of physical activity, diet and eating behaviours, smoking, alcohol, eye care, and other health promoting behaviours and grouped into six themes: health and quality of life, sociocultural factors, the physical environment, access, psychological factors, evidence relating to health inequalities. Most of the available evidence was from developed countries. Barriers that recur across different health behaviours include lack of time (due to family, household and occupational responsibilities), access issues (to transport, facilities and resources), financial costs, entrenched attitudes and behaviours, restrictions in the physical environment, low socioeconomic status, lack of knowledge. Facilitators include a focus on enjoyment, health benefits including healthy ageing, social support, clear messages, and integration of behaviours into lifestyle. Specific issues relating to population and culture were identified relating to health inequalities. Conclusions The barriers and facilitators identified can inform the design of tailored interventions for people in mid-life. PMID:26815199

  19. Chronic Illness and Disordered Eating: A Discussion of the Literature12

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Virginia M.; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the prevalence of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors, the reasons why these practices are endorsed, and the potential consequences in youths and young adults with selected diet-related chronic health conditions (DRCHCs) and provides recommendations for eating disorder prevention interventions and research efforts. Although it remains unclear whether the prevalence of eating disorders is higher in those with DRCHCs compared with the general population, overall findings suggest that young people with DRCHCs may be at risk of endorsing disordered eating behaviors that may lead to diagnosis of an eating disorder and other health problems over the course of their treatment. Thus, health care providers should be aware that young people with DRCHCs may be at risk of eating disorders and carefully monitor psychological changes and the use of unhealthy weight control methods. It is also important to develop and evaluate theory-based interventions and disease-specific eating disorder risk screening tools that are effective in halting the progression of eating disorders and negative health outcomes in young people with chronic health conditions. PMID:23674793

  20. Eating disorders, perceived control, assertiveness and hostility.

    PubMed

    Williams, G J; Chamove, A S; Millar, H R

    1990-09-01

    There are anecdotal claims that eating disorder patients perceive themselves as highly controlled by the family and by society, but that they do not show assertive behaviour towards controllers. Anorexic and bulimic females were compared with female psychiatric patients, dieters and non-dieting controls on measures of eating disorder symptomatology, locus of control, assertiveness, inwardly directed hostility, family control and family encouragement of independence. Eating disorder patients reported significantly more external control, more inwardly directed hostility, less self-assertion and less family encouragement of independence than dieters and non-dieting controls, but they did not differ from psychiatric controls. Most of the characteristics seen in eating disorder subjects were also reported by psychiatric controls. PMID:2252948

  1. The Relationship bBetween Health and Fitness Magazine Reading and Eating-Disordered Weight-Loss Methods among High School Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.; Weber, Michele M.; Brown, Lora Beth

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between reading women's health and fitness magazines and using eating disordered diet methods (laxatives, appetite suppressants/diet pills, vomiting, and over-restricting calories) among adolescent high school girls. Student surveys found positive associations between reading frequency and use of unhealthy weight

  2. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vainik, Uku; Dubé, Laurette; Lu, Ji; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied. Methods A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner). The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation. Results Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment. PMID:26633707

  3. One in Five U.S. Kids Over Age 5 Has Unhealthy Cholesterol: CDC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_156159.html One in Five U.S. Kids Over Age 5 Has Unhealthy Cholesterol: CDC Rates ... Prevention. Overall, slightly more than 13 percent of kids had unhealthily low levels of HDL ("good") cholesterol -- ...

  4. Care for hospitalized patients with unhealthy alcohol use: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for unhealthy alcohol use in the general hospital, as highlighted by new Joint Commission recommendations on SBIRT. However, the evidence supporting this approach is not as robust relative to primary care settings. This review is targeted to hospital-based clinicians and administrators who are responsible for generally ensuring the provision of high quality care to patients presenting with a myriad of conditions, one of which is unhealthy alcohol use. The review summarizes the major issues involved in caring for patients with unhealthy alcohol use in the general hospital setting, including prevalence, detection, assessment of severity, reduction in drinking with brief intervention, common acute management scenarios for heavy drinkers, and discharge planning. The review concludes with consideration of Joint Commission recommendations on SBIRT for unhealthy alcohol use, integration of these recommendations into hospital work flows, and directions for future research. PMID:23738519

  5. [Eating well, eating poorly and the medicalization of eating behavior].

    PubMed

    Gracia-Arnaiz, Mabel

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how the progressive process of medicalization of food is inscribed within a biomedical logic that attempts to substitute many of the economic, adaptative and symbolic reasons that have ethnographically and historically conditioned eating habits in all cultures, exclusively for reasons of a dietetic nature. According to this logic, most of the population of modern societies does not know how to eat because they are victims of or have been made ill by the current profusion of food. They must, therefore, learn how to eat well, which in terms of eating practices means eating a little of everything, in moderation and in a balanced way. The main aim of current nutritional education is to (re)establish a supposed dietetic normality as far as food consumed, quantities, number of intakes and meal structures are concerned. PMID:17589778

  6. Counter-advertising may reduce parent's susceptibility to front-of-package promotions on unhealthy foods.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Dixon H; Scully M; Kelly B; Donovan R; Chapman K; Wakefield M

    2014-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assess the effect of counter-advertisements on parents' appraisals of unhealthy foods featuring front-of-package promotions (FOPPs).DESIGN: A 2 2 5 between-subjects Web-based experiment. Parents were randomly shown an advertisement (counter-advertisement challenging FOPP/control advertisement) and then a pair of food products from the same category: an unhealthy product featuring an FOPP (nutrient content claim/sports celebrity endorsement) and a healthier control product with no FOPP.SETTING: Australia.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,269 Australian-based parents of children aged 5-12 years recruited from an online panel.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parents nominated which product they would prefer to buy and which they thought was healthier, then rated the unhealthy product and FOPP on various characteristics.ANALYSIS: Differences between advertisement conditions were assessed using logistic regression (product choice tasks) and analysis of variance tests (ratings of unhealthy product and FOPP).RESULTS: Compared with parents who saw a control advertisement, parents who saw a counter-advertisement perceived unhealthy products featuring FOPPs as less healthy, expressed weaker intentions for buying such products, and were more likely to read the nutrition facts panel before nominating choices (all P < .001).CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Counter-advertising may help reduce the misleading influence of unhealthy food marketing and improve the accuracy of parents' evaluations of how nutritious promoted food products are.

  7. Derailing the streetcar named desire. Cognitive distractions reduce individual differences in cravings and unhealthy snacking in response to palatable food.

    PubMed

    van Dillen, Lotte F; Andrade, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    People who are sensitive to food temptations are prone to weight gain and obesity in food-rich environments. Understanding the factors that drive their desire to eat is key to limiting their reactions to available food. This study tested whether individual differences in sensitivity to hedonic food cues are cognitively based and, accordingly, can be regulated by blocking cognitive resources. To this end, one lab study (Study 1; N=91) and one field study (Study 2; N=63) measured sensitivity to hedonic food cues using the Power of Food Scale (PFS; Lowe etal., 2009) and assessed participants' appetitive responses to high-calorie food options. To test the role of cognitive elaboration of food cues, participants completed a menu-selection task to induce food cravings and then were free to elaborate those cravings (control group) or were blocked from doing so by cognitive distraction (playing Tetris, solving puzzles; experimental group). Compared to non-sensitive participants, sensitive participants displayed a greater attentional bias to high-calorie food (Study 1), reported stronger cravings (Study 2), and more often chose an unhealthy snack (Studies 1 & 2), but only when they had not been distracted. When distracted, all participants were similarly unresponsive to high-calorie food. This finding suggests that temptation can be effectively controlled by blocking people's cognitive resources, even for people highly sensitive to hedonic food cues. PMID:26375358

  8. Learning experiences in dance class predict adult eating disturbance.

    PubMed

    Annus, Agnes; Smith, Gregory T

    2009-01-01

    Elite dancers are at increased risk of eating disorders. The authors hypothesized that specific learning about thinness in dance class, rather than simple participation in dance training, tends to be an important aspect of the risk process. Approximately 500 college women reported on their previous dance experiences, their dance-related learning about thinness, their eating behaviours and attitudes and their thinness expectancies. Results showed that lifetime amount of time spent in dance class was unrelated to adult eating disturbance, women's reports of learning experiences concerning thinness during their dance classes predicted adult disordered eating concurrently, and thinness expectancies appeared to mediate the relationship between learning about thinness and adult eating disturbance. Learning experiences about thinness in dance class seem more important than time spent in dance class when examining the relationship between dance study and eating disorders. PMID:18729131

  9. Healthy Eating for Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Reproduction Top Articles dad holding baby at apple orchard - Kidney Disease: High- and Moderate-Potassium Foods ... Games National Nutrition Month Games scale in an apple - Eating Right Isn't Complicated Eating Right Isn' ...

  10. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  11. Tracheostomy tube - eating

    MedlinePLUS

    ... first bites. Certain factors may make eating or swallowing harder, such as: Changes in the structure or ... These tips may help with swallowing problems. Keep mealtimes relaxed. Sit ... when you eat. Take small bites, less than 1 teaspoon of ...

  12. Profiling healthy eaters. Determining factors that predict healthy eating practices among Dutch adults.

    PubMed

    Swan, Emily; Bouwman, Laura; Hiddink, Gerrit Jan; Aarts, Noelle; Koelen, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Research has identified multiple factors that predict unhealthy eating practices. However what remains poorly understood are factors that promote healthy eating practices. This study aimed to determine a set of factors that represent a profile of healthy eaters. This research applied Antonovsky's salutogenic framework for health development to examine a set of factors that predict healthy eating in a cross-sectional study of Dutch adults. Data were analyzed from participants (n?=?703) who completed the study's survey in January 2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association of survey factors on the outcome variable high dietary score. In the multivariate logistic regression model, five factors contributed significantly (p?eating, and self-efficacy for healthy eating. Findings complement what is already known of the factors that relate to poor eating practices. This can provide nutrition promotion with a more comprehensive picture of the factors that both support and hinder healthy eating practices. Future research should explore these factors to better understand their origins and mechanisms in relation to healthy eating practices. PMID:25681292

  13. The Unique and Additive Associations of Family Functioning and Parenting Practices with Disordered Eating Behaviors in Diverse Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the unique and additive associations of family functioning and parenting practices with adolescent disordered eating behaviors (i.e., dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors, binge eating). Methods Data from EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens) 2010, a population-based study assessing eating and activity among racially/ethnically and socio-economically diverse adolescents (n = 2,793; mean age = 14.4, SD = 2.0; age range = 11–19) was used. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between adolescent dieting and disordered eating behaviors and family functioning and parenting variables, including interactions. All analyses controlled for demographics and body mass index. Results Higher family functioning, parent connection, and parental knowledge about child’s whereabouts (e.g. who child is with, what they are doing, where they are at) were significantly associated with lower odds of engaging in dieting and disordered eating behaviors in adolescents, while parent psychological control was associated with greater odds of engaging in dieting and disordered eating behaviors. Although the majority of interactions were non-significant, parental psychological control moderated the protective relationship between family functioning and disordered eating behaviors in adolescent girls. Conclusions Clinicians and health care providers may want to discuss the importance of balancing specific parenting behaviors, such as increasing parent knowledge about child whereabouts while decreasing psychological control in order to enhance the protective relationship between family functioning and disordered eating behaviors in adolescents. PMID:23196919

  14. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Binge Eating Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Binge Eating Disorder Print A A A Text Size What's in ... takes a combination of things to develop an eating disorder including a person's genes, emotions, and behaviors (such ...

  15. Predictive Effects of Mother and Peer Influences on Increases in Adolescent Eating Disorder Risk Factors and Symptoms: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Linville, Deanna; Stice, Eric; Gau, Jeff; O'Neil, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation of maternal and peer attitudes and behaviors to changes in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms in adolescent females. Method We tested whether maternal and peer eating attitudes, behaviors, and deficits in social support at baseline predicted subsequent increases in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms among 483 late adolescent females followed over 3 years. Results Data provide partial support for hypotheses, as eating disorder risk factors and symptoms increased over time and maternal thin ideal internalization significantly predicted a future increases in adolescent bulimic symptoms. There were no significant predictors of adolescent thin ideal internalization or body dissatisfaction. Discussion Findings only partially support the hypothesis that unhealthy attitudes and behaviors of mothers increase risk for eating disorder symptoms in their late adolescent daughters. These results underscore why eating disorder prevention programs should be based on risk factor research that has used prospective and rigorous designs. PMID:21344465

  16. Prices of Healthy and Unhealthy Beverages in High and Low Per Capita Income Areas

    PubMed Central

    Corrado, Rachel S; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    To better understand availability and price of beverages in Hawaii, the prices of healthy (milk, orange juice, unsweetened tea, unsweetened coffee, diet soda) and unhealthy beverages (regular soda, fruit drink, sports drink, sweetened tea, flavored water) were collected and the beverage prices in lower per capita income areas and higher per capita income areas were compared. Cross-sectional data on prices of healthy and unhealthy beverages were collected from supermarkets, convenience stores, and quick serve restaurants from two lower per capita income areas (Waimanalo and Waianae) and two higher per capita income areas (Hawaii Kai and Manoa) on Oahu, Hawaii from May 15 to June 10, 2012. Using composite data from across all areas, there was a significant difference of $0.58 (95% CI 0.46, 0.70) between the healthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.76 $0.86) and the unhealthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.18 $0.38) (P <.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference between per capita income areas, the lower per capita income areas' mean price per 20 ounces of healthy beverages was slightly higher and mean price per 20 ounces of unhealthy beverages was slightly lower than the higher per capita income areas. Pricing strategies that enable healthy beverages to be less expensive than unhealthy beverages is one method to increase consumption of healthy beverages and decrease consumption of unhealthy beverages. Reduction in unhealthy beverage consumption is needed to help reduce obesity, especially in the lower per capita income areas that have higher obesity prevalence. PMID:23520564

  17. Prices of healthy and unhealthy beverages in high and low per capita income areas.

    PubMed

    Watters, Corilee A; Corrado, Rachel S; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-03-01

    To better understand availability and price of beverages in Hawai'i, the prices of healthy (milk, orange juice, unsweetened tea, unsweetened coffee, diet soda) and unhealthy beverages (regular soda, fruit drink, sports drink, sweetened tea, flavored water) were collected and the beverage prices in lower per capita income areas and higher per capita income areas were compared. Cross-sectional data on prices of healthy and unhealthy beverages were collected from supermarkets, convenience stores, and quick serve restaurants from two lower per capita income areas (Waimanalo and Wai'anae) and two higher per capita income areas (Hawai'i Kai and Manoa) on O'ahu, Hawai'i from May 15 to June 10, 2012. Using composite data from across all areas, there was a significant difference of $0.58 (95% CI 0.46, 0.70) between the healthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.76 $0.86) and the unhealthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.18 $0.38) (P <.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference between per capita income areas, the lower per capita income areas' mean price per 20 ounces of healthy beverages was slightly higher and mean price per 20 ounces of unhealthy beverages was slightly lower than the higher per capita income areas. Pricing strategies that enable healthy beverages to be less expensive than unhealthy beverages is one method to increase consumption of healthy beverages and decrease consumption of unhealthy beverages. Reduction in unhealthy beverage consumption is needed to help reduce obesity, especially in the lower per capita income areas that have higher obesity prevalence. PMID:23520564

  18. EDdb: a web resource for eating disorder and its application to identify an extended adipocytokine signaling pathway related to eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min; Li, XiaoMo; Qu, Hong

    2013-12-01

    Eating disorder is a group of physiological and psychological disorders affecting approximately 1% of the female population worldwide. Although the genetic epidemiology of eating disorder is becoming increasingly clear with accumulated studies, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Recently, integration of various high-throughput data expanded the range of candidate genes and started to generate hypotheses for understanding potential pathogenesis in complex diseases. This article presents EDdb (Eating Disorder database), the first evidence-based gene resource for eating disorder. Fifty-nine experimentally validated genes from the literature in relation to eating disorder were collected as the core dataset. Another four datasets with 2824 candidate genes across 601 genome regions were expanded based on the core dataset using different criteria (e.g., protein-protein interactions, shared cytobands, and related complex diseases). Based on human protein-protein interaction data, we reconstructed a potential molecular sub-network related to eating disorder. Furthermore, with an integrative pathway enrichment analysis of genes in EDdb, we identified an extended adipocytokine signaling pathway in eating disorder. Three genes in EDdb (ADIPO (adiponectin), TNF (tumor necrosis factor) and NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1)) link the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) "adipocytokine signaling pathway" with the BioCarta "visceral fat deposits and the metabolic syndrome" pathway to form a joint pathway. In total, the joint pathway contains 43 genes, among which 39 genes are related to eating disorder. As the first comprehensive gene resource for eating disorder, EDdb ( http://eddb.cbi.pku.edu.cn ) enables the exploration of gene-disease relationships and cross-talk mechanisms between related disorders. Through pathway statistical studies, we revealed that abnormal body weight caused by eating disorder and obesity may both be related to dysregulation of the novel joint pathway of adipocytokine signaling. In addition, this joint pathway may be the common pathway for body weight regulation in complex human diseases related to unhealthy lifestyle. PMID:24302289

  19. Screening and Brief Intervention for Unhealthy Drug Use: Little or No Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Saitz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy drug use ranges from use that risks health harms through severe drug use disorders. This narrative review addresses whether screening and brief intervention (SBI), efficacious for risky alcohol use, has efficacy for reducing other drug use and consequences. Brief intervention among those seeking help shows some promise. Screening tools have been validated though most are neither brief nor simple enough for use in general health settings. Several randomized trials have tested the efficacy of brief intervention for unhealthy drug use identified by screening in general health settings (i.e., in people not seeking help for their drug use). Substantial evidence now suggests that efficacy is limited or non-existent. Reasons likely include a range of actual and perceived severity (or lack of severity), concomitant unhealthy alcohol use and comorbid mental health conditions, and the wide range of types of unhealthy drug use (e.g., from marijuana, to prescription drugs, to heroin). Although brief intervention may have some efficacy for unhealthy drug users seeking help, the model of SBI that has effects in primary care settings on risky alcohol use may not be efficacious for other drug use. PMID:25228887

  20. Re-embodying Eating

    PubMed Central

    Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

    2014-01-01

    Health experts advise and expect patients to eat healthily after bariatric surgery. For patients, difficulties with eating might have been a long-standing, problematic part of life—a part that is not necessarily healed by surgery. Empirical research on patients’ experiences of eating practices after bariatric surgery is lacking. Aiming to contribute to the development of clinical practice, we explored meanings attached to eating in the long term and sought descriptions of change and bodily sensations. We interviewed 14 patients at least 5 years after bariatric surgery. The surgical restriction forced changes in the way patients sensed their own body in eating, but the uncertainty related to maintaining weight loss in the long term remained. Meanings attached to eating transcended food as choices situated in a nourishment and health perspective, and were not necessarily changed. Eating was an existential and embodied practice, which remained an ambiguous and sensitive matter after surgery. PMID:25156217

  1. [The treatment of binge eating disorder - a review].

    PubMed

    Papp, Ildik; Szumska, Irena; Try, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    The binge eating disorder is a relatively new type of eating disorders, which was first described in 1992, and became a distinct nosological entity in the system of DSM-5 in 2013. Its central symptom is the binge, which is not followed by compensatory behaviours as in bulimia nervosa. Therefore, the patients are generally obese. The prevalence of the disorder is 1-3% in the general population, but much higher in help-seeking obese subjects. The two main goals of the therapy is body weight reduction, and the cessation of binges. In the pharmacotherapy of binge eating disorder the antidepressants are recommended mainly in the case of unsuccessful psychotherapy, and in treating comorbid depression. In the field of psychotherapy data are available mainly on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy, dialectic behaviour therapy, behavioural weight loss, and interpersonal therapy. Effectivity studies on new therapeutic methods and treatment combinations are needed as well as long term follow-up studies. PMID:26471029

  2. Health behaviour, risk awareness and emotional well-being in students from Eastern Europe and Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, A; Wardle, J

    2001-12-01

    Life expectancy and other indices of health have deteriorated markedly in the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe over recent decades. The possible roles of lifestyles, knowledge about health and behaviour, emotional wellbeing and perceptions of control were assessed in a cross-sectional survey of young adults of similar educational status in Eastern and Western Europe. As part of the European Health and Behaviour Survey, data were collected in 1989-1991 from 4170 university students aged 18-30 years from Austria, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland, and from 2293 students from the German Democratic Republic, Hungary and Poland. Measures were obtained of health behaviours, awareness of the role of lifestyle factors in health, depression, social support, health locus of control, and the value placed on health. After adjustment for age and sex, East European students had less healthy lifestyles than Western Europeans according to a composite index of 11 health behaviours, with significant differences for seven activities: regular exercise, drinking alcohol, avoiding dietary fat, eating fibre, adding salt to food, wearing a seat-belt, and using sunscreen protection. East European students were less likely to be aware of the relationship between lifestyle factors (smoking, exercise, fat and salt consumption) and cardiovascular disease risk. In addition, they were more depressed (adjusted odds of elevated scores on the Beck Depression Inventory of 2.46, 95% C.I. 1.95-3.09), reported lower social support, and had higher beliefs in the "chance" and "powerful others" locus of control. Internal locus of control levels did not differ across regions, and Eastern Europeans placed a higher valuation on their health. Unhealthy lifestyles associated with lack of information about health and behaviour, greater beliefs in uncontrollable influences, and diminished emotional well-being, may contribute to poor health status in Eastern Europe. PMID:11762888

  3. Getting serious about protecting New Zealand children against unhealthy food marketing.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2015-07-01

    Reducing childhood obesity is now a high priority for Government and New Zealand society, and foremost in these efforts should be getting serious about protecting children from being targeted by sophisticated marketing for the very foods and beverages that are making them fat. The marketing of unhealthy food products to children is powerful, pervasive and predatory. Previous studies in New Zealand found that food marketing targeted at children through various media is predominantly for unhealthy food products. Statutory comprehensive regulations providing full protections for children against unhealthy food marketing are recommended, but strengthening voluntary codes into a more quasi-regulatory system would allow food companies to clearly demonstrate their commitments to becoming part of the solution for New Zealand's unacceptably high rate of childhood obesity. PMID:26149902

  4. Thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction and symptoms of eating disorders in Croatian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Rukavina, T; Pokrajac-Bulian, A

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the relationship between unhealthy eating habits and behaviors, perception and acceptance of societal standards regarding thinness, body dissatisfaction, and family and peer pressure to be thin. One hundred and twentythree high school girls from Rijeka (Croatia) were surveyed using Eating Attitudes Test (EAT- 26), Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ), Body Esteem Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (BES), and Scale of perceived pressure to be thin from family and peers. The results of path analyses showed that social pressure from family and peers, experience of weight-related teasing and criticism by family members, contributed to development of eating disturbance. The acceptance of social standards related to appearance, contributed to onset of disturbed eating habits. Weight satisfaction alone influences the development of some eating disorder symptoms, but it is also a mediator of higher body mass index (BMI) and internalization of societal appearance standards. Girls with higher BMI, who accepted societal standards of thin-ideal, perceived major social pressure to be thin through direct and persuasive comments designed to establish the importance of dieting, and probably develop eating disturbed habits, or some symptoms of anorexia (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN). PMID:16801743

  5. Disordered Eating and Health-Related Quality of Life in Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Crystal S.; Clifford, Lisa M.; Janicke, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine disordered eating and associations with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in rural overweight/obese (OW/OB) children. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted with 272 rural OW/OB children aged 8–12 years (M = 10.36; SD = 1.39). Child anthropometrics, demographics, disordered eating attitudes, unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs), and HRQOL were measured. Relationships between these variables were analyzed using bootstrapped multiple linear regressions. Results Clinically significant disordered eating attitudes were endorsed by 17% of the sample, and the majority endorsed UWCBs. Disordered eating attitudes and weight status were the most common predictors of HRQOL. Disordered eating attitudes and UWCBs were negatively related to emotional HRQOL but were unrelated to social, school, or physical HRQOL. Conclusions Disordered eating is a serious and relevant problem in OW/OB children living in rural areas and may be indicative of impairments in emotional functioning. Early intervention may reduce the risk for eating disorders and associated negative sequelae. PMID:24676798

  6. Sleep restriction increases the neuronal response to unhealthy food in normal-weight individuals

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, M-P; Wolfe, S; Sy, M; Shechter, A; Hirsch, J

    2013-01-01

    Context Sleep restriction alters responses to food. However, the underlying neural mechanisms for this effect are not well understood. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a neural system that is preferentially activated in response to unhealthy compared with healthy foods. Participants Twenty-five normal-weight individuals, who normally slept 7–9 h per night, completed both phases of this randomized controlled study. Intervention Each participant was tested after a period of five nights of either 4 or 9 h in bed. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in the fasted state, presenting healthy and unhealthy food stimuli and objects in a block design. Neuronal responses to unhealthy, relative to healthy food stimuli after each sleep period were assessed and compared. Results After a period of restricted sleep, viewing unhealthy foods led to greater activation in the superior and middle temporal gyri, middle and superior frontal gyri, left inferior parietal lobule, orbitofrontal cortex, and right insula compared with healthy foods. These same stimuli presented after a period of habitual sleep did not produce marked activity patterns specific to unhealthy foods. Further, food intake during restricted sleep increased in association with a relative decrease in brain oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activity observed in the right insula. Conclusion This inverse relationship between insula activity and food intake and enhanced activation in brain reward and food-sensitive centers in response to unhealthy foods provides a model of neuronal mechanisms relating short sleep duration to obesity. PMID:23779051

  7. Linking emotional distress to unhealthy sleep duration: analysis of the 2009 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, Azizi A; Nunes, Joao V; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Williams, Natasha J; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu Ratnas; James, Caryl C; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to examine the independent association of emotional distress with unhealthy sleep duration (defined as <7 or >8 hours). Methods Data from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a cross-sectional household survey, were analyzed to investigate the associations of emotional distress with unhealthy sleep durations, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health risks, and chronic diseases through hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis. Participants A total of 27,731 participants (age range 1885 years) from the NHIS 2009 dataset were interviewed. Measures Unhealthy sleep duration is defined as sleep duration <7 or >8 hours, whereas healthy sleep is defined as sleep duration lasting for 78 hours. Emotional distress is based on the Kessler 6 Non-Specific Distress Battery, which assesses the frequency of feeling sad, nervous, restless, hopeless, worthless, and burdened, over a 30-day period. Results Of the sample, 51.7% were female; 83.1% were white and 16.9% were black. Eleven percent experienced emotional distress and 37.6% reported unhealthy sleep. Adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that individuals with emotional distress had 55% greater odds of reporting unhealthy sleep (odds ratio [OR] =1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.42, 1.68, P<0.001). Conclusion Emotional distress, an important proxy for poor psychological health, was a significant predictor of unhealthy sleep, independent of the influences of several factors including demographic (age, education, sex, race/ethnicity, and family income), health risks (alcohol consumption and smoking status), and chronic diseases/conditions (diabetes, obesity, hypertension, heart disease, cancer, and arthritis). PMID:26442563

  8. Internal medicine residency training for unhealthy alcohol and other drug use: recommendations for curriculum design

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Unhealthy substance use is the spectrum from use that risks harm, to use associated with problems, to the diagnosable conditions of substance abuse and dependence, often referred to as substance abuse disorders. Despite the prevalence and impact of unhealthy substance use, medical education in this area remains lacking, not providing physicians with the necessary expertise to effectively address one of the most common and costly health conditions. Medical educators have begun to address the need for physician training in unhealthy substance use, and formal curricula have been developed and evaluated, though broad integration into busy residency curricula remains a challenge. Discussion We review the development of unhealthy substance use related competencies, and describe a curriculum in unhealthy substance use that integrates these competencies into internal medicine resident physician training. We outline strategies to facilitate adoption of such curricula by the residency programs. This paper provides an outline for the actual implementation of the curriculum within the structure of a training program, with examples using common teaching venues. We describe and link the content to the core competencies mandated by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, the formal accrediting body for residency training programs in the United States. Specific topics are recommended, with suggestions on how to integrate such teaching into existing internal medicine residency training program curricula. Summary Given the burden of disease and effective interventions available that can be delivered by internal medicine physicians, teaching about unhealthy substance use must be incorporated into internal medicine residency training, and can be done within existing teaching venues. PMID:20230607

  9. Pro-eating disorder websites: users' opinions.

    PubMed

    Csipke, Emese; Horne, Outi

    2007-05-01

    The phenomenon of 'pro-eating disorder' websites remains relatively unexplored by researchers in published formats. Supporters of the sites claim beneficial effects but health professionals worry that the sites propagate disordered behaviours. The present study addressed visitor characteristics and perceived impact of visits. A 24-item questionnaire supplemented with the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) was developed and posted on the website of the UK mental health charity SANE. Participants who interacted with others on the sites and sought emotional support reported improved mental state after visiting, and for them, evidence was found of reduced impact from potentially damaging content. 'Silent browsing' in order to sustain a disorder was found to be mainly harmful. 'Silent browsers' may be particularly vulnerable to a worsening of their symptoms in the absence of beneficial effects from emotional support, but those who interact and find support could face a danger of a different sort. PMID:17676689

  10. Adolescent Consumption of Sports and Energy Drinks: Linkages to Higher Physical Activity, Unhealthy Beverage Patterns, Cigarette Smoking, and Screen Media Use

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole; DeWolfe, Jessica; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of adolescent sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and identify behavioral correlates. Design Data were drawn from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study. Setting Adolescents from 20 middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota completed classroom-administered surveys. Participants 2,793 adolescents (53.2% girls) in grades 6–12. Variables Measured Beverage patterns; breakfast frequency; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); media use; sleep; and cigarette smoking. Analysis Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between health behaviors and SED consumption, adjusting for demographics. Results Over a third of adolescents consumed sports drinks and 14.7% consumed energy drinks at least once a week. Among boys and girls, both sports and energy drink consumption were related to higher video game use; sugar-sweetened beverage and fruit juice intake; and smoking (P<0.05). Sports drink consumption was also significantly related to higher MVPA and organized sport participation for both genders (P<0.01). Conclusions and Implications Although sports drink consumption was associated with higher MVPA, adolescents should be reminded of recommendations to consume these beverages only following vigorous, prolonged activity. There is also a need for future interventions designed to reduce SED consumption to address the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. PMID:24809865

  11. Confessions of the "Unhealthy"--Eating Chocolate in the Halls and Smoking behind the Bus Garage: Teachers as Health Missionaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schee, Carolyn Vander

    2009-01-01

    By drawing on interviews with administrators, faculty and staff at one school in the northeastern United States, this qualitative work considers the ways in which school leaders negotiate, resist or draw upon discourses associated with health, weight, nutrition and fitness to understand and experience their own bodies and interpret their roles and…

  12. Confessions of the "Unhealthy"--Eating Chocolate in the Halls and Smoking behind the Bus Garage: Teachers as Health Missionaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schee, Carolyn Vander

    2009-01-01

    By drawing on interviews with administrators, faculty and staff at one school in the northeastern United States, this qualitative work considers the ways in which school leaders negotiate, resist or draw upon discourses associated with health, weight, nutrition and fitness to understand and experience their own bodies and interpret their roles and

  13. Emotional eating moderates the relationship of night eating with binge eating and body mass.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Allison, Kelly C; Platte, Petra

    2014-03-01

    Night eating syndrome is marked by substantial evening or nocturnal food intake, insomnia, morning anorexia, and depressed mood. Night eating severity has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI), binge eating frequency, and emotional eating tendencies. We conducted an online questionnaire study among students (N=729) and explored possible interactive effects between those variables. Night eating severity, binge eating frequency, BMI and emotional eating were all positively correlated with each other. Regression analyses showed that night eating severity was particularly related to more frequent binge episodes and higher BMI at high levels of emotional eating but unrelated to those variables at low levels of emotional eating. Thus, eating as a means of emotion regulation appears to be an important moderator of the relationship between night eating and both binge eating and BMI. PMID:24293184

  14. Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several

  15. Spaces between home and school: The effect of eating location on adolescent nutrition.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Using interview and self-administered survey data, this article examines how homes, schools, and the community spaces between these two locations affect adolescent nutrition in a low-income, urban setting. Results from this research show that eating location can play a significant role in the foods that adolescents consume. Food acquisition data provided by adolescents reveal that homes and schools provide spaces for the consumption of healthy foods while shops, restaurants, takeouts, and community centers contribute unhealthy snack foods to adolescent diets in a traditionally low-income, urban neighborhood in Northern Ireland. The results of this research show that eating location can provide a starting point for designing healthy eating interventions in low-income places to avoid overlap with spaces that already provide healthy foods to young people. PMID:26654203

  16. Influence of Peers and Friends on Children’s and Adolescents’ Eating and Activity Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Bowker, Julie C.; Hermans, Roel C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity during childhood and adolescence is a growing problem in the United States, Canada, and around the world that leads to significant physical, psychological, and social consequences. Peer experiences have been theoretically and empirically related to the “Big Two” contributors to the obesity epidemic, unhealthy eating and physical inactivity [1]. In this article, we synthesize the empirical literature on the influence of peers and friends on youth’s eating and physical activity. Limitations and issues in the theoretical and empirical literatures are also discussed, along with future research directions. In conclusion, we argue that the involvement of children’s and adolescents’ peer networks in prevention and intervention efforts may be critical for promoting and maintaining positive behavioral health trajectories. However, further theoretical and empirical work is needed to better understand the specific mechanisms underlying the effects of peers on youth’s eating and physical activity. PMID:22480733

  17. What is the public appetite for healthy eating policies? Evidence from a cross-European survey.

    PubMed

    Mazzocchi, Mario; Cagnone, Silvia; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Niedźwiedzka, Barbara; Saba, Anna; Shankar, Bhavani; Verbeke, Wim; Traill, W Bruce

    2015-07-01

    World Health Organization estimates that obesity accounts for 2-8% of health care costs in different parts of Europe, and highlights a key role for national policymaking in curbing the epidemic. A variety of healthy-eating policy instruments are available, ranging from more paternalistic policies to those less intrusive. Our aim is to measure and explain the level of public support for different types of healthy eating policy in Europe, based on data from a probabilistic sample of 3003 respondents in five European countries. We find that the main drivers of policy support are attitudinal factors, especially attribution of obesity to excessive availability of unhealthy foods, while socio-demographic characteristics and political preferences have little explanatory power. A high level of support for healthy eating policy does not translate into acceptance of higher taxes to fund them, however. PMID:25170630

  18. [The perception of values in food commercials on the part of young people with and without eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Mas-Manchn, Llus; Rodrguez-Bravo, ngel; Montoya-Vilar, Norminanda; Morales-Morante, Fernando; Lopes, Elaine; Aaos, Elena; Peres, Rafaella; Martnez, Mara Eugenia; Grau, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    Advertising uses stereotyped body images to promote physical ideals and unhealthy eating habits related to food products which are targeted especially at young people. The purpose of this study, carried out in Barcelona (Spain) in May 2013, was to test the perception of 139 young people of university age - with and without eating disorders - regarding 25 values in seven food commercials that did and did not use body image strategies. Results show that only the group of young people with eating disorders considered commercials using body image strategies to have a very negative influence on values such as health, well-being, family and effort. In contrast, the assessment of the two groups regarding the rest of the commercials greatly coincided. These results show that today?s university youth have accepted as normal a beauty canon based on the prevailing social and economic order, while young people in treatment for eating disorders have learned to denaturalize such messages. PMID:26418097

  19. Disordered eating in women: implications for the obesity pandemic.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Christie S; Mihalynuk, Tanis V

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Western society emphasizes thinness for women, and the ideal female body size has become progressively smaller over the past half century. Meanwhile, the actual female body size has increased steadily, and rates of aberrant attitudes and behaviours surrounding food and weight have risen and tend to be much more common in overweight individuals. Thus disordered eating and excess body weight may perpetuate each other's development. We have synthesized the literature concerning female body size and disordered eating within a sociocultural context. Eight cognitions and behaviours that occur in women were examined: media exposure, weight stereotypes, body dissatisfaction, dieting, "fat talk," emotional eating, perfectionism, and the "superwoman" ideal. The research literature suggests that these factors may play a role in both disordered eating and obesity. Furthermore, these factors may induce triggers, exacerbated by perfectionism and excess weight, that increase the risk of binge eating. These triggers include interpersonal discrepancies, low interpersonal esteem, depressive affect, and dietary restraint. Comprehensive interventions targeting the indicated sociocultural cognitions and behaviours, combined with healthy living education, may be the most effective strategy for reducing the prevalence of disordered eating and obesity among females. PMID:21382233

  20. Adverse Health Effects and Unhealthy Behaviors among Medical Students Using Facebook

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Al-Shagga, Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi; Yadav, Hematram; Arokiasamy, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7) years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7). Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P < 0.005). The average hours spent on Facebook were significantly associated with holding urination and defecation while online, surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P < 0.005). The average hours spent on Facebook were associated with adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students, as well as social isolation from the family and community. PMID:24453859

  1. Relationship between Cigarette Smoking and Other Unhealthy Behaviors among Our Nation's Youth: United States, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Jean C.; Schoenborn, Charlotte A.

    1995-01-01

    Cigarette smoking almost always begins in the adolescent years and smoking at early ages increases the risk of becoming ill or dying from causes attributable to smoking. This report uses data from the 1992 National Health Interview Survey of Youth Risk Behavior and presents prevalence estimates for selected unhealthy behaviors among adolescents in

  2. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  3. Dissociation from beloved unhealthy brands decreases preference for and consumption of vegetables.

    PubMed

    Trump, Rebecca K; Connell, Paul M; Finkelstein, Stacey R

    2015-09-01

    Many people form strong bonds with brands, including those for unhealthy foods. Thus, prompting people to dissociate from beloved but unhealthy food brands is an intuitively appealing means to shift consumption away from unhealthy options and toward healthy options. Contrary to this position, we demonstrate that dissociating from unhealthy but beloved brands diminishes people's interest in consuming vegetables because the dissociation depletes self-regulatory resources. Across three experimental studies, we manipulate dissociation from two beloved brands both implicitly (studies 1-2) and explicitly (study 3) and observe effects on both preference for vegetables (studies 2-3) and actual vegetable consumption (study 1). In study 1, participants consumed fewer vegetables following dissociation from (vs. association with) a beloved candy brand. Study 2 demonstrates that the effect of depletion on preference for vegetables is more pronounced for those who strongly identify with the brand, as these individuals are most depleted by the dissociation attempt. Finally, study 3 illustrates that the difficulty experienced when trying to dissociate from beloved brands drives the observed effects on vegetable preference and consumption for those who strongly (vs. weakly) identify with the brand. PMID:26009206

  4. The Relationship between Physical, Sexual, and Emotional Abuse and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Amanda G.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cimini, M. Dolores

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between abuse in adult relationships and the tendency to engage in unhealthy weight loss behaviors. Undergraduate women responded to questions regarding weight loss behaviors, whether or not they had recently been in an abusive relationship, and perceived body image. Results indicated that women who had…

  5. Adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook.

    PubMed

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Al-Shagga, Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi; Yadav, Hematram; Arokiasamy, John T

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (2.7) years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (1.7). Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P < 0.005). The average hours spent on Facebook were significantly associated with holding urination and defecation while online, surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P < 0.005). The average hours spent on Facebook were associated with adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students, as well as social isolation from the family and community. PMID:24453859

  6. Children's Self-Documentation and Understanding of the Concepts "Healthy" and "Unhealthy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Suzanne; Bell, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The present paper describes a study in which 13 children aged 9-11 years, of diverse ethnic, linguistic, and socio-economic backgrounds, were asked to use a digital camera and small notebook to document the range of things they consider to be healthy and unhealthy. Using open-ended interview questions, the children were then asked to explain each

  7. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal

  8. Recollections of pressure to eat during childhood, but not picky eating, predict young adult eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jordan M; Galloway, Amy T; Webb, Rose Mary; Martz, Denise M; Farrow, Claire V

    2016-02-01

    Picky eating is a childhood behavior that vexes many parents and is a symptom in the newer diagnosis of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in adults. Pressure to eat, a parental controlling feeding practice aimed at encouraging a child to eat more, is associated with picky eating and a number of other childhood eating concerns. Low intuitive eating, an insensitivity to internal hunger and satiety cues, is also associated with a number of problem eating behaviors in adulthood. Whether picky eating and pressure to eat are predictive of young adult eating behavior is relatively unstudied. Current adult intuitive eating and disordered eating behaviors were self-reported by 170 college students, along with childhood picky eating and pressure through retrospective self- and parent reports. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that childhood parental pressure to eat, but not picky eating, predicted intuitive eating and disordered eating symptoms in college students. These findings suggest that parental pressure in childhood is associated with problematic eating patterns in young adulthood. Additional research is needed to understand the extent to which parental pressure is a reaction to or perhaps compounds the development of problematic eating behavior. PMID:26593103

  9. Multiple health behaviours: overview and implications

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bonnie; Moller, Arlen C.; Coons, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Background More remains unknown than known about how to optimize multiple health behaviour change. Methods After reviewing the prevalence and comorbidities among major chronic disease risk behaviours for adults and youth, we consider the origins and applicability of high-risk and population strategies to foster multiple health behaviour change. Results Findings indicate that health risk behaviours are prevalent, increase with age and co-occur as risk behaviour clusters or bundles. Conclusions We conclude that both population and high-risk strategies for health behaviour intervention are warranted, potentially synergistic and need intervention design that accounts for substitute and complementary relationships among bundled health behaviours. To maximize positive public health impact, a pressing need exists for bodies of basic and translational science that explain health behaviour bundling. Also needed is applied science that elucidates the following: (1) the optimal number of behaviours to intervene upon; (2) how target behaviours are best selected (e.g. greatest health impact; patient preferenceor positive effect on bundled behaviours); (3) whether to increase healthy or decrease unhealthy behaviours; (4) whether to intervene on health behaviours simultaneously or sequentially and (5) how to achieve positive synergies across individual-, group- and population-level intervention approaches. PMID:22363028

  10. Using food to soothe: Maternal attachment anxiety is associated with child emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Christiansen, Paul; Wilkinson, Laura L

    2016-04-01

    Attachment anxiety (fear of abandonment) is associated with disinhibited eating in adults. Both maternal disinhibited eating and use of emotional feedings strategies are associated with emotional eating in children. On this basis, the current study sought to determine whether attachment anxiety is an underlying maternal characteristic that predicts parental reports of child emotional over-eating via its effects on maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding. Mothers of a preadolescent child (N = 116) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire. Maternal attachment anxiety and dietary disinhibition were assessed by the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, respectively. The Parental Feeding Strategies Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire were used to quantify emotional feeding and child emotional over-eating, respectively. Bias-corrected bootstrapping indicated a significant direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating (i.e., controlling for maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding). There was also a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating via emotional feeding strategies. In a subsequent model to investigate bi-directional relationships, the direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies was not statistically significant after controlling for child emotional over-eating. There was, however, a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies via child emotional over-eating. These findings highlight the influence of maternal attachment anxiety on parental reports of aberrant eating behaviour in children. While this may be partly due to use of emotional feeding strategies, there is stronger evidence for a "child-responsive" model whereby anxiously-attached mothers use these feeding practices in response to perceived emotional over-eating in the child. PMID:26792767

  11. Body Image, Anthropometric Measures, and Eating-Disorder Prevalence in Auxiliary Unit Members

    PubMed Central

    Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Green, James M; Leeper, James D; Leaver-Dunn, Deidre; Richardson, Mark; Bishop, Phillip A

    2009-01-01

    Context: Medical professionals have recognized eating disorders and related problems in competitive athletes. Auxiliary members (color guard, dance, majorettes) experience the same appearance-related pressures observed in sports commonly associated with eating disorders. Objective: To estimate eating-disorder prevalence based on associated eating-disorder characteristics and behaviors in female auxiliary members and to compare perceived and ideal body images and anthropometric measurements between at-risk and not–at-risk participants for eating-disorder characteristics and behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: Three universities in the southeastern United States. Patients or Other Participants: Participants (n  =  101, mean age  =  19.2 ± 1.2 years) represented 3 auxiliary units, including color guard (n  =  35), dance line (n  =  47), and majorettes (n  =  19). Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants self-reported menstrual history, height, and weight. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, body fat percentage, and waist and hip circumferences. We screened for eating-disorder risk behavior with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT)-26 and for body dissatisfaction with the Figural Stimuli Survey. Results: Based on the EAT-26, we estimated eating-disorder prevalence among members to measure 29.7% (95% confidence interval  =  20.8%, 38.6%). The EAT-26 results revealed that 21% of participants used purgatives and 14% vomited to control weight or shape. The at-risk group had higher scores on the EAT-26 total (P ≤ .01) and on the dieting (P ≤ .01), oral control (P  =  .02), and bulimia (P  =  .01) subscales. Hip circumference (P  =  .01), self-reported weight (P  =  .03), measured weight (P  =  .04), difference between measured and preferred weights (P  =  .02), and calculated target weight (P  =  .02) were different between the at-risk and not–at-risk groups. Conclusions: Collegiate auxiliary unit members may have an unacceptable prevalence of eating disorders. Our results validate concerns that auxiliary members may exhibit an unacceptable eating-disorder risk, highlighting the need to examine and address unhealthy weight-management behaviors independent of eating-disorder status. PMID:19593425

  12. Healthy-unhealthy weight and time preference. Is there an association? An analysis through a consumer survey.

    PubMed

    Cavaliere, Alessia; De Marchi, Elisa; Banterle, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Individual time preference has been recognized as key driver in explaining consumers' probability to have a healthy weight or to incur excess weight problems. The term time preference refers to the rate at which a person is disposed to trade a current satisfaction for a future benefit. This characteristic may affect the extent at which individuals invest in health and may influence diet choices. The purpose of this paper is to analyse which could be the role of time preference (measured in terms of diet-related behaviours) in explaining consumers' healthy or unhealthy body weight. The analysis also considers other drivers predicted to influence BMI, specifically information searching, health-related activities and socio-demographic conditions. The survey was based on face-to-face interviews on a sample of 240 consumers living in Milan. In order to test the hypothesis, we performed a set of seven ORM regressions, all having consumers' BMI as the dependent variable. Each ORM contains a different block of explanatory variables, while time preference is always included among the regressors. The results suggest that the healthy weight condition is associated with a high orientation to the future, with a high interest in nutrition claims, a low attention to health-related claims, and a high level of education. On the opposite, the probability to be overweight or obese increases when consumers are less future-concerned and is associated with a low searching for nutrition claims and to a high interest in health claims. PMID:25152435

  13. Wilderness Eating Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Proper nutrition and eating habits are critical components when facilitating safe, enjoyable expeditions. The author asserts that outdoor leaders must be diligent in overseeing the health of their participants through proper nutrition. Leaders in training with a history of eating issues face a special challenge. The author discusses how these…

  14. Boys with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

  15. Wilderness Eating Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Proper nutrition and eating habits are critical components when facilitating safe, enjoyable expeditions. The author asserts that outdoor leaders must be diligent in overseeing the health of their participants through proper nutrition. Leaders in training with a history of eating issues face a special challenge. The author discusses how these

  16. Eating Disturbances and Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonderlich, Stephen; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studies the relationship between incest and bulimic behavior. Indicates incest victims are significantly more likely to binge, vomit, experience a loss of control over eating, and report body dissatisfaction than control subjects. Suggests incest may increase risk of bulimic behavior, and that eating problems may be a part of a larger pattern of

  17. Eating Disorders among Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks, George

    1987-01-01

    Case examples are presented of typical pressures felt by aerobic dance instructors, cheerleaders and majorettes, and wrestlers to illustrate how they may become susceptible to eating disorders. Suggestions are presented for coaches, parents, and administrators in preventing or intervening in eating disorders among athletes. (CB)

  18. Boys with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a

  19. Understanding barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and active living in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Rebecca; Connor, Leah; Nelson, Miriam; LaCroix, Andrea; Eldridge, Galen

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Studies demonstrate that people's food and physical activity (PA) environments influence behavior, yet research examining this in rural communities is limited. Methods. Focus groups of 8-15 women were conducted in rural communities in seven US states. Questions were designed to identify factors within residents' food and PA environments they felt helped or hindered them from eating healthfully and being physically active. Results. Participants were aged 30-84 years; mean (SD) = 61 (14) (N = 95). On average, communities had fewer than 5,000 residents. Limited time, social norms, and distances from or lack of exercise facilities were common PA barriers. Facilitators for PA included social support, dog walking, and availability of affordable facilities. Healthy eating barriers included the perception that healthy foods were too expensive; calorically dense large portion sizes served at family meals; and frequency of eating foods away from home, which were perceived as generally unhealthy. Healthy eating supports included culture/value around local food gathering (e.g., hunting and gardening) and preservation (e.g., canning and smoking). Friends and family were frequently identified as key influencers of eating and PA behavior. Conclusions. Targeting both social and built environment factors, particularly those unique to rural locales, may enhance support for healthy eating and PA behavior change interventions. PMID:25574386

  20. Understanding Barriers and Facilitators to Healthy Eating and Active Living in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, Rebecca; Nelson, Miriam; LaCroix, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Studies demonstrate that people's food and physical activity (PA) environments influence behavior, yet research examining this in rural communities is limited. Methods. Focus groups of 8–15 women were conducted in rural communities in seven US states. Questions were designed to identify factors within residents' food and PA environments they felt helped or hindered them from eating healthfully and being physically active. Results. Participants were aged 30–84 years; mean (SD) = 61 (14) (N = 95). On average, communities had fewer than 5,000 residents. Limited time, social norms, and distances from or lack of exercise facilities were common PA barriers. Facilitators for PA included social support, dog walking, and availability of affordable facilities. Healthy eating barriers included the perception that healthy foods were too expensive; calorically dense large portion sizes served at family meals; and frequency of eating foods away from home, which were perceived as generally unhealthy. Healthy eating supports included culture/value around local food gathering (e.g., hunting and gardening) and preservation (e.g., canning and smoking). Friends and family were frequently identified as key influencers of eating and PA behavior. Conclusions. Targeting both social and built environment factors, particularly those unique to rural locales, may enhance support for healthy eating and PA behavior change interventions. PMID:25574386

  1. Eating Competence: Nutrition Education with the Satter Eating Competence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satter, Ellyn

    2007-01-01

    The Satter Eating Competence Model (ecSatter) conceptualizes eating competence as having 4 components: eating attitudes, food acceptance, regulation of food intake and body weight, and management of the eating context (including family meals). According to ecSatter, supporting nutritional health requires establishing and maintaining positive

  2. Eating Competence: Nutrition Education with the Satter Eating Competence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satter, Ellyn

    2007-01-01

    The Satter Eating Competence Model (ecSatter) conceptualizes eating competence as having 4 components: eating attitudes, food acceptance, regulation of food intake and body weight, and management of the eating context (including family meals). According to ecSatter, supporting nutritional health requires establishing and maintaining positive…

  3. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])

  4. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  5. Eating Disorders in Paraguayan Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the…

  6. Eating Disorders in Paraguayan Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the

  7. Hygienic food handling behaviours. An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mullan, Barbara A; Wong, Cara L

    2009-06-01

    It is estimated that 5.4 million Australians get sick annually from eating contaminated food and that up to 20% of this illness results from food handling behaviour. A study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) including past behaviour in predicting safe food handling intention and behaviour. One hundred and nine participants completed questionnaires regarding their attitudes, perceived behavioural control (PBC), subjective norm, intentions and past behaviour. Behaviour was measured 4 weeks later. The TPB predicted a high proportion of variance in both intentions and behaviour, and past behaviour/habit was found to be the strongest predictor of behaviour. The results of the present study suggest interventions aimed at increasing safe food handling intentions should focus on the impact of normative influences and perceptions of control over their food handling environment; whereas interventions to change actual behaviour should attempt to increase hygienic food handling as a habitual behaviour. PMID:19501776

  8. Gender differences in disordered eating and weight dissatisfaction in Swiss adults: Which factors matter?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating) differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eating behaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eating behaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating. PMID:22992241

  9. Nutritional advice from George Orwell. Exploring the social mechanisms behind the overconsumption of unhealthy foods by people with low socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Morten H

    2015-08-01

    Despite a general consensus and recognition of the importance of the "social gradient" on nutritional standards and ultimately people's health, (Budrys, 2003; Marmot & Wilkinson, 1999; Marmot et al., 1991; Ross & Wu, 1995), the body of literature identifying and describing the actual underlying social mechanisms which could explain this association is small, fragmented and not contained within one single discipline of thought - the effects of this conundrum seem easier to describe than to explain. The aim of this article is therefore to explore and identify social mechanisms, which could help explain why people with low socio-economic status consume a disproportionate amount of unhealthy foods and therefore also observe poorer diets. It is therefore in many ways an exploration into the nature of (relative) poverty. The point of departure for this exploration and identification is historical descriptions (in the form of excerpts) from George Orwell's (1937) book "The Road to Wigan Pier" on the living conditions of the British working classes. These descriptions will be aligned with results from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour. Strong similarities are identified between George Orwell's historical descriptions of the working-class's unhealthy diet and the findings from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour of people with a low socio-economic status. Certain social mechanisms influencing nutritional choices are readily identifiable across disciplines, and even partly reproduced in different historical, social and spatial contexts, with stronger negative (nutritional) consequences for people with low socio-economic status. The disregard of social mechanisms, and therefore implicitly issues of class, could indicate a general "de-socialization" of nutritional advice also in its dispersal through various health-promotion initiatives and campaigns, which raises serious questions about the usefulness of much nutritional advice, already tentatively questioned by some nutritionist (Burr et al., 2007) as well as "food" sociologist (Smith & Holm, 2010). PMID:25865664

  10. Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Main Outcome Measures Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Results Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone. PMID:19594263

  11. Clustering of unhealthy outdoor advertisements around child-serving institutions: a comparison of three cities.

    PubMed

    Hillier, Amy; Cole, Brian L; Smith, Tony E; Yancey, Antronette K; Williams, Jerome D; Grier, Sonya A; McCarthy, William J

    2009-12-01

    Using GPS devices and digital cameras, we surveyed outdoor advertisements in Austin, Los Angeles and Philadelphia. GIS and hot spot analysis revealed that unhealthy ads were clustered around child-serving institutions in Los Angeles and Philadelphia but not in Austin. Multivariate generalized least square (GLS) regression models showed that percent black (p<0.04) was a significant positive predictor of clustering in Philadelphia and percent white (p<0.06) was a marginally significant negative predictor of clustering in Los Angeles after controlling for several land use variables. The results emphasize the importance of zoning and land use regulations to protect children from exposure to unhealthy commercial messages, particularly in neighborhoods with significant racial/ethnic minority populations. PMID:19369111

  12. Health psychology: what is an unhealthy environment and how does it get under the skin?

    PubMed

    Taylor, S E; Repetti, R L; Seeman, T

    1997-01-01

    This review explores the role of environments in creating chronic and acute health disorders. A general framework for studying the nesting of social environments and the multiple pathways by which environmental factors may adversely affect health is offered. Treating socioeconomic status (SES) and race as contextual factors, we examine characteristics of the environments of community, work, family, and peer interaction for predictors of positive and adverse health outcomes across the lifespan. We consider chronic stress/allostatic load, mental distress, coping skills and resources, and health habits and behaviors as classes of mechanisms that address how unhealthy environments get "under the skin," to create health disorders. Across multiple environments, unhealthy environments are those that threaten safety, that undermine the creation of social ties, and that are conflictual, abusive, or violent. A healthy environment, in contrast, provides safety, opportunities for social integration, and the ability to predict and/or control aspects of that environment. PMID:9046565

  13. Specific eating and sleeping problems in Prader-Willi and Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sarimski, K

    1996-05-01

    Eating and sleeping problems have a high prevalence in mental retardation in general, but are also discussed as characteristic in some genetically determined disorders. A comparative analysis of eating and sleeping behaviours in 28 Prader-Willi- and 32 Williams-Beuren syndrome children by psychometric instruments confirms excessive food-seeking behaviours in PWS and selective food refusal in WBS as specific problems. In both syndromes, however, there is considerable individual variability in these symptoms. PMID:8735669

  14. Kids and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... probably heard about anorexia, which is also called anorexia nervosa (say: an-uh-REK-see-uh nur-VOH- ... withdrawing from social activities previous continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ...

  15. Healthy Eating for Preschoolers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an equal opportunity provider and employer. Healthy Eating Daily Food Plan Use this Plan as a general guide. ... nickel. There are many ways to divide the Daily Food Plan into meals and snacks. View the Meal ...

  16. Eating during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Protein cell growth and blood production lean meat, fish, poultry, egg whites, beans, peanut butter, tofu Carbohydrates ... red blood cells, maintaining nervous system health meat, fish, poultry, milk (Note: vegetarians who don't eat ...

  17. Eating right during pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... iron. Vegetables: Vegetables are a good source of vitamins A and C, folic acid, iron, and magnesium. Eat ... to 4 servings a day. Fruit gives you vitamins A and C, potassium, and fiber. Choose fresh fruits ...

  18. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  19. Eating for Sports

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Words En Espaol What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, ... typical active kid might need to eat more. Calorie needs go up during puberty , so that can ...

  20. Binge eating disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Via MC; American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) Committee on Quality Issues (CQI). Practice parameter ... with eating disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry . 2015;54:412-25. PMID: 25901778 www.ncbi. ...

  1. Food and eating as social practice--understanding eating patterns as social phenomena and implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Delormier, Treena; Frohlich, Katherine L; Potvin, Louise

    2009-03-01

    Globally, public health agencies recognise obesity trends among populations as a priority. Explanations for population obesity patterns are linked to obesogenic environments and societal trends which encourage patterns of overeating and little physical activity. However, obesity prevention and nutrition intervention focus predominantly on changing individual level eating behaviours. Disappointingly, behaviour-based nutrition education approaches to changing population eating patterns have met with limited success. Sociological perspectives propose that underlying social relations can help explain collective food and eating patterns, and suggest an analysis of the sociocultural context for understanding population eating patterns. We propose a theoretical framework for the examination of eating patterns as social phenomena. Giddens' structuration theory, in particular his concept of social practices understood as an interplay of 'agency' and 'social structure' (rules and resources), is used to study food choice patterns. We discuss the application of these concepts for understanding routine food choice practices of families, elaborating how rules and resources configure the enabling or constraining conditions under which actors make food choices. The framework assists in characterising how social structural properties are integral to food choice practices, and could direct attention to these when considering nutrition interventions aimed at changing population eating patterns. PMID:19220802

  2. The effect of unhealthy ?-cells on insulin secretion in pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin secreted by pancreatic islet ?-cells is the principal regulating hormone of glucose metabolism and plays a key role in controlling glucose level in blood. Impairment of the pancreatic islet function may cause glucose to accumulate in blood, and result in diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial dysfunction has a strong negative effect on insulin secretion. Methods In order to study the cause of dysfunction of pancreatic islets, a multiple cell model containing healthy and unhealthy cells is proposed based on an existing single cell model. A parameter that represents the function of mitochondria is modified for unhealthy cells. A 3-D hexagonal lattice structure is used to model the spatial differences among ?-cells in a pancreatic islet. The ?-cells in the model are connected through direct electrical connections between neighboring ?-cells. Results The simulation results show that the low ratio of total mitochondrial volume over cytoplasm volume per ?-cell is a main reason that causes some mitochondria to lose their function. The results also show that the overall insulin secretion will be seriously disrupted when more than 15% of the ?-cells in pancreatic islets become unhealthy. Conclusion Analysis of the model shows that the insulin secretion can be reinstated by increasing the glucokinase level. This new discovery sheds light on antidiabetic medication. PMID:24565418

  3. Impact of neighbourhood food environment on food consumption in children aged 910 years in the UK SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) study

    PubMed Central

    Skidmore, Paula; Welch, Ailsa; van Sluijs, Esther; Jones, Andrew; Harvey, Ian; Harrison, Flo; Griffin, Simon; Cassidy, Aedn

    2011-01-01

    Objective Poor diet in childhood increases risk of obesity but the relationship between access to food and childrens food choice is underexplored. We determined relationships between distance to and density of food outlets on childrens food choice. Design Children (n 1721) aged 910 years who participated in a cross-sectional study from a sample of state and private schools across urban and rural areas. Food consumption was reported using a short validated FFQ. A Geographic Information System was used to determine proximity to local food outlets. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to determine associations between food consumption and distance to and density of local food outlets. Setting Norfolk, England. Subjects Boys (n 754) and girls (n 967) aged 910 years. Results The impact of distance to or density of food outlets on food choice was small after adjustment. Living further away from a supermarket increased portions of fruit (011 portions/week per 1 km increase in distance to nearest supermarket, P<005) and vegetables (011 portions/week, P<005) consumed. Living closer to convenience stores was also associated with an increased consumption of crisps, chocolate and white bread. Density of supermarkets was associated with both an increase in vegetable intake (031 portions/week, P<005) and unhealthy foods. Conclusions Distance to and density of food outlets are both associated with childrens food choice, although the impact appears to be small and the relationship is complex. However, the effects of individual foods combined could be important, particularly as even small differences in intake can impact on body weight over time. PMID:20082745

  4. Couple dissatisfaction and eating profile: a mediation effect of coping style.

    PubMed

    Gagnon-Girouard, M-P; Gagnon, C; Bégin, C; Provencher, V; Tremblay, A; Boivin, S; Lemieux, S

    2010-12-01

    Individuals' ways of coping with psychological stress have often been associated with body weight regulation through their impact on eating behaviours. In particular, emotion-oriented and distraction-oriented coping styles have been steadily related to disordered eating. Couple dissatisfaction may be experienced as an important psychological stressor and could therefore affect eating behaviours through the use of inadequate coping strategies. The study proposes 1) to compare women reporting a low vs a high level of couple satisfaction, and 2) to test mediational models including couple satisfaction, coping styles, and eating variables. Analyses were performed among 65 overweight/obese premenopausal women who reported being weight-preoccupied. Women exhibiting couple dissatisfaction (34.8%) showed a higher level of EDE-Q restraint, more intense concerns about eating and shape, a higher level of disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger and endorsed more often a distraction-oriented coping style, independently of their body weight. Furthermore, distraction- oriented coping style seemed to be a valid mediator of the relation between couple dissatisfaction and eating behaviours. Since non-normative eating behaviours, namely disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger, have been particularly linked to a higher body weight status, it is relevant to extend the scope of interest to more distal contributing factors, such as couple dissatisfaction. PMID:21406947

  5. Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L

    2013-05-01

    Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:23756285

  6. Restaurant eating in nonpurge binge-eating women.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Gayle M

    2006-11-01

    This study describes restaurant-eating behaviors for nonpurge binge-eating women in comparison to dieters. Restaurant-eating behaviors were determined from a content analysis of 14-day food diaries using a convenience sample of 71 women who reported binging without purging and 46 dieters without a recent binge history. Comparing bingers to dieters, there were no significant differences in frequency of eating out, dessert consumption at restaurants, or fast food eating. Bingers more often perceived restaurant eating to be uncontrolled and excessive. Both bingers and dieters consumed significantly more calories (226-253 kcal) and fat (10.4-16.0 gm) on restaurant days. Extra calories consumed on restaurant-eating days may contribute to weight gain over time, especially with frequent restaurant eating. Restaurants may present a high-risk food environment for bingers and dieters, contributing to loss of control and excess consumption. PMID:17056775

  7. Validity of the Greek Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire 6.0 (EDE-Q-6.0) among Greek adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pliatskidou, S; Samakouri, M; Kalamara, E; Papageorgiou, E; Koutrouvi, K; Goulemtzakis, C; Nikolaou, E; Livaditis, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the validity of the Greek version of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire 6.0 (EDE-Q-6.0) in a sample of adolescent pupils. EDE-Q is a self- report instrument that assesses attitudes and behaviors related to Eating Disorders (EDs). A two-stage identification protocol has been applied to the 16 schools that agreed to participate in the present study. Initially, 2058 adolescents, in class under the supervision of one research assistant and one teacher, completed a Questionnaire on socio-demographic data, the Greek EDE-Q-6.0 and the Greek Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) while their weight and height were measured. Six-hundred and twenty six participants, who had scores on EAT-26?20 and/or were underweight or overweight, were considered as "possible-cases" while the remaining 1432 pupils of the sample were thought as "non-possible cases". At the second stage, parents of 66 of the participants identified as possible-cases as well as parents of 72 participants from 358 controls randomly selected from the sample of "non-possible cases" agreed that their children would be examined by means of Best Estimate Diagnostic Procedure. Participants meeting DSM-IV-TR Eating Disorders criteria were identified. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis was applied to reveal EDE-Q's criterion validity. The kappa statistic test was used as measure of agreement between categorical variables at EDE-Q and at interview (the presence of objective binge eating episode, of self-induced vomiting, the use of laxatives and of excessive exercise). The Discriminant and Convergent validity were assessed using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test and by means of the Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively. Nineteen cases of EDs were identified [one case of Anorexia Nervosa (AN), 13 cases of Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), 5 cases of Binge Eating Disorder (BED)]. At the cut off point of 2.6125 on the EDE-Q's global scale the instrument screens with a sensitivity (Se) of 89.5% and a specificity (Sp) of 73.1%, a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 34.7% and a Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of 97.8% The same analyses for both sexes revealed a cut-off point of 2.612 for females and of 3.125 for males on the global EDE-Q-6.0 score (Se=84.62%, Sp=73.33% for females and Se=83.33%, Sp= 84.09% for males), yielding a PPV and a NPV of 35.5% and of 96.5% for females and 41.7% and 97.4% for males, respectively. A very low agreement level, between EDE-Q and interview, was observed regarding the presence of objective bulimic episodes (OBEs) [k=0.191 (SE=0.057)] and the unhealthy weight control behaviors [k=0.295 (SE=0.073)]. Positive correlations were found between EAT-26 and EDE-Q-6.0 for both global scale and subscales (rho=0.50-0.57). The results suggest that EDE-Q-6.0, when using its global score, appears to be a proper screening tool for assessing the core psychopathology of eating disorders in community samples in two-stage screening studies since it distinguishes very well the cases from the non-cases. However, the assessment of the presence and frequency of pathological behaviours which characterize EDs appears to be problematic since adolescents, especially the younger ones, misunderstood terms like large amount of food and loss of control or misinterpret the motivation for excessive exercise. Therefore, marked discrepancies were observed between pathological behaviors self-reported at questionnaire and those detected at interview. We may assume that giving participants more information regarding the definition of these concepts may increase the accuracy with which the participants report these behaviors. PMID:26480225

  8. Eating disorders in women

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  9. Eating disorders in women.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A Shyam

    2015-07-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  10. Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…

  11. Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions

  12. Eat Healthier | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    */ 6 Tips for Managing Portion Size Eating healthy is about enjoying your food while also managing portion size. Most people eat and drink more than their bodies need especially when they are served larger portions

  13. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... than 200 public and private organizations. Home Publications Resources Diabetes Facts Press I Have Diabetes Am I ... diabetes Corro riesgo? You are here: NDEP Home > Resources > Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with ...

  14. The consumption of unhealthy foods by Brazilian children is influenced by their mothers educational level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between the consumption of unhealthy foods in children under one year and the education level of the mothers, data obtained from participants of the II Survey on the prevalence of breastfeeding in the Brazilian capitals and the Federal District in 2008 was analyzed. Methods During the second stage of the campaign for multi-vaccination, a questionnaire on food consumption in the last 24hours was given to mothers or guardians of children under one year old. We analyzed the consumption of unhealthy foods according to age group, maternal education, region of residence and breastfeeding status. The state capitals and the Federal District were grouped according to the five macro-regions of the country (North, Northeast, Southeast, South and West). Processed juice, soda, coffee, cookies/salted snacks and sugar and/or honey were defined as unhealthy foods. Prevalence ratios (RP) for the association between the consumption of unhealthy foods and maternal education were estimated using Poisson regression models. Results: The study included 34,366 children. The consumption of sweet foods started early and was predominant until the age of six months; after this age, the consumption of biscuits and/or snacks became more prevalent. The consumption of these foods also differs in relation to the macro-region of residence. Consumption of unhealthy foods was higher among mothers with lower education levels. Conclusions The consumption of unhealthy foods by Brazilian children under one year old was high, indicating a need for developing effective strategies to combat the consumption of unhealthy foods in Brazilian children as a way of preventing obesity and other future disorders. PMID:24708610

  15. Healthy food subsidies and unhealthy food taxation: A systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Niebylski, Mark L; Redburn, Kimbree A; Duhaney, Tara; Campbell, Norm R

    2015-06-01

    The Global Burden of Disease Study and related studies report unhealthy diet is the leading risk for death and disability globally. Given the evidence associating diet and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), international and national health bodies including the World Health Organization and United Nations have called for population health interventions to improve diet as a means to target NCDs. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods/beverages are more accessible to purchasers and unhealthy ones less accessible via fiscal policy, namely taxation and subsidies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base to assess the effect of healthy food/beverage subsidies and unhealthy food/beverage taxation. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed publications and seventy-eight studies were identified for inclusion in this review. This review was performed in keeping with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance. Although moderate in quality, there was consistent evidence that taxation and subsidy intervention influenced dietary behaviors. The quality, level and strength of evidence along with identified gaps in research support the need for further policies and ongoing evaluation of population-wide food/beverage subsidies and taxation. To maximize success and effect, this review suggests that food taxes and subsidies should be a minimum of 10 to 15% and preferably used in tandem. Implementation of population-wide polices for taxation and subsides with ongoing evaluation of intended and unintended effects are supported by this review. PMID:25933484

  16. Ghrelin and Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103

  17. Exposure therapy in eating disorders revisited.

    PubMed

    Koskina, Antonia; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2013-02-01

    Exposure therapy is a widely used and effective form of treatment in anxiety disorders and addictions but evidence for its usefulness in eating disorders (ED) is inconsistent. This paper systematically reviews the literature on the use of exposure therapy in ED, the theory underpinning its use, and the deficits in current knowledge. Databases were searched to 2012. In addition, potential improvements in the use of exposure techniques in ED are considered by drawing upon theory and research involving neuropharmacology, basic and clinical neuroscience, contemporary behavioural and neurobiological research, and technologies such as virtual reality (VR). PMID:23201859

  18. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  19. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for

  20. Culturally-Based Communication about Health, Eating, and Food: Development and validation of the CHEF scale.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Rebecca R; Palmberg, Allison; Lydecker, Janet; Green, Brooke; Kelly, Nichole R; Trapp, Stephen; Bean, Melanie K

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority populations in the United States are disproportionately affected by obesity. To address this disparity, research has begun to investigate the role of culture, ethnicity, and experiences with racism on food choices and health interventions. The aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate a new scale measuring the extent to which individuals' culture, as they perceive it, influences perceptions of food-related health messages. A diverse sample of 422 college students responded to the item pool, as well as surveys on race-related stress, self-efficacy in making healthy food choices, ethnic identity, and social support for health-related behaviors. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses produced a five-factor model: Connection (the extent to which food connected individuals with their culture), Authority (beliefs that health care providers were familiar with individuals' cultural foods), Unhealthy Food Perceptions (beliefs that individuals' cultural foods were perceived as unhealthy), Healthy Food Perceptions (beliefs that others perceive individuals' cultural foods to be healthy), and Social Value (the extent to which social relationships are improved by shared cultural food traditions). Authority and Healthy Food Perceptions were related to individuals' confidence in their ability to make healthy food choices. Authority was inversely correlated with negative coping with racism-related events. Ethnic identity was significantly correlated with all but Unhealthy Food Perceptions. Race/ethnicity differences were identified for Healthy Food Perceptions, Unhealthy Food Perceptions, Social Value, Connection, but not Authority. Applications and suggestions for further research using the Culturally-based Communication about Health, Eating, and Food (CHEF) Scale are proposed. PMID:26409643

  1. Promoting children's healthy eating in obesogenic environments: Lessons learned from the rat.

    PubMed

    Birch, Leann L; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie

    2011-09-26

    Current statistics on children's eating patterns and obesity rates are consistent with the idea that genetic taste predispositions, traditional feeding practices, and the obesogenic environment combine to increase the likelihood of unhealthy outcomes in many individuals. In this paper, we focus on one particular level of analysis through which this unhealthy combination of factors may begin to be disassembled: children's learning about food and flavors. Much of the research on children's learning about food and flavors has been inspired by the animal literature, which has a long history of carefully controlled studies elucidating the mechanisms through which rats and other animals learn to prefer and avoid foods and flavors. This literature provides many clues as to the processes by which learning paradigms may be used to encourage the intake of healthy foods, altering the implicit learning of obesogenic eating patterns that is likely to occur without intervention in the current environment. Overall, the implications of the literature are that children should be repeatedly exposed to a variety of flavors early in life, and that new flavors should be paired with already-liked flavors and positive contexts. This message is consistent with recent research results from our laboratory, showing that familiarization and associative learning paradigms may be used to increase young children's acceptance of, preference for, and intake of previously-unfamiliar, healthy foods. PMID:21620880

  2. Assessing motivation to change in eating disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa are often ambivalent about their eating disorder symptoms. Therefore, a lack of motivation to change is a frequent problem in the treatment of eating disorders. This is of high relevance, as a low motivation to change is a predictor of an unfavourable treatment outcome and high treatment dropout rates. In order to quantify the degree of motivation to change, valid and reliable instruments are required in research and practice. The transtheoretical model of behaviour change (TTM) offers a framework for these measurements. Objective This paper reviews existing instruments assessing motivation to change in eating disorders. Method We screened N?=?119 studies from the databases Medline and Psycinfo found by combinations of the search keywords eating disorder, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, motivation, readiness to change, assessment, measurement, and questionnaire. Results Ultimately, n?=?15 studies investigating psychometric properties of different assessment tools of motivation to change in eating disorders were identified. Reviewed instruments can be divided into those assessing the stages of change according to the TTM (6 instruments) and those capturing decisional balance (3 instruments). Overall, the psychometric properties of these instruments are satisfactory to good. Discussion Advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of the reviewed assessment tools are discussed. So far, the TTM provides the only framework to assess motivation to change in eating disorders. PMID:24999416

  3. Abnormal Eating Attitudes: Prevalance at a Canadian University

    PubMed Central

    Marciano, D.A.; McSherry, J.A.; Kraus, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors conducted a survey of the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours among all women undergraduates living in on-campus residences at Queen's University and systematic samples of men and women undergraduates living in off-campus residences, using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) as the study instrument. The results, although comparable to those of similar studies at other universities and colleges, are unusual in that they identify a group of high scoring respondents who did not return to Queen's University the year following the study. Of 1,982 students surveyed, 1,082 were women living in on-campus residences, 450 were women living in off-campus accommodation and 450 were men also living off-campus. The off-campus groups were matched with the on-campus groups for program and year. The response rate was 50.6%. Of these respondents, 14.7% had scores of 20 or more on the EAT-26; scores typical of those reached by persons sufferering from eating disorders. Both groups of women had the same prevalence of high scorers (16.8%), while the prevalence of high scores in male students was 2.7%. Of 16 high scorers clinically interviewed, 13 (81.3%) fulfilled diagnostic criteria for eating disorders. PMID:21264022

  4. Perception and Sense of Control Over Eating Behaviors Among a Diverse Sample of Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Lindgren, Teri G.; Bonnet, Kemberlee; Kamitani, Emiko

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to explore and understand knowledge and attitudes about food, diet, and weight control, focusing on barriers and motivators to reduce risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Methods Six focus groups were conducted in May and June 2010. The groups were stratified by sex. A total of 35 ethnically diverse samples with a high risk for type 2 diabetes participated. The average age was 51 10.6 years, and 57% of the sample represented women. Results Four themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) demonstrated knowledge and source of knowledge, including participants basic understanding of good and bad food and what constitutes a healthy diet and trusted sources of information; (2) perceptions of food and diet, encompassing how participants expressed their perception of and interaction with food and diet; (3) sense of control over dietary intake, reflecting participants discussion of their perceived ability to control their eating patterns and food choices; and (4) eating behaviors, describing participants patterns of eating and perceived barriers to eating a healthy diet. Conclusions Study findings demonstrate that eating healthy requires a complex interaction between individual perceptions of food and sense of control over eating patterns and socio-political and economic structural factors that restrict healthy eating options while promoting unhealthy ones. Programs for long-term eating behavioral change necessary to reduce type 2 diabetes and obesity need to incorporate strategies that address individual-level factors of perception of food and sense of control over eating patterns, as well as structural level factors such as poverty and food insecurity. PMID:24525569

  5. Characteristics of eating disorders among young ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Abraham, S

    1996-01-01

    The characteristics of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were studied in ballet dancers in full-time training and compared with other young women at school. Dancers had higher scores on the Eating Attitudes Test. Dancers were more likely to have an eating disorder when strict modified DSM-3-R criteria were applied. Currently 1 dancer (1.6%) and no student had anorexia nervosa, 1 dancer (1.6%) and 3 students (1.3%) had bulimia nervosa and 5 dancers (8.3%) and 9 students (4.2%) had an unclassified eating disorder. Another dancer had been treated for anorexia nervosa in the past. One dancer was treated for bulimia nervosa and 6 for weight loss. Dancers were more likely to have been told to increase their body weight. Dancers were not more likely to be afraid of losing control of their weight and becoming obese if they attempted weight gain, to ignore the advice to gain weight or resist gaining weight. Regular self-induced vomiting was reported by 4% of women. Dancers are at risk for the development of eating disorders. Ballet dancers are under pressure to maintain low body weight. The low body weight and menstrual disturbance found among young dancers during training are two of the characteristics of anorexia nervosa Ballet dancers use behaviours aimed at weight control and weight loss. In dancers and professional groups under intense pressure to diet, low body weight and amenorrhoea are not sufficient criteria to diagnose anorexia nervosa. These behaviours can result in binge eating and multiple behaviours aimed at preventing binge eating. Whether the characteristics of bulimia among dancers are sufficient for a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa to be made is unknown. The aim of this paper is to study the characteristics of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified among young ballet dancers in full-time ballet training and to provide information about the risk of development of eating disorders among young women required to maintain below average body weight while continuing above average exercise. PMID:8865353

  6. The moderating role of state inhibitory control in the effect of evaluative conditioning on temptation and unhealthy snacking.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Ashleigh; Kemps, Eva; Moffitt, Robyn

    2015-12-01

    The current study sought to test the effect of a brief evaluative conditioning intervention on experienced temptation to indulge, and consumption of, unhealthy snack foods. We expected that a training task associating unhealthy food with negative affect would result in lower experienced temptation across the sample, but would lead to lower snack consumption only among individuals with low state inhibitory control. Undergraduate women (N=134) aged 17-25 years were randomised to complete an evaluative conditioning procedure pairing unhealthy food with either positive or negative affect. Snack consumption was subsequently assessed using a taste-test procedure which offered four snack foods for ad libitum consumption. Participants also reported the strength of their experienced temptation to indulge in the foods presented. Additionally, they completed a Stop Signal Task as a measure of state inhibitory control. As predicted, participants in the food negative condition ate less than those in the food positive condition, but this effect was only observed among individuals with low inhibitory control. The same moderation pattern was observed for the effect of evaluative conditioning on temptation: only participants with low inhibitory control reported feeling less tempted by the snack foods in the food negative condition compared to the food positive condition. In addition, temptation mediated the effect of evaluative conditioning on intake for individuals with low inhibitory control. Findings suggest that evaluative conditioning of unhealthy food stimuli could be especially useful for reducing temptation and consumption of unhealthy snacks in situations where individuals experience low inhibitory control capacity. PMID:26409213

  7. Eating for Your Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  8. Eating for Your Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is

  9. Electroencephalography in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Juregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG) are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/ increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eating disorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eating disorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images). PMID:22275841

  10. Eating Disorders and Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among

  11. Eat Your Weedies!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, James

    2001-01-01

    Explains the value of harvesting garden weeds and eating them. Discusses antioxidant and other nutritional qualities of weeds, weeds that are especially useful as raw or cooked vegetables, the importance of weed identification, and the dangers of weed-killing herbicides. Highlights purslane. (PVD)

  12. Comparative Study of Eating-Related Attitudes and Psychological Traits between Israeli-Arab and -Jewish Schoolgirls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzer, Yael; Tzischinsky, Orna; Geraisy, Nabil

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aims of the study were to examine weight concerns, dieting and eating behaviours in a group of Israeli-Arab schoolgirls as compared with Israeli-Jewish schoolgirls, as well as to investigate the reliability of the Arabic (Palestinian) version of the eating disorder inventory-2 (EDI-2). Method: The sample consisted of 2548 Israeli

  13. Animal models of eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwon F.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival, and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet development of an appropriate animal model for eating disorders still remains challenging due to our limited knowledge and some of the more ambiguous clinical diagnostic measures. Therefore, this review will serve to focus on the basic clinical features of eating disorders and the current advances in animal models of eating disorders. PMID:22465439

  14. Restrained eating among vegetarians: does a vegetarian eating style mask concerns about weight?

    PubMed

    Martins, Y; Pliner, P; O'Connor, R

    1999-02-01

    The present study explored the relationships among dietary style (ranging from meat eating to veganism), cognitive restraint and feminist values. Two-hundred and twenty-seven participants with varying dietary styles completed the restraint subscale of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Attitudes Towards Feminism Scale (ATFS). Results indicated that among males, those who are high in cognitive restraint are more likely to exhibit a vegetarian dietary style than those low in cognitive restraint. Among women who are high in feminist values, those with high cognitive restraint are more likely to exhibit a vegetarian dietary style than those with low cognitive restraint, whereas for women low in feminist values those with high and low cognitive restraint are equally likely to exhibit vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary styles. It is suggested that for some individuals, adoption of a vegetarian dietary style is an attempt to mask their dieting behaviour from others. PMID:9989924

  15. Misuse of prescription stimulants for weight loss, psychosocial variables, and eating disordered behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jeffers, Amy; Benotsch, Eric G; Koester, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the non-medical use of prescription drugs among young adults including an increase in the use of prescription stimulants normally used to treat ADHD. Reported motivations for the non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NPS) include enhancing academic performance and to get high. Although a common side effect of these medications is appetite suppression, research examining weight loss as a motivation for NPS among young adults is sparse. In the present study, undergraduate students (n=705) completed an online survey assessing weight loss behaviors, motivations for weight loss, and eating behaviors. Nearly 12% of respondents reported using prescription stimulants to lose weight. Participants who reported using prescription stimulants for weight loss had greater appearance-related motivations for weight loss, greater emotion and stress-related eating, a more compromised appraisal of their ability to cope, lower self-esteem, and were more likely to report engaging in other unhealthy weight loss and eating disordered behaviors. Results suggest some young adults are misusing prescription stimulants for weight loss and that this behavior is associated with other problematic weight loss strategies. Interventions designed to reduce problematic eating behaviors in young adults may wish to assess the misuse of prescription stimulants. PMID:23376413

  16. Environmental influences on children's physical activity and eating habits in a rural Oregon County.

    PubMed

    Findholt, Nancy E; Michael, Yvonne L; Jerofke, Linda J; Brogoitti, Victoria W

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To identify environmental barriers and facilitators of children's physical activity and healthy eating in a rural county. DESIGN. Community-based participatory research using mixed methods, primarily qualitative. SETTING. A rural Oregon county. SUBJECTS. Ninety-five adults, 6 high school students, and 41 fifth-grade students. MEASURES. In-depth interviews, focus groups, Photovoice, and structured observations using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment, System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity, Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit, and School Food and Beverage Marketing Assessment Tool. ANALYSIS. Qualitative data were coded by investigators; observational data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings were triangulated to produce a composite of environmental barriers and assets. RESULTS. Limited recreational resources, street-related hazards, fear of strangers, inadequate physical education, and denial of recess hindered physical activity, whereas popularity of youth sports and proximity to natural areas promoted physical activity. Limited availability and high cost of healthy food, busy lifestyles, convenience stores near schools, few healthy meal choices at school, children's being permitted to bring snacks to school, candy used as incentives, and teachers' modeling unhealthy eating habits hindered healthy eating, whereas the agricultural setting and popularity of gardening promoted healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS. This study provides data on a neglected area of research, namely environmental determinants of rural childhood obesity, and points to the need for multifaceted and multilevel environmental change interventions. PMID:22040399

  17. Designing the user interfaces of a behavior modification intervention for obesity & eating disorders prevention.

    PubMed

    Moulos, Ioannis; Maramis, Christos; Mourouzis, Alexandros; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2015-01-01

    The recent immense diffusion of smartphones has significantly upgraded the role of mobile user interfaces in interventions that build and/or maintain healthier lifestyles. Indeed, high-quality, user-centered smartphone applications are able to serve as advanced front-ends to such interventions. These smartphone applications, coupled with portable or wearable sensors, are being employed for monitoring day to day health-related behaviors, including eating and physical activity. Some of them take one step forward by identifying unhealthy behaviors and contributing towards their modification. This work presents the design as well as the preliminary implementation of the mobile user interface of SPLENDID, a novel, sensor-oriented intervention for preventing obesity and eating disorders in young populations. This is implemented by means of an Android application, which is able to monitor the eating and physical activity behaviors of young individuals at risk for obesity and/or eating disorders, subsequently guiding them towards the modification of those behaviors that put them at risk. Behavior monitoring is based on multiple data provided by a set of communicating sensors and self-reported information, while guidance is facilitated through a feedback/encouragement provision and goal setting mechanism. PMID:25991228

  18. An early evaluation of implementation of brief intervention for unhealthy alcohol use in the US Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Emily C.; Rubinsky, Anna D.; Chavez, Laura J.; Lapham, Gwen T.; Rittmueller, Stacey E.; Achtmeyer, Carol E.; Bradley, Katharine A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The US Veterans Health Administration [Veterans Affairs (VA)] used performance measures and electronic clinical reminders to implement brief intervention for unhealthy alcohol use. We evaluated whether documented brief intervention was associated with subsequent changes in drinking during early implementation. Design Observational, retrospective cohort study using secondary clinical and administrative data. Setting Thirty VA facilities. Participants Outpatients who screened positive for unhealthy alcohol use [Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption (AUDIT-C ≥ 5)] in the 6 months after the brief intervention performance measure (n = 22 214) and had follow-up screening 9–15 months later (n = 6210; 28%). Measurements Multi-level logistic regression estimated the adjusted prevalence of resolution of unhealthy alcohol use (follow-up AUDIT-C <5 with ≥2 point reduction) for patients with and without documented brief intervention (documented advice to reduce or abstain from drinking). Findings Among 6210 patients with follow-up alcohol screening, 1751 (28%) had brief intervention and 2922 (47%) resolved unhealthy alcohol use at follow-up. Patients with documented brief intervention were older and more likely to have other substance use disorders, mental health conditions, poor health and more severe unhealthy alcohol use than those without (P-values < 0.05). Adjusted prevalences of resolution were 47% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 42–52%] and 48% (95% CI = 42–54%) for patients with and without documented brief intervention, respectively (P = 0.50). Conclusions During early implementation of brief intervention in the US Veterans Health Administration, documented brief intervention was not associated with subsequent changes in drinking among outpatients with unhealthy alcohol use and repeat alcohol screening. PMID:24773590

  19. Comparative optimism about healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Klusmann, Verena; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated people's perception of their own as compared to their peers' healthy eating and related these perceptions to actual healthy eating, BMI, and subsequent healthy eating behavior. Data were collected within the framework of the longitudinal cohort study Konstanz Life Study (T1: N?=?770; T2: N?=?510). Our results demonstrated an optimistic bias on the group level. Specifically, people rated their own eating behavior as healthier on average than that of their average peers. This comparative optimism occurred even when actual healthy eating was unfavorable and BMI was high. However, it increased with actual healthy eating behavior. Importantly, optimistic perceptions were positively related to the intention to eat healthily and healthy eating six months later. Hence, the results suggest that an optimistic comparative view of one's own healthy eating is grounded in reality and boosts rather than deters subsequent health behavior. This implies that there might not be a need to reduce optimistic perceptions of healthy eating behavior. PMID:25770914

  20. Persecutors or victims? The moral logic at the heart of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Simona

    2003-09-01

    Eating Disorders, particularly anorexia and bulimia, are of immense contemporary importance and interest. News stories depicting the tragic effects of eating disorders command wide attention. Almost everybody in society has been touched by eating disorders in one way or another, and contemporary obsession with body image and diet fuels fascination with this problem. It is unclear why people develop eating disorders. Clinical and sociological studies have provided important information relating to the relational systems in which eating disorders are mainly found. This paper shows that their explanations are not conclusive and points out that the reasons why people develop eating disorders should not be found in the dysfunctional interactions occurring in both familial and social systems, but in the moral beliefs that underlie these interactions. Eating disorders are impossible to understand or explain, unless they are viewed in the light of these beliefs. A moral logic, that is a way of thinking of interpersonal relations in moral terms, gives shape to and justifies the clinical condition, and finds consistent expression in abnormal eating behaviour. The analysis offered here is not mainstream either in philosophy (eating disorders are in fact seldom the subject of philosophical investigation) or in clinical psychology (the methods of philosophical analysis are in fact seldom utilised in clinical psychology). However, this paper offers a important contribution to the understanding of such a dramatic and widespread condition, bringing to light the deepest reasons, which are moral in nature, that contribute to the explanation of this complex phenomenon. PMID:14708934

  1. Eating style in seasonal affective disorder: who will gain weight in winter?

    PubMed

    Kräuchi, K; Reich, S; Wirz-Justice, A

    1997-01-01

    Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) selectively eat more carbohydrates (CHO), particularly sweets but also starch-rich foods, during their depression in winter. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was administered to female SAD patients, healthy female controls, and female medical students to determine their eating style, together with the modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ+). SAD patients showed higher values for "emotional" (EMOT) eating than the students, and these in turn had higher values than the controls. In comparison to controls, SAD patients and students head high values for the factor "external" (EXT) eating, but there was no difference between the groups with respect to "restraint" (REST) eating. This is in strong contrast to patients with bulimia and anorexia nervosa, who are high REST eaters, indicating that SAD patients do not have a similar eating disorder. Additional items showed that SAD patients selectively eat sweets under emotionally difficult conditions (when depressed, anxious, or lonely). Configural frequency analysis showed that seasonal body weight change (SBWC) is high in subjects with high EMOT and REST eating together with a high body mass index (BMI). This result is in accordance with the concept of disinhibition of dietary restraint in extreme emotional situations, e.g., the depressive state. PMID:9056125

  2. Picky/fussy eating in children: Review of definitions, assessment, prevalence and dietary intakes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Caroline M; Wernimont, Susan M; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline M

    2015-12-01

    Picky eating (also known as fussy, faddy or choosy eating) is usually classified as part of a spectrum of feeding difficulties. It is characterised by an unwillingness to eat familiar foods or to try new foods, as well as strong food preferences. The consequences may include poor dietary variety during early childhood. This, in turn, can lead to concern about the nutrient composition of the diet and thus possible adverse health-related outcomes. There is no single widely accepted definition of picky eating, and therefore there is little consensus on an appropriate assessment measure and a wide range of estimates of prevalence. In this review we first examine common definitions of picky eating used in research studies, and identify the methods that have been used to assess picky eating. These methods include the use of subscales in validated questionnaires, such as the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and the Child Feeding Questionnaire as well as study-specific question(s). Second, we review data on the prevalence of picky eating in published studies. For comparison we present prevalence data from the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in children at four time points (24, 38, 54 and 65 months of age) using a study-specific question. Finally, published data on the effects of picky eating on dietary intakes (both variety and nutrient composition) are reviewed, and the need for more health-related data and longitudinal data is discussed. PMID:26232139

  3. Eating Disorders in Athletes: Weighing the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Susan; Martin, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Defines different eating disorders, discusses athlete eating problems, and presents the signs physicians should look for that signal the presence of an eating disorder. The article also discusses the tailoring of treatment programs, questions to ask athletes about eating habits, and society's influence on an athlete's eating behavior. (GLR)

  4. Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders…

  5. Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders

  6. Environmental factors and unhealthy lifestyle influence oxidative stress in humans--an overview.

    PubMed

    Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Sivasudha, T; Jeyadevi, R; Arul Ananth, D

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen is the most essential molecule for life; since it is a strong oxidizing agent, it can aggravate the damage within the cell by a series of oxidative events including the generation of free radicals. Antioxidative agents are the only defense mechanism to neutralize these free radicals. Free radicals are not only generated internally in our body system but also trough external sources like environmental pollution, toxic metals, cigarette smoke, pesticides, etc., which add damage to our body system. Inhaling these toxic chemicals in the environment has become unavoidable in modern civilization. Antioxidants of plant origin with free radical scavenging properties could have great importance as therapeutic agents in several diseases caused by environmental pollution. This review summarizes the generation of reactive oxygen species and damage to cells by exposure to external factors, unhealthy lifestyle, and role of herbal plants in scavenging these reactive oxygen species. PMID:23636598

  7. A hierarchy of unhealthy food promotion effects: identifying methodological approaches and knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; King MPsy, Lesley; Chapman Mnd, Kathy; Boyland, Emma; Bauman, Adrian E; Baur, Louise A

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the evidence for a conceptual "hierarchy of effects" of marketing, to guide understanding of the relationship between children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing and poor diets and overweight, and drive the research agenda. We reviewed studies assessing the impact of food promotions on children from MEDLINE, Web of Science, ABI Inform, World Health Organization library database, and The Gray Literature Report. We included articles published in English from 2009 to 2013, with earlier articles from a 2009 systematic review. We grouped articles by outcome of exposure and assessed outcomes within a framework depicting a hierarchy of effects of marketing exposures. Evidence supports a logical sequence of effects linking food promotions to individual-level weight outcomes. Future studies should demonstrate the sustained effects of marketing exposure, and exploit variations in exposures to assess differences in outcomes longitudinally. PMID:25713968

  8. Relationship between body satisfaction with self esteemand unhealthy body weight management

    PubMed Central

    Daniali, Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship between body satisfaction, self esteem and unhealthy weight control behaviors between women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 408 women employees in Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 1390. They were chosen according to the stratified random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were 1) willing to participate in the study and 2) lack of serious physical defect 3) not being in pregnancy or breastfeeding course. Exclusion criteria was filling out questionnaires incompletely. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised of 4 sections as following: demographic (5items), A self-administrative questionnaire for body Satisfaction (7 items), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items) and a standard Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Cranach's alpha was 0.9 or higher for the different sections. Finally, collected data was analyzed with SPSS18 using the independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, Spearman correlation. Results: Frequencies of participants by weight category were 14.1% for obese, 35.3% for overweight, 47.6% for normal weight. The mean body satisfaction score in the studied women was 63.26 16.27 (from 100). Mean score of self esteem was 76.70 10.45. 51.5% of women had medium self esteem, 47.5% had high self esteem. Pearson correlation showed that the variables of body Satisfaction (r = 0.3, P = 0.02), BMI (r = - 0.14, P < 0.003), education level (r = 0.22, P < 0.001), income (r = 0.14, P < 0.004), consumption of fruit (r = 0.13, P < 0.008) all correlated with self-esteem significantly. Women with higher self esteem used higher fruits had a good nutrition overall (r = 0.11, P = 0.02). 92.15%, 10.8% of women respectively participated in one of healthy and unhealthy weight control behavior. There was not any Relationship between self esteem and healthy weight control behavior while finding showed reverse relationship between self esteem and Unhealthy Dieting Behaviors. Conclusion: It seemed women identity in our society tied to social appreciations that formed and supported by body satisfaction. When they feel their current appearance is differ from ideal appearance, they feel down and have lower self esteem and used unhealthy dieting behavior and low fruits daily. Due to importance of precise self evaluation, self esteem can be used to design and conduct public health programs, especially for women. PMID:24083279

  9. Management of eating disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Berkman, Nancy D; Bulik, Cynthia M; Brownley, Kimberly A; Lohr, Kathleen N; Sedway, Jan A; Rooks, Adrienne; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The RTI International-University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Evidence-based Practice Center (RTI-UNC EPC) systematically reviewed evidence on efficacy of treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), harms associated with treatments, factors associated with the treatment efficacy and with outcomes of these conditions, and whether treatment and outcomes for these conditions differ by sociodemographic characteristics. DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Applied Health (CINAHL), PSYCHINFO, the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), the National Agricultural Library (AGRICOLA), and Cochrane Collaboration libraries. REVIEW METHODS We reviewed each study against a priori inclusion/exclusion criteria. For included articles, a primary reviewer abstracted data directly into evidence tables; a second senior reviewer confirmed accuracy. We included studies published from 1980 to September 2005, in all languages. Studies had to involve populations diagnosed primarily with AN, BN, or BED and report on eating, psychiatric or psychological, or biomarker outcomes. RESULTS We report on 30 treatment studies for AN, 47 for BN, 25 for BED, and 34 outcome studies for AN, 13 for BN, 7 addressing both AN and BN, and 3 for BED. The AN literature on medications was sparse and inconclusive. Some forms of family therapy are efficacious in treating adolescents. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may reduce relapse risk for adults after weight restoration. For BN, fluoxetine (60 mg/day) reduces core bulimic symptoms (binge eating and purging) and associated psychological features in the short term. Individual or group CBT decreases core behavioral symptoms and psychological features in both the short and long term. How best to treat individuals who do not respond to CBT or fluoxetine remains unknown. In BED, individual or group CBT reduces binge eating and improves abstinence rates for up to 4 months after treatment; however, CBT is not associated with weight loss. Medications may play a role in treating BED patients. Further research addressing how best to achieve both abstinence from binge eating and weight loss in overweight patients is needed. Higher levels of depression and compulsivity were associated with poorer outcomes in AN; higher mortality was associated with concurrent alcohol and substance use disorders. Only depression was consistently associated with poorer outcomes in BN; BN was not associated with an increased risk of death. Because of sparse data, we could reach no conclusions concerning BED outcomes. No or only weak evidence addresses treatment or outcomes difference for these disorders. CONCLUSIONS The literature regarding treatment efficacy and outcomes for AN, BN, and BED is of highly variable quality. In future studies, researchers must attend to issues of statistical power, research design, standardized outcome measures, and sophistication and appropriateness of statistical methodology. PMID:17628126

  10. Individuals with Metabolically Healthy Overweight/Obesity Have Higher Fat Utilization than Metabolically Unhealthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Pujia, Arturo; Gazzaruso, Carmine; Ferro, Yvelise; Mazza, Elisa; Maurotti, Samantha; Russo, Cristina; Lazzaro, Veronica; Romeo, Stefano; Montalcini, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the change in phenotype from metabolically healthy to metabolically unhealthy obesity are still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a difference in fasting fat utilization exists between overweight/obese individuals with a favorable cardiovascular risk profile and those with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we sought to explore whether there is an association between fasting fat utilization and insulin resistance. In this cross-sectional study, 172 overweight/obese individuals underwent a nutritional assessment. Those with fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or antidiabetic treatment were considered to be diabetics. If at least three of the NCEP criteria were present, they had Metabolic Syndrome, while those with less criteria were considered to be healthy overweight/obese. An indirect calorimetry was performed to estimate Respiratory Quotient, an index of nutrient utilization. A lower Respiratory Quotient (i.e., higher fat utilization) was found in healthy overweight/obese individuals than in those with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 diabetes (0.85 ± 0.05; 0.87 ± 0.06; 0.88 ± 0.05 respectively, p = 0.04). The univariate and multivariable analysis showed a positive association between the Respiratory Quotient and HOMA-IR (slope in statistic (B) = 0.004; β = 0.42; p = 0.005; 95% Confidence interval = 0.001–0.006). In this study, we find, for the first time, that the fasting Respiratory Quotient is significantly lower (fat utilization is higher) in individuals who are metabolically healthy overweight/obese than in those with metabolically unhealthy obesity. In addition, we demonstrated the association between fat utilization and HOMA-IR, an insulin resistance index. PMID:26742056

  11. Unhealthy Drinking Patterns and Receipt of Preventive Medical Services by Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkin, Dominic; Garnick, Deborah W.; Horgan, Constance M.; Panas, Lee; Ryan, Marian; Saitz, Richard; Blow, Frederic C.

    2008-01-01

    Background Preventive service use among older adults is suboptimal. Unhealthy drinking may constitute a risk factor for failure to receive these services. Objectives To determine the relationship between unhealthy drinking and receipt of recommended preventive services among elderly Medicare beneficiaries, applying the framework of current alcohol consumption guidelines. Design/Methods The data source is the nationally representative 2003 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. The sample included community-dwelling, fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries 65 years and older (N = 10,523). Based on self-reported drinking, respondents were categorized as nondrinkers, within-guidelines drinkers, exceeding monthly but not daily limits, or heavy episodic drinkers. Using survey and claims data, influenza vaccination, pneumonia vaccination, glaucoma screening, and mammogram receipt were determined. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results Overall, 70.3% received flu vaccination and 49% received glaucoma screening during the year, 66.8% received pneumonia vaccination, and 56.2% of women received a mammogram over 2 years. In logistic regression, heavy episodic drinking was associated with lower likelihood of service receipt compared to drinking within guidelines: flu vaccination (OR 0.75, CI 0.59–0.96), glaucoma screening (OR 0.74, CI 0.58–0.95), and pneumonia vaccination (OR 0.75, CI 0.59–0.96). Nondrinkers when compared with those reporting drinking within guidelines were less likely to receive a mammogram (OR 0.83, CI 0.69–1.00). Conclusions Heavy episodic drinking is associated with lower likelihood of receiving several preventive services. Practitioners should be encouraged to screen all elders regarding alcohol intake and in addition to appropriate intervention, consider elders reporting heavy episodic drinking at higher risk for non-receipt of preventive services. PMID:18716847

  12. Rats learn to eat more to avoid hunger.

    PubMed

    Jarvandi, Soghra; Thibault, Louise; Booth, David A

    2009-04-01

    Several recent experiments have provided evidence that the ingestion of a distinctive food by rats can be a learnt instrumental act as well as an associatively conditioned reaction. In the previous work, maintenance food was withheld for shorter and longer durations on different days following access to the training food. Extra eating before the longer fast was interpreted as avoidance of hunger. This interpretation was based on the evidence showing that extra eating as a result of classical conditioning comes from pairing food stimuli with the presence of little or no hunger because of repletion with energy nutrients. The theory that the extra eating arose from a response-depletion contingency was tested in the present experiment by training rats on only a long fast or only a short fast. Greater increase in intake was seen before the longer fast. The results also replicated previously seen cycles of increase, decrease, and renewed increase in putative deficit-avoidant eating over about three trials, indicating that the extra eating reduces the response-reinforcing hunger and that the consequent part-extinction restores reinforcement. The shape of the learning curve was consistent with these cycles occurring from the start of training, further supporting the view that the increase in food intake before a long delay in refeeding is hunger-reinforced instrumental behaviour. PMID:19048448

  13. [The communicating body--eating disorders and culture].

    PubMed

    Skrderud, Finn

    2004-09-23

    What is "culture" in eating disorders as culture-bound syndromes? The human body is a flesh-and-blood entity, but it also functions as a symbolic instrument. The body communicates about culture itself, about norms and boundaries. In this paper one central aspect in the phenomenology of eating disorders is emphasised: The subjective experience of lack of control and the sense of an overwhelming "chaos", both on the inner and outer level. On this basis rapid societal transitions are discussed as specific pathogenic factors. Sociocultural instability represents insecure conditions for construction of a healthy and stable identity. "The open body" is a relevant metaphor, with its dialectical relationship to the isolation and delimitation represented by eating disordered behaviour. With reference to history and geography the paper also discusses the pathoplasticity of eating disorders; how they change in time and space. Cultural analysis of eating disorders can contribute to a richer understanding of the complexity of the construction of meaning in these disorders, both across cultures and within our own cultural contexts. PMID:15467802

  14. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  15. Eating extra calories when sick - children

    MedlinePLUS

    Getting more calories - children ... your child needs to get enough protein and calories to grow and develop. Eating well can help ... children's eating habits to help them get more calories. Let your child eat when hungry, not just ...

  16. Body checking in the eating disorders: association with narcissistic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Waller, Glenn; Sines, Jennie; Meyer, Caroline; Mountford, Victoria

    2008-04-01

    There is substantial evidence that body image is a clinically important element of eating pathology, and that patients' body checking cognitions and behaviours are key elements in the maintenance of that body image. However, there is little understanding of individual differences in body checking. This study considered the potential role of narcissism and narcissistic defences in driving body checking cognitions and behaviours. 68 eating-disordered and 70 non-clinical women completed well-validated measures of body checking and narcissism. There were specific patterns of association between different elements of narcissism and different aspects of body checking. These patterns are compatible with a model where body checking serves the defensive function of maintaining self-esteem, rather than promoting positive levels of narcissistic self-esteem. PMID:18329594

  17. Relationship of Age of First Drink to Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students with Unhealthy Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Dejong, William; Palfai, Tibor; Saitz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between age of first drink (AFD) and a broad range of negative alcohol-related outcomes among college students exhibiting unhealthy alcohol use. We conducted an anonymous on-line survey to collect self-report data from first-year college students at a large northeastern university. Among 1,792 respondents

  18. Substitution of healthy for unhealthy beverages among college students. A health-concerns and behavioral-economics perspective.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Chin; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-06-01

    Excessive intake of sugar-sweetened beverages by undergraduates is closely related to the increasing prevalence of obesity, making investigations of the substitution of healthy for unhealthy beverages imperative. According to the concept of price elasticity in behavioral economics, the choice of healthy over unhealthy behaviors is facilitated by increasing the cost of less-healthy alternatives or reducing the cost of healthier alternatives. Furthermore, evoking health concerns by using health claims may induce substitution of healthy for unhealthy beverages. A total of 108 18-22-year-old undergraduates participated in a laboratory experiment and were given a certain amount of money and allowed to purchase a healthy beverage and a less-healthy beverage with or without receiving health claims. Increasing the price of a type of beverage was shown to reduce purchases of that beverage type and lead to substitution with the alternative type. Moreover, the effect of price elasticity on healthy beverage substitution was more pronounced when participants' health concerns were evoked. The results suggest that lowering the cost of alternative commodities and evoking health concerns by health-related claims would foster the substitution of healthier for unhealthy beverages among college students. PMID:20156500

  19. Mapping Unhealthy Behavior Among Economically Active Men Using GIS in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Padmaka

    2016-01-01

    The burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and certain behavioral risk factors related to NCDs (unhealthy behaviors) are becoming more common. This survey aims to map out such common unhealthy behaviors among all men 35 to 50 years old in a Medical Officer of Health area in the Western Province of Sri Lanka using a geographical information system (GIS) and an interviewer administered questionnaire by visiting all households in the study area. Data were analyzed with ARC GIS and SPSS software. Geographical areas where men with unhealthy behaviors cluster together (clusters) were identified and visually and statistically related to locations of schools, places of religious worship, and factories in the area. It was revealed that clusters of unhealthy behaviors are mostly seen in areas with less population density. Smoking and alcohol are clustering in estate areas occupied by Tamils. This way GIS mapping could be used to identify and reduce the burden of NCDs by visualizing clusters and how certain locations affect their spread. PMID:26489433

  20. Examination of Classroom Observations and Educator Perceptions of Classroom Interventions of Middle School Gifted Students Exhibiting Unhealthy Perfectionist Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drawdy, LaTease

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy perfectionist tendencies plague many gifted middle school students, and this type of perfectionism can lead to a lack of classroom success. Identifying effective interventions that educators can utilize is important in assisting middle school gifted students who demonstrate these maladaptive tendencies in their achievement in the…

  1. Examination of Classroom Observations and Educator Perceptions of Classroom Interventions of Middle School Gifted Students Exhibiting Unhealthy Perfectionist Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drawdy, LaTease

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy perfectionist tendencies plague many gifted middle school students, and this type of perfectionism can lead to a lack of classroom success. Identifying effective interventions that educators can utilize is important in assisting middle school gifted students who demonstrate these maladaptive tendencies in their achievement in the

  2. Life Satisfaction, Happiness, and the Growth Mindset of Healthy and Unhealthy Perfectionists among Hong Kong Chinese Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This study used clustering to classify Chinese gifted students based on their scores on the High Standards and Discrepancy subscales of the Almost Perfect Scale--Revised (APS-R). The interpretation of the three clusters as nonperfectionists, unhealthy perfectionists, and healthy perfectionists was supported by results comparing these groups on…

  3. Life Satisfaction, Happiness, and the Growth Mindset of Healthy and Unhealthy Perfectionists among Hong Kong Chinese Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This study used clustering to classify Chinese gifted students based on their scores on the High Standards and Discrepancy subscales of the Almost Perfect Scale--Revised (APS-R). The interpretation of the three clusters as nonperfectionists, unhealthy perfectionists, and healthy perfectionists was supported by results comparing these groups on

  4. Body image dissatisfaction and eating-related psychopathology in trans individuals: a matched control study.

    PubMed

    Witcomb, Gemma L; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Richards, Christina; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2015-07-01

    High levels of body dissatisfaction have already been reported in the trans population; however, the root of this dissatisfaction, and its association with eating disordered behaviours, has not been studied in-depth. This study aims to assess eating disorder risk by comparing 200 trans people, 200 people with eating disorders and 200 control participants' scores on three subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and to further explore dissatisfaction in the trans participants using the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (HBDS). The results showed that overall participants with eating disorders scored higher than trans or control groups on all EDI-2 measures, but that trans individuals had greater body dissatisfaction than control participants and, importantly, trans males had comparable body dissatisfaction scores to eating disordered males. Drive for thinness was greater in females (cis and trans) compared with males. In relation to HBDS body dissatisfaction, both trans males and trans females reported greatest dissatisfaction not only for gender-identifying body parts but also for body shape and weight. Overall, trans males may be at particular risk for eating disordered psychopathology and other body image-related behaviours. PMID:25944170

  5. Eating disorders in midlife women: A perimenopausal eating disorder?

    PubMed

    Baker, Jessica H; Runfola, Cristin D

    2016-03-01

    Eating disorders afflict women across the lifespan with peak onset during critical or sensitive developmental periods of reproductive hormone change, such as puberty. A growing body of research supports the role of reproductive hormones, specifically estrogen, in the risk for eating disorders and related symptomatology in adolescence and young adulthood. Like puberty, perimenopause is characterized by estrogen change and may also present a window of vulnerability to eating disorder development. Here, we discuss the evidence that suggests perimenopause indeed may be a vulnerable period for the development or redevelopment of an eating disorder for midlife women. Drawing from what is known about the influence of estrogen on eating disorders at younger ages and from other psychiatric disorders with similar risk trajectories (i.e., perimenopausal depression), we describe a potential mechanism of risk for a perimenopausal eating disorder and how this can be explored in future research. Investigating vulnerability to perimenopausal eating disorders will clarify eating disorder etiology, identify reproductive stage-specific risk profiles, and guide future treatment directions. PMID:26857889

  6. Healthy Eating in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Across the UK there is a great deal of concern about the quality of children's diets and the growing problem of children's obesity. There is also anxiety about the rise of dieting and eating disorders at younger ages. Both obesity and eating disorders can be treated through educational, medical and therapeutic means with varying degrees of

  7. Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Crow, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Opinion statement Binge eating disorder is a common eating disorder that recently has received increasing attention. Goals in treating binge eating disorder typically include controlling binge eating and diminishing excess body weight. A variety of treatment approaches have been used, including diet/lifestyle modification, psychotherapy, and pharmacologic treatment. Diet and lifestyle interventions are somewhat effective in diminishing the binge eating behavior and lead to modest weight loss, but the weight effects are limited and not typically lasting. A number of psychotherapies have been shown to be beneficial, mostly for stopping binge eating, and tend to show little impact on weight loss. Numerous pharmacologic interventions have been developed, with the focus on antidepressants (used for their anti-binge eating effects) and weight loss drugs. Both have been shown to be helpful but again, for antidepressants, bringing about lasting weight loss appears to be difficult. The most effective approach to treating binge eating disorder (if available) is likely psychotherapy combined with medication management as indicated. PMID:26251823

  8. Hunger, Eating, and Ill Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinel, John P. J.; Assanand, Sunaina; Lehman, Darrin R.

    2000-01-01

    Because of the unpredictability of food in nature, humans have evolved to eat to their physiological limits when food is plentiful. Discrepancies between the environment in which the hunger and eating system evolved and the food-replete environments in which many people live have led to the current problem of overconsumption. This evolutionary…

  9. Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy…

  10. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  11. Cognitive Treatments for Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    1993-01-01

    Sees cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as applicable to all eating disorders but most intensively studied in treatment of bulimia nervosa. Briefly reviews most commonly used cognitive treatments for eating disorders, provides critical evaluation of their effectiveness, and speculates about their mechanisms of action. Notes that CBT has not been

  12. Attentional bias in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shafran, Roz; Lee, Michelle; Cooper, Zafra; Palmer, Robert L; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between eating disorders and attentional biases. Method: The first study comprised 23 female patients with clinical eating disorders, women with high levels ofanxiety (n = 19), and three female normal control groups comprising low (n = 31), moderate (n = 21), or high levels of shape concern (n = 23). The second study comprised 82 women with clinical eating disorders and 44 healthy controls. All participants completed measures of eating disorder psychopathology and completed a modified pictorial dot-probe task. Results: In the first study, biases were found for negative eating and neutral weight pictures, and for positive eating pictures in women with eating disorders; these biases were greater than those found in anxious and normal controls. The second study replicated these findings and biases were also found for negative and neutral shape stimuli. Conclusion: It is concluded that future research should establish whether such biases warrant specific therapeutic interventions. 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2007 PMID:17330290

  13. Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy

  14. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying

  15. Hunger, Eating, and Ill Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinel, John P. J.; Assanand, Sunaina; Lehman, Darrin R.

    2000-01-01

    Because of the unpredictability of food in nature, humans have evolved to eat to their physiological limits when food is plentiful. Discrepancies between the environment in which the hunger and eating system evolved and the food-replete environments in which many people live have led to the current problem of overconsumption. This evolutionary

  16. Using three-phase theory-based formative research to explore healthy eating in Australian truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Vayro, Caitlin; Hamilton, Kyra

    2016-03-01

    In Australia, fruit and vegetable consumption is lower than recommended while discretionary foods (i.e., foods high in fat, sugar, and salt) are eaten in excess. Long-haul truck drivers are a group at risk of unhealthy eating but have received limited attention in the health literature. We aimed to examine long-haul truck drivers eating decisions in order to develop theory-based and empirically-driven health messages to improve their healthy food choices. Drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior, three-phased formative research was conducted using self-report surveys. Phase 1 (N=30, Mage=39.53, SDage=10.72) identified modal salient beliefs about fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and limiting discretionary choices (DC). There were nine behavioral and seven normative beliefs elicited for both FV and DC; while nine and five control beliefs were elicited for FV and DC, respectively. Phase 2 (N=148, Mage=44.23, SDage=12.08) adopted a prospective design with one week follow-up to examine the predictors of FV and DC intention and behavior. A variety of behavioral and control beliefs were predictive of FV and DC intention and behavior. Normative beliefs were predictive of FV intention and behavior and DC intention only. Phase 3 (N=20, Mage=46.9, SDage=12.85) elicited the reasons why each belief is held/solutions to negative beliefs, that could be used as health messages. In total, 40 reasons/solutions were identified: 26 for FV and 14 for DC. In summary, we found that specific behavioral, normative and control beliefs influenced FV and DC eating decisions. These results have implications for truck driver's health and provide formative research to inform future interventions to improve the food choices of a unique group who are at risk of unhealthy eating behaviors. PMID:26710674

  17. Children eat their school lunch too quickly: an exploratory study of the effect on food intake

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Speed of eating, an important aspect of eating behaviour, has recently been related to loss of control of food intake and obesity. Very little time is allocated for lunch at school and thus children may consume food more quickly and food intake may therefore be affected. Study 1 measured the time spent eating lunch in a large group of students eating together for school meals. Study 2 measured the speed of eating and the amount of food eaten in individual school children during normal school lunches and then examined the effect of experimentally increasing or decreasing the speed of eating on total food intake. Methods The time spent eating lunch was measured with a stop watch in 100 children in secondary school. A more detailed study of eating behaviour was then undertaken in 30 secondary school children (18 girls). The amount of food eaten at lunch was recorded by a hidden scale when the children ate amongst their peers and by a scale connected to a computer when they ate individually. When eating individually, feedback on how quickly to eat was visible on the computer screen. The speed of eating could therefore be increased or decreased experimentally using this visual feedback and the total amount of food eaten measured. Results In general, the children spent very little time eating their lunch. The 100 children in Study 1 spent on average (SD) just 7 (0.8) minutes eating lunch. The girls in Study 2 consumed their lunch in 5.6 (1.2) minutes and the boys ate theirs in only 6.8 (1.3) minutes. Eating with peers markedly distorted the amount of food eaten for lunch; only two girls and one boy maintained their food intake at the level observed when the children ate individually without external influences (258 (38) g in girls and 289 (73) g in boys). Nine girls ate on average 33% less food and seven girls ate 23% more food whilst the remaining boys ate 26% more food. The average speed of eating during school lunches amongst groups increased to 183 (53)% in the girls and to 166 (47)% in the boys compared to the speed of eating in the unrestricted condition. These apparent changes in food intake during school lunches could be replicated by experimentally increasing the speed of eating when the children were eating individually. Conclusions If insufficient time is allocated for consuming school lunches, compensatory increased speed of eating puts children at risk of losing control over food intake and in many cases over-eating. Public health initiatives to increase the time available for school meals might prove a relatively easy way to reduce excess food intake at school and enable children to eat more healthily. PMID:22583917

  18. Protein supplementation and dietary behaviours of resistance trained men and women attending commercial gyms: a comparative study between the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is anecdotally recognized that commercial gym users assume supplements in order to improve performance or health. However, dietary behaviours of people and athletes attending commercial gyms have been poorly studied. The exact amount and frequency of dietary supplements consumption are still needed to be investigated. The main purpose of this study is to understand the quantity and quality of food intake, as well as dietary supplementation in people attending commercial gyms. Secondly to compare the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire was administered to 561 subjects, 207 from the city centre (CC) and 354 from the suburbs (SB) of Palermo, Italy. Frequency of protein supplements use and association with dietary behaviours were investigated. Subsequently, the frequency distribution was used for demographic assessment. Results Frequency of protein consumption was similar in both groups (30% for CC and 28.8% for SB). Males show greater consumption percentages than females (30.5% in males and 6.9% in females). Milk and chicken are the most frequently consumed foods. Data show that non-supplement users (NSU) consume significantly more snacks and bakery products than supplement users (SU) (P < 0.001). While, SU consume significantly higher quantities of vegetables, nuts, fresh fish, eggs and canned tuna (P < 0.001). SU consume less low protein food and higher protein foods than NSU. No differences were found between CC and SB. Conclusions Protein consumption among commercial gym users is 30% for the CC and 28.8% for the SB. Significant differences were found between CC and SB females, underlining an interesting discrepancy, indicating to dietary supplement industries regarding regional implications. Subjects that use protein supplements also consume larger quantities of high protein food compared to NSU. NSU also eat higher proportions of unhealthy food compared to SU. PMID:24976800

  19. The Effect of Eating Behavior on Being Overweight or Obese During Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ah; Lee, Won Kyung; Kong, Kyoung-Ae; Chang, Namsoo; Ha, Eun-Hee; Hong, Young Sun

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Being overweight or obese is central to metabolic syndrome, and these characteristics constitute dominant risk factors for chronic diseases. Although behavioral factors, including eating habits and sedentary lifestyles, are considered to be determinants of obesity, the specific childhood factors that contribute to this condition have not been clearly defined. Methods The subjects consisted of 261 children aged 7-9 years who were recruited from an elementary school during October 2003. Information was obtained from their parents using a questionnaire focused on eating behaviors and lifestyle factors, additional data were also collected via anthropometric measurements and biochemical examinations, including blood tests. Results A total of 48 (18.4%) of the 261 children were overweight, and 34 (70.8%) had at least one other component of metabolic syndrome. Eating behaviors emerged as significant lifestyle-related risk factors for being overweight or obese. Those who engaged in overeating more than twice per week had three times the risk of being overweight (odds ratio [OR], 3.10, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39 to 6.92), and those who ate rapidly had three times the risk of being overweight (OR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.68 to 6.41). Those who had fewer family meals (fewer than 2-3/month) had a nine times higher risk of being overweight than those who had family meals more frequently (at least 1/day) (OR, 9.51; 95% CI, 1.21 to 74.82). Conclusions This study showed that being overweight or obese during preadolescence is associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome and is related to unhealthy eating behaviors. Thus, weight-control strategies and healthy eating behaviors should be developed early in life to reduce the risk for metabolic syndrome. PMID:22020188

  20. Disordered eating among mothers of Polish patients with eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech; Jzefik, Barbara; Sa?apa, Kinga

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess attitudes towards eating as measured by the Eating Attitude Test (EAT26) among mothers of girls diagnosed with various types of eating disorders, in comparison with mothers of depressive girls and their relationship with daughters results 14 years after the beginning of the Polish political and cultural transformation of 1989. Material/Methods The data of 68 mothers and their daughters were used in statistical analysis (anorexia nervosa restrictive type: 18, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type: 12, bulimia: 14, depression: 24). The mean age in the group of mothers was 43.5 (SD 5.3), daughters: 16.7 (SD 1.4). Results In the group of mothers, the results of EAT26 test were lower than results of the general population of Polish females or patients mothers obtained in a different cultural context. Results from girls with an eating disorder diagnosis considerably exceed the mean result of Polish population studies of teenagers. There were no statistically significant differences between the EAT26 results of mothers of girls with various types of eating disorders and mothers of depressive girls. Sociocultural variables such as education and place of residence of mothers also did not differentiate the studied groups and did not have a significant influence on attitudes towards weight and body shape presented by the studied mothers. Conclusions The obtained results may suggest that in the studied population, the social background of mothers and disturbances of their own mothers attitudes towards weight and body shape were not an important and specific risk factor in the development of their daughters eating disorders. PMID:23197240

  1. Should I pay for your risky behaviours? Evidence from London.

    PubMed

    Miraldo, Marisa; Galizzi, Matteo M; Merla, Anna; Levaggi, Rosella; Schulz, Peter J; Auxilia, Francesco; Castaldi, Silvana; Gelatti, Umberto

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the extent to which respondents from a general population sample in London (July-August 2011) agree or disagree with the NHS covering the healthcare costs related to five risky health behaviours: overeating, unhealthy diet, sedentary life, excess of alcohol, and smoking. For each behaviour, we also directly explore the main factors associated with the likelihood to agree or disagree. Half of the respondents (N=146) manifest agreement with the idea. Wider agreement exists for covering the costs associated smoking, heavy drinking, and sedentary lives than with overeating, or poor diets. With the exception of alcohol drinking and sedentary life, there is an almost one-to-one relationship between the agreement that the NHS should pay the healthcare costs associated with a specific behaviour, and the respondents' actual engagement in that behaviour. Those at higher risk of depending on publicly funded healthcare, are more likely to agree. PMID:24945692

  2. Health behaviour and body mass index among problem gamblers: results from a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Algren, Maria H; Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael; Larsen, Christina V L; Juel, Knud

    2015-06-01

    Problem gambling is a serious public health issue. The objective of this study was to investigate whether past year problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among Danes aged 16years or older. Data were derived from the Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010. Past year problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between past year problem gambling and health behaviour and BMI. Problem gambling was associated with unhealthy behaviour and obesity. The odds of smoking was significantly higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. Further, the odds of high-risk alcohol drinking and illicit drug use were significantly higher among problem gamblers. The prevalence of sedentary leisure activity, unhealthy diet pattern and obesity was higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. The associations found in this study remained significant after adjustment for sex, age, educational and cohabiting status as well as other risk factors. Our findings highlight the presence of a potential, public health challenge and elucidate the need for health promotion initiatives targeted at problem gamblers. Furthermore, more research is needed in order to understand the underlying social mechanism of the association between problem gamblers and unhealthy behaviour. PMID:24390713

  3. Wellness incentives in the workplace: cost savings through cost shifting to unhealthy workers.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Jill R; Kelly, Brenna D; DiNardo, John E

    2013-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act encourages workplace wellness programs, chiefly by promoting programs that reward employees for changing health-related behavior or improving measurable health outcomes. Recognizing the risk that unhealthy employees might be punished rather than helped by such programs, the act also forbids health-based discrimination. We reviewed results of randomized controlled trials and identified challenges for workplace wellness programs to function as the act intends. For example, research results raise doubts that employees with health risk factors, such as obesity and tobacco use, spend more on medical care than others. Such groups may not be especially promising targets for financial incentives meant to save costs through health improvement. Although there may be other valid reasons, beyond lowering costs, to institute workplace wellness programs, we found little evidence that such programs can easily save costs through health improvement without being discriminatory. Our evidence suggests that savings to employers may come from cost shifting, with the most vulnerable employees--those from lower socioeconomic strata with the most health risks--probably bearing greater costs that in effect subsidize their healthier colleagues. PMID:23459725

  4. Understanding The Relationships Between Noncommunicable Diseases, Unhealthy Lifestyles, And Country Wealth.

    PubMed

    Bollyky, Thomas J; Templin, Tara; Andridge, Caroline; Dieleman, Joseph L

    2015-09-01

    The amount of international aid given to address noncommunicable diseases is minimal. Most of it is directed to wealthier countries and focuses on the prevention of unhealthy lifestyles. Explanations for the current direction of noncommunicable disease aid include that these are diseases of affluence that benefit from substantial research and development into their treatment in high-income countries and are better addressed through domestic tax and policy measures to reduce risk-factor prevalence than through aid programs. This study assessed these justifications. First, we examined the relationships among premature adult mortality, defined as the probability that a person who has lived to the age of fifteen will die before the age of sixty from noncommunicable diseases; the major risk factors for these diseases; and country wealth. Second, we compared noncommunicable and communicable diseases prevalent in poor and wealthy countries alike, and their respective links to economic development. Last, we examined the respective roles that wealth and risk prevention have played in countries that achieved substantial reductions in premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases. Our results support greater investment in cost-effective noncommunicable disease preventive care and treatment in poorer countries and a higher priority for reducing key risk factors, particularly tobacco use. PMID:26355047

  5. Impact of Connecticut Legislation Incentivizing Elimination of Unhealthy Competitive Foods on National School Lunch Program Participation

    PubMed Central

    Luedicke, Joerg; Dorsey, Marice; Fiore, Susan S.; Henderson, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed the impact of Connecticut legislation incentivizing voluntary school districtlevel elimination of unhealthy competitive foods on National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participation. Methods. We analyzed data on free, reduced, and paid participation in the NSLP from 904 schools within 154 Connecticut school districts from the 20042005 to the 20092010 school year, resulting in 5064 observations of annual school-level meal participation. We used multilevel regression modeling techniques to estimate the impact of the state competitive food legislation on the count of NSLP lunches served per student in each school. Results. Overall, the state statute was associated with an increase in school lunch participation. We observed increases between 7% and 23% for middle- and high-school meal programs, and a slight decrease of 2.5% for the elementary school free meal eligibility category, leading to an estimated revenue increase of roughly $30?000 for an average school district per school year. Conclusions. This study provides support for national implementation of proposed rigorous competitive food standards that can improve the health of students while supporting local school district finances. PMID:23678930

  6. Metabolomics Reveals Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Obese Individuals Differ in their Response to a Caloric Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Maude; Zulyniak, Michael A.; Britz-McKibbin, Philip; Mutch, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals have a different metabolic response to a standardized diet compared to lean healthy (LH) and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) individuals. Methods Thirty adults (35–70 yrs) were classified as LH, MHO, and MUO according to anthropometric and clinical measurements. Participants consumed a standardized high calorie meal (~1330 kcal). Blood glucose and insulin were measured at fasting, and 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min postprandially. Additional blood samples were collected for the targeted analysis of amino acids (AAs) and derivatives, and fatty acids (FAs). Results The postprandial response (i.e., area under the curve, AUC) for serum glucose and insulin were similar between MHO and LH individuals, and significantly lower than MUO individuals (p < 0.05). Minor differences were found in postprandial responses for AAs between MHO and MUO individuals, while three polyunsaturated FAs (linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid) showed smaller changes in serum after the meal in MHO individuals compared to MUO. Fasting levels for various AAs (notably branched-chain AA) and FAs (e.g., saturated myristic and palmitic acids) were found to correlate with glucose and insulin AUC. Conclusion MHO individuals show preserved insulin sensitivity and a greater ability to adapt to a caloric challenge compared to MUO individuals. PMID:26274804

  7. Healthy and unhealthy red blood cell detection in human blood smears using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Elsalamony, Hany A

    2016-04-01

    One of the most common diseases that affect human red blood cells (RBCs) is anaemia. To diagnose anaemia, the following methods are typically employed: an identification process that is based on measuring the level of haemoglobin and the classification of RBCs based on a microscopic examination in blood smears. This paper presents a proposed algorithm for detecting and counting three types of anaemia-infected red blood cells in a microscopic coloured image using circular Hough transform and morphological tools. Anaemia cells include sickle, elliptocytosis, microsite cells and cells with unknown shapes. Additionally, the resulting data from the detection process have been analysed by a prevalent data analysis technique: the neural network. The experimental results for this model have demonstrated high accuracy for analysing healthy/unhealthy cells. This algorithm has achieved a maximum detection of approximately 97.8% of all cells in 21 microscopic images. Effectiveness rates of 100%, 98%, 100%, and 99.3% have been achieved using neural networks for sickle cells, elliptocytosis cells, microsite cells and cells with unknown shapes, respectively. PMID:26867209

  8. Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is it nature or nurture, inherited or learned behavior? Studies of twins suggest that genes play a role. To help further research into the genetics of eating disorders, Drs. Kaye, Bulik, and other ...

  9. How does infant behaviour relate to weight gain and adiposity?

    PubMed

    Wright, Charlotte M; Cox, Katherine Marie; Le Couteur, Ann

    2011-11-01

    An understanding of how infant eating behaviour relates to later obesity is required if interventions in infancy are to be attempted. The aim of this paper is to review findings from the Gateshead Millennium Study to describe (i) what we have already established about the relationship between infant feeding transitions, infancy weight gain and eating behaviour and (ii) describe new analyses that examine how infant eating behaviour and temperament relate to infancy weight gain and childhood adiposity. The Gateshead Millennium Study recruited 1029 infants at birth and parents completed questionnaires five times in the first year. We have already described how starting solids and ceasing breast-feeding seems to be a response to rapid early weight gain, rather than a cause, and that parents identify and respond to the individual appetite characteristics of their child. A number of questions about eating behaviour at 12 months were used to construct an infancy eating avidity score that was positively associated with height at age 7-8 years, but not with an adiposity index constructed using bioelectrical impedance, waist and skinfolds. Infancy eating avidity score was associated with greater fussiness and lower satiety responsivity on the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire at age 6-8 years. Temperament measured at age 6 weeks and 8 months showed no consistent associations with either infancy weight gain or adiposity at 6-8 years. While infancy may seem a logical time to intervene with children at risk of future obesity, the collective findings from this substantial population-based study largely suggest otherwise. PMID:21861948

  10. Well London Phase-1: results among adults of a cluster-randomised trial of a community engagement approach to improving health behaviours and mental well-being in deprived inner-city neighbourhoods

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Gemma; Bottomley, Christian; Schmidt, Elena; Tobi, Patrick; Lais, Shahana; Yu, Ge; Lynch, Rebecca; Lock, Karen; Draper, Alizon; Moore, Derek; Clow, Angela; Petticrew, Mark; Hayes, Richard; Renton, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Background We report the main results, among adults, of a cluster-randomised-trial of Well London, a community-engagement programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and mental well-being in deprived neighbourhoods. The hypothesis was that benefits would be neighbourhood-wide, and not restricted to intervention participants. The trial was part of a multicomponent process/outcome evaluation which included non-experimental components (self-reported behaviour change amongst participants, case studies and evaluations of individual projects) which suggested health, well-being and social benefits to participants. Methods Twenty matched pairs of neighbourhoods in London were randomised to intervention/control condition. Primary outcomes (five portions fruit/vegetables/day; 530?m of moderate intensity physical activity/week, abnormal General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 score and WarwickEdinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) score) were measured by postintervention questionnaire survey, among 3986 adults in a random sample of households across neighbourhoods. Results There was no evidence of impact on primary outcomes: healthy eating (relative risk [RR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.17); physical activity (RR:1.01, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.16); abnormal GHQ12 (RR:1.15, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.61); WEMWBS (mean difference [MD]: ?1.52, 95% CI ?3.93 to 0.88). There was evidence of impact on some secondary outcomes: reducing unhealthy eating-score (MD: ?0.14, 95% CI ?0.02 to 0.27) and increased perception that people in the neighbourhood pulled together (RR: 1.92, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.29). Conclusions The trial findings do not provide evidence supporting the conclusion of non-experimental components of the evaluation that intervention improved health behaviours, well-being and social outcomes. Low participation rates and population churn likely compromised any impact of the intervention. Imprecise estimation of outcomes and sampling bias may also have influenced findings. There is a need for greater investment in refining such programmes before implementation; new methods to understand, longitudinally different pathways residents take through such interventions and their outcomes, and new theories of change that apply to each pathway. PMID:24489043

  11. Multiple sexual victimizations among adolescent boys and girls: prevalence and associations with eating behaviors and psychological health.

    PubMed

    Ackard, Diann M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexual abuse, including multiple victimizations, among adolescents and to examine associations among history of sexual abuse, disordered eating behaviors and psychological health. The sample included 81,247 students (40,946 girls and 40,301 boys) in 9th and 12th grade in Minnesota public schools. Sexual abuse was reported by 14.7% of girls and 6.2% of boys. Sexual abuse was associated with unhealthy eating behaviors, suicidal thoughts and attempts, and lower emotional well-being and self-esteem. Students who reported a single or multiple forms of sexual abuse were more likely than their non-abused peers to binge-eat (Odds Ratio: girls = 1.93-2.32; boys = 2.26-5.61), fast (OR: girls = 1.68-2.34; boys = 1.33-2.32), use diet pills (OR: girls = 1.50-4.30; boys = 2.99-17.29) or laxatives (OR: girls = 1.87-5.11; boys = 3.89-29.22), vomit (OR: girls = 1.75-4.06; boys = 2.82-24.16), and have suicidal thoughts/attempts (OR: girls = 3.01-6.12; boys = 3.35-9.46). Boys and girls reporting multiple sexual victimizations and had the highest odds ratios for disordered eating behaviors. Future research should explore strategies for primary prevention of revictimization and secondary prevention of detrimental effects of abuse. PMID:16221658

  12. Substance Use, Disordered Eating, and Weight Gain: Describing the Prevention and Treatment Needs of Incarcerated Women.

    PubMed

    Drach, Linda L; Maher, Julie E; Braun, Margaret J F; Murray, Stefanie L; Sazie, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Weight-related concerns are associated with women's substance use and treatment relapse. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, disordered eating behavior, and substance abuse history was assessed among female inmates incarcerated for 6 to 24 months at an Oregon state prison, using a self-administered survey and physical measurements. Average weight gain was 20 pounds, 87% of women were overweight (39%) or obese (48%), and 24% reported using one or more unhealthy strategies to lose weight in the past 6 months. Women who used tobacco and illicit substances before incarceration gained more weight. Integrating nutrition and weight gain issues into substance abuse treatment could benefit incarcerated women-both soon after entering prison to prevent weight gain and close to release to prevent relapse into substance use. PMID:26984137

  13. Healthy versus Unhealthy Suppliers in Food Desert Neighborhoods: A Network Analysis of Corner Stores’ Food Supplier Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mui, Yeeli; Lee, Bruce Y.; Adam, Atif; Kharmats, Anna Y.; Budd, Nadine; Nau, Claudia; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Products in corner stores may be affected by the network of suppliers from which storeowners procure food and beverages. To date, this supplier network has not been well characterized. Methods: Using network analysis, we examined the connections between corner stores (n = 24) in food deserts of Baltimore City (MD, USA) and their food/beverage suppliers (n = 42), to determine how different store and supplier characteristics correlated. Results: Food and beverage suppliers fell into two categories: Those providing primarily healthy foods/beverages (n = 15) in the healthy supplier network (HSN) and those providing primarily unhealthy food/beverages (n = 41) in the unhealthy supplier network (UHSN). Corner store connections to suppliers in the UHSN were nearly two times greater (t = 5.23, p < 0.001), and key suppliers in the UHSN core were more diverse, compared to the HSN. The UHSN was significantly more cohesive and densely connected, with corner stores sharing a greater number of the same unhealthy suppliers, compared to HSN, which was less cohesive and sparsely connected (t = 5.82; p < 0.001). Compared to African Americans, Asian and Hispanic corner storeowners had on average −1.53 (p < 0.001) fewer connections to suppliers in the HSN (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings indicate clear differences between corner stores’ HSN and UHSN. Addressing ethnic/cultural differences of storeowners may also be important to consider. PMID:26633434

  14. Psychobiological examination of liking and wanting for fat and sweet taste in trait binge eating females.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Michelle; Finlayson, Graham

    2014-09-01

    The hedonic value of food has been conceptualised as a combination of how much a food is liked and how much a food is wanted in a given moment. These psychobiological constructs help to explain choices about which foods to eat and have a primary role in how much energy is consumed. Moreover the processes of liking and wanting for food are not always equivalent and may differ by degree according to the food in question, state of satiety, body composition and individual differences in dispositional eating behaviour traits. Here we report progress on the behavioural quantification of food hedonics in the laboratory setting through assessment of 'explicit liking' and 'implicit wanting' according to perceived fat content and/or sweet taste of common foods. We review recent experimental evidence examining the role of liking and wanting as features of 'trait binge eating' (assessed using the Binge Eating Scale)-a non-clinical psychometric marker for susceptibility to overeating and increased risk of weight gain. Our data show that trait binge eating can be viewed as an ecologically valid, behavioural phenotype of obesity, characterised by reliable psychological and anthropometric characteristics. Enhanced implicit wanting for sweet foods with high fat content is a psychobiological feature of susceptibility to overeating and offers a potential target for improving appetite control. PMID:24662699

  15. Fruit & Vegetable Screeners in the Eating at America's Table Study (EATS): Instruments

    Cancer.gov

    These instruments are in the public domain and may be used by any investigator. However, because they were used in NCI's Eating at America's Table Study (EATS) project, investigators must remove the first page, which is the EATS identifier page.

  16. Sensitivity to reward and punishment in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Amy; O'Brien, Niamh; Lopez, Carolina; Treasure, Janet

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this review was to collate and summarise the self-report data regarding anomalies in sensitivity to reward and punishment in eating disorders (ED) with use of a meta-analysis where possible. Electronic databases were searched to December 2008. Studies were required to have a non-eating disorder healthy control group and include at least one self-report measure of sensitivity to reward or punishment in an eating disorder population. Findings were very heterogeneous and inconsistencies between studies and measures were highlighted. In general, patients with anorexia nervosa (restricting type) were less sensitive to reward than healthy controls, whereas patients with bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa (binge/purge) type were more sensitive. All ED groups report higher sensitivity to punishment than healthy controls. Individuals with eating disorders differ from healthy controls in measures of reward and punishment sensitivity as measured using the Temperament and Character Inventory, Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and BIS/BAS scales, but further work is required as there is some heterogeneity in the data. Generating more research using behavioural measures may increase understanding of the findings. PMID:20381877

  17. Perception of picky eating among children in Singapore and its impact on caregivers: a questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Picky eating is relatively common among infants and children, often causing anxiety for parents and caregivers. The purpose of this study was to determine the key aspects of picky eating and feeding difficulties among children aged 1 to 10 years in Singapore and the impact on their parents or caregivers. Methods In this survey, 407 parents or grandparents who are the primary caregivers of children aged 1 to 10 years in Singapore were interviewed via telephone using a structured questionnaire of 36 questions. Respondents were randomly selected from the Singapore Residential Telephone Directory to meet a pre-set interlocked quota of race, sex, and age to represent the population. Quantitative data collected included demographics, body weight and height, respondents’ perceptions of the duration of picky eating, the child’s eating habits and perceived health status, respondents’ attitudes towards picky eating, coping strategies and the impact on family relationships. Bonferroni z-test and t-test were used to indicate significance across groups or demographics, while Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the strength of association between variables. Results One-half of the respondents reported that the child was ‘all the time’ (25.1%) or sometimes (24.1%) a picky eater. When aided with a list of typical behaviours, the respondent-reported prevalence of picky eating or feeding difficulties occurring ‘all the time’ increased to 49.6%. The highest number of respondents first noticed the child’s picky eating behaviours or feeding difficulties as early as 1 year (20.0%). Children 3 to 10 years [p = 0.022], children of professional respondents (p = 0.019), and children with a family history of picky eating (p = 0.03) were significantly more likely to be picky eaters. Overall, all ‘picky eating’ and all ‘feeding difficulty’ behaviours occurring ‘all the time’ were significantly associated with caregiver stress when feeding (p = 0.000026 and p = 0.000055, respectively) and with a negative impact on family relationships (p = 0.011 and p = 0.00000012, respectively). Conclusions The perceived prevalence and duration of picky eating behaviours and feeding difficulties are high. The impact on the respondent and family relationships appears to be significant in Singapore. Parental concerns about picky eating should be adequately assessed and managed in routine clinic consultations. PMID:22816553

  18. Involuntary memories and restrained eating.

    PubMed

    Ball, Christopher T

    2015-05-01

    Most involuntary memories are elicited by external cues (e.g., smells, sounds) that have unique associations with specific memories (Berntsen's cue-retrieval hypothesis), but involuntary memories can sometimes be elicited by weak, even imperceptible, cues that raise the activation level of an already primed memory (Berntsen's motivation-priming hypothesis) to also reach conscious awareness during times of low attentional focus. The current study examined the effects of a motivation bias (restrained eating) on the involuntary memories recorded in daily diaries for seven days by 56 female participants. A large proportion of the involuntary memories were elicited by food-related cues and occurred in food-related contexts. A significant correlation was found between the participants' scores on a restrained eating scale and the percentage of involuntary memories involving cooking and eating content. These results parallel previous research involving voluntary memory retrievals during restrained eating. PMID:25655207

  19. Eating disorders and sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Molinari, E

    2001-06-01

    This review examines the current debate on the role that sexual and physical abuse may play in predisposing to eating disorders in women. Despite some discordant opinions, clinicians agree that the experience of abuse in early childhood may be important for understanding the complex genesis of the eating disorders of some women. Three groups of studies are presented: those in which no connections emerge between sexual abuse and eating disorders, those in which a strong link is present and those in which the results refer to a multifactorial interpretative model. Some of the main symptoms, such as reactualization of the trauma, dissociation, personality disorders, pathological relationship with food, distortion of body image, suicide attempts and self-inflicted punishment that victims of abuse and eating disordered subjects share are examined. PMID:11456424

  20. Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Plate? Smart Food Choices for Healthy Aging. Download the Tip Sheet Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating ( ... Health and Human Services. About Go4Life Policies & Disclaimer Download Acrobat Reader En Español United States Department of ...

  1. Eating Disorders among Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgen, Jorunn Sundgot; Corbin, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a study of 168 college women to determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  2. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)

  3. Eating Right for Kidney Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... inse canned vegetables, beans, meats, and fish with water before eating. Look for Food Labels that Say l Sodium ... of protein foods. ■ P rotein is found in foods from plants and animals. Talk to ...

  4. Escaping from body image shame and harsh self-criticism: exploration of underlying mechanisms of binge eating.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, Jos; Ferreira, Cludia

    2014-12-01

    Shame has been highlighted as a key component of eating psychopathology. However, the specific impact of body image shame on binge eating and the mechanisms through which it operates remained unexplored. The current study tests a model examining the role that body image shame plays in binge eating and the mediator effect of self-criticism on this association, while controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms, in 329 women from the general population and college students. Correlation analyses showed that binge eating is positively associated with depressive symptoms, body image shame, and self-criticism, namely with a more severe form of self-criticism characterized by self-disgust, hating and wanting to hurt the self - hated self. Furthermore, results indicated that the path model explained 32% of binge eating behaviours and confirmed that body image shame has a significant direct effect on binge eating, and that this effect is partially mediated by increased hated self. These findings suggest that binge eating may emerge as a maladaptive way to cope with the threat of being negatively viewed by others because of one's physical appearance and the consequent engagement in a severe critical self-relating style marked by hatred, disgust and contempt towards the self. This study contributes therefore for the understanding of the processes underlying binge eating. Also, these findings have important research and clinical implications, supporting the relevance of developing eating disorder treatments that specifically target shame and self-criticism, through the development of self-compassionate skills. PMID:25248129

  5. Eating Disorders and the Family

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Sam; Sananes, Renee

    1991-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex, often chronic, biopsychosocial disorders characterized by a pursuit for control which, in interaction with familial factors, results in disturbed patterns of relating to food and its meaning. Overt and covert resistance to intervention at the family level can reflect family dynamics but can be mitigated by engaging families of adolescents with eating disorders, by using multidisciplinary teams, and by hospitalization. PMID:21228994

  6. Can Violence cause Eating Disorders?

    PubMed

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2015-09-01

    The origin and course of eating disorders and nutrition have a multifactorial etiology and should therefore take into consideration: psychological factors, evolutionary, biological and socio-cultural (Juli 2012). Among the psychological factors we will focus on violence (in any form) and in particular on the consequences that they have on women, which vary in severity. Recent studies show that women get sick more than men, both from depression and eating disorders, with a ratio of 2:1; this difference begins in adolescence and continues throughout the course of life (Niolu 2010). The cause of this difference remains unclear. Many studies agree that during adolescence girls have negative feelings more frequently and for a longer duration caused by stressful life events and difficult circumstances, such as abuse or violence. This results in an increased likelihood of developing a symptom that will be connected to eating disorders and/or depression. As far as the role of food is concerned in eating disorders, it has a symbolic significance and offers emotional comfort. Eating means to incorporate and assimilate, and even in an ideal sense, the characteristics of the foods become part of the individual. Feelings that lead to binges with food are normally a result of feelings related to abuse or violence and lead to abnormal behavior which leads to binging and the final result being that the person is left feeling guilty and ashamed. Research confirms that 30% of patients who have been diagnosed with eating disorders, especially bulimia, have a history of sexual abuse during childhood. Ignoring the significance of this factor can result in the unleashing of this disease as the patient uses the disorder as his expressive theater (Mencarelli 2008). Factors that contribute to the possibility of developing an eating disorder are both the age of the patient at the time of the abuse and the duration of the abuse. The psychological effects that follow may include dissociative symptoms and symptoms of an Eating Disorder. PMID:26417791

  7. The female football player, disordered eating, menstrual function and bone health

    PubMed Central

    Sundgot‐Borgen, Jorunn; Torstveit, Monica Klungland

    2007-01-01

    Most female football players are healthy. However, recent findings from our studies on Norwegian female elite athletes also show that football players are dieting and experiencing eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction and stress fractures. Dieting behaviour and lack of knowledge of the energy needs of the athlete often leads to energy deficit, menstrual dysfunction and increased risk of bone mass loss. Although dieting, eating disorders and menstrual dysfunction are less common than in many other sports, it is important to be aware of the problem as eating disorders in female athletes can easily be missed. Therefore, individuals, including the players themselves, coaches, administrators and family members, who are involved in competitive football, should be educated about the three interrelated components of the female athlete triad (disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction and low bone mass), and strategies should be developed to prevent, recognise and treat the triad components. PMID:17609221

  8. Family mealtimes and eating psychopathology: the role of anxiety and depression among adolescent girls and boys.

    PubMed

    White, Hannah J; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-04-01

    Characteristics of family mealtimes are associated with disordered eating behaviours. However, little is known about the relationships between characteristics of family mealtimes and disordered eating attitudes, or how symptoms of anxiety or depression may contribute to these relationships. This study therefore aimed to examine differences between adolescent girls and boys in the relationship between family mealtime characteristics and eating psychopathology, and to explore the influence of anxiety and depression on this relationship. Adolescents (N=535; 286 girls and 249 boys) aged 14-18years completed self-report measures of family mealtime characteristics, eating psychopathology, anxiety and depression. Reports of more frequent family mealtimes, a more positive mealtime atmosphere and a high level of priority placed on mealtimes were all associated with significantly lower levels of eating-disordered attitudes among girls only. For boys, all four mealtime measures (higher mealtime frequency, more positive mealtime atmosphere, greater priority of mealtimes and higher levels of mealtime structure) were associated with lower levels of depression. Among girls, several of the family mealtime and eating psychopathology relationships were partially or fully mediated by either anxiety or depression. While these findings require longitudinal replication, family mealtimes are likely to be important in promoting psychological well-being among both girls and boys. Families should be encouraged to think beyond the frequency of mealtimes and to foster a positive mealtime environment which may help to promote adolescent psychological wellbeing, and might even protect young females against the development of eating psychopathology. PMID:24462486

  9. Insula tuning towards external eating versus interoceptive input in adolescents with overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Mata, Fernanda; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    This study was aimed to examine if adolescent obesity is associated with alterations of insula function as indexed by differential correlations between insula activation and perception of interoceptive feedback versus external food cues. We hypothesized that, in healthy weight adolescents, insula activation will positively correlate with interoceptive sensitivity, whereas in excess weight adolescents, insula activation will positively correlate with sensitivity towards external cues. Fifty-four adolescents (age range 12-18), classified in two groups as a function of BMI, excess weight (n?=?22) and healthy weight (n?=?32), performed the Risky-Gains task (sensitive to insula function) inside an fMRI scanner, and completed the heartbeat perception task (measuring interoceptive sensitivity) and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (measuring external eating as well as emotional eating and restraint) outside the scanner. We found that insula activation during the Risky-Gains task positively correlated with interoceptive sensitivity and negatively correlated with external eating in healthy weight adolescents. Conversely, in excess weight adolescents, insula activation positively correlated with external eating and negatively correlated with interoceptive sensitivity, arguably reflecting obesity related neurocognitive adaptations. In excess weight adolescents, external eating was also positively associated with caudate nucleus activation, and restrained eating was negatively associated with insula activation. Our findings suggest that adolescent obesity is associated with disrupted tuning of the insula system towards interoceptive input. PMID:25819606

  10. Identifying the red flags for unhealthy weight control among adolescents: Findings from an item response theory analysis of a national survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Weight control behaviors are common among young people and are associated with poor health outcomes. Yet clinicians rarely ask young people about their weight control; this may be due to uncertainty about which questions to ask, specifically around whether certain weight loss strategies are healthier or unhealthy or about what weight loss behaviors are more likely to lead to adverse outcomes. Thus, the aims of the current study are: to confirm, using item response theory analysis, that the underlying latent constructs of healthy and unhealthy weight control exist; to determine the red flag weight loss behaviors that may discriminate unhealthy from healthy weight loss; to determine the relationships between healthy and unhealthy weight loss and mental health; and to examine how weight control may vary among demographic groups. Methods Data were collected as part of a national health and wellbeing survey of secondary school students in New Zealand (n?=?9,107) in 2007. Item response theory analyses were conducted to determine the underlying constructs of weight control behaviors and the behaviors that discriminate unhealthy from healthy weight control. Results The current study confirms that there are two underlying constructs of weight loss behaviors which can be described as healthy and unhealthy weight control. Unhealthy weight control was positively correlated with depressive mood. Fasting and skipping meals for weight loss had the lowest item thresholds on the unhealthy weight control continuum, indicating that they act as red flags and warrant further discussion in routine clinical assessments. Conclusions Routine assessments of weight control strategies by clinicians are warranted, particularly for screening for meal skipping and fasting for weight loss as these behaviors appear to flag behaviors that are associated with poor mental wellbeing. PMID:22909312

  11. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Genetic Traits in Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Berezina, A.; Belyaeva, O.; Berkovich, O.; Baranova, E.; Karonova, T.; Bazhenova, E.; Brovin, D.; Grineva, E.; Shlyakhto, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess prevalence of metabolically healthy individuals among patients with abdominal obesity (AO) and to determine phenotype and potential genetic traits associated with a benign metabolic status. Methods. 503 AO patients without cardiovascular diseases were examined. Waist circumference (WC), BMI, blood pressure, plasma glucose and serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, and adiponectin (AN) and leptin (LEP) concentrations in serum were measured. Polymorphisms A19G and Q223R of the LEP and LEP receptor gene, and G276T and T45G of the AN gene were investigated. Results. 91.3% of patients were metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO), and 8.7% metabolically healthy obese (MHO). MHO patients were younger, and had lesser BMI and WC, while duration of obesity, frequency, and duration of physical training were greater than MUO patients (p < 0.05). In MHO and MUO patients distribution of the G19G, G19A, and A19A genotypes of the LEP gene and G276G, G276T, and T276T genotypes of AN gene did not differ. The Т45Т genotype was associated with increase of metabolic disorders' risk for patients with АО (OR = 2.331; 95%  CI = 1.121 ÷ 5.132). Conclusions. Prevalence of MHO individuals among patients with AO is low. Benign metabolic status was associated with younger age, lower waist circumference, and higher physical activity, shorter duration of obesity, and G45G adiponectin genotype carriage. PMID:26504811

  12. Metabolic Signatures of Cultured Human Adipocytes from Metabolically Healthy versus Unhealthy Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bhm, Anja; Halama, Anna; Meile, Tobias; Zdichavsky, Marty; Lehmann, Rainer; Weigert, Cora; Fritsche, Andreas; Stefan, Norbert; Knigsrainer, Alfred; Hring, Hans-Ulrich; de Angelis, Martin Hrab?; Adamski, Jerzy; Staiger, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Among obese subjects, metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity (MHO/MUHO) can be differentiated: the latter is characterized by whole-body insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and subclinical inflammation. Aim of this study was, to identify adipocyte-specific metabolic signatures and functional biomarkers for MHO versus MUHO. Methods 10 insulin-resistant (IR) vs. 10 insulin-sensitive (IS) non-diabetic morbidly obese (BMI >40 kg/m2) Caucasians were matched for gender, age, BMI, and percentage of body fat. From subcutaneous fat biopsies, primary preadipocytes were isolated and differentiated to adipocytes in vitro. About 280 metabolites were investigated by a targeted metabolomic approach intracellularly, extracellularly, and in plasma. Results/Interpretation Among others, aspartate was reduced intracellularly to one third (p?=?0.0039) in IR adipocytes, pointing to a relative depletion of citric acid cycle metabolites or reduced aspartate uptake in MUHO. Other amino acids, already known to correlate with diabetes and/or obesity, were identified to differ between MUHO's and MHO's adipocytes, namely glutamine, histidine, and spermidine. Most species of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were lower in MUHO's extracellular milieu, though simultaneously elevated intracellularly, e.g., PC aa C32?3, pointing to increased PC synthesis and/or reduced PC release. Furthermore, altered arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism was found: 15(S)-HETE (15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid; 0 vs. 120pM; p?=?0.0014), AA (1.5-fold; p?=?0.0055) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22?6; 2-fold; p?=?0.0033) were higher in MUHO. This emphasizes a direct contribution of adipocytes to local adipose tissue inflammation. Elevated DHA, as an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, might be a hint for counter-regulatory mechanisms in MUHO. Conclusion/Interpretation We identified adipocyte-inherent metabolic alterations discriminating between MHO and MUHO. PMID:24695116

  13. Heavy Smoking Is More Strongly Associated with General Unhealthy Lifestyle than Obesity and Underweight

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Tina; Rohrmann, Sabine; Bopp, Matthias; Faeh, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking and obesity are major causes of non-communicable diseases. We investigated the associations of heavy smoking, obesity, and underweight with general lifestyle to infer which of these risk groups has the most unfavourable lifestyle. Methods We used data from the population-based cross-sectional Swiss Health Survey (5 rounds 1992–2012), comprising 85,575 individuals aged≥18 years. Height, weight, smoking, diet, alcohol intake and physical activity were self-reported. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to analyse differences in lifestyle between the combinations of body mass index (BMI) category and smoking status. Results Compared to normal-weight never smokers (reference), individuals who were normal-weight, obese, or underweight and smoked heavily at the same time had a poorer general lifestyle. The lifestyle of obese and underweight never smokers differed less from reference. Regardless of BMI category, in heavy smoking men and women the fruit and vegetable consumption was lower (e.g. obese heavy smoking men: relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.69 [95% confidence interval 1.30;2.21]) and high alcohol intake was more common (e.g. normal-weight heavy smoking women 5.51 [3.71;8.20]). In both sexes, physical inactivity was observed more often in heavy smokers and obese or underweight (e.g. underweight never smoking 1.29 [1.08;1.54] and heavy smoking women 2.02 [1.33;3.08]). A decrease of smoking prevalence was observed over time in normal-weight, but not in obese individuals. Conclusions Unhealthy general lifestyle was associated with both heavy smoking and BMI extremes, but we observed a stronger association for heavy smoking. Future smoking prevention measures should pay attention to improvement of general lifestyle and co-occurrence with obesity and underweight. PMID:26910775

  14. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.

    2014-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and eating-related attitudes from the standpoint of self and friends. Of participants who cared about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (fewer fruits and vegetables and more sugary beverages per day) than those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating. Conversely, among participants who did not care about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (more snacks per day) than those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating. In accord with balance theory, young adults who perceived inconsistent eating attitudes between themselves and their friends had lower psychological well-being and generally less-healthy eating behaviors than people who perceived consistent eating attitudes. PMID:24587589

  15. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fuglestad, Paul T; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R

    2013-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and eating-related attitudes from the standpoint of self and friends. Of participants who cared about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (fewer fruits and vegetables and more sugary beverages per day) than those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating. Conversely, among participants who did not care about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (more snacks per day) than those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating. In accord with balance theory, young adults who perceived inconsistent eating attitudes between themselves and their friends had lower psychological well-being and generally less-healthy eating behaviors than people who perceived consistent eating attitudes. PMID:24587589

  16. Prevalence, Incidence, Impairment, and Course of the Proposed DSM-5 Eating Disorder Diagnoses in an 8-Year Prospective Community Study of Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Rohde, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We examined the prevalence, incidence, impairment, duration, and course for the proposed DSM-5 eating disorders in a community sample of 496 adolescent females who completed annual diagnostic interviews over 8-years. Lifetime prevalence by age 20 was 0.8% for anorexia nervosa (AN), 2.6% for bulimia nervosa (BN), 3.0% for binge eating disorder (BED), 2.8% for atypical AN, 4.4% for subthreshold BN, 3.6% for subthreshold BED, 3.4% for purging disorder (PD); with a combined prevalence of 13.1% (5.2% had AN, BN, or BED; 11.5% had a Feeding and Eating Disorders Not Elsewhere Classified; FED-NEC). Peak age of onset was 19-20 for AN, 16-20 for BN, and 18-20 for BED, PD, and overall FED-NEC. Youth with these eating disorders typically reported greater functional impairment, distress, suicidality, mental health treatment, and unhealthy BMIs, though effect sizes were relatively smaller for atypical AN, subthreshold BN, and PD. Average episode duration in months ranged from 2.9 for BN to 11.2 for atypical AN. One-year remission rates ranged from 71% for atypical AN to 100% for BN, subthreshold BN, and BED. Recurrence rates ranged from 6% for PD to 33% for BED and subthrehold BED. Diagnostic progression from subthreshold to threshold eating disorders was higher for BN and BED (32% and 28%) than for AN (0%), suggesting some sort of escalation mechanism for binge eating. Diagnostic crossover was greatest from BED to BN. Results imply that the new DSM-5 eating disorder criteria capture clinically significant psychopathology and usefully assign eating disordered individuals to homogeneous diagnostic categories. PMID:23148784

  17. Mental health first aid for eating disorders: pilot evaluation of a training program for the public

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eating disorders cause significant burden that may be reduced by early and appropriate help-seeking. However, despite the availability of effective treatments, very few individuals with eating disorders seek treatment. Training in mental health first aid is known to be effective in increasing mental health literacy and supportive behaviours, in the social networks of individuals with mental health problems. Increases in these domains are thought to improve the likelihood that effective help is sought. However, the efficacy of mental health first aid for eating disorders has not been evaluated. The aim of this research was to examine whether specific training in mental health first aid for eating disorders was effective in changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards people with eating disorders. Methods A repeated measures, uncontrolled trial was conducted to establish proof of concept and provide guidance on the future design of a randomised controlled trial. Self-report questionnaires, administered at baseline, post-training and 6-month follow-up, assessed the effectiveness of the 4-hour, single session, mental health first aid training. Results 73 participants completed the training and all questionnaires. The training intervention was associated with statistically significant increases in problem recognition and knowledge of appropriate mental health first aid strategies, which were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Sustained significant changes in attitudes and behaviours were less clear. 20 participants reported providing assistance to someone with a suspected eating disorder, seven of whom sought professional help as a result of the first aid interaction. Results provided no evidence of a negative impact on participants or the individuals they provided assistance to. Conclusions This research provides preliminary evidence for the use of training in mental health first aid as a suitable intervention for increasing community knowledge of and support for people with eating disorders to seek appropriate help. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611001181998 PMID:22856517

  18. The relationship between body mass index and unhealthy weight control behaviors among adolescents: the role of family and peer social support.

    PubMed

    Vander Wal, Jillon S

    2012-12-01

    Adolescents classified as overweight or obese are more likely to use unhealthy weight control behaviors such as skipping meals or fasting than their healthy weight peers. Adolescents with low perceived social support may be at particular risk. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between adolescent overweight and obesity, indices of perceived peer and family social support, and their interaction in the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors among adolescents. The present study used data from the 2001-2002 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children collaborative survey. Participants included 4598 adolescent girls and boys in the ninth and tenth grades. Results of binary logistic regression analyses showed that obese boys and girls were more likely to use unhealthy weight control behaviors than their healthy weight peers. Boys and girls who endorsed difficult communication with their parents, low levels of parent school support, or frequent bullying were more likely to engage in unhealthy weight control behaviors than relevant comparison groups. Among girls, poor classmate relationships were associated with increased use of unhealthy weight control behaviors whereas fewer friendships were associated with decreased use. Results suggest that adolescents are at high risk for use of unhealthy weight control behaviors and would benefit from interventions to increase knowledge and social support for achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. PMID:22609397

  19. Exploring Womens Beliefs and Perceptions About Healthy Eating Blogs: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette-Maheux, Vronique; Provencher, Veronique; Lapointe, Annie; Dugrenier, Marilyn; Dumas, Audre-Anne; Pluye, Pierre; Straus, Sharon; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death (63%) worldwide. A key behavioral risk factor is unhealthy eating. New strategies must be identified and evaluated to improve dietary habits. Social media, such as blogs, represent a unique opportunity for improving knowledge translation in health care through interactive communication between health consumers and health professionals. Despite the proliferation of food and lifestyle blogs, no research has been devoted to understanding potential blog readers perceptions of healthy eating blogs written by dietitians. Objective To identify womens salient beliefs and perceptions regarding the use of healthy eating blogs written by dietitians promoting the improvement of their dietary habits. Methods We conducted a qualitative study with female Internet users living in the Quebec City, QC, area with suboptimal dietary habits. First, the women explored 4 existing healthy eating blogs written in French by qualified dietitians. At a focus group 2-4 weeks later, they were asked to discuss their experience and perceptions. Focus group participants were grouped by age (18-34, 35-54, and 55-75 years) and by their use of social media (users/nonusers). Using a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, participants were asked to identify salient beliefs underlying their attitudes (advantages/disadvantages), subjective norms (what people important to them would think), and perceptions of control (facilitators/barriers) regarding the use of a healthy eating blog written by a dietitian to improve dietary habits. Discussion groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, coded, and a deductive content analysis was performed independently by 2 individuals using the NVivo software (version 10). Results All participants (N=33) were Caucasian women aged between 22 to 73 year. Main advantages perceived of using healthy eating blogs written by a dietitian were that they provided useful recipe ideas, improved lifestyle, were a credible source of information, and allowed interaction with a dietitian. Disadvantages included increased time spent on the Internet and guilt if recommendations were not followed. Important people who would approve were family, colleagues, and friends. Important people who could disapprove were family and doctors. Main facilitators were visually attractive blogs, receiving an email notification about new posts, and finding new information on the blog. Main barriers were too much text, advertising on the blog, and lack of time. Conclusions The women in this study valued the credibility of healthy eating blogs written by dietitians and the contact with dietitians they provided. Identifying salient beliefs underlying womens perceptions of using such blogs provides an empirically supported basis for the design of knowledge translation interventions to help prevent chronic diseases. PMID:25858777

  20. Time Perspective and Psychosocial Positive Functioning among Italian Adolescents Who Binge Eat and Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Liga, Francesca; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of an association between binge eating and binge drinking and of related health consequences have stimulated investigators to examine and explore risk and protective factors plus the reasons why individuals engage in these risky behaviours (Benjamin & Wulfert, 2003; Ferriter & Ray, 2011). This study examined the relationship between binge

  1. Time Perspective and Psychosocial Positive Functioning among Italian Adolescents Who Binge Eat and Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Liga, Francesca; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of an association between binge eating and binge drinking and of related health consequences have stimulated investigators to examine and explore risk and protective factors plus the reasons why individuals engage in these risky behaviours (Benjamin & Wulfert, 2003; Ferriter & Ray, 2011). This study examined the relationship between binge…

  2. Stress and Eating Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous construct that, despite multiple and diverse attempts, has been difficult to treat. One conceptualization gaining media and research attention in recent years is that foods, particularly hyperpalatable (e.g., high-fat, high sugar) ones, may possess addictive qualities. Stress is an important factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse, and may contribute to an increased risk for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Uncontrollable stress changes eating patterns and the salience and consumption of hyperpalatable foods; over time, this could lead to changes in allostatic load and trigger neurobiological adaptations that promote increasingly compulsively behavior. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other appetite-related hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. At a neurocircuitry level, chronic stress may affect the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and other brain regions involved in stress/motivation circuits. Together, these may synergistically potentiate reward sensitivity, food preference, and the wanting and seeking of hyperpalatable foods, as well as induce metabolic changes that promote weight and body fat mass. Individual differences in susceptibility to obesity and types of stressors may further moderate this process. Understanding the associations and interactions between stress, neurobiological adaptations, and obesity is important in the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:24126546

  3. [Nocturnal eating disorder--sleep or eating disorder?].

    PubMed

    Tzischinski, O; Lazer, Y

    2000-02-01

    Nocturnal eating disorder (NED) is a rare syndrome that includes disorders of both eating and sleeping. It is characterized by awakening in the middle of the night, getting out of bed, and consuming large quantities of food quickly and uncontrollably, then returning to sleep. This may occur several times during the night. Some patients are fully conscious during their nocturnal eating, while some indicate total amnesia. The etiology of NED is still unclear, as research findings are contradictory. Those suffering from NED exhibit various levels of anxiety and depression, and many lead stressful life-styles. Familial conflict, loneliness and personal crises are commonly found. Recently, a connection has been discovered between NED and unclear self-definition, faulty interpersonal communication, and low frustration threshold. Several authors link it to sleepwalking, leg movements during sleep, and sleep apnea. Treatment is still unclear and there have been trials of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. However, pharmacological treatment has generally been found to be the most effective, although each case must be considered individually. In 1998, 7 women referred to our Eating Disorders Clinic, 5% of all referrals, were subsequently diagnosed as suffering from NED. Of these, 3 suffered from concurrent binge-eating disorder and 4 also from bulimia nervosa. 2 case studies representative of NED are presented. PMID:10883092

  4. Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. PMID:19932143

  5. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: total diet approach to healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Nitzke, Susan

    2013-02-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the total diet or overall pattern of food eaten is the most important focus of healthy eating. All foods can fit within this pattern if consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with physical activity. The Academy strives to communicate healthy eating messages that emphasize a balance of food and beverages within energy needs, rather than any one food or meal. Public policies and dietary patterns that support the total diet approach include the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) Diet, MyPlate, Let's Move, Nutrition Facts labels, Healthy People 2020, and the Dietary Reference Intakes. In contrast to the total diet approach, classification of specific foods as good or bad is overly simplistic and can foster unhealthy eating behaviors. Alternative approaches are necessary in some situations. Eating practices are dynamic and influenced by many factors, including taste and food preferences, weight concerns, physiology, time and convenience, environment, abundance of foods, economics, media/marketing, perceived product safety, culture, and attitudes/beliefs. To increase the effectiveness of nutrition education in promoting sensible food choices, skilled food and nutrition practitioners utilize appropriate behavioral theory and evidence-based strategies. Focusing on variety, moderation, and proportionality in the context of a healthy lifestyle, rather than targeting specific nutrients or foods, can help reduce consumer confusion and prevent unnecessary reliance on supplements. Proactive, empowering, and practical messages that emphasize the total diet approach promote positive lifestyle changes. PMID:23351634

  6. Learning to Eat Vegetables in Early Life: The Role of Timing, Age and Individual Eating Traits

    PubMed Central

    Caton, Samantha J.; Blundell, Pam; Ahern, Sara M.; Nekitsing, Chandani; Olsen, Annemarie; Møller, Per; Hausner, Helene; Remy, Eloïse; Nicklaus, Sophie; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hetherington, Marion M.

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable intake is generally low among children, who appear to be especially fussy during the pre-school years. Repeated exposure is known to enhance intake of a novel vegetable in early life but individual differences in response to familiarisation have emerged from recent studies. In order to understand the factors which predict different responses to repeated exposure, data from the same experiment conducted in three groups of children from three countries (n = 332) aged 4–38 m (18.9±9.9 m) were combined and modelled. During the intervention period each child was given between 5 and 10 exposures to a novel vegetable (artichoke puree) in one of three versions (basic, sweet or added energy). Intake of basic artichoke puree was measured both before and after the exposure period. Overall, younger children consumed more artichoke than older children. Four distinct patterns of eating behaviour during the exposure period were defined. Most children were “learners” (40%) who increased intake over time. 21% consumed more than 75% of what was offered each time and were labelled “plate-clearers”. 16% were considered “non-eaters” eating less than 10 g by the 5th exposure and the remainder were classified as “others” (23%) since their pattern was highly variable. Age was a significant predictor of eating pattern, with older pre-school children more likely to be non-eaters. Plate-clearers had higher enjoyment of food and lower satiety responsiveness than non-eaters who scored highest on food fussiness. Children in the added energy condition showed the smallest change in intake over time, compared to those in the basic or sweetened artichoke condition. Clearly whilst repeated exposure familiarises children with a novel food, alternative strategies that focus on encouraging initial tastes of the target food might be needed for the fussier and older pre-school children. PMID:24878745

  7. Learning to eat vegetables in early life: the role of timing, age and individual eating traits.

    PubMed

    Caton, Samantha J; Blundell, Pam; Ahern, Sara M; Nekitsing, Chandani; Olsen, Annemarie; Mller, Per; Hausner, Helene; Remy, Elose; Nicklaus, Sophie; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hetherington, Marion M

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable intake is generally low among children, who appear to be especially fussy during the pre-school years. Repeated exposure is known to enhance intake of a novel vegetable in early life but individual differences in response to familiarisation have emerged from recent studies. In order to understand the factors which predict different responses to repeated exposure, data from the same experiment conducted in three groups of children from three countries (n?=?332) aged 4-38 m (18.99.9 m) were combined and modelled. During the intervention period each child was given between 5 and 10 exposures to a novel vegetable (artichoke puree) in one of three versions (basic, sweet or added energy). Intake of basic artichoke puree was measured both before and after the exposure period. Overall, younger children consumed more artichoke than older children. Four distinct patterns of eating behaviour during the exposure period were defined. Most children were "learners" (40%) who increased intake over time. 21% consumed more than 75% of what was offered each time and were labelled "plate-clearers". 16% were considered "non-eaters" eating less than 10 g by the 5th exposure and the remainder were classified as "others" (23%) since their pattern was highly variable. Age was a significant predictor of eating pattern, with older pre-school children more likely to be non-eaters. Plate-clearers had higher enjoyment of food and lower satiety responsiveness than non-eaters who scored highest on food fussiness. Children in the added energy condition showed the smallest change in intake over time, compared to those in the basic or sweetened artichoke condition. Clearly whilst repeated exposure familiarises children with a novel food, alternative strategies that focus on encouraging initial tastes of the target food might be needed for the fussier and older pre-school children. PMID:24878745

  8. Eating behavior of ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Dotti, A; Fioravanti, M; Balotta, M; Tozzi, F; Cannella, C; Lazzari, R

    2002-03-01

    Ballet dancers are frequently regarded as having a higher risk of developing eating disorders (ED). This paper describes the eating habits and prevalence of ED in a group of female students from a dance academy in Rome, Italy. Participants were assessed with an array of measures conventionally employed (usually singly) in epidemiological studies of ED, namely: an anthropometrical-nutritional evaluation, the EAT, EDI, and BUT questionnaires, and the EDE interview. The 160 students who agreed to participate were evaluated anthropometrically, nutritionally and psychometrically and 83 underwent the EDE structured interview. Their calorie intake was insufficient in all age groups in terms of the nutritional standards required by their daily physical activity. EAT, EDI and BUT enhanced concerns about dieting, food intake control and body image. The significance of the correlations between calorie intake and the EAT Dieting and the EDI Perfectionism and Interceptive Awareness scores increased in function of age. Food, weight and body image concerns increased with age and length of time in the ballet environment The reduced calorie intake was not necessarily linked to the presence of psychopathological signs. PMID:11930986

  9. Psychological treatment of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G Terence; Grilo, Carlos M; Vitousek, Kelly M

    2007-04-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Important challenges remain. Even the most effective interventions for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder fail to help a substantial number of patients. A priority must be the extension and adaptation of these treatments to a broader range of eating disorders (eating disorder not otherwise specified), to adolescents, who have been largely overlooked in clinical research, and to chronic, treatment-resistant cases of anorexia nervosa. The article highlights current conceptual and clinical innovations designed to improve on existing therapeutic efficacy. The problems of increasing the dissemination of evidence-based treatments that are unavailable in most clinical service settings are discussed. PMID:17469898

  10. An animal model of compulsive food-taking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Heyne, Andrea; Kiesselbach, Christoph; Sahn, Ignasi; McDonald, Jerome; Gaiffi, Monica; Dierssen, Mara; Wolffgramm, Jochen

    2009-09-01

    The increase in the incidence of obesity and eating disorders has promoted research aimed at understanding the aetiology of abnormal eating behaviours. Apart from metabolic factors, obesity is caused by overeating. Clinical reports have led to the suggestion that some individuals may develop addictive-like behaviours when consuming palatable foods, and compulsive eating plays a similar dominant role in obesity as compulsive drug taking does in drug addiction. The progress made in the development of treatment strategies for obesity is limited, in part, because the physiological and neurological causes and consequences of compulsive eating behaviour are not clearly understood and cannot readily be studied in human subjects. We have developed experimental approaches that reflect the functioning of the components of eating control, including compulsive food taking in rats. Rats that are given free choice between standard chow and a palatable, chocolate-containing 'Cafeteria Diet' (CD) develop distinct signs of compulsive food taking that appear at an early stage. These include the inability to adapt intake behaviour in periods of limited or bitter-tasting CD access, continued food intake during resting phases and changes in fine structure of feeding (duration, distribution and recurrence of feeding bouts). The model will help examine the neurobiological underpinnings of compulsive food seeking and food taking and provides a possibility to study the effects of novel anti-obesity compounds on compulsive eating and other components of food-taking behaviour in detail. For future use of genetic models, the possibility of a transfer to a mouse was discussed. PMID:19740365

  11. Eating fish for two

    PubMed Central

    Strain, JJ

    2014-01-01

    Summary This article is based on the British Nutrition Foundations Annual Lecture, which focused on maternal fish consumption and the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) on fetal development, with respect to current guidance and policy on fish consumption during pregnancy. Fish makes a valuable contribution to nutrient intakes across the globe and is the primary protein source for many individuals, particularly those in the developing world. Populations with a high fish consumption, such as in the Republic of the Seychelles, have a greater exposure to MeHg, which is present in varying amounts in all fish. Methylmercury is a toxic pollutant, which is known to impair neurodevelopment. The dose of MeHg from fish consumption, however, needed to impair neurodevelopment is unknown. Current UK and US guidance on fish consumption during pregnancy tend to focus more on avoiding risks rather than highlighting the benefits which can be obtained from eating fish. Such recommendations have been mainly based on data arising from epidemiological studies in the Faroe Islands, where methylmercury exposure was largely from pilot whale consumption. Although small adverse effects on child development have been reported in data from the Faroe Islands, data from the on-going Seychelles Child Development Studies have shown no adverse effects of prenatal methlymercury exposure from high maternal fish consumption (912 meals containing fish per week) on developmental outcomes. Instead these data suggest that nutrients, including long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), provided by fish may offer a beneficial effect and attenuate or modify any effects of MeHg on developmental outcomes. Recent expert consultations have concluded that the health benefits of fish consumption outweigh the risks posed by MeHg exposure and have argued the need for improved education and guidance to highlight the importance of consuming nutrients, including LC-PUFAs, from fish for optimal child development and to encourage fish consumption during pregnancy. PMID:25132804

  12. Eating well: ageing gracefully!

    PubMed

    Charlton, Karen E

    2002-01-01

    The potential impact of dietary manipulation on the maintenance of physical and cognitive function between middle and old age has profound consequences for optimization of health, independence and well-being for the latter years. This review article considers four key areas: the role of diet and longevity; potential dietary measures to prevent sarcopenia; diet and cognitive function; and dietary interventions with regard to primary or secondary prevention of age-related chronic disorders. Caloric restriction has been shown to slow ageing and maintain health status in both primates and rats. The evidence has limited applicability to humans, since it is unlikely that 30% reduced diets could be maintained long-term. The causes of sarcopenia, which manifests as loss of strength, disability and reduced quality of life, are multifactorial. However, resistance with ageing to regulatory amino acids known to modulate translation and initiation, particularly leucine, raise possibilities with regard to dietary intervention. The pattern of protein intake appears to be important in whole-body protein retention in older adults. A body of evidence is emerging that associates various dietary factors with a reduction in cognitive decline with age, or a delay in the progression of Alzheimer's disease, particularly with regard to intake of vitamin E and C-containing foods, as well as fish intake. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates a role for dietary intervention in the primary prevention of chronic diseases, even in old age. However, the potentially harmful effects of micronutrient supplementation in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease raise concern regarding appropriate dietary messages for the elderly. The role of the antioxidants, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, in the prevention of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration support the almost universal dietary guideline 'eat more fruit and vegetables'. In future dietary guidelines for the elderly need to be evidence-based and take into account protective food patterns, rather than target specific foods. PMID:12492654

  13. Relationship Between Current Substance Use and Unhealthy Weight Loss Practices Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vidot, Denise C; Messiah, Sarah E; Prado, Guillermo; Hlaing, WayWay M

    2016-04-01

    Objectives To determine the relationship between current substance use and unhealthy weight loss practices (UWLP) among 12-to-18 year olds. Methods Participants were 12-to-18 year olds who completed the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Florida (N = 5620). Current alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use was self-reported based on last 30-day use. UWLP was defined based on self-report of at least one of three methods to lose weight in last 30-days: (1) ≥24 h of fasting, (2) diet pill use, and (3) laxative use/purging. The reference group included those with no reported UWLP. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, academic performance, age-sex-specific body mass index percentiles, and perceived weight status were fitted to assess relationships between UWLP and current substance use. Results About 15 and 41 % of adolescents reported ≥1 UWLP and use of ≥1 substance in the last 30-days, respectively. Over half (60.1 %) of adolescents who reported substance use engaged in UWLP (p < 0.0001). The prevalence of current alcohol use (50.6 %) was the highest among those who reported UWLP, followed by marijuana (31.9 %), tobacco (19.7 %), and cocaine (10.5 %) use. Adolescents who reported current tobacco [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.1-3.6], alcohol (AOR 2.2, 95 % CI 1.9-2.6), or marijuana (AOR 2.1, 95 % CI 1.7-2.5) use had significantly higher odds of UWLP compared to their non-user counterparts. Conclusions This cross-sectional study shows that substance use and UWLP behaviors are likely to co-exist in adolescents. Further studies are necessary to determine the temporal relationship between substance use and UWLP. It is recommended that intervention programs for youth consider targeting these multiple health risk behaviors. PMID:26649881

  14. Lifestyle Behaviors in Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Overweight and Obese Women: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Camhi, Sarah M.; Crouter, Scott E.; Hayman, Laura L.; Must, Aviva; Lichtenstein, Alice H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined dietary data or objective measures of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior among metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Thus, the purpose is to determine whether PA, sedentary behavior and/or diet differ between MHO and MUO in a sample of young women. Methods Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian women 19–35 years were classified by cardiometabolic risk factors, including elevated blood pressure, triglyceride, glucose and C-reactive protein, low high density lipoprotein, and insulin resistance (MUO ≥2; MHO, <2). Time (mins/day) in light, moderate, vigorous PA, and sedentary behavior were estimated using an accelerometer (≥3 days; ≥8 hrs wear time). Questionnaires were used to quantify sitting time, TV/computer use and usual daily activity. The Block Food Frequency Questionnaire assessed dietary food intake. Differences between MHO and MUO for lifestyle behaviors were tested with linear regression (continuous data) or logistic regression (categorical data) after adjusting for age, race, BMI, smoking and accelerometer wear and/or total kilocalories, as appropriate. Results Women were 26.7±4.7 years, with a mean BMI of 31.1±3.7 kg/m2, and 61% were African American. Compared to MUO (n = 9), MHO (n = 37; 80%) spent less mins/day in sedentary behavior (difference: -58.1±25.5, p = 0.02), more mins/day in light PA (difference: 38.2±16.1, p = 0.02), and had higher daily METs (difference: 0.21±0.09, p = 0.03). MHO had higher fiber intakes (g/day of total fiber, soluble fiber, fruit/vegetable fiber, bean fiber) and daily servings of vegetables; but lower daily dairy servings, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and trans fats (g/day) compared to MUO. Conclusion Compared to MUO, MHO young women demonstrate healthier lifestyle habits with less sedentary behavior, more time in light PA, and healthier dietary quality for fat type and fiber. Future studies are needed to replicate findings with larger samples that include men and women of diverse race/ethnic groups. PMID:26383251

  15. How Do Australian Junior Primary School Children Perceive the Concepts of "Healthy" and "Unhealthy?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly; Thompson, Kirrilly; Blunden, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe Australian children's perceptions of healthiness and sources of health knowledge in order to develop an understanding of young children's perceptions, knowledge and sources of influence to guide future behaviour change and health promotion strategies. Design/methodology/approach: One-hour interactive focus

  16. How Do Australian Junior Primary School Children Perceive the Concepts of "Healthy" and "Unhealthy?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly; Thompson, Kirrilly; Blunden, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe Australian children's perceptions of healthiness and sources of health knowledge in order to develop an understanding of young children's perceptions, knowledge and sources of influence to guide future behaviour change and health promotion strategies. Design/methodology/approach: One-hour interactive focus…

  17. Eating and Exercise Disorders in Young College Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Used the Eating and Exercise Examination to investigate the eating, weight, shape, and exercise behaviors of 93 male college students. About 20 percent of respondents displayed eating attitudes and behaviors characteristic of eating disorders and disordered eating. They were similar to female students in eating attitudes, undereating, overeating,

  18. Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Flament, Martine F; Bissada, Hany; Spettigue, Wendy

    2012-03-01

    The objective was to review scientific evidence for efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy in adults or children with an eating disorder (ED). We conducted a computer search for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1960 and May 2010 for treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge-eating disorder (BED). For drugs for which no RCT was found, open trials or case reports were retrieved. Clinically relevant RCTs in the treatment of AN have used atypical antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and zinc supplementation. Olanzapine demonstrated an adjunctive effect for in-patient treatment of underweight AN patients, and fluoxetine helped prevent relapse in weight-restored AN patients in 1/2 studies. For treatment of BN, controlled studies have used SSRIs, other antidepressants, and mood stabilizers. In 9/11 studies, pharmacotherapy yielded a statistically significant although moderate reduction in binge/purge frequency, and some additional benefits. For BED, RCTs have been conducted using SSRIs and one serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), mood stabilizers, and anti-obesity medications. In 11/12 studies, there was a statistically significant albeit limited effect of medication. Meta-analyses on efficacy of pharmacotherapy for BN and BED support moderate effect sizes for medication, but generally low recovery rates. Treatment resistance is an inherent feature of AN, where treatment should focus on renourishment plus psychotherapy. For BN and BED, combined treatment with pharmacotherapy and cognitive behaviour therapy has been more effective than either alone. Data on the long-term efficacy of pharmacotherapy for EDs are scarce. Short- and long-term pharmacotherapy of EDs still remains a challenge for the clinician. PMID:21414249

  19. Eating Attitudes Test and Eating Disorders Inventory: Norms for Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, James C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Collected normative data on 1,373 high school boys and girls in grades 9 through 12, on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), used to measure symptoms of eating disorders. Obtained significant sex, but not age, differences, and some racial and socioeconomic differences among the girls. (Author/KS)

  20. Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome in adults with type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone int...

  1. Exploring the effects of maternal eating patterns on maternal feeding and child eating.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Halley; Power, Thomas G; Nicklas, Theresa; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2013-04-01

    Recent research has demonstrated the importance of maternal feeding practices and children's eating behavior in the development of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between maternal and child eating patterns, and to examine the degree to which these relationships were mediated through maternal feeding practices. Two hundred and twenty-two low-income mothers and their preschool children participated. About half of the families were African American and half were Latino. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing maternal eating patterns, maternal feeding practices, and children's eating patterns. Maternal external eating (eating in response to outside stimuli, not internal hunger/thirst cues) was positively correlated with two child eating scores: picky eating and desire to eat. Mediational analyses showed that external eating in mothers was related to picky eating in children through high maternal control in feeding; the relationship between mothers' external eating and desire to eat in children was not mediated through maternal control. Picky eating and desire to eat in children were related to emotional eating in mothers as well. The implications of these results for understanding the development of childhood obesity are considered. PMID:23291285

  2. Eating Well As You Get Older

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for people over age 50. Eating Well Promotes Energy Eating well helps keep up your energy level, too. By consuming enough calories -- a way to measure the energy you get from food --you give your body ...

  3. Study Confirms Eating Disorders' Deadly Toll

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156987.html Study Confirms Eating Disorders' Deadly Toll Those with anorexia 5 times more ... assesses the often fatal outcomes for people with eating disorders, particularly anorexia. The study found that people with ...

  4. Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits Print A ...

  5. "Eat me" imaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Bagalkot, Vaishali; Deiuliis, Jeffrey A; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Maiseyeu, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    Clearance of apoptotic debris is a vital role of the innate immune system. Drawing upon principles of apoptotic clearance, convenient delivery vehicles including intrinsic anti-inflammatory characteristics and specificity to immune cells can be engineered to aid in drug delivery. In this article, we examine the use of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), the well-known "eat-me" signal, in nanoparticle-based therapeutics making them highly desirable "meals" for phagocytic immune cells. Use of PtdSer facilitates engulfment of nanoparticles allowing for imaging and therapy in various pathologies and may result in immunomodulation. Furthermore, we discuss the targeting of the macrophages and other cells at sites of inflammation in disease. A thorough understanding of the immunobiology of "eat-me" signals is requisite for the successful application of "eat-me"-bearing materials in biomedical applications. PMID:26826436

  6. C9orf72 expansion presenting as an eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Peter; Ewing, Isobel; Ahmad, Kate

    2016-03-01

    This report describes a 64-year-old woman with a strong family history of motor neuron disease, whose diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia was delayed due to her initial presentation with atypical manifestations, including restriction of oral intake resulting in low weight, disordered eating and anxiety. Upon investigation, she was found to be a carrier of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion. Our case supports previous publications asserting that C9orf72 mutation carriers manifest with diverse clinical syndromes, and expands the phenotype to include anorexia and food refusal as potential features of the condition. PMID:26547294

  7. Food Reinforcement and Eating: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Leddy, John J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Faith, Myles S.

    2007-01-01

    Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special…

  8. Eating extra calories when sick - adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the side effects of treatment better. Change your eating habits to get more calories. Eat when you are hungry, not just at mealtimes. Eat 5 or 6 small meals a day instead of 3 large ones. Keep healthy snacks handy. Do not fill up on liquids ...

  9. Food Reinforcement and Eating: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Leddy, John J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Faith, Myles S.

    2007-01-01

    Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special

  10. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.

  11. Eating Disorders among High Performance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoutjesdyk, Dexa; Jevne, Ronna

    1993-01-01

    Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)

  12. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Eating Attitudes Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocker, Liette B.; Lam, Eddie T. C.; Jensen, Barbara E.; Zhang, James J.

    2007-01-01

    The study was designed to examine the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two widely adopted EAT models were tested: three-factor (Dieting, Bulimia and Food Preoccupation, and Oral Control) with 26 items (Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982),…

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Eating Attitudes Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocker, Liette B.; Lam, Eddie T. C.; Jensen, Barbara E.; Zhang, James J.

    2007-01-01

    The study was designed to examine the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two widely adopted EAT models were tested: three-factor (Dieting, Bulimia and Food Preoccupation, and Oral Control) with 26 items (Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982),

  15. Why does asking questions change health behaviours? The mediating role of attitude accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Chantelle; Conner, Mark; Sandberg, Tracy; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal

    2013-01-01

    Objective The question-behaviour effect (QBE) refers to the finding that measuring behavioural intentions increases performance of the relevant behaviour. This effect has been used to change health behaviours. The present research asks why the QBE occurs and evaluates one possible mediator – attitude accessibility. Design University staff and students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to an intention measurement condition where they reported their intentions to eat healthy foods, or to one of two control conditions. Main outcome measures Participants completed a response latency measure of attitude accessibility, before healthy eating behaviour was assessed unobtrusively using an objective measure of snacking. Results Intention measurement participants exhibited more accessible attitudes towards healthy foods, and were more likely to choose a healthy snack, relative to control participants. Furthermore, attitude accessibility mediated the relationship between intention measurement and behaviour. Conclusion This research demonstrates that increased attitude accessibility may explain the QBE, extending the findings of previous research to the domain of health behaviour. PMID:24245778

  16. What is the Eating at America's Table Study (EATS)?

    Cancer.gov

    EATS is a study that was designed to validate the Diet History Questionnaire, a new and improved food frequency questionnaire developed by NCI staff. The study was novel in that it examined not only the DHQ, but also two other widely used FFQs.

  17. Impulsivity-focused group intervention to reduce binge eating episodes in patients with binge eating disorder: study protocol of the randomised controlled IMPULS trial

    PubMed Central

    Schag, Kathrin; Leehr, Elisabeth J; Martus, Peter; Bethge, Wolfgang; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The core symptom of binge eating disorder (BED) is recurrent binge eating that is accompanied by a sense of loss of control. BED is frequently associated with obesity, one of the main public health challenges today. Experimental studies deliver evidence that general trait impulsivity and disorder-specific food-related impulsivity constitute risk factors for BED. Cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) is deemed to be the most effective intervention concerning BED. We developed a group intervention based on CBT and especially focusing on impulsivity. We hypothesise that such an impulsivity-focused group intervention is able to increase control over impulsive eating behaviour, that is, reduce binge eating episodes, further eating pathology and impulsivity. Body weight might also be influenced in the long term. Methods and analysis The present randomised controlled trial investigates the feasibility, acceptance and efficacy of this impulsivity-focused group intervention in patients with BED. We compare 39 patients with BED in the experimental group to 39 patients with BED in the control group at three appointments: before and after the group intervention and in a 3-month follow-up. Patients with BED in the experimental group receive 8 weekly sessions of the impulsivity-focused group intervention with 5-6 patients per group. Patients with BED in the control group receive no group intervention. The primary outcome is the binge eating frequency over the past 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes comprise further eating pathology, general impulsivity and food-related impulsivity assessed by eye tracking methodology, and body weight. Additionally, we assess binge eating and other impulsive behaviour weekly in process analyses during the time period of the group intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the ethics committee of the medical faculty of Eberhard Karls University Tübingen and the University Hospital Tübingen. Data are monitored by the Centre of Clinical Studies, University Hospital Tübingen. Trial registration number German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS00007689, 14/01/2015, version from 11/06/2015, pre-results. PMID:26685032

  18. [Therapeutic effects of the Feldenkrais method "awareness through movement" in patients with eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Laumer, U; Bauer, M; Fichter, M; Milz, H

    1997-05-01

    Based on the movement-pedagogical concept of Feldenkrais and the findings-of disturbed body perception by eating disordered patients this research aimed at studying the therapeutical effects of the Feldenkrais Method "Awareness through Movement" with eating disorder patients, 15 eating disordered patients treated at the Roseneck hospital for behavioural medicine rated-by means of a questionnaire consisting of scales of the Body Cathexis Scale (BCS), the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale (BPSS), the questionnaire for body perception (Fragebogen zum Körpererleben; FKE), the Emotion inventory (Emotionalitätsinventar; EMI-B), the Anorexia-Nervosa-Inventory for Self-rating (ANIS) and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI)-various aspects of their eating disorder before and after participating in a nine hour course of the Feldenkrais Method. The data of these patients were compared to those of the members of a control group, also consisting of 15 eating disordered patients who did not participate in a Feldenkrais course. The participants of the Feldenkrais-course showed increasing contentment with regard to problematic zones of their body and their own health as well as concerning acceptance and familiarity with their own body. Other results were a more spontaneous, open and self-confident behaviour, the decrease of feelings of helplessness and decrease of the wish to return to the security of the early childhood, which indicates the development of felt sense of self, self-confidence and a general process of maturation of the whole personality. The outcome points to the therapeutical effectiveness of the Feldenkrais Method with eating-disorder patients within a multimodal treatment program. PMID:9265198

  19. Does anger mediate between personality and eating symptoms in bulimia nervosa?

    PubMed

    Amianto, Federico; Siccardi, Sara; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Marech, Lucrezia; Barosio, Marta; Fassino, Secondo

    2012-12-30

    The goals of the study were to explore anger correlation with bulimic symptoms and to test the mediation power of anger between personality and eating psychopathology. A total of 242 bulimia nervosa (BN) outpatients and 121 healthy controls were recruited. Assessment was performed using Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI); State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (STAXI-2); Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2); Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ); Binge Eating Scale (BES); and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Mediation was tested on the whole BN group, on controls and on two BN subgroups based on a previous history of anorexia nervosa. Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness extensively relate to anger and psychopathology in bulimic group. Bulimic symptoms are related to Trait Reactive Anger. Trait Anger and Anger Expression fully mediate Cooperativeness effects on binge eating and Impulsiveness in the BN subjects. Anger Expression-In partially mediates between Harm Avoidance and Social Insecurity/Interpersonal Distrust in BN subjects. The comparison with controls and the analysis of subgroups underlines that these patterns are specific for BN. Anger mediation between Cooperativeness, and binge eating and impulsive behaviours confirm the relevance of relational dynamics in the expression of these core eating symptoms. Relational skills may represent a relevant target for the treatment of BN. PMID:22944222

  20. Strategies to Increase After-School Program Staff Skills to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Beighle, Aaron; Webster, Collin; Huberty, Jennifer; Moore, Justin B

    2016-01-01

    Standards targeting children's healthy eating and physical activity (HEPA) in after-school programs call for staff to display or refrain from HEPA-promoting or -discouraging behaviors that are linked to children's HEPA. This study evaluated strategies to align staff behaviors with HEPA Standards. Staff at four after-school programs serving approximately 500 children participated in professional development training from January 2012 to May 2013. Site leaders also attended workshops and received technical support during the same time frame. Changes in staff behaviors were evaluated using the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Activity and Nutrition in a pre- (fall 2011) multiple-post (spring 2012, fall 2012, and spring 2013), no-control group study design. A total of 8,949 scans were completed across the four measurement periods. Of the 19 behaviors measured, 14 changed in the appropriate direction. For example, staff engaging in physical activity with children increased from 27% to 40% of scans and staff eating unhealthy foods decreased from 56% to 14% of days. Ongoing training and technical assistance can have a measureable impact on staff behaviors linked to child-level HEPA outcomes. Future research should explore the feasibility of disseminating ongoing trainings to after-school program staff on a large scale. PMID:26055462