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Sample records for unicuspid aortic valve

  1. Symptomatic unicuspid aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Gohar; Dabbas, Walaa Said; Khan, Mahmuneer; Jamil, Mujgan

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old man with typical angina was seeking medical attention at primary health clinics for a couple of months. Owing to his young age and the absence of coronary artery disease risk factors, he was assured of no serious problem. Proper examination at a referral centre revealed weak peripheral pulses with diminished and delayed carotid upstroke. A normal S1 with a soft S2 were audible. A 3/6 late peaking systolic murmur was best heard in the aortic area radiating to the neck. Symptomatic bicuspid aortic valve disease was suspected. Diagnosis of unicuspid aortic valve was established by transoesophageal and three-dimensional echocardiography. The valve was successfully replaced with a mechanical prosthesis. The patient remains asymptomatic at 1?year follow-up. PMID:26678693

  2. Unicuspid Unicommissural Aortic Valve: An Extremely Rare Congenital Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sukhjeet; Ghayal, Puneet; Mathur, Atish; Mysliwiec, Margaret; Lovoulos, Constantinos; Solanki, Pallavi; Klapholz, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Unicuspid aortic valve is a rare congenital malformation that usually presents in the 3rd to 5th decade of life—and usually with severe aortic stenosis or regurgitation. It often requires surgical correction. Diagnosis can be made with 2- or 3-dimensional transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography, or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of a 31-year-old man who presented with dyspnea on exertion due to severe aortic stenosis secondary to a unicuspid unicommissural aortic valve. After aortic valve replacement, this patient experienced complete heart block that required the placement of a permanent pacemaker. PMID:26175647

  3. Unicuspid aortic valve presenting with cardiac arrest in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Tara; Kolcow, Walenty; Smyth, Yvonne; Veerasingham, David

    2015-01-01

    Unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) is a rare congenital anomaly typically affecting patients in their fourth and fifth decades and presenting with signs of heart failure. Our case is one of a previously asymptomatic teenage girl with a UAV, who presented with cardiac arrest and was successfully treated. Only two other similar cases have been reported in the literature, both were of slightly older male patients. Our case highlights the morbidity associated with the anomaly supporting the need for careful assessment of the valve in cases where UAV is suspected. PMID:26178230

  4. Three-dimensional echocardiographic features of unicuspid aortic valve stenosis correlate with surgical findings.

    PubMed

    Brantley, Hutton P; Nekkanti, Rajasekhar; Anderson, Curtis A; Kypson, Alan P

    2012-09-01

    A unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) is a rare congenital defect that may manifest clinically as severe aortic stenosis or regurgitation in the third to fifth decade of life. This report describes two cases of UAV stenosis in adult patients diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). The utility of three-dimensional TEE in confirming valve morphology and its relevance to transcatheter valve replacement are discussed. PMID:22676160

  5. Congenital rock and a hard place: unicuspid aortic valve with sinus of valsalva aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Dandes, Eric; Kirsch, Jacobo; Novaro, Gian

    2012-03-01

    Cardiac CT angiography (CTA) is an ideal tool to investigate possible cardiac malformations. In this case, careful planning of the CTA acquisition and reconstruction provided high resolution images of cardiac anatomy revealing 2 extremely rare coexisting congenital defects; a unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) and sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (SVA). Detailed planning of CTA acquisition reconstruction protocols is essential in obtaining necessary information for clinical decision-making strategies and interventions in the patients with suspected cardiac anomalies. PMID:20960233

  6. A Case of Severe Unicuspid Aortic Valve Stenosis: Valve Repair With Tricuspidization in an Adult.

    PubMed

    Tokue, Masahide; Hara, Hidehiko; Sahara, Naohiko; Yamazaki, Kenji; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Takahashi, Kei; Ozaki, Shigeyuki; Sugi, Kaoru; Nakamura, Masato

    2015-10-01

    A 33-year-old male was referred to our institute with acute heart failure. The patient was found to have a unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) and severe aortic stenosis. He had been followed at a local university hospital during childhood. However, he stopped visiting the outpatient clinic after becoming an adult. His condition subsequently worsened, and he ultimately presented to our hospital with cardiogenic shock. In Japan, some adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients continue to be followed by pediatric cardiologists, though the patterns of practice are variable. This report describes the case of a patient who became lost to follow-up in early adulthood. We thus focus on this ACHD case as an example of the effects of inadequate communication among doctors and the need to establish better ACHD management protocols for treating this patient population. PMID:26467883

  7. Aortic Valve

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disease Diseases of the arteries, valves, and aorta, as well as cardiac rhythm disturbances Aortic Valve Disease Coronary Artery ... abnormalities that are present at birth in children, as well as in adults Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular ...

  8. Relation of Aortic Valve Morphologic Characteristics to Aortic Valve Insufficiency and Residual Stenosis in Children With Congenital Aortic Stenosis Undergoing Balloon Valvuloplasty.

    PubMed

    Petit, Christopher J; Gao, Kevin; Goldstein, Bryan H; Lang, Sean M; Gillespie, Scott E; Kim, Sung-In H; Sachdeva, Ritu

    2016-03-15

    Aortic valve morphology has been invoked as intrinsic to outcomes of balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) for congenital aortic valve stenosis. We sought to use aortic valve morphologic features to discriminate between valves that respond favorably or unfavorably to BAV, using aortic insufficiency (AI) as the primary outcome. All patients who underwent BAV at 2 large-volume pediatric centers from 2007 to 2014 were reviewed. Morphologic features assessed on pre-BAV echo included valve pattern (unicuspid, functional bicuspid, and true bicuspid), leaflet fusion length, leaflet excursion angle, and aortic valve opening area and on post-BAV echo included leaflet versus commissural tear. Primary end point was increase in AI (AI+) of ≥2°. Eighty-nine patients (median age 0.2 years) were included in the study (39 unicuspid, 41 functional bicuspid, and 9 true bicuspid valves). Unicuspid valves had a lower opening area (p <0.01) and greater fusion length (p = 0.01) compared with functional and true bicuspid valves. Valve gradient pre-BAV and post-BAV were not different among valve patterns. Of the 16 patients (18%) with AI+, 14 had leaflet tears (odds ratio 13.9, 3.8 to 50). True bicuspid valves had the highest rate (33%) of AI+. On multivariate analysis, leaflet tears were associated with AI+, with larger opening area pre-BAV and lower fusion length pre-BAV. AI+ was associated with larger pre-BAV opening area. Gradient relief was associated with reduced angle of excursion. Valve morphology influences outcomes after BAV. Valves with lesser fusion and larger valve openings have higher rates of leaflet tears which in turn are associated with AI. PMID:26805657

  9. Spectrum of Aortic Valve Abnormalities Associated with Aortic Dilation Across Age Groups in Turner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Laura J.; Baba, Ridhwan Y.; Arai, Andrew E.; Bandettini, W. Patricia; Rosing, Douglas R.; Bakalov, Vladimir; Sachdev, Vandana; Bondy, Carolyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital aortic valve fusion is associated with aortic dilation, aneurysm and rupture in girls and women with Turner syndrome (TS). Our objective was to characterize aortic valve structure in subjects with TS, and determine the prevalence of aortic dilation and valve dysfunction associated with different types of aortic valves. Methods and Results The aortic valve and thoracic aorta were characterized by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in 208 subjects with TS in an IRB-approved natural history study. Echocardiography was used to measure peak velocities across the aortic valve, and the degree of aortic regurgitation. Four distinct valve morphologies were identified: tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) 64%(n=133), partially fused aortic valve (PF) 12%(n=25), bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) 23%(n=47), and unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) 1%(n=3). Age and body surface area (BSA) were similar in the 4 valve morphology groups. There was a significant trend, independent of age, towards larger BSA-indexed ascending aortic diameters (AADi) with increasing valve fusion. AADi were (mean +/? SD) 16.9 +/? 3.3 mm/m2, 18.3 +/? 3.3 mm/m2, and 19.8 +/? 3.9 mm/m2 (p<0.0001) for TAV, PF and BAV+UAV respectively. PF, BAV, and UAV were significantly associated with mild aortic regurgitation and elevated peak velocities across the aortic valve. Conclusions Aortic valve abnormalities in TS occur with a spectrum of severity, and are associated with aortic root dilation across age groups. Partial fusion of the aortic valve, traditionally regarded as an acquired valve problem, had an equal age distribution and was associated with an increased AADi. PMID:24084490

  10. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Oliemy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation was developed to offer a therapeutic solution to patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who are not candidates for conventional aortic valve replacement. The improvement in transcatheter aortic valve implantation outcomes is still of concern in the areas of stroke, vascular injury, heart block, paravalvular regurgitation and valve durability. Concomitantly, the progress, both technical and in terms of material advances of transcatheter valve systems, as well as in patient selection, renders transcatheter aortic valve implantation an increasingly viable treatment for more and more patients with structural heart disease. PMID:25374670

  11. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Sawa, Yoshiki

    2015-05-01

    With the improvement in the overall life expectancy, the incidence of aortic stenosis has been increasing. Although aortic valve replacement is a standard therapy, many patients do not undergo surgery for various reasons, including advanced age or the presence of multiple comorbidities. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been proposed as a less invasive and equally effective treatment for inoperable or high-risk symptomatic aortic stenosis. Numerous rigorous global clinical trials, as well as a pivotal clinical trial in Japan, have been conducted. In this review, we provide data on the development of TAVI worldwide and discuss the prospects for TAVI in Japan. PMID:24838694

  12. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Samir R; Tuzcu, E Murat

    2009-12-01

    Aortic stenosis is the most important valvular heart disease affecting the elderly population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the mainstay of treatment, although a substantial number of patients are considered high risk for surgery. Many of these patients do not undergo surgery and have poor outcomes from medically treated symptomatic, severe aortic stenosis. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) provides a promising treatment option for some of these patients. Several devices are under investigation. The Edwards Sapien valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) and the CoreValve (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) have the largest human experience to date. Initial data suggest that these devices have an acceptable safety profile and provide excellent hemodynamic relief of aortic stenosis. The Edwards Sapien valve is currently under investigation in the United States in the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve) trial in high-risk surgical or inoperable patients; TAVI is available for clinical use in both Canada and Europe. TAVI is not used in low- or intermediate-risk surgical patients; however, future studies may prove its applicability in these subsets. The major complications of TAVI include access site-related problems and device malpositioning/migration. There are several new-generation prosthetic valves and delivery systems designed to be low profile and repositionable. Technical advances and refinement of the implantation methods may make TAVI even safer and ultimately a better treatment option, not only for patients with high surgical risk but also for those with moderate or low risk. PMID:19930984

  13. Sutureless aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The increasing incidence of aortic stenosis and greater co-morbidities and risk profiles of the contemporary patient population has driven the development of minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) techniques to reduce surgical trauma. Recent technological developments have led to an alternative minimally invasive option which avoids the placement and tying of sutures, known as “sutureless” or rapid deployment aortic valves. Potential advantages for sutureless aortic prostheses include reducing cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) duration, facilitating minimally invasive surgery and complex cardiac interventions, whilst maintaining satisfactory hemodynamic outcomes and low paravalvular leak rates. However, given its recent developments, the majority of evidence regarding sutureless aortic valve replacement (SU-AVR) is limited to observational studies and there is a paucity of adequately-powered randomized studies. Recently, the International Valvular Surgery Study Group (IVSSG) has formulated to conduct the Sutureless Projects, set to be the largest international collaborative group to investigate this technology. This keynote lecture will overview the use, the potential advantages, the caveats, and current evidence of sutureless and rapid deployment aortic valve replacement (AVR). PMID:25870807

  14. Bicuspid aortic valve

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is unclear, but it is the most common congenital heart disease . It often runs in families. The bicuspid aortic ... fainting) Pale skin If a baby has other congenital heart problems, ... that will lead to the discovery of a bicuspid aortic valve.

  15. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Malaisrie, S Chris; Iddriss, Adam; Flaherty, James D; Churyla, Andrei

    2016-05-01

    Severe aortic stenosis (AS) is a life-threatening condition when left untreated. Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the gold standard treatment for the majority of patients; however, transcatheter aortic valve implantation/replacement (TAVI/TAVR) has emerged as the preferred treatment for high-risk or inoperable patients. The concept of transcatheter heart valves originated in the 1960s and has evolved into the current Edwards Sapien and Medtronic CoreValve platforms available for clinical use. Complications following TAVI, including cerebrovascular events, perivalvular regurgitation, vascular injury, and heart block have decreased with experience and evolving technology, such that ongoing trials studying TAVI in lower risk patients have become tenable. The multidisciplinary team involving the cardiac surgeon and cardiologist plays an essential role in patient selection, procedural conduct, and perioperative care. PMID:27021619

  16. Aortic or Mitral Valve Replacement With the Biocor and Biocor Supra

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-09

    Aortic Valve Insufficiency; Aortic Valve Regurgitation; Aortic Valve Stenosis; Aortic Valve Incompetence; Mitral Valve Insufficiency; Mitral Valve Regurgitation; Mitral Valve Stenosis; Mitral Valve Incompetence

  17. Awake transapical aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Petridis, Francesco Dimitri; Savini, Carlo; Castelli, Andrea; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    Transapical aortic valve implantation is being employed as a less invasive alternative to open heart surgery in high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. Here we report the case of an awake transapical aortic valve implantation in a patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:22345062

  18. Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement.

    PubMed

    Salenger, Rawn; Gammie, James S; Collins, Julia A

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of transcatheter aortic valve replacement and the emergence of rapid deployment aortic valves, there is a resurgent interest in minimizing the trauma of surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). The present review summarizes the history of minimal access AVR and attempts to collate the existing evidence regarding minimal access AVR. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12652 (J Card Surg 2016;31:38-50). PMID:26466846

  19. Congenital aortic valve disease. Improved survival and quality of life.

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, R C; Knott-Craig, C J; McCue, C; Lane, M M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of recent trends in surgical management, including use of the Ross Operation, on improved survival and quality of life in patients treated surgically for aortic valve (AV) disease at Oklahoma Children's Hospital. BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment of congenital AV disease has proved to be palliative, but newer procedures may be improving outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective review of 301 patients, age 1 day to 26 years (median, 5 years), having a surgical AV procedure or aortic balloon valvuloplasty at Children's Hospital of Oklahoma between 1960 and February 1996, was conducted. Information was collected on all prior and subsequent operations, and follow-up within 1 year was 96% complete. RESULTS: Survival for all patients was 90% +/- 2% at age 10 years and 73% +/- 8% at age 25. By age 5, 52% +/- 4% had required an AV procedure, 89% +/- 3% by age 15. Patient survival was affected adversely by the diagnosis of valvar aortic stenosis, 79% +/- 6% at age 25 compared to 95% +/- 4% for subvalvar aortic stenosis or aortic insufficiency (p = 0.01). The AV morphology did not affect survival, but patients with a bicuspid or unicuspid valve required operative intervention at an earlier age. Survival after autograft replacement of the AV (Ross Operation) was significantly better than for other types of valve replacement (p = 0.0043). Quality of life as assessed by need for reoperation favors the use of the Ross Operation, with freedom from reoperation at 9 years of 87% +/- 7% compared to 55% +/- 5% in all patients after first AV surgery (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The Ross Operation appears to have a significant advantage in survival and quality of life in children requiring a valve replacement as a first operation or after a prior AV procedure. PMID:9193178

  20. Stentless aortic valves. Current aspects.

    PubMed

    Ennker, J; Albert, A; Ennker, I C

    2012-01-01

    The design of stentless valve prostheses is intended to achieve a more physiological flow pattern and superior hemodynamics in comparison to stented valves. First - generation stentless bioprosthesis were the Prima valve, the Freestyle valve and the Toronto stentless porcine valve. The second generation of stentless valves, as the Super stentless aortic porcine valve, need only one suture line. The Sorin Pericarbon Freedom and the Equine 3F heart Valve belong to the third generation of stentless valve pericardial bioprostheses. A stentless valve to replace a full root can be implanted by several surgical techniques: complete or modified subcoronary, root inclusion and full root. The full root technique is accompanied by the lowest incidence of patient-prothesis mismatch. Our own clinical experience reflects more than 3000 stentless valve implantations since April 1996. Randomized study trials showed a hemodynamic advantage for stentless valves, but several could not reach a significant level. Also reported was a significant advantage of stentless bioprostheses concerning transvalvular gradients, effective valve area and quicker regression of the left ventricular mass 6 months after the operation, but at 12 months. Advantages are obvious in patients with a decreased left ventricle ejection fraction of less than 50% and in smaller implanted valve size, concomitant aortic root pathology (e.g. dissection) and aortic valve endocarditis. A survival advantage for stentless bioprostheses in comparison to stented ones has been reported by all studies in the literature. Stentless valves enrich the surgical armamentarium. Time will define the place of stentless valves in the future. PMID:23439732

  1. Transcatheter CoreValve valve-in-valve implantation in a stentless porcine aortic valve for severe aortic regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Celina M; Buchbinder, Maurice; Giacomini, John C

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We describe the first valve-in-valve Corevalve transcatheter aortic valve replacement in the St. Jude Toronto stentless porcine aortic valve in the United States, which enabled this 59-year-old patient with a history of bacterial endocarditis and aortic regurgitation to avoid heart transplant with complete resolution of his severe left ventricular dysfunction. PMID:25548631

  2. Aortic valve surgery - open

    MedlinePLUS

    ... There are two main types of new valves: Mechanical, made of man-made materials, such as titanium ... Mechanical heart valves do not fail often. However, blood clots can develop on them. If a blood ...

  3. Repeated Transapical Transcatheter Aortic Valve Insertion.

    PubMed

    Khullar, Vishal; Greason, Kevin L; Sandhu, Gurpreet S; Pislaru, Sorin V

    2016-02-01

    Transcatheter aortic valves may develop structural valve deterioration. With that development the issue arises of repeated transcatheter aortic valve insertion. There are, unfortunately, limited data about repeated transapical valve insertion, with only a single case report in the literature. We report an additional successful case. PMID:26777928

  4. Aortic Valve Injury Following Blunt Chest Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Alimi, Hedieh; Maleki, Majid; Hosseini, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Heart valve injury following blunt chest trauma of car accidents is increasing. Although aortic valve involvement is rare, however, in survivors of blunt cardiac trauma it is the most commonly involved valve and the most frequent valve lesion is isolated injury of the noncoronary cusp of aortic valve. Case Presentation: A 31-year-old man with a history of car accident (five months before) was referred to our clinic because of shortness of breath. A holo-diastolic blowing murmur was heard on physical examination. Transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated severe aortic insufficiency secondary to rupture of the left coronary cusp associated with avulsion of aortic valve commissure. Conclusions: Since the aortic valve is rarely affected in blunt cardiac injury, it will be generally undiagnosed during the primary evaluation of a patient with blunt chest trauma. However, any patient presenting dyspnea after chest trauma should be examined for suspected aortic valve injury. PMID:25478541

  5. Can the Results of Aortic Valve Repair Equal the Results of a Biologic Aortic Valve Replacement?

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Mohamad; Oo, Aung; De Paulis, Ruggero; Borger, Michael A.; El Khoury, Gebrine; Bavaria, Joseph; Elefteraides, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Aortic valve replacement (AVR) has been the default procedure for the surgical management of aortic valve disease, with repair techniques heterogeneously and infrequently used. However, surgical aortic valve repair has evolved with improved techniques. Yet many questions remain regarding the ideal techniques and real-world applicability and effectiveness of valve repair. The AORTA Great Debate highlighted and discussed the controversies regarding the surgical management of aortic valve disease.

  6. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in bicuspid anatomy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhen-Gang; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Feng, Yuan; Chen, Mao

    2015-02-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an established therapeutic option for high-risk patients with tricuspid aortic valve stenosis. Historically, the presence of a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) has been regarded as a contraindication to TAVI, on the basis of putative concerns about the associated risks of elliptical deployment, accelerated leaflet degeneration, periprosthetic leaks, and aortic complications. Fortunately, with technological refinements and mounting experience, reasonable success has been achieved with TAVI in selected patients with a BAV. The rate of procedural success is high, and survival is similar to that in patients with a tricuspid aortic valve who undergo TAVI. Nevertheless, moderate or severe aortic regurgitation and aortic dissection seem to occur more frequently in patients with a BAV rather than a tricuspid aortic valve. Specifically-designed prospective studies should address these concerns and help to define anatomical selection criteria before TAVI can be recommended for patients with a BAV. PMID:25311233

  7. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: 2015 in Review.

    PubMed

    Harjai, Kishore J; Grines, Cindy L; Leon, Martin B

    2016-02-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as an attractive option for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) who are either at high risk or extreme risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). This article summarizes the major advances in TAVR that were published or reported in 2015. (J Interven Cardiol 2016;29:27-46). PMID:26864950

  8. Late surgical explantation and aortic valve replacement after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Louis W; Granger, Emily K; McCourt, Jennifer A; Pye, Roger; Kaplan, Jason M; Muller, David W M

    2015-04-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease is associated with higher rates of paravalvular aortic regurgitation, which may require subsequent surgical correction. We report a case of successful late surgical CoreValve explantation 1,389 days after TAVI in a patient with bicuspid aortic valve stenosis and McArdle's disease who developed severe paravalvular aortic regurgitation. We confirm that neoendothelialization and incorporation of the nitinol cage into the aortic wall had occurred at nearly 4 years postimplantation, although explantation with careful endarterectomy could still be performed without requiring simultaneous aortic root replacement. PMID:25841830

  9. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in Jehovah's Witness patients with symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Buz, Semih; Pasic, Miralem; Unbehaun, Axel; Hetzer, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is currently reserved for high or prohibitive surgical-risk patients with aortic valve stenosis. We report on successful TAVI in two Jehovah's witness patients. It offers a simple and effective treatment of severe aortic valve stenosis in high-risk patients who refuse the use of allogeneic blood and blood products. PMID:22753437

  10. Aortic dissection and bicuspid aortic valve: an autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Sawaimoon, Satyakam Krishna; Jadhav, Meenal Vitthal; Rane, Sharda Raju; Sagale, Mangesh; Khedkar, Bhushan

    2006-07-01

    Medico-legal post-mortems referred to the Department of Pathology, for the histopathological examination, revealed six cases of acute aortic dissection--two in isolation, three in combination with congenital bicuspid aortic valve; and one isolated case of congenital bicuspid aortic valve. One case of isolated aortic dissection was associated with Marfan's syndrome; and one case of aortic dissection with bicuspid aortic valve was associated with polycystic kidneys. History of hypertension could be elicited in two cases. Cystic medial degeneration of aorta was seen in three cases; one of which was associated with Marfan's syndrome. All five cases of aortic dissection belonged to type II of DeBakey classification. PMID:17001877

  11. Valve thrombosis 7 months after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Pingpoh, Clarence; Pache, Gregor; Nawras, Diab; Guenkel, Ludwig; Sami, Kueri; Zeh, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Emmanuel; Jander, Nikolaus; Siepe, Matthias; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

    2014-09-01

    A 77-year old man underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation for severe aortic stenosis with a 29-mm Edwards-Sapien XT aortic valve bioprosthesis. Periprocedural transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography showed good positioning and expansion of the prosthesis with only minor transvalvular insufficiency. On a routine checkup 7 months later, echocardiography and computed tomography showed a high transvalvular gradient suggestive of valve thrombosis, which could not be treated with warfarin. Because of rapid deterioration of the patient's clinical condition, an urgent surgical valve replacement was performed 4 weeks after initial notice of the valve thrombosis. The patient's postoperative stay was uneventful. PMID:25193189

  12. Acute aortic insufficiency due to avulsion of aortic valve commissure.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Claudio Ribeiro da; Santos, Paulo Csar; Atik, Fernando Antibas; de Conti, Daniel Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    A 66-year-old male patient, prior hypertension, a history of orthopnea, palpitations and chest pain of sudden onset, which was diagnosed as spontaneous avulsion of aortic valve commissure and consequent aortic insufficiency progressing to acute left heart failure refractory to medical treatment. The patient underwent early surgical replacement of the aortic valve by a bioprosthesis, and presented satisfactory postoperative course. Currently, four years after the event, still in attendance in functional class I. PMID:22729316

  13. Aortic Valve Adaptation to Aortic Root Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Hee; Handschumacher, Mark D.; Levine, Robert A.; Sun, Byung Joo; Jang, Jeong Yoon; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Song, Jong-Min; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Lim, Tae-Hwan; Song, Jae-Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Background The 3-dimensional relationship between aortic root and cusp is essential to understand the mechanism of aortic regurgitation (AR) because of aortic root dilatation (ARD). We sought to test the hypothesis that the stretched cusps in ARD enlarge to compensate for ARD. Methods and Results Computed tomography imaged 92 patients (57 with ARD, 29 with moderate to severe AR, 28 without significant AR) and 35 normal controls. Specialized 3-dimensional software measured individual cusp surface areas relative to maximal mid-sinus cross-sectional area and minimal 3-dimensional annular area, coaptation area fraction, and asymmetry of sinus volumes and intercommissural distances. Total open cusp surface area increased (P<0.001) from 7.6±1.4 cm2/m2 in normals to 12.9±2.2 cm2/m2 in AR-negative and 15.2±3.3 cm2/m2 in AR-positive patients. However, the ratio of closed cusp surface area to maximal mid-sinus area, reflecting cusp adaptation, decreased from normals to AR-negative to AR-positive patients (1.38±0.20, 1.15±0.15, 0.88±0.15; P<0.001), creating the lowest coaptation area fraction. Cusp distensibility (closed diastolic versus open area) decreased from 20% in controls and AR-negative patients to 5% in AR-positive patients (P<0.001). Multivariate determinants of AR and coaptation area fraction reflected both sinus size and cusp-to-annular adaptation. ARD was also progressively asymmetrical with root size, and individual cusp surface areas failed to match this asymmetry. Conclusions Aortic cusp enlargement occurs in ARD, but cusp adaptation and distensibility become limited in prominent, asymmetrical ARD, leading to AR. Optimal AR repair tailored to individual patient anatomy can benefit from appreciating valve adaptation and 3-dimensional relationships; understanding cusp adaptation mechanisms may ultimately provide therapeutic opportunities to improve such compensation. PMID:25051951

  14. Emergency Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation for Acute and Early Failure of Sutureless Perceval Aortic Valve.

    PubMed

    Durand, Eric; Tron, Christophe; Eltchaninoff, Hlne

    2015-09-01

    We report the case of a 78-year-old woman admitted for cardiogenic shock related to acute and early failure (severe aortic regurgitation) of a Perceval sutureless aortic bioprosthesis (Sorin Group, Saluggia, Italy). Clinical stability was achieved using rescue transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve implantation with an Edwards SAPIEN 3 prosthesis (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA). To our knowledge, we report herein the first case of successful valve-in-valve implantation using a SAPIEN 3 transcatheter heart valve in a sutureless bioprosthetic aortic valve with acute and early deterioration. PMID:26095935

  15. Intraoperative tracking of aortic valve plane

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Duc Long Hung; Garreau, Mireille; Auffret, Vincent; Le Breton, Herv; Verhoye, Jean-Philippe; Haigron, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to track the aortic valve plane in intra-operative fluoroscopic images in order to optimize and secure Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) procedure. This paper is focused on the issue of aortic valve calcifications tracking in fluoroscopic images. We propose a new method based on the Tracking-Learning-Detection approach, applied to the aortic valve calcifications in order to determine the position of the aortic valve plane in intra-operative TAVI images. This main contribution concerns the improvement of object detection by updating the recursive tracker in which all features are tracked jointly. The approach has been evaluated on four patient databases, providing an absolute mean displacement error less than 10 pixels ? 2mm). Its suitability for the TAVI procedure has been analyzed. PMID:24110703

  16. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Imaging Techniques for Aortic Root Sizing.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Julian L; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Suranyi, Pal; Bayer, Richard R; Litwin, Sheldon E; De Cecco, Carlo N; Mangold, Stefanie; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Fuller, Stephen R; Vogl, Thomas J; Steinberg, Daniel H; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an increasingly used alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis and prohibitive perioperative risk. Several studies have shown an improved clinical outcome and lower rate of complications with TAVR in this patient population. Furthermore, TAVR has shown promising results in patients at elevated risk from surgical aortic valve replacement. Because of the endovascular nature of this technique, comprehensive preprocedural assessment of the aortic root and vascular access path is crucial. Although echocardiography is still commonly performed to assess the aortic root, cross-sectional imaging modalities are increasingly used given their superior results in the diagnostic accuracy of TAVR measurements. In particular, computed tomography (CT) is gaining an increasing role in pre-TAVR imaging because of fast 3-dimensional assessment of aortic root anatomy and improvements in clinical outcome after TAVR when CT is used for pre-TAVR planning. However, different algorithms exist for matching valve size to the aortic root and left ventricular outflow tract, and these measurements may substantially impact valve prosthesis selection and postinterventional complication rates. Cardiac magnetic resonance may play a role especially in post-TAVR assessment, as it provides both anatomic information and blood flow dynamics. This article reviews multimodality imaging approaches to pre-TAVR aortic root size assessment, provides an overview of the impact on post-TAVR complications and clinical outcome, and describes recent techniques to reduce contrast material volume in TAVR assessment with CT. PMID:26164166

  17. Mechanical versus biological aortic valve replacement strategies.

    PubMed

    Reineke, D; Gisler, F; Englberger, L; Carrel, T

    2016-04-01

    Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the most frequently performed procedure in valve surgery. The controversy about the optimal choice of the prosthetic valve is as old as the technique itself. Currently there is no perfect valve substitute available. The main challenge is to choose between mechanical and biological prosthetic valves. Biological valves include pericardial (bovine, porcine or equine) and native porcine bioprostheses designed in stented, stentless and sutureless versions. Homografts and pulmonary autografts are reserved for special indications and will not be discussed in detail in this review. We will focus on the decision making between artificial biological and mechanical prostheses, respectively. The first part of this article reviews guideline recommendations concerning the choice of aortic prostheses in different clinical situations while the second part is focused on novel strategies in the treatment of patients with aortic valve pathology. PMID:26678683

  18. Transfemoral aortic valve implantation in severe aortic stenosis patients with prior mitral valve prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sar?, Cenk; Ba?tu?, Serdal; Kasapkara, Hac? Ahmet; Durmaz, Tahir; Kele?, Telat; Akay, Murat; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Bayram, Nihal Akar; Bozkurt, Engin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transcatheter aortic valve implantation for severe symptomatic aortic stenosis in patients with a previous mitral valve prosthesis is technically challenging, and pre-procedural comprehensive assessment of these patients before transcatheter aortic valve implantation is vital for an uncomplicated and successful procedure. Aim We want to share our experience with transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with a preexisting functional mitral valve prosthesis and describe a series of important technical and pre-procedural details. Material and methods At our center, 135 patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis were treated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Six of them with a preexisting mitral valve prosthesis received an Edwards SAPIEN XT valve through the transfemoral route. Results Transcatheter aortic valve implantation was performed successfully in all 6 patients without any deformation of the cobalt-chromium/steel stents of the aortic valve bioprosthesis. Also no distortion or malfunction in the mitral valve prosthesis was observed after the procedure. There were no complications during the hospitalization period. Post-procedural echocardiography revealed no or mild aortic paravalvular regurgitation and normal valve function in all the patients. In addition, serial echocardiographic examination demonstrated that both the stability and function of the aortic and mitral prosthetic valves were normal without any deterioration in the gradients and the degree of the regurgitation at long-term follow-ups. Conclusions Our experience confirms that transcatheter aortic valve implantation is technically feasible in patients with previous mitral valve replacement but comprehensive evaluation of patients by multimodal imaging techniques such as transesophageal echocardiography and multislice computed tomography is mandatory for a successful and safe procedure. PMID:26677380

  19. First direct aortic retrievable transcatheter aortic valve implantation in humans.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Glover, Chris; Labinaz, Marino; Ruel, Marc

    2014-11-01

    We describe 2 cases in which transcatheter aortic valve implantation was performed with a Portico prosthesis (St Jude Medical, St Paul, MN) through a direct aortic approach. In 1 of the cases, prosthesis retrieval was needed during the procedure and was essential to the successful outcome. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of direct aortic Portico prosthesis implantation, and it highlights the significance of the retrievable nature of this device. PMID:25442452

  20. Geometry of aortic heart valves. [prosthetic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karara, H. M.

    1975-01-01

    Photogrammetric measurements of the surface topography of the aortic valves obtained from silicon rubber molds of freshly excised human aortic valves are presented. The data are part of an investigation into the design of a new prosthetic valve which will be a central-flow device, like the real valve and unlike previous central-occluding prostheses. Since the maximum stress on the heart valve is induced when the valve is closed and subject to diastolic back-pressure, it was decided to determine the valve geometry during diastole. That is, the molds were formed by pouring the rubber down the excised aortas, causing the valves to close. The molds were made under different pressures (20-120 torr); photogrammetry served as a vehicle for the assessment of the mold topography through the following outputs: digital models, surface profiles, and contour maps.

  1. Current status of transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Webb, John G; Wood, David A

    2012-08-01

    Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) has long been the mainstay of therapy for severe aortic stenosis. However, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is now generally accepted as the new standard of care for patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis who are not candidates for open surgery. Arguably TAVR may also be a preferred alternative to SAVR in carefully selected high-risk, but still operable, patients in whom morbidity and mortality may be reduced. Although TAVR outcomes continue to improve, concerns remain with respect to vascular injury, stroke, paravalvular regurgitation, and valve durability. However, it seems likely that with ongoing refinement of transcatheter valve systems, techniques, and patient selection TAVR is becoming an increasingly appealing option for a much broader range of patients. Randomized trials and ongoing surveillance will play an important role as we enter a new era of rigorous clinical evaluation for minimally invasive therapies for structural heart disease. PMID:22749306

  2. Nanobacteria-associated calcific aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Chang, Ho-Huang; Roque, Rod; Malas, Amer M; Warren, Stafford G; Sommer, Andrei P

    2007-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve stenosis is the most common valvular disease in developed countries, and the major reason for operative valve replacement. In the US, the current annual cost of this surgery is approximately 1 billion dollars. Despite increasing morbidity and mortality, little is known of the cellular basis of the calcifications, which occur in high-perfusion zones of the heart. The case is presented of a patient with calcific aortic valve stenosis and colonies of progressively mineralized nanobacteria in the fibrocalcific nodules of the aortic cusps, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Consistent with their outstanding bioadhesivity, nanobacteria might serve as causative agents in the development of calcific aortic valve stenosis. PMID:17315391

  3. Acute aortic insufficiency due to rupture of an aortic valve commissure.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Samer; Polvani, Gianluca; Al Jaber, Emad; Gennari, Marco

    2014-07-01

    Myxomatous degeneration generally involves the atrioventricular valves (mitral and tricuspid). Rarely, it may affect the aortic or pulmonary valve. We report a case of an acute severe aortic insufficiency due to a rupture of a commissure of the aortic valve in a patient who had previously undergone mitral valve surgery for myxomatous mitral valve prolapse. PMID:24417221

  4. Minimally invasive transaortic mitral valve repair during aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Santana, Orlando; Lamelas, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Herein, we report the case of a 77-year-old man who presented with congestive heart failure. Echocardiography and cardiac catheterization revealed severe aortic stenosis with severe mitral regurgitation and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.20. Because of comorbidities, the patient was considered to be at high risk for double-valve surgery. In order to reduce the operative risk, a minimally invasive aortic valve replacement was performed together with a transaortic edge-to-edge repair (Alfieri stitch) of the mitral valve. We discuss the surgical technique and note the positive outcome. To our knowledge, this is the 1st report of minimally invasive aortic valve replacement and transaortic mitral valve repair with use of the Alfieri stitch. PMID:21720478

  5. Unusual complication after aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Frigg, Christoph; Cassina, Tiziano; Siclari, Francesco; Mauri, Romano

    2008-02-01

    We present a report of a postoperative left ventricular-right atrial (LV-RA) communication after aortic valve replacement. Such intracardiac defects are rare but encountered occasionally after valve surgery. The diagnosis was made by use of transesophageal echocardiography with echo-Doppler and color-flow imaging. Complications of LV-RA shunts and differential diagnosis are discussed. PMID:18042564

  6. Endovascular Repair for Type A Aortic Dissection After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement With a Medtronic CoreValve.

    PubMed

    Berfield, Kathleen K S; Sweet, Matthew P; McCabe, James M; Reisman, Mark; Mackensen, G Burkhard; Mokadam, Nahush A; Dean, Larry S; Smith, Jason W

    2015-10-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is being used with increasing frequency in patients with severe aortic stenosis who are otherwise deemed to be at high surgical risk. Aortic dissection is a rare complication of transcatheter aortic valve replacement and poses a unique management dilemma. We describe the treatment of an acute Stanford type A aortic dissection after transcatheter aortic valve replacement with a modified thoracic endovascular stent graft in a 95-year-old woman. PMID:26434441

  7. Prosthetic Valve Escaping During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Nobuyuki; Scholtz, Werner; Scholtz, Smita; Faber, Lothar; Ensminger, Stephan; Gummert, Jan; Brgermann, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    We performed transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation on an 87-year-old woman with severe aortic valve stenosis. Because of the narrow left ventricular outflow tract, annular positioning of the prosthetic valve proved challenging. During positioning, the prosthetic valve was accidentally dislodged from the balloon catheter and dropped into the left ventricle. Attempted catheter retrieval was unsuccessful. We therefore converted to open surgery without delay. After aortotomy, to our surprise, the prosthesis could not be found, neither in the left ventricle nor in the ascending aorta. Transesophageal echocardiography failed to reveal the location of the missing prosthesis. Fluoroscopy finally displayed the prosthesis in the descending aorta at the level of the left atrium. We proceeded with aortic and mitral valve replacement and closed the sternum. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the prosthetic valve was secured to the wall of the abdominal aorta in an infrarenal position by dilatation with a balloon catheter. This case shows that we should be alert to septum hypertrophy or a narrow left ventricular outflow tract during transapical aortic valve implantation. In such anatomical situations, we recommend advancing the sheath of the application system directly below the annular plane and positioning the prosthesis from this point. PMID:26650617

  8. 'Fast-implantable' aortic valve implantation and concomitant mitral procedures.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Enrico; Siniscalchi, Giuseppe; Marinakis, Sotirios; Berdajs, Denis; von Segesser, Ludwig

    2014-10-01

    Concomitant aortic and mitral valve replacement or concomitant aortic valve replacement and mitral repair can be a challenge for the cardiac surgeon: in particular, because of their structure and design, two bioprosthetic heart valves or an aortic valve prosthesis and a rigid mitral ring can interfere at the level of the mitroaortic junction. Therefore, when a mitral bioprosthesis or a rigid mitral ring is already in place and a surgical aortic valve replacement becomes necessary, or when older high-risk patients require concomitant mitral and aortic procedures, the new 'fast-implantable' aortic valve system (Intuity valve, Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) can represent a smart alternative to standard aortic bioprosthesis. Unfortunately, this is still controversial (risk of interference). However, transcatheter aortic valve replacements have been performed in patients with previously implanted mitral valves or mitral rings. Interestingly, we learned that there is no interference (or not significant interference) among the standard valve and the stent valve. Consequently, we can assume that a fast-implantable valve can also be safely placed next to a biological mitral valve or next to a rigid mitral ring without risks of distortion, malpositioning, high gradient or paravalvular leak. This paper describes two cases: a concomitant Intuity aortic valve and bioprosthetic mitral valve implantation and a concomitant Intuity aortic valve and mitral ring implantation. PMID:25015540

  9. Aortic valve replacement in elderly patients with aortic stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Straumann, E.; Kiowski, W.; Langer, I.; Grdel, E.; Stulz, P.; Burckhardt, D.; Pfisterer, M.; Burkart, F.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the risk of aortic valve replacement and long-term follow-up in elderly patients with dominant aortic stenosis. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of patients who had aortic valve replacement over a 10 year period and were routinely seen in an outpatient clinic. SETTING--University hospital. PATIENTS--93 patients aged > or = 60 and 47 patients > or = 70 years with symptomatic aortic stenosis undergoing aortic valve replacement. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Early and late mortality in different age groups. Influence of preoperative signs and symptoms on overall outcome. RESULTS--The proportion of patients older than 70 years increased from 11% in 1978 to 54% in 1986. Perioperative mortality was 3.6% and mortality after 2 and 5 years was 9% and 13% respectively. Survival was similar (85% and 83%, respectively) in patients aged 60-69 years (group 1, n = 93, mean age 64.5 (2.7) and patients aged > or = 70 years (group 2, n = 47, mean age 72.6 (2.5)). Additional coronary artery disease and coronary bypass grafting did not significantly affect survival. The cardiothoracic ratio was inversely related to survival (Cox regression, p < 0.05). Preoperative symptoms (syncope, angina pectoris, and dyspnoea) were similar in both patient groups. After a mean (SD) follow up of 51 (33) months 96% of surviving patients were in NYHA functional class I or II with no difference between the two age groups. Similarly, the cardiothoracic ratio and Sokolow index decreased to near normal values in both age groups. CONCLUSION--The risk of aortic valve replacement in patients with dominant aortic stenosis is low and not significantly influenced by age. Therefore replacement may be performed without increased risk in elderly patients and with a good long-term outcome. PMID:8011409

  10. The Effects of Positioning of Transcatheter Aortic Valve on Fluid Dynamics of the Aortic Root

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jimmy L; Kheradvar, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a novel treatment for severe aortic valve stenosis. Due to the recent use of this technology and the procedural variability, there is very little data that quantifies the hemodynamic consequences of variations in valve placement. Changes in aortic wall stresses and fluid retention in the sinuses of Valsalva can have a significant effect on the clinical response a patient has to the procedure. By comprehensively characterizing complex flow in the sinuses of Valsalva using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry and an advanced heart flow simulator, various positions of a deployed transcatheter valve with respect to a bioprosthetic aortic valve (valve-in-valve) were tested in vitro. Displacements of the transcatheter valve were axial and directed below the simulated native valve annulus. It was determined that for both blood residence time and aortic Reynolds stresses, it is optimal to have the annulus of the transcatheter valve deployed as close to the aortic valve annulus as possible. PMID:25010918

  11. The effects of positioning of transcatheter aortic valves on fluid dynamics of the aortic root.

    PubMed

    Groves, Elliott M; Falahatpisheh, Ahmad; Su, Jimmy L; Kheradvar, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a novel treatment for severe aortic valve stenosis. Due to the recent use of this technology and the procedural variability, there is very little data that quantify the hemodynamic consequences of variations in valve placement. Changes in aortic wall stresses and fluid retention in the sinuses of Valsalva can have a significant effect on the clinical response a patient has to the procedure. By comprehensively characterizing complex flow in the sinuses of Valsalva using digital particle image velocimetry and an advanced heart-flow simulator, various positions of a deployed transcatheter valve with respect to a bioprosthetic aortic valve (valve-in-valve) were tested in vitro. Displacements of the transcatheter valve were axial and directed below the simulated native valve annulus. It was determined that for both blood residence time and aortic Reynolds stresses, it is optimal to have the annulus of the transcatheter valve deployed as close to the aortic valve annulus as possible. PMID:25010918

  12. Quadricuspid aortic valve by using intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Quadricuspid aortic valve is a rare congenital malformation of the aortic valve. Its diagnosis is often missed even with the use of transthoracic echocardiogram. Many of these patients progress to aortic incompetence later in life, hence requiring surgical intervention. In the case described in this report, a 61-year-old woman is presented with the features of congestive heart failure. The preoperative transthoracic echocardiogram disclosed a moderate to severe aortic valve insufficiency but failed to reveal the quadricuspid aortic value anomaly. This case underscores the important role of three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography for the diagnosis of quadricuspid aortic valve. PMID:20813040

  13. The significance of aortic valve calcification in patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xinshuang; Zhang, Minghui; Liu, Kun; Hou, Zhihui; Gao, Yang; Yin, Weihua; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Zhennan; Lu, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a common congenital heart disease. Our study was to analyze clinical features of BAV and evaluate whether aortic valve calcium score (AVCS) was a reliable marker for aortic stenosis (AS) in patients with BAV. 101 patients with BAV who both underwent echocardiology and cardiac computed tomography (CT) scan in our institution were included. Basic clinical data, haemodynamic feature, aortic valve and coronary calcium score were collected and compared among patients with different valve function and different degree of AS. Risk factors related to severe AS were evaluated by logistic regression, and a receiver operative characteristic curve was used to determine the cutoff calcium score greater than which the diagnosis of severe AS was optimized. Patients with aortic regurgitation (AR) were younger and demonstrated larger aortic annulus and sinus compared with patients with other valve dysfunction. Aortic valve calcium score was higher in patients with AS than with AR. For patients with different degree of AS, there were statistical significances in the value of age, aortic valve calcium score and coronary calcium score. AVCS was positively related to severe AS with an odd ratio of 1.286 (95 % CI 1.099-1.504) by every 300 points increase. AVCS was also a strong predictor for severe AS with area under the curve 0.855 with a cutoff value of 897 (sensitivity 86.7 %, specificity 72.2 %). Conclusively, aortic calcium score calculated by quantitative CT is a reliable marker in evaluating severity of AS. PMID:26440659

  14. Percutaneous aortic valve replacement: computed tomography scan after valved stent implantation in human cadaver hearts.

    PubMed

    Bombien, Ren; Hmme, Tim; Schnke, Michael; Lutter, Georg

    2009-09-01

    Computed tomography scans were performed before and after aortic valve resection with consecutive implantation of a valved stent in human hearts with highly calcified aortic valves in situ (n=2). This demonstrates that the valved stent shows better fitting in the annulus after removal of the native valve. PMID:19608427

  15. Sutureless aortic valve implantation: first experience in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Guohao; Vu, duc Thang; Teoh, Kristine Leok Kheng; Ti, Lian Kah; Kofidis, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Age-related degenerative calcification is currently the most common cause of aortic stenosis (AS) in adults and the most frequent reason for aortic valve replacement in patients with AS. With the increased life expectancy, a large proportion of elderly patients with AS is undergoing cardiac surgery, although many are not offered conventional aortic valve replacement due to the risks involved. However, sutureless aortic valve replacement provides an alternative for this group of elderly patients. This case series reports the first experience in Asia of sutureless aortic valve implantation in seven patients at our institution. PMID:25631972

  16. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement: transapical resection of the aortic valve in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bombien Quaden, Ren; Leester-Schaedel, Monika; Lozonschi, Lucian; Lutter, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The resection of pulmonary valves has already been demonstrated in an experimental beating-heart model. The aim of this study was to analyse the transapical laser-assisted resection of aortic valves in an in vivo porcine model in a non-beating heart. The resection was performed in a porcine model (n=10) using a Thullium:YAG laser. After establishing a standard extracorporeal circulatory support, the aortic valve isolation chamber (AVIC) system was inserted transapically. The resection of the aortic leaflets was carried out step-by-step in the arrested heart. The AVIC implantation, the resection process, and the gross anatomy of intracardiac lesions were analysed. The procedure for installing the AVIC took 5.81.5min. A sealed chamber was achieved in 9/10 cases. The resection of the valves was performed in 8/10 and completed in 7/10 cases. The resection took, on average, 7.42.7min/cusp. In 9/10 cases, the sealing was sufficient. Gross anatomy and histological analysis demonstrated only superficial damage to the surrounding tissue. In this study, the in vivo on-pump isolation of the left ventricular outflow tract and the laser resection of the native aortic valve could be demonstrated successfully. Nevertheless, this model is the next step towards a beating-heart resection of the aortic valve using the isolation chamber. PMID:22707518

  17. Aortic valve replacement in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Glock, Y; Pecoul, R; Cerene, A; Laguerre, J; Puel, P

    1984-01-01

    The results for 62 consecutive patients aged 70 or more given aortic valve replacement (A.V.R.) between 1970 and 1982 are reported. All the patients were in the New York Heart Association (N.Y.H.A.) functional class III (29%) or IV (71%); 54.8% had angina and 30.6% had experienced syncope. Forty patients had aortic stenosis (A.S.), 10 had aortic regurgitation and 12 had mixed aortic valve disease. The operative myocardial infarction rate was 6.4%. Tilting disk valves were used. Eighty percent of the patients were anticoagulated with Warfarin whilst twenty percent received only antiplatelet drugs. All the patients were followed up for a mean period of 26 months; late mortality was 22.6% with 4.8% cardiac deaths. The thromboembolic rate was 1.6% and the disinsertion rate was 3.2%. Cerebral stroke was fatal in 3 cases in anticoagulated patients but the mechanism of the accident was not known. At the termination of the study 93% of surviving patients were in N.Y.H.A. class I or II. No patient was in class IV. The probability of five year survival is 71% for the entire group. PMID:6736114

  18. Notch-dependent EMT is attenuated in patients with aortic aneurysm and bicuspid aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Kostina, Aleksandra S; Uspensky, Vladimir Е; Irtyuga, Olga B; Ignatieva, Elena V; Freylikhman, Olga; Gavriliuk, Natalia D; Moiseeva, Olga M; Zhuk, Sergey; Tomilin, Alexey; Kostareva, Аnna А; Malashicheva, Anna B

    2016-04-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common congenital heart malformation and the reasons for the aortopathies associated with bicuspid aortic valve remain unclear. NOTCH1 mutations are associated with bicuspid aortic valve and have been found in individuals with various left ventricular outflow tract abnormalities. Notch is a key signaling during cardiac valve formation that promotes the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We address the role of Notch signaling in human aortic endothelial cells from patients with bicuspid aortic valve and aortic aneurysm. Aortic endothelial cells were isolated from tissue fragments of bicuspid aortic valve-associated thoracic aortic aneurysm patients and from healthy donors. Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition was induced by activation of Notch signaling. Effectiveness of the transition was estimated by loss of endothelial and gain of mesenchymal markers by immunocytochemistry and qPCR. We show that aortic endothelial cells from the patients with aortic aneurysm and bicuspid aortic valve have down regulated Notch signaling and fail to activate Notch-dependent endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in response to its stimulation by different Notch ligands. Our findings support the idea that bicuspid aortic valve and associated aortic aneurysm is associated with dysregulation of the entire Notch signaling pathway independently on the specific gene mutation. PMID:26876948

  19. Biomechanics of the pulmonary autograft valve in the aortic position.

    PubMed Central

    Gorczynski, A; Trenkner, M; Anisimowicz, L; Gutkowski, R; Drapella, A; Kwiatkowska, E; Dobke, M

    1982-01-01

    Pulmonary autograft valve replacement has been simulated by implanting the pulmonary valve into the aortic position of the same cadaver heart from both human and porcine sources. The forces acting on the pulmonary valve leaflets have been calculated on the basis of a triaxial ellipsoid mathematical model. These forces on the pulmonary autograft valve were shown to be essentially similar to those previously reported for aortic valve leaflets. Biomechanical measurements have been made on the simulated autograft valves and on the isolated pulmonary valve cusps. The tensile strengths of the pulmonary valve cusps in both circumferential and radial directions were roughly three times greater than those of aortic valve cusps. This indicated the ability of the pulmonary valves to accept, ab initio, aortic valve closing pressures. Pressure-induced changes in dimension, calculated on the basis of diameters of the simulated pulmonary autograft root, also indicated that the distensibility of the autograft valve was limited. It reached a maximum at 30 mm Hg (4 kPa) without any suggestion of further distension to the point of distortion and incompetence. The combination of the calculated forces acting on the valve and the biomechanical measurements have shown that pulmonary valves used as autograft aortic valve replacements are able to tolerate aortic pressures from the time of implantation. These experimental results from simulated autografts support the clinical use of this valve over the past 13 years. PMID:7135295

  20. Transcatheter aortic valve insertion (TAVI): a review

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Hughes, G; Roobottom, C

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of transcatheter aortic valve insertion (TAVI) has transformed the care provided for patients with severe aortic stenosis. The uptake of this procedure is increasing rapidly, and clinicians from all disciplines are likely to increasingly encounter patients being assessed for or having undergone this intervention. Successful TAVI heavily relies on careful and comprehensive imaging assessment, before, during and after the procedure, using a range of modalities. This review outlines the background and development of TAVI, describes the nature of the procedure and considers the contribution of imaging techniques, both to successful intervention and to potential complications. PMID:24258463

  1. Meta-Analysis of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Versus Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients With Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kondur, Ashok; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Palla, Mohan; Penumetcha, Anirudh; Mallikethi-Reddy, Sagar; Badheka, Apurva; Schreiber, Theodore

    2016-01-15

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a viable option in the treatment of severe aortic stenosis in patients at high risk for surgery. We sought to further investigate outcomes in patients at low to intermediate risk with aortic stenosis who underwent surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) versus TAVR. We systematically searched the electronic databases, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane for prospective cohort studies of the effects of TAVR versus SAVR on clinical outcomes (30-day mortality, all-cause mortality, stroke and myocardial infarction, major vascular complications, paravalvular regurgitation, permanent pacemaker implantation, major bleeding, and acute kidney injury). We identified 5 clinical studies, examining 1,618 patients in the TAVR group and 1,581 patients in the SAVR group with an average follow-up of 1.05years. No difference in all-cause mortality, stroke, and myocardial infarction between the 2 approaches was found. TAVR was associated with higher rates of vascular complications, permanent pacemaker implantation, and moderate or severe paravalvular regurgitation (p <0.001 for all), whereas more major bleeding events were seen in the SAVR group (p <0.001). In conclusion, TAVR was found to have similar survival and stroke rates and lower major bleeding rates as compared with SAVR in patients at low or intermediate surgical risk. However, SAVR was associated with less pacemaker placements and paravalvular regurgitation rates. PMID:26639040

  2. Imaging and minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Loor, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular imaging has been the most important tool allowing for innovation in cardiac surgery. There are now a variety of approaches available for treating aortic valve disease, including standard sternotomy, minimally invasive surgery, and percutaneous valve replacement. Minimally invasive cardiac surgery relies on maximizing exposure within a limited field of view. The complexity of this approach is increased as the relationship between the great vessels and the bony thorax varies between individuals. Ultimately, the success of minimally invasive surgery depends on appropriate choices regarding the type and location of the incision, cannulation approach, and cardioprotection strategy. These decisions are facilitated by preoperative imaging, which forms the focus of this review. PMID:25694979

  3. Minimally invasive reoperative aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Calvi, Simone; Tripodi, Alberto; Dozza, Luca; Lamarra, Mauro; Del Giglio, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The operative mortality associated with repeat heart valve surgery is supposedly higher than the mortality associated with the primary operation. However, controversy still surrounds the risk factors and optimal surgical approach for patients requiring repeat cardiac surgery, particularly for those requiring aortic valve replacements (AVR). While the standard approach generally utilizes full sternotomy and peripheral cannulation, alternative approaches such as minimally invasive sternotomy may play an increasingly important role in this field. This study compares the advantages and disadvantages of a minimally invasive approach in redo AVR with the standard approach, highlighting difficulties and potential solutions. PMID:25694980

  4. Minimally invasive reoperative aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Mikus, Elisa; Calvi, Simone; Tripodi, Alberto; Dozza, Luca; Lamarra, Mauro; Del Giglio, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The operative mortality associated with repeat heart valve surgery is supposedly higher than the mortality associated with the primary operation. However, controversy still surrounds the risk factors and optimal surgical approach for patients requiring repeat cardiac surgery, particularly for those requiring aortic valve replacements (AVR). While the standard approach generally utilizes full sternotomy and peripheral cannulation, alternative approaches such as minimally invasive sternotomy may play an increasingly important role in this field. This study compares the advantages and disadvantages of a minimally invasive approach in redo AVR with the standard approach, highlighting difficulties and potential solutions. PMID:25694980

  5. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation and cerebrovascular accidents.

    PubMed

    Stortecky, Stefan; Wenaweser, Peter; Windecker, Stephan

    2012-09-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an evidence-based treatment alternative for selected high-risk patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis as acknowledged in the most recent edition of the ESC Guidelines on Valvular Heart Disease 2012. However, periprocedural complications and in particular cerebrovascular accidents remain a matter of concern. While transcatheter heart valve technology continuously improves and the development of novel and even less invasive implantation techniques is on-going, cerebrovascular events complicating TAVI may abrogate the usual improvement in terms of prognosis and quality of life. This article describes the incidence of cerebrovascular events after cardiovascular procedures, provides an overview of the pathophysiological mechanisms as well as the impact on outcomes and provides some insights into preventive strategies as well as the acute management of these events. PMID:22995113

  6. Gene expression profiling of human calcific aortic valve disease

    PubMed Central

    Rysä, Jaana

    2015-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease is a slowly progressive disorder that ranges from mild valve thickening (i.e. aortic sclerosis) to severe calcification of valves (i.e. aortic stenosis). Gene expression profiling analysis of non-calcified controls, sclerotic, and calcified aortic valves was performed to better understand the progression of calcific aortic valve disease. The complementary information related to processing and statistical analysis of the DNA microarray data is provided in this article. Interpretation of this data can be found in a research article entitled “MicroRNA-125b and chemokine CCL4 expression are associated with calcific aortic valve disease” [1]. The microarray data complies with MIAME guidelines and is deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE51472.

  7. New frontiers in aortic therapy: focus on current trials and devices in transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Gutsche, Jacob T; Patel, Prakash A; Walsh, Elizabeth K; Sophocles, Aris; Chern, Sy-Yeu S; Jones, David B; Anwaruddin, Saif; Desai, Nimesh D; Weiss, Stuart J; Augoustides, John G T

    2015-04-01

    The first decade of clinical experience with transcatheter aortic valve replacement since 2002 saw the development of 2 main valve systems, namely the Edwards Sapien balloon-expandable valve series and the Medtronic self-expanding CoreValve. These 2 valve platforms now have achieved commercial approval and application worldwide in patients with severe aortic stenosis whose perioperative risk for surgical intervention is high or extreme. In the second decade of transcatheter aortic valve replacement, clinical experience and refinements in valve design have resulted in clinical drift towards lower patient risk cohorts. There are currently 2 major trials, PARTNER II and SURTAVI, that are both evaluating the role of transcatheter aortic valve replacement in intermediate-risk patient cohorts. The results from these landmark trials may usher in a new clinical paradigm for transcatheter aortic valve replacement in its second decade. PMID:25572322

  8. Aspergillus Pseudoaneurysm Post Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Perdomo, Joel; Yuh, David D.; Bonde, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    Thoracic aortic mycotic aneurysms caused by Aspergillus fumigatus postoperatively are rare and devastating complications. These cases are usually attributed to intraoperative contamination of surgical equipment. We present a patient who had an ascending aortic mycotic aneurysm 20 weeks post aortic valve replacement. A high index of suspicion allowed for diagnosis and prompt treatment, although the patient presented in an unusual manner. Treatment included both medical and surgical therapy to minimize morbidity and mortality. Despite treatment our patient suffered long-lasting consequences due to the aggressive nature of the disease. Cases presented in the literature and this experience show that a high index of suspicion must be maintained in such patients regardless of immune status and postoperative interval, in order to avoid long-lasting sequelae.

  9. The future of transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Christian W; Arsalan, Mani; Mack, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Since the introduction of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) into clinical practice, the treatment of aortic stenosis has changed dramatically. In the past, medical therapy with or without balloon aortic valvuloplasty was the only option for inoperable patients. More recently, TAVI has become the treatment of choice for these patients and the preferred alternative for high-risk operable patients. Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) currently remains the gold standard for patients at low or intermediate operative risk. As randomized trials have demonstrated comparable results between TAVI and SAVR in the high-risk population, there is now a clear trend towards performing TAVI even in intermediate-risk patients while awaiting the results of randomized trials in that population. Nevertheless, there are still questions regarding TAVI involving paravalvular leak (PVL), stroke, pacemaker requirements, and durability that remain to be more definitively answered before TAVI can routinely be performed in a broader, lower risk population. Improvements in patient selection, imaging, and second and third generation devices have decreased the incidence of PVLs and vascular complications that followed the earliest TAVI procedures, but the rates of perioperative stroke and permanent pacemaker implantation must still be addressed. Furthermore, the long-term durability of TAVI devices and a role for post-procedure antithrombotic management remain unanswered. Until these questions are more clearly answered, it is the Heart Team's task to determine the optimal treatment for each patient based on risk scores, frailty metrics, comorbidities, patient preference, and potential for improvement in quality of life. PMID:26578195

  10. Direct aortic transcatheter valve implantation in a porcelain aorta.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Giuseppe; Botta, Luca; De Marco, Federico; Colombo, Paola; Klugmann, Silvio; Martinelli, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has been designed to treat elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis at high risk for surgery, and is generally performed retrogradely with vascular access. However, in certain patients, this access is either not possible or deemed to carry a high risk of vascular injury. We report our experience of a direct aortic approach in a 78-year old man with severe aortic stenosis, excluded from standard aortic valve replacement due to a porcelain aorta, and affected by severe aortic, iliac-femoral, and subclavian arteriopathy, rendering the transfemoral or subclavian approach unemployable. PMID:24887834

  11. Ascending-to-descending aortic bypass and aortic valve replacement for concomitant severe aortic coarctation and aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Michael W A; Adams, Corey; Torres, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    We present a 33-year-old male with severe, symptomatic aortic coarctation and aortic stenosis assessed on a humanitarian medical mission to a developing country. Contemplating limited time and available resources, we performed a simultaneous single-stage approach with ascending-to-descending aortic bypass with a reinforced gortex graft and concomitant aortic valve replacement through a median sternotomy. The patient had an uneventful postoperative convalescence and was discharged on postoperative day 5. At 1-year follow-up, he was asymptomatic and doing well with good blood pressure control and complete equalization of upper and lower limb blood pressure measurements. Computed tomography and transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated a widely patent ascending-to-descending aortic bypass graft and a normally functioning prosthetic aortic valve, respectively. In developing countries where health care resources are limited, a combined approach with an extra-anatomic, thoracic aortic bypass, and aortic valve replacement resulted in good early and 1-year outcomes. This procedure may represent the most effective surgical option for patients with concomitant aortic coarctation and aortic stenosis. PMID:21278175

  12. Percutaneous Transcatheter Aortic Disc Valve Prosthesis Implantation: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sochman, Jan

    2000-09-15

    Purpose: Over the past 30 years there have been experimental efforts at catheter-based management of aortic valve regurgitation with the idea of extending treatment to nonsurgical candidates. A new catheter-based aortic valve design is described.Methods: The new catheter-delivered valve consists of a stent-based valve cage with locking mechanism and a prosthetic flexible tilting valve disc. The valve cage is delivered first followed by deployment and locking of the disc. In acute experiments, valve implantation was done in four dogs.Results: Valve implantation was successful in all four animals. The implanted valve functioned well for the duration of the experiments (up to 3 hr).Conclusion: The study showed the implantation feasibility and short-term function of the tested catheter-based aortic disc valve. Further experimental studies are warranted.

  13. A novel device for endovascular native aortic valve resection for transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Astarci, Parla; Glineur, David; Elkhoury, Gbrine; Raucent, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    We developed a novel resection device to use during transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) using a circular blade. We assessed the device in 15 human cadavers by transapical approach. After the resection, the aortic annulus was measured using standard probes. A careful examination of the aortic wall, left ventricular outflow tract, coronary ostia and mitral valve was performed using an endpoint checklist, developed specifically for the new device. The resection was successfully completed in 14 out of 15 (93%) cases. All the resected leaflets and debris have been successfully evaluated in 15 out of 15 (100%) cases. One case of a bicuspid valve had a prominent calcification of the median raphe. The resection tool could only perform a partial resection. The mean duration of the resection was 4530s. The surrounding tissue examination did not reveal any injury to the anatomical structures. Endovascular resection of the native valve using transapical approach is feasible and effective. Further developments are necessary before the definitive clinical use during percutaneous aortic valve implantation. PMID:22235001

  14. A simple technique for aortic valve replacement using freehand allografts.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Cabral, C E; Miller, D C; Shumway, N E

    1988-03-01

    Given the recent resurgence of interest in the use of "fresh" and cryopreserved allograft valves for aortic valve replacement, the fact that many cardiac surgeons were not exposed to the operative techniques involved in freehand implantation of allograft valves during their residency training, and the paucity of teaching materials that clearly portray such techniques, details of a simplified method of subcoronary, freehand allograft valve implantation in the aortic position are described and illustrated. PMID:2980005

  15. Mathematical modeling of aortic valve dynamics during systole.

    PubMed

    Aboelkassem, Yasser; Savic, Dragana; Campbell, Stuart G

    2015-01-21

    We have derived a mathematical model describing aortic valve dynamics and blood flow during systole. The model presents a realistic coupling between aortic valve dynamics, sinus vortex local pressure, and variations in the systemic vascular resistance. The coupling is introduced by using Hill?s classical semi-spherical vortex model and an aortic pressure-area compliance constitutive relationship. The effects of introducing aortic sinus eddy vortices and variable systemic vascular resistance on overall valve opening-closing dynamics, left ventricular pressure, aortic pressure, blood flow rate, and aortic orifice area are examined. In addition, the strength of the sinus vortex is coupled explicitly to the valve opening angle, and implicitly to the aortic orifice area in order to predict how vortex strength varies during the four descriptive phases of aortic valve motion (fast-opening, fully-opening, slow-closing, and fast-closing). Our results compare favorably with experimental observations and the model reproduces well-known phenomena corresponding to aortic valve function such as the dicrotic notch and retrograde flow at end systole. By invoking a more complete set of physical phenomena, this new model will enable representation of pathophysiological conditions such as aortic valve stenosis or insufficiency, making it possible to predict their integrated effects on cardiac load and systemic hemodynamics. PMID:25451522

  16. [Surgical technique of aortic valve replacement for small aortic annulus in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Hata, T; Fujiwara, K; Furukawa, H; Tsushima, Y; Yoshitaka, H; Kuinose, M; Minami, H; Ishida, A; Tamura, K; Totsugawa, T; Kanemitsu, H; Ozawa, M

    2006-04-01

    Recent reports have shown that aortic valve replacement in elderly patients over 65 years with atherosclerotic aortic stenosis and a small aortic annulus is possible by using a small sized bioprosthesis (Carpentier-Edwards pericardial valve). Here we present out surgical technique. Firstly, the native calcified aortic valve was removed completely to gain total exposure of the surrounding aortic root and sinus of Valsalva like Bentall procedure. Secondly, a small sized bioprosthesis was implanted with intermittent noneverting mattress 2-0 sutures with spaghetti and small polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) felt. Aortic annulus is the dilated by inserting Hegar dilator sizing from 25 to 27 mm. Therefore, aortic valve replacement for small aortic annulus in intra- or supra-annular position should be easily accomplished. Good surgical results and hemodynamic state were achieved in 25 consecutive cases using this technique. PMID:16613145

  17. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery: Cleveland Clinic experience

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive surgery has become a routine approach for aortic valve disease over the last 18 years at the Cleveland Clinic. It is performed in isolation or in combination with other procedures. The objective of this study is to review trends and outcomes in these patients. Methods Cleveland Clinic Cardiovascular Information Registry (CVIR) was searched for aortic valve procedures from 1996 to 2013. All patients undergoing isolated or combined aortic valve operations were included for analysis. The incision type and procedure type were reviewed and trends were evaluated over time. Cleveland Clinic outcomes with minimally invasive approaches to the aortic valve are reviewed. Results A total of 22,766 aortic valve surgical procedures were performed in this 18-year timeframe. Of these, 3,385 (14.9%) were minimally invasive procedures (MIPs) and 2,379 (10.5%) were isolated minimally invasive aortic valves. MIPs increased from 12.4% to 29.6% of the total aortic valve volume over the period of the study. Combined procedures, including concomitant surgery on the aorta, mitral valve, tricuspid valve, and arrhythmia surgery increased over time as well. Overall mortality for primary and reoperative aortic valve operations continues to decline and has consistently been less than 1% for several years. Conclusions A programmed approach to minimally invasive aortic valve surgery (MIAVS) with careful patient selection, appropriate use of preoperative imaging, and selective conversion to sternotomy when necessary, allows for aortic valve replacement (AVR) and a wide range of concomitant procedures to be performed safely in a large number of patients. PMID:25870809

  18. Transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation in a patient with a severe aortic stenosis and cardiogenic shock requiring intra-aortic balloon pump support

    PubMed Central

    Wilczek, Krzysztof; Przybylski, Roman; ?wi?tkowski, Andrzej; G?owacki, Jan; Kalarus, Zbigniew; Zembala, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The following paper presents a patient with severe aortic stenosis and severely reduced left ventricular ejection fraction with intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation support, who underwent transfemoral aortic valve implantation of a CoreValve prosthesis. PMID:25848373

  19. Percutaneous aortic valve implantation in bicuspid aortic valve: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kassaian, Seyed Ebrahim; Fallahi, Faramarz; Shirzad, Mahmood; Sahebjam, Mohammad; Salarifar, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was known as an alternative technique for treatment of severe aortic stenosis (AS). This technique is controversial in bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). Here, we report TAVI for severe AS in a BAV setting in a patient with serious lung disease. CASE REPORT A 68-year-old woman with a history of coronary artery bypass graft, BAV and severe AS, asthma, who had repeatedly denied any suggestion for open heart surgery, was our volunteer candidate for TAVI. The peak and mean pressure gradient decreased from 53 and 43 mm Hg to 13and 6 mm Hg respectively. CONCLUSION TAVI could be a viable option for highly selected patients with AS and BAV who have a prohibitive risk for open heart surgery. PMID:26405454

  20. Retrograde aortic valve crossing of the CoreValve prosthesis using the buddy balloon technique.

    PubMed

    Noble, Stephane; Roffi, Marco

    2014-11-15

    In rare cases, retrograde aortic valve crossing during transcatheter aortic valve implantation may be challenging despite improvements in delivery catheter profile, size, and steerability compared with the first generation devices. Herein, we report a case of challenging transfemoral Medtronic CoreValve placement that was possible, thanks to the buddy balloon technique, using a peripheral 6-F compatible balloon. PMID:24115674

  1. Demographic characteristics of patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for stenosis: relation to valve morphology.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, M. J.; Treasure, T.; Parker, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative importance of the different causes of isolated aortic valve stenosis in a surgical series, and to relate these to patient characteristics including the rate of insertion of bypass grafts for coronary artery disease. DESIGN: Survey of the clinical and pathological data on patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for isolated stenosis. SETTING: Tertiary care cardiothoracic surgical unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 465 adult patients undergoing aortic valve replacement representing a consecutive series in one surgical unit. Retrospective review of patients records and classification of cause of aortic stenosis based on pathological examination of excised valve cusps. RESULTS: 63.7% patients had calcific bicuspid valves, 26.9% tricuspid calcific valves, and 5.4% rheumatic, 2.6% mixed pathology and 1.5% unicommissural valves. The ratio of males to females for bicuspid valves was 1.85:1 and for tricuspid calcific valves 0.76:1. The mean age of patients with bicuspid valves was 64.9 years compared with 73.4 years for those with tricuspid valves. Some 22.3% of patients with bicuspid valves and 44.8% of those with tricuspid valves had sufficient coronary artery disease to necessitate insertion of coronary bypass grafts. The differential rate of insertion of coronary bypass grafts was independent of age. CONCLUSIONS: Bicuspid calcified aortic valves are the predominant cause of isolated aortic valve stenosis followed by tricuspid calcified aortic valves. The sex and age distribution of bicuspid and tricuspid calcific aortic valve stenosis is different. The higher rate of insertion of vascular grafts in tricuspid calcific aortic valves may indicate that risk factors for atherosclerosis enhance cusp calcification in these patients. Images PMID:8673757

  2. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in a Patient with Previous Mitral Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung Woo; Ko, Young-Guk; Hong, Geu-Ru; Lee, Sak; Chang, Byung-Chul; Shim, Jae-Kwang; Kwak, Young-Ran

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has shown favorable outcomes in patients with severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis who are at high surgical risk or are unsuitable candidates for open heart surgery. However, concerns exist over treating patients who have previously undergone mitral valve surgery due to the potential interference between the mitral prosthetic valve or ring and the TAVI device. In this case report, we present a patient with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis and previous mechanical mitral valve replacement who was successfully treated with TAVI using a CoreValve. PMID:25278988

  3. Transcatheter Aortic and Mitral Valve Implantation (TAMVI) in Native Rheumatic Valves.

    PubMed

    Akujuo, Adanna C; Dellis, Sophia L; Britton, Lewis W; Bennett, Edward V

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old female with moderate to severe aortic stenosis and severe mitral stenosis, deemed too high risk for surgery (STS mortality risk?=?12.3%) with a porcelain aorta, was successfully treated with a transcatheter aortic and mitral valve implantation (TAMVI) via a transapical approach. A 23?mm Sapien valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) was placed in the aortic position and a 29?mm inverted Sapien valve (Edwards Lifesciences) in the mitral position. PMID:26347492

  4. Multidetector computed tomography in transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Leipsic, Jonathon; Gurvitch, Ronen; Labounty, Troy M; Min, James K; Wood, David; Johnson, Mark; Ajlan, Amr M; Wijesinghe, Namal; Webb, John G

    2011-04-01

    Aortic stenosis is a common disorder. Aortic valve replacement is indicated in symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis, as the prognosis of untreated patients is poor. Nevertheless, many patients pose a prohibitively high surgical risk and are not candidates for surgical valve replacement. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a novel method to treat selected high-risk patients with aortic stenosis. Patient screening and anatomic measurements of the aortic root are of great importance to ensure procedural success and appropriate patient selection. Multidetector computed tomography (CT) is playing an increasingly important role in patient screening protocols before TAVI, provides detailed anatomic assessment of the aortic root and valve annulus, assesses the suitability of iliofemoral access, and determines appropriate coaxial angles to optimize the valve implantation procedure. Additionally, CT is providing a greater understanding of medium-term valve durability and integrity. This review outlines an evolving role for CT angiography in support of a TAVI program and describe step by step how CT can be used to enhance the procedure and provide a practical guide for the utilization of CT angiography in support of a transcatheter aortic valve program. PMID:21492818

  5. Urgent reoperative transapical valve-in-valve shortly after a transapical aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Enrico; Locca, Didier; Marcucci, Carlo; Jeanrenaud, Xavier

    2014-10-01

    Urgent reoperative transapical aortic valve-in-valve has never been proposed as a treatment option in case of a failed transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or in case of worsening of an existing paravalvular leak, if this complication occurs right after, or a few days after, the primary transapical aortic valve implantation. Experienced surgeons should argue that after a transapical TAVI, the apex is damaged and fragile, with a high risk of irreparable ventricular tears and life-threatening bleeding if a second transapical procedure is scheduled during the acute phase. Nevertheless, if the patient is inoperable and the vascular status, including the ascending aorta, limits alternative accesses, the urgent reoperative transapical valve-in-valve becomes an alternative. We illustrate, for the first time ever, our experience with an 81-year old female patient who underwent a transapical (TA) TAVI with a Sapien XT 23 mm. The day after the procedure, the patient haemodynamically worsened in combination with a worsening of a known (grade 1-2) paravalvular leak. Thus, on postoperative day two, an urgent transapical valve-in-valve was performed, and a second Sapien XT 23 mm was placed, with an excellent haemodynamic result and absence of leak. The redo apical access did not appear very complicated and the postoperative recovery was uneventful. PMID:24292266

  6. Coronary Obstruction Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Henrique Barbosa; Sarmento-Leite, Rogrio; Siqueira, Dimytri A. A.; Carvalho, Luiz Antnio; Mangione, Jos Armando; Rods-Cabau, Josep; Perin, Marco A.; de Brito, Fbio Sandoli

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was established as an important alternative for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, there are few data in the literature regarding coronary obstruction, that although rare, is a potentially fatal complication. Objective Evaluate this complication in Brazil. Methods We evaluated all patients presenting coronary obstruction from the Brazilian Registry of TAVI. Main baseline and procedural characteristics, management of the complication, and clinical outcomes were collected from all patients. Results From 418 consecutive TAVI procedures, coronary obstruction occurred in 3 cases (incidence of 0.72%). All patients were women, without prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and with mean age of 85 3 years, logistic EuroSCORE of 15 6% and STS-PROM score of 9 4%. All of the cases were performed with balloon-expandable Sapien XT prosthesis. In one patient, with pre-procedural computed tomography data, coronary arteries presented a low height and a narrow sinus of Valsalva. All patients presented with clinically significant severe maintained hypotension, immediately after valve implantation, and even though coronary angioplasty with stent implantation was successfully performed in all cases, patients died during hospitalization, being two periprocedurally. Conclusion Coronary obstruction following TAVI is a rare but potentially fatal complication, being more frequent in women and with the balloon-expandable prosthesis. Anatomical factors might be related with its increased occurrence, highlighting the importance of a good pre-procedural evaluation of the patients in order to avoid this severe complication. PMID:24652089

  7. Futility, Benefit, and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Lindman, Brian R.; Alexander, Karen P.; O'Gara, Patrick T.; Afilalo, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a transformative innovation that provides treatment for high or prohibitive surgical risk patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) who were previously either not referred for or denied operative intervention. Trials have demonstrated improvements in survival and symptoms after TAVR compared to medical therapy, however there remains a sizable group of patients who die or lack improvement in quality of life soon after TAVR. This raises important questions about the need to identify and acknowledge the possibility of futility in some patients considered for TAVR. In this very elderly population, a number of factors in addition to traditional risk stratification need to be considered including multimorbidity, disability, frailty, and cognition in order to assess the anticipated benefit of TAVR. Consideration by a multidisciplinary heart valve team with broad areas of expertise is critical for assessing likely benefit from TAVR. Moreover, these complicated decisions should take place with clear communication around desired health outcomes on behalf of the patient and provider. The decision that treatment with TAVR is futile should include alternative plans to optimize the patient's health state or, in some cases, discussions related to end of life care. We review issues to be considered when making and communicating these difficult decisions. PMID:24954571

  8. Fluid dynamics of aortic valve stenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Maftoon, Nima

    2009-11-01

    Aortic valve stenosis, which causes considerable constriction of the flow passage, is one of the most frequent cardiovascular diseases and is the most common cause of the valvular replacements which take place for around 100,000 per year in North America. Furthermore, it is considered as the most frequent cardiac disease after arterial hypertension and coronary artery disease. The objective of this study is to develop an analytical model considering the coupling effect between fluid flow and elastic deformation with reasonable boundary conditions to describe the effect of AS on the left ventricle and the aorta. The pulsatile and Newtonian blood flow through aortic stenosis with vascular wall deformability is analyzed and its effects are discussed in terms of flow parameters such as velocity, resistance to flow, shear stress distribution and pressure loss. Meanwhile we developed analytical expressions to improve the comprehension of the transvalvular hemodynamics and the aortic stenosis hemodynamics which is of great interest because of one main reason. To medical scientists, an accurate knowledge of the mechanical properties of whole blood flow in the aorta can suggest a new diagnostic tool.

  9. Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Calcific Aortic Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Patrick; Bouchareb, Rihab

    2015-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common heart valve disorder. CAVD is a chronic process characterized by a pathologic mineralization of valve leaflets. Ectopic mineralization of the aortic valve involves complex relationships with immunity. Studies have highlighted that both innate and adaptive immunity play a role in the development of CAVD. In this regard, accumulating evidence indicates that fibrocalcific remodelling of the aortic valve is associated with activation of the NF-?B pathway. The expression of TNF-? and IL-6 is increased in human mineralized aortic valves and promotes an osteogenic program as well as the mineralization of valve interstitial cells (VICs), the main cellular component of the aortic valve. Different factors, including oxidized lipid species, activate the innate immune response through the Toll-like receptors. Moreover, VICs express 5-lipoxygenase and therefore produce leukotrienes, which may amplify the inflammatory response in the aortic valve. More recently, studies have emphasized that an adaptive immune response is triggered during CAVD. Herein, we are reviewing the link between the immune response and the development of CAVD and we have tried, whenever possible, to keep a translational approach. PMID:26065007

  10. Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease and Ascending Aortic Aneurysms: Gaps in Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Losenno, Katie L.; Goodman, Robert L.; Chu, Michael W. A.

    2012-01-01

    The bicuspid aortic valve is the most common congenital cardiac anomaly in developed nations. The abnormal bicuspid morphology of the aortic valve results in valvular dysfunction and subsequent hemodynamic derangements. However, the clinical presentation of bicuspid aortic valve disease remains quite heterogeneous with patients presenting from infancy to late adulthood with variable degrees of valvular stenosis and insufficiency and associated abnormalities including aortic coarctation, hypoplastic left heart structures, and ascending aortic dilatation. Emerging evidence suggests that the heterogeneous presentation of bicuspid aortic valve phenotypes may be a more complex matter related to congenital, genetic, and/or connective tissue abnormalities. Optimal management of patients with BAV disease and associated ascending aortic aneurysms often requires a thoughtful approach, carefully assessing various risk factors of the aortic valve and the aorta and discerning individual indications for ongoing surveillance, medical management, and operative intervention. We review current concepts of anatomic classification, pathophysiology, natural history, and clinical management of bicuspid aortic valve disease with associated ascending aortic aneurysms. PMID:23198270

  11. Management strategies and future challenges for aortic valve disease.

    PubMed

    Bonow, Robert O; Leon, Martin B; Doshi, Darshan; Moat, Neil

    2016-03-26

    The management of aortic valve disease has been improved by accurate diagnosis and assessment of severity by echocardiography and advanced imaging techniques, efforts to elicit symptoms or objective markers of disease severity and progression, and consideration of optimum timing of aortic valve replacement, even in elderly patients. Prevalence of calcific aortic stenosis is growing in ageing populations. Conventional surgery remains the most appropriate option for most patients who require aortic valve replacement, but the transcatheter approach is established for high-risk patients or poor candidates for surgery. The rapid growth of transcatheter aortic valve replacement has been fuelled by improved technology, evidence-based clinical research, and setting up of multidisciplinary heart teams. Aortic regurgitation can be difficult to diagnose and quantify. Left ventricular dysfunction often precedes symptoms, needing active surveillance by echocardiography to determine the optimum time for aortic valve replacement. Development of transcatheter approaches for aortic regurgitation is challenging, owing to the absence of valvular calcification and distortion of aortic root anatomy in many patients. PMID:27025437

  12. The Carbomedics aortic heart valve prosthesis: a review.

    PubMed

    Aagaard, J

    2004-12-01

    The Carbomedics bileaflet mechanical prosthesis was introduced in 1986 and until now more than 500,000 valves have been implanted. The aim of this study was to review the papers published on the Carbomedics aortic heart valve prosthesis. The Carbomedics prosthesis has a solid pyrolite carbon housing and flat leaflets of pyrolite carbon coated graphite that is impregnated with tungsten. The pyrolite carbon housing is reinforced by an outer stiffening ring composed of titanium which virtually eliminates the risk of leaflet escape. The design further enables valve rotation after implantation. The standard aortic valve prosthesis has the sewing cuff located at the outflow level of the valve cylinder. A high-performance valve, the Carbomedics TopHat valve for supraannular implantation, is a standard aortic valve prosthesis where the sewing cuff has been transferred to the inflow level of the valve cylinder. A 2 size increase in valve size can be achieved by using the TopHat valve which is very important in patient-prosthesis mismatch. With the recommended international normalised ratio (INR) level for the Carbomedics aortic heart valve prosthesis the rate of embolic and bleeding events are low. Thrombosis of a Carbomedics aortic heart valve prosthesis is rarely seen and is the result of inappropriate anticoagulation without pannus formation. The incidence of prosthetic endocarditis is very low and this is also the case for noninfectious paravalvular leakage necessitating reoperation. Intrinsic dysfunction and/or structural failure has never been reported. The total absence of intrinsic dysfunction and structural failure of the Carbomedics aortic valve prosthesis is a great advantage. Further the complication rate is very low. The TopHat, the supraannular version of this prosthesis, is a perfect solution in patient-prosthesis mismatch. PMID:15746631

  13. Antithrombotic therapy following bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Nowell, Justin; Wilton, Emma; Markus, Hugh; Jahangiri, Marjan

    2007-04-01

    The life expectancy of the general population is increasing. This has meant that more elderly patients are requiring aortic valve replacement (AVR). The choice of valve replacement and its durability are important. Bioprosthetic (tissue) heart valves were introduced into clinical use in the 1960s and were developed primarily to reduce the complications associated with thromboembolism (TE) and the need for lifelong oral anticoagulation, due to their low thrombogenicity compared to mechanical prostheses. This makes them suitable for use in elderly patients (aged>65 years) and in others where the risks of anticoagulation are higher or anticoagulation is contraindicated. There is thought to be a higher risk of TE for up to 90 days following bioprosthetic AVR. Guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease published by the American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA), the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) all recommend the use of an anticoagulation regimen for the first 3 months following bioprosthetic AVR. However, there is division of opinion and practice, despite these recommendations, and more recent studies have not supported the evidence for these guidelines. In this article, we review the literature on the use of anticoagulation in the first 90 days following bioprosthetic AVR. PMID:17267235

  14. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty as a bridge to aortic valve replacement in a patient with severe calcific aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Swinkels, B.M.; Jaarsma, W.; Wely, L. Relik-van; van Swieten, H.A.; Ernst, J.M.P.G.; Plokker, H.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    This case report describes a patient with severe calcific aortic stenosis who was initially considered inoperable because of a very poor left ventricular function and severe pulmonary hypertension. After balloon aortic valvuloplasty, the clinical and haemodynamic status of the patient improved to such an extent that subsequent aortic valve replacement was considered possible and eventually proved to be successful. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty has value as a potential bridge to aortic valve replacement when the risks for surgery are considered to be too high. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:25696195

  15. Balloon-expandable prostheses for transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Henrique Barbosa; Urena, Marina; Allende, Ricardo; Amat-Santos, Ignacio J; Rodés-Cabau, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The implantation of a transcatheter heart valve (THV) through a balloon-expandable system played a major role in the early stages of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). The technology consists of sewing a foldable biological cardiac valve inside a metallic stent frame, and then crimping the device into a balloon in order to implant the valve at the level of the aortic annulus through balloon inflation. The use of balloon-expandable valves underwent a rapid expansion in the years following the pioneering experience of 2002, and recent large multicenter trials and registries have confirmed the safety and efficacy of TAVR using balloon-expandable valves. The randomized Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) trial showed both the superiority and non-inferiority of TAVR with the balloon-expandable Edwards-Sapien system compared to medical treatment (non-operable patients) and surgical aortic valve replacement (high risk patients), respectively. Balloon-expandable valves have been associated with excellent hemodynamic results (residual mean gradient <15 mm Hg in most cases), though residual paravalvular aortic regurgitation is frequent (trivial or mild in the majority of patients, moderate or severe in <10%). Valve durability studies with up to 5-year follow-up have shown maintained valve hemodynamics over time with only a minimal decrease in valve area and no increase in aortic regurgitation. Future improvements in the balloon-expandable THV technology such as implementing anti-paravalvular leak features (ex. Sapien 3 valve), and showing its efficacy for the treatment of non-high risk patients (ongoing PARTNER II trial) will probably lead to broader use in a lower risk population in the near future. PMID:24838134

  16. Aortic valve and ascending aortic root modeling from 3D and 3D+t CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grbic, Saša; Ionasec, Razvan I.; Zäuner, Dominik; Zheng, Yefeng; Georgescu, Bogdan; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2010-02-01

    Aortic valve disorders are the most frequent form of valvular heart disorders (VHD) affecting nearly 3% of the global population. A large fraction among them are aortic root diseases, such as aortic root aneurysm, often requiring surgical procedures (valve-sparing) as a treatment. Visual non-invasive assessment techniques could assist during pre-selection of adequate patients, planning procedures and afterward evaluation of the same. However state of the art approaches try to model a rather short part of the aortic root, insufficient to assist the physician during intervention planning. In this paper we propose a novel approach for morphological and functional quantification of both the aortic valve and the ascending aortic root. A novel physiological shape model is introduced, consisting of the aortic valve root, leaflets and the ascending aortic root. The model parameters are hierarchically estimated using robust and fast learning-based methods. Experiments performed on 63 CT sequences (630 Volumes) and 20 single phase CT volumes demonstrated an accuracy of 1.45mm and an performance of 30 seconds (3D+t) for this approach. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time a complete model of the aortic valve (including leaflets) and the ascending aortic root, estimated from CT, has been proposed.

  17. The role of multimodality imaging in the selection of patients for aortic valve repair.

    PubMed

    Regeer, Madelien V; Versteegh, Michel I M; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Bax, Jeroen J; Delgado, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve sparing surgery for aortic regurgitation and/or aortopathy serves as an alternative to aortic valve and root replacement. One of the advantages of aortic valve sparing surgery over conventional replacement is that there is no need for life-long anticoagulation, which is particularly attractive in young patients who may receive a mechanical prosthesis otherwise. However, successful aortic valve repair requires high expertise. At present, reparability is determined intraoperatively by direct surgical inspection. Preoperative imaging techniques might improve the patient selection for aortic valve repair. The mechanism of aortic regurgitation, aortic valve morphology and calcification and aortic root dimensions are all of importance when aortic valve repair is considered. The present review focuses on the role of imaging techniques in determining aortic valve reparability. PMID:26536524

  18. Cerebral Protection against Left Ventricular Thrombus during Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in a Patient with Critical Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Peeyush M.; O'Neill, Brian P.; Velazquez, Omaida; Heldman, Alan W.; O'Neill, William W.; Cohen, Mauricio G.

    2013-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is an increasingly common treatment of critical aortic stenosis. Many aortic stenosis patients have concomitant left ventricular dysfunction, which can instigate the formation of thrombus resistant to anticoagulation. Recent trials evaluating transcatheter aortic valve replacement have excluded patients with left ventricular thrombus. We present a case in which an 86-year-old man with known left ventricular thrombus underwent successful transcatheter aortic valve replacement under cerebral protection. PMID:24082384

  19. Evaluation of aortic valve disorders using stress echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Chih; Ireland, Linda A; Sadaniantz, Ara

    2004-07-01

    Stress echocardiography is a safe and valuable test to aid in the diagnosis and management of patients with aortic valve disorders. In patients with suspected severe aortic stenosis (AS) and low aortic gradients secondary to low cardiac output, dobutamine echocardiography distinguishes those patients with contractile reserve (CR) from those without it. By increasing the stroke volume in subjects with CR, true severe AS patients have an increase in transaortic gradients without a significant change in the valve area, whereas patients with pseudostenosis have an increase in the gradients with concomitant increase in the aortic valve area to >1 cm(2). Patients without CR are indeterminate in their AS status and have a poor prognosis. The presence of CR is also important in patients suffering from aortic insufficiency, as it may predict the development of symptoms, myocardial dysfunction, or death in the asymptomatic phase of the disease, and the potential for left ventricular functional recovery after valve replacement. Finally, both exercise and dobutamine echocardiography can help in the assessment of valve malfunction or mismatch in patients with aortic valve prostheses experiencing exercise intolerance by correlating the symptoms with the change in the aortic gradients induced during stress testing. PMID:15209730

  20. Bicuspid Aortic Stenosis Treated With the Repositionable and Retrievable Lotus Valve.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Julia; Gonska, Birgid; Rodewald, Christoph; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Whrle, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for severe aortic stenosis is a well-established and safe therapeutic option. However, data on TAVI in bicuspid aortic valve stenosis are limited and show a higher rate of moderate-severe aortic regurgitation compared with TAVI for tricuspid aortic valve stenosis. We report for the first time, to our knowledge, the use of the mechanically deployed Lotus valve in bicuspid aortic stenosis. In our patient who had severe bicuspid aortic stenosis and was at high surgical risk, the implantation of the repositionable and completely retrievable Lotus valve was a safe and controlled procedure resulting in no relevant aortic regurgitation. PMID:26604121

  1. Animal Models of Calcific Aortic Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sider, Krista L.; Blaser, Mark C.; Simmons, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), once thought to be a degenerative disease, is now recognized to be an active pathobiological process, with chronic inflammation emerging as a predominant, and possibly driving, factor. However, many details of the pathobiological mechanisms of CAVD remain to be described, and new approaches to treat CAVD need to be identified. Animal models are emerging as vital tools to this end, facilitated by the advent of new models and improved understanding of the utility of existing models. In this paper, we summarize and critically appraise current small and large animal models of CAVD, discuss the utility of animal models for priority CAVD research areas, and provide recommendations for future animal model studies of CAVD. PMID:21826258

  2. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement: postoperative CT findings of Sapien and CoreValve transcatheter heart valves.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Rodrigo A; Budde, Ricardo P J; Leiner, Tim; Shivalkar, Bharati; Van Herck, Paul L; Op de Beeck, Bart J; Vrints, Christiaan; Buijsrogge, Marc P; Stella, Pieter R; Rodrigus, Inez; Bosmans, Johan; Parizel, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement represents one of the most exciting medical technical developments in recent years, offering a much-needed therapeutic alternative for patients with severe aortic valve stenosis who, due to comorbidities and advanced age, are considered to be inoperable or at high surgical risk. The efficacy of this procedure compared with standard surgical intervention has been properly validated in multicenter randomized controlled trials (PARTNER A and B trials), leading to widespread clinical implementation, with over 50,000 procedures currently being performed worldwide each year. Although much of the attention has rightly focused on the potential role of computed tomography (CT) in the preprocedural assessment of the aortic root and the establishment of imaging-guided valve-sizing algorithms, less is known regarding the postprocedural CT characteristics of transcatheter heart valves (THVs). However, given the increasing worldwide recognition and clinical implementation of these devices, they will no doubt be encountered with increasing frequency in patients referred for thoracic CT, either for postprocedural evaluation of the aortic root or for unrelated reasons. Familiarity with these devices and their CT characteristics will increase diagnostic confidence and the value of the radiology report. The authors describe the physical and imaging properties of the currently commercially available THVs, their normal postprocedural imaging appearances, and potential complications that can be detected at CT. In addition, they discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of CT and echocardiography in this setting. PMID:25310415

  3. A Case of Iatrogenic Chordal Rupture after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Procedure Requiring a Second Valve.

    PubMed

    Cincin, Altug; Tigen, Kursat; Sari, Ibrahim; Sunbul, Murat; Kartal, Fatih; Basaran, Yelda

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as a therapeutic option for high-risk aortic stenosis. Malposition of the prosthesis and severe residual aortic regurgitation are known complications of the procedure, which might require a second valve implantation. Although the implantation of a second valve seems to be an effective method, very few data are available describing this technique. Herein is reported a case of iatrogenic chordal rupture in a TAVI procedure which required a second valve implantation due to dislodgment of the first prosthesis. PMID:26182632

  4. Concomitant aortic valve replacement and myocardial revascularization.

    PubMed Central

    Craver, J M; Jones, E L; Hatcher, C R; Farmer, J H

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-six consecutive patients underwent combined aortic valve replacement and myocardial revascularization at the Emory University Affiliated Hospitals between May, 1973 and March, 1976. Acute myocardial infarction resulted in two operative deaths (8%). There have been four late deaths, all Class IV preoperative. The age range was 37 to 79 years with an average age of 60. Preoperatively all patients were Class IV or late Class III. Twenty-three patients had symptoms of angina pectoris; congestive heart failure was evident in 56%. Postoperatively, 70% are now Class 1 or II. Single coronary bypass was performed in 16 patients, double in 6, and triple in three. Double bypass plus mitral valve replacement was required in two with aneurysmectomy in one. The rate of intraoperative infarction was 27% for the series but only 7% in the last year. The methods of intraoperative myocardial preservation and the technical approach for the operative procedures were variable. Results with each method are correlated, and currently preferred techniques are presented and discussed. Best results were obtained in patients who presented early in their symptomatic course with isolated proximal coronary lesions and good renoff vessels. Excellent results could be achieved despite advanced age of patients, requirement for multiple bypass grafts, and correction of other associated cardiac lesions. Poorest results were obtained when long-standing ventricular failure was combined with poor vessels distal to coronary stenoses. PMID:860881

  5. Percutaneous transluminal alcohol septal myocardial ablation after aortic valve replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitges, M.; Kapadia, S.; Rubin, D. N.; Thomas, J. D.; Tuzcu, M. E.; Lever, H. M.

    2001-01-01

    When left ventricular outflow tract obstruction develops after aortic valve replacement, few treatment choices have been available until now. We present a patient with prior aortic valve replacement who developed left ventricle outflow tract obstruction that was successfully treated with a percutaneous transcoronary myocardial septal alcohol ablation. This technique is a useful tool for the treatment of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, especially in those patients with prior heart surgery. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation of the direct flow medical aortic valve with minimal or no contrast.

    PubMed

    Latib, Azeem; Maisano, Francesco; Colombo, Antonio; Klugmann, Silvio; Low, Reginald; Smith, Thomas; Davidson, Charles; Harreld, John H; Bruschi, Giuseppe; DeMarco, Federico

    2014-06-01

    The 18F Direct Flow Medical (DFM) THV has conformable sealing rings, which minimizes aortic regurgitation and permits full hemodynamic assessment of valve performance prior to permanent implantation. During the DISCOVER trial, three patients who were at risk for receiving contrast media, two due to severe CKD and one due to a recent hyperthyroid reaction to contrast, underwent DFM implantation under fluoroscopic and transesophageal guidance without aortography during either positioning or to confirm the final position. Valve positioning was based on the optimal angiographic projection as calculated by the pre-procedural multislice CT scan. Precise optimization of valve position was performed to minimize transvalve gradient and aortic regurgitation. Prior to final implantation, transvalve hemodynamics were assessed invasively and by TEE. The post-procedure mean gradients were 7, 10, 11mm Hg. The final AVA by echo was 1.70, 1.40 and 1.68cm(2). Total aortic regurgitation post-procedure was none or trace in all three patients. Total positioning and assessment of valve performance time was 4, 6, and 12minutes. Contrast was only used to confirm successful percutaneous closure of the femoral access site. The total contrast dose was 5, 8, 12cc. Baseline eGFR and creatinine was 28, 22, 74mL/min/1.73m(2) and 2.35, 2.98, and 1.03mg/dL, respectively. Renal function was unchanged post-procedure: eGFR=25, 35, and 96mL/min/1.73m(2) and creatinine=2.58, 1.99, and 1.03mg/dL, respectively. In conclusion, the DFM THV provides the ability to perform TAVI with minimal or no contrast. The precise and predictable implantation technique can be performed with fluoro and echo guidance. PMID:24721585

  7. Mitral annular calcification in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Takami, Yoshiyuki; Tajima, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Limited data exis t on clinical relevance of aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and mitral annular calcification (MAC), although with similar pathophysiologic basis. We sought to reveal the prevalence of MAC and its clinical features in the patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) for AVS. We reviewed 106 consecutive patients who underwent isolated AVR from 2004 to 2010. Before AVR, CT scans were performed to identify MAC, whose severity was graded on a scale of 0-4, with grade 0 denoting no MAC and grade 4 indicating severe MAC. Echocardiography was performed before AVR and at follow-up over 2years after AVR. MAC was identified in 56 patients with grade 1 (30%), 2 (39%), 3 (18%), and 4 (13%), respectively. Patients with MAC presented older age (728 versus 6611years), higher rate of dialysis-dependent renal failure (43 versus 4%), and less frequency of bicuspid aortic valve (9 versus 36%), when compared to those without MAC. No significant differences were seen in short- and mid-term mortality after AVR between the groups. In patients with MAC, progression of neither mitral regurgitation nor stenosis was observed at follow-up of 5323months for 102 survivors, although the transmitral flow velocities were higher than in those without MAC. In conclusion, MAC represented 53% of the patients undergoing isolated AVR for AVS, usually appeared in dialysis-dependent elder patients with tricuspid AVS. MAC does not affect adversely upon the survival, without progression of mitral valve disease, at least within 2years after AVR. PMID:25252778

  8. First transcatheter aortic valve implantation for severe pure aortic regurgitation in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chiam, Paul Toon-Lim; Ewe, See Hooi; Chua, Yeow Leng; Lim, Yean Teng

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become the standard of care for inoperable patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS), and an alternative to open aortic valve replacement for patients at high surgical risk. TAVI has also been performed in several groups of patients with off-label indications such as severe bicuspid AS, and as a valve-in-valve therapy for a degenerated surgical bioprosthesis. Although TAVI with CoreValve prosthesis is technically challenging, and global experience in the procedure is limited, the procedure could be a treatment option for well-selected patients with severe pure aortic regurgitation (AR). Herein, we report Asia's first case of TAVI for severe pure AR in a patient who was at extreme surgical risk, with good clinical outcome at six months. PMID:24570320

  9. Pioneering transcatheter aortic valve Implant (Inovare) via transfemoral.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Jos Carlos Dorsa Vieira; Duarte, Joo Jackson; Silva, Augusto Daige da; Dias, Amaury Mont'Serrat vila Souza; Benfatti, Ricardo Adala; Gardenal, Neimar; Benfatti, Amanda Ferreira Carli; Gomes, Jandir Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    We present a patient with severe aortic valvular bioprosthesis dysfunction implanted for 11 years, presenting with acute pulmonary edema due to severe valvular insufficiency with severe systolic dysfunction (EF <30%) and comorbid conditions that amounted operative risk (STS score > 10). We carried out the transcatheter aortic valve implantation (Inovare - Braile Biomedica), which was implemented successfully by transfemoral access and good patient outcomes. PMID:23288191

  10. Iatrogenic mitral stenosis following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Iwan; Chandrasekaran, Badrinathan; Barnes, Edward; Ramcharitar, Steve

    2015-01-01

    A 57 year old female underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for severe aortic stenosis. Mild iatrogenic mitral stenosis was noted intraoperatively. Attempts to reposition the device were hampered by aortic angulation. One year later, severe mitral stenosis was confirmed on transoesophageal echocardiography. It is important to recognise that iatorgenic mitral stenosis due to TAVR may progress over time. Care should be taken to minimise the risk of this rare complication PMID:25820053

  11. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation despite challenging vascular access.

    PubMed

    Nascimbene, Angelo; Azpurua, Federico; Livesay, James J; Fish, R David; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2015-04-01

    We describe transcatheter aortic valve implantation in a patient who had severe peripheral artery disease. The patient's vascular condition required additional preliminary peripheral intervention to enable adequate vascular access. A 78-year-old man with severe aortic stenosis, substantial comorbidities, and severe heart failure symptoms was referred for aortic valve replacement. The patient's 20-mm aortic annulus necessitated the use of a 23-mm Edwards Sapien valve inserted through a 22F sheath, which itself needed a vessel diameter of at least 7 mm for percutaneous delivery. The left common femoral artery was selected for valve delivery. The left iliac artery and infrarenal aorta underwent extensive intervention to achieve an intraluminal diameter larger than 7 mm. After aortic valvuloplasty, valve deployment was successful, and the transaortic gradient decreased from 40 mmHg to less than 5 mmHg. The patient was discharged from the hospital 4 days postoperatively. We conclude that transcatheter aortic valve implantation can be successfully performed in patients with obstructed vascular access, including stenosis of the infrarenal aorta and the subclavian and coronary arteries. PMID:25873826

  12. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Despite Challenging Vascular Access

    PubMed Central

    Nascimbene, Angelo; Azpurua, Federico; Livesay, James J.; Fish, R. David

    2015-01-01

    We describe transcatheter aortic valve implantation in a patient who had severe peripheral artery disease. The patient's vascular condition required additional preliminary peripheral intervention to enable adequate vascular access. A 78-year-old man with severe aortic stenosis, substantial comorbidities, and severe heart failure symptoms was referred for aortic valve replacement. The patient's 20-mm aortic annulus necessitated the use of a 23-mm Edwards Sapien valve inserted through a 22F sheath, which itself needed a vessel diameter of at least 7 mm for percutaneous delivery. The left common femoral artery was selected for valve delivery. The left iliac artery and infrarenal aorta underwent extensive intervention to achieve an intraluminal diameter larger than 7 mm. After aortic valvuloplasty, valve deployment was successful, and the transaortic gradient decreased from 40 mmHg to less than 5 mmHg. The patient was discharged from the hospital 4 days postoperatively. We conclude that transcatheter aortic valve implantation can be successfully performed in patients with obstructed vascular access, including stenosis of the infrarenal aorta and the subclavian and coronary arteries. PMID:25873826

  13. The living aortic valve: From molecules to function

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Adrian H.; El-Hamamsy, Ismail; Butcher, Jonathan T.; Latif, Najma; Bertazzo, Sergio; Yacoub, Magdi H.

    2014-01-01

    The aortic valve lies in a unique hemodynamic environment, one characterized by a range of stresses (shear stress, bending forces, loading forces and strain) that vary in intensity and direction throughout the cardiac cycle. Yet, despite its changing environment, the aortic valve opens and closes over 100,000 times a day and, in the majority of human beings, will function normally over a lifespan of 70–90 years. Until relatively recently heart valves were considered passive structures that play no active role in the functioning of a valve, or in the maintenance of its integrity and durability. However, through clinical experience and basic research the aortic valve can now be characterized as a living, dynamic organ with the capacity to adapt to its complex mechanical and biomechanical environment through active and passive communication between its constituent parts. The clinical relevance of a living valve substitute in patients requiring aortic valve replacement has been confirmed. This highlights the importance of using tissue engineering to develop heart valve substitutes containing living cells which have the ability to assume the complex functioning of the native valve. PMID:25054122

  14. Shape-based diagnosis of the aortic valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionasec, Razvan Ioan; Tsymbal, Alexey; Vitanovski, Dime; Georgescu, Bogdan; Zhou, S. Kevin; Navab, Nassir; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2009-02-01

    Disorders of the aortic valve represent a common cardiovascular disease and an important public-health problem worldwide. Pathological valves are currently determined from 2D images through elaborate qualitative evalu- ations and complex measurements, potentially inaccurate and tedious to acquire. This paper presents a novel diagnostic method, which identies diseased valves based on 3D geometrical models constructed from volumetric data. A parametric model, which includes relevant anatomic landmarks as well as the aortic root and lea ets, represents the morphology of the aortic valve. Recently developed robust segmentation methods are applied to estimate the patient specic model parameters from end-diastolic cardiac CT volumes. A discriminative distance function, learned from equivalence constraints in the product space of shape coordinates, determines the corresponding pathology class based on the shape information encoded by the model. Experiments on a heterogeneous set of 63 patients aected by various diseases demonstrated the performance of our method with 94% correctly classied valves.

  15. Right aortic cusp aneurysm causing aortic valve regurgitation with complete heart block

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devender; Darbari, Anshuman; Sharma, Manish K

    2009-01-01

    The present report describes a rare case of aortic valve aneurysm without any vegetation with complete heart block. A 26-year-old man with severe acute aortic regurgitation was admitted to our admitted to our hospital. Transthoracic echocardiography showed right cusp aneurysm without any vegetations. Transoesophageal echocardiography confirmed these findings. Colour Doppler echocardiography revealed severe aortic regurgitation. For complete heart block, a transvenous permanent pacemaker was inserted as a first stage of treatment. Successful aortic valve replacement was performed as a second stage. The possible aetiology of this case is endocarditis. PMID:21686406

  16. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation with balloonexpandable valve: early experience from China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qingsheng; Pei, Yifei; Wu, Hong; Wang, Zhinong; Zaiping, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate the early experience of the application of transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the balloon-expandable system in China. The transcatheter aortic valve implantation technology has been widely used for patients with inoperable severe aortic stenosis in the developed world. The application of transcatheter aortic valve implantation is still in the early stages of testing in China, particularly for the balloon-expandable valve procedure. Methods This was a retrospective study. All patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation with balloon-expandable system in our hospital between 2011 and 2014 were included. Edwards SAPIEN XT Transcatheter Heart Valve was used. The improvement of valve and heart function was evaluated as well as 30-day mortality and major complications according to the VARC-2 definition. Results A total of 10 transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedures with the balloon-expandable system were performed in our hospital, of which 9 were transfemoral and 1 was transapical. The median age was 76 years, and the median STS score and Logistic EuroSCORE (%) were 8.9 and 16.2. The implantation was successfully conducted in all patients, only 2 patients had mild paravalvular leak. There was no second valve implantation. Moreover, no 30-day mortality or complications was reported. Following the transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedure, the heart and valve functions had improved significantly. During the follow-up period of 3-34 months, one patient died of lung cancer 13 months after the operation. Conclusion This early experience has provided preliminary evidence for the safety and efficacy of transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedure with the balloon-expandable system in the developing world with an increasing aging population.

  17. Elective valve-in-valve implantation for migration of a corevalve in a patient with bicuspid aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yutaka; Tanaka, Masashi; Saito, Shigeru

    2015-08-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation for bicuspid aortic valve stenosis (BAVS) is controversial, as its unfavorable anatomy may lead to device dislocation or malfunctioning. If device failure occurs, the bailout intervention can be more complex and technically challenging. We here report a unique case of late migration of a CoreValve (Medtronic, MN) implanted in a patient with BAVS, who was successfully treated with elective valve-in-valve implantation using the first valve as a firm scaffold after waiting for it to adhere at the migrated position. This new strategy may represent a useful salvage option for some patients with prosthesis migration. PMID:25545068

  18. Protection from Cerebral Embolic Events During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    PubMed

    Rossow, Charles F; McCabe, James M

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been a major advancement in the treatment of high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. One of the primary concerns in applying this procedure to a broader patient population is the risk of embolic stroke. Cerebral emboli have been shown to originate from atheromatous plaques within the aorta and from the degenerate stenotic aortic valve itself. Thus, there has been significant interest in embolic protection devices designed to either filter or deflect potential cerebral emboli during TAVR. Here, we review the rationale and current data for embolic protection devices used during TAVR. PMID:26768742

  19. Assessment of left ventricular and aortic valve function after aortic balloon valvuloplasty in adult patients with critical aortic stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, R.G.; Safian, R.D.; Lock, J.E.; Diver, D.J.; Berman, A.D.; Warren, S.E.; Come, P.C.; Baim, D.S.; Mandell, V.E.; Royal, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary reports have documented the utility of balloon aortic valvuloplasty as a palliative treatment for high-risk patients with critical aortic stenosis, but the effect of this procedure on cardiac performance has not been studied in detail. Accordingly, 32 patients (mean age 79 years) with long-standing, calcific aortic stenosis were treated at the time of cardiac catheterization with balloon dilatation of the aortic valve, and serial changes in left ventricular and valvular function were followed before and after valvuloplasty by radionuclide ventriculography, determination of systolic time intervals, and Doppler echocardiography. Prevalvuloplasty examination revealed heavily calcified aortic valves in all patients, a mean peak-to-peak aortic valve gradient of 77 +/- 27 mm Hg, a mean Fick cardiac output of 4.6 +/- 1.4 liters/min, and a mean calculated aortic valve area of 0.6 +/- 0.2 cm2. Subsequent balloon dilatation with 12 to 23 mm valvuloplasty balloons resulted in a fall in aortic valve gradient to 39 +/- 15 mm Hg, an increase in cardiac output to 5.2 +/- 1.8 liters/min, and an increase in calculated aortic valve area to 0.9 +/- 0.3 cm2. Individual hemodynamic responses varied considerably, with some patients showing major increases in valve area, while others demonstrated only small increases. In no case was balloon dilatation accompanied by evidence of embolic phenomena. Supravalvular aortography obtained in 13 patients demonstrated no or a mild increase in aortic insufficiency. Serial radionuclide ventriculography in patients with a depressed left ventricular ejection fraction revealed a small increase in ejection fraction from 40 +/- 13% to 46 +/- 12%.

  20. Recently patented transcatheter aortic valves in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Neragi-Miandoab, Siyamek; Skripochnik, Edvard; Salemi, Arash; Girardi, Leonard

    2013-12-01

    The most widely used heart valve worldwide is the Edwards Sapien, which currently has 60% of the worldwide transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) market. The CoreValve is next in line in popularity, encompassing 35% of the worldwide TAVI market. Although these two valves dominate the TAVI market, a number of newer transcatheter valves have been introduced and others are in early clinical evaluation. The new valves are designed to reduce catheter delivery diameter, improve ease of positioning and sealing, and facilitate repositioning or removal. The most recent transcatheter valves for transapical use include Acurate TA (Symetis), Engager (Medtronic), and JenaValve the Portico (St Jude), Sadra Lotus Medical (Boston Scientific), and the Direct Flow Medical. These new inventions may introduce more effective treatment options for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. Improvements in transcatheter valves and the developing variability among them may allow for more tailored approaches with respect to patient's anatomy, while giving operators the opportunity to choose devices they feel more comfortable with. Moreover, introducing new devices to the market will create a competitive environment among producers that will reduce high prices and expand availability. The present review article includes a discussion of recent patents related to Transcatheter Aortic Valves. PMID:24279506

  1. Smeloff-Cutter aortic valve endocarditis 31 years after implantation.

    PubMed

    Kanki, Kazushige; Takagi, Nobuyuki; Tachibana, Kazutoshi; Mishina, Taijiro; Higami, Tetsuya

    2011-04-01

    A Smeloff-Cutter ball prosthetic valve was replaced in a 56-year-old woman 31 years after implantation. Prosthetic endocarditis developed after endoscopic mucosal resection of colon cancer. The excised aortic ball valve was almost intact, without any thrombus formation. PMID:21471264

  2. Fatal Bioprosthetic Aortic Valve Endocarditis Due to Cardiobacterium valvarum?

    PubMed Central

    Geidrfer, Walter; Tandler, Ren; Schlundt, Christian; Weyand, Michael; Daniel, Werner G.; Schoerner, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Cardiobacterium valvarum was isolated from the blood of a 71-year-old man with fatal aortic valve endocarditis. The API NH system was used for phenotypic characterization of the C. valvarum strain. This is the first case of infective endocarditis caused by C. valvarum in Germany and the first case worldwide affecting a prosthetic valve and lacking an obvious dental focus. PMID:17475754

  3. Replacement of the aortic valve after the arterial switch operation.

    PubMed

    Alexi-Meskishvili, Vladimir; Photiadis, Joachim; Nrnberg, Jan-Hendrik

    2003-04-01

    An 11-month-old infant had undergone a primary arterial switch operation, including the Lecompte maneuver, for correction of discordant ventriculo-arterial connections and closure of an accompanying ventricular septal defect. At discharge, there were no signs of aortic valvar incompetence. Regurgitation across the aortic valve was detected first at the age of 2 years, and then increased progressively, as documented by serial echocardiographic studies. There had been no history of bacterial endocarditis. At the age of 10 years, echocardiography revealed severe aortic valvar incompetence. At operation, the aortic valve had three leaflets, all of which were short, with very restricted movement. Absence of sufficient leaflet tissue precluded a durable valvar reconstruction, so the aortic valve was replaced with a 21 mm mechanical prosthesis. Histological examination of the removed leaflets revealed nodular swelling due to mucous changes of the matrix, as well as fibrous alteration and formation of scar tissue, including areas of fibroblastic and capillary proliferation. There were no signs of calcification or acute inflammatory changes. Improvement of left ventricular function was observed both early postoperatively and later on. Our observation shows that aortic valvar incompetence after an arterial switch operation can be caused by degenerative changes of the neo-aortic leaflets, which prevent plastic reconstruction of the valve, necessitating valvar replacement. PMID:12887077

  4. [Left Ventricular Rupture during Both Mitral and Aortic Valve Replacements].

    PubMed

    Kurumisawa, Soki; Aizawa, Kei; Takazawa, Ippei; Sato, Hirotaka; Muraoka, Arata; Ohki, Shinnichi; Saito, Tsutomu; Kawahito, Koji; Misawa, Yoshio

    2015-05-01

    A 73-year-old woman on hemodialysis was transferred to our hospital for surgical treatment of heart valve disease. She required both mitral and aortic valve replacement with mechanical valves, associated with tricuspid annuloplasty. After aortic de-clamping, a massive hemorrhage from the posterior atrioventricular groove was observed. Under repeated cardiac arrest, the left atrium was reopened, the implanted mitral prosthetic valve was removed and a type I left ventricular rupture (Treasure classification) was diagnosed. The lesion was directly repaired with mattress stitches and running sutures, using reinforcement materials such as a glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium. To avoid mechanical stress by the prosthetic valve on the repaired site, a mechanical valve was implanted using a translocation method. The patient suffered from aspiration pneumonia and disuse atrophy for 3 months. However, she was doing well at 1 year post-operation. PMID:25963782

  5. Particle Image Velocimetry studies of bicuspid aortic valve hemodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Yap, Choon-Hwai; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2010-11-01

    Bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs) are a congenital anomaly of the aortic valve with two fused leaflets, affecting about 1-2% of the population. BAV patients have much higher incidence of valve calcification & aortic dilatation, which may be related to altered mechanical forces from BAV hemodynamics. This study aims to characterize BAV hemodynamics using Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV). BAV models are constructed from normal explanted porcine aortic valves by suturing two leaflets together. The valves are mounted in an acrylic chamber with two sinuses & tested in a pulsatile flow loop at physiological conditions. 2D PIV is performed to obtain flow fields in three planes downstream of the valve. The stenosed BAV causes an eccentric jet, resulting in a very strong vortex in the normal sinus. The bicuspid sinus vortex appears much weaker, but more unstable. Unsteady oscillatory shear stresses are also observed, which have been associated with adverse biological response; characterization of the hemodynamics of BAVs will provide the first step to understanding these processes better. Results from multiple BAV models of varying levels of stenosis will be presented & higher stenosis corresponded to stronger jets & increased aortic wall shear stresses.

  6. Aortic false aneurysm after double valve replacement in a child.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Walters, Henry L; Forbes, Thomas J; Aggarwal, Sanjeev

    2013-06-01

    Aortic false aneurysm (AFA) is a rare but life threatening complication after aortic surgery. We report a 13-year-old boy who developed AFA after double valve replacement consisting of the following: (1) Bentall procedure utilizing a 25-mm St. Jude aortic valved composite Hemashield Dacron graft (Meadox Medicals, Oakland, NJ); and (2) replacement of right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit with a 25-mm porcine valved conduit. The exterior metal ring of the pulmonary prosthetic valve conduit caused an abrasion of the Hemashield graft, resulting in the AFA. In addition to simple suture repair, the pulmonary conduit was wrapped with a Gore-Tex patch (W.L. Gore Assoc, Flagstaff, AZ) to prevent recurrence. PMID:23706444

  7. Fulminant diffuse systemic sclerosis following aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Marasovic-Krstulovic, Daniela; Jurisic, Zrinka; Perkovic, Dijana; Aljinovic, Jure; Martinovic-Kaliterna, Dusanka

    2014-06-01

    We present a case of fulminant diffuse systemic sclerosis (dSSc) developed after the aortic valve replacement followed by fatal congestive heart failure within the 6 months from the initial symptoms. A 61-year-old male developed rapidly progressive diffuse systemic sclerosis following aortic valve replacement due to stenosis of bicuspid aortic valve. He presented with diarrhoea, weight loss, mialgia and arthralgia after cardiac surgery. Heart failure, due to myocardial fibrosis, was noted as a cause of death. We hypothesize that artificial materials like the ones used in mechanical valves or silicon materials in breast implants may induce fulminant course of pre-existing systemic sclerosis or create a new onset in predisposed individual. PMID:24735843

  8. Percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation: present and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Diego; Cevallos, Joaquim; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Martín-Yuste, Victoria; Freixa, Xavier; Andrea, Ruth; Falces, Carlos; Regueiro-Cueva, Ander; Masotti, Mónica; Sabaté, Manel

    2013-03-01

    Transcatheter aortic-valve implantation is becoming the standard of care for inoperable patients with severe aortic stenosis and a valid alternative for those at high surgical risk. Since the first percutaneous transcatheter aortic-valve implantation in humans in 2002, over 50,000 transcatheter aortic valves have been implanted in the last decade, with progressive improvement in the available devices. Overall, there are two main families of transcatheter prosthesis: self-expandable and nonself-expandable. The self-expandable devices, for which CoreValve(®) (Medtronic CV Luxembourg S.a.r.l., Luxembourg) represents the prototype, are characterized by a structure composed of shape memory materials, usually nitinol, which acquire its final shape once released. By contrast, the non-self-expandable prostheses, mainly represented by the Edwards(®) valve (Edwards Life Sciences, Inc., CA, USA), require balloon dilatation to reach its final shape. Although several publications have already provided positive data on both technologies, new clinical studies with improved systems are currently being conducted in order to provide more solid data and potentially expand the spectrum of patients who can benefit from this therapy. Thus, the aim of the present paper is to review the salient features of the two most used systems today (third-generation CoreValve and Edwards SAPIEN XT(®)) as well as to provide data on other emerging valves and future perspectives. PMID:23480088

  9. Aortic Valve Leaflet Replacement with Bovine Pericardium to Preserve Native Dynamic Capabilities of the Aortic Annulus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Min Ho; Kim, Won Ho; Lee, Mi Kyung; Lee, Sam Youn

    2014-01-01

    Valve replacement is typically the most appropriate option for treating aortic valve stenotic insufficiency. However, neither mechanical nor bioprosthetic replacement components preserve the circumferential expansion and contraction of a native aortic annulus during the cardiac cycle, because the prosthetic ring is affixed to the annulus. A 64-year-old man presented with a bicuspid and stenotic aortic valve, and the native annulus was too small to accommodate a porcine replacement valve. We fashioned new aortic leaflets from bovine pericardium with use of a template, and we affixed the sinotubular junction with use of inner and outer stabilization rings. Postoperative echocardiograms revealed coaptation of the 3 new leaflets with no regurgitation. At the patient's 5.5-year follow-up examination, echocardiograms showed flexible leaflet movement with a coaptation height of 7 mm, and expansion and contraction of the aortic annulus similar to that of a normal native annulus. The transvalvular pressure gradient was insignificant. If long-term durability of the new leaflets is confirmed, this method of leaflet replacement and fixation of the sinotubular junction might serve as an acceptable alternative to valve replacement in the treatment of aortic valve stenosis. We describe the patient's case and present our methods and observations. PMID:24512414

  10. Iatrogenic mitral valve chordal rupture during placement of an inflatable and repositionable percutaneous aortic valve prosthesis.

    PubMed

    D'Ancona, Giuseppe; Ince, Hseyin; Ortak, Jasmin; Stoeckicht, Yannik; Kische, Stephan

    2015-03-01

    A case is reported of iatrogenic mitral valve chordal rupture occurring during transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with an inflatable and repositionable valve (Direct Flow; Direct Flow Medical, Santa Rosa, CA, USA). The specific implantation technique requires initial valve advancement into the left ventricular cavity, valve inflation within the ventricular cavity, and a final finely tuned valve upward pulling through the left ventricular outflow tract until contact with the aortic annulus is achieved. During this phase of the procedure, entangling with the mitral subvalvular apparatus should be excluded, to avoid inadvertent tissue tearing and consequent mitral valve malfunction. The present patient underwent TAVI but then developed symptomatic severe mitral valve regurgitation resulting from chordal rupture. The condition was successfully treated percutaneously by implanting a Mitra-Clip. PMID:26204679

  11. A planning system for transapical aortic valve implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessat, Michael; Merk, Denis R.; Falk, Volkmar; Walther, Thomas; Jacobs, Stefan; Nöttling, Alois; Burgert, Oliver

    2009-02-01

    Stenosis of the aortic valve is a common cardiac disease. It is usually corrected surgically by replacing the valve with a mechanical or biological prosthesis. Transapical aortic valve implantation is an experimental minimally invasive surgical technique that is applied to patients with high operative risk to avoid pulmonary arrest. A stented biological prosthesis is mounted on a catheter. Through small incisions in the fifth intercostal space and the apex of the heart, the catheter is positioned under flouroscopy in the aortic root. The stent is expanded and unfolds the valve which is thereby implanted into the aortic root. Exact targeting is crucial, since major complications can arise from a misplaced valve. Planning software for the perioperative use is presented that allows for selection of the best fitting implant and calculation of the safe target area for that implant. The software uses contrast enhanced perioperative DynaCT images acquired under rapid pacing. In a semiautomatic process, a surface segmentation of the aortic root is created. User selected anatomical landmarks are used to calculate the geometric constraints for the size and position of the implant. The software is integrated into a PACS network based on DICOM communication to query and receive the images and implants templates from a PACS server. The planning results can be exported to the same server and from there can be rertieved by an intraoperative catheter guidance device.

  12. Resolution of heart block after surgical correction of failed transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Weymann, Alexander; Patil, Nikhil Prakash; Karck, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard therapy for severe aortic stenosis but transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is increasingly employed in "high-risk" patients. Atrioventricular block and aortic regurgitation are frequent complications of nitinol-based stented valves. We report a case of successful, but complex reoperative surgery 13 days after failed TAVI with iatrogenic aortic and mitral regurgitation and new-onset heart block. Removal of a CoreValve prosthesis (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN) with standard aortic valve replacement resulted in restoration of sinus rhythm and valvular competencies. PMID:25841831

  13. Left Main Coronary Artery Obstruction by Dislodged Native-Valve Calculus after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Durmaz, Tahir; Keles, Telat; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Erdogan, Kemal Esref; Sari, Cenk; Bilen, Emine; Akcay, Murat; Bozkurt, Engin

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement can be an effective, reliable treatment for severe aortic stenosis in surgically high-risk or ineligible patients. However, various sequelae like coronary artery obstruction can occur, not only in the long term, but also immediately after the procedure. We present the case of a 78-year-old woman whose left main coronary artery became obstructed with calculus 2 hours after the transfemoral implantation of an Edwards Sapien XT aortic valve. Despite percutaneous coronary intervention in that artery, the patient died. This case reminds us that early recognition of acute coronary obstruction and prompt intervention are crucial in patients with aortic stenosis who have undergone transcatheter aortic valve replacement. PMID:25120396

  14. Left main coronary artery obstruction by dislodged native-valve calculus after transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Durmaz, Tahir; Ayhan, Huseyin; Keles, Telat; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Erdogan, Kemal Esref; Sari, Cenk; Bilen, Emine; Akcay, Murat; Bozkurt, Engin

    2014-08-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement can be an effective, reliable treatment for severe aortic stenosis in surgically high-risk or ineligible patients. However, various sequelae like coronary artery obstruction can occur, not only in the long term, but also immediately after the procedure. We present the case of a 78-year-old woman whose left main coronary artery became obstructed with calculus 2 hours after the transfemoral implantation of an Edwards Sapien XT aortic valve. Despite percutaneous coronary intervention in that artery, the patient died. This case reminds us that early recognition of acute coronary obstruction and prompt intervention are crucial in patients with aortic stenosis who have undergone transcatheter aortic valve replacement. PMID:25120396

  15. Robotic System for Transapical Aortic Valve Replacement with MRI Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Mazilu, Dumitru; Horvath, Keith A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports our work on developing a robotic surgical system for transapical beating heart aortic valve replacement (AVR) under interactive real-time magnetic resonance imaging (rtMRI) guidance. Our system integrates a real-time MRI system, a compound MRI robot, as well as an interface for the surgeon to plan the procedure and manipulate the robot. The compound robot consists of a positioning module and a valve delivery module. A 5-DOF Inno-motion positioning arm provides and maintains direct access to the native aortic valve. A newly developed 3-DOF robotic valve delivery module allows the surgeon to remotely control bioprosthetic valve delivery with MRI guidance. Preliminary evaluation of the parameters of the robotic system demonstrates it can provide sufficient capability to successfully assist the surgeon. PMID:18982639

  16. Robotic system for transapical aortic valve replacement with MRI guidance.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Mazilu, Dumitru; Horvath, Keith A

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports our work on developing a robotic surgical system for transapical beating heart aortic valve replacement (AVR) under interactive real-time magnetic resonance imaging (rtMRI) guidance. Our system integrates a real-time MRI system, a compound MRI robot, as well as an interface for the surgeon to plan the procedure and manipulate the robot. The compound robot consists of a positioning module and a valve delivery module. A 5-DOF Innomotion positioning arm provides and maintains direct access to the native aortic valve. A newly developed 3-DOF robotic valve delivery module allows the surgeon to remotely control bioprosthetic valve delivery with MRI guidance. Preliminary evaluation of the parameters of the robotic system demonstrates it can provide sufficient capability to successfully assist the surgeon. PMID:18982639

  17. Etiology of bicuspid aortic valve disease: Focus on hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Samantha K; Sucosky, Philippe

    2014-12-26

    The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common form of inheritable cardiac defect. Although this abnormality may still achieve normal valvular function, it is often associated with secondary valvular and aortic complications such as calcific aortic valve disease and aortic dilation. The clinical significance and economic burden of BAV disease justify the need for improved clinical guidelines and more robust therapeutic modalities, which address the root-cause of those pathologies. Unfortunately, the etiology of BAV valvulopathy and aortopathy is still a debated issue. While the BAV anatomy and its secondary complications have been linked historically to a common genetic root, recent advances in medical imaging have demonstrated the existence of altered hemodynamics near BAV leaflets prone to calcification and BAV aortic regions vulnerable to dilation. The abnormal mechanical stresses imposed by the BAV on its leaflets and on the aortic wall could be transduced into cell-mediated processes, leading ultimately to valvular calcification and aortic medial degeneration. Despite increasing evidence for this hemodynamic etiology, the demonstration of the involvement of mechanical abnormalities in the pathogenesis of BAV disease requires the investigation of causality between the blood flow environment imposed on the leaflets and the aortic wall and the local biology, which has been lacking to date. This editorial discusses the different hypothetical etiologies of BAV disease with a particular focus on the most recent advances in cardiovascular imaging, flow characterization techniques and tissue culture methodologies that have provided new evidence in support of the hemodynamic theory. PMID:25548612

  18. Emerging trends in heart valve engineering: Part II. Novel and standard technologies for aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Kheradvar, Arash; Groves, Elliott M; Goergen, Craig J; Alavi, S Hamed; Tranquillo, Robert; Simmons, Craig A; Dasi, Lakshmi P; Grande-Allen, K Jane; Mofrad, Mohammad R K; Falahatpisheh, Ahmad; Griffith, Boyce; Baaijens, Frank; Little, Stephen H; Canic, Suncica

    2015-04-01

    The engineering of technologies for heart valve replacement (i.e., heart valve engineering) is an exciting and evolving field. Since the first valve replacement, technology has progressed by leaps and bounds. Innovations emerge frequently and supply patients and physicians with new, increasingly efficacious and less invasive treatment options. As much as any other field in medicine the treatment of heart valve disease has experienced a renaissance in the last 10 years. Here we review the currently available technologies and future options in the surgical and transcatheter treatment of aortic valve disease. Different valves from major manufacturers are described in details with their applications. PMID:25449148

  19. Paravalvular leak closure for persisting aortic regurgitation after implantation of the CoreValve transcatheter valve.

    PubMed

    Poliacikova, Petra; Hildick-Smith, David

    2014-07-01

    Significant aortic regurgitation after TAVI results in lack of symptomatic and prognostic benefit from the procedure and generally requires intervention. While most of the regurgitations can be successfully targeted with standard techniques, occasional patients have restrictive calcification resistant to post-dilatation and significant regurgitation persists. We present a case of refractory aortic regurgitation successfully treated with percutaneous paravalvular leak closure. An 81-year-old man with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis underwent a transfemoral CoreValve TAVI in December 2009. He had significant aortic regurgitation refractory to medical and interventional therapy including balloon post-dilatation, valve repositioning and valve-in-valve reimplantation. Aortic regurgitation remained severe and therefore in early 2013, we proceeded with an attempted percutaneous closure of the residual paraprosthetic leak. Using 6-French femoral access and a Terumo wire, the defect was successfully crossed with a 4-French Multipurpose catheter and an 8 mm Amplatzer Vascular Plug 4 device (St. Jude Medical) was deployed through this catheter, resulting in abolition of aortic regurgitation on aortography and TOE, with associated excellent clinical response. Refractory paravalvular aortic regurgitation post CoreValve implantation can be successfully treated using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug 4 device. PMID:24130146

  20. The expanding indications of transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Chiam, Paul Tl; Ewe, See Hooi

    2016-03-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), also known as transcatheter aortic valve replacement, is increasingly performed worldwide and is a technology that is here to stay. It has become the treatment of choice for inoperable patients and an alternative option for patients at high surgical risk with severe aortic stenosis. Early results of TAVI in intermediate-risk patients appear promising although larger randomized trial results are awaited before the widespread adoption of this technology in this big pool of patients. In patients with bicuspid aortic stenosis and degenerated surgical bioprostheses, TAVI has been shown to be feasible and relatively safe, though certain important considerations remain. Indications for TAVI are likely to grow as newer generation and improved devices and delivery systems become available. PMID:26916608

  1. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement via Left Anterior Thoracotomy in a Patient With Severe Pectus Excavatum.

    PubMed

    Loberman, Dan; Rajab, Taufiek Konrad; Yammine, Maroun; Welt, Frederick G; Eisenhauer, Andrew C; Davidson, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    With the development of the transcatheter aortic valve replacement, innovative approaches can be geared to atypical and challenging cases. We describe a case of transcatheter aortic valve replacement via a left anterior thoracotomy in a patient with pectus excavatum and unusual intrathoracic anatomy where surgical and traditional transcatheter aortic valve replacement approaches were deemed inapplicable. PMID:26694273

  2. Role of Echocardiography Before Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI).

    PubMed

    Badiani, Sveeta; Bhattacharyya, Sanjeev; Lloyd, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common primary valve disorder in the elderly with an increasing prevalence; transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an accepted alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) in the high risk or inoperable patient. Appropriate selection of patients for TAVI is crucial and requires a multidisciplinary approach including cardiothoracic surgeons, interventional cardiologists, anaesthetists, imaging experts and specialist nurses. Multimodality imaging including echocardiography, CT and MRI plays a pivotal role in the selection and planning process; however, echocardiography remains the primary imaging modality used for patient selection, intra-procedural guidance, post-procedural assessment and long-term follow-up. The contribution that contemporary transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography make to the selection and planning of TAVI is described in this article. PMID:26960423

  3. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: from fantasy to reality

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Increased life expectancy has led to the presentation of more complicated patients in old age for the replacement of the aortic valve. The emergence of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) was considered as a significant breakthrough in the management of symptomatic, moribund patients suffering from aortic valve stenosis who had been rejected for surgical intervention. A novel technology often has a long journey from the point at which it is created to its every-day-use. It is now obvious that TAVI practice in multiple institutes around the world has gone beyond the evidence. Serious concerns have been raised questioning the current TAVI practice. Analysis of future TAVI use may assist clinicians and healthcare managers to understand and deploy this technology in accordance with the evidence. PMID:24602509

  4. The current status of transcutaneous aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Volodarsky, Igor; Shimoni, Sara; George, Jacob

    2014-10-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a relatively novel procedure first performed in 2002 and has undergone rapid development since then. Its main indication is treatment of severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. Initially, the procedure was indicated for very sick patients who were not eligible for surgical aortic valve replacement. However, rapid development of the technology and operator skill required for TAVI allowed widening of the indications for its use. Currently, there is evidence that TAVI could be better than the surgical intervention in a broad population and not only in the most sick. This paper reviews the medical literature regarding TAVI, including the relevant medical equipment, different modes of its deployment, main complications of the procedure, main indications and contraindications, and the outcome of the patients who undergo it. PMID:25223332

  5. Transfemoral Aortic Valve Implantation with the New Edwards Sapien 3 Valve for Treatment of Severe Aortic Stenosis—Impact of Valve Size in a Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wöhrle, Jochen; Gonska, Birgid; Rodewald, Christoph; Seeger, Julia; Scharnbeck, Dominik; Rottbauer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Aims The third generation Edwards Sapien 3 (Edwards Lifesciences Inc., Irvine, California) system was optimized to reduce residual aortic regurgitation and vascular complications. Methods and Results 235 patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis were prospectively enrolled. Transcatheter aortic valve implantations (TAVI) were performed without general anesthesia by transfemoral approach. Patients were followed for 30 days. Patients received 23mm (N = 77), 26mm (N = 91) or 29mm (N = 67) valve based on pre-procedural 256 multislice computer tomography. Mean oversizing did not differ between the 3 valves. There was no residual moderate or severe aortic regurgitation. Rate of mild aortic regurgitation and regurgitation index did not differ between groups. There was no switch to general anesthesia or conversion to surgery. Rate of major vascular complication was 3.0% with no difference between valve and delivery sheath sizes. Within 30 days rates of all cause mortality (2.6%) and stroke (2.1%) were low. Conclusions In patients with severe aortic stenosis transfemoral TAVI with the Edwards Sapien 3 valve without general anesthesia was associated with a high rate of device success, no moderate or severe residual aortic regurgitation, low rates of major vascular complication, mortality and stroke within 30 days with no difference between the 3 valve sizes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02162069 PMID:27003573

  6. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: Current andEvolving Indications.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Altayyeb; Froeschl, Michael; Hibbert, Benjamin; Burwash, Ian G; Labinaz, Marino

    2016-02-01

    Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) was initially developed to treat aortic stenosis in patients with high risk for surgical intervention. With great initial adoption of the technology and improvements in device design and procedural success TAVI is increasingly being performed in broader populations for diverse indications. This paper is a concise review of the evolving and expanding use of TAVI in the current era. PMID:26481084

  7. Risk factors for paravalvular leak after transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Bujak, Kamil; Regu?a, Rafa?; Chodr, Piotr; Osadnik, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have shown that transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) improves outcomes in patients with severe aortic stenosis in whom a classical surgical procedure cannot be performed due to the high risk. As one of the most frequent periprocedural complications of TAVI, paravalvular leak significantly affects the short- and long-term prognosis for patients undergoing implantation. In this paper, we analyze the most significant anatomical and procedural predictors of paravalvular leak after TAVI. PMID:26336489

  8. Quadricuspid aortic valve defined by echocardiography and cardiac computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Karlsberg, Daniel W; Elad, Yaron; Kass, Robert M; Karlsberg, Ronald P

    2012-01-01

    A 54 year old female presented with lower extremity edema, fatigue, and shortness of breath with physical findings indicative of advanced aortic insufficiency. Echocardiography showed severe aortic regurgitation and a probable quadricuspid aortic valve. In anticipation of aortic valve replacement, cardiac computed tomography (Cardiac CT) was performed using 100 kV, 420 mA which resulted in 6 mSv of radiation exposure. Advanced computing algorithmic software was performed with a non-linear interpolation to estimate potential physiological movement. Surgical photographs and in-vitro anatomic pathology exam reveal the accuracy and precision that preoperative Cardiac CT provided in this rare case of a quadricuspid aortic valve. While there have been isolated reports of quadricuspid diagnosis with Cardiac CT, we report the correlation between echocardiography, Cardiac CT, and similar appearance at surgery with confirmed pathology and interesting post-processed rendered images. Cardiac CT may be an alternative to invasive coronary angiography for non-coronary cardiothoracic surgery with the advantage of providing detailed morphological dynamic imaging and the ability to define the coronary arteries non-invasively. The reduced noise and striking depiction of the valve motion with advanced algorithms will require validation studies to determine its role. PMID:22442640

  9. Prediction of paravalvular leakage after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Luigi F M; Vletter, Wim B; Ren, Ben; Schultz, Carl; Van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Soliman, Osama I I; Di Biase, Matteo; de Jaegere, Peter P; Geleijnse, Marcel L

    2015-10-01

    Significant paravalvular leakage (PVL) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is related to patient mortality. Predicting the development of PVL has focused on computed tomography (CT) derived variables but literature targeting CoreValve devices is limited, controversial, and did not make use of standardized echocardiographic methods. The study included 164 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis that underwent TAVI with a Medtronic CoreValve system, with available pre-TAVI CT and pre-discharge transthoracic echocardiography. The predictive value for significant PVL of the CT-derived Agatston score, aortic annulus size and eccentricity, and "cover index" was assessed, according to both echocardiographic Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC) criteria and angiographic Sellers criteria. Univariate predictors for more than mild PVL were the maximal diameter of the aortic annulus size (for both angiographic and echocardiographic assessment of PVL), cover index (for echocardiographic assessment of PVL only), and Agatston score (for both angiographic and echocardiographic assessment of PVL). The aortic annulus eccentricity index was not predicting PVL. At multivariate analysis, Agatston score was the only independent predictor for both angiographic and echocardiographic assessment of PVL. Agatston score is the only independent predictor of PVL regardless of the used imaging technique for the definition of PVL. PMID:26187523

  10. Transfemoral Edwards SAPIEN aortic valve implantation through aortofemoral endograft.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Lam, Buu-Khanh; Glover, Chris

    2014-09-01

    We present the case of an 86-year-old woman with an aortobifemoral endograft and porcelain aorta who underwent transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). A femoral cutdown was performed to the left limb of the endograft, and the needle puncture into the graft required sequential incisions and dilation to allow access of the 18F Edwards SAPIEN expandable eSheath (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA). A 26-mm Edwards SAPIEN transcatheter aortic valve was then successfully deployed. The cutdown was closed and hemostasis was achieved without any iatrogenic narrowing of the graft. Transfemoral TAVI through surgical cutdown with dilation of a femoral endograft is safe and feasible. PMID:24845556

  11. Transapical Versus Transaortic Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Ben; Tan, Darren; Chu, Daniel; Yau, Victor; Xiao, Jinguo; Ho, Kwok Ming; Yong, Gerald; Larbalestier, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Two alternative approaches for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) exist for patients unsuitable for the transfemoral approach; the transapical and the transaortic approaches. It is unclear as to which approach has superior short-term outcomes. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to answer this question. Mortality was equivalent in the 2 groups. There was a trend toward a lower rate of stroke in the transaortic group (0.9% vs 2.1%) but this was not statistically significant. Conversion to surgical aortic valve replacement, paravalvular leak, pacemaker requirement, and major bleeding occurred at equivalent rates. PMID:26002442

  12. The functional aortic annulus in the 3D era: focus on transcatheter aortic valve replacement for the perioperative echocardiographer.

    PubMed

    Patel, Prakash A; Gutsche, Jacob T; Vernick, William J; Giri, Jay S; Ghadimi, Kamrouz; Weiss, Stuart J; Jagasia, Dinesh H; Bavaria, Joseph E; Augoustides, John G T

    2015-02-01

    The functional aortic annulus represents a sound clinical framework for understanding the components of the aortic root complex. Recent three-dimensional imaging analysis has demonstrated that the aortic annulus frequently is elliptical rather than circular. Comprehensive three-dimensional quantification of this aortic annular geometry by transesophageal echocardiography and/or multidetector computed tomography is essential to guide precise prosthesis sizing in transcatheter aortic valve replacement to minimize paravalvular leak for optimal clinical outcome. Furthermore, three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography accurately can quantify additional parameters of the functional aortic annulus such as coronary height for complete sizing profiles for all valve types in transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Although it is maturing rapidly as a clinical imaging modality, its role in transcatheter aortic valve replacement is seen best as complementary to multidetector computed tomography in a multidisciplinary heart team model. PMID:25620147

  13. Left main coronary artery occlusion after percutaneous aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Bartorelli, Antonio L; Andreini, Daniele; Sisillo, Erminio; Tamborini, Gloria; Fusari, Melissa; Biglioli, Paolo

    2010-03-01

    Left main coronary artery occlusion occurred immediately after transfemoral aortic valve implantation in an 87-year-old woman, which resulted in ventricular fibrillation and hemodynamic collapse. This life-threatening complication was promptly diagnosed with transesophageal echocardiography, which showed the disappearance of diastolic left main coronary artery jet flow and was confirmed with aortic root angiography. After prompt defibrillation, hemodynamic support was obtained with intra-aortic balloon pump and inotropic drugs. Functional recovery and survival were achieved with coronary stenting. This report highlights the importance of an integrated team approach of highly skilled specialists for these novel interventions. PMID:20172163

  14. [Reoperation after aortic valve replacement and root reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Itoh, T; Ohtsubo, S; Natsuaki, M

    1998-02-01

    Between 1984 and 1997, 127 patients in our institution underwent single aortic valve replacement (AVR) with the St. Jude Medical valve (group S) and 11 patients with a porcine pericardial valve (group T). In the same period, 45 patients underwent aortic root reconstruction, among which 39 patients underwent the Bentall procedure using Carrel patch coronary reanastomosis (group B). The other 6 patients were treated with valve-sparing aortic root reconstruction (group V), among which the reimplantation method was used in 4 patients and the remodeling method in 2. The mean and total follow-up periods of the AVR and aortic root reconstruction groups were 6.9 +/- 1.9 year/735 patient-years and 4.9 +/- 3.9/years/196 patient-years respectively. The actuarial overall survival rates in group S and T at 10 years were; 73.8 +/- 7.0% and 85.7 +/- 13.0%, respectively The probabilities of freedom from reoperation at 12 years in group S and T were 97.7 +/- 2.3% and 62.5 +/- 21.3%, respectively. Only one patient in group S required reoperation because of valve thrombosis, while 2 patients in group T underwent reoperation for prosthetic valve endocarditis. The actuarial overall survival rate after aortic root reconstruction at 10 years was 62.6 +/- 9.6%, while that of patients with acute aortic dissection and those who did not were 44.4 +/- 15.7% and 71.7 +/- 11.5%, respectively. The event-free rate at 12 years after aortic root reconstruction (group V+B) was 79.1% +/- 20/9%. The reason for reoperation in the 2 patients who underwent the Bentall procedure were prosthetic valve endocarditis in one and psuedoaneurysm at the right coronary anastomosis in the other. The reason for reoperation in one patient who formed a pseudoaneurysm was likely due to an oversized conduit hole for the Carrel patch coronary anastomosis. One patient in whom the native valve was preserved using the David reimplantation procedure required reoperation because of valve degeneration 17 months after the initial surgery, possibly due to valve rubbing on the vascular conduit because of a modified geometry of the Valsalva sinuses. In conclusion, because of the low rate of long-term mortality and reoperation, the St. Jude Medical valve is an excellent prosthesis for AVR. AVR with a porcine pericardial valve yields favorable results in terms of the low long-term mortality although the incidence of reoperation remains high. Aortic root reconstruction with the Bentall procedure using the Carrel patch method yields acceptable results in terms of long-term mortality and low rate of reoperation, although acute aortic dissection is an incremental preoperative risk factor. The early results of aortic valve-sparing root reconstructive surgery are encouraging, with excellent clinical outcomes and patient quality of life. Nevertheless, the indications for the procedure must be carefully considered. PMID:9575504

  15. A Quantitative Study of Simulated Bicuspid Aortic Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeto, Kai; Nguyen, Tran; Rodriguez, Javier; Pastuszko, Peter; Nigam, Vishal; Lasheras, Juan

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that congentially bicuspid aortic valves develop degenerative diseases earlier than the standard trileaflet, but the causes are not well understood. It has been hypothesized that the asymmetrical flow patterns and turbulence found in the bileaflet valves together with abnormally high levels of strain may result in an early thickening and eventually calcification and stenosis. Central to this hypothesis is the need for a precise quantification of the differences in the strain rate levels between bileaflets and trileaflet valves. We present here some in-vitro dynamic measurements of the spatial variation of the strain rate in pig aortic vales conducted in a left ventricular heart flow simulator device. We measure the strain rate of each leaflet during the whole cardiac cycle using phase-locked stereoscopic three-dimensional image surface reconstruction techniques. The bicuspid case is simulated by surgically stitching two of the leaflets in a normal valve.

  16. Perceval S aortic valve implantation in an achondroplastic Dwarf.

    PubMed

    Baikoussis, Nikolaos G; Argiriou, Michalis; Argiriou, Orestis; Dedeilias, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Despite cardiovascular disease in patients with dwarfism is not rare; there is a lack of reports referring to cardiac interventions in such patients. Dwarfism may be due to achondroplasia or hormonal growth disorders. We present a 58-year-old woman with episodes of dyspnea for several months. She underwent on transthoracic echocardiography, and she diagnosed with severe aortic valve stenosis. She referred to our department for surgical treatment of this finding. In accordance of her anthropometric characteristics and her very small aortic annulus, we had the dilemma of prosthesis selection. We decided to implant a stentless valve to optimize her effective orifice area. Our aim is to present the successful Perceval S valve implantation and the descriptions of the problems coming across in operating on these special patients. To our knowledge, this is the first case patient in which a Perceval S valve is implanted according to the international bibliography. PMID:26750695

  17. Modified surgical sequence in aortic and mitral valve replacement with or without tricuspid valve repair or replacement.

    PubMed

    Calafiore, Antonio Maria; Iaco, Angela Lorena; Shah, Aijaz; Di Mauro, Michele

    2014-12-01

    A mitral prosthesis, when implanted, can distort the aortic annulus, forcing to downsize the aortic prosthesis. Changing the sequence of tying the sutures (the aortic prosthesis first, then the mitral prosthesis) allows to insert an aortic true-sized prosthesis. In case of associated tricuspid valve surgery, the aortic prosthesis protrudes over the anteroseptal commissure area. The sutures on the tricuspid annulus can be passed before the aortic prosthesis is secured in place. PMID:25312523

  18. Lactococcus garvieae Endocarditis on a Prosthetic Biological Aortic Valve.

    PubMed

    Tsur, A; Slutzki, T; Flusser, D

    2015-09-01

    Lactococcus garvieae (LG) endocarditis is a rare disease in humans. There are only about 16 reported cases in the world. We report a 76-year-old male patient with LG endocarditis. In depth interview with the patient revealed that 2 weeks prior to admission, he had eaten sushi containing raw fish. Unlike many of the other infections reported, which were on a native mitral valve, our patient's vegetation was on a prosthetic aortic valve. PMID:25295408

  19. The German Aortic Valve Registry (GARY): in-hospital outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Christian W.; Mllmann, Helge; Holzhey, David; Beckmann, Andreas; Veit, Christof; Figulla, Hans-Reiner; Cremer, J.; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Lange, Rdiger; Zahn, Ralf; Sack, Stefan; Schuler, Gerhard; Walther, Thomas; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Bhm, Michael; Heusch, Gerd; Funkat, Anne-Kathrin; Meinertz, Thomas; Neumann, Till; Papoutsis, Konstantinos; Schneider, Steffen; Welz, Armin; Mohr, Friedrich W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Aortic stenosis is a frequent valvular disease especially in elderly patients. Catheter-based valve implantation has emerged as a valuable treatment approach for these patients being either at very high risk for conventional surgery or even deemed inoperable. The German Aortic Valve Registry (GARY) provides data on conventional and catheter-based aortic procedures on an all-comers basis. Methods and results A total of 13 860 consecutive patients undergoing repair for aortic valve disease [conventional surgery and transvascular (TV) or transapical (TA) catheter-based techniques] have been enrolled in this registry during 2011 and baseline, procedural, and outcome data have been acquired. The registry summarizes the results of 6523 conventional aortic valve replacements without (AVR) and 3464 with concomitant coronary bypass surgery (AVR + CABG) as well as 2695 TV AVI and 1181 TA interventions (TA AVI). Patients undergoing catheter-based techniques were significantly older and had higher risk profiles. The stroke rate was low in all groups with 1.3% (AVR), 1.9% (AVR + CABG), 1.7% (TV AVI), and 2.3% (TA AVI). The in-hospital mortality was 2.1% (AVR) and 4.5% (AVR + CABG) for patients undergoing conventional surgery, and 5.1% (TV AVI) and AVI 7.7% (TA AVI). Conclusion The in-hospital outcome results of this registry show that conventional surgery yields excellent results in all risk groups and that catheter-based aortic valve replacements is an alternative to conventional surgery in high risk and elderly patients. PMID:24022003

  20. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Current status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Pablo; Moreno, Raul; Lopez-Sendon, Jose L

    2011-01-01

    Although surgical aortic valve replacement is the standard therapy for severe aortic stenosis (AS), about one third of patients are considered inoperable due to unacceptable surgical risk. Under medical treatment alone these patients have a very poor prognosis with a mortality rate of 50% at 2 years. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been used in these patients, and has shown robust results in the only randomized clinical trial of severe AS treatment performed so far. In this review, we will focus on the two commercially available systems: Edwards SAPIEN valve and CoreValve Revalving system. Both systems have demonstrated success rates of over 90% with 30-d mortality rates below 10% in the most recent transfemoral TAVI studies. Moreover, long-term studies have shown that the valves have good haemodynamic performance. Some studies are currently exploring the non-inferiority of TAVI procedures vs conventional surgery in high-risk patients, and long-term clinical results of the percutaneous valves. In this article we review the current status of TAVI including selection of patients, a comparison of available prostheses, results and complications of the procedure, clinical outcomes, and future perspectives. PMID:21772944

  1. HEMODYNAMICS OF LEFT VENTRICULAR APEX-AORTIC VALVED CONDUITS

    PubMed Central

    Shanebrook, J. Richard; Levine, Mathew L.

    1979-01-01

    A flow model for analyzing the fluid mechanics of left ventricular-aortic valved conduits has been established. The model is based on a parallel flow circuit analogy of Ohm's law, the classic analysis of Gorlin and Gorlin1 for the determination of valvular areas, and an empirical constant, introduced by Gentle,2 that is descriptive of prosthetic heart valve performance. Favorable comparisons with clinical data indicate that the flow model is capable of predicting volumetric rates of flow through the valved conduit and through the aorta. Applications of the model are discussed in terms of altering the design of the valved conduit to improve its performance. The effect of valvular efficiency on conduit performance is investigated, and it is concluded that the Starr-Edwards ball valve and the Hancock 250 valve offer attractive alternatives if the objective is to increase the volumetric rate of flow through the valved conduit, or to decrease the volumetric rate of flow through the stenotic aortic valve, or both. PMID:15216295

  2. The closing behavior of mechanical aortic heart valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Lu, Po-Chien; Liu, Jia-Shing; Huang, Ren-Hong; Lo, Chi-Wen; Lai, Ho-Cheng; Hwang, Ned H C

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical artificial heart valves rely on reverse flow to close their leaflets. This mechanism creates regurgitation and water hammer effects that may form cavitations, damage blood cells, and cause thromboembolism. This study analyzes closing mechanisms of monoleaflet (Medtronic Hall 27), bileaflet (Carbo-Medics 27; St. Jude Medical 27; Duromedics 29), and trileaflet valves in a circulatory mock loop, including an aortic root with three sinuses. Downstream flow field velocity was measured via digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). A high speed camera (PIVCAM 10-30 CCD video camera) tracked leaflet movement at 1000 frames/s. All valves open in 40-50 msec, but monoleaflet and bileaflet valves close in much less time (< 35 msec) than the trileaflet valve (>75 msec). During acceleration phase of systole, the monoleaflet forms a major and minor flow, the bileaflet has three jet flows, and the trileaflet produces a single central flow like physiologic valves. In deceleration phase, the aortic sinus vortices hinder monoleaflet and bileaflet valve closure until reverse flows and high negative transvalvular pressure push the leaflets rapidly for a hard closure. Conversely, the vortices help close the trileaflet valve more softly, probably causing less damage, lessening back flow, and providing a washing effect that may prevent thrombosis formation. PMID:15307536

  3. Case Report: Prothesis-patient mismatch after aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ospina, Luis; Garcia-Morell, Juan; Rodriguez-Monserrate, Carla P; Valentin-Nieves, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Valve replacement is the standard surgical treatment of diseased valves that cannot be repaired. The main goal of replacement is to exchange the diseased valve with one that has the engineering and hemodynamics as close as possible to the disease free native valve. However due to mechanical and fluid dynamic constraints all prosthetic heart valves (PHVs) are smaller than normal and thus are inherently stenotic. This represents a challenge when it comes time to replace a valve. The correct valve with the correct and matching profile has to be selected before the procedure to avoid possible complications. It is well recognized that patients are also prone to patient-prosthesis mismatch at long term which could have consequences in the clinical outcomes (1). The evaluation of patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) has not been sufficiently emphasized in common practice. Failure to recognize this fact may lead to significant hemodynamic impairment and worsening of the clinical status over the time. Making efforts to identifying patients at risk may decrease the prevalence of PPM, the economic impact to our health system, the morbidity and mortality involved in these cases as well as creates efforts to standardized pre-operative protocols to minimized risk of PPM. We present a case of a 78 years old male patient who underwent aortic valve replacement due severe aortic stenosis, afterwards his clinical course got complicated with several admissions for shortness of breath and decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF). PMID:26434082

  4. Transcatheter implantation of a CoreValve aortic prosthesis in a patient with a ball-cage mechanical mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Gedikli, Omer; Kutlu, Merih; Civelek, Ali; Ince, Huseyin

    2013-09-01

    Although transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been performed successfully in patients with aortic stenosis and a mechanical mitral valve, to the present authors' knowledge only one report has been made of this being achieved in a patient with a ball-cage-type mechanical mitral valve. In the present case, as the cage section of the mechanical valve was inclined towards the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), there was a risk of interaction between the prosthesis and mechanical valve during the TAVI procedure. The successful implementation is described of a self-expandable aortic prosthesis in a patient with a ball-cage-type mechanical valve inclined towards the LVOT. PMID:24383383

  5. Calibrated cusp sizers to facilitate aortic valve repair: development and clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Izzat, Mohammad Bashar

    2012-01-01

    Based on the natural mathematical relationships between the components of the human tri-leaflet aortic valve, new calibrated cusp sizers were developed in order to facilitate aortic valve assessment in the operating room and enhance the chance for a perfect restoration of aortic valve competence. These sizers were used clinically to guide the implementation of established aortic valve repair techniques in 10 consecutive patients with severe aortic valve regurgitation. Valve repair was successful in all cases, and at a median follow-up was 5.5 months, aortic valve function remained stable, with aortic regurgitation ?1+ in every patient and no significant gradient across the aortic valves. This preliminary clinical experience indicates that the calibrated cusp sizers can provide reliable insight into the mechanism of aortic valve insufficiency, and can guide aortic valve repair techniques successfully. We hope that the simplicity and reproducibility of this method would assist in its dissemination and further increase the percentage of aortic valves that are repaired when compared with current practice. PMID:22159260

  6. Computed tomography for planning transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Apfaltrer, Paul; Henzler, Thomas; Blanke, Phillip; Krazinski, Aleksander W; Silverman, Justin R; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2013-07-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is rapidly becoming a widely used alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis at high surgical risk. In these patients, TAVR has been associated with markedly improved survival and relief from symptoms. Despite a very-high risk patient profile, recent multicenter registries have confirmed the safety and efficacy of this procedure. Moreover, the randomized, controlled PARTNER (Placement of AoRTic TraNscathetER Valves) trial has confirmed both the superiority of TAVR over medical treatment in patients not considered to be candidates for standard SAVR and the noninferiority of TAVR compared with SAVR in high-risk patients. The TAVR procedure requires a comprehensive preinterventional diagnostic workup. Above all, detailed information on the anatomy of the aortic annulus (AA) and the relation of the AA to the coronary arteries is essential to avoid complications. So far, no imaging reference standard for AA sizing has been established. Echocardiography, catheter angiography, and computed tomography angiography are widely and often complementarily used imaging techniques for this purpose. Compared with 2-dimensional imaging techniques, computed tomography (CT) has been proven to provide comprehensive information on AA anatomy and geometry, supporting appropriate patient selection and prosthesis sizing. In addition, CT is gaining an increasing role in evaluating the vascular access route before the procedure. This article describes the rapidly emerging role of CT in the context of pre-TAVR assessment. PMID:23736825

  7. The role of balloon aortic valvuloplasty in the era of transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Wilczek, Krzysztof; Pres, Damian; Krajewski, Adam; Polo?ski, Lech; Zembala, Marian; G?sior, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Balloon aortic valvuloplasty is recommended in patients not suitable for transcatheter aortic valve implantation/aortic valve replacement (TAVI/AVR) or when such interventions are temporarily contraindicated. The number of performed balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) procedures has been increasing in recent years. Valvuloplasty enables the selection of individuals with severe left ventricular dysfunction or with symptoms of uncertain origin resulting from concomitant disorders (including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]) who can benefit from destination therapy (AVR/TAVI). Thanks to improved equipment, the number of adverse effects is now lower than it was in the first years after the advent of BAV. Valvuloplasty can be safely performed even in unstable patients, but long-term results remain poor. In view of the limited availability of TAVI in Poland, it is reasonable to qualify patients for BAV more often, as it is a relatively safe procedure improving the clinical condition of patients awaiting AVR/TAVI. PMID:26336471

  8. [Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: An Introduction and Patient Care].

    PubMed

    Lu, Shu-Ju; Wang, Shiao-Pei

    2015-06-01

    Aortic stenosis has a high prevalence among individuals over 75 years of age. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a novel valve-replacement technique for patients with multiple chronic diseases who are at high risk of requiring aortic valve replacement surgery. Most of the time, the indicators of TAVI are detected during an echocardiographic exam. The femoral artery is the primary insertion site. The complications of TAVI include stroke, vascular dissection, bleeding, aortic valve regurgitation, and arrhythmia. In terms of clinical effectiveness, the mortality rate of TAVI is lower than percutaneous ballon valvuloplasty but similar to AVR. The unplanned cardiac-related re-admission rate within 30 days of discharge is lower for TAVI than for AVR. In terms of activity tolerance, TAVI is significantly better than both percutaneous ballon valvuloplasty and AVR. Comprehensive nursing care may reduce the incidence of complications associated with TAVI. Nursing care of TAVI includes explaining and providing instructions regarding TAVI prior to the procedure. After the TAVI procedure and while the patient is in the ICU, remove the endotracheal tube as soon as possible, monitor his / her neuro-cognitive status, monitor for early detection of a stroke event, record urine output to assess renal function, observe bleeding in the puncture site, and evaluate cardiac arrhythmia and pain. While in the general ward, resume early physical activities and educate the patient regarding the risks and the prevention of bleeding. This article provides references for clinical staff responsible to care for post-TAVI surgery patients. PMID:26073960

  9. Bicuspid aortic valve hemodynamics: a fluid-structure interaction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Santanu; Seaman, Clara; Sucosky, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital defect in which the aortic valve forms with two leaflets instead of three. While calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) also develops in the normal tricuspid aortic valve (TAV), its progression in the BAV is more rapid. Although studies have suggested a mechano-potential root for the disease, the native BAV hemodynamics remains largely unknown. This study aimed at characterizing BAV hemodynamics and quantifying the degree of wall-shear stress (WSS) abnormality on BAV leaflets. Fluid-structure interaction models validated with particle-image velocimetry were designed to predict the flow and leaflet dynamics in idealized TAV and BAV anatomies. Valvular function was quantified in terms of the effective orifice area. The regional leaflet WSS was characterized in terms of oscillatory shear index, temporal shear magnitude and temporal shear gradient. The predictions indicate the intrinsic degree of stenosis of the BAV anatomy, reveal drastic differences in shear stress magnitude and pulsatility on BAV and TAV leaflets and confirm the side- and site-specificity of the leaflet WSS. Given the ability of abnormal fluid shear stress to trigger valvular inflammation, these results support the existence of a mechano-etiology of CAVD in the BAV.

  10. Ascending aortic dilatation as a late complication after implantation of a mechanical aortic valve performed 37 years earlier

    PubMed Central

    Plewka, Michał; Rogowski, Waldemar; Kasprzak, Jarosław D.

    2014-01-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) is the third most common cardiovascular disease. Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the only effective method of treatment in most AS patients. In some patients, AS leads to poststenotic dilatation of the ascending aorta – most commonly, this occurs in patients with concurrent aortic regurgitation or bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and in patients after aortic valve replacement. Cardiac surgeons face the dilemma whether to perform concurrent replacement of the dilated ascending aorta in patients qualified for AVR, as it is associated with an increased risk of perioperative complications and mortality. We report a case of a patient with an ascending aortic aneurysm, who had been implanted with an aortic mechanical valve (Lillehei-Kaster 16 ECC) 37 years earlier. PMID:26336465

  11. Early outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis: single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Engin; Kele?, Telat; Durmaz, Tahir; Akay, Murat; Ayhan, Hseyin; Bayram, Nihal Akar; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Ba?tu?, Serdal; Bilen, Emine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a promising alternative to high risk surgical aortic valve replacement. The procedure is mainly indicated in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who cannot undergo surgery or who are at very high surgical risk. Aim Description early results of our single-center experience with balloon expandable aortic valve implantation. Material and methods Between July 2011 and August 2012, we screened in total 75 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis and high risk for surgery. Twenty-one of them were found ineligible for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) because of various reasons, and finally we treated a total of 54 patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) who could not be treated by open heart surgery (inoperable) because of high-risk criteria. The average age of the patients was 77.4 7.1; 27.8% were male and 72.2% were female. The number of patients in NYHA class II was 7 while the number of patients in class III and class IV was 47. Results The average mortality score of patients according to the STS scoring system was 8.5%. Pre-implantation mean and maximal aortic valve gradients were measured as 53.2 14.1 mm Hg and 85.5 18.9 mm Hg, respectively. Post-implantation mean and maximal aortic valve gradients were 9.0 3.0 and 18.2 5.6, respectively (p < 0.0001). The left ventricular ejection fraction was calculated as 54.7 14.4% before the operation and 58.0 11.1% after the operation (p < 0.0001). The duration of discharge after the operation was 5.29 days, and a statistically significant correlation between the duration of discharge after the operation and STS was found (r = 0385, p = 0.004). Conclusions We consider that with decreasing cost and increasing treatment experience, TAVI will be used more frequently in broader indications. Our experience with TAVI using the Edwards-Sapien XT (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) devices suggests that this is an effective and relatively safe procedure for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis in suitable patients. PMID:25061453

  12. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement - pros and cons of keyhole aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarczyk, Marcin; Sza?a?ski, Przemys?aw; Zembala, Micha?; Filipiak, Krzysztof; Karolak, Wojciech; Wojarski, Jacek; Garbacz, Marcin; Kaczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Kwiecie?, Anna; Zembala, Marian

    2015-06-01

    Over the last twenty years, minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) has evolved into a safe, well-tolerated and efficient surgical treatment option for aortic valve disease. It has been shown to reduce postoperative morbidity, providing faster recovery and rehabilitation, shorter hospital stay and better cosmetic results compared with conventional surgery. A variety of minimally invasive accesses have been developed and utilized to date. This concise review demonstrates and discusses surgical techniques used in contemporary approaches to MIAVR and presents the most important results of MIAVR procedures. PMID:26336491

  13. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement – pros and cons of keyhole aortic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Szałański, Przemysław; Zembala, Michał; Filipiak, Krzysztof; Karolak, Wojciech; Wojarski, Jacek; Garbacz, Marcin; Kaczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Kwiecień, Anna; Zembala, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) has evolved into a safe, well-tolerated and efficient surgical treatment option for aortic valve disease. It has been shown to reduce postoperative morbidity, providing faster recovery and rehabilitation, shorter hospital stay and better cosmetic results compared with conventional surgery. A variety of minimally invasive accesses have been developed and utilized to date. This concise review demonstrates and discusses surgical techniques used in contemporary approaches to MIAVR and presents the most important results of MIAVR procedures. PMID:26336491

  14. Mechano-Potential Etiologies of Aortic Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Merryman, W. David

    2009-01-01

    Aortic valve leaflets experience varying applied loads during the cardiac cycle. These varying loads act on both cells types of the leaflets, endothelial and interstitial cells, and cause molecular signaling events that are required for repairing the leaflet tissue, which is continually damaged from the applied loads. However, with increasing age, this reparative mechanism appears to go awry as valve interstitial cells continue to remain in their ‘remodeling’ phenotype and subsequently cause the tissue to become stiff, which results in heart valve disease. The etiology of this disease remains elusive; however, multiple clues are beginning to coalesce and mechanical cues are turning out to be large predicators of cellular function in the aortic valve leaflets, when compared to the cells from pulmonary valve, which is under a significantly less demanding mechanical loading regime. Finally this paper discusses the mechanical environment of the constitutive cell populations, mechanobiological processes that are currently unclear, and a mechano-potential etiology of aortic disease will be presented. PMID:19811785

  15. Hemodynamics and Mechanobiology of Aortic Valve Inflammation and Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Balachandran, Kartik; Sucosky, Philippe; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac valves function in a mechanically complex environment, opening and closing close to a billion times during the average human lifetime, experiencing transvalvular pressures and pulsatile and oscillatory shear stresses, as well as bending and axial stress. Although valves were originally thought to be passive pieces of tissue, recent evidence points to an intimate interplay between the hemodynamic environment and biological response of the valve. Several decades of study have been devoted to understanding these varied mechanical stimuli and how they might induce valve pathology. Here, we review efforts taken in understanding the valvular response to its mechanical milieu and key insights gained from in vitro and ex vivo whole-tissue studies in the mechanobiology of aortic valve remodeling, inflammation, and calcification. PMID:21760982

  16. Noggin attenuates the osteogenic activation of human valve interstitial cells in aortic valve sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Paolo; Sainger, Rachana; Branchetti, Emanuela; Grau, Juan B.; Lai, Eric K.; Gorman, Robert C.; Sacks, Michael S.; Parolari, Alessandro; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Ferrari, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Aims Aortic valve sclerosis (AVSc) is a hallmark of several cardiovascular conditions ranging from chronic heart failure and myocardial infarction to calcific aortic valve stenosis (AVS). AVSc, present in 25–30% of patients over 65 years of age, is characterized by thickening of the leaflets with marginal effects on the mechanical proprieties of the valve making its presentation asymptomatic. Despite its clinical prevalence, few studies have investigated the pathogenesis of this disease using human AVSc specimens. Here, we investigate in vitro and ex vivo BMP4-mediated transdifferentiation of human valve interstitial cells (VICs) towards an osteogenic-like phenotype in AVSc. Methods and results Human specimens from 60 patients were collected at the time of aortic valve replacement (AVS) or through the heart transplant programme (Controls and AVSc). We show that non-calcified leaflets from AVSc patients can be induced to express markers of osteogenic transdifferentiation and biomineralization through the combinatory effect of BMP4 and mechanical stimulation. We show that BMP4 antagonist Noggin attenuates VIC activation and biomineralization. Additionally, patient-derived VICs were induced to transdifferentiate using either cell culture or a Tissue Engineering (TE) Aortic Valve model. We determine that while BMP4 alone is not sufficient to induce osteogenic transdifferentiation of AVSc-derived cells, the combinatory effect of BMP4 and mechanical stretch induces VIC activation towards a phenotype typical of late calcified stage of the disease. Conclusion This work demonstrates, for the first time using AVSc specimens, that human sclerotic aortic valves can be induced to express marker of osteogenic-like phenotype typical of advanced severe aortic stenosis. PMID:23483047

  17. Multi-modality imaging of the aortic valve in the era of transcatheter aortic valve replacement: a guide for patient selection, valve selection, and valve delivery.

    PubMed

    Ragosta, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Aortic stenosis is a common condition traditionally treated surgically. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an exciting and new method allowing treatment of high risk and inoperable patients. Multimodality imaging is extremely important in the preprocedural evaluation, the performance of the procedure, and the post-procedural assessment and includes transthoracic echocardiography, transesophageal echocardiography, conventional angiography, multi-detector computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance. This paper will review the role of various imaging modalities during the phases of the TAVR procedure with an emphasis on the advantages and limitations of each approach. PMID:23943424

  18. Thrombogenic potential of Innovia polymer valves versus Carpentier-Edwards Perimount Magna aortic bioprosthetic valves.

    PubMed

    Claiborne, Thomas E; Girdhar, Gaurav; Gallocher-Lowe, Siobhain; Sheriff, Jawaad; Kato, Yasushi P; Pinchuk, Leonard; Schoephoerster, Richard T; Jesty, Jolyon; Bluestein, Danny

    2011-01-01

    Trileaflet polymeric prosthetic aortic valves (AVs) produce hemodynamic characteristics akin to the natural AV and may be most suitable for applications such as transcatheter implantation and mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices. Their success has not yet been realized due to problems of calcification, durability, and thrombosis. We address the latter by comparing the platelet activation rates (PARs) of an improved polymer valve design (Innovia LLC) made from poly(styrene-block-isobutylene-block-styrene) (SIBS) with the commercially available Carpentier-Edwards Perimount Magna Aortic Bioprosthetic Valve. We used our modified prothrombinase platelet activity state (PAS) assay and flow cytometry methods to measure platelet activation of a pair of 19 mm valves mounted inside a pulsatile Berlin left ventricular assist device (LVAD). The PAR of the polymer valve measured with the PAS assay was fivefold lower than that of the tissue valve (p = 0.005) and fourfold lower with flow cytometry measurements (p = 0.007). In vitro hydrodynamic tests showed clinically similar performance of the Innovia and Magna valves. These results demonstrate a significant improvement in thrombogenic performance of the polymer valve compared with our previous study of the former valve design and encourage further development of SIBS for use in heart valve prostheses. PMID:20930618

  19. Pathophysiological Implications of Different Bicuspid Aortic Valve Configurations

    PubMed Central

    Kari, F. A.; Beyersdorf, F.; Siepe, M.

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous types of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) configurations. Recent findings suggest that various BAV types represent different pathophysiological substrates on the aortic media level. Data imply that the BAV type is probably not related to location and extent of the aneurysm. However, BAV type is likely linked to the severity of aortic media disease. Some BAVs with raphe seem more aggressive than BAV without a raphe. Cusp fusion pattern, altered hemodynamics, and the qualitative severity of the disease in the aortic media might on the one hand share the same substrate. On the other hand, the aortopathy's longitudinal extent and location may represent a different pathophysiological substrate, probably dictated by the heritable aspects of BAV disease. The exact nature of the relation between BAV type and the aneurysm's location and extent as well as to the risk of aortic complications remains unclear. This paper reviews results of recent human and experimental studies on the significance of BAV types for local aortic media disease and location and extent of the aortopathy. We describe the known and hypothesized hemodynamic and hereditary factors that may result in aortic aneurysm formation in BAV patients. PMID:22685682

  20. Simulations of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Implications for Aortic Root Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Kodali, Susheel; Primiano, Charles; Sun, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Aortic root rupture is one of the most severe complications of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The mechanism of this adverse event remains mostly unknown. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the biomechanical interaction between the tissue and stent for patients with a high risk of aortic rupture. Methods We simulated the stent deployment process of three TAVI patients with high aortic rupture risk using finite element method. The first case was a retrospective analysis of an aortic rupture case, while the other two cases were prospective studies, which ended with one cancelled procedure and one successful TAVI. Simulation results were evaluated for the risk of aortic root rupture, as well as coronary artery occlusion, and paravalvular leak. Results For Case 1, the simulated aortic rupture location was the same as clinical observations. From the simulation results, it can be seen that the large calcified spot on the interior of the left coronary sinus between coronary ostium and the aortic annulus was pushed by the stent, causing the aortic rupture. For Case 2 and Case 3, predicated results from the simulations were presented to the clinicians at pre-procedure meetings; and they were in agreement with clinicians observations and decisions. Conclusions Our results indicated that the engineering analysis could provide additional information to help clinicians evaluate complicated, high risk aortic rupture cases. Since a systematic study of a large patient cohort of aortic rupture is currently not available (due to the low occurrence rate) to clearly understand underlying rupture mechanisms, case by case engineering analysis is recommended for evaluating patient-specific aortic rupture risk. PMID:24736808

  1. Rare Mycotic Aneurysm of the Mitral Valve without Aortic Valve Involvement.

    PubMed

    Zarrini, Parham; Elboudwarej, Omeed; Luthringer, Daniel; Siegel, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Mycotic aneurysms can be a rare, but serious complication of infectious endocarditis. We report the case of a 20-year-old woman who presented with fever and malaise from streptococcal bacteremia and found to have vegetation on the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. On follow-up visit, the patient was noted to have a mycotic aneurysm of the anterior mitral valve without aortic involvement. Her clinical course was complicated by mitral valve chordal rupture, severe mitral regurgitation, and dyspnea from severe mitral regurgitation for which she underwent successful surgical repair of the mitral valve. PMID:25881967

  2. Mixed aortic valve disease in the young: initial observations.

    PubMed

    Hill, Allison C; Brown, David W; Colan, Steven D; Gauvreau, Kimberly; del Nido, Pedro J; Lock, James E; Rathod, Rahul H

    2014-08-01

    The short-term surgical results for mixed aortic valve disease (MAVD) and the long-term effects on the left ventricle (LV) are unknown. Retrospective review identified patients with at least both moderate aortic stenosis (AS) and aortic regurgitation (AR) before surgical intervention. A one-to-one comparison cohort of patients with MAVD not referred for surgical intervention was identified. The 45 patients in this study underwent surgical management for MAVD. A control group of 45 medically managed patients with MAVD also was identified. Both groups had elevated LV end-diastolic volume (EDV), elevated LV mass, a normal LV mass:volume ratio (MVR), and a normal ejection fraction. Both groups had diastolic dysfunction shown by early diastolic pulsed-Doppler mitral inflow/early diastolic tissue Doppler velocity z-score. The LV end-diastolic pressure (EDP) was correlated with age (R = 0.4; p = 0.03) and LV MVR (R = 0.4; p = 0.03) but not with AS, AR, or the score combining gradient and LV size. As shown by 6- to 12-month postoperative echocardiograms, aortic valve gradients and AR significantly improved (gradient 65 17 to 28 18 mmHg, p = 0.01; median regurgitation grade moderate to mild; p < 0.01), LV EDV normalized, and LV mass significantly improved (p < 0.01). Diastolic dysfunction was unchanged. Symptoms did not correlate with any measured parameter, but the preoperative symptoms resolved. In conclusion, despite diastolic dysfunction, systolic function is invariably preserved, and symptoms are not correlated with aortic valve function or LV EDP. Current surgical practice preserves LV mechanics and results in short-term improvement in valve function and symptoms. PMID:24563072

  3. Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation versus reoperative conventional aortic valve replacement: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dong-Fang; Wang, Nelson; Huo, Ya Ruth; Di Eusanio, Marco; Yan, Tristan D.

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter valve-in-valve (VIV) implantation for degenerated aortic bioprostheses has emerged as a promising alternative to redo conventional aortic valve replacement (cAVR). However there are concerns surrounding the efficacy and safety of VIV. This systematic review aims to compare the outcomes and safety of transcatheter VIV implantation with redoes cAVR. Six databases were systematically searched. A total of 18 relevant studies (823 patients) were included. Pooled analysis demonstrated VIV achieved significant improvements in mean gradient (38 mmHg preoperatively to 15.2 mmHg postoperatively, P<0.001) and peak gradient (59.2 to 23.2 mmHg, P=0.0003). These improvements were similar to the outcomes achieved by cAVR. The incidence of moderate paravalvular leaks (PVL) were significantly higher for VIV compared to cAVR (3.3% vs. 0.4%, P=0.022). In terms of morbidity, VIV had a significantly lower incidence of stroke and bleeding compared to redo cAVR (1.9% vs. 8.8%, P=0.002 & 6.9% vs. 9.1%, P=0.014, respectively). Perioperative mortality rates were similar for VIV (7.9%) and redo cAVR (6.1%, P=0.35). In conclusion, transcatheter VIV implantation achieves similar haemodynamic outcomes, with lower risk of strokes and bleeding but higher PVL rates compared to redo cAVR. Future randomized studies and prospective registries are essential to compare the effectiveness of transcatheter VIV with cAVR, and clarify the rates of PVLs. PMID:26904259

  4. Imaging to select and guide transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Zamorano, Jos Luis; Gonalves, Alexandra; Lang, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is indicated for patients with severe aortic stenosis and high or prohibitive surgical risk. Patients selection requires clinical and anatomical selection criteria, being the later determined by multimodality imaging evaluation. Echocardiography, multislice computed tomography (MSCT), angiography, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) are the methods available to determine the anatomical suitability for the procedure. Imaging assists in the selection of bioprosthesis type, prosthetic sizing and in the decision of the best vascular access. In this review, we present our critical appraisal on the use of imaging to best patients selection and procedure guidance in TAVI. PMID:24459198

  5. Homograft Aortic Root Replacement with Saphenous Vein Graft Hemi-Cabrol for Prosthetic Aortic Valve Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Dimarakis, Ioannis; Wooldridge, Wilfred J.; Kadir, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    A 44-year-old female presented with prosthetic valve endocarditis with periannular abscess involving the left coronary ostium. We describe cryopreserved aortic homograft root replacement with hemi-Cabrol reimplantation of the left coronary ostium using the long saphenous vein. PMID:26798762

  6. A rare complication with Edwards Sapien: aortic valve embolization in TAVI.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, Hseyin; Durmaz, Tahir; Kele?, Telat; Kasapkara, Hac? Ahmet; Erdo?an, Kemal E?ref; Bozkurt, Engin

    2015-02-01

    One of the problems is valve embolization at the time of transcatheter aortic valve implantation, which is a rare but serious complication. In this case, we have shown balloon expandable aortic valve embolization TAVI which is a rare complication and we managed with second valve without surgery. Although there is not enough experience in the literature, embolized valve was re-positioned in the arch aorta between truncus brachiocephalicus and left common carotid artery. PMID:24788062

  7. The pericardial valve in the aortic position ten years later.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Lavin, L; Gonzalez-Lavin, J; Chi, S; Lewis, B; Amini, S; Graf, D

    1991-01-01

    To assess the behavior of the pericardial valve at 10 years after implantation, the cases of 240 patients who had undergone aortic valve replacement with the standard Ionescu-Shiley (Shiley, Inc., Irvine, Calif.) bovine pericardial valve between February 1977 and December 1983 were reassessed. Follow-up of the 224 hospital survivors was 99.6% complete. Fifty-seven valve-related events occurred. Fourteen were thrombotic events (1.2%/patient-year), 28 were intrinsic tissue failures (2.4%/patient-year), 13 were cases of prosthetic valve endocarditis (1.1%/patient-year), and 2 were paravalvular leaks (0.17%/patient-year). The linearized rate for death, reoperation, or both resulting from valve-related events was 3.6%/patient-year. Time-related hazard function for the instantaneous risk of death and/or reoperation resulting from valve-related events demonstrated an exponential increase after 80 months. These data, in conjunction with our previous reports on the histologic changes in pericardial collagen and the incidence of calcification (26/28), should be considered regarding new and future generations of pericardial bioprostheses. Although this device provides good hemodynamics and carries a low incidence of thromboembolism, it has a limited durability. New generations of pericardial valves may have improved structural features, but the behavior of glutaraldehyde-fixed, formaldehyde-stored bovine pericardium as currently selected and prepared is unlikely to change. PMID:1986172

  8. Histological changes in the aortic valve after balloon dilatation: evidence for a delayed healing process.

    PubMed Central

    van den Brand, M; Essed, C E; Di Mario, C; Plante, S; Mochtar, B; de Feyter, P J; Suryapranata, H; Serruys, P W

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether balloon dilatation of the aortic valve induces long-term macroscopic or histological changes or both to explain the restenosis process. DESIGN--Prospective study of 39 consecutive patients. Sixteen later (mean (SD) 12 (10) months) required operation. This non-randomised subgroup was compared with 10 patients who had aortic valve replacement without prior dilatation. SETTING--University cardiology and cardiac surgery centre and pathology department. PATIENTS--16 patients who had aortic valve replacement because of failure of or restenosis after balloon dilatation of the aortic valve. Twelve resected valves were examined. INTERVENTIONS--Percutaneous balloon dilatation of the aortic valve (maximal balloon size: trefoil 3 x 12 mm balloon or bifoil 2 x 19 mm balloon) and surgical inspection before excision of the aortic valve leaflets during open-chest aortic valve replacement. Fixation, decalcification, and staining for histology. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Presence of long-term pathological changes in the resected valve and their relation to restenosis after balloon dilatation. RESULTS--Macroscopically the previously dilated valves were indistinguishable from valves from the patients who had valve replacement only. Microscopically, the dilated aortic valves showed areas of young scar tissue that were not seen in a control group of surgically excised stenotic aortic valves. This persistent scarring reaction was seen around small tears or lacerations of the collagenous valve stroma, fractures in calcified areas, and splits in commissures. Young scar tissue without collagenisation was still present 24 months after dilatation. CONCLUSION--Organisation and collagenisation of scar tissue develops slowly after balloon dilatation of the aortic valve. This prolonged scarring reaction may explain the late development of restenosis in some patients. Images PMID:1622692

  9. Minimally invasive primary aortic valve surgery: the OLV Aalst experience

    PubMed Central

    van der Merwe, Johan; Stockman, Bernard; Van Praet, Frank; Beelen, Roel; Maene, Lieven; Vermeulen, Yvette; Degrieck, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate our in-hospital outcomes with primary J-sternotomy aortic valve surgery since the initiation of our program in 1997. Methods Between October 1st 1997 and August 31st 2014, 768 patients (mean age: 69.111.2 years, 46.6% females, 15.6% aged greater than 80 years) underwent primary JS-AVS. Additional risk factors included diabetes mellitus (n=98, 12.2%), peripheral vascular disease (n=42, 5.5%) and body mass index greater than 30 (n=144, 18.8%). The mean logistical EuroSCORE I was 5.46%4.5%. Results Aortic valve replacement and repair were performed in 758 (98.7%) and 10 (1.3%) patients respectively, for isolated valve stenosis (n=472, 61.8%), incompetence (n=56, 7.3%) and mixed valve disease (n=236, 30.9%). Valve pathology included sclerosis (n=516, 67.2%), rheumatic disease (n=110, 14.3%) and endocarditis (n=10, 1.3%). Reasons for conversion to full sternotomy (n=23, 3.0%) included porcelain ascending aorta (n=3, 0.4%), inadequate visualization (n=2, 0.3%) and intra-operative complications (n=18, 2.3%). Mean length of hospital stay was 11.07.4 days. Morbidity included stroke (n=15, 2.0%), revision or re-exploration (n=52, 6.8%), atrial fibrillation (n=201, 26.2%) and sternitis (n=5, 0.7%). In-hospital mortality was 1.6% (n=12). Overall survival at 30 days was 98.0%. Conclusions JS-AVS is safe and is our routine approach for isolated aortic valve disease. Procedure related mortality is lower than predicted, conversion rates limited and significant morbidity minimal. PMID:25870811

  10. HISTOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF ATHEROSCLEROTIC AND SENILE CALCIFIC AORTIC VALVE STENOSIS.

    PubMed

    Saladze, T; Gogiashvili, L; Tsagareli, Z; Bakhutashvili, Z; Kavtaradze, T

    2015-01-01

    THE GOAL OF THIS STUDY: description of morphogenesis aortic valve stenosis in the senile and vice atherosclerotic aortic valve and definition inflammatory processes in them, improving pathology-anatomic diagnostic, macro- and microscopic examination of the stage of development of atherosclerotic plaques in the operating material fragments of aortic valve on the basis of morphological (histochemical and immunohistochemical studies by using markers CD31, VEGF) and idiopathic characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques, the differential diagnosis of the degree of calcification of the aortic valve in the atherogenic and idiopathic aortic stenosis. Calcification in senile aortic stenosis is characterized by three main parameters: infiltration of inflammatory cells, while senile origin stenosis observed the potential growth of angiogenesis. In endothelial walls of the aortic valve imunnhistochemicaly revealed high expression of endothelial and panendothelial growth factors. We have investigated aortic valve leaflets which were obtained from patients undergoing aortic valve replacement. Total 65 Patients (there age were from 54-84 year), 35 male and 30 female. The results indicate that senile lesion of aortic valve leaflets have several features including: sclera-fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, new vessels formation and calcification which also are present in clinically stenotic valves cased by atherosclerosis. As a result of overlap clinical factors within atherosclerosis and senile calcific disease may be determined such as factors contributing progress of obstruction and vice versa, morphological pre-conditions for occlusion of thrombosis and blood vessels that will become significant part of strategy on treatment of wall structure stability and post-operation treatment. PMID:26177142

  11. Perinatal Changes in Mitral and Aortic Valve Structure and Composition

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Elizabeth H.; Post, Allison D.; Laucirica, Daniel R.; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2015-01-01

    At birth, the mechanical environment of valves changes radically as fetal shunts close and pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances change. Given that valves are reported to be mechanosensitive, we investigated remodeling induced by perinatal changes by examining compositional and structural differences of aortic and mitral valves (AVs, MVs) between 2-day-old and 3rd fetal trimester porcine valves using immunohistochemistry and Movat pentachrome staining. Aortic valve composition changed more with birth than the MV, consistent with a greater change in AV hemodynamics. At 2 days, AV demonstrated a trend of greater versican and elastin (P = 0.055), as well as greater hyaluronan turnover (hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis, P = 0.049) compared with the 3rd-trimester samples. The AVs also demonstrated decreases in proteins related to collagen synthesis and fibrillogenesis with birth, including procollagen I, prolyl 4-hydroxylase, biglycan (all P ≤ 0.005), and decorin (P = 0.059, trend). Both AVs and MVs demonstrated greater delineation between the leaflet layers in 2-day-old compared with 3rd-trimester samples, and AVs demonstrated greater saffron-staining collagen intensity, suggesting more mature collagen in 2-day-old compared with 3rd-trimester samples (each P < 0.05). The proportion of saffron-staining collagen also increased in AV with birth (P < 0.05). The compositional and structural changes that occur with birth, as noted in this study, likely are important to proper neonatal valve function. Furthermore, normal perinatal changes in hemodynamics often do not occur in congenital valve disease; the corresponding perinatal matrix maturation may also be lacking and could contribute to poor function of congenitally malformed valves. PMID:20536360

  12. Open valvotomy for aortic valve stenosis in newborns and infants.

    PubMed

    Hraska, Viktor; Photiadis, Joachim; Arenz, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    The most appropriate management of aortic stenosis in children remains controversial. Both balloon and surgical valvotomy are firmly established as effective initial treatments with encouraging survival rates even in the troublesome neonatal group. Improved early results are based rather on the better understanding of the limits of a biventricular repair than on the method of treatment. Valvotomy of any kind is a palliative procedure and reintervention remains frequent. Direct surgical intervention, where exact splitting of fused commissures and shaving off of obstructing nodules can produce a better valve with maximum valve orifice without causing regurgitation, might offer superior longer-lasting results in comparison with blind ballooning. PMID:24414321

  13. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement: the Miami Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    For patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR), a minimally invasive approach performed via a right anterior thoracotomy is the preferred method at our institution. This method has evolved over a 10-year span, being applied to over 1,500 patients with the commitment of one surgeon seeking to offer a simplistic and reproducible minimally invasive alternative. We believe that this is truly the least invasive approach to the aortic valve since it avoids sternal invasion. By virtue of being less traumatic, the morbidity is diminished and therefore the recovery is enhanced. We believe that this approach is most beneficial in the high risk patient such as the elderly, the obese, those with chronic obstructive pulmonary, chronic kidney disease and those requiring re-operative surgery. This method has proven to be safe and effective in all patients requiring isolated AVR surgery. The only relative exclusion criteria would be a porcelain aorta with the inability to cannulate the patient. PMID:25694981

  14. Neisseria elongata endocarditis of a native aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Samannodi, Mohammed; Vakkalanka, Sujit; Zhao, Andrew; Hocko, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria elongata is a part of the common bacterial flora of the oropharynx but has caused sepsis, osteomyelitis and infective endocarditis on rare occasions. We report the case of a 56-year-old Caucasian woman who was admitted to hospital with a 5-week history of fever, malaise and fatigue. Two blood cultures grew Gram-negative rods which were confirmed to be N. elongata subspecies nitroreducens via bacterial DNA sequence analysis. An echocardiogram showed a large mobile vegetation on the right and non-coronary cusps of the aortic valve. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement and antibiotic therapy for 6 weeks. We suggest that clinicians should consider extended antibiotic treatment and early surgical evaluation based on the nature and aggressiveness of N. elongata. PMID:26917793

  15. The alternative approach to transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Kornowski, Ran

    2016-02-01

    An alternative route for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is needed whenever transfemoral vascular access is not feasible. The choice of alternative access differs between centers and depends mainly on the operators' preferences and site-specific expertise of the "heart team." In a multi-center Italian Registry, the alternative access site (transapical vs. trans-subclavian) was not an independent predictor of short- or long-term mortality. PMID:26876512

  16. Valve Sparing Aortic Root Replacement in Children with Loeys-Dietz Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sim, Hyung-Tae; Seo, Dong Ju; Yu, Jeong Jin; Baek, Jae Suk; Goo, Hyn Woo; Park, Jeong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder that is characterized by aggressive arterial and aortic disease, often involving the formation of aortic aneurysms. We describe the cases of two children with LDS who were diagnosed with aortic root aneurysms and successfully treated by valve-sparing aortic root replacement (VSRR) with a Valsalva graft. VSRR is a safe and suitable operation for children that avoids prosthetic valve replacement. PMID:26290839

  17. Starr-Edwards valves at the aortic and mitral positions implanted for 39 years.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Shun-ichi; Aizawa, Kei; Kaminishi, Yuichiro; Muraoka, Arata; Misawa, Yoshio

    2011-06-01

    Cloth-covered Starr-Edwards caged ball valves implanted in the aortic and mitral valve positions for 39 years were extracted. Both showed valve dysfunction resulting from pannus overgrowth. The metal cages of the Starr-Edwards valves were covered with worn cloth. This case indicates the extended durability of Starr-Edwards valves and the importance of the design and materials of prosthetic heart valves to avoid pannus overgrowth and prosthetic valve abrasion. PMID:21674313

  18. Importance of venting the left ventricle in aortic valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Tempe, D K; Khanna, S K; Banerjee, A

    1999-01-01

    Routine use of left ventricular vent is controversial in patients undergoing open heart surgery. However, surgeons use it during valvular surgery to maintain a dry field to make the operation easier. In addition it helps to prevent left ventricular distention during the critical period of rewarming and reperfusion, if ventricular function does not return immediately following the release of aortic cross clamp. In our country, patients present for valvular surgery at a very late stage and they often have severe left ventricular hypertrophy. This may affect the return of cardiac rhythm after the release of aortic cross clamp with progressive left ventricular distention. In the authors' experience, insertion of left ventricular vent through the apex is occasionally necessary to decompress the left ventricle as the left atrial vent usually fails to do so. This paper deals with retrospective analysis of the seven patients (out of a total of 395 patients who underwent valve surgery) who required insertion of left ventricular vent through the apex and reviews the beneficial effects of an apical left ventricular vent under refractory circumstances. It is recommended that insertion of left ventricular vent through apex should be strongly considered in patients having severe aortic valve disease with hypertrophied hearts, if cardiac rhythm in not restored with conventional management with left atrial vent and 3 to 5 DC shocks following the release of aortic cross clamp. PMID:10721645

  19. Cognitive Outcomes following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ka Sing Paris; Herrmann, Nathan; Saleem, Mahwesh; Lanctt, Krista L.

    2015-01-01

    Severe aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in the elderly in the Western world and contributes to a large proportion of all deaths over the age of 70. Severe aortic stenosis is conventionally treated with surgical aortic valve replacement; however, the less invasive transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is suggested for those at high surgical risk. While TAVI has been associated with improved survival and favourable outcomes, there is a higher incidence of cerebral microembolisms in TAVI patients. This finding is of concern given mechanistic links with cognitive decline, a symptom highly prevalent in those with cardiovascular disease. This paper reviews the literature assessing the possible link between TAVI and cognitive changes. Studies to date have shown that global cognition improves or remains unchanged over 3 months following TAVI while individual cognitive domains remain preserved over time. However, the association between TAVI and cognition remains unclear due to methodological limitations. Furthermore, while these studies have largely focused on memory, cognitive impairment in this population may be predominantly of vascular origin. Therefore, cognitive assessment focusing on domains important in vascular cognitive impairment, such as executive dysfunction, may be more helpful in elucidating the association between TAVI and cognition in the long term. PMID:25785192

  20. Reported Outcome After Valve-Sparing Aortic Root Replacement for Aortic Root Aneurysm: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Arabkhani, Bardia; Mookhoek, Aart; Di Centa, Isabelle; Lansac, Emmanuel; Bekkers, Jos A; De Lind Van Wijngaarden, Rob; Bogers, Ad J J C; Takkenberg, Johanna J M

    2015-09-01

    Valve-sparing aortic root techniques have progressively gained ground in the treatment of aortic root aneurysm and aortic insufficiency. By avoiding anticoagulation therapy they offer a good alternative to composite graft replacement. This systematic review describes the reported outcome of valve-sparing aortic root replacement, focusing on the remodeling and reimplantation technique. A systematic literature search on the characteristics of and outcomes after valve-sparing aortic root replacement revealed 1,659 articles. The inclusion criteria were a focus on valve-sparing aortic root replacement in adults with aortic root aneurysm, presentation of survival data, and inclusion of at least 30 patients. Data were pooled by inverse variance weighting and analyzed by linear regression. Of 1,659 articles published between January 1, 2000, and January 1, 2014, 31 were included (n = 4,777 patients). The mean age at operation was 51 14.7 years, and 14% of patients had a bicuspid aortic valve. The reimplantation technique was used in 72% and remodeling in 27% (1% other). No clinical advantage in terms of survival and reoperation of one technique over the other was found. Cusp repair was performed in 33%. Pooled early mortality was 2% (n = 103). During follow-up (21,716 patient-years), 262 patients died (survival 92%), and 228 (5%) underwent reoperation, mainly valve replacement. Major adverse valve-related events were low (1.66% patient-years). Preoperative severe aortic valve regurgitation showed a trend toward higher reoperation rate. Remodeling and reimplantation techniques show comparable survival and valve durability results, providing a valid alternative to composite valve replacement. The heterogeneity in the data underlines the need for a collaborative effort to standardize outcome reporting. PMID:26228603

  1. New St. Jude Medical Portico transcatheter aortic valve: features and early results.

    PubMed

    Spence, M S; Lyons, K; McVerry, F; Smith, B; Manoharan, G B; Maguire, C; Doherty, R; Anderson, L; Morton, A; Hughes, S; Hoeritzauer, I; Manoharan, G

    2013-06-01

    Patients with symptomatic aortic valve disease who are inoperable or have high surgery-related risks may be treated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation devices. With this method increasingly applied, device innovations are aimed at achieving improved procedural results and therapeutic outcome. This paper describes the innovations implemented in the St. Jude Medical Portico system for transcatheter aortic valve implantation, the application of this system and initial clinical experience. PMID:23681129

  2. Total endoscopic sutureless aortic valve replacement: rationale, development, perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fuzellier, Jean-Francois; Campisi, Salvatore; Grinberg, Daniel; Albertini, Jean-Nol; Morel, Jerme; Gerbay, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter valve implantation is progressively becoming the first line option for high risk patients in the management of severe aortic valve stenosis. Surgery is likely to remain the gold standard treatment option for intermediate risk patients since it ensures ablation of the underlying pathology and the calcified aortic valvular tissue, which potentially can act as a nidus of chronic embolization and provoke neurocognitive dysfunction in this subset of active patients. The surgical approach is continually evolving, with sutureless technology having the potential to facilitate ministernotomy and minithoracotomy approaches. Furthermore, Nitinol stented models can be introduced through thoracoscopic trocars, enabling the evolution of totally endoscopic aortic valve replacement (TEAVR). We present herein the development of TEAVR, starting from the cadaver experience in our lab. We transitioned through a clinical minithoracotomy video-assisted experience until we finally could initiate a program of human sutureless TEAVR. The limitations of this approach, which is still in refinement, and possible innovative solutions in order to build up a quick and reproducible procedure are discussed. PMID:25870813

  3. Circulating matrix metalloproteinase patterns in association with aortic dilatation in bicuspid aortic valve patients with isolated severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongshi; Wu, Boting; Dong, Lili; Wang, Chunsheng; Wang, Xiaolin; Shu, Xianhong

    2014-10-18

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) exhibits a clinical incline toward aortopathy, in which aberrant tensile and shear stress generated by BAV can induce differential expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). Whether stenotic BAV, which exhibits additional eccentric high-velocity flow jet upon ascending aorta and further worsens circumferential systolic wall shear stress than BAV with echocardiographically normal aortic valve, can lead to unique plasma MMP/TIMP patterns is still unknown. According to their valvulopathy and aortic dilatation status, 93 BAV patients were included in the present study. Group A (n=37) and B (n=28) comprised severely stenotic patients with or without ascending aorta dilatation; Group C (n=12) and D (n=16) comprised echocardiographically normal BAV patients with or without ascending aorta dilatation. Plasma MMP/TIMP levels (MMP-1, -2, -3, -8, -9, -10, -13 and TIMP-1, -2, -4) were determined via a multiplex ELISA detection system in a single procedure. Among patients with isolated severe aortic stenosis, plasma levels of MMP-2 and -9 were significantly elevated when ascending aortic dilatation was present (p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). MMP-2, however, remained as the single elevated plasma component among echocardiographically normal BAV patients with dilated ascending aorta (p=0.027). Multivariate analysis revealed that MMP-2 and MMP-9 could both serve as independent risk factor for aortic dilatation in the case of isolated severe stenosis (p=0.003 and p=0.001, respectively), and MMP-2 in echocardiographically normal patients (p=0.002). In conclusion, BAV patients with isolated severe aortic stenosis demonstrated a distinct plasma MMP/TIMP pattern, which might be utilized as circulating biomarkers for early detection of aortic dilatation. PMID:25325992

  4. Apicoaortic Valve Conduit for a Patient with Aortic Valve Stenosis and Patent Coronary Bypass Grafts Using Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Shackelford, Anthony G.; Relle, Margaret A.; Lombardi, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: In adults over 65 years of age, aortic valve stenosis has been found to be present in 29% within this group. Furthermore, aortic valve replacements in patients whom have had a previous coronary artery bypass grafting surgery have a mortality rate as high as 18%. A non-conventional effective surgical approach of bypassing the aortic valve by inserting an apicoaortic valve conduit (AVC) connecting the left ventricular apex to the descending thoracic aorta has been previously documented. We describe the case of a successful implantation of an AVC in a 64-year-old Caucasian male using cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:26834287

  5. Calcification Characteristics of Low-Flow Low-Gradient Severe Aortic Stenosis in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Sthli, Barbara E.; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Gebhard, Cathrine; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Tanner, Felix C.; Nietlispach, Fabian; Maisano, Francesco; Falk, Volkmar; Lscher, Thomas F.; Maier, Willibald; Binder, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    Low-flow low-gradient severe aortic stenosis (LFLGAS) is associated with worse outcomes. Aortic valve calcification patterns of LFLGAS as compared to non-LFLGAS have not yet been thoroughly assessed. 137 patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with preprocedural multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and postprocedural transthoracic echocardiography were enrolled. Calcification characteristics were assessed by MDCT both for the total aortic valve and separately for each leaflet. 34 patients had LFLGAS and 103 non-LFLGAS. Total aortic valve calcification volume (p < 0.001), mass (p < 0.001), and density (p = 0.004) were lower in LFLGAS as compared to non-LFLGAS patients. At 30-day follow-up, mean transaortic pressure gradients and more than mild paravalvular regurgitation did not differ between groups. In conclusion, LFLGAS and non-LFLGAS express different calcification patterns which, however, did not impact on device success after TAVR. PMID:26435875

  6. Double orifice mitral valve and bicuspid aortic valve: pieces of the same single puzzle?

    PubMed

    ?ayl?k, Faysal; Mutluer, Ferit Onur; Tosu, Ayd?n; Seluk, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Double orifice mitral valve is a very rare congenital abnormality. Well known associations of this pathology with other congenital lesions point to a complex and central pathophysiological mechanism leading to a sequence of pathologies. These associations have long been realized and arbitrarily defined as Shone complex. We would like to present a 21-year-old patient with double orifice mitral valve associated with bicuspid aortic valve, with a brief review of the literature on possible central mechanisms leading to different subsets of congenital abnormalities involving these two. PMID:25949830

  7. Double Orifice Mitral Valve and Bicuspid Aortic Valve: Pieces of the Same Single Puzzle?

    PubMed Central

    ?ayl?k, Faysal; Mutluer, Ferit Onur; Tosu, Ayd?n; Seluk, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Double orifice mitral valve is a very rare congenital abnormality. Well known associations of this pathology with other congenital lesions point to a complex and central pathophysiological mechanism leading to a sequence of pathologies. These associations have long been realized and arbitrarily defined as Shone complex. We would like to present a 21-year-old patient with double orifice mitral valve associated with bicuspid aortic valve, with a brief review of the literature on possible central mechanisms leading to different subsets of congenital abnormalities involving these two. PMID:25949830

  8. Transcatheter ACURATE-TA Aortic Valve Implantation in a Patient With a Previous Mechanical Mitral Valve.

    PubMed

    Bagur, Rodrigo; Kiaii, Bob; Teefy, Patrick J; Diamantouros, Pantelis; Harle, Christopher; Goela, Aashish; Chan, Ian; Chu, Michael W A

    2015-11-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in the presence of a mechanical mitral valve (MMV) prosthesis is still challenging because of the rigid mitral frame within the aortomitral curtain. Moreover, low-lying coronary ostia represent a hazardous problem of coronary obstruction, especially in narrow or porcelain aortic roots. The present case demonstrates the successful management of 2 challenging anatomical issues, the rigid cage of the MMV and the low-lying left main coronary ostium (LMCO), with the implantation of the ACURATE-TA bioprosthesis (Symetis SA, Ecublens, Switzerland). It also highlights the importance of having multiple TAVI devices in order to choose the ideal transcatheter aortic bioprosthesis to fit the unique anatomical presentation of the patient. PMID:26522576

  9. Calcific aortic valve disease: A consensus summary from the Alliance of Investigators on Calcific Aortic Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yutzey, Katherine E.; Demer, Linda L.; Body, Simon C.; Huggins, Gordon S.; Towler, Dwight A.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.; Hofmann-Bowman, Marion A.; Mortlock, Douglas P.; Rogers, Melissa B.; Sadeghi, Mehran M.; Aikawa, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Calcific Aortic Valve Disease (CAVD) is increasingly prevalent worldwide with significant morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic options beyond surgical valve replacement are currently limited. In 2011, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute assembled a working group on aortic stenosis. This group identified CAVD as an actively regulated disease process in need of further study. As a result, the Alliance of Investigators on CAVD was formed to coordinate and promote CAVD research, with the goals of identifying individuals at risk, developing new therapeutic approaches, and improving diagnostic methods. The group is composed of cardiologists, geneticists, imaging specialists, and basic science researchers. This report reviews the current status of CAVD research and treatment strategies with identification of areas in need of additional investigation for optimal management of this patient population. PMID:25189570

  10. Contemporary Use of Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty in the Era of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Dawn S.; Shavelle, David M.; Cunningham, Mark J.; Matthews, Ray V.; Starnes, Vaughn A.

    2014-01-01

    The development of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has increased the use of balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) in treating aortic stenosis. We evaluated our use of BAV in an academic tertiary referral center with a developing TAVI program. We reviewed 69 consecutive stand-alone BAV procedures that were performed in 62 patients (mean age, 77 10 yr; 62% men; baseline mean New York Heart Association functional class, 3 1) from January 2009 through December 2012. Enrollment for the CoreValve clinical trial began in January 2011. We divided the study cohort into 2 distinct periods, defined as pre-TAVI (20092010) and TAVI (20112012). We reviewed clinical, hemodynamic, and follow-up data, calculating each BAV procedure as a separate case. Stand-alone BAV use increased 145% from the pre-TAVI period to the TAVI period. The mean aortic gradient reduction was 13 10 mmHg. Patients were successfully bridged as intended to cardiac or noncardiac surgery in 100% of instances and to TAVI in 60%. Five patients stabilized with BAV subsequently underwent surgical aortic valve replacement with no operative deaths. The overall in-hospital mortality rate (17.4%) was highest in emergent patients (61%). The implementation of a TAVI program was associated with a significant change in BAV volumes and indications. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty can successfully bridge patients to surgery or TAVI, although least successfully in patients nearer death. As TAVI expands to more centers and higher-risk patient groups, BAV might become integral to collaborative treatment decisions by surgeons and interventional cardiologists. PMID:25425977

  11. Asymptomatic Strut Fracture in DeBakey-Surgitool Aortic Valves

    PubMed Central

    Von Der Emde, Jrgen; Eberlein, Ulrich; Breme, Jrgen

    1990-01-01

    From August 1971 through November 1972, we implanted 62 Model 2 DeBakey-Surgitool aortic valve prostheses in 62 patients, 4 of whom later had clinically asymptomatic strut fractures. In 1 case, the patient died suddenly, and autopsy revealed detachment of the ball-cage; in each of the other 3 cases, fractures of 2 struts close to the base of the prosthesis were diagnosed fluoroscopically, and the patients underwent successful reoperation. The interval between implantation and reoperation ranged from 11 months to 16 years, 9 months. In 1 patient, retrospective study of chest radiographs revealed that the fracture had been present for 2 years. Larger valves (? A6) were affected significantly more often than smaller ones. We performed metallurgic analysis of 1 prosthesis: results revealed strut wear from fatigue cracking and secondary abrasion. Strut fracture was also promoted by suspension of the cage at right angles to the prosthetic ring and by use of a pyrolytic carbon ball in a titanium cage (i.e., an occluder harder than its holder). Patients with DeBakey-Surgitool aortic valve prostheses should undergo annual radiologic examinations to enable early detection of strut fractures. Prophylactic valve replacement is not indicated. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1990;17:223-7) Images PMID:15227175

  12. Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis with Valvular Obstruction after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Gitler, Bernard; Lederman, Jeffrey A.; Miller, Donald; Keltz, Theodore N.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at high risk for open-heart surgery might be candidates for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). To our knowledge, this is the first report of Streptococcus viridans endocarditis that caused prosthetic valve obstruction after TAVR. A 77-year-old man who had undergone TAVR 17 months earlier was admitted because of evidence of prosthetic valve endocarditis. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a substantial increase in the transvalvular peak gradient and mean gradient in comparison with an echocardiogram of 7 months earlier. A transesophageal echocardiogram showed a 1.5-cm vegetation obstructing the valve. Blood cultures yielded penicillin-sensitive S. viridans. The patient was hemodynamically stable and was initially treated with vancomycin because of his previous penicillin allergy. Subsequent therapy with levofloxacin, oral penicillin (after a negative penicillin skin test), and intravenous penicillin eliminated the symptoms of the infection. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is a relatively new procedure, and sequelae are still being discovered. We recommend that physicians consider obstructive endocarditis as one of these. PMID:25873834

  13. Bicuspid aortic valves are associated with increased wall and turbulence shear stress levels compared to trileaflet aortic valves.

    PubMed

    Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Mirabella, Lucia; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2015-06-01

    Congenital bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs) are associated with accelerated disease progression, such as leaflet calcification and ascending aorta dilatation. Although common underlying genetic factors have been implicated in accelerated disease in BAV patients, several studies have suggested that altered hemodynamics also play a role in this disease process. The present study compares turbulence and wall shear stress (WSS) measurements between various BAV and trileaflet aortic valve (TAV) models to provide information for mechanobiological models of BAV disease. BAV and TAV models were constructed from excised porcine aortic valves to simulate parametric variations in BAV stenosis, hemodynamics and geometry. Particle image velocimetry experiments were conducted at physiological pressure conditions to characterize velocity fields in the ascending aorta. The velocity fields were post-processed to calculate turbulence, viscous and wall shear stresses in the ascending aorta. Stenosed BAV models showed the presence of eccentric systolic jets, causing increased WSS. Lower cardiac output resulted in a narrower jet, lower turbulence and lower viscous shear stress (VSS). The specific severe stenosis BAV model studied here showed reduced WSS due to reduction in non-fused leaflet mobility. Dilation of the aorta did not affect any turbulence or VSS, but reduced the WSS. In comparison with BAVs, TAVs have similar VSS values, but much smaller WSS and turbulence levels. These increased turbulence and WSS levels in BAVs may play a key role in amplifying the biological responses of the ascending aorta wall and valvular leaflets, and support the hemodynamic underpinnings of BAV disease processes. PMID:25262451

  14. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in a Patient With a Previous Bioprosthetic Mitral Valve Replacement: Report of a Delayed Fatal Interaction.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Frdric; Lamarche, Yoan; Le, Van Hoai Viet; Doucet, Michel; Romo, Philippe; Gnreux, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    We report on a man with bioprosthetic mitral valve perforation who presented late after transcatheter aortic valve replacement with a balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valve (THV). The protrusion of the commissural strut of the bioprosthetic mitral valve coupled with the low implanted THV resulted in repetitive trauma leading to rupture of a mitral leaflet. Potential preventive strategies are discussed. This case illustrates the importance of preprocedural imaging screening and cautious THV deployment in patients with a bioprosthetic mitral valve. PMID:26319966

  15. Aortic Dilation in Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease: Flow Pattern Is a Major Contributor and Differs with Valve Fusion Type

    PubMed Central

    Bissell, Malenka M.; Hess, Aaron T.; Biasiolli, Luca; Glaze, Steffan J.; Loudon, Margaret; Pitcher, Alex; Davis, Anne; Prendergast, Bernard; Markl, Michael; Barker, Alex J.; Neubauer, Stefan; Myerson, Saul G

    2013-01-01

    Background Ascending aortic dilation is important in bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV), with increased risk of aortic dissection. We used cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to understand the pathophysiology better by examining the links between 3-dimensional flow abnormalities, aortic function and aortic dilation. Methods and Results 142 subjects underwent CMR (mean age 40 years; 95 with BAV, 47 healthy volunteers [HV]). BAV patients had predominantly abnormal right-handed helical flow in the ascending aorta, larger ascending aortas (18.3 3.3 vs. 15.2 2.2mm/m2, p<0.001), and higher rotational (helical) flow (31.7 15.8 vs. 2.9 3.9mm2/s, p<0.001), systolic flow angle (23.1 12.5 vs. 7.0 4.6, p<0.001) and systolic wall shear stress (WSS) (0.85 0.28 vs. 0.59 0.17N/m2, p<0.001) compared to HV. BAV with right-handed flow and right-non coronary cusp fusion (n= 31) showed more severe flow abnormalities (rotational flow 38.5 16.5 vs. 27.8 12.4mm2/s, p<0.001; systolic flow angle 29.4 10.9 vs. 19.4 11.4, p<0.001; in-plane WSS 0.64 0.23 vs. 0.47 0.22N/m2, p<0.001) and larger aortas (19.5 3.4 vs. 17.5 3.1mm/m2, p<0.05) than right-left cusp fusion (n=55). BAV patients with normal flow patterns had similar aortic dimensions and WSS to HV and younger BAV patients showed abnormal flow patterns but no aortic dilation, both further supporting the importance of flow pattern in the etiology of aortic dilation. Aortic function measures (distensibility, aortic strain and pulse wave velocity) were similar across all groups. Conclusions Flow abnormalities may be a major contributor to aortic dilation in BAV. Fusion type affects the severity of flow abnormalities, and may allow better risk prediction and selection of patients for earlier surgical intervention. PMID:23771987

  16. Simulation of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in patient-specific aortic roots: Effect of crimping and positioning on device performance.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Matteo; Ghosh, Ram P; Marom, Gil; Slepian, Marvin J; Bluestein, Danny

    2015-08-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a cardiovascular condition that causes the progressive narrowing of the aortic valve (AV) opening, due to the growth of bone-like deposits all over the aortic root (AR). Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), a minimally invasive procedure, has recently become the only lifesaving solution for patients that cannot tolerate the standard surgical valve replacement. However, adverse effects, such as AR injury or paravalvular leakage (PVL), may occur as a consequence of a sub-optimal procedure, due to the presence of calcifications in situ. Additionally, the crimping required for delivering the valve via stenting may damage the valve. The aim of the present study is to comparatively assess the crimping mechanics of the commercialized Edwards SAPIEN valve and an alternative polymeric valve (Polynova, Inc) and to evaluate the effect of different TAVR deployment positions using patient-specific numerical models. The optimal deployment location for achieving better patient outcomes was calculated and based on the interactions between the TAVR stent and the native AR. Results demonstrated that the Polynova valve withstands the crimping process better than the SAPIEN valve. Furthermore, deployment simulations showed the role that calcifications deposits may play in the TAVR sub-optimal valve anchoring to the AV wall, leading to the presence of gaps that result in PVL. PMID:26736255

  17. A second-time percutaneous aortic-valve implantation for bioprosthetic failure

    PubMed Central

    Codner, Pablo; Assali, Abid; Vaknin Assa, Hana; Kornowski, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We report a case of an 84-year-old man with a history of surgical aortic-valve replacement for chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) who later developed severe prosthetic valve AR. Subsequent treatment with a Corevalve was unsuccessful with severe AR seen at 3years after the valve-in-valve procedure. The patient was then successfully treated with a second catheter-based Corevalve implantation. PMID:26401281

  18. Apicoaortic conduit and cerebral perfusion in mixed aortic valve disease: a computational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fragomeni, Gionata; Rossi, Michele; Condemi, Francesca; Mazzitelli, Rosario; Serraino, Giuseppe Filiberto; Renzulli, Attilio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The revival of the apicoaortic conduit has attracted new interest in this alternative treatment for severe aortic stenosis unsuitable for conventional valve replacement. However, doubts still exist about the perfusion of the epiaortic vessels after apicoaortic conduit implantation, especially when severe aortic stenosis is associated with aortic valve insufficiency. The aim of the study was to evaluate the perfusion of the epiaortic vessels (innominate artery, left carodit artery and left subclavian artery) in cases of mixed aortic valve disease before and after apicoaortic conduit implantation. METHODS Starting from the data of a real patient with severe aortic stenosis and mild aortic insufficiency who underwent apicoaortic conduit implantation, we created a computational model where severe aortic valve stenosis was associated with different grades of aortic insufficiency (mild, medium and moderate). RESULTS A total of six combinations were analysed. In all simulations, the more severe the concomitant aortic insufficiency, the more the flow through the epiaortic vessels was diminished. After apicoaortic conduit implantation, there was an absolute augmentation of the median output in each epiaortic vessel compared with the same combination of mixed aortic valve disease before implantation. Interestingly, retrograde flow from the conduit in the descending aorta was minimal and did not contribute to the improved output of the epiaortic vessels. CONCLUSIONS The computational analysis suggested a protective effect, rather than steal phenomenon, of the apicoaortic conduit towards the cerebral perfusion, even in cases of mixed aortic valve disease. PMID:23962852

  19. The influence of the aortic root geometry on flow characteristics of a prosthetic heart valve.

    PubMed

    Barannyk, Oleksandr; Oshkai, Peter

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, performance of aortic heart valve prosthesis in different geometries of the aortic root is investigated experimentally. The objective of this investigation is to establish a set of parameters, which are associated with abnormal flow patterns due to the flow through a prosthetic heart valve implanted in the patients that had certain types of valve diseases prior to the valve replacement. Specific valve diseases were classified into two clinical categories and were correlated with the corresponding changes in aortic root geometry while keeping the aortic base diameter fixed. These categories correspond to aortic valve stenosis and aortic valve insufficiency. The control case that corresponds to the aortic root of a patient without valve disease was used as a reference. Experiments were performed at test conditions corresponding to 70 beats/min, 5.5 L/min target cardiac output, and a mean aortic pressure of 100 mmHg. By varying the aortic root geometry, while keeping the diameter of the orifice constant, it was possible to investigate corresponding changes in the levels of Reynolds shear stress and establish the possibility of platelet activation and, as a result of that, the formation of blood clots. PMID:25661845

  20. Feature identification for image-guided transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Pencilla; Rajchl, Martin; McLeod, A. Jonathan; Chu, Michael W.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a less invasive alternative to open-heart surgery, and is critically dependent on imaging for accurate placement of the new valve. Augmented image-guidance for TAVI can be provided by registering together intra-operative transesophageal echo (TEE) ultrasound and a model derived from pre-operative CT. Automatic contour delineation on TEE images of the aortic root is required for real-time registration. This study develops an algorithm to automatically extract contours on simultaneous cross-plane short-axis and long-axis (XPlane) TEE views, and register these features to a 3D pre-operative model. A continuous max-flow approach is used to segment the aortic root, followed by analysis of curvature to select appropriate contours for use in registration. Results demonstrate a mean contour boundary distance error of 1.3 and 2.8mm for the short and long-axis views respectively, and a mean target registration error of 5.9mm. Real-time image guidance has the potential to increase accuracy and reduce complications in TAVI.

  1. INCLUDING AORTIC VALVE MORPHOLOGY IN COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS: INITIAL FINDINGS AND APPLICATION TO AORTIC COARCTATION

    PubMed Central

    Wendell, David C.; Samyn, Margaret M.; Cava, Joseph R.; Ellwein, Laura M.; Krolikowski, Mary M.; Gandy, Kimberly L.; Pelech, Andrew N.; Shadden, Shawn C.; LaDisa, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations quantifying thoracic aortic flow patterns have not included disturbances from the aortic valve (AoV). 80% of patients with aortic coarctation (CoA) have a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) which may cause adverse flow patterns contributing to morbidity. Our objectives were to develop a method to account for the AoV in CFD simulations, and quantify its impact on local hemodynamics. The method developed facilitates segmentation of the AoV, spatiotemporal interpolation of segments, and anatomic positioning of segments at the CFD model inlet. The AoV was included in CFD model examples of a normal (tricuspid AoV) and a post-surgical CoA patient (BAV). Velocity, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), and oscillatory shear index (OSI) results were compared to equivalent simulations using a plug inlet profile. The plug inlet greatly underestimated TKE for both examples. TAWSS differences extended throughout the thoracic aorta for the CoA BAV, but were limited to the arch for the normal example. OSI differences existed mainly in the ascending aorta for both cases. The impact of AoV can now be included with CFD simulations to identify regions of deleterious hemodynamics thereby advancing simulations of the thoracic aorta one step closer to reality. PMID:22917990

  2. Twenty-Two-Year Experience with Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Pilegaard, Hans K.; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Torsten T.; Magnussen, Karin; Knudsen, Mary A.; Albrechtsen, Ole K.

    1991-01-01

    From 1965 through 1986, 817 patients underwent aortic valve replacement at our institution. Six hundred forty-five patients received Starr-Edwards ball valves, including 286 Silastic ball valves (Models 1200/1260), 165 cloth-covered caged-ball prostheses (Models 2300/2310/2320), and 194 track-valve prostheses (Model 2400). In contrast, 172 patients received disc-valve prostheses, including 126 St. Jude Medical aortic bi-leaflet disc valves, 32 Lillehei-Kaster pivoting disc valves, and 14 Bjrk-Shiley valves (6 convexoconcave and 8 monostrut). With respect to preoperative data, the 2 groups were comparable, with the following differences. The Starr-Edwards group included 1) more men (77% versus 51%; p < 0.0001); 2) a significantly older patient population (59 10 years versus 56 15 years; p < 0.0001); 3) more patients in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV (72% versus 65%; p < 0.01); 4) fewer patients with angina pectoris as a limiting symptom (20% versus 36%; p < 0.0001); and 5) patients who tended to receive larger prostheses (26 2 mm versus 23 3 mm, p < 0.0001). The overall 10-year survival rate standard error was 59% 2% for patients receiving Starr-Edwards valves and 63% 6% for those with disc valves. The linearized complication rates (expressed as percentage per patient-year standard error) for the Starr-Edwards and disc-valve groups, respectively, were 2.0% 0.2% and 1.4% 0.5% for thromboembolism, 2.1% 0.2% and 3.9% 0.8% for Coumadin-related hemorrhage, 0.5% 0.1% and 0.3% 0.2% for endocarditis, 0.3% 0.1% and 0.7% 0.3% for other prosthesis-related complications, and 4.8% 0.1% and 6.4% 1.0% for all complications together. There were no instances of thrombotic occlusion or mechanical failure. After the 6th postoperative year, no thromboembolic events were encountered in patients with a Silastic ball valve; the 15-year freedom from thromboembolic events was 89%. Cox regression analysis showed that 1) a prosthetic orifice diameter of 15 mm or less was associated with an increased mortality; 2) disc valves entailed an increased rate of hemorrhage and prosthesis-related complications considered as a whole; 3) and Lillehei-Kaster valves led to an increased rate of prosthesis-related complications other than thromboembolism, hemorrhage, and endocarditis. Neither the type of prosthesis nor the size influenced the rate of thromboembolism, endocarditis, or prosthesis replacement. Because of their proven durability and relatively low price, we advocate the continued use of Starr-Edwards Model 1260 Silastic ball valves that have an orifice diameter of 16 mm or more. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1991;18:24-33) PMID:15227505

  3. Extracellular matrix in deoxycholic acid decellularized aortic heart valves

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Oliver; Erdbrgger, Wilhelm; Vlker, Wolfgang; Schenk, Alexander; Posner, Steffen; Konertz, Wolfgang; Dohmen, Pascal M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Only limited information is available regarding the influence of decellularization on the extracellular matrix in heart valves. Within the extracellular matrix proteoglycans (PG) play a central role in the structural organization and physical functioning of valves and in their capability of settling with endothelial and interstitial cells partially myofibroblasts. We have therefore estimated the effects of decellularization using deoxycholic acid on the structure of the extracellular matrix and PGs in porcine aortic valves. Material/Methods Cupromeronic blue was used, alone or in combination with OsO4/thio-carbo-hydrazide/OsO4 for electron microscopic visualization. For PG and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) investigation a papain digestion was employed in combination with photometric determination using dimethylmethylene blue. Results The results indicate that deoxycholic acid affects the compartmentation of the PG-associated interstitial network not significantly. Compared to controls the PG-rich network was preserved even after deoxycholic acid treatment for 48 h. In parallel to electron microscopy immune assays (ELISA) showed smooth muscle cell ?-actin to be reduced to 0.96%0.71 and total soluble protein to 6.68%2.0 (n=3) of untreated controls. Protein loss corresponded well with the observations in electron micrographs of rupture and efflux of cell content. Further signs of lysis were irregular cell contours and loss of the basement membrane. Conclusions Efficient cell-lysis without disintegration or loss of integrity of the interstitial PG network can be achieved by treatment of aortic valves with deoxycholic acid for 48h. This protocol might also be suitable for clinical use to optimize conditions for growth and autologous remodelling of valves. PMID:23207452

  4. Association of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol–Related Genetic Variants With Aortic Valve Calcium and Incident Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. Gustav; Luk, Kevin; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Engert, James C.; Do, Ron; Hindy, George; Rukh, Gull; Dufresne, Line; Almgren, Peter; Owens, David S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Peloso, Gina M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Wong, Quenna; Smith, Albert V.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Rich, Stephen; Kathiresan, Sekar; Orho-Melander, Marju; Gudnason, Vilmundur; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Post, Wendy S.; Thanassoulis, George

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with aortic stenosis in observational studies; however, randomized trials with cholesterol-lowering therapies in individuals with established valve disease have failed to demonstrate reduced disease progression. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether genetic data are consistent with an association between LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or triglycerides (TG) and aortic valve disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Using a Mendelian randomization study design, we evaluated whether weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs), a measure of the genetic predisposition to elevations in plasma lipids, constructed using single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies for plasma lipids, were associated with aortic valve disease. We included community-based cohorts participating in the CHARGE consortium (n = 6942), including the Framingham Heart Study (cohort inception to last follow-up: 1971-2013; n = 1295), Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012; n = 2527), Age Gene/Environment Study-Reykjavik (2000-2012; n = 3120), and the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS, 1991-2010; n = 28 461). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Aortic valve calcium quantified by computed tomography in CHARGE and incident aortic stenosis in the MDCS. RESULTS The prevalence of aortic valve calcium across the 3 CHARGE cohorts was 32% (n = 2245). In the MDCS, over a median follow-up time of 16.1 years, aortic stenosis developed in 17 per 1000 participants (n = 473) and aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis occurred in 7 per 1000 (n = 205). Plasma LDL-C, but not HDL-C or TG, was significantly associated with incident aortic stenosis (hazard ratio [HR] per mmol/L, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.04-1.57; P = .02; aortic stenosis incidence: 1.3% and 2.4% in lowest and highest LDL-C quartiles, respectively). The LDL-C GRS, but not HDL-C or TG GRS, was significantly associated with presence of aortic valve calcium in CHARGE (odds ratio [OR] per GRS increment, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.09-1.74; P = .007) and with incident aortic stenosis in MDCS (HR per GRS increment, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.22-6.37; P = .02; aortic stenosis incidence: 1.9% and 2.6% in lowest and highest GRS quartiles, respectively). In sensitivity analyses excluding variants weakly associated with HDL-C or TG, the LDL-C GRS remained associated with aortic valve calcium (P = .03) and aortic stenosis (P = .009). In instrumental variable analysis, LDL-C was associated with an increase in the risk of incident aortic stenosis (HR per mmol/L, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.07-2.14; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Genetic predisposition to elevated LDL-C was associated with presence of aortic valve calcium and incidence of aortic stenosis, providing evidence supportive of a causal association between LDL-C and aortic valve disease. Whether earlier intervention to reduce LDL-C could prevent aortic valve disease merits further investigation. PMID:25344734

  5. In vitro Models of Aortic Valve Calcification: Solidifying a System

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Meghan A.; Merryman, W. David

    2014-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) affects 25% of people over 65, and the late-stage stenotic state can only be treated with total valve replacement, requiring 85,000 surgeries annually in the US alone [1]. As CAVD is an age-related disease, many of the affected patients are unable to undergo the open-chest surgery that is its only current cure. This challenge motivates the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in calcification, with the eventual goal of alternative preventative and therapeutic strategies. There is no sufficient animal model of CAVD, so we turn to potential in vitro models. In general, in vitro models have the advantages of shortened experiment time and better control over multiple variables compared to in vivo models. As with all models, the hypothesis being tested dictates the most important characteristics of the in vivo physiology to recapitulate. Here, we collate the relevant pieces of designing and evaluating aortic valve calcification so that investigators can more effectively draw significant conclusions from their results. PMID:25249188

  6. Nanocomposite biomaterial mimicking aortic heart valve leaflet mechanical behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, H

    2011-07-01

    The main problem with polymeric heart valves (which are already biocompatible) is that they usually fail in the long term owing to tearing and calcification of the leaflets under high dynamic tensile bending stress and oxidative reactions with blood. To overcome this shortcoming, it is hypothesized that synthetic valve leaflets which mimic native valve leaflet structure fabricated from fibre-reinforced composite material will optimize leaflet stresses and decrease tears and perforations. The objective of this study is to develop a PVA-BC (polyvinyl alcohol-bacterial cellulose)-based hydrogel that mimics not only the non-linear mechanical properties displayed by porcine heart valves, but also their anisotropic behaviour. By applying a controlled strain to the PVA samples, while undergoing low-temperature thermal cycling, it was possible to create oriented mechanical properties in PVA hydrogels. The oriented stress-strain properties of porcine aortic valves were matched simultaneously by a PVA hydrogel (15 per cent PVA, 0.5 BC cycle 4, 75 per cent initial tensile strain). This novel technique allows the control of anisotropy to PVA hydrogel, and gives a broad range of control of its mechanical properties, for specific medical device applications. PMID:21870379

  7. Analysis of aortic valve gradients by transseptal technique: implications for noninvasive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J B; Folland, E D

    1989-07-01

    The peak instantaneous aortic valve gradient derived from Doppler echocardiography is commonly used to predict the severity of aortic stenosis. Peak instantaneous gradient should not be equated with the mean gradient or "peak to peak" gradient measured at cardiac catheterization. The primary purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between the aortic valve gradients, using a two-catheter transseptal technique in 102 patients with aortic stenosis, mixed aortic stenosis and regurgitation, and following aortic valve replacement. These cases were drawn from a series of 111 consecutive transseptal procedures for patients with isolated aortic valve disease. No major complications occurred, and the most common reason for technical failure was inability to engage the atrial septum in postoperative patients. Although the peak instantaneous gradient correlates well with the mean gradient in aortic stenosis (r = .94, P less than .001), mixed stenosis and regurgitation (r = .95, P less than .001), and after aortic valve replacement (r = .86, P less than .001), it systematically overestimates both the mean gradient and the peak to peak gradient. Neither the peak instantaneous nor the mean gradient correlates highly with aortic valve area in aortic stenosis (r = -.48, P less than .01 peak; r = -.58, P less than .001 mean gradient), mixed aortic stenosis and regurgitation (r = -.39, P NS peak; r = -.42, P NS mean gradient) or following aortic valve replacement (r = -.26, P NS peak; r = -.53, P less than .01 mean gradient). Systolic time intervals also were analyzed from the simultaneous left ventricular and ascending aortic pressure tracings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2766343

  8. Morphology of congenital and acquired aortic valve disease by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Looi, Jen-Li; Kerr, Andrew J; Gabriel, Ruvin

    2015-11-01

    Echocardiography is the principal non-invasive tool for initial evaluation and longitudinal monitoring of patients with significant valvular heart disease. However echocardiography can be limited by poor acoustic windows, and is dependent on the skill and experience of the sonographer. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can provide a comprehensive non-invasive assessment of valvular morphology, quantification of the severity of valvular dysfunction, determination of its aetiology, assessment of the consequences for the heart from the valve lesion including measurement of ventricular volumes and function, and evaluation of haemodynamic abnormalities. Additional information such as great vessel anatomy and the presence of coronary disease and myocardial scar can also be obtained from CMR. Aortic valve disease can manifest as aortic regurgitation, aortic stenosis or a mixture of both. Structural abnormalities of the valve (congenital or acquired) or disease of the aorta (structurally normal valve) can cause aortic valve disease. This review describes the role of CMR in evaluation of patients with aortic valve diseases, and illustrates the typical and distinguishing morphological features seen on CMR in a range of congenital and some common acquired aortic valve lesions. Although CMR can provide important information about the morphology of aortic valve, its full potential has yet to be realised, and further studies of clinical outcomes are needed before CMR data can be integrated into the management of patients with significant aortic valvular lesions. PMID:26255206

  9. Multi-detector CT angiography of the aortic valvePart 2: disease specific findings

    PubMed Central

    Ganeshan, Arul

    2014-01-01

    The aortic valve and adjacent structures should be routinely evaluated on all thoracic cross-sectional imaging studies. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the main imaging techniques used for assessment of the aortic valve and related pathology but multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) can offer valuable complimentary information in some clinical scenarios. MDCT is the definite means of assessing aortic valvular calcification, acute aortic syndrome and for non-invasive assessment of the coronary arteries. MDCT also has an emerging role in the planning and follow-up of trans-catheter aortic valve replacement. This article reviews the spectrum of aortic valve disease highlighting the key MDCT imaging features. PMID:25202663

  10. Type A dissection and fistula to right atrium after aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ming-Yuan; Hsieh, Shih-Rong

    2016-05-01

    A 73-year-old man with a history of severe aortic regurgitation underwent aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis. Nine years later, he presented with heart failure and was diagnosed with chronic type A dissection and severe aortic stenosis. During surgery, a fistula from the ascending aortic aneurysm to the right atrium was found incidentally. Replacement of the aortic valve and ascending aorta were performed successfully. The fistula was closed with sutures. The patient was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 16. PMID:25406403

  11. Acute kidney injury after transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Wahlers, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Even though experience and techniques have constantly improved over the last years, peri- and postprocedural complications in high risk TAVI-collectives remain a major issue affecting outcome and survival. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and effects outcome and survival. However, the definition of AKI in published studies dealing with the phenomenon of AKI after TAVI varies widely and lacks standardization. This Review aims to present an overview over the current literature concerning AKI after TAVI with regard to the definition of AKI, the impact of AKI on mortality and potential risk factors for renal impairment after TAVI. PMID:26543598

  12. Cardiac amyloidosis as a potential risk factor for transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Monticelli, Fabio C; Kunz, Sebastian N; Keller, Thomas; Bleiziffer, Sabine

    2014-09-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation via transarterial or transapical access is an alternative therapy to treat high-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. Despite growing experience, procedural complications may still occur. We herein report an 86-year-old female patient with fatal left ventricular rupture after transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation with an Edwards Sapien prosthesis due to severe cardiac amyloidosis. PMID:24641304

  13. 6-month aortic valve implantation of an off-the-shelf tissue-engineered valve in sheep.

    PubMed

    Syedain, Zeeshan; Reimer, Jay; Schmidt, Jillian; Lahti, Matthew; Berry, James; Bianco, Richard; Tranquillo, Robert T

    2015-12-01

    Diseased aortic valves often require replacement, with over 30% of the current aortic valve surgeries performed in patients who will outlive a bioprosthetic valve. While many promising tissue-engineered valves have been created in the lab using the cell-seeded polymeric scaffold paradigm, none have been successfully tested long-term in the aortic position of a pre-clinical model. The high pressure gradients and dynamic flow across the aortic valve leaflets require engineering a tissue that has the strength and compliance to withstand high mechanical demand without compromising normal hemodynamics. A long-term preclinical evaluation of an off-the-shelf tissue-engineered aortic valve in the sheep model is presented here. The valves were made from a tube of decellularized cell-produced matrix mounted on a frame. The engineered matrix is primarily composed of collagen, with strength and organization comparable to native valve leaflets. In vitro testing showed excellent hemodynamic performance with low regurgitation, low systolic pressure gradient, and large orifice area. The implanted valves showed large-scale leaflet motion and maintained effective orifice area throughout the duration of the 6-month implant, with no calcification. After 24 weeks implantation (over 17 million cycles), the valves showed no change in tensile mechanical properties. In addition, histology and DNA quantitation showed repopulation of the engineered matrix with interstitial-like cells and endothelialization. New extracellular matrix deposition, including elastin, further demonstrates positive tissue remodeling in addition to recellularization and valve function. Long-term implantation in the sheep model resulted in functionality, matrix remodeling, and recellularization, unprecedented results for a tissue-engineered aortic valve. PMID:26409002

  14. Evaluation of biological aortic valve prostheses by dual source computer tomography and anatomic measurements for potential transapical valve-in-valve procedure.

    PubMed

    Grünenfelder, Jürg; Plass, Andre; Alkadhi, Hatem; Genoni, Michele

    2008-04-01

    Transapical aortic valve replacement has been introduced into clinical practice from which also patients with failing biological valves might profit: valve-in-valve procedure. The aim of the study was to determine the fate of biological valves in long-term follow-up (FU) and to evaluate topography and dimensions for transapical access via dual-source CT scan (DSCT). Fifty patients (mean age 76+/-13 years, range 38-87 years) underwent DSCT whereas the patients were followed for up to 13 years after porcine aortic valve replacement. Measurements of valve prosthesis and illustration of chest topography were done. Out of 46 evaluable patients, 34 showed no leaflet calcification and 12 minimally calcified. Seventeen valves (37%) showed no, 24 valves (52%) mild and 5 (11%) moderate-to-severe ring calcification. Three patients had moderate aortic stenosis, two patients showed mild insufficiency. The angle from the 4th ICS to apex to aortic valve annulus measured 80.3+/-11.1 degrees compared to the angle from the 5th ICS which measured 101.6+/-7.2 degrees (P<0.0001). Biological valves show good long-term results with minimal failure rate and limited calcification. Leaflet calcification might be problematic if unevenly distributed which can endanger the very close LCO. These measurements represent a prerequisite for preoperative planning and increase the awareness to detect potential procedural problems of the valve-in-valve concept. PMID:18218653

  15. Dynamic heart phantom with functional mitral and aortic valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannelli, Claire; Moore, John; McLeod, Jonathan; Ceh, Dennis; Peters, Terry

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac valvular stenosis, prolapse and regurgitation are increasingly common conditions, particularly in an elderly population with limited potential for on-pump cardiac surgery. NeoChord©, MitraClipand numerous stent-based transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) devices provide an alternative to intrusive cardiac operations; performed while the heart is beating, these procedures require surgeons and cardiologists to learn new image-guidance based techniques. Developing these visual aids and protocols is a challenging task that benefits from sophisticated simulators. Existing models lack features needed to simulate off-pump valvular procedures: functional, dynamic valves, apical and vascular access, and user flexibility for different activation patterns such as variable heart rates and rapid pacing. We present a left ventricle phantom with these characteristics. The phantom can be used to simulate valvular repair and replacement procedures with magnetic tracking, augmented reality, fluoroscopy and ultrasound guidance. This tool serves as a platform to develop image-guidance and image processing techniques required for a range of minimally invasive cardiac interventions. The phantom mimics in vivo mitral and aortic valve motion, permitting realistic ultrasound images of these components to be acquired. It also has a physiological realistic left ventricular ejection fraction of 50%. Given its realistic imaging properties and non-biodegradable composition—silicone for tissue, water for blood—the system promises to reduce the number of animal trials required to develop image guidance applications for valvular repair and replacement. The phantom has been used in validation studies for both TAVI image-guidance techniques1, and image-based mitral valve tracking algorithms2.

  16. Incidental Left Atrial Blood Cyst in a Patient Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Moneal; Hughes-Doichev, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Blood cysts of the heart are benign cardiovascular tumors found incidentally in approximately 50% of infants who undergo autopsy at less than 2 months of age. These congenital cysts, frequently present on the atrioventricular valves of infants, are exceedingly rare in adults. Nonetheless, in adults, cardiac blood cysts have been found on the mitral valve, papillary muscles, right atrium, right ventricle, left ventricle, and aortic, pulmonic, and tricuspid valves. Reported complications include left ventricular outflow obstruction, occlusion of the coronary arteries, valvular stenosis or regurgitation, and embolic stroke. In high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis, transcatheter aortic valve replacement has emerged as an alternative to surgical replacement. Transesophageal echocardiography plays a fundamental role in evaluating the feasibility of intraprocedural transcatheter aortic valve replacement, in measuring aortic annular size, in guiding placement of the prosthetic device, and in looking for possible complications. The embolic risk of rapid pacing and transcatheter aortic valve replacement in a patient with an intracardiac blood cyst is unknown, and such a case has not, to our knowledge, been reported heretofore. We present the case of a 78-year-old woman with severe aortic stenosis, in whom a blood cyst was incidentally found in the left atrium upon transesophageal echocardiography. She underwent successful transcatheter aortic valve replacement without embolic complication. PMID:25873801

  17. Incidental left atrial blood cyst in a patient undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Suero, Gregory; Shah, Moneal; Hughes-Doichev, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    Blood cysts of the heart are benign cardiovascular tumors found incidentally in approximately 50% of infants who undergo autopsy at less than 2 months of age. These congenital cysts, frequently present on the atrioventricular valves of infants, are exceedingly rare in adults. Nonetheless, in adults, cardiac blood cysts have been found on the mitral valve, papillary muscles, right atrium, right ventricle, left ventricle, and aortic, pulmonic, and tricuspid valves. Reported complications include left ventricular outflow obstruction, occlusion of the coronary arteries, valvular stenosis or regurgitation, and embolic stroke. In high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis, transcatheter aortic valve replacement has emerged as an alternative to surgical replacement. Transesophageal echocardiography plays a fundamental role in evaluating the feasibility of intraprocedural transcatheter aortic valve replacement, in measuring aortic annular size, in guiding placement of the prosthetic device, and in looking for possible complications. The embolic risk of rapid pacing and transcatheter aortic valve replacement in a patient with an intracardiac blood cyst is unknown, and such a case has not, to our knowledge, been reported heretofore. We present the case of a 78-year-old woman with severe aortic stenosis, in whom a blood cyst was incidentally found in the left atrium upon transesophageal echocardiography. She underwent successful transcatheter aortic valve replacement without embolic complication. PMID:25873801

  18. Aortic valve replacement with the medtronic freestyle stentless bioprosthesis.

    PubMed

    John, Alexander; Glauner, Christoph; Manoutcheri, Mohammad Ali; Ziaukas, Virgilijus; Mahesh, Gummiah Muniputtana; Warnecke, Henning

    2004-09-01

    During a five-year period from 1996 to 2000, the Medtronic Freestyle stentless bioprosthesis was implanted in 310 patients of advanced age. Age at operation ranged from 60 to 90 years (mean, 76 +/- 4 years). 191 patients were female and 119 male. All implants were done by the modified subcoronary method using our own modification which enabled an improved adaptation of the porcine aortic root to the human anatomy. Two sinuses were scalloped and the third left intact. Additional coronary bypass grafts were necessary in 129 (39%) patients and mitral valve procedures in 23 (7%). Mean perfusion time was 109 +/- 12 minutes and crossclamp time 87 +/- 8 minutes. 16 (5%) patients died perioperatively. Another 17 (5.7%) patients died during a 1 to 5.6 year follow-up (mean, 2.9 years). There was only one valve related death due to infection of the valve. In spite of the advanced age, 95% of the survivors were free from cardiac symptoms and continued to live an active and fruitful life. The biological nature of the valve and the low gradients are perhaps reasons for the good results. The long-term results are expected to be good. PMID:15353458

  19. Thrombogenic potential of transcatheter aortic valve implantation with trivial paravalvular leakage

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Rolland

    2014-01-01

    Background Significant paravalvular leakage after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) correlates with increased morbidity and mortality, but adverse consequences of trivial paravalvular leakage have stimulated few investigations. Using a unique method distinctly different from other diagnostic approaches, we previously reported elevated backflow velocities of short duration (transients) in mechanical valve closure. In this study, similar transients were found in a transcatheter valve paravalvular leakage avatar. Methods Paravalvular leakage rate (zero to 58 mL/second) and aortic valve incompetence (volumetric back flow/forward flow; zero to 32%) were made adjustable using a mock transcatheter aortic valve device and tested in quasi-steady and pulsatile flow test systems. Projected dynamic valve area (PDVA) from the back illuminated mock transcatheter aortic valve device was measured and regional backflow velocities were derived by dividing volumetric flow rate by the PDVA over the open and closing valve phase and the total closed valve area derived from backflow leakage. Results Aortic incompetence from 1-32% generated negative backflow transients from 8 to 267 meters/second, a range not dissimilar to that measured in mechanical valves with zero paravalvular leakage. Optimal paravalvular leakage was identified; not too small generating high backflow transients, not too large considering volume overload and cardiac energy loss caused by defective valve behavior and fluid motion. Conclusions Thrombogenic potential of transcatheter aortic valves with trivial aortic incompetence and high magnitude regional backflow velocity transients was comparable to mechanical valves. This may have relevance to stroke rate, asymptomatic microembolic episodes and indications for anticoagulation therapy after transcatheter valve insertion. PMID:25333018

  20. Viscoelastic Properties of the Aortic Valve Interstitial Cell

    PubMed Central

    Merryman, W. David; Bieniek, Paul D.; Guilak, Farshid; Sacks, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the mechanobiological function of the aortic valve interstitial cell (AVIC), due to its role in valve tissue homeostasis and remodeling. In a recent study we determined the relation between diastolic loading of the AV leaflet and the resulting AVIC deformation, which was found to be substantial. However, due to the rapid loading time of the AV leaflets during closure (~0.05 s), time-dependent effects may play a role in AVIC deformation during physiological function. In the present study, we explored AVIC viscoelastic behavior using the micropipette aspiration technique. We then modeled the resulting time-length data over the 100 sec test period using a standard linear solid (SLS) model which included Boltzmann superposition. To quantify the degree of creep and stress relaxation during physiological timescales, simulations of micropipette aspiration were preformed with a valve loading time of 0.05 s and a full valve closure time of 0.3 s. The 0.05 s loading simulations suggest that, during valve closure, AVICs act elastically. During diastole, simulations revealed creep (4.65%) and stress relaxation (4.39%) over the 0.3 s physiological timescale. Simulations also indicated that if Boltzmann superposition was not used in parameter estimation, as in much of the micropipette literature, creep and stress relaxation predicted values were nearly doubled (7.92% and 7.35%, respectively). We conclude that while AVIC viscoelastic effects are negligible during valve closure, they likely contribute to the deformation time-history of AVIC deformation during diastole. PMID:19275434

  1. Doppler echocardiography in normally functioning replacement aortic valves: a review of 129 studies.

    PubMed

    Rajani, Ronak; Mukherjee, Dayal; Chambers, John B

    2007-09-01

    Echocardiography is the technique of choice for the assessment of replacement aortic valves. Hemodynamic function depends on the design and size of the valve. This review summarizes the published information available to the end of 2005. The most obstructive valve was the caged-ball, followed by the stented porcine and single tilting-disc valves. The stented bovine pericardial valves were slightly less obstructive than these, and similar to the intra-annular bileaflet mechanical valves. Stentless valves appeared slightly less obstructive still, and similar to reduced-cuff mechanical bileaflet valves. Homografts were the least obstructive. Approximate guide thresholds suggesting obstruction were derived. PMID:17944125

  2. Current Clinical Evidence on Rapid Deployment Aortic Valve Replacement: Sutureless Aortic Bioprostheses.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, Glenn R; Shrestha, Malakh Lal

    2016-01-01

    Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in the Western world. It is caused primarily by age-related degeneration and progressive calcification typically detected in patients 65 years and older. In patients presenting with symptoms of heart failure, the average survival rate is only 2 years without appropriate treatment. Approximately one half of all patients die within the first 2 to 3 years of symptom onset. In addition, the age of the patients presenting for aortic valve replacement (AVR) is increased along with the demographic changes. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) database shows that the number of patients older than 80 years has increased from 12% to 24% during the past 20 years. At the same time, the percentage of candidates requiring AVR as well as concomitant coronary bypass surgery has increased from 5% to 25%. Surgical AVR continues to be the criterion standard for treatment of aortic stenosis, improving survival and quality of life. Recent advances in prosthetic valve technology, such as transcatheter AVR, have expanded the indication for AVR to the extreme high-risk population, and the most recent surgical innovation, rapid deployment AVR, provides an additional tool to the surgeons' armamentarium. PMID:26918310

  3. Superior vena cava cannulation in aortic valve surgery: an alternative strategy for a hemisternotomy approach.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Steffen; Fischlein, Theodor; Vogt, Ferdinand; Santarpino, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Minimally invasive aortic surgery is increasingly being utilized, in particular, through ministernotomy. The choice of the cannulation site is problematic. Venous cannulation may result in wound complications if the femoral vein is used, or may be bulky if the right atrial appendage is used. Our technique of superior vena cava cannulation not only avoids the risk of complications related to the groin but also provides good visualization of the aortic valve making valve implantation easier, especially when using sutureless bioprosthetic valves. PMID:25805243

  4. Traumatic rupture of Ionescu-Shiley aortic valve after the Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Passik, C S; Ackermann, D M; Piehler, J M; Edwards, W D

    1987-05-01

    A 74-year-old woman who had undergone aortic valve replacement with an Ionescu-Shiley bioprosthesis was evaluated and treated because aortic insufficiency developed after the application of the Heimlich maneuver. Pathologic examination of the explanted valve disclosed a cuspid perforation and an adjacent tear of a second cusp at its insertion into the valve strut. Patients with unexplained acute prosthetic insufficiency should be questioned as to whether the Heimlich maneuver has been previously performed. PMID:3566475

  5. Cardiac tamponade due to left ventricular pseudoaneurysm after aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Baydar, Onur; Co?kun, Ugur; Balaban, Betul; Cetin, Gurkan; Firatli, Inci; Ersanli, Murat Kazim; Kucukoglu, Mehmet Serdar

    2013-02-01

    Left ventricular outflow tract pseudoaneurysm is a rare but a potentially lethal complication, mainly after aortic root endocarditis or surgery. Usually, it originates from a dehiscence in the mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa and arises posteriorly to the aortic root. We report a rare case of a patient with cardiac tamponade due to left ventricular pseudoaneurysm after aortic valve replacement. The subsequent surgical resection was performed successfully. PMID:23439359

  6. Practical update on imaging and transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Feltes, Gisela; Nez-Gil, Ivn J

    2015-01-01

    After very rapid advances in the development of the technique and devices, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (named TAVI or TAVR), is today a reality that is here to stay. It has become the minimally-invasive treatment option for high-risk and non-surgical patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. Requiring the participation of a multidisciplinary team for its implementation, cardiac imaging plays an important role. From pre-assessment to determine the suitability of the patient, the access site, the type of device, to the guidance during the procedure, and ultimately the long term monitoring of the patient. Correct selection of the patient and device, correct placement of the stent-valve and early detection of complications are of paramount importance for procedural success and for patient outcome. Each technique has advantages and disadvantages, being the cardiologist who will determine the best approach according to the type of patient and the expertise of the center in each one of them. This article summarizes the last contributions of the most common used imaging techniques, in each step of the procedure. PMID:25914787

  7. The power of disruptive technological innovation: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Berlin, David B; Davidson, Michael J; Schoen, Frederick J

    2015-11-01

    We sought to evaluate the principles of disruptive innovation, defined as technology innovation that fundamentally shifts performance and utility metrics, as applied to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). In particular, we considered implantation procedure, device design, cost, and patient population. Generally cheaper and lower performing, classical disruptive innovations are first commercialized in insignificant markets, promise lower margins, and often parasitize existing usage, representing unattractive investments for established market participants. However, despite presently high unit cost, TAVI is less invasive, treats a "new," generally high risk, patient population, and is generally done by a multidisciplinary integrated heart team. Moreover, at least in the short-term TAVI has not been lower-performing than open surgical aortic valve replacement in high-risk patients. We conclude that TAVI extends the paradigm of disruptive innovation and represents an attractive commercial opportunity space. Moreover, should the long-term performance and durability of TAVI approach that of conventional prostheses, TAVI will be an increasingly attractive commercial opportunity. PMID:25545639

  8. Design of Bioprosthetic Aortic Valves using biaxial test data.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, Y; Paulson, K; Tyberg, J; Ronsky, J; Ali, I; Di Martino, E; Narine, K

    2015-08-01

    Bioprosthetic Aortic Valves (BAVs) do not have the serious limitations of mechanical aortic valves in terms of thrombosis. However, the lifetime of BAVs is too short, often requiring repeated surgeries. The lifetime of BAVs might be improved by using computer simulations of the structural behavior of the leaflets. The goal of this study was to develop a numerical model applicable to the optimization of durability of BAVs. The constitutive equations were derived using biaxial tensile tests. Using a Fung model, stress and strain data were computed from biaxial test data. SolidWorks was used to develop the geometry of the leaflets, and ABAQUS finite element software package was used for finite element calculations. Results showed the model is consistent with experimental observations. Reaction forces computed by the model corresponded with experimental measurements when the biaxial test was simulated. As well, the location of maximum stresses corresponded to the locations of frequent tearing of BAV leaflets. Results suggest that BAV design can be optimized with respect to durability. PMID:26737002

  9. Simultaneous transapical aortic and mitral valve-in-valve implantation for double prostheses dysfunction: case report and technical insights.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, Augusto; Zucchetta, Fabio; Gerosa, Gino

    2014-09-01

    Transcatheter "Valve-in-Valve" implantation (ViV) has shown promising results in high-risk patients suffering from structural valve deterioration (SVD) of a previously implanted heart valve bioprosthesis. We present a case of a 68-year-old woman with a history of three previous cardiac operations on the aortic and mitral valve. At the time of admission she was severely symptomatic due to a simultaneous SVD of a 23 mm aortic and of a 29 mm mitral St. Jude Biocor bioprosthesis. Because of the history of several cardiac operations and to her comorbidities, the patient was considered with an extremely high surgical risk profile and was therefore scheduled for double concomitant mitral and aortic ViV. Through a trans-apical approach, the patient underwent 23 and 29 mm Edwards Sapien XT implantation in the aortic and mitral bioprosthesis, respectively. The procedure was uneventful as well as the following hospital stay. At 6-months follow-up the patient is in NYHA class I. Echocardiography shows that the aortic bioprosthesis has no leak and the mean gradient is 20 mm Hg while the mitral valve has mild leak and maximum and mean gradients are 21 and 10 mm Hg, respectively. The three main technical aspects that should be carefully considered in double concomitant ViV are: sequence of valve deployment (whether to implant the mitral or the aortic valve first), choice of access and valve sizing. In conclusion, double simultaneous trans-apical mitral and aortic ViV is technically feasible. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24677811

  10. Elevated transaortic valvular gradients after combined aortic valve and mitral valve replacement: an intraoperative dilemma.

    PubMed

    Essandoh, Michael; Portillo, Juan; Zuleta-Alarcon, Alix; Castellon-Larios, Karina; Otey, Andrew; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B

    2015-03-01

    High transaortic valvular gradients, after combined aortic valve and mitral valve replacement, require prompt intraoperative diagnosis and appropriate management. The presence of high transaortic valvular gradients after cardiopulmonary bypass, in this setting, can be secondary to the following conditions: prosthesis dysfunction, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, supravalvular obstruction, prosthesis-patient mismatch, hyperkinetic left ventricle from administration of inotropes, left ventricular intracavitary gradients, pressure recovery phenomenon, and increased transvalvular blood flow resulting from hyperdynamic circulation or anemia. Transesophageal echocardiography is an extremely useful tool for timely diagnosis and treatment of this complication. We describe a case of a critically ill patient with endocarditis and acute lung injury, who presented for combined aortic valve and mitral valve replacement. Transesophageal echocardiographic assessment, post-cardiopulmonary bypass, revealed high transaortic valvular gradients due to encroachment of the mitral prosthesis strut on the left ventricular outflow tract, which was compounded by a small, hypertrophied, and hyperkinetic left ventricle. Discontinuation of inotropic support, administration of fluids, phenylephrine, and esmolol led to resolution of the high gradients and prevented further surgery. PMID:25549635

  11. Aortic Valve Repair: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Published Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fok, Matthew; Shaw, Matthew; Sancho, Elena; Abello, David; Bashir, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is widely accepted that aortic valve disease is surgically managed with aortic valve replacement (AVR) using different available prostheses. The long-term survival, durability of the valve, and freedom from reoperation after AVR are well established in published literature. Over the past two decades, aortic valve repair (AVr) has evolved into an accepted surgical option for patients with aortic valve disease. We review and analyze the published literature on AVr. Methods: A systematic review of the current literature was performed through three electronic databases from inception to August 2013 to identify all relevant studies relating to aortic valve repair. Articles selected were chosen by two reviewers. Articles were excluded if they contained a pediatric population or if the patient number was less than 50. Results: Twenty-four studies conformed to the inclusion criteria for inclusion in the systematic review. In total, 4986 patients underwent aortic valve repair. 7 studies represented bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) repair, 5 studies represented cusp prolapse, and 3 studies represented valve repair with root dilation or aneurysm. Overall weighted in-hospital mortality for all studies was low (1.46% ± 1.21). Preoperative aortic insufficiency (AI) ≥ 2+ did not correlate to reoperation for valve failure (Pearson's Rs 0.2705, P = 0.2585). AI at discharge was reported in 9 studies with a mean AI ≥ 2+ in 6.1% of patients. Weighted average percentage for valve reoperation following BAV repair was 10.23% ± 3.2. Weighted average reoperation following cusp prolapse repair was 3.83 ± 1.96. Weighted average reoperation in aortic valve sparing procedures with root replacement was 4.25% ± 2.46. Although there are limitations and complications of prosthetic valves, especially for younger individuals, there is ample published literature that confers strong evidence for AVR. On the contrary, aortic valve repair may be a useful option for selected patients, but there is lack of uniformity in data and absence of compelling supporting evidence. An international multi-center study comparing and assessing the results between AVR & AVr is the next step required. Currently, higher levels of evidence do not exist for aortic valve repair. PMID:26798710

  12. Anomalous origin of the left anterior descending artery from the pulmonary artery associated with bicuspid aortic valve and aortic coarctation.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew J B; Radford, Dorothy J; Jalali, Homayoun

    2003-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented with exertional palpitations and chest pain. Investigation revealed anomalous origin of his left anterior descending coronary artery from his pulmonary trunk causing myocardial ischaemia. He previously had aortic coarctation repair with known aortic root dilation and a bicuspid aortic valve. His left anterior descending artery was implanted into the aortic root using a Gortex interposition conduit. This represents an interesting combination of cardiac abnormalities for which repair required consideration of the requirement of further surgery in the future. PMID:16352110

  13. Age-related changes in aortic valve hemostatic protein regulation

    PubMed Central

    Balaoing, Liezl R.; Post, Allison D.; Liu, Huiwen; Minn, Kyung Taeck; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2015-01-01

    Objective While valvular endothelial cells (VECs) have unique responses compared to vascular ECs, valvular regulation of hemostasis is not well understood. Heart valves remodel throughout a person's lifetime, resulting in changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and tissue mechanical properties that may affect VEC hemostatic function. This work assessed VEC regulation of hemostasis in situ and in vitro as a function of specimen age. Approach and Results Porcine aortic valves (PAV) were assigned into one of three age groups: YNG (6 weeks), ADT (6 months), or OLD (2 years). Histology of valves showed that secreted thrombotic/anti-thrombotic proteins localize at the valve endothelium, and tissue interior. Gene expression and immunostains for von Willebrand factor (VWF), tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and tissue plasminogen activator in YNG PAVECs was higher than in OLD, while plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in OLD were higher than in YNG and ADT. Histamine stimulated YNG PAVECs released higher concentrations of VWF proteins than OLD, while the fraction of cleaved VWF-140 fragments were not different between age groups. A CAVD in vitro model using valvular interstitial cells (VICs) confirmed that VWF in culture significantly increased VIC nodule formation and calcification. Conclusions Hemostatic protein regulation in AV tissues and VECs changes with age. The presence of VWF and other potential hemostatic proteins increase VIC calcification in vitro. Therefore, the increased capacity of elderly valves to sequester the hemostatic proteins, together with age-associated loss of ECM organization warrants investigation into potential roles for these proteins in the formation of calcific nodules. PMID:24177329

  14. Minimally Invasive Approach for Redo Mitral Valve Replacement: No Aortic Cross-Clamping and No Cardioplegia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong Rae; Kim, Gwan Sic; Yoo, Jae Suk; Lee, Jae Won

    2015-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman who had previously undergone a double valve replacement was admitted to Asan Medical Center because of severe bioprosthetic mitral valve dysfunction and tricuspid regurgitation. Under hypothermic fibrillatory arrest without aortic cross-clamping, minimally invasive mitral and tricuspid valve surgery was performed via a right minithoracotomy. PMID:25883896

  15. Antioxidant Enzymes Reduce DNA Damage and Early Activation of Valvular Interstitial Cells in Aortic Valve Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Branchetti, Emanuela; Sainger, Rachana; Poggio, Paolo; Grau, Juan B.; Patterson-Fortin, Jeffrey; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Chorny, Michael; Lai, Eric; Gorman, Robert C.; Levy, Robert J.; Ferrari, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Objective Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and remodeling of the microstructure of the cusp characterize aortic valve sclerosis, the early phase of calcific aortic valve disease. These events are associated with activation of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) toward an osteogenic-like phenotype. Because ROS cause DNA damage and transcriptional activation we investigated the relationship between ROS, DNA damage response, and transdifferentiation of VICs. Methods and Results Human aortic valve cusps and patient-matched VICs were collected from 39 patients both with and without calcific aortic valve disease. VICs were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (0.1–1 mmol/L) after cell transduction with extracellular superoxide dismutase/catalase adenoviruses and characterized for DNA-damage response, osteogenic transdifferentiation, and calcification. ROS induce relocalization of phosphorylated γH2AX, MRE11, and XRCC1 proteins with expression of osteogenic signaling molecule RUNX2 via AKT. We report a sustained activation of γH2AX in aortic valve sclerosis-derived VICs suggesting their impaired ability to repair DNA damage. Adenovirus superoxide dismutase/catalase transduction decreases ROS-induced DNA damage and VIC transdifferentiation in aortic valve sclerosis-derived cells. Finally, adenoviral transduction with catalase reverts ROS-mediated calcification and cellular transdifferentiation. Conclusion We conclude that the ROS-induced DNA damage response is dysfunctional in early asymptomatic stages of calcific aortic valve disease. We unveiled an association among ROS, DNA-damage response, and cellular transdifferentiation, reversible by antioxidant enzymes delivery. PMID:23241403

  16. Coronary blood flow in patients with severe aortic stenosis before and after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Ben-Dor, Itsik; Malik, Rahul; Minha, Sa'ar; Goldstein, Steven A; Wang, Zuyue; Magalhaes, Marco A; Weissman, Gaby; Okubagzi, Petros G; Torguson, Rebecca; Lindsay, Joseph; Satler, Lowell F; Pichard, Augusto D; Waksman, Ron

    2014-10-15

    Patients with severe aortic stenosis and no obstructed coronary arteries are reported to have reduced coronary flow. Doppler evaluation of proximal coronary flow is feasible using transesophageal echocardiography. The present study aimed to assess the change in coronary flow in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The left main coronary artery was visualized using transesophageal echocardiography in 90 patients undergoing TAVI using the Edwards SAPIEN valve. The peak systolic and diastolic velocities of the coronary flow and the time-velocity integral were obtained before and after TAVI using pulse-wave Doppler. Mean aortic gradients decreased from 47.1 15.7 mm Hg before TAVI to 3.6 2.6 mm Hg after TAVI (p <0.001). The aortic valve area increased from 0.58 0.17 to 1.99 0.35 cm(2) (p <0.001). The cardiac output increased from 3.4 1.1 to 3.8 1.0 L/min (p <0.001). Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) decreased from 19.8 5.4 to 17.3 4.1 mm Hg (p <0.001). The following coronary flow parameters increased significantly after TAVI: peak systolic velocity 24.2 9.3 to 30.5 14.9 cm/s (p <0.001), peak diastolic velocity 49.8 16.9 to 53.7 22.3 cm/s (p = 0.04), total velocity-time integral 26.7 10.5 to 29.7 14.1 cm (p = 0.002), and systolic velocity-time integral 6.1 3.7 to 7.7 5.0 cm (p = 0.001). Diastolic time-velocity integral increased from 20.6 8.7 to 22.0 10.1 cm (p = 0.04). Total velocity-time integral increased >10% in 43 patients (47.2%). Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed the change in LVEDP as the best correlate of change in coronary flow (R = -0.41, p = 0.003). In conclusion, TAVI resulted in a significant increase in coronary flow. The change in coronary flow was associated mostly with a decrease in LVEDP. PMID:25173443

  17. Transfemoral aortic valve implantation for severe aortic stenosis in a patient with dextrocardia situs inversus.

    PubMed

    Good, Richard I S; Morgan, Kenneth P; Brydie, Alan; Beydoun, Hussein K; Nadeem, S Najaf

    2014-09-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVR) has grown rapidly over the past 10 years. Device and delivery catheter systems have evolved to facilitate the procedure and reduce the risk of associated complications, including those related to vascular access. It is important to understand the utility of the TAVR equipment in patients with more challenging anatomy to select the most appropriate technique for this complex procedure. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of a patient with dextrocardia situs inversus and previous coronary artery bypass grafting who underwent TAVR from the femoral route using the Edwards SAPIEN XT Novaflex+ Transfemoral System (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA). PMID:24629491

  18. In vitro study of coronary flow occlusion in transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    He, Zheng-Fu; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Lutter, George; Quaden, Rene; Cremer, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been developed recently for patients with high morbidities and who are believed to be not tolerate standard surgical aortic valve replacement. Nevertheless, the TAVI is associated with complications such as potential obstruction of coronary ostia, mitral valve insufficiency, and stent migration although it seems promising. Impairment of the coronary blood flow after TAVI is catastrophic and it was believed to be associated with the close position of the coronary orifice and the aortic leaflets and valve stent. However, few data was available as to the anatomic relationship between valve stent and aortic root anatomic structures including the coronary arterial ostia, aortic leaflets. Methods The aortic roots were observed in 40 hearts specimens. The width of aortic leaflet, height of aortic sinus annulus to the sinutubular junction (STJ), distance between aortic sinus annulus to its corresponding coronary ostia, and coronary arterial ostia to its corresponding STJ level were measured. Moreover, the relationships of valve stent, aortic leaflets and coronary ostia before/post stent implantation and after the open of aorta were evaluated respectively. Results Approximate three quarters of the coronary ostia were located below the STJ level. The mean distances from left, right and posterior aortic sinus annulus to the related STJ level was comparable, which was 18.52.7, 18.92.6, 18.72.6 mm, respectively. Meanwhile, the height of left and right aortic sinus annulus to its corresponding coronary ostia was 16.62.8 and 17.23.1 mm for left and right side respectively. Conclusions Most of the coronary ostia were located below the STJ level and could be covered by the leaflets. This highlights the need of modified stents to prevent occlusion of coronary flow after TAVI. PMID:25589972

  19. Comparison of one- and 12-month outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients with severely stenotic bicuspid versus tricuspid aortic valves (results from a multicenter registry).

    PubMed

    Kochman, Janusz; Huczek, Zenon; Scis?o, Piotr; Dabrowski, Maciej; Chmielak, Zbigniew; Szyma?ski, Piotr; Witkowski, Adam; Parma, Rados?aw; Ochala, Andrzej; Chodr, Piotr; Wilczek, Krzysztof; Reczuch, Krzysztof W; Kubler, Piotr; Rymuza, Bartosz; Ko?towski, Lukasz; Scibisz, Anna; Wilimski, Rados?aw; Grube, Eberhard; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in high-risk patients with severe bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) stenosis and to compare the outcomes with a matched group of patients with tricuspid aortic valve. TAVR became an alternative treatment method in high-risk patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis; however, BAV stenosis is regarded as a relative contraindication to TAVR. The study population comprised 28 patients with BAV who underwent TAVR. BAV was diagnosed based on a transesophageal echocardiography. CoreValve and Edwards SAPIEN prostheses were implanted. The control group consisted of 84 patients (3:1 matching) with significant tricuspid aortic valve stenosis treated with TAVR. There were no significant differences between patients with and without BAV in device success (93% vs 93%, p= 1.0), risk of annulus rupture (0% in both groups), or conversion to cardiosurgery (4% vs 0%, respectively, p= 0.25). The postprocedural mean pressure gradient (11.5 6.4 vs 10.4 4.5mm Hg, p=0.33), aortic regurgitation grade ?2 of 4 (32% vs 23%, p= 0.45), 30-day mortality (4% vs 7%, p= 0.68), and 1-year all-cause mortality (19% vs 18%, p= 1.00) did not differ between the groups. Echocardiography showed well-functioning valve prosthesis with a mean prosthetic valve area of 1.6 0.4cm(2) versus 1.7 0.3cm(2) (p= 0.73), a mean pressure gradient of 10.3 5.4 versus 9.8 2.8mm Hg (p= 0.64), and aortic regurgitation grade ?2 of 4 (22% vs 22%, p= 1.00) for the 2 groups. In conclusion, selected high-risk patients with BAV can be successfully treated with TAVR, and their outcomes are similar to those reported in patients without BAV. PMID:25037674

  20. Potential drug targets for calcific aortic valve disease

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Aikawa, Elena; Merryman, W. David

    2014-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and, given its association with age, the prevalence of CAVD is expected to continue to rise as global life expectancy increases. No drug strategies currently exist to prevent or treat CAVD. Given that valve replacement is the only available clinical option, patients often cope with a deteriorating quality of life until diminished valve function demands intervention. The recognition that CAVD results from active cellular mechanisms suggests that the underlying pathways might be targeted to treat the condition. However, no such therapeutic strategy has been successfully developed to date. One hope was that drugs already used to treat vascular complications might also improve CAVD outcomes, but the mechanisms of CAVD progression and the desired therapeutic outcomes are often different from those of vascular diseases. We, therefore, discuss the benchmarks that must be met by a CAVD treatment approach, and highlight advances in the understanding of CAVD mechanisms to identify potential novel therapeutic targets. PMID:24445487

  1. Transapical aortic valve implantation and minimally invasive off-pump bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ahad, Samir; Baumbach, Hardy; Hill, Stephan; Franke, Ulrich F. W.

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has gained increasing popularity for high-risk patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. A concomitant coronary artery disease leads to a complicated management and an increased perioperative risk. This case report describes the successful total arterial coronary revascularization of the left anterior descending and the left marginal branch of the circumflex artery utilizing the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) and left radial artery in off-pump technique in combination with the transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation via minimally invasive anterolateral access in the fifth intercostal space. PMID:24221960

  2. Aortic valve replacement with Edwards INTUITY sutureless bioprosthesis through right anterior minithoracotomy.

    PubMed

    Hysi, Ilir; Carjaliu, Ionut; Gautier, Laurence; Fabre, Olivier

    2016-02-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement through right anterior minithoracotomy has been shown as a reliable and interesting approach. However, the placement of a sutured valve may be challenging and time-consuming in some cases. Sutureless bioprosthesis is an elegant alternative in order to facilitate its placement and to reduce the aortic cross-clamp time. In this video, we report our surgical technique of minimally invasive aortic valve replacement with an Edwards INTUITY sutureless bioprosthesis. Postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged after 6 days. PMID:26608840

  3. Late re-operation for aortic and mitral Starr-Edwards ball valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Shigeaki; Fukunaga, Shuji; Arinaga, Koichi; Yokokura, Yoshinori; Yokokura, Hiroko; Egawa, Noriko

    2006-12-01

    Starr-Edwards ball valves removed more than 15 years after implantation were retrospectively investigated macroscopically. Eight patients required re-operation. Valve models used in the initial operations were a non-cloth-covered valve in 2 patients and a cloth-covered valve in 6. Two patients had replacement of an aortic ball valve (model 1260 and model 2320) and 6 underwent mitral valve replacement (model 6120 in one, model 6320 in 5). The mean time to re-operation was 23.0 +/- 4.8 years after implantation. Cloth wear causing significant hemolysis was observed in all cloth-covered valves, regardless of valve position. Autologous tissue growth was noted on the orifice ring and struts in both aortic and mitral prostheses. Thrombus formation was not found in any of the valves. Ball variance in silicone rubber balls was mild in the non-cloth-covered valves, even in the aortic position. The most significant problem with the cloth-covered ball valve was cloth wear. Cloth wear should always be considered when 15 years or more have passed since valve implantation. Significant hemolysis, elevation of lactate dehydrogenase values, and echocardiographic detection of transvalvular regurgitation are diagnostic of cloth wear, and are indications for replacement of a cloth-covered ball valve. PMID:17130320

  4. Trends in mechanical aortic valve replacement surgery in a large, multi-surgeon, single hospital practice

    PubMed Central

    Fedakar, Ali; Adademir, Taylan; Salihi, Salih; Boyac?o?lu, Kamil; zbek, Babrhan; Ta?ar, Mehmet; Balkanay, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In recent decades, new high-performance prostheses have been invented for use with small aortic annuli, and they have helped avoid patient prosthesis mismatch (PPM) without the need for aortic annular enlargement. The purpose of this study is to examine the trends in mechanical aortic valve replacement surgery in a large, multi-surgeon, single hospital practice. Material and methods Between January 1999 and January 2008, 1337 consecutive patients underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR) with or without concomitant aortic annulus enlargement. Patients with aortic dissections and patients undergoing Bentall and Ross procedures were excluded from the analysis. Patients were grouped according to the used aortic valve size. The data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Results The mean age of the subjects was 54.37 17.35 (range: 10-84), and 881 of them were men (65.8%). The number of aortic root enlargement procedures decreased over the years (p < 0.05); particularly, the decline of the Nicks procedures was statistically significant (p < 0.05). In 2008, the most frequently used valve size was 23, which stands in contrast with the smaller size preferred in 1999 (p < 0.05). The primary pathophysiology leading to aortic valve replacement, i.e. aortic stenosis, did not change over the years (p > 0.05). Although the use of combined surgery increased in time, there was no statistical relationship with any increase in mortality rates (p > 0.05). Conclusions This study showed that avoiding the procedure of aortic root enlargement and implanting high-performance prostheses with larger valves is safe. PMID:26336451

  5. Bicuspid aortic valve hemodynamics does not promote remodeling in porcine aortic wall concavity

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Samantha K; Moore, Alison N; Sucosky, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of type-I left-right bicuspid aortic valve (LR-BAV) hemodynamic stresses in the remodeling of the thoracic ascending aorta (AA) concavity, in the absence of underlying genetic or structural defects. METHODS: Transient wall shear stress (WSS) profiles in the concavity of tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) and LR-BAV AAs were obtained computationally. Tissue specimens excised from the concavity of normal (non-dilated) porcine AAs were subjected for 48 h to those stress environments using a shear stress bioreactor. Tissue remodeling was characterized in terms of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity via immunostaining and gelatin zymography. RESULTS: Immunostaining semi-quantification results indicated no significant difference in MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression between the tissue groups exposed to TAV and LR-BAV AA WSS (P = 0.80 and P = 0.19, respectively). Zymography densitometry revealed no difference in MMP-2 activity (total activity, active form and latent form) between the groups subjected to TAV AA and LR-BAV AA WSS (P = 0.08, P = 0.15 and P = 0.59, respectively). CONCLUSION: The hemodynamic stress environment present in the concavity of type-I LR-BAV AA does not cause any significant change in proteolytic enzyme expression and activity as compared to that present in the TAV AA. PMID:26839660

  6. Embolic Protection Devices in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    PubMed

    Steinvil, Arie; Benson, Richard T; Waksman, Ron

    2016-03-01

    The initially reported periprocedural neurological events rates associated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement raised concerns that ultimately led to the development and to the clinical research of novel embolic protection devices. Although the reduction of clinical stroke is a desired goal, the current research design of embolic protection devices focuses on surrogate markers of the clinical disease, primarily on silent central nervous system lesions observed in postprocedural diffuse-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive function testing. As the mere presence of particulate debris in brain matter may not correlate with the extent of brain injury, cognitive function, or quality of life, the clinical significance of embolic protection devices has yet to be determined, and interpretation of study results with regard to real-life clinical use should be viewed accordingly. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the updated ongoing clinical research on embolic protection devices and present its major caveats. PMID:26951618

  7. Aortic valve sclerosis is an indicator of coronary artery diseases.

    PubMed

    Roy, G C; Rahman, F; Hoque, M H; Habib, M A; Banerjee, S K; Siddique, M A; Barua, U K; Hossain, A S; Bhuiyan, G R; Haider, M S

    2012-04-01

    Aim of this study is to establish the relationship between echocardiographically detected Aortic Valve Sclerosis (AVS) and angiographically detected Coronary Artery Diseases (CAD). This observational and cross-sectional study was carried out in the department of cardiology BSMMU, Dhaka from January 2010 to November 2010. A total 140 patients of established or suspected coronary artery disease admitted for coronary angiogram was included in this study. Echocardiography and coronary angiography was done. AVS was found in 88(63%) patients. With AVS 81(92.05%) had significant coronary artery disease. Fifty two patients without AVS, 42(80%) had significant coronary artery disease. No significant difference of SVD in both groups but patients with AVS had a higher rate of DVD, TVD and LM disease. Patients without AVS had a higher rate of normal coronary angiogram. Multivariate analysis identified AVS (p=0.018) is an independent predictor of CAD. PMID:22561763

  8. Endothelial nitric oxide signaling regulates Notch1 in aortic valve disease

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Authors: Kevin; Hans, Chetan P.; Zhao, Ning; Koenig, Sara N.; Huang, Nianyuan; Guggilam, Anuradha; LaHaye, Stephanie; Tao, Ge; Lucchesi, Pamela A.; Lincoln, Joy; Lilly, Brenda; Garg, Vidu

    2013-01-01

    The mature aortic valve is composed of a structured trilaminar extracellular matrix that is interspersed with aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) and covered by endothelium. Dysfunction of the valvular endothelium initiates calcification of neighboring AVICs leading to calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). The molecular mechanism by which endothelial cells communicate with AVICs and cause disease is not well understood. Using a co-culture assay, we show that endothelial cells secrete a signal to inhibit calcification of AVICs. Gain or loss of nitric oxide (NO) prevents or accelerates calcification of AVICs, respectively, suggesting that the endothelial cell-derived signal is NO. Overexpression of Notch1, which is genetically linked to human CAVD, retards the calcification of AVICs that occurs with NO inhibition. In AVICs, NO regulates the expression of Hey1, a downstream target of Notch1, and alters nuclear localization of Notch1 intracellular domain. Finally, Notch1 and NOS3 (endothelial NO synthase) display an in vivo genetic interaction critical for proper valve morphogenesis and the development of aortic valve disease. Our data suggests that endothelial cell-derived NO is a regulator of Notch1 signaling in AVICs in the development of the aortic valve and adult aortic valve disease. PMID:23583836

  9. Aortic Valve Function Under Support of a Left Ventricular Assist Device: Continuous vs. Dynamic Speed Support.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Selim; van de Vosse, Frans N; Rutten, Marcel C M

    2015-08-01

    Continuous flow left ventricular devices (CF-LVADs) support the failing heart at a constant speed and alters the loads on the aortic valve. This may cause insufficiency in the aortic valve under long-term CF-LVAD support. The aim of this study is to assess the aortic valve function under varying speed CF-LVAD support. A Medtronic freestyle valve and a Micromed DeBakey CF-LVAD were tested in a mock circulatory system. First, the CF-LVAD was operated at constant speeds between 7500 and 11,500 rpm with 1000 rpm intervals. The mean pump outputs obtained from these tests were applied in varying speed CF-LVAD support mode using a reference model for the pump flow. The peak of the instantaneous pump flow was applied at peak systole and mid-diastole, respectively. Ejection durations and in the aortic valve were the longest when the peak pump flow was applied at mid-diastole among the CF-LVAD operating modes. Furthermore, mean aortic valve area over a cardiac cycle was highest when the peak pump flow was applied at mid-diastole. The results show that changing phase of the reference flow rate signal may reduce the effects of the CF-LVADs on altered aortic valve closing behavior, without compromising the overall pump support level. PMID:25480480

  10. Bicuspid Aortic Valve and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm: Three Patient Populations, Two Disease Phenotypes, and One Shared Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) are two discrete cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by latent progressive disease states. There is a clear association between BAV and TAA; however the nature and extent of this relationship is unclear. There are both distinct and overlapping developmental pathways that have been established to contribute to the formation of the aortic valve and the aortic root, and the mature anatomy of these different tissue types is intimately intertwined. Likewise, human genetics studies have established apparently separate and common contributions to these clinical phenotypes, suggesting complex inheritance and a shared genetic basis and translating 3 patient populations, namely, BAV, TAA, or both, into a common but diverse etiology. A better understanding of the BAV-TAA association will provide an opportunity to leverage molecular information to modify clinical care through more sophisticated diagnostic testing, improved counseling, and ultimately new pharmacologic therapies. PMID:22970404

  11. Gallium-SPECT in the detection of prosthetic valve endocarditis and aortic ring abscess

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, K.; Barnes, D.; Martin, R.H.; Rae, J.R. )

    1991-09-01

    A 52-yr-old man who had a bioprosthetic aortic valve developed Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Despite antibiotic therapy he had persistent pyrexia and developed new conduction system disturbances. Echocardiography did not demonstrate vegetations on the valve or an abscess, but gallium scintigraphy using SPECT clearly identified a focus of intense activity in the region of the aortic valve. The presence of valvular vegetations and a septal abscess was confirmed at autopsy. Gallium scintigraphy, using SPECT, provided a useful noninvasive method for the demonstration of endocarditis and the associated valve ring abscess.

  12. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Advantages and Limitations of Different Cardiac Imaging Techniques.

    PubMed

    Podlesnikar, Tomaz; Delgado, Victoria

    2016-03-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is an established therapy for patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis and contraindications or high risk for surgery. Advances in prostheses and delivery system designs and continuous advances in multimodality imaging, particularly the 3-dimensional techniques, have led to improved outcomes with significant reductions in the incidence of frequent complications such as paravalvular aortic regurgitation. In addition, data on prosthesis durability are accumulating. Multimodality imaging plays a central role in the selection of patients who are candidates for transcatheter aortic valve replacement, procedure planning and guidance, and follow-up of prosthesis function. The strengths and limitations of each imaging technique for transcatheter aortic valve replacement will be discussed in this update article. PMID:26856791

  13. Radionuclide angiography in evaluation of left ventricular function following aortic valve replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Santinga, J.T.; Kirsh, M.M.; Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.; Pitt, B.

    1981-05-01

    Congestive heart failure in patients surviving aortic valve replacement has been associated with a high late mortality. To determine whether myocardial dysfunction in these patients occurred preoperatively, perioperatively, or during the early postoperative period, 19 consecutive patients undergoing aortic valve replacement using cardioplegia and hypothermia were studied by multiple-gated cardiac blood pool imaging. The resting ejection fractions for 8 patients with aortic stenosis did not show significant changes following operation. The 11 patients with aortic insufficiency has resting preoperative values of 58 +/- 15%, which fell to 38 +/- 18% immediately postoperatively (p less than 0.01), with the late values being 51 +/- 16%. Eight of 18 patients (44%) showed deterioration of regional wall motion immediately after operation, which persisted in 3 during the late evaluation. The occurrence of new perioperative regional wall motion abnormalities and persistent perioperative depression in left ventricular function in some patients suggest the need for further improvement in myocardial protection during cardiopulmonary bypass for aortic valve replacement.

  14. Side-Specific Endothelial-Dependent Regulation of Aortic Valve Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jennifer; El-Hamamsy, Ismail; Chen, Si; Sarang, Zubair; Sarathchandra, Padmini; Yacoub, Magdi H.; Chester, Adrian H.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    Arterial endothelial cells maintain vascular homeostasis and vessel tone in part through the secretion of nitric oxide (NO). In this study, we determined how aortic valve endothelial cells (VEC) regulate aortic valve interstitial cell (VIC) phenotype and matrix calcification through NO. Using an anchored in vitro collagen hydrogel culture system, we demonstrate that three-dimensionally cultured porcine VIC do not calcify in osteogenic medium unless under mechanical stress. Co-culture with porcine VEC, however, significantly attenuated VIC calcification through inhibition of myofibroblastic activation, osteogenic differentiation, and calcium deposition. Incubation with the NO donor DETA-NO inhibited VIC osteogenic differentiation and matrix calcification, whereas incubation with the NO blocker l-NAME augmented calcification even in 3D VIC–VEC co-culture. Aortic VEC, but not VIC, expressed endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in both porcine and human valves, which was reduced in osteogenic medium. eNOS expression was reduced in calcified human aortic valves in a side-specific manner. Porcine leaflets exposed to the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ increased osteocalcin and α-smooth muscle actin expression. Finally, side-specific shear stress applied to porcine aortic valve leaflet endothelial surfaces increased cGMP production in VEC. Valve endothelial-derived NO is a natural inhibitor of the early phases of valve calcification and therefore may be an important regulator of valve homeostasis and pathology. PMID:23499458

  15. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in surgically repaired double outlet right ventricle.

    PubMed

    Keswani, Amit; Verma, Anil; Dann, Kristen; Ventura, Laurie; Lucas, Victor; Shah, Sangeeta; Ramee, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    A 52-year-old male patient, with a medical history of surgically repaired double outlet right ventricle presented with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and hepatitis C with cirrhosis, presented with New York Heart Association Class IV heart failure. During evaluation for a liver transplant, he was deemed a poor surgical candidate due to his aortic valve disease and cirrhosis with model for end-stage liver disease score of 14. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed severe AS with a mean gradient of 62 mm Hg and calculated aortic valve area of 0.74 cm(2) with a normal ejection fraction of 65%. The patient underwent transfemoral implantation of a 23-mm Edwards Sapien commercial heart valve with significant mean gradient reduction across the aortic valve from 62 to 13 mm Hg. The patient was observed in the coronary care unit and discharged home 2 days postprocedure with his clinical symptoms greatly improved. PMID:23865720

  16. A case report and literature overview: Abiotrophia defectiva aortic valve endocarditis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ramos, J N; dos Santos, L S; Vidal, L M R; Pereira, P M A; Salgado, A A; Fortes, C Q; Vieira, V V; Mattos-Guaraldi, A L; Júnior, R H; Damasco, P V

    2014-06-01

    A fatal case of aortic valve endocarditis due to Abiotrophia defectiva was reported in Brazil. An overview of cases of endocarditis and other human infections related to A. defectiva in developing countries was also accomplished. PMID:24510585

  17. A meta-analysis of mortality and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events following transcatheter aortic valve implantation versus surgical aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Hemang B; Ladia, Vatsal; Desai, Saurabh; Shah, Tejaskumar; Ramu, Vijay

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare postprocedural mortality and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events between transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for severe aortic stenosis. Seventeen studies (n = 4,659) comparing TAVI (n = 2,267) and SAVR (n = 2,392) were included. End points were baseline logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation score, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and major bleeding events. Mean differences or risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were computed, and p values <0.05 were considered significant. The population was matched for risk between the 2 groups on the basis of logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation score for all outcomes except 30-day all-cause mortality, which had a high-risk population in the TAVI group (p = 0.02). There was no significant difference found in all-cause mortality at 30 days (p = 0.97) and at an average of 85 weeks (p = 0.07). There was no significant difference in cardiovascular mortality (p = 0.54) as well as the incidence of myocardial infarction (p = 0.59), stroke (p = 0.36), and transient ischemic attack (p = 0.85) at averages of 86, 72, 66, and 89 weeks, respectively. Compared with patients who underwent TAVI, those who underwent SAVR had a significantly higher frequency of major bleeding events (p <0.0001) at mean follow-up of 66 weeks. In conclusion, TAVI has similar cardiovascular and all-cause mortality to SAVR at early and long-term follow-up. TAVI is superior to SAVR for major bleeding complications and noninferior to SAVR for postprocedural myocardial infarctions and cerebrovascular events. TAVI is a safe alternative to SAVR in selected high-risk elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis. PMID:23756547

  18. Aortic valve calcification in 499 consecutive patients referred for computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hryniewiecki, Tomasz; Micha?owska, Ilona; K?pka, Cezary; Abramczuk, El?bieta; Or?owska-Baranowska, Ewa; Ru?y??o, Witold

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is the most common cause of aortic stenosis. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of aortic valve, coronary artery and aortic calcifications and to evaluate the correlation between calcification of the aortic valve, coronary arteries and aorta. Material and methods The study included 499 patients aged 60 years and over who underwent coronary computed tomography because of chest pain. Beside coronary artery calcium score (CAC), we evaluated AVC and ascending aorta calcifications (AAC). Results Aortic valve calcification was found in 144 subjects (28.9% of the whole study population). Prevalence of CAC and AAC was higher than AVC and amounted to 73.8% and 54.0%. Prevalence of AVC, CAC and AAC was significantly lower in the group of patients ? 70 years than in the group of patients > 70 years of age (p = 0.0002, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001). Aortic valve calcification was more often observed in men than women (34.7% vs. 25.4%, p = 0.02). Degree of aortic valve calcification was also significantly higher among men than women (median score 4 vs. 0, p = 0.01). Similar observations were true for CAC and AAC, where both prevalence and degree of calcification was higher among men than women. In the whole study population no correlation was noted between AVC and CAC or AAC (p = 0.34, p = 0.85). There was a significant correlation between AAC and CAC (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Despite some similarities in pathological mechanism and risk factors, a degenerative defect of the aortic valve could be independent of atheromatous lesions in the coronary arteries and aorta. PMID:26528335

  19. Optimal timing of valve replacement in asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Bilen, Emine; Ipek, Gkrk; Ayhan, Huseyin; Nacar, Alper Bugra; Kasapkara, Haci Ahmet; Sani, Cenk; Basbug, Serdar; Kurt, Mustafa; Bozkurt, Engin

    2014-09-01

    Patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) constitute a heterogeneous group which includes not only certain cases who are at high risk of sudden death and valve-related heart failure, but also those at low risk for these events. Degenerative AS, which includes a majority of patients with AS, is characterized by stricture of the valve, increased arterial stiffness, and diverse left ventricular response to the valvular plus arterial vascular load. In addition to using traditional primary parameters, the severity of AS and the total left ventricular load should be assessed using new measures such as energy loss index and valvulo-arterial impedance. Natriuretic peptide levels and global longitudinal strain imaging may also be used as secondary parameters to obtain information about left ventricular systolic function, although these parameters do not correlate with the severity of AS. Exercise stress testing and exercise echocardiography are also beneficial when assessing the patient if they are symptomatic, and for determining valvular and left ventricular contractile reserves. The aim of this review was to emphasize the importance of risk stratifications in asymptomatic severe AS cases, and to assess the severity of AS using not only conventional methods but also new methods on which much emphasis has been placed during recent years. PMID:25799699

  20. Self-expanding aortic valve stent-material optimization.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gideon Praveen; Mathew, Lazar

    2012-11-01

    Vascular support structures are important devices for treating valve stenosis. Large population of patients is treated for valvular disease and the principal mode of treatment is the use of percutaneous valvuloplasty. Stent devices are proving to be an improved technology in minimal invasive cardiac surgery. This technology now accounts for 20% of treatments in Europe. This new technology provides highly effective results at minimal cost and short duration of hospitalization. During the development process, a number of specific designs and materials have come and gone, and a few have remained. Many design changes were successful, and many were not. This paper discusses the physical behavior of a hooked percutaneous aortic valve stent design using a finite element analysis. Specifically, the effects of crimping was simulated and analyzed for two types of realistic but different Nitinol materials (NITI-1 and NITI-2). The results show that both NITI-1 and NITI-2 had good crimping performance. The analysis performed in this paper may aid in understanding the stent's displacement ranges when subjected to physiological pressures exerted by the heart and cardiac blood flow during abnormal cardiovascular conditions. It may also help to evaluate the suitability of a Nitinol for fabrication purposes. PMID:22981766

  1. Manipulation of valve composition to elucidate the role of collagen in aortic valve calcification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extracellular matrix (ECM) disarray is found in calcific aortic valvular disease (CAVD), yet much remains to be learned about the role of individual ECM components in valvular interstitial cell (VIC) function and dysfunction. Previous clinical analyses have shown that calcification is associated with decreased collagen content, while previous in vitro work has suggested that the presence of collagen attenuates the responsiveness of VICs to pro-calcific stimuli. The current study uses whole leaflet cultures to examine the contributions of endogenous collagen in regulating the phenotype and calcification of VICs. Methods A “top-down” approach was used to characterize changes in VIC phenotype in response to collagen alterations in the native 3D environment. Collagen-deficient leaflets were created via enzymatic treatment and cultured statically for six days in vitro. After culture, leaflets were harvested for analysis of DNA, proliferation, apoptosis, ECM composition, calcification, and gene/protein expression. Results In general, disruption of collagen was associated with increased expression of disease markers by VICs in whole organ leaflet culture. Compared to intact control leaflets, collagen-deficient leaflets demonstrated increased VIC proliferation and apoptosis, increased expression of disease-related markers such as alpha-smooth muscle actin, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin, and an increase in calcification as evidenced by positive von Kossa staining. Conclusions These results indicate that disruption of the endogenous collagen structure in aortic valves is sufficient to stimulate pathological consequences in valve leaflet cultures, thereby highlighting the importance of collagen and the valve extracellular matrix in general in maintaining homeostasis of the valve phenotype. PMID:24581344

  2. Valve-related complications in elderly patients with biological and mechanical aortic valves.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Milano A; Guglielmi C; De Carlo M; Di Gregorio O; Borzoni G; Verunelli F; Bortolotti U

    1998-12-01

    BACKGROUND: Controversy still exists about the choice of aortic prosthesis in elderly patients. This study investigates valve- and anticoagulant-related morbidity and mortality in elderly patients after aortic valve replacement (AVR) with a biologic (BP) or mechanical prosthesis (MP).METHODS: Between 1981 and 1995, 355 consecutive patients aged 70 years or older (mean, 74+/-4 years; range, 70 to 87 years) underwent isolated AVR. There were 222 (63%) replacements with an MP and 133 (37%) with a BP. Mean follow-up was 3.7+/-2.8 years (range, 3 months to 15 years), with a total follow-up of 1,214 patient-years.RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 7.6% (27 of 355), decreasing to 4.6% in the last 3 years. There were 55 late deaths, 33 in patients with MP and 22 in those with BP. At 10 years there was no significant difference between MP and BP recipients in the actuarial estimates of survival (51%+/-8% versus 33%+/-13%), freedom from valve-related death (82%+/-7% versus 72%+/-12%), and freedom from thromboembolism (84%+/-7% versus 94%+/-3%). In contrast, 10-year freedom from anticoagulant-related hemorrhages was 74%+/-8% for MP and 99%+/-1% for BP (p = 0.02). Only 1 structural deterioration occurred, in a patient with BP.CONCLUSIONS: Satisfactory early results can be obtained in elderly patients after AVR with both MP and BP. The comparable low late survival in the two groups was predominantly influenced by non-valve-related deaths. A higher incidence of anticoagulant-related hemorrhages limits the use of MP in elderly patients. Thus, in this population, BP should be preferred not just on the basis of their expected longer durability, but mainly to avoid the risk of anticoagulant-related hemorrhages.

  3. Low-gradient aortic valve stenosis: value and limitations of dobutamine stress testing.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, J; Yotti, R

    2007-03-01

    Aortic valve stenosis has already reached endemic proportions in Western countries. As the prognosis of low-flow aortic valve stenosis under medical treatment is dismal, surgery is recommended in most patients. Preoperative dobutamine stress testing may help to assess surgical risk, but there is no strong scientific evidence to deny surgery based exclusively on the results of this test. The problems associated with clinical decision making in this condition are reviewed. PMID:16621881

  4. Aorto-right ventricular fistula: a complication of aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Najib, Mohammad Q; Ng, Daniel; Vinales, Karyne L; Chaliki, Hari P

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of aorto-right ventricular (aorto-RV) fistula after prosthetic aortic valve replacement is rare. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) with color-flow Doppler, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), or both may be required for diagnosis. A 42-year-old woman sought care for palpitations and dyspnea due to atrial flutter 2 weeks after prosthetic aortic valve replacement and graft replacement of the ascending aorta. TTE and TEE revealed left-to-right shunt due to aorto-RV fistula. PMID:21959192

  5. Replacement of a Congenital Bicuspid Aortic Valve in a Patient with Left Ventricular Noncompaction

    PubMed Central

    Wrigley, Benjamin J.; Rosin, Michael; Banerjee, Prithwish

    2009-01-01

    Left ventricular noncompaction is a congenital cardiomyopathy, which is often first diagnosed in adults. The condition can be found in isolation, but it has also been described in association with other cardiac anomalies. We report here the 4th documented case of left ventricular noncompaction associated with a bicuspid aortic valve and the 1st of these cases in which the patient underwent aortic valve surgery. PMID:19568396

  6. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with a severe stenotic bicuspid aortic valve in a Chinese population*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xian-bao; Jiang, Ju-bo; Zhou, Qi-jing; Pu, Zhao-xia; He, Wei; Dong, Ai-qiang; Feng, Yan; Jiang, Jun; Sun, Yong; Xiang, Mei-xiang; He, Yu-xin; Fan, You-qi; Dong, Liang; Wang, Jian-an

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in patients with a severe stenotic bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) in a Chinese population. While several groups have reported the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of TAVI for patients with a BAV, worldwide experience of the technique is still limited, especially in China. Methods: From March 2013 to November 2014, high surgical risk or inoperable patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) who had undergone TAVI at our institution were selected for inclusion in our study. Results were compared between a BAV group and a tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) group. Results: Forty patients were included in this study, 15 (37.5%) of whom were identified as having a BAV. In the BAV group, the aortic valve area was smaller ((0.470.13) vs. (0.590.14) cm2), the ascending aortic diameter was larger ((40.44.4) vs. (36.44.3) mm), and the concomitant aortic regurgitation was lower. No significant differences were found between the groups in the other baseline characteristics. No differences were observed either in the choice of access or valve size. The procedural success achieved in this study was 100%. There were no differences between groups in device success (86.7% vs. 88.0%), 30-d mortality (6.7% vs. 8.0%), or 30-d combined end point (13.3% vs. 12.0%). The incidences of new pacemaker implantation, paravalvular regurgitation and other complications, recovery of left ventricle ejection fraction and heart function were similar in both groups. Conclusions: Patients with a severely stenotic BAV can be treated with TAVI, and their condition after treatment should be similar to that of people with a TAV. PMID:25743122

  7. iTRAQ proteomic analysis of extracellular matrix remodeling in aortic valve disease

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Rojas, Tatiana; Mourino-Alvarez, Laura; Alonso-Orgaz, Sergio; Rosello-Lleti, Esther; Calvo, Enrique; Lopez-Almodovar, Luis Fernando; Rivera, Miguel; Padial, Luis R.; Lopez, Juan Antonio; Cuesta, Fernando de la; Barderas, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common worldwide cause of valve replacement. The aortic valve is a thin, complex, layered connective tissue with compartmentalized extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by specialized cell types, which directs blood flow in one direction through the heart. There is evidence suggesting remodeling of such ECM during aortic stenosis development. Thus, a better characterization of the role of ECM proteins in this disease would increase our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Aortic valve samples were collected from 18 patients which underwent aortic valve replacement (50% males, mean age of 74 years) and 18 normal control valves were obtained from necropsies (40% males, mean age of 69 years). The proteome of the samples was analyzed by 2D-LC MS/MS iTRAQ methodology. The results showed an altered expression of 13 ECM proteins of which 3 (biglycan, periostin, prolargin) were validated by Western blotting and/or SRM analyses. These findings are substantiated by our previous results demonstrating differential ECM protein expression. The present study has demonstrated a differential ECM protein pattern in individuals with AS, therefore supporting previous evidence of a dynamic ECM remodeling in human aortic valves during AS development. PMID:26620461

  8. Late outcome analysis of the Braile Biomdica pericardial valve in the aortic position

    PubMed Central

    Azeredo, Lisandro Gonalves; Veronese, Elinthon Tavares; Santiago, Jos Augusto Duncan; Brando, Carlos Manuel de Almeida; Pomerantzeff, Pablo Maria Alberto; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aortic valve replacement with Braile bovine pericardial prosthesis has been routinely done at the Heart Institute of the Universidade de So Paulo Medical School since 2006. The objective of this study is to analyze the results of Braile Biomdica aortic bioprosthesis in patients with aortic valve disease. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 196 patients with aortic valve disease submitted to aortic valve replacement with Braile Biomdica bovine pericardial prosthesis, between 2006 and 2010. Mean age was 59.4116.34 years and 67.3% were male. Before surgery, 73.4% of patients were in NYHA functional class III or IV. Results Hospital mortality was 8.16% (16 patients). Linearized rates of mortality, endocarditis, reintervention, and structural dysfunction were 1.065%, 0.91%, 0.68% and 0.075% patients/year, respectively. Actuarial survival was 90.592.56% in 88 months. Freedom from reintervention, endocarditis and structural dysfunction was respectively 91.382.79%, 89.842.92% and 98.570.72% in 88 months. Conclusion The Braile Biomdica pericardial aortic valve prosthesis demonstrated actuarial survival and durability similar to that described in the literature, but further follow up is required to assess the incidence of prosthetic valve endocarditis and structural dysfunction in the future. PMID:25372903

  9. Alternative transarterial access for CoreValve transcatheter aortic bioprosthesis implantation.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Giuseppe; De Marco, Federico; Modine, Thomas; Botta, Luca; Colombo, Paola; Mauri, Silvia; Cannata, Aldo; Fratto, Pasquale; Klugmann, Silvio

    2015-05-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is used to treat elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis who are considered extremely high-risk surgical candidates. The safety and effectiveness of TAVI have been demonstrated in numerous studies. The self-expanding CoreValve bioprosthesis (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) was the first transcatheter aortic valve to be granted the Conformit Europene (CE) mark in May 2007 for retrograde transfemoral implantation. However, TAVI patients are also often affected by severe iliofemoral arteriopathy. In these patients, the retrograde transfemoral approach carries a high risk of vascular injury, making this approach unusable. Alternative arterial access sites, such as the subclavian artery, the ascending aorta, and the carotid artery, have been used for retrograde implantation of the CoreValve bioprosthesis. In the present report, we present the procedural considerations, risks, and benefits of the different types of arterial access used to implant the CoreValve bioprosthesis. PMID:25672856

  10. Form Follows Function: Advances in Trilayered Structure Replication for Aortic Heart Valve Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Simionescu, Dan T.; Chen, Joseph; Jaeggli, Michael; Wang, Bo; Liao, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering the aortic heart valve is a challenging endeavor because of the particular hemodynamic and biologic conditions present in the native aortic heart valve. The backbone of an ideal valve substitute should be a scaffold that is strong enough to withstand billions of repetitive bending, flexing and stretching cycles, while also being slowly degradable to allow for remodeling. In this review we highlight three overlooked aspects that might influence the long term durability of tissue engineered valves: replication of the native valve trilayered histoarchitecture, duplication of the three-dimensional shape of the valve and cell integration efforts focused on getting the right number and type of cells to the right place within the valve structure and driving them towards homeostatic maintenance of the valve matrix. We propose that the trilayered structure in the native aortic valve that includes a middle spongiosa layer cushioning the motions of the two external fibrous layers should be our template for creation of novel scaffolds with improved mechanical durability. Furthermore, since cells adapt to micro-loads within the valve structure, we believe that interstitial cell remodeling of the valvular matrix will depend on the accurate replication of the structures and loads, resulting in successful regeneration of the valve tissue and extended durability. PMID:23355946

  11. Simulation of self expanding transcatheter aortic valve in a realistic aortic root: implications of deployment geometry on leaflet deformation.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Paul S; Vaughan, Ted J; McNamara, Laoise M

    2014-09-01

    Self expanding Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacements (TAVR) can conform to the geometry of the aortic annulus and the calcified leaflet complex, which may result in leaflet distortion and altered leaflet kinematics, but such changes have not yet been characterized. In this study we developed a computational model to investigate the deployment of a self expanding TAVR in a realistic aortic root model derived from multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) images. We simulated TAVR crimping/deployment in realistic and idealized aortic root models, followed by diastolic loading of the TAVR leaflets in its final deployed configuration. The TAVR deployed in a realistic aortic root had increased peak loading in the commissural region of the leaflets compared to TAVRs under idealized circular deployment conditions (2.97 vs. 1.52 MPa). Furthermore, orientation of the TAVR in the asymmetric aortic annulus such that the commissures of the TAVR are aligned with the native valve commissures minimized the effect of TAVR stent distortion on peak stresses in the TAVR leaflets (2.97 vs. 2.35 MPa). We propose that preoperative planning of the orientation of the TAVR in the aortic root annulus might minimize the impact of potential stent distortion on leaflet function and may in turn increase long term leaflet durability. PMID:24912765

  12. Free-floating giant left atrial ball thrombus with aortic valve disease--a rare entity and a near miss.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Dharmendra; Simon, Ellis J; Prasad, Sai

    2012-03-01

    Large left atrial mural thrombi in the absence of mitral valve stenosis have been reported rarely in the literature. It is even rarer without history of atrial fibrillation (AF). These masses can cause systemic embolization and sudden circulatory collapse when they obstruct the mitral valve. We are presenting a case of giant, free floating ball thrombus, detected after aortic valve replacement for mixed aortic valve disease. It was found immediately before separation from cardiopulmonary bypass by transoesophageal echocardiography and was successfully removed. A ball thrombus without mitral valve disease and AF with aortic valve disease is not yet reported in the literature. PMID:22345191

  13. 3D Bioprinting of Heterogeneous Aortic Valve Conduits with Alginate/Gelatin Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Bin; Hockaday, Laura A.; Kang, Kevin H.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Heart valve disease is a serious and growing public health problem for which prosthetic replacement is most commonly indicated. Current prosthetic devices are inadequate for younger adults and growing children. Tissue engineered living aortic valve conduits have potential for remodeling, regeneration, and growth, but fabricating natural anatomical complexity with cellular heterogeneity remain challenging. In the current study, we implement 3D bioprinting to fabricate living alginate/gelatin hydrogel valve conduits with anatomical architecture and direct incorporation of dual cell types in a regionally constrained manner. Encapsulated aortic root sinus smooth muscle cells (SMC) and aortic valve leaflet interstitial cells (VIC) were viable within alginate/gelatin hydrogel discs over 7 days in culture. Acellular 3D printed hydrogels exhibited reduced modulus, ultimate strength, and peak strain reducing slightly over 7-day culture, while the tensile biomechanics of cell-laden hydrogels were maintained. Aortic valve conduits were successfully bioprinted with direct encapsulation of SMC in the valve root and VIC in the leaflets. Both cell types were viable (81.43.4% for SMC and 83.24.0% for VIC) within 3D printed tissues. Encapsulated SMC expressed elevated alpha-smooth muscle actin when printed in stiff matrix, while VIC expressed elevated vimentin in soft matrix. These results demonstrate that anatomically complex, heterogeneously encapsulated aortic valve hydrogel conduits can be fabricated with 3D bioprinting. PMID:23015540

  14. Comparison of David V valve-sparing root replacement and bioprosthetic valve conduit for aortic root aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    DeNino, Walter F.; Toole, John Matthew; Rowley, Christopher; Stroud, Martha R.; Ikonomidis, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Valve sparing root replacement (VSRR) is an attractive option for the management of aortic root aneurysms with a normal native aortic valve. Therefore, we reviewed our experience with a modification of the David V VSRR and compared it with stented pericardial bioprosthetic valve conduit (BVC) root replacement in an age-matched cohort of older patients. Methods A total of 48 VSRRs were performed at our institution, excluding those on bicuspid aortic valves. We compared these cases with 15 aortic root replacements performed using a BVC during the same period. Subgroup analysis was performed comparing 16 VSRR cases and 15 age-matched BVC cases. Results The greatest disparity between the VSRR and BVC groups was age (53 vs 69 years, respectively; P < .0005). The matched patients were similar in terms of baseline demographics and differed only in concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (2 VSRR vs 7 BVC patients; P = .036). None of the VSRR and 3 of the BVC procedures were performed for associated dissection (P = .101). Postoperative aortic insufficiency grade was significantly different between the 2 groups (P = .004). The cardiopulmonary bypass, crossclamp, and circulatory arrest times were not different between the VSRR and BVC groups (174 vs 187 minutes, P = .205; 128 vs 133 minutes, P = .376; and 10 vs 13 minutes, respectively; P = .175). No differences were found between the 2 groups with respect to postoperative complications. One postoperative death occurred in the BVC group and none in the VSRR group. The postoperative length of stay and aortic valve gradients were less in the VSRR group (6 vs 8 days, P = .038; 6 vs 11.4 mm Hg, P = .001). The intensive care unit length of stay was significantly less in the VSRR group (54 vs 110 hours, P = .001). Conclusions VSRR is an effective alternative to the BVC for aortic root aneurysm. PMID:25173127

  15. Disuse Atrophy of the Aortic Valve After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Tomoki; Tanoue, Yoshihisa; Ide, Tomomi; Okano, Shinji; Oda, Yoshinao; Tominaga, Ryuji

    2016-02-01

    A 31-year-old woman underwent implantation of a DuraHeart left ventricular assist device as bridge to transplantation. Aortic insufficiency was not observed before implantation but developed after implantation and became severe approximately 2 years later. Macroscopically, the aortic valve excised during heart transplantation showed no morphologic alteration. Microscopically, the collagen fibers in the fibrosa layer and the elastic fibers in the ventricularis layer of the valve leaflets were reduced in number, with irregular arrangement. These characteristics can be explained by a disuse atrophic change, and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the development of aortic insufficiency. PMID:26777926

  16. Multiple Embolic Aortic Valve Endocarditis with Small Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Adult

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seon Hee; Kim, Min Su; Kim, Sang-pil; Choi, Jung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    A 50-year-old female was admitted to Pusan National University Hospital with complaints of fatigue and sweating. Echocardiography showed a small patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and highly mobile vegetations on the aortic valve. Emergency operation was performed due to the high risk of embolization and severe aortic regurgitation. When the pulmonary artery opened, we found unexpected fresh vegetation. The tissue of the PDA was fragile and infected. We successfully removed the infected tissue, closed the PDA with a patch, and replaced the aortic valve with a mechanical prosthesis. PMID:24782964

  17. Multiple embolic aortic valve endocarditis with small patent ductus arteriosus in adult.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon Hee; Song, Seunghwan; Kim, Min Su; Kim, Sang-Pil; Choi, Jung Hyun

    2014-04-01

    A 50-year-old female was admitted to Pusan National University Hospital with complaints of fatigue and sweating. Echocardiography showed a small patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and highly mobile vegetations on the aortic valve. Emergency operation was performed due to the high risk of embolization and severe aortic regurgitation. When the pulmonary artery opened, we found unexpected fresh vegetation. The tissue of the PDA was fragile and infected. We successfully removed the infected tissue, closed the PDA with a patch, and replaced the aortic valve with a mechanical prosthesis. PMID:24782964

  18. Cubic Hermite Bezier spline based reconstruction of implanted aortic valve stents from CT images.

    PubMed

    Gessat, Michael; Altwegg, Lukas; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Plass, Andr; Falk, Volkmar

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical forces and strain induced by transcatheter aortic valve implantation are usually named as origins for postoperative left ventricular arrhythmia associated with the technique. No quantitative data has been published so far to substantiate this common belief. As a first step towards quantitative analysis of the biomechanic situation at the aortic root after transapical aortic valve implantation, we present a spline-based method for reconstruction of the implanted stent from CT images and for locally measuring the deformation of the stent. PMID:22254890

  19. Sedation or general anesthesia for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Jonathan; Bleiziffer, Sabine; Tassani, Peter; Martin, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is nowadays a routine therapy for elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and high perioperative risk. With growing experience, further development of the devices, and the expansion to intermediate-risk patients, there is increasing interest in performing this procedure under conscious sedation (TAVI-S) rather than the previously favoured approach of general anesthesia (TAVI-GA). The proposed benefits of TAVI-S include; reduced procedure time, shorter intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, reduced need for intraprocedural vasopressor support, and the potential to perform the procedure without the direct presence of an anesthetist for cost-saving reasons. To date, no randomized trial data exists. We reviewed 13 non-randomized studies/registries reporting data from 6,718 patients undergoing TAVI (3,227 performed under sedation). Patient selection, study methods, and endpoints have differed considerably between published studies. Reported rates of in-hospital and longer-term mortality are similar for both groups. Up to 17% of patients undergoing TAVI-S require conversion to general anesthesia during the procedure, primarily due to vascular complications, and urgent intubation is frequently associated with hemodynamic instability. Procedure related factors, including hypotension, may compound preexisting age-specific renal impairment and enhance the risk of acute kidney injury. Hypotonia of the hypopharyngeal muscles in elderly patients, intraprocedural hypercarbia, and certain anesthetic drugs, may increase the aspiration risk in sedated patients. General anesthesia and conscious sedation have both been used successfully to treat patients with severe AS undergoing TAVI with similar reported short and long-term mortality outcomes. The authors believe that the significant incidence of complications and unplanned conversion to general anesthesia during TAVI-S mandates the start-to-finish presence of an experienced cardiac anesthetist in order to optimize patient outcomes. Good quality randomized data is needed to determine the optimal anesthetic regimen for patients undergoing TAVI. PMID:26543597

  20. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement: 12-year single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Solinas, Marco; Farneti, Pier Andrea; Cerillo, Alfredo Giuseppe; Kallushi, Enkel; Santarelli, Filippo; Glauber, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    Background This study reports the single center experience on minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR), performed through a right anterior minithoracotomy or ministernotomy (MS). Methods Eight hundred and fifty-three patients, who underwent MIAVR from 2002 to 2014, were retrospectively analyzed. Survival was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox multivariable proportional hazards regression model was developed to identify independent predictors of follow-up mortality. Results Median age was 73.8, and 405 (47.5%) of patients were female. The overall 30-day mortality was 1.9%. Four hundred and forty-three (51.9%) and 368 (43.1%) patients received biological and sutureless prostheses, respectively. Median cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamping time were 108 and 75 minutes, respectively. Nineteen (2.2%) cases required conversion to full median sternotomy. Thirty-seven (4.3%) patients required re-exploration for bleeding. Perioperative stroke occurred in 15 (1.8%) patients, while transient ischemic attack occurred postoperative in 11 (1.3%). New onset atrial fibrillation was reported for 243 (28.5%) patients. After a median follow-up of 29.1 months (2,676.0 patient-years), survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 96%1% and 80%3%, respectively. Cox multivariable analysis showed that advanced age, history of cardiac arrhythmia, preoperative chronic renal failure, MS approach, prolonged mechanical ventilation and hospital stay as well as wound revision were associated with higher mortality. Conclusions MIAVR via both approaches is safe and feasible with excellent outcomes, and is associated with low conversion rate and low perioperative morbidity. Long term survival is at least comparable to that reported for conventional sternotomy AVR. PMID:25870812

  1. Reliability and Identification of Aortic Valve Prolapse in the Horse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objectives were to determine and assess the reliability of criteria for identification of aortic valve prolapse (AVP) using echocardiography in the horse. Results Opinion of equine cardiologists indicated that a long-axis view of the aortic valve (AoV) was most commonly used for identification of AVP (46%; n=13). There was consensus that AVP could be mimicked by ultrasound probe malignment. This was confirmed in 7 healthy horses, where the appearance of AVP could be induced by malalignment. In a study of a further 8 healthy horses (5 with AVP) examined daily for 5 days, by two echocardiographers standardized imaging guidelines gave good to excellent agreement for the assessment of AVP (kappa>0.80) and good agreement between days and observers (kappa >0.6). The technique allowed for assessment of the degree of prolapse and measurement of the prolapse distance that provided excellent agreement between echocardiographers, days and observers (kappa/ICC>0.8). Assessments made using real-time zoomed images provided similar measurements to the standard views (ICC=0.9), with agreement for the identification of AVP (kappa>0.8). Short axis views of the AoV were used for identification of AVP by fewer respondents (23%), however provided less agreement for the identification of AVP (kappa>0.6) and only adequate agreement with observations made in long axis (kappa>0.5), with AVP being identified more often in short axis (92%) compared to long axis (76%). Orthogonal views were used by 31% of respondents to identify the presence of AVP, and 85% to identify cusp. Its identification on both views on 4 days was used to categorise horses as having AVP, providing a positive predictive value of 79% and negative predictive value of 18%. Only the non-coronary cusp (NCC) of the AoV was observed to prolapse in these studies. Prolapse of the NCC was confirmed during the optimisation study using four-dimensional echocardiography, which concurred with the findings of two-dimensional echocardiography. Conclusions This study has demonstrated reliable diagnostic criteria for the identification and assessment of AVP that can be used for longitudinal research studies to better define the prevalence and natural history of this condition. PMID:23311963

  2. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation as a Procedural Rescue Strategy for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Cardiac Complications.

    PubMed

    Banjac, Igor; Petrovic, Marija; Akay, Mehmet H; Janowiak, Lisa M; Radovancevic, Rajko; Nathan, Sriram; Patel, Manish; Loyalka, Pranav; Kar, Biswajit; Gregoric, Igor D

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications during or after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are associated with extremely high mortality, but extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used as procedural rescue option to improve outcomes when patients experience respiratory or cardiac arrest. From 2012 to 2014, 230 patients underwent TAVR and 10 patients (4.3%) required emergent venous-arterial ECMO support. Mean age was 83 years, median Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score was 15, and mean aortic gradient was 45 mm Hg. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 35%. Access for most ECMOs was femoral; two patients required central arterial and femoral venous access. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was initiated in response to hemodynamic collapse due to perforation of left ventricle (n = 2), aortic root rupture (n = 1), moderate-to-severe aortic insufficiency (n = 1), left main impingement (n = 1), valve embolization (n = 1), severe hypotension and cardiac arrest after prolonged rapid pacing sequence (n = 1), ventricular fibrillation (n = 2), and ventricular tachycardia (n = 1). Median time of ECMO support was 87 minutes. There were three hospital deaths. Post-TAVR mean aortic gradient was 8 mm Hg and median hospital stay was 19 days. Additional procedures included valve-in-valve placement (n = 1), percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 1), surgical LV repair (n = 2), surgical valve replacement (n = 1), aortic root rupture repair, and coronary bypass grafting (n = 1). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is rescue therapy for hemodynamic instable patients who develop TAVR-related cardiac complications. PMID:26309098

  3. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation - what the general physician needs to know.

    PubMed

    Ruparelia, Neil; Prendergast, Bernard D

    2015-10-01

    With an increasingly elderly population, the incidence of aortic stenosis (AS) is rising. While surgical aortic valve replacement remains the gold standard treatment for patients with severe symptomatic AS, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as the treatment of choice for patients who are inoperable or high surgical risk. TAVI has been shown to be associated with a clear mortality benefit when compared with medical therapy and to be at least as good as surgical aortic valve replacement in this patient group. The last few years have seen rapid development in this revolutionary technology in conjunction with increasing centre and operator experience, and indications for the procedure are swiftly expanding. In this review, we summarise the current evidence base and discuss factors that need to be considered by the general physician when contemplating TAVI as a treatment option, including practical aspects, emerging indications and future directions. PMID:26430178

  4. Caval-Aortic Access to Allow Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients Otherwise Ineligible: Initial Human Experience

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Adam B.; ONeill, William W.; Paone, Gaetano; Guerrero, Mayra E.; Wyman, Janet F.; Cooper, R. Lebron; Lederman, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We describe the first use of caval-aortic access and closure to enable transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients who lacked other access options. Caval-aortic access refers to percutaneous entry into the abdominal aorta from the femoral vein through the adjoining inferior vena cava. Background TAVR is attractive in high risk or inoperable patients with severe aortic stenosis. Available transcatheter valves require large introducer sheaths, which risk major vascular complications or preclude TAVR altogether. Caval-aortic access has been successful in animals. Methods We performed a single center retrospective review of procedural and 30-day outcomes of prohibitive-risk patients undergoing TAVR via caval-aortic access. Results Between July 2013 and January 2014, 19 patients underwent TAVR via caval-aortic access. 79% were women. Caval-aortic access and tract closure was successful in all 19; TAVR was successful in 17. Six patients suffered modified VARC-2 major vascular complications, two (11%) of whom required intervention. Most (79%) required blood transfusion. There were no deaths attributable to caval-aortic access. Through 111 (39229) days of follow up, there were no post-discharge complications related to tract creation or closure. All patients had persistent aorto-caval flow immediately post procedure. Of 16 who underwent repeat imaging after the first week, 15 (94%) had complete closure of the residual aorto-caval tract. Conclusions Percutaneous transcaval venous access to the aorta allows TAVR in otherwise ineligible patients, and may offer a new access strategy for other applications requiring large transcatheter implants. PMID:24814495

  5. Minimally invasive concomitant aortic and mitral valve surgery: the Miami Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Valve surgery via a median sternotomy has historically been the standard of care, but in the past decade various minimally invasive approaches have gained increasing acceptance. Most data available on minimally invasive valve surgery has generally involved single valve surgery. Therefore, robust data addressing surgical techniques in patients undergoing double valve surgery is lacking. For patients undergoing combined aortic and mitral valve surgery, a minimally invasive approach, performed via a right lateral thoracotomy (the Miami Method), is the preferred method at our institution. This method is safe and effective and leads to an enhanced recovery in our patients given the reduction in surgical trauma. The following perspective details our surgical approach, concepts and results for combined aortic and mitral valve surgery. PMID:25694974

  6. [Severe aortic valve stenosis combined with a large brain tumor; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Akishima, Shinji; Umezu, Yasuhiro

    2014-12-01

    We report a case of severe aortic valve stenosis with a large benign brain tumor (meningioma), which was successfully treated with simple replacement with a mechanical valve under extracorporeal circulation (ECC). A large meningioma is considered as a risk in an operation under ECC because it may increase intracranial pressure and cause bleeding. In this case we chose a simple method of aortic valve replacement for the purpose of shortening the ECC time. Under warfarin control, the patient is in a stable condition with good cardiac function and without any neurological symptom at 8 years after the operation. PMID:25434545

  7. Repair of a Mycotic Coronary Artery Aneurysm with an Intact Prosthetic Aortic Valve.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Mitsugu; Bell, David; Marshman, David

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 75-year-old man with a mycotic right coronary artery aneurysm without evidence of prosthetic valve endocarditis. Eight years previously he had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery and aortic valve replacement. He presented with methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus septicaemia after a prolonged hospital admission. Further investigation revealed a large mycotic right coronary artery aneurysm prompting urgent surgical repair. This case, of a mycotic coronary artery aneurysm in an atherosclerotic native coronary artery, is an extremely rare entity, which is further complicated by the presence of a prosthetic aortic valve. PMID:26475646

  8. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae-induced aortic valve endocarditis: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Ping; Liu, Jialiang; Tao, Jun; Liu, Jianyang; Yang, Yanqi; Yang, Songran

    2015-01-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a pathogen of zoonosis often associated with occupational exposure. Although Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection has high mortality, the heart valves in humans are rarely involved. The clinical data of a case of a 65-year-old male with Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae-induced aortic valve endocarditis was summarized retrospectively and analyzed with a literature review. Based on a literature review and our experience, cases of E. rhusiopathiae-induced aortic valve endocarditis are extremely rare and surgical treatment for this condition is useful and recommended. PMID:25785050

  9. [An emergent aortic and mitral valve replacement for active infective endocarditis preoperatively using extracorporeal ultrafiltration method].

    PubMed

    Sakahashi, H; Takazawa, A; Eishi, K; Aomi, S; Tsuchida, K; Harada, Y; Seino, R; Hashimoto, A; Koyanagi, H

    1991-03-01

    We reported a 29-year-old man with active endocarditis complicating aortic and mitral valve regurgitation. The echocardiogram showed a mycotic aneurysm at aortic valvular annulus and a aneurysm of mitral valve. Heart failure was progressive and caused anuria. Prior to emergent double valve replacement, 2,500 ml of water was removed. Then hemodynamics became stationary. Urination was good during and after operation. In this case, complicating acute renal failure, dehydration with extracorporeal ultrafiltration method was very effective for improvement of hemodynamics. PMID:2020151

  10. [Apicoaortic valved conduit as an alternative method of surgical treatment of aortic stenosis - a case report].

    PubMed

    Hirnle, Tomasz; Sobkowicz, Bozena; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Janiszewski, Wawrzyniec; Jakubw, Piotr; Trzci?ski, Robert; Hirnle, Grzegorz; Dmitruk, Iwona; Lewczuk, Anna; Fiedorczuk, Kinga

    2009-07-01

    A case of a 73-year-old patient with critical aortic stenosis, porcelain aorta and occluded femoral arteries is presented. We performed apico-aortic valved conduit (A-AVC) without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Hegar dilator inserted through the apex into the left ventricle allowed anastomosis of dacron tube to the apex. Valved conduit was anastomosed to the descending aorta. Both tubes were connected. Before the operation, maximal gradient through the valve was 95, after operation dropped to 33 mmHg. This method of apical anastomosis allowed to perform A-AVC without CPB in a patient with extremely high peri-operative risk while using CPB. PMID:19649999

  11. Replacement of an aortic Starr-Edwards ball valve prosthesis 28 years after implantation.

    PubMed

    Tayama, Keiichiro; Akashi, Hidetoshi; Tayama, Eiki; Fukunaga, Shuji; Kawara, Takemi; Kosuga, Ken-ichi; Aoyagi, Shigeaki

    2004-05-01

    A 53-year-old woman who had undergone aortic valve replacement with a Starr-Edwards (S-E) valve (Model 1260) and open mitral commissurotomy 28 years previously was hospitalized with cardiac failure. Echocardiography showed mitral stenosis, mitral regurgitation, and a normally functioning S-E prosthesis. At reoperation, the mitral and aortic valves were replaced with St Jude bileaflet mechanical prostheses. Examination of the explanted S-E prosthesis revealed no structural abnormality other than lipid infiltration of the silastic ball. PMID:15118298

  12. Vascular Imaging Before Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR): Why and How?

    PubMed

    Caruso, Damiano; Rosenberg, Russell D; De Cecco, Carlo N; Mangold, Stefanie; Wichmann, Julian L; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Steinberg, Daniel H; Laghi, Andrea; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become an alternative to surgical intervention for symptomatic or severe aortic valve stenosis in patients with high surgical risk. Successful TAVR requires a multimodality imaging approach for appropriate patient selection and prosthesis sizing. Here, we describe individual imaging modalities and report their respective roles in this emerging field. To date, echocardiography remains the traditional test for determining patient candidacy and prosthesis selection, but computed tomography (CT) has been taking on an increasingly important role in the evaluation of both the aortic root anatomy and aortoiliofemoral vessels as a single examination. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is useful in grading the severity of aortic stenosis and should be considered a reasonable alternative to CT for the evaluation of the aortic annulus, e.g., when the administration of contrast media is contraindicated. PMID:26768740

  13. Dynamic hemodynamic energy loss in normal and stenosed aortic valves.

    PubMed

    Yap, Choon-Hwai; Dasi, Lakshmi P; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2010-02-01

    Aortic valve (AV) stenosis, if untreated, leads to heart failure. From a mechanics standpoint, heart failure can be interpreted as the failure of the heart to generate sufficient power to overcome energy losses in the circulation. Thus, energy efficiency-based measures for evaluating AV performance and disease severity have the advantage of being a direct measure of the contribution of the AV hydrodynamic characteristics toward heart failure. We present a new method for computing the rate of energy dissipation as a function of systolic time, by modifying the Navier-Stokes momentum equation. This method preserves the dynamic term of the Navier-Stokes momentum equation, and allows the investigation of the trend of the rate of energy dissipation over time. This method is applied to a series of in vitro experiments, where a trimmed porcine valve is exposed to various conditions: varying stroke volumes (50 ml to 90 ml) at the fixed heart rate; varying heart rates (60-80 beats/min) at fixed stroke volume; and varying stenosis levels (normal, mild stenosis, moderate stenosis). The results are: (1) energy dissipation waveform has a distinctive pattern of being skewed toward late systole, due to flow instabilities during deceleration phases; (2) increasing heart rate and stroke volume increases energy dissipation, but the normalized shape of the energy dissipation waveform is preserved across heart rates and stroke volumes; (3) increasing stenosis level increases energy dissipation, and also alters the normalized shape of the energy dissipation waveform. Since stenosis produces a signature energy dissipation waveform shape, dynamic energy dissipation analysis can potentially be extended into a clinical tool for AV evaluation. PMID:20370242

  14. Interlayer micromechanics of the aortic heart valve leaflet.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Rachel M; Sacks, Michael S

    2014-08-01

    While the mechanical behaviors of the fibrosa and ventricularis layers of the aortic valve (AV) leaflet are understood, little information exists on their mechanical interactions mediated by the GAG-rich central spongiosa layer. Parametric simulations of the interlayer interactions of the AV leaflets in flexure utilized a tri-layered finite element (FE) model of circumferentially oriented tissue sections to investigate inter-layer sliding hypothesized to occur. Simulation results indicated that the leaflet tissue functions as a tightly bonded structure when the spongiosa effective modulus was at least 25 % that of the fibrosa and ventricularis layers. Novel studies that directly measured transmural strain in flexure of AV leaflet tissue specimens validated these findings. Interestingly, a smooth transmural strain distribution indicated that the layers of the leaflet indeed act as a bonded unit, consistent with our previous observations (Stella and Sacks in J Biomech Eng 129:757-766, 2007) of a large number of transverse collagen fibers interconnecting the fibrosa and ventricularis layers. Additionally, when the tri-layered FE model was refined to match the transmural deformations, a layer-specific bimodular material model (resulting in four total moduli) accurately matched the transmural strain and moment-curvature relations simultaneously. Collectively, these results provide evidence, contrary to previous assumptions, that the valve layers function as a bonded structure in the low-strain flexure deformation mode. Most likely, this results directly from the transverse collagen fibers that bind the layers together to disable physical sliding and maintain layer residual stresses. Further, the spongiosa may function as a general dampening layer while the AV leaflets deforms as a homogenous structure despite its heterogeneous architecture. PMID:24292631

  15. INTERLAYER MICROMECHANICS OF THE AORTIC HEART VALVE LEAFLET

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Rachel M.; Sacks, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    While the mechanical behaviors of the fibrosa and ventricularis layers of the aortic valve (AV) leaflet are understood, little information exists on their mechanical interactions mediated by the GAG-rich central spongiosa layer. Parametric simulations of the interlayer interactions of the AV leaflets in flexure utilized a tri-layered finite element (FE) model of circumferentially oriented tissue sections to investigate inter-layer sliding hypothesized to occur. Simulation results indicated that the leaflet tissue functions as a tightly bonded structure when the spongiosa effective modulus was at least 25% that of the fibrosa and ventricularis layers. Novel studies that directly measured transmural strain in flexure of AV leaflet tissue specimens validated these findings. Interestingly, a smooth transmural strain distribution indicated that the layers of the leaflet indeed act as a bonded unit, consistent with our previous observations (Stella and Sacks, 2007) of a large number of transverse collagen fibers interconnecting the fibrosa and ventricularis layers. Additionally, when the tri-layered FE model was refined to match the transmural deformations, a layer-specific bimodular material model (resulting in four total moduli) accurately matched the transmural strain and moment-curvature relations simultaneously. Collectively, these results provide evidence, contrary to previous assumptions, that the valve layers function as a bonded structure in the low-strain flexure deformation mode. Most likely, this results directly from the transverse collagen fibers that bind the layers together to disable physical sliding and maintain layer residual stresses. Further, the spongiosa may function as a general dampening layer while the AV leaflets deforms as a homogenous structure despite its heterogeneous architecture. PMID:24292631

  16. Use of Toronto stentless porcine valve in patients with aortic dilation.

    PubMed

    Petracek, M R; Shuman, T A; Pirolo, J S; Tedder, M; Ball, S K; Graves, D

    1999-10-01

    One of the contraindications for a stentless aortic valve is dilation of the aorta such that the sinotubular ridge is more than 2 mm larger than the annulus. Since May of 1994, 134 patients have had their aortic valve replaced with St Jude Toronto SPV valves; of these, 38 patients have required sinotubular ridge reduction. This was done by using one or more pleats in the aorta between the commisural posts. There were 20 patients with one pleat, 12 patients with two pleats, 5 patients with three pleats, and 1 patient with four pleats. In addition, three Toronto SPV valves were used in patients with significant calcification in the native coronary sinuses. All of the valves have had trace or no aortic insufficiency and have not developed aortic insufficiency in follow-up evaluation. Mean gradients remain low (<10 mm Hg). These valves have been much more versatile than originally expected and can be used in patients with mild to moderate aortic dilation and calcification. PMID:10660170

  17. Functional annulus remodelling using a prosthetic ring in tricuspid aortic valve repair: mid-term results†

    PubMed Central

    Fattouch, Khalil; Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Murana, Giacomo; Nasso, Giuseppe; Guccione, Francesco; Dioguardi, Pietro; Salardino, Massimo; Bianco, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The functional aortic valve annulus (FAVA) is a complex unit with proximal (aorto-ventricular junction) and distal (sinotubular junction) components. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the total FAVA remodelling, using a prosthetic ring, on mid-term clinical and echocardiographic results after aortic valve repair. METHODS Since February 2003, 250 patients with tricuspid aortic valve insufficiency (AI) underwent aortic valve repair. FAVA dilatation was treated by prosthetic ring in 52 patients, by isolated subcommissural plasty in 62, by subcommissural plasty plus ascending aortic replacement in 57 and by David's reimplantation procedure in 79. Survival rate and freedom from recurrent AI greater than or equal to moderate were evaluated by Kaplan–Meier. RESULTS Overall late survival was 90.4%. Late cardiac-related deaths occurred in 15 patients. At follow-up, 36 (16%) patients had recurrent AI greater than or equal to moderate because of cusp reprolapse and/or FAVA redilatation. Freedom from recurrent AI was significantly higher for patients who underwent David's procedure or FAVA remodelling by prosthetic ring than those who underwent isolated subcommissural plasty (P < 0.01) or subcommissural plasty plus ascending aortic replacement (P = 0.02). There was no statistical difference between David's procedure and prosthetic ring annuloplasty (P = 0.26). CONCLUSION FAVA remodelling using a prosthetic ring is a safe procedure in aortic valve repair surgery thanks to long-term annulus stabilization and it is a pliable alternative to David's procedure in selected patients. This technique may be used in all patients with slight root dilatation to avoid aggressive root reimplantation. We also recommended total FAVA annuloplasty in all patients who underwent aortic valve repair to improve long-term repair results. PMID:24065345

  18. Analysis of aortic valve commissural fusion after support with continuous-flow left ventricular assist device

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Jerson R.; Schipper, Marguerite E.I.; de Jonge, Nicolaas; Ramjankhan, Faiz; de Weger, Roel A.; Lahpor, Jaap R.; Vink, Aryan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVADs) may induce commissural fusion of the aortic valve leaflets. Factors associated with this occurrence of commissural fusion are unknown. The aim of this study was to examine histological characteristics of cf-LVAD-induced commissural fusion in relation to clinical variables. METHODS Gross and histopathological examinations were performed on 19 hearts from patients supported by either HeartMate II (n = 17) or HeartWare (n = 2) cf-LVADs and related to clinical characteristics (14 heart transplantation, 5 autopsy). RESULTS Eleven of the 19 (58%) aortic valves showed fusion of single or multiple commissures (total fusion length 11 mm [420] (median [interquartile range]) per valve), some leading to noticeable nodular displacements or considerable lumen diameter narrowing. Multiple fenestrations were observed in one valve. Histopathological examination confirmed commissural fusion, with varying changes in valve layer structure without evidence of inflammatory infiltration at the site of fusion. Commissural fusion was associated with continuous aortic valve closure during cf-LVAD support (P = 0.03). LVAD-induced aortic valve insufficiency developed in all patients with commissural fusion and in 67% of patients without fusion. Age, duration of cf-LVAD support and aetiology of heart failure (ischaemic vs dilated cardiomyopathy) were not associated with the degree of fusion. CONCLUSIONS Aortic valve commissural fusion after support with cf-LVADs is a non-inflammatory process leading to changes in valve layer structure that can be observed in >50% of cf-LVAD patients. This is the first study showing that patients receiving full cf-LVAD support without opening of the valve have a significantly higher risk of developing commissural fusion than patients on partial support. PMID:23798641

  19. Severe aortic valve stenosis in the elderly: high prevalence of sleep-related breathing disorders

    PubMed Central

    Keymel, Stefanie; Hellhammer, Katharina; Zeus, Tobias; Merx, Marc; Kelm, Malte; Steiner, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Background Aortic valve stenosis is common in the elderly, with a prevalence of nearly 3% in patients aged 75 years or older. Despite the fact that sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) are thought to be associated with cardiac disease, little is known about their prevalence in this patient cohort. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of SRBD in older patients with aortic valve stenosis admitted for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Methods Forty-eight consecutive patients (mean age 816 years; 37.5% male) with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis and considered for transcatheter aortic valve replacement were screened for SRBD. Sleep studies were performed by in-hospital unattended cardiorespiratory polygraphy measuring nasal air flow, chest and abdominal efforts, as well as oxygen saturation and body position. The patients were divided in subgroups dependent on the documented apneahypopnea index (AHI; no SRBD was defined as an AHI of <5 events/hour; mild SRBD as AHI 515 events/hour, and moderate to severe SRBD as AHI ?15 events/hour). Results Thirty-seven patients (77%) had SRBD defined as an AHI of ?5 events/hour. Eleven patients had an unremarkable investigation, with AHI <5 events/hour (mean 3.01.3 events/hour). Among patients with sleep apnea, 19 patients had mild SRBD, with an AHI of 515 events/hour (mean 9.93.4 events/hour) and 18 patients had moderate to severe SRBD (mean 26.611.3 events/hour). Mainly, obstructive apneas were found. Subgroups were not different regarding EuroSCORE (European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation) or aortic valve area. Also, no correlations were found between AHI and the additive or logistic EuroSCORE or aortic valve area. Significant correlations were found for AHI and N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (r=0.53; P=0.003) and for AHI and glomerular filtration rate (r=?0.39; P=0.007). Conclusion SRBD is common in elderly patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis admitted for transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Interestingly, this finding is not reflected by the currently used risk scores. Further randomized studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of concomitant SRBD in the management of severe aortic stenosis. PMID:26379430

  20. Evaluation of the Edwards SAPIEN 3 Transcatheter Valve For Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Htun, Nay M; Webb, John G

    2016-03-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is a viable alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis. The SAPIEN 3 is the latest generation of balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valve, designed to address some of the shortcomings of earlier versions of transcatheter heart valves. It has a lower device profile to reduce access-related vascular injury, an improved delivery catheter to facilitate accurate implantation, and incorporates an additional outer sealing cuff to minimize paravalvular leakage. The latest European and North American trials using SAPIEN 3 have documented very low rates of vascular complications and paravalvular regurgitation with rates of stroke and mortality rates lower than anticipated with SAVR in both intermediate and high surgical risk patients. PMID:26878548

  1. Anatomical definition of aortic root abscesses by transesophageal echocardiography: planning a surgical strategy using homograft valves.

    PubMed

    Brecker, S J; Jin, X Y; Yacoub, M H

    1995-06-01

    Infective endocarditis of the native or a prosthetic aortic valve may be complicated by abscess cavity development in the aortic root, and successful treatment depends upon early diagnosis, clear anatomical definition preoperatively, and maintaining sterility of the second implant. Homograft valves offer many advantages in this setting. Timing of surgery and the choice of the particular technique depends on accurate characterization of the anatomical details of the abscess. Five cases of paravalvular aortic root abscess in the setting of prosthetic valve endocarditis are described. In each case the diagnosis was made with transesophageal echocardiography, and the information was used in planning the operative procedure of homograft valve replacement. This strategy is proposed as optimal management of this potentially lethal condition. PMID:7664511

  2. Fatal systemic air embolism in a neonate with absent aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Muneuchi, Jun; Kuraoka, Ayako; Ochiai, Yoshie; Nishibatake, Makoto; Sese, Akira; Joo, Kunitaka

    2011-08-01

    A 32-year-old pregnant woman was referred at 33 weeks' gestation for prenatal ultrasound demonstrating fetal hydrops due to absent aortic valve with free aortic valve insufficiency. Elective caesarian section at 34 week's gestation was performed. Surgical intervention was planned immediately after labor at which time mitral valve closure and atrial septostomy using cardiopulmonary bypass would be performed. However, before insertion of the cannula for cardiopulmonary bypass, a gush of air from the right atrium was noted. The surgical procedure was abandoned because systemic air embolism was suspected. The child died 2 h after birth. Autopsy showed absent aortic valve with closed foramen ovale and left-ventricular hypertrophy. Microscopic findings showed pulmonary and systemic lymphangiectasis, which caused the introduction of air into systemic venous system by way of lymphatic duct just after birth. PMID:21455752

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infective Endocarditis Following Aortic Valve Implantation: A Note of Caution

    PubMed Central

    Dapás, Juan Ignacio; Rivero, Cynthia; Burgos, Pablo; Vila, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an alternative treatment for severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) in patients with prohibitive risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is a rare complication of this relatively novel procedure and current guidelines do not include specific recommendations for its treatment. We report a case of PVE due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa after TAVI that required SAVR, with successful outcome. PVE usually occurs during the first year after TAVI and entails a high mortality risk because patients eligible for this min-imally invasive procedure are fragile (i.e. advanced age and/or severe comorbidities). Additionally, clinical presentation may be atypical or subtle and transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) may not be conclusive, which delays diagnosis and treatment worsening the prognosis. This case highlights that open SAVR might be ultimately indicated as part of treatment for TAVI-PVE despite a high-risk surgery score. PMID:27014375

  4. Outcomes of surgical aortic valve replacement: the benchmark for percutaneous therapies.

    PubMed

    Bajona, Pietro; Suri, Rakesh M; Greason, Kevin L; Schaff, Hartzell V

    2014-01-01

    Historically, many patients with severe senile calcific aortic valve stenosis (AS) were not offered surgery, largely due to the perception that the risks of operation were prohibitive. Such patients have subsequently been formally designated as 'high risk' or 'inoperable' with respect to their suitability for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in the evolving lexicon of heart valve disease. The recent availability of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) represents an alternative treatment option, and permits the opportunity to re-examine algorithms for assessing operative risk. As the experience with TAVR grows, expanded use in new patient populations can be anticipated. While TAVR in high risk AS patients has demonstrated benefits, the emerging indication in intermediate AS is less clear and conclusions will necessarily await the availability of results from ongoing clinical trials. This article will discuss current outcomes for SAVR among high- and intermediate-risk patients with AS as a barometer in assessing the results of nascent percutaneous therapies. PMID:24838137

  5. Microparticle-Induced Coagulation Relates to Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Patrick; Erkilet, Gülsüm; Veulemans, Verena; Kröpil, Patric; Schurgers, Leon; Zeus, Tobias; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Westenfeld, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating microparticles (MPs) derived from endothelial cells and blood cells bear procoagulant activity and promote thrombin generation. Thrombin exerts proinflammatory effects mediating the progression of atherosclerosis. Aortic valve stenosis may represent an atherosclerosis-like process involving both the aortic valve and the vascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MP-induced thrombin generation is related to coronary atherosclerosis and aortic valve calcification. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 55 patients with severe aortic valve stenosis, we assessed the coronary calcification score (CAC) as indicator of total coronary atherosclerosis burden, and aortic valve calcification (AVC) by computed tomography. Thrombin-antithrombin complex (TATc) levels were measured as a marker for thrombin formation. Circulating MPs were characterized by flow cytometry according to the expression of established surface antigens and by measuring MP-induced thrombin generation. Results Patients with CAC score below the median were classified as patients with low CAC, patients with CAC Score above the median as high CAC. In patients with high CAC compared to patients with low CAC we detected higher levels of TATc, platelet-derived MPs (PMPs), endothelial-derived MPs (EMPs) and MP-induced thrombin generation. Increased level of PMPs and MP-induced thrombin generation were independent predictors for the severity of CAC. In contrast, AVC Score did not differ between patients with high and low CAC and did neither correlate with MPs levels nor with MP-induced thrombin generation. Conclusion In patients with severe aortic valve stenosis MP-induced thrombin generation was independently associated with the severity of CAC but not AVC indicating different pathomechanisms involved in coronary artery and aortic valve calcification. PMID:27010400

  6. Design of a cyclic pressure bioreactor for the ex vivo study of aortic heart valves.

    PubMed

    Schipke, Kimberly J; To, S D Filip; Warnock, James N

    2011-01-01

    The aortic valve, located between the left ventricle and the aorta, allows for unidirectional blood flow, preventing backflow into the ventricle. Aortic valve leaflets are composed of interstitial cells suspended within an extracellular matrix (ECM) and are lined with an endothelial cell monolayer. The valve withstands a harsh, dynamic environment and is constantly exposed to shear, flexion, tension, and compression. Research has shown calcific lesions in diseased valves occur in areas of high mechanical stress as a result of endothelial disruption or interstitial matrix damage(1-3). Hence, it is not surprising that epidemiological studies have shown high blood pressure to be a leading risk factor in the onset of aortic valve disease(4). The only treatment option currently available for valve disease is surgical replacement of the diseased valve with a bioprosthetic or mechanical valve(5). Improved understanding of valve biology in response to physical stresses would help elucidate the mechanisms of valve pathogenesis. In turn, this could help in the development of non-invasive therapies such as pharmaceutical intervention or prevention. Several bioreactors have been previously developed to study the mechanobiology of native or engineered heart valves(6-9). Pulsatile bioreactors have also been developed to study a range of tissues including cartilage(10), bone(11) and bladder(12). The aim of this work was to develop a cyclic pressure system that could be used to elucidate the biological response of aortic valve leaflets to increased pressure loads. The system consisted of an acrylic chamber in which to place samples and produce cyclic pressure, viton diaphragm solenoid valves to control the timing of the pressure cycle, and a computer to control electrical devices. The pressure was monitored using a pressure transducer, and the signal was conditioned using a load cell conditioner. A LabVIEW program regulated the pressure using an analog device to pump compressed air into the system at the appropriate rate. The system mimicked the dynamic transvalvular pressure levels associated with the aortic valve; a saw tooth wave produced a gradual increase in pressure, typical of the transvalvular pressure gradient that is present across the valve during diastole, followed by a sharp pressure drop depicting valve opening in systole. The LabVIEW program allowed users to control the magnitude and frequency of cyclic pressure. The system was able to subject tissue samples to physiological and pathological pressure conditions. This device can be used to increase our understanding of how heart valves respond to changes in the local mechanical environment. PMID:21876532

  7. Prevalence of pannus formation after aortic valve replacement: clinical aspects and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yoshimasa; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Okuyama, Hiroshi; Ishii, Shinichi; Shingo, Taguchi; Kagawa, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Pannus formation after aortic valve replacement is not common, but obstruction due to chronic pannus is one of the most serious complications of valve replacement. The causes of pannus formation are still unknown and effective preventive methods have not been fully elucidated. We reviewed our clinical experience of all patients who underwent reoperation for prosthetic aortic valve obstruction due to pannus formation between 1973 and 2004. We compared the initial 18-year period of surgery, when the Bjrk-Shiley tilting-disk valve was used, and the subsequent 13-year period of surgery, when the St. Jude Medical valve was used. Seven of a total of 390 patients (1.8%) required reoperation for prosthetic aortic valve obstruction due to pannus formation. All seven patients were women; four patients underwent resection of the pannus and three patients needed replacement of the valve. The frequency of pannus formation in the early group was 2.4% (6/253), whereas it was 0.73% (1/137) in the late group (P < 0.05). Pannus was localized at the minor orifice of the Bjrk-Shiley valve in the early group and turbulent transvalvular blood flow was considered to be one of the important factors triggering its growth. We also consider that small bileaflet valves have the possibility of promoting pannus formation and that the implantation of a larger prosthesis can contribute to reducing the occurrence of pannus. PMID:16998706

  8. Influence of beta-blocker therapy on aortic blood flow in patients with bicuspid aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Allen, Bradley D; Markl, Michael; Barker, Alex J; van Ooij, Pim; Carr, James C; Malaisrie, S Chris; McCarthy, Patrick; Bonow, Robert O; Kansal, Preeti

    2016-04-01

    In patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), beta-blockers (BB) are assumed to slow ascending aorta (AAo) dilation by reducing wall shear stress (WSS) on the aneurysmal segment. The aim of this study was to assess differences in AAo peak velocity and WSS in BAV patients with and without BB therapy. BAV patients receiving BB (BB+, n = 30, age: 47 ± 11 years) or not on BB (BB-, n = 30, age: 46 ± 13 years) and healthy controls (n = 15, age: 43 ± 11 years) underwent 4D flow MRI for the assessment of in vivo aortic 3D blood flow. Peak systolic velocities and 3D WSS were calculated at the anterior and posterior walls of the AAo. Both patient groups had higher maximum and mean WSS relative to the control group (p = 0.001 to p = 0.04). WSS was not reduced in the BB+ group compared to BB- patients in the anterior AAo (maximum: 1.49 ± 0.47 vs. 1.38 ± 0.49 N/m(2), p = 0.99, mean: 0.76 ± 0.2 vs. 0.74 ± 0.18 N/m(2), p = 1.00) or posterior AAo (maximum: 1.45 ± 0.42 vs. 1.39 ± 0.58 N/m(2), p = 1.00; mean: 0.65 ± 0.16 vs. 0.63 ± 0.16 N/m(2), p = 1.00). AAo peak velocity was elevated in patients compared to controls (p < 0.01) but similar for BB+ and BB- groups (p = 0.42). Linear models identified significant relationships between aortic stenosis severity and increased maximum WSS (β = 0.186, p = 0.007) and between diameter at the sinus of Valsalva and reduced mean WSS (β = -0.151, p = 0.045). Peak velocity and systolic WSS were similar for BAV patients irrespective of BB therapy. Further prospective studies are needed to investigate the impact of dosage and duration of BB therapy on aortic hemodynamics and development of aortopathy. PMID:26817758

  9. Surgical treatment for double-valve destruction after balloon aortic valvuloplasty in a patient with porcelain aorta.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Fukui, Toshihiro; Takanashi, Shuichiro

    2015-08-01

    We report a rare case of surgical treatment for double-valve destruction after balloon aortic valvuloplasty in a 90-year old female with severe aortic calcification. The patient underwent aortic balloon valvuloplasty for symptomatic aortic stenosis, resulting in severe aortic regurgitation because of injury to the right coronary cusp of the aortic valve and severe mitral regurgitation because of rupture of the chordae tendineae. She became haemodynamically unstable and required treatment with mechanical ventilation and assisted circulation. Urgent surgical treatment was planned. The patient's porcelain aorta increased the difficulty of surgery, but the procedure was carefully planned, and aortic valve replacement and mitral valve repair were performed successfully without major complications. The patient had a satisfactory postoperative course and was transferred to another hospital for rehabilitation on the 8th postoperative day. PMID:25187531

  10. Runner with gout and an aortic valve nodule.

    PubMed

    Moore, G E; Anderson, A L

    1995-05-01

    A 33-yr-old male ran 10 miles, drank some beer, and developed pain in his left knee and ankle. He took some leftover antibiotics but was no better after 6 d, when a heart murmur and an aortic valve nodule were discovered. He was presumed to have endocarditis with septic arthritis and was started on intravenous antibiotics. On the second hospital day, synovial fluid analysis revealed acute gout, and the patient improved very rapidly on anti-gout therapy. The valvular nodule remained unexplained, but one very rare cause of valvular heart nodules is visceral gout. An unsuccessful attempt to resorb the nodule was made by using allopurinol. This patient demonstrates several points about gout in endurance athletes: 1) acute gout can mimic infectious endocarditis, 2) misdiagnosed or undertreated gout often leads to multiple joint involvement and sometimes to visceral tophi, and 3) athletes who exercise in warm weather and quench their thirst with cold beer are at risk for acute gout. PMID:7674864

  11. [The assessment of mechanical heart valves stenosis in adults after aortic valve replacement: the advantage of full-flow design of mechanical valve].

    PubMed

    Bokeria, L A; Bokeria, O L; Fadeev, A A; Makhachev, O A; Kosareva, T I; Averina, I I

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of transprosthetic hemodynamics in adults after aortic valve replacement in the Bakoulev Center for Cardiovascular Surgery in 2007-2010 demonstrated the hemodynamic advantage of the concept of new full-flow mechanical aortic valve prosthesis "CorBeat". Having the same size of internal orifice and tissue annulus diameters, the values of transprosthetic parameters (peak and mean gradients, blood flow velocities) through "CorBeat" were close to physiological values of transvalvular native aortic parameters and had a tendency to be not dependent on the size of prosthesis (p = 0.63). In the article for the first time a morphometric database of geometric values of internal orifice area of normal native aortic valves in adults was used taking into account both the gender and the body surface area's of a patient. There was also used the standardized prosthesis size Z-score which represents the number of SDs by which the internal prosthesis area differs from the mean normal native aortic valve area for the patient's body surface area. The article emphasizes the need of the personal selection of the size and the type of prosthesis for any patient as well as the need for new design development of prosthetic heart valves. PMID:23808270

  12. Redo aortic valve surgery versus transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation for failing surgical bioprosthetic valves: consecutive patients in a single-center setting

    PubMed Central

    Wottke, Michael; Deutsch, Marcus-Andr; Krane, Markus; Piazza, Nicolo; Lange, Ruediger; Bleiziffer, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to a considerable rise in bioprosthetic as opposed to mechanical valve implantations, an increase of patients presenting with failing bioprosthetic surgical valves in need of a reoperation is to be expected. Redo surgery may pose a high-risk procedure. Transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve implantation is an innovative, less-invasive treatment alternative for these patients. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the outcome of consecutive patients after a valve-in-valve TAVI [transcatheter aortic valve-in-surgical aortic valve (TAV-in-SAV)] as compared to a standard reoperation [surgical aortic valve redo-operation (SAV-in-SAV)] has not yet been performed. The goal of this study was to compare postoperative outcomes after TAV-in-SAV and SAV-in-SAV in a single center setting. Methods All SAV-in-SAV and TAV-in-SAV patients from January 2001 to October 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with previous mechanical or transcatheter valves, active endocarditis and concomitant cardiac procedures were excluded. Patient characteristics, preoperative data, post-procedural complications, and 30-day mortality were collected from a designated database. Mean values SD were calculated for all continuous variables. Counts and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. The Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to compare categorical variables. Continuous variables were compared using the t-test for independent samples. A 2-sided P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 102 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 50 patients (49%) underwent a transcatheter valve-in-valve procedure, while 52 patients (51%) underwent redo-surgery. Patients in the TAV-in-SAV group were significantly older, had a higher mean logistic EuroSCORE and exhibited a lower mean left ventricular ejection fraction than patients in the SAV-in-SAV group (78.16.7 vs. 66.213.1, P<0.001; 27.418.7 vs. 14.410, P<0.001; and 49.813.1 vs. 56.715.8, P=0.019 respectively). Postoperative pacemaker implantation and chest tube output were higher in the SAV-in-SAV group compared to the TAV-in-SAV group [11 (21%) vs. 3 (6%), P=0.042 and 0.91.0 vs. 0.60.9, P=0.047, respectively]. There was no significant difference in myocardial infarction, stroke or dialysis postoperatively. Thirty-day mortality was not significantly different between the two groups [TAV-in-SAV2 (4%) vs. SAV-in-SAV0, P=0.238]. Kaplan-Meier (KM) 1-year survival was significantly lower in the TAV-in-SAV group than in the SAV-in-SAV group (83% vs. 96%, P<0.001). Conclusions The present investigation shows that both groups, irrespective of different baseline comorbidities, show very good early clinical outcomes. While redo surgery is still the standard of care, a subgroup of patients may profit from the transcatheter valve-in-valve procedure. PMID:26543594

  13. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of Aortic Valve Annular Shape in Children With Bicuspid Aortic Valves and/or Aortic Coarctation Compared With Controls.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Christen R; Sugeng, Lissa; Abraham, Sharon; Li, Fangyong; Weismann, Constance G

    2015-11-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital cardiac abnormality, occurring in 1% to 2% of the general population. Adults with degenerative aortic valve (AV) disease have been shown to have an elliptical shaped AV annulus. The goal of this study was to investigate the shape of the aortic annulus in children with BAV, coarctation of the aorta (CoA) with or without BAV, and normal controls with trileaflet AVs using 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). We reviewed echocardiograms of children with isolated BAV (n= 40), CoA (n= 26), and controls (n= 40) that included 3DE of the AV. Eccentricity index (EI) was defined as the ratio between the smaller and larger annular dimension. ?D was defined as the difference between the larger and smaller annular dimension. Patients with BAV had an eccentric AV annulus compared with controls (BAV EI 0.85 0.05 and control EI 0.96 0.03; p <0.001). Subjects with CoA also had a more eccentric annulus than controls regardless of AV morphology (CoA 0.84 0.06; p <0.001). EI was not associated with somatic growth parameters or gender. Among all patients with BAV, AV dysfunction was associated with fusion of the right and noncoronary (R-N) cusps (p <0.001), but there was no association between valve dysfunction and EI. ?D was higher in both the BAV and CoA groups compared with the control group (BAV 3.4 1.9mm, CoA 2.8 1.8mm, and control 0.6 0.4mm; p <0.001 each). Although there was no significant correlation of ?D with age in the control group during childhood, ?D increased with age in the BAV and CoA groups. In conclusion, children with BAV and/or CoA have an elliptical shaped AV annulus by 3DE, which is independent of age, gender, or body surface area. AV annular eccentricity may lead to inaccurate measurement of AV annular size if measured by 2DE alone. Considering AV annular eccentricity when balloon sizing the annulus before valvuloplasty may help improve interventional results in some patients. PMID:26375172

  14. Ministernotomy for aortic valve replacement: a study of the preliminary experience

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Denis; Perrault, Louis P.; Carrier, Michel; Mnasch, Philippe; Bel, Alain; Pelletier, L. Conrad

    2000-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the technical feasibility and the postoperative course of aortic valve replacement through a ministernotomy. Setting The Montreal Heart Institute and the Hpital Lariboisire, Paris, France. Design A case series from 2 institutions. Patients Fifty-one patients who underwent aortic valve replacement through a ministernotomy. The sternal incision was started at the level of the sternal notch extending down to the third or fourth intercostal space with a transverse section of the sternum at this level on both sides or limited to the right side (inverted T or L incision). Thirty-nine patients had aortic stenoses, 6 patients were operated for aortic insufficiency and 6 had mixed disease. The mean (and standard deviation) preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.56 (0.17). Main outcome measures Cardiac bypass time, complications and outcome. Results The patients received Carbomedics and St. Jude mechanical valves, Hancock and CarpentierEdwards bioprostheses. Thirty-eight patients were administered antegrade and retrograde cardioplegia, 10 patients ante-grade and 3 retrograde blood cardioplegia only. The mean (and standard error) cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamp time were 104 (38) minutes and 72 (16) minutes respectively. Two patients (4%) died and 2 patients (4%) showed evidence of a stroke after the procedure. Hospital stay averaged 8 (5) days. Conclusion We conclude that aortic valve replacement can be done through a ministernotomy approach with perioperative results similar to those obtained through a conventional sternotomy. PMID:10714256

  15. Relapsing tricuspid valve endocarditis by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 11 years: tricuspid valve replacement with an aortic valve homograft.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Seok; Chang, Hyoung Woo; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Kang, Dong Ki; Kim, Eui-Chong; Kim, Ki-Bong

    2015-01-01

    Eleven years ago, a 27-year-old non-drug abuser woman was admitted to the hospital due to a burn injury. During the treatment, she was diagnosed with tricuspid valve infective endocarditis caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). She underwent tricuspid valve replacement (TVR) using a bioprosthetic valve, followed by 6 weeks of meropenem antibiotic therapy. Ten years later, she was again diagnosed with prosthetic valve infective endocarditis caused by MDR P. aeruginosa. She underwent redo-TVR with a bioprosthetic valve and was treated with colistin and ciprofloxacin. Ten months later, she was again diagnosed with prosthetic valve infective endocarditis with MDR P. aeruginosa as a pathogen. She underwent a second redo-TVR with a tissue valve and was treated with colistin. Two months later, her fever recurred and she was again diagnosed with prosthetic valve infective endocarditis caused by MDR P. aeruginosa. She eventually underwent a third redo-TVR using an aortic valve homograft and was discharged from the hospital after additional 6 weeks' of antibiotic therapy. All the strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from each event of infective endocarditis were analyzed by repetitive deoxyribonucleic acid sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strain typing to determine the correlation of isolates. All of the pathogens in 11 years were similar enough to be classified as the same strain, and this is the first case report of TVR using an aortic valve homograft to treat relapsing endocarditis. PMID:26051245

  16. SU-C-18C-02: Specifcation of X-Ray Projection Angles Which Are Aligned with the Aortic Valve Plane From a Planar Image of a Valvuloplasty Balloon Inflated Across the Aortic Valve

    SciTech Connect

    Fetterly, K; Mathew, V

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedures provide a method to implant a prosthetic aortic valve via a minimallyinvasive, catheter-based procedure. TAVR procedures require use of interventional fluoroscopy c-arm projection angles which are aligned with the aortic valve plane to minimize prosthetic valve positioning error due to x-ray imaging parallax. The purpose of this work is to calculate the continuous range of interventional fluoroscopy c-arm projection angles which are aligned with the aortic valve plane from a single planar image of a valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve. Methods: Computational methods to measure the 3D angular orientation of the aortic valve were developed. Required inputs include a planar x-ray image of a known valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve and specifications of x-ray imaging geometry from the DICOM header of the image. A-priori knowledge of the species-specific typical range of aortic orientation is required to specify the sign of the angle of the long axis of the balloon with respect to the x-ray beam. The methods were validated ex-vivo and in a live pig. Results: Ex-vivo experiments demonstrated that the angular orientation of a stationary inflated valvuloplasty balloon can be measured with precision less than 1 degree. In-vivo pig experiments demonstrated that cardiac motion contributed to measurement variability, with precision less than 3 degrees. Error in specification of x-ray geometry directly influences measurement accuracy. Conclusion: This work demonstrates that the 3D angular orientation of the aortic valve can be calculated precisely from a planar image of a valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve and known x-ray geometry. This method could be used to determine appropriate c-arm angular projections during TAVR procedures to minimize x-ray imaging parallax and thereby minimize prosthetic valve positioning errors.

  17. Experimental analysis of fluid mechanical energy losses in aortic valve stenosis: importance of pressure recovery.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, R S; Fontaine, A A; Grimes, R Y; Sidhaye, A; Yang, S; Moore, K E; Levine, R A; Yoganathan, A P

    1996-01-01

    Current methods for assessing the severity of aortic stenosis depend primarily on measures of maximum systolic pressure drop at the aortic valve orifice and related calculations such as valve area. It is becoming increasingly obvious, however, that the impact of the obstruction on the left ventricle is equally important in assessing its severity and could potentially be influenced by geometric factors of the valve, causing variable degrees of downstream pressure recovery. The goal of this study was to develop a method for measuring fluid mechanical energy losses in aortic stenosis that could then be directly related to the hemodynamic load placed on the left ventricle. A control volume form of conservation of energy was theoretically analyzed and modified for application to aortic valve stenosis measurements. In vitro physiological pulsatile flow experiments were conducted with different types of aortic stenosis models, including a venturi meter, a nozzle, and 21-mm Medtronic-Hall tilting disc and St. Jude bileaflet mechanical valves. The energy loss created by each model was measured for a wide range of experimental conditions, simulating physiological variation. In all cases, there was more energy lost for the nozzle (mean = 0.27 J) than for any other model for a given stroke volume. The two prosthetic valves generated approximately the same energy losses (mean = 0.18 J), which were not statistically different, whereas the venturi meter had the lowest energy loss for all conditions (mean = 0.037 J). Energy loss correlated poorly with orifice pressure drop (r2 = 0.34) but correlated well with recovered pressure drop (r2 = 0.94). However, when the valves were considered separately, orifice and recovered pressure drop were both strongly correlated with energy loss (r2 = 0.99, 0.96). The results show that recovered pressure drop, not orifice pressure drop, is directly related to the energy loss that determines pump work and therefore is a more accurate measure of the hemodynamic significance of aortic stenosis. PMID:8923988

  18. Improvement in renal functions with transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Kele?, Telat; Ayhan, Hseyin; Durmaz, Tahir; Sar?, Cenk; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Erdo?an, Kemal E?ref; Kasapkara, Hac? Ahmet; Bilen, Emine; Bayram, Nihal Akar; Akay, Murat; Bozkurt, Engin

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objectives In recent years, emerging transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an alternative for surgery. However, with advanced age, several co-morbid factors together with contrast agent usage can cause deterioration in renal function and increase in the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) with poor prognosis in patients with AKI. Therefore, many patients cannot benefit from this treatment. In this study, we aim to examine the effects of TAVI on renal functions. Methods and Results Seventy patients, mean age of 77.6 years, underwent TAVI between July 2011 and December 2012. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by using the Cockcroft and Gault Formula. Patients were monitored for 48 h for urine output. Stage 1 AKI, according to the VARC-2 AKIN system, developed in only five (7.1%) of the patients after the procedure. There was a statistically significant increase between the mean 1st month eGFRs before (68.2 vs. 61.0, P < 0.01) and after (68.2 vs. 63.6, P < 0.05) the TAVI in the cohort. After TAVI (48.5 mL/min, P < 0.01) and the 1st month (52.1 mL/min, P < 0.01), the eGFR of the 36 (51.4%) patients diagnosed with chronic kidney disease before the procedure showed a statistically significant increase in renal functions. The hospital mortality rate was higher in the group which developed AKI (P < 0.01). First month eGFR showed a more statistically significant increase than pre-TAVI eGFR (62.8 and 69.8, P < 0.05, respectively) in AKI developing patients and this difference - though statistically not significant - continued into the sixth month. Conclusions In this study, we showed that the treatment of aortic stenosis through TAVI allows improvement of renal functions, and that AKI rates will be lower with careful patient selection, proper pre-procedural hydration, and careful use of contrast agent. PMID:24454323

  19. Long-term survival with a stentless free-hand Batista pericardial aortic valve prosthesis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Valentina; Labb, Javier; Cataldo, Anthony; Becerra, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Stented bovine pericardial prosthetic valves are a good option for older patients, except when there is a fragile small aortic annulus, when, if there is no contraindication to anticoagulation, a mechanical prosthesis may be indicated. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a 72 year-old man who underwent coronary bypass grafting and aortic valve replacement with a stentless valve fashioned from bovine pericardium using the Batista technique. Despite early sternal infection and dehiscence, and renal and respiratory failure during 15 years follow-up, he remains alive and self-sufficient. Echocardiography demonstrates a well-functioning aortic valve. DISCUSSION When Batista reported his first 60 patients, concerns were raised about the surgical feasibility of constructing the valve and its long-term durability. Our case perhaps addresses both concerns. CONCLUSION Replacement of the aortic valve with a free-hand Batista pericardial valve is a feasible option in a suitable and carefully selected patient. PMID:25524300

  20. Coronary Artery Disease and Outcomes of Aortic Valve Replacement for Severe Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Jocelyn M.; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Svensson, Lars G.; Rajeswaran, Jeevanantham; Marwick, Thomas; Griffin, Brian; Johnston, Douglas R.; Sabik, Joseph F.; Blackstone, Eugene H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We contrast risk profiles and compare outcomes of patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR) and coronary artery bypass grafting (AS+CABG) with those of patients with isolated AS who underwent AVR alone. Background In patients with severe AS, CAD is often an incidental finding with underappreciated survival implications. Methods From 10/1991–7/2010, 2,286 patients underwent AVR+CABG and 1,637 AVR alone. A propensity score was developed and used for matched comparisons of outcomes (1,082 patient pairs). Analyses of long-term mortality were performed for each group, then combined to identify common and unique risk factors. Results Patients with AS+CAD vs. isolated AS were older, more symptomatic, more likely to be hypertensive, had lower ejection fraction and greater arteriosclerotic burden, but less severe AS. Hospital morbidity and long-term survival were poorer (43% vs. 59% at 10 years). Both groups shared many mortality risk factors; however, early risk among AS+CAD patients reflected effects of CAD; late risk reflected diastolic left ventricular dysfunction expressed as ventricular hypertrophy and left atrial enlargement. Patients with isolated AS and few comorbidities had the best outcome, those with CAD without myocardial damage had intermediate outcome equivalent to propensity-matched isolated AS patients, and those with CAD, myocardial damage, and advanced comorbidities had the worst outcome. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities must be considered in managing patients with severe AS. Patients with severe AS and CAD risk factors should undergo early diagnostics and AVR+CABG before ischemic myocardial damage occurs. PMID:23428216

  1. Prognostic Impact of Tricuspid Regurgitation in Patients Undergoing Aortic Valve Surgery for Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Mascherbauer, Julia; Kammerlander, Andreas A.; Marzluf, Beatrice A.; Graf, Alexandra; Kocher, Alfred; Bonderman, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background The prognostic significance of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and right ventricular (RV) function in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) for severe aortic stenosis (AS) is unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of TR and RV systolic dysfunction on early and late mortality in this setting. Methods This was a prospective single-center observational study. 465 consecutive patients who were referred to AVR for severe AS were investigated. Significant TR was defined as TR?moderate by transthoracic echocardiography. Results At baseline, significant TR was present in 26 (5.6%) patients. Patients with TR presented with a higher EuroSCORE I (p = 0.001), a higher incidence of previous cardiac surgery (p<0.001), pulmonary hypertension (p = 0.003), more dilated RVs (p = 0.001), and more frequent RV dysfunction (p = 0.001). Patients were followed for an average of 5.2 (2.8 SD) years. By multivariable Cox regression analysis TR (p = 0.014), RV dysfunction (p = 0.046), age (p = 0.001) and concomitant coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG, p = 0.003) were independently associated with overall mortality. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, survival rates were significantly worse in patients with significant than with non-significant TR (log rank p = 0.001). Conclusions TR, RV dysfunction, age, and concomitant CABG are associated with outcome in patients undergoing AVR for severe AS. This finding underlines the importance of a thorough echocardiographic evaluation with particular consideration of the right heart in these patients. PMID:26291082

  2. Rapid 3D printing of anatomically accurate and mechanically heterogeneous aortic valve hydrogel scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Hockaday, L A; Kang, K H; Colangelo, N W; Cheung, P Y C; Duan, B; Malone, E; Wu, J; Girardi, L N; Bonassar, L J; Lipson, H; Chu, C C; Butcher, J T

    2013-01-01

    The aortic valve exhibits complex three-dimensional (3D) anatomy and heterogeneity essential for long-term efficient biomechanical function. These are, however, challenging to mimic in de novo engineered living tissue valve strategies. We present a novel simultaneous 3D-printing/photocrosslinking technique for rapidly engineering complex, heterogeneous aortic valve scaffolds. Native anatomic and axisymmetric aortic valve geometries (root wall and tri-leaflets) with 12 to 22 mm inner diameters (ID) were 3D printed with poly-ethylene glycol-diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogels (700 or 8000 MW) supplemented with alginate. 3D printing geometric accuracy was quantified and compared using Micro-CT. Porcine aortic valve interstitial cells (PAVIC) seeded scaffolds were cultured for up to 21 days. Results showed that blended PEG-DA scaffolds could achieve over 10-fold range in elastic modulus (5.3±0.9 to 74.6±1.5 kPa). 3D printing times for valve conduits with mechanically contrasting hydrogels were optimized to 14 to 45 minutes, increasing linearly with conduit diameter. Larger printed valves had greater shape fidelity (93.3±2.6, 85.1±2.0, and 73.3±5.2% for 22, 17, and 12 mm ID porcine valves; 89.1±4.0, 84.1±5.6, and 66.6±5.2% for simplified valves). PAVIC seeded scaffolds maintained near 100% viability over 21 days. These results demonstrate that 3D hydrogel printing with controlled photocrosslinking can rapidly fabricate anatomical heterogeneous valve conduits that support cell engraftment. PMID:22914604

  3. Transcatheter valve implantation can alter fluid flow fields in aortic sinuses and ascending aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2012-11-01

    Transcatheter aortic valves (TAVs) are valve replacements used to treat aortic stenosis. Currently, these have been used in elderly patients at high-risk for open-heart procedures. Since these devices are implanted under fluoroscopic guidance, the implantation position of the valve can vary with respect to the native aortic valve annulus. The current study characterizes the altered hemodynamics in the aortic sinus and ascending aorta under different implantation (high and low) and cardiac output (2.5 and 5.0 L/min) conditions. Two commonly used TAV designs are studied using 2-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). 200 phase locked images are obtained at every 25ms in the cardiac cycle, and the resulting vector fields are ensemble averaged. High implantation of the TAV with respect to the annulus causes weaker sinus washout and weaker sinus vortex formation. Additionally, the longer TAV leaflets can also result in a weaker sinus vortex. The level of turbulent fluctuations in the ascending aorta did not appear to be affected by axial positioning of the valve, but varied with cardiac output. The results of this study indicates that TAV positioning is important to be considered clinically, since this can affect coronary perfusion and potential flow stagnation near the valve.

  4. Echocardiographic Imaging of Procedural Complications During Balloon-Expandable Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Rebecca T.; Kodali, Susheel; Tuzcu, E. Murat; Leon, Martin B.; Kapadia, Samir; Gopal, Deepika; Lerakis, Stamatios; Lindman, Brian R.; Wang, Zuyue; Webb, John; Thourani, Vinod H.; Douglas, Pamela S.

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) using a balloon-expandable valve is an accepted alternative to surgical replacement for severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis in high risk or inoperable patients. Intraprocedural transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) offers real-time imaging guidance throughout the procedure and allows for rapid and accurate assessment of complications and procedural results. The value of intraprocedural TEE for TAVR will likely increase in the future as this procedure is performed in lower surgical risk patients, who also have lower risk for general anesthesia, but a greater expectation of optimal results with lower morbidity and mortality. This imaging compendium from the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) trials is intended to be a comprehensive compilation of intraprocedural complications imaged by intraprocedural TEE and diagnostic tools to anticipate and/or prevent their occurrence. PMID:25772835

  5. An engineering analysis of the aortic valve dynamics in patients with rotary Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

    PubMed

    Faragallah, George; Simaan, Marwan A

    2013-01-01

    The use of a rotary Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) as a bridge-to-recovery treatment is gaining considerable attention in the LVAD research community. Using a mathematical model of the cardiovascular-LVAD system, this paper intends to define the critical control parameters in terms of power and rotational speed of the LVAD to ensure normal dynamics of the aortic valve for different levels of patient's activity and severity of heart failure. The effects of permanent closure of the aortic valve on the hemodynamics of the patient and the pump flow characteristics, if the critical control values are exceeded, are also examined. Additionally, LVAD power and speed control parameters that yield a given percentage of the cardiac cycle during which the aortic valve remains open are examined indicating that the severity of the heart failure is a very important factor in deciding the appropriateness of the LVAD as a bridge-to recovery treatment. PMID:23965593

  6. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: 10-year anniversary part II: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Gnreux, Philippe; Head, Stuart J; Wood, David A; Kodali, Susheel K; Williams, Mathew R; Paradis, Jean-Michel; Spaziano, Marco; Kappetein, A Pieter; Webb, John G; Cribier, Alain; Leon, Martin B

    2012-10-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been increasingly recognized as a curative treatment for severe aortic stenosis (AS). Despite important improvements in current device technology and implantation techniques, specific complications still remain and warrant consideration. Vascular complications and peri-procedural neurological events were the first concerns to emerge with this new technology. Recently, significant post procedural para-valvular leak has been shown to be more frequent after TAVI than after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), and its potential association with worse long-term prognostic has raised concerns. In moving toward treatment of lower risk populations, structural integrity and long-term durability of heat valve prosthesis are becoming of central importance. Emerging technologies and newer generations of devices seem promising in dealing with these matters. PMID:22851655

  7. Endocarditis after transfemoral aortic valve implantation in a patient with Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Castiglioni, Alessandro; Pozzoli, Alberto; Maisano, Francesco; Alfieri, Ottavio

    2012-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was introduced five years ago (2007) as an alternative treatment for patients with severe aortic stenosis, who are considered at too high a risk for surgical replacement. Few cases of postoperative infection by TAVI device are reported in the literature. We report the case of a patient with Osler-Weber-Rendu (OWR) syndrome, in which the TAVI procedure was preferred at the outset to avoid the risk of bleeding. He was diagnosed with endocarditis on the TAVI device one year later; he then underwent an uneventful surgical aortic valve replacement. In these complex clinical cases it is difficult to determine a ‘gold standard’ treatment and the possibility of offering patients both the percutaneous treatment and the surgical replacement appears to be desirable. Correction of the valve disease improves the outcome, reducing the episodes of haemorrhage and the need for blood transfusions. PMID:22691380

  8. Design of a new pulsatile bioreactor for tissue engineered aortic heart valve formation.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Kris; Yperman, Jessa; Verbeken, Erik; Segers, Patrick; Meuris, Bart; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Flameng, Willem; Verdonck, Pascal R

    2002-08-01

    Evidence has been gathered that biomechanical factors have a significant impact on cell differentiation and behavior in in vitro cell cultures. The aim of this bioreactor is to create a physiological environment in which tissue engineered (TE) aortic valves seeded with human cells can be cultivated during a period of several days. The bioreactor consists of 2 major parts: the left ventricle (LV) and the afterload consisting of a compliance, representing the elastic function of the large arteries, and in series a resistance, mimicking the arterioles and capillaries. The TE aortic valve is placed between the LV and the compliance. With controllable resistance, compliance, stroke volume and frequency, and hydrodynamic conditions can be changed over a wide physiological range. This study resulted in a prototype of a compact pulsatile flow system for the creation of TE aortic valves. In addition a biocompatibility study of the used materials is performed. PMID:12139499

  9. Study of normal, fibrous and calcified aortic valve tissue by Raman and reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Ktia Calligaris; Munin, Egberto; Alves, Leandro P.; Silveira, Fabrcio L.; Junior, Landulfo S.; De Lima, Carlos J.; Lzzaro, Joo C.; De Souza, Genivaldo C.; Piotto, Jos A. B.; Pacheco, Marcos T. T.; Zngaro, Renato A.

    2007-02-01

    Several studies have identified the degree of aortic valve calcification as a strong predictor both for the progression and outcome of aortic stenosis. In industrialized countries, aortic valve stenosis is most frequently caused by progressive calcification and degeneration of aortic cusps. However, there are no accurate methods to quantify the extent of aortic valve calcification. To provide a non-invasive alternative to biopsy, a range of optical methods have been investigated, including Raman and reflectance spectroscopy. A Raman spectrum can be used to access the molecular constitution of a particular tissue and classify it. Raman spectroscopy is largely used in the quantification and evaluation of human atherosclerosis, being a powerful technique for performing biochemical analysis without tissue removal. Nevertheless, increased thickness and disorganization of the collagen fibre network and extracellular matrix are known to affect the diffuse spectral reflectance of the tissue. A catheter with the "6 around 1" configuration, the central fiber transmit laser radiation to the sample and the scattered light is collected by the other six surrounding fibers, was used both for Raman and reflectance spectroscopy. A white light (krypton lamp, flashtube Model FX 1160 Perkin Elmer, USA) excitation was used for reflectance measurements. A Ti-sapphire (785nm, Spectra Physics, model 3900S, USA) laser, pumped by an argon laser (Spectra Physics, model Stabilite 2017, USA) was used as the near infrared Raman set up. Several ex-vivo spectra of aortic valve samples were analyzed. The results show a promising way to differentiate normal, fibrous and calcified tissue in aortic valve.

  10. Hemodynamic rounds series: Left heart catheterization and mitral balloon valvuloplasty in a patient with a mechanical aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Kosmicki, Douglas; Michaels, Andrew D

    2008-02-15

    Patients with rheumatic heart disease and a history of mechanical aortic valve replacement will occasionally present with significant mitral stenosis for consideration of mitral balloon valvuloplasty. The conventional retrograde trans-aortic method for left heart catheterization cannot be done for patients with a mechanical aortic valve. We present a patient with a mechanical aortic valve who underwent successful left heart catheterization and mitral valvuloplasty via a transseptal approach. A 5 French pigtail catheter was advanced through the left atrial 8 French Mullins sheath into the left ventricle, for simultaneous pressure measurement across the mitral valve. This manuscript discusses the strengths and weaknesses of several approaches for left heart catheterization in patients with a mechanical aortic valve. PMID:18288758

  11. Comparable long-term results for porcine and pericardial prostheses after isolated aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Martin; Wallner, Stephanie; Ruetzler, Kurt; Wiedemann, Dominik; Ehrlich, Marek; Heinze, Georg; Binder, Thomas; Moritz, Anton; Hiesmayr, Michael J.; Kocher, Alfred; Laufer, Guenther

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Outcome of aortic valve replacement may be influenced by the choice of bioprosthesis. Pericardial heart valves are described to have a favourable haemodynamic profile compared with porcine valves, although the clinical notability of this finding is still controversially debated. Herein, we compared the long-term results of two commonly implanted bioprosthesis at a single centre. METHODS All consecutive patients undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement with either a Carpentier-Edwards Magna pericardial prosthesis or a Medtronic Mosaic porcine prosthesis between 2002 and 2008 were analysed regarding preoperative characteristics, short- and long-term survival, valve-related complications and echocardiographic findings. RESULTS The Medtronic Mosaic was implanted in 163 patients and the Carpentier-Edwards Magna in 295 patients. The sizes of implanted valves were 22.4 1.5 mm for the Mosaic and 21.8 1.8 mm for the Magna (P = 0.001). The long-term survival rate was 76 and 56% after 5 and 10 years for the Medtronic Mosaic, which was comparable with the Carpentier-Edwards Magna (77 and 57%; P = 0.92). Overall long-term survival was comparable with an age- and sex-matched Austrian general population for both groups. Valve-related adverse events were similar between groups. The postoperative mean transvalvular gradient was significantly increased in the Mosaic group (24 9 mmHg vs 17 7 mmHg; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Both types of aortic bioprostheses offer excellent results after isolated aortic valve replacement. Despite relevant differences in gradients, long-term survival was comparable with the expected normal survival for both bioprostheses. Patients with a porcine heart valve had a higher postoperative transvalvular gradient. PMID:25527170

  12. Design and Physical Characterization of a Synchronous Multivalve Aortic Valve Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Durst, Christopher A.; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2015-01-01

    For many tissues, cyclic mechanical stimulation is considered necessary to maintain the normal morphology in vitro. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a simple bioreactor system capable of medium-term (more than 2 weeks) culture of native and engineered aortic valves. The system consists of three pistons in separate cylindrical chambers that are simultaneously driven through the culture medium by a crank and cam assembly. The faces of these pistons have unidirectional valves mounted in opposing orientations that permit flow from one side of the face to the other. A custom designed stent was employed to secure either native or engineered trileaflet valves to the pistons. Computational fluid dynamics and finite element modeling was used to assist selection of materials and components in the system. Finally, sterility testing using base culture medium was performed to verify the ability of the system to retain sterile conditions. The current design permits the cyclic opening and closing of three aortic valves, however this device can be modified to accommodate up to 12 valves simultaneously. This new bioreactor system has applications not only for development of tissue-engineered valves, but for also studying disease models in the aortic valve. PMID:19953323

  13. Determination of oxidation state of iron in normal and pathologically altered human aortic valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Masztafiak, J.; Lis, G. J.; Gajda, M.; Jasek, E.; Czubek, U.; Bolecha?a, F.; Borca, C.; Kwiatek, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate changes in chemical state of iron in normal and pathologically altered human aortic valves X-ray absorption spectroscopy was applied. Since Fe is suspected to play detrimental role in aortic valve stenosis pathogenesis the oxidation state of this element has been determined. The experimental material consisted of 10 ?m sections of valves excised during routine surgery and from autopsies. The experiment was performed at the MicroXAS beamline of the SLS synchrotron facility in Villigen (Switzerland). The Fe K-edge XANES spectra obtained from tissue samples were carefully analyzed and compared with the spectra of reference compounds containing iron in various chemical structures. The analysis of absorption edge position and shape of the spectra revealed that both chemical forms of iron are presented in valve tissue but Fe3+ is the predominant form. Small shift of the absorption edge toward higher energy in the spectra from stenotic valve samples indicates higher content of the Fe3+ form in pathological tissue. Such a phenomenon suggests the role of Fenton reaction and reactive oxygen species in the etiology of aortic valve stenosis. The comparison of pre-edge regions of XANES spectra for control and stenotic valve tissue confirmed no differences in local symmetry or spin state of iron in analyzed samples.

  14. Echocardiographic vs Invasive Measurement of the Direct Flow Transcatheter Aortic Heart Valve Mean Gradient: Contradictory or Complementary?

    PubMed

    Panoulas, Vasileios F; Latib, Azeem; Agricola, Eustachio; Baumgartner, Helmut; Alfieri, Ottavio; Colombo, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    In this case report, we explain the reason behind observed differences in echocardiographic and invasively measured mean aortic valve gradient after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. A 25-mm Direct Flow valve (Direct Flow Medical Inc, Santa Rosa, CA) was successfully implanted in a patient with severe aortic stenosis via the transfemoral route. The discrepancy between invasive and echocardiographic measurements could be explained by the combination of a non-flat velocity profile inside the tubular structure of the Direct Flow valve, which can cause local low pressure fields that result in true high gradients detected using Doppler, and pressure recovery. PMID:26255214

  15. Transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the second-generation self-expanding Symetis ACURATE TA valve.

    PubMed

    Huber, Christoph; Wenaweser, Peter; Windecker, Stephan; Carrel, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TA-TAVI) is the recognized first choice surgical TAVI access. Expansion of this well-established treatment modality with subsequent broader patient inclusion has accelerated development of second-generation TA-TAVI devices. The Swiss ACURATE TA Symetis valve allows for excellent anatomical positioning, resulting in a very low incidence of paravalvular leaks. The self-expanding stent features an hourglass shape to wedge the native aortic valve annulus. A specially designed delivery system facilitates controlled release aided by tactile operator feedback. The ACURATE TA valve made of three native porcine non-coronary leaflets has received CE approval in September 2011. Since then, this valve is the third most frequently implanted TAVI device with over 1200 implants in Europe and South America. Results from the Symetis ACURATE TA Valve Implantation ('SAVI') Registry showed a procedural success rate of 98.0% and a survival rate of 93.2% at 30 days. This presentation provides technical considerations and detailed procedural aspects of device implantation. PMID:25298363

  16. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative RT-PCR in Ascending Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Dominic; Bandner-Risch, Doris; Perttunen, Hilja; Schmied, Wolfram; Porras, Carlos; Ceballos, Francisco; Rodriguez-Losada, Noela; Schfers, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension and congenital aortic valve malformations are frequent causes of ascending aortic aneurysms. The molecular mechanisms of aneurysm formation under these circumstances are not well understood. Reference genes for gene activity studies in aortic tissue that are not influenced by aortic valve morphology and its hemodynamic consequences, aortic dilatation, hypertension, or antihypertensive medication are not available so far. This study determines genes in ascending aortic tissue that are independent of these parameters. Tissue specimens from dilated and undilated ascending aortas were obtained from 60 patients (age ?70 years) with different morphologies of the aortic valve (tricuspid undilated n?=?24, dilated n?=?11; bicuspid undilated n?=?6, dilated n?=?15; unicuspid dilated n?=?4). Of the studied individuals, 36 had hypertension, and 31 received ACE inhibitors or AT1 receptor antagonists. The specimens were obtained intraoperatively from the wall of the ascending aorta. We analyzed the expression levels of 32 candidate reference genes by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Differential expression levels were assessed by parametric statistics. The expression analysis of these 32 genes by RT-qPCR showed that EIF2B1, ELF1, and PPIA remained constant in their expression levels in the different specimen groups, thus being insensitive to aortic valve morphology, aortic dilatation, hypertension, and medication with ACE inhibitors or AT1 receptor antagonists. Unlike many other commonly used reference genes, the genes EIF2B1, ELF1, and PPIA are neither confounded by aortic comorbidities nor by antihypertensive medication and therefore are most suitable for gene expression analysis of ascending aortic tissue. PMID:23326585

  17. 4D optical coherence tomography of aortic valve dynamics in a murine mouse model ex vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabel, Christian; Jannasch, Anett; Faak, Saskia; Waldow, Thomas; Koch, Edmund

    2015-07-01

    The heart and its mechanical components, especially the heart valves and leaflets, are under enormous strain during lifetime. Like all highly stressed materials, also these biological components undergo fatigue and signs of wear, which impinge upon cardiac output and in the end on health and living comfort of affected patients. Thereby pathophysiological changes of the aortic valve leading to calcific aortic valve stenosis (AVS) as most frequent heart valve disease in humans are of particular interest. The knowledge about changes of the dynamic behavior during the course of this disease and the possibility of early stage diagnosis could lead to the development of new treatment strategies and drug-based options of prevention or therapy. ApoE-/- mice as established model of AVS versus wildtype mice were introduced in an ex vivo artificially stimulated heart model. 4D optical coherence tomography (OCT) in combination with high-speed video microscopy were applied to characterize dynamic behavior of the murine aortic valve and to characterize dynamic properties during artificial stimulation. OCT and high-speed video microscopy with high spatial and temporal resolution represent promising tools for the investigation of dynamic behavior and their changes in calcific aortic stenosis disease models in mice.

  18. Sutureless aortic valve replacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Niranjan, Nithya; Bouchard, Denis; Carrel, Thierry P.; Dapunt, Otto E.; Eichstaedt, Harald C.; Fischlein, Theodor; Gersak, Borut; Glauber, Mattia; Haverich, Axel; Misfeld, Martin; Oberwalder, Peter J.; Santarpino, Giuseppe; Shrestha, Malakh Lal; Solinas, Marco; Vola, Marco; Yan, Tristan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sutureless aortic valve replacement (SU-AVR) has emerged as an innovative alternative for treatment of aortic stenosis. By avoiding the placement of sutures, this approach aims to reduce cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) duration and thereby improve surgical outcomes and facilitate a minimally invasive approach suitable for higher risk patients. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess the safety and efficacy of SU-AVR approach in the current literature. Methods Electronic searches were performed using six databases from their inception to January 2014. Relevant studies utilizing sutureless valves for aortic valve implantation were identified. Data were extracted and analyzed according to predefined clinical endpoints. Results Twelve studies were identified for inclusion of qualitative and quantitative analyses, all of which were observational reports. The minimally invasive approach was used in 40.4% of included patients, while 22.8% underwent concomitant coronary bypass surgery. Pooled cross-clamp and CPB duration for isolated AVR was 56.7 and 46.5 minutes, respectively. Pooled 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were 2.1% and 4.9%, respectively, while the incidences of strokes (1.5%), valve degenerations (0.4%) and paravalvular leaks (PVL) (3.0%) were acceptable. Conclusions The evaluation of current observational evidence suggests that sutureless aortic valve implantation is a safe procedure associated with shorter cross-clamp and CPB duration, and comparable complication rates to the conventional approach in the short-term. PMID:25870805

  19. A Novel Method for Optical High Spatiotemporal Strain Analysis for Transcatheter Aortic Valves In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Heide-Jrgensen, Simon; Kumaran Krishna, Sellaswasmy; Taborsky, Jonas; Bechsgaard, Tommy; Zegdi, Rachid; Johansen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) valve is a bioprosthetic valve within a metal stent frame. Like traditional surgical bioprosthetic valves, the TAVI valve leaflet tissue is expected to calcify and degrade over time. However, clinical studies of TAVI valve longevity are still limited. In order to indirectly assess the longevity of TAVI valves, an estimate of the mechanical wear and tear in terms of valvular deformation and strain of the leaflets under various conditions is warranted. The aim of this study was, therefore, to develop a platform for noncontact TAVI valve deformation analysis with both high temporal and spatial resolutions based on stereophotogrammetry and digital image correlation (DIC). A left-heart pulsatile in vitro flow loop system for mounting of TAVI valves was designed. The system enabled high-resolution imaging of all three TAVI valve leaflets simultaneously for up to 2000 frames per second through two high-speed cameras allowing three-dimensional analyses. A coating technique for applying a stochastic pattern on the leaflets of the TAVI valve was developed. The technique allowed a pattern recognition software to apply frame-by-frame cross correlation based deformation measurements from which the leaflet motions and the strain fields were derived. The spatiotemporal development of a very detailed strain field was obtained with a 0.5?ms time resolution and a spatial resolution of 72??m/pixel. Hence, a platform offering a new and enhanced supplementary experimental evaluation of tissue valves during various conditions in vitro is presented. PMID:26784124

  20. Percutaneous Aortic Balloon Valvuloplasty and Intracardiac Adrenaline in Electromechanical Dissociation as Bridge to Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Chaara, Jawad; Meier, Pascal; Ellenberger, Christophe; Gasche, Yvan; Bendjelid, Karim; Noble, Stephane; Roffi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This report describes an emergent balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) procedure performed under cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a 79-year-old man with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (mean gradient 78?mm Hg, valve area 0.71?cm2, and left ventricular ejection fraction 40%) awaiting surgery and who was admitted for heart failure rapidly evolving to cardiogenic shock and multiorgan failure. Decision was made to perform emergent BAV. After crossing the valve with a 6 French catheter, the patient developed an electromechanical dissociation confirmed at transesophageal echocardiography and cardiac arrest. Manual chest compressions were initiated along with the application of high doses of intravenous adrenaline, and BAV was performed under ongoing resuscitation. Despite BAV, transoesophageal echocardiography demonstrated no cardiac activity. At this point, it was decided to advance a pigtail catheter over the wire already in place in the left ventricle and to inject intracardiac adrenaline (1?mg, followed by 5?mg). Left ventricular contraction progressively resumed and, in the absence of aortic regurgitation, an intraaortic balloon pump was inserted. The patient could be weaned from intraaortic balloon pump and vasopressors on day 1, extubated on day 6, and recovered from multiorgan failure. In the absence of neurologic deficits, he underwent uneventful transcatheter aortic valve implantation on day 12 and was discharged to a cardiac rehabilitation program on day 30. At 3-month follow-up, he reported dyspnea NYHA class II as the only symptom. This case shows that severe aortic stenosis leading to electromechanical dissociation may be treated by emergent BAV and intracardiac administration of high-dose adrenaline. Intracardiac adrenaline may be considered in case of refractory electromechanical dissociation occurring in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. PMID:26131825

  1. Efficacy and follow-up of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with radiation-induced aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Dijos, Marina; Reynaud, Amlie; Leroux, Lionel; Rant, Patricia; Cornolle, Claire; Roudaut, Raymond; Dos Santos, Pierre; Lafitte, Stphane

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) feasibility, effectiveness and safety in radiation-induced aortic valve stenosis cases. Methods 198 consecutive patients referred for TAVI were prospectively enrolled. They were divided into two groups: patients with a history of chest radiation therapy with suspected radiation-induced valvular disease (RXT) and others with suspected degenerative aortic valve stenosis (NRXT). Procedural, early and mid-term clinical outcomes were compared. Results Of the 198 patients enrolled in our study, 9.6% qualified for inclusion in the RXT group. A comparison of baseline characteristics revealed that patients with RXT were younger than patients with NRXT (68.3 vs 82.5?years; p<0.05) and exhibited a lower surgical risk score (Euroscore: 7.1% vs 21.8%; p<0.05) and a higher frequency of hostile thorax and porcelain aorta (52.6% vs 28.5%; p<0.05; 63.2% vs 10.6%; p<0.05, respectively). In both groups, the implantation success rate was high and the 30-day safety end point acceptable (RXT: 94.7% and 83.3%; NRXT: 93.9% and 75.6%, respectively). At 6?months, overall mortality was significantly lower in the RXT group (0% vs 18%; p=0.048). Conclusions In patients suffering from radiation-induced aortic valve stenosis and contraindicated for surgery, TAVI is a promising approach, with high feasibility, acceptable risk, low mortality and high clinical effectiveness at mid-term follow-up. PMID:26339494

  2. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in a patient with bicuspid aortic stenosis and a borderline-sized annulus.

    PubMed

    Colkesen, Yucel; Baykan, Oytun; Dagdelen, Sinan; Cayli, Murat

    2015-11-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is currently considered an exclusion criterion for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The risk of adverse aortic events such as incomplete sealing, severe paravalvular regurgitation or dislocation due to elliptic shape and asymmetric calcifications in annulus are higher in TAVI. In this case report, we detailed a case of successful trans-femoral TAVI in a 51-year old male with BAV and its management without in-hospital and 30-day complications. The challenge in this case was the patient's anatomy with a 27-mm annulus for balloon expandable device. The applied strategy was balloon sizing and overdilating the 29-mm stented valve with additional volume that obviated re-ballooning. Trans-femoral TAVI was performed uneventfully under fluoroscopic and transoesophageal echocardiography guidance. A multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) evaluation at 1 month did not show device dislodgement or any other complications. Evidence for evaluation post-TAVI is not sufficient in BAV. We believe patients with BAV should undergo a comprehensive assessment after TAVI including MDCT evaluation. PMID:26265070

  3. Bilateral lung transplantation from a donor with previous aortic valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Das De, Sudeep; Nenekidis, Ioannis; Itrakjy, Abdul; Mascaro, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    The British Transplantation Society states that previous chest surgery in a donor constitutes a contraindication to lung retrieval. In this report, we describe a case of successful bilateral lung harvest from a donor who had previously undergone aortic valve replacement. This case highlights that isolated valve surgery can be an addition to the extended donor criteria for lung retrieval and therefore increase the number of organs available for transplantation. PMID:25698804

  4. Immediate outcome after sutureless versus transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Biancari, Fausto; Barbanti, Marco; Santarpino, Giuseppe; Deste, Wanda; Tamburino, Corrado; Gulino, Simona; Immè, Sebastiano; Di Simone, Emanuela; Todaro, Denise; Pollari, Francesco; Fischlein, Theodor; Kasama, Keiichiro; Meuris, Bart; Dalén, Magnus; Sartipy, Ulrik; Svenarud, Peter; Lahtinen, Jarmo; Heikkinen, Jouni; Juvonen, Tatu; Gatti, Giuseppe; Pappalardo, Aniello; Mignosa, Carmelo; Rubino, Antonino S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the immediate outcome of patients undergoing transcatheter (TAVI) versus surgical aortic valve replacement with the sutureless Perceval bioprosthesis (SU-AVR). This is a retrospective multicenter analysis of 773 patients who underwent either TAVI (394 patients, mean age, 80.8 ± 5.5 years, mean EuroSCORE II 5.6 ± 4.9 %) or SU-AVR (379 patients, 77.4 ± 5.4 years, mean EuroSCORE II 4.0 ± 3.9 %) with or without concomitant myocardial revascularization. Data on SU-AVRs were provided by six European institutions (Belgium, Finland, Germany, Italy and Sweden) and data on TAVIs were provided by a single institution (Catania, Italy). In-hospital mortality was 2.6 % after SU-AVR and 5.3 % after TAVI (p = 0.057). TAVI was associated with a significantly high rate of mild (44.0 vs. 2.1 %) and moderate-severe paravalvular regurgitation (14.1 vs. 0.3 %, p < 0.0001) as well as the need for permanent pacemaker implantation (17.3 vs. 9.8 %, p = 0.003) compared with SU-AVR. The analysis of patients within the 25th and 75th percentiles interval of EuroSCORE II, i.e., 2.1-5.8 %, confirmed the findings of the overall series. One-to-one propensity score-matched analysis resulted in 144 pairs with similar baseline characteristics and operative risk. Among these matched pairs, in-hospital mortality (6.9 vs. 1.4 %, p = 0.035) was significantly higher after TAVI. SU-AVR with the Perceval prosthesis in intermediate-risk patients is associated with excellent immediate survival and is a valid alternative to TAVI in these patients. PMID:25573258

  5. Immersed smoothed finite element method for fluid-structure interaction simulation of aortic valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianyao; Liu, G. R.; Narmoneva, Daria A.; Hinton, Robert B.; Zhang, Zhi-Qian

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a novel numerical method for simulating the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems when blood flows over aortic valves. The method uses the immersed boundary/element method and the smoothed finite element method and hence it is termed as IS-FEM. The IS-FEM is a partitioned approach and does not need a body-fitted mesh for FSI simulations. It consists of three main modules: the fluid solver, the solid solver and the FSI force solver. In this work, the blood is modeled as incompressible viscous flow and solved using the characteristic-based-split scheme with FEM for spacial discretization. The leaflets of the aortic valve are modeled as Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic materials and solved using smoothed finite element method (or S-FEM). The FSI force is calculated on the Lagrangian fictitious fluid mesh that is identical to the moving solid mesh. The octree search and neighbor-to-neighbor schemes are used to detect efficiently the FSI pairs of fluid and solid cells. As an example, a 3D idealized model of aortic valve is modeled, and the opening process of the valve is simulated using the proposed IS-FEM. Numerical results indicate that the IS-FEM can serve as an efficient tool in the study of aortic valve dynamics to reveal the details of stresses in the aortic valves, the flow velocities in the blood, and the shear forces on the interfaces. This tool can also be applied to animal models studying disease processes and may ultimately translate to a new adaptive methods working with magnetic resonance images, leading to improvements on diagnostic and prognostic paradigms, as well as surgical planning, in the care of patients.

  6. Long-term results after aortic root replacement using self-assembled valve composite grafts in patients with small aortic annulus

    PubMed Central

    Urbanski, Paul P.; Dinstak, Witold; Rents, Wilko; Heinz, Nicolas; Diegeler, Anno

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The study was aimed to evaluate operative and long-term results after complete root replacement using self-assembled valve composite grafts in patients with a small aortic annulus. METHODS Among 547 consecutive patients who received the Bentall procedure between 2000 and 2012, a total of 29 patients (61 ± 10; range 42–79 years) had an annulus of ≤20 mm (mean 19.0 ± 0.9). Patients with a native aortic valve (22) suffered from stenosis, insufficiency or mixed defect in 10, 10 and 2 cases, respectively. Among the remaining 7 patients with an artificial aortic valve, there were 3 symptomatic prosthesis–patient mismatches, 3 valve prosthesis deteriorations (1 structural and 2 none-structural) and 1 paravalvular leak. Indication for aortic root replacement was true or false aneurysm, porcelain aorta and intraoperative aortic wall injury in 17, 6 and 6 patients, respectively. RESULTS The composite graft for complete aortic root replacement was assembled using a mechanical (26) or biological (3) valve prosthesis placed inside a vascular graft with a median size of 24 (range 22–26) mm. The margin of the tube beneath the valve was anastomosed to the aortic annulus, and coronary ostia were implanted in the usual manner. The mean transvalvular gradient at discharge was 10.8 ± 3.9 mmHg and remained virtually unchanged at the follow-up completed for all patients. Early mortality was 0. During the mean follow-up of 95.8 ± 43.7 months, 2 patients died (54 and 146 months after surgery) due to pulmonary embolism and myocardial infarction, respectively. CONCLUSIONS In patients with a small aortic annulus who need complete aortic root replacement, an oversizing of the valve can be easily achieved using modified, self-assembled composite grafts. Offering excellent haemodynamic characteristics, these grafts lead to prevention of prosthesis–patient mismatch and result in very good and durable functional and clinical results. PMID:24179177

  7. Incidence and risk factors of hemolysis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with a balloon-expandable valve.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Jérôme; Puri, Rishi; Urena, Marina; Laflamme, Louis; DeLarochellière, Hugo; Abdul-Jawad Altisent, Omar; del Trigo, Maria; Campelo-Parada, Francisco; DeLarochellière, Robert; Paradis, Jean-Michel; Dumont, Eric; Doyle, Daniel; Mohammadi, Siamak; Côté, Mélanie; Pibarot, Philippe; Laroche, Vinçent; Rodés-Cabau, Josep

    2015-06-01

    There are currently no data evaluating the hematologic and biocompatibility profile of transcatheter aortic valves in vivo. We evaluated the incidence, predictive factors, and clinical consequences associated with hemolysis post-transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). A total of 122 patients who underwent TAVI with a balloon-expandable valve were included. Baseline blood sampling and echocardiography, followed by early post-TAVI echocardiography and repeat blood sampling, at 6 to 12 months post-TAVI were performed. Hemolysis post-TAVI was defined according to the established criteria. The incidence of hemolysis post-TAVI was 14.8% yet no patient experienced severe hemolytic anemia requiring transfusion. Compared with the nonhemolysis group, those with hemolysis demonstrated significant reductions in hemoglobin (p = 0.012), were more frequently women (67% vs 34%, p = 0.016), and had a higher incidence of post-TAVI severe prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) (44% vs 17%, p = 0.026). The rate of mild or more prosthetic valve regurgitation did not significantly differ between those patients with and without hemolysis (56% vs 37%, p = 0.44). Wall shear rate (WSR) and energy loss index (ELI), both indirect measures of shear stress, were higher (p = 0.039) and lower (p = 0.004), respectively, in those patients with hemolysis. Increasing PPM severity was also associated with significant stepwise WSR increments and ELI decrements (p <0.01 for both). In conclusion, subclinical hemolysis occurred in 15% of patients following TAVI. Although prosthetic valve regurgitation had no impact on hemolysis, a novel association between PPM and hemolysis was found, likely driven by higher shear stress as determined by WSR and ELI. These hematologic and biomechanical findings may have long-term clinical implications and could affect future transcatheter aortic valve design. PMID:25862156

  8. Marked discrepancy in pressure gradient between Doppler and catheter examinations on Medtronic Mosaic valve in aortic position.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshiaki; Maekawa, Atsuo; Fujii, Genyo; Sawaki, Sadanari; Hoshino, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yasunari

    2012-12-01

    A 71-year-old woman underwent aortic valve replacement with 23 mm Medtronic Mosaic Ultra valve 4 years ago because of aortic stenosis. Although she had been asymptomatic since the operation, echocardiography showed 4 m/s of transprosthetic valve flow that implied early prosthetic valve failure. Catheter examination revealed that the mean transvalvular pressure gradient during systole was 15.1 mmHg on simultaneous pressure recording, and calculated valve area 1.82 cm(2). Her body surface area was 1.56 m(2). Prosthetic valve failure and prosthesis-patient mismatch were both denied. The discrepancy between Doppler study data and catheter data seemed to be due to fluid dynamical pressure recovery phenomenon. Net pressure difference between the left ventricle and the aorta may be significantly smaller than that estimated using Bernoulli's equation from transvalvular flow speed in some patients after aortic valve replacement. PMID:22688582

  9. Transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve implantation for severe bioprosthetic stenosis after Bentall operation using a homograft in a patient with Behet's disease.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Hong, Soon Jun; Yu, Cheol Woong

    2015-03-01

    A 43-year-old man presented with severe aortic stenosis. Eight years previously, he had undergone primary surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) for severe aortic regurgitation, but one year later developed cardiac arrest and complete atrioventricular block as a result of non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis with severe valvular dehiscence. Following the diagnosis of prosthetic valve failure caused by Behet's disease, the patient underwent a Bentall operation using 23 mm aortic homograft with permanent pacemaker implantation and coronary artery bypass grafting. Subsequently, he was stable with steroid administration and azathioprine for seven years after the second operation, but recently suffered from severe dyspnea and chest pain. Echocardiography revealed the development of severe aortic stenosis. A preprocedural evaluation demonstrated a porcelain aorta with severe calcification in the previous homograft valve on computed tomography, and critical stenosis at the ostium of the left circumflex artery on coronary angiography. After percutaneous coronary intervention for the ostium of the left circumflex artery, a transcatheter AVR was successfully performed using a 26 mm Edwards SAPIEN XT valve. The patient recovered without any complications after the procedure. This is the first report of a successful transcatheter aortic valve-in valve implantation for severe homograft aortic stenosis after a Bentall operation, using a homograft, in a patient with Behet's disease. PMID:26204689

  10. Aortic dilatation and calcification in asymptomatic patients with bicuspid aortic valve: analysis in a Korean health screening population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mirae; Sung, Jidong; Cho, Soo Jin; Choi, Soo Hee; Cho, Sung Won; Oh, Jae K; Park, Sung-Ji; Kim, Duk-Kyung

    2013-03-01

    Entire anatomic area involved in the bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease has not been studied well, especially in Asian populations. We investigated prevalence and vascular characteristics of the BAV disease in a Korean population. In a health screening program from 2005 through 2010, 38 BAV patients (BAV group, 0.16 %, 35 males) were isolated among a total of 23,291 persons based on echocardiography. Each BAV patient was matched with three TAV patients (TAV group, n = 114) of the same age, gender, BSA, and hypertension. Using echocardiography and low-dose chest CT scan, diameters of the aortic root to proximal descending aorta (pDA) and pulmonary artery (PA), morphologic types of BAV, and calcification in the aortic root were evaluated in both groups. Diameters of the sinotubular junction and ascending aorta in BAV group were larger than in TAV group (29 7 vs. 27 3 mm, p = 0.046; 42 7 vs. 34 4 mm, p < 0.001, respectively). Diameters of the annulus, sinus of Valsalva, aortic arch, pDA, and PA were not different between two groups. Calcification in the aortic root was approximately seven times more common in BAV group (p < 0.001). Diameters of the aortic root were larger in the R-L type (n = 24) than in the R-N type (n = 11). Prevalence of BAV in a Korean population appears lower than in Western populations. Within the entire anatomic boundaries of BAV, the ascending aorta was predominantly dilated in BAV patients. The R-L type showed more dilatation than the R-N type, not in the ascending aorta but in the aortic root. PMID:22923281

  11. Interrupted aortic arch with post-interruption aneurysm and bicuspid aortic valve in an adult: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dhruv M; Maldjian, Pierre D; Lovoulos, Constantinos

    2015-10-01

    Interrupted aortic arch in adults is rare with a limited number of reported cases. We describe a case of a 53-year-old woman with interrupted aortic arch, bicuspid aortic valve, and post-interruption saccular aneurysm of the aorta. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of an adult patient with all 3 abnormalities. We also review the literature on this unusual condition and discuss its relationship with coarctation of the aorta. PMID:26649108

  12. Aortic valve sclerosis in mice deficient in endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    El Accaoui, Ramzi N.; Gould, Sarah T.; Hajj, Georges P.; Chu, Yi; Davis, Melissa K.; Kraft, Diane C.; Lund, Donald D.; Brooks, Robert M.; Doshi, Hardik; Zimmerman, Kathy A.; Kutschke, William; Anseth, Kristi S.; Heistad, Donald D.

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for fibrocalcific aortic valve disease (FCAVD) are associated with systemic decreases in bioavailability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO). In patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), vascular expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is decreased, and eNOS−/− mice have increased prevalence of BAV. The goal of this study was to test the hypotheses that EDNO attenuates profibrotic actions of valve interstitial cells (VICs) in vitro and that EDNO deficiency accelerates development of FCAVD in vivo. As a result of the study, coculture of VICs with aortic valve endothelial cells (vlvECs) significantly decreased VIC activation, a critical early phase of FCAVD. Inhibition of VIC activation by vlvECs was attenuated by NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester or indomethacin. Coculture with vlvECs attenuated VIC expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9, which depended on stiffness of the culture matrix. Coculture with vlvECs preferentially inhibited collagen-3, compared with collagen-1, gene expression. BAV occurred in 30% of eNOS−/− mice. At age 6 mo, collagen was increased in both bicuspid and trileaflet eNOS−/− aortic valves, compared with wild-type valves. At 18 mo, total collagen was similar in eNOS−/− and wild-type mice, but collagen-3 was preferentially increased in eNOS−/− mice. Calcification and apoptosis were significantly increased in BAV of eNOS−/− mice at ages 6 and 18 mo. Remarkably, these histological changes were not accompanied by physiologically significant valve stenosis or regurgitation. In conclusion, coculture with vlvECs inhibits specific profibrotic VIC processes. In vivo, eNOS deficiency produces fibrosis in both trileaflet and BAVs but produces calcification only in BAVs. PMID:24610917

  13. Characterization of abnormalities responsible for immediate rejection of porcine aortic valves for the manufacture of bioprostheses.

    PubMed

    Marinov, G R; Marois, Y; Maxie, G; Guidoin, R

    1998-08-01

    Gross observation at the slaughterhouse determines the primary selection of porcine aortic valves for the manufacture of bioprostheses. This step is critical because only valves with significant abnormalities are rejected. The present study validated this selection process by investigating the pathological characteristics of one series of accepted valves and one series of rejected valves. Macroscopy, x-ray examination, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed on 5 initially rejected valves, 3 leaflets from 3 other initially rejected valves, and 6 valves that successfully passed this first step in the selection process. Abnormalities were macroscopically visible only on the rejected valves and were described as thick white areas, heavy white striations, thin spots, white plaques, and nodules. Individual variability in the structure of each leaflet was more significant in the rejected valves than in the valves that had passed the first inspection. The leaflets of the rejected valves were also irregularly thick with a lack of consistency in the position and prominence of the different layers. The formation of nodules and the presence of white plaques in the inner fibrosa layer were among the pathological features. The initially accepted valves considered defect free under gross observation continued to display some weaknesses, and not all of the valves selected during the first step of the process were suitable to become bioprostheses. Because the manufacturer carries out further quality control inspections at every step of preparation resulting in additional rejections, it is therefore anticipated that all valves with defects will be rejected. None of the rejected valves were defect free, and rejection was fully justified. PMID:9702321

  14. A novel aortic valve segmentation from ultrasound image using continuous max-flow approach.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yuanyuan; Luo, Zhe; Cai, Junfeng; Gu, Lixu

    2013-01-01

    Geometric features of aortic valve can be applied in diagnostic, modeling and image-guided cardiac intervention, however methods to accurately and effectively delineate aortic valve from ultrasound (US) image are not well addressed. This paper proposes a novel aortic valve segmentation algorithm for intra-operative 2D short-axis US image using probability estimation and continuous max-flow (CMF) approach. The algorithm first calculates composite probability estimation (CPE) and single probability estimation (SPE) over 5 prior images based on both intensity and distance to the corresponding centroid, then the energy function for the current input image is constructed, followed by a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) accelerated CMF approach to achieve aortic valve contours in approximately real time. Quantitative evaluations over 270 images acquired from 3 subjects indicated the results of the algorithm had good correlation with the manual segmentation results (ground truth) by an expert. The Average Symmetric Contour Distance (ASCD), Dice Metric (DM), and Reliability were employed to evaluate our algorithm, and the evaluation results of these three metrics were 1.790.46 (in pixels), 0.960.01 and 0.84 (d=0.95) respectively, where the computational time was 39.235.02 ms per frame. PMID:24110436

  15. Relation of aortic valve calcium to chronic kidney disease (from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Guerraty, Marie A; Chai, Boyang; Hsu, Jesse Y; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Gao, Yanlin; Yang, Wei; Keane, Martin G; Budoff, Matthew J; Mohler, Emile R

    2015-05-01

    Although subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at markedly increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, the relation between CKD and aortic valve calcification has not been fully elucidated. Also, few data are available on the relation of aortic valve calcification and earlier stages of CKD. We sought to assess the relation of aortic valve calcium (AVC) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors, and markers of bone metabolism in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. All patients who underwent aortic valve scanning in the CRIC study were included. The relation between AVC and eGFR, traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors, and markers of calcium metabolism were analyzed using both unadjusted and adjusted regression models. A total of 1,964 CRIC participants underwent computed tomography for AVC quantification. Decreased renal function was independently associated with increased levels of AVC (eGFR 47.11, 44.17, and 39 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively, p<0.001). This association persisted after adjusting for traditional, but not novel, AVC risk factors. Adjusted regression models identified several traditional and novel risk factors for AVC in patients with CKD. There was a difference in AVC risk factors between black and nonblack patients. In conclusion, our study shows that eGFR is associated in a dose-dependent manner with AVC in patients with CKD, and this association is independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25791240

  16. Aortic valve replacement and repair of left ventricular pseudoaneurysm in a Jehovahs Witness

    PubMed Central

    Perrotti, Andrea; Vaislic, Claude; Chocron, Sidney

    2013-01-01

    The preoperative and surgical management of a giant left ventricular pseudoaneurysm(LVP) associated with aortic valve replacement in a 76 year old male Jehovahs Witness patient is reported. The satisfactory recovery observed in this patient demonstrates the feasibility of this complex surgical procedure even in this particular patient population. PMID:25478494

  17. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiographic study of pulmonary autograft valve in aortic position.

    PubMed

    Andrade, A; Vargas-Barron, J; Romero-Cardenas, A; Urrea, M; Rijlaarsdam, M; Keirns, C; Molina, J

    1994-05-01

    Eleven patients who underwent pulmonary valve autograft to aortic position with placement of bovine pericardial prosthesis in pulmonary position were studied with echocardiography. The etiology of aortic valvuloplasty as determined by anatomopathological examination was rheumatic in five, degenerative in four, and congenital in two. Important mitral stenosis coexisted in two patients, and during the same operation as the Ross surgery, a mitral valvuloplasty with Carpentier ring was practiced on one and an open mitral commissurotomy on the other. Transthoracic echocardiography, which helped to confirm the viability of the surgery by determining the diameters of the semilunar valve rings and quantifying the severity of the aortic valve lesions, was performed on all patients before surgery and repeated 3 months later. Transesophageal echocardiograms were practiced on nine patients during the surgical procedure and repeated after 6 months on seven. The latter technique aided in immediate postoperative evaluation, and repetition at 6 months served to explore the ventricular infundibuli and evaluate pulmonary valve performance in aortic position. In conclusion, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography provide a practical and valuable means of investigating the pre-, trans-, and postoperative conditions of patients undergoing Ross surgery. PMID:10147397

  18. The structure and material composition of ossified aortic valves identified using a set of scientific methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, Antonín; Šmíd, Michal; Havelcová, Martina; Coufalová, Lucie; Kučková, Štěpánka; Velčovská, Martina; Hynek, Radovan

    2013-11-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis has become a common and dangerous disease in recent decades. This disease leads to the mineralization of aortic valves, their gradual thickening and loss of functionality. We studied the detailed assessment of the proportion and composition of inorganic and organic components in the ossified aortic valve, using a set of analytical methods applied in science: polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The sample valves showed the occurrence of phosphorus and calcium in the form of phosphate and calcium carbonate, hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite and hydroxy-fluorapatite, with varying content of inorganic components from 65 to 90 wt%, and with phased development of degenerative disability. The outer layers of the plaque contained an organic component with peptide bonds, fatty acids, proteins and cholesterol. The results show a correlation between the formation of fluorapatite in aortic valves and in other parts of the human bodies, associated with the formation of bones.

  19. Aortic valve replacement and repair of left ventricular pseudoaneurysm in a Jehovah's Witness.

    PubMed

    Perrotti, Andrea; Vaislic, Claude; Chocron, Sidney

    2013-02-01

    The preoperative and surgical management of a giant left ventricular pseudoaneurysm(LVP) associated with aortic valve replacement in a 76 year old male Jehovah's Witness patient is reported. The satisfactory recovery observed in this patient demonstrates the feasibility of this complex surgical procedure even in this particular patient population. PMID:25478494

  20. Septicemia and Aortic Valve Endocarditis due to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in a Homeless Man

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of bacterial endocarditis due to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in a homeless man with no animal exposure. His course was complicated by an allergic reaction to ampicillin, urinary bladder infection, respiratory failure, and acute kidney injury. He recovered completely after aortic valve replacement and a 6-week course of intravenous ceftriaxone. PMID:23662222

  1. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement: historical perspectives, current evidence, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Horne, Aaron; Reineck, Elizabeth A; Hasan, Rani K; Resar, Jon R; Chacko, Matthews

    2014-10-01

    Severe aortic stenosis (AS) results in considerable morbidity and mortality without aortic valve replacement and is expected to increase in prevalence with the aging population. Because AS primarily affects the elderly, many patients with comorbidities are poor candidates for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and may not be referred. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as transformative technology for the management of AS over the past decade. Randomized trials have established the safety and efficacy of TAVR with improved mortality and quality of life compared with medical therapy in inoperable patients, while demonstrating noninferiority and even superiority to SAVR among high-risk operative candidates. However, early studies demonstrated an early penalty of stroke and vascular complications with TAVR as well as increased paravalvular leak as compared with SAVR. Two device platforms have been evaluated and approved for use in the United States: the Edwards SAPIEN and the Medtronic CoreValve. Early studies also suggest cost-effectiveness for TAVR. Ongoing studies are evaluating new iterations of the aforementioned TAVR devices, novel device designs, and applications of TAVR in expanded populations of patients including those with lower risk profiles as well as those with comorbidities that were excluded from early clinical trials. Future improvements in TAVR technology will likely reduce periprocedural and long-term complications. Further studies are needed to confirm device durability over long-term follow-up and explore the applicability of TAVR to broader AS patient populations. PMID:25262249

  2. Computational analysis of an aortic valve jet with Lagrangian coherent structures.

    PubMed

    Shadden, Shawn C; Astorino, Matteo; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric

    2010-03-01

    Important progress has been achieved in recent years in simulating the fluid-structure interaction around cardiac valves. An important step in making these computational tools useful to clinical practice is the development of postprocessing techniques to extract clinically relevant information from these simulations. This work focuses on flow through the aortic valve and illustrates how the computation of Lagrangian coherent structures can be used to improve insight into the transport mechanics of the flow downstream of the valve, toward the goal of aiding clinical decision making and the understanding of pathophysiology. PMID:20370302

  3. Presentation on US Hospital Websites of Risks and Benefits of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Kincaid, Mariah L.; Fleisher, Lee A.; Neuman, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Adequate presentation of risks and benefits of medical therapies is essential to informed decision making by patients.1 Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis among carefully selected patients; recent randomized clinical trials have identified important positive and negative outcomes of TAVR in these populations, including twice the risk of stroke for patients undergoing TAVR vs those undergoing open aortic valve replacement.2,3 Since 78% of all adults in the United States seek out health information online,4we assessed the information regarding known risks and benefits of TAVR made available to the public on the websites of US hospitals currently performing TAVR procedures. PMID:25581476

  4. Preferential short cut or alternative route: the transaxillary access for transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Deuschl, Florian; Conradi, Lenard; Lubos, Edith; Schirmer, Johannes; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Blankenberg, Stefan; Treede, Hendrik; Schfer, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has gained widespread acceptance as a treatment option for patients at high risk for conventional aortic valve replacement. The most commonly used access site for TAVI is the common femoral artery. Yet, in a significant number of patients the transfemoral access is not suitable due to peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremity. In these cases the transaxillary approach can serve as an alternative implantation route. By considering the anatomical requirements and providing an adequate endovascular safety-net during the procedure the transaxillary TAVI approach results in excellent procedural and clinical outcome. However, whether the transaxillary access for TAVI is superior to other non-transfemoral approaches (e.g., transapical or direct aortic) needs to be studied in the future in a prospective randomized trial. PMID:26543600

  5. Steady flow dynamics of prosthetic aortic heart valves: a comparative evaluation with PIV techniques.

    PubMed

    Lim, W L; Chew, Y T; Chew, T C; Low, H T

    1998-05-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), capable of providing full-field measurement of velocities and flow stresses, has become an invaluable tool in studying flow behaviour in prosthetic heart valves. This method was used to evaluate the performances of four prosthetic heart valves; a porcine bioprostheses, a caged ball valve, and two single leaflet tilting disc valves with different opening angles. Flow visualization techniques, combined with velocity vector fields and Reynolds stresses mappings in the aortic root obtained from PIV, and pressure measurements were used to give an overall picture of the flow field of the prosthetic heart valves under steady flow conditions. The porcine bioprostheses exhibited the highest pressure loss and Reynolds stresses of all the valves tested. This was mainly due to the reduction in orifice area caused by the valve mounting ring and the valve stents. For the tilting disc valves, a larger opening angle resulted in a smoother flow profile, and thus lower Reynolds stresses and pressure drops. The St. Vincent valve exhibited the lowest pressure drop and Reynolds stresses. PMID:9727338

  6. The influence of leaflet skin friction and stiffness on the performance of bioprosthetic aortic valves.

    PubMed

    Dellimore, K; Kemp, I; Scheffer, C; Weich, H; Doubell, A

    2013-12-01

    Leaflet skin friction and stiffness were found to have a significant influence on the systolic performance of a 19 mm diameter bioprosthetic aortic valve based on fluid-structure interaction simulations at a heart rate of 72 bpm. Four different leaflet skin friction coefficients (0.0, 9.2 × 10(-4), 4.8 × 10(-2) and 4.8 × 10(-1)) were simulated along with three different leaflet elastic moduli (3.0 × 10(6), 3.5 × 10(6), 4.0 × 10(6) N m(-2)). Higher leaflet skin friction was found to increase the magnitude of the systolic transvalvular pressure gradient and the peak velocity through the valve, as well as decrease the valve orifice area. The results for the leaflet opening and closing kinematics also showed that higher leaflet skin friction combined with higher leaflet stiffness produces longer rapid valve opening, closing and ejection times, as well as smaller valve orifice areas. These results are consistent with clinical findings for calcified aortic valves and suggest that valve performance under stenotic conditions is strongly influenced by the combined effect of increasing leaflet stiffness and surface roughness caused by calcification. PMID:24264225

  7. A Combined Proteomic and Transcriptomic Approach Shows Diverging Molecular Mechanisms in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Development in Patients with Tricuspid- And Bicuspid Aortic Valve*

    PubMed Central

    Kjellqvist, Sanela; Maleki, Shohreh; Olsson, Therese; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Branca, Rui Miguel Mamede; Lehti, Janne; Pinet, Florence; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Eriksson, Per

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm is a pathological local dilatation of the aorta, potentially leading to aortic rupture or dissection. The disease is a common complication of patients with bicuspid aortic valve, a congenital disorder present in 12% of the population. Using two dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis proteomics followed by mRNA expression, and alternative splicing analysis of the identified proteins, differences in dilated and nondilated aorta tissues between 44 patients with bicuspid and tricuspid valves was examined. The pattern of protein expression was successfully validated with LC-MS/MS. A multivariate analysis of protein expression data revealed diverging protein expression fingerprints in patients with tricuspid compared with the patients with bicuspid aortic valves. From 302 protein spots included in the analysis, 69 and 38 spots were differentially expressed between dilated and nondilated aorta specifically in patients with tricuspid and bicuspid aortic valve, respectively. 92 protein spots were differentially expressed between dilated and nondilated aorta in both phenotypes. Similarly, mRNA expression together with alternative splicing analysis of the identified proteins also showed diverging fingerprints in the two patient groups. Differential splicing was abundant but the expression levels of differentially spliced mRNA transcripts were low compared with the wild type transcript and there was no correlation between splicing and the number of spots. Therefore, the different spots are likely to represent post-translational modifications. The identification of differentially expressed proteins suggests that dilatation in patients with a tricuspid aortic valve involves inflammatory processes whereas aortic aneurysm in patients with BAV may be the consequence of impaired repair capacity. The results imply that aortic aneurysm formation in patients with bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valves involve different biological pathways leading to the same phenotype. PMID:23184916

  8. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of the flow through a stenotic aortic valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Hoda; Labrosse, Michel R.; Durand, Louis-Gilles; Kadem, Lyes

    2009-11-01

    In Europe and North America, aortic stenosis (AS) is the most frequent valvular heart disease and cardiovascular disease after systemic hypertension and coronary artery disease. Understanding blood flow through an aortic stenosis and developing new accurate non-invasive diagnostic parameters is, therefore, of primarily importance. However, simulating such flows is highly challenging. In this study, we considered the interaction between blood flow and the valve leaflets and compared the results obtained in healthy valves with stenotic ones. One effective method to model the interaction between the fluid and the structure is to use Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach. Our two-dimensional model includes appropriate nonlinear and anisotropic materials. It is loaded during the systolic phase by applying pressure curves to the fluid domain at the inflow. For modeling the calcified stenotic valve, calcium will be added on the aortic side of valve leaflets. Such simulations allow us to determine the effective orifice area of the valve, one of the main parameters used clinically to evaluate the severity of an AS, and to correlate it with changes in the structure of the leaflets.

  9. Comparison of tricuspid and bicuspid aortic valve hemodynamics under steady flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, Clara; Ward, James; Sucosky, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), a congenital valvular defect consisting of two leaflets instead of three, is associated with a high prevalence of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). CAVD also develops in the normal tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) but its progression in the BAV is more severe and rapid. Although hemodynamic abnormalities are increasingly considered potential pathogenic contributor, the native BAV hemodynamics remain largely unknown. Therefore, this study aims at comparing experimentally the hemodynamic environments in TAV and BAV anatomies. Particle-image velocimetry was used to characterize the flow downstream of a native TAV and a model BAV mounted in a left-heart simulator and subjected to three steady flow rates characterizing different phases of the cardiac cycle. While the TAV developed a jet aligned along the valve axis, the BAV was shown to develop a skewed systolic jet with skewness decreasing with increasing flow rate. Measurement of the transvalvular pressure revealed a valvular resistance up to 50% larger in the BAV than in the TAV. The increase in velocity between the TAV and BAV leads to an increase in shear stress downstream of the valve. This study reveals strong hemodynamic abnormalities in the BAV, which may contribute to CAVD pathogenesis.

  10. Coronary arterial compression caused by an aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva with aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Uchimuro, Tomoya; Fukui, Toshihiro; Nakamichi, Tsukasa; Mihara, Wahei; Takanashi, Shuichirou

    2012-12-01

    Myocardial ischemia caused by coronary arterial compression by an aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva is a particularly unusual complication. We describe a patient with aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis complicated with an aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva. An 82-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a high fever and chest discomfort. She had undergone aortic valve replacement 3 years earlier. Computed tomography showed an aneurysm originating from the left and right aortic sinus that was compressing the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. The aortic root was successfully replaced and antibiotic treatment was continued for 6 weeks after surgery. PMID:22618992

  11. Long-Term Hemodynamic Performance of the Aortic Valve After David I: An Echocardiographic Study.

    PubMed

    Mignosa, Carmelo; Mariani, Carlo; Deste, Wanda; Felis, Salvatore; Di Stefano, Salvatore; Giuffrida, Angelo; Rubino, Antonino S

    2015-01-01

    Despite optimal hemodynamics at rest, the performance of the aortic valve under stress conditions long after David I procedure is still debated. From 2001-2014, 73 patients underwent reimplantation with David I technique. Aortic valve function of 13 patients (age 61.2 ± 8.72) with a follow-up of at least 5 years (6.3 ± 0.9 years) was assessed at exercise echocardiographic stress test on a stationary cycle. Patients who had undergone concomitant procedure, with recurrent aortic insufficiency or mitral valve incompetence, were excluded. In all, 8 healthy volunteers served as controls. Transvalvular gradients progressively increased during the steps in both groups (P-within < 0.001), being higher in David patients (P-between < 0.001), but never reaching a clinical significance (David Peak gradient 23.8 ± 9.3mmHg; Mean gradient 13.2 ± 5.1mmHg). Effective orifice area (EOA) and EOA index did not change during the test in David patients, whereas Controls showed a progressive increase of functional valve area to a peak at 50W (Controls EOA 4.0 ± 0.5cm(2); EOA index 2.0 ± 0.3cm(2)/m(2)). In conclusion, David I procedure ensures good hemodynamics during high-flow conditions at long-term follow-up. The reimplantation of the functional aortic annulus inside a rigid tube determines a paradoxical reduction of functional aortic valve area, secondary to the increased stroke volume, without any clinically relevant increase in transvalvular gradients. These data confirm the reliability of David I in the long term, even under physical stress conditions. PMID:26708365

  12. Standardized endpoint definitions for transcatheter aortic valve implantation clinical trials: a consensus report from the Valve Academic Research Consortium†

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Martin B.; Piazza, Nicolo; Nikolsky, Eugenia; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Cutlip, Donald E.; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Krucoff, Mitchell W.; Mack, Michael; Mehran, Roxana; Miller, Craig; Morel, Marie-angèle; Petersen, John; Popma, Jeffrey J.; Takkenberg, Johanna J.M.; Vahanian, Alec; van Es, Gerrit-Anne; Vranckx, Pascal; Webb, John G.; Windecker, Stephan; Serruys, Patrick W.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To propose standardized consensus definitions for important clinical endpoints in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), investigations in an effort to improve the quality of clinical research and to enable meaningful comparisons between clinical trials. To make these consensus definitions accessible to all stakeholders in TAVI clinical research through a peer reviewed publication, on behalf of the public health. Background Transcatheter aortic valve implantation may provide a worthwhile less invasive treatment in many patients with severe aortic stenosis and since its introduction to the medical community in 2002, there has been an explosive growth in procedures. The integration of TAVI into daily clinical practice should be guided by academic activities, which requires a harmonized and structured process for data collection, interpretation, and reporting during well-conducted clinical trials. Methods and results The Valve Academic Research Consortium established an independent collaboration between Academic Research organizations and specialty societies (cardiology and cardiac surgery) in the USA and Europe. Two meetings, in San Francisco, California (September 2009) and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (December 2009), including key physician experts, and representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and device manufacturers, were focused on creating consistent endpoint definitions and consensus recommendations for implementation in TAVI clinical research programs. Important considerations in developing endpoint definitions included (i) respect for the historical legacy of surgical valve guidelines; (ii) identification of pathophysiological mechanisms associated with clinical events; (iii) emphasis on clinical relevance. Consensus criteria were developed for the following endpoints: mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, bleeding, acute kidney injury, vascular complications, and prosthetic valve performance. Composite endpoints for TAVI safety and effectiveness were also recommended. Conclusion Although consensus criteria will invariably include certain arbitrary features, an organized multidisciplinary process to develop specific definitions for TAVI clinical research should provide consistency across studies that can facilitate the evaluation of this new important catheter-based therapy. The broadly based consensus endpoint definitions described in this document may be useful for regulatory and clinical trial purposes. PMID:21216739

  13. St. Jude Medical Trifecta™ aortic valve perioperative performance in 200 patients

    PubMed Central

    Permanyer, Eduard; Estigarribia, Arnaldo-Javier; Ysasi, Alejandro; Herrero, Enrique; Semper, Omar; Llorens, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The St. Jude Medical Trifecta aortic bioprosthesis (St. Jude Medical, Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) is a new stented pericardial tissue heart valve. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical and haemodynamic performance of the Trifecta bioprosthesis in the early postoperative period. METHODS From July 2010 to September 2012, a total of 200 consecutive patients underwent aortic valve replacement with the Trifecta valve in our institution. All intraoperative and postoperative data were prospectively collected. Mean EuroSCORE II was 3.98%. Echocardiography was performed at discharge in all patients. RESULTS The mean age was 71.2 ± 7.7 (range 39–89 years). Extubation in the operating theatre was successfully performed in 96% of patients. Mean hospital stay was 8.5 days. The prosthesis sizes were 19 mm (n = 33), 21 mm (n = 81), 23 mm (n = 59), 25 mm (n = 23) and 27 mm (n = 4). Mean systolic pressure gradients ranged from 9.4 mmHg (size 19 valve) to 4.8 mmHg (size 27 valve). Mean effective orifice area (EOA) ranged from 1.61 cm2 (size 19 valve) to 2.5 cm2 (size 27 valve). Severe mismatch (<0.65 cm2/m2) did not occur in any patient. Of note, 99.5% of patients had mild or no aortic insufficiency at discharge. The early (30-day) mortality was 2.5% (n = 5). CONCLUSIONS The Trifecta valve offers good clinical results and excellent haemodynamic performance. Special care must be taken to avoid oversizing, which can lead to difficulty in implantation and can produce gradient increases due to an excess of prosthetic leaflet tissue. PMID:23825161

  14. Propensity matched analysis of longterm outcomes following transcatheter based aortic valve implantation versus classic aortic valve replacement in patients with previous cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare outcome of patients with previous cardiac surgery undergoing transapical aortic valve implantation (Redo-TAVI) to those undergoing classic aortic valve replacement (Redo-AVR) by using propensity analysis. Methods From January 2005 through May 2012, 52 high-risk patients underwent Redo-TAVI using a pericardial xenograft fixed within a stainless steel, balloon-expandable stent (Edwards SAPIEN). During the same period of time 167 patients underwent classic Redo-AVR. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify covariates among 11 baseline patient variables including the type of initial surgery. Using the significant regression coefficients, each patients propensity score was calculated, allowing selectively matched subgroups of 40 patients each. Initial surgery included coronary artery bypass grafting in 30 patients, aortic valve replacement in 7 patients and mitral valve reconstruction in 3 patients in each group. Follow-up was 4??2years and was 100% complete. Results Postoperative chest tube drainage (163??214 vs. 562??332ml/24h, p?=?0.02) and incidence of early permanent neurologic deficit (0 vs. 13%, p?=?0.04) was lower in patients with Redo-TAVI and there was a trend towards improved 30-day survival (p?=?0.06). Also we detected a decreased ventilation time (p?=?0.04) and lower transfusion rate of allogenic blood products (p???0.05) in the Redo-TAVI group. At late follow up differences regarding incidence of major adverse events, including death and permanent neurologic deficits (25% vs. 43%, p?=?0.01) statistically supported early postoperative findings. Conclusion The encouraging results regarding early and long-term outcomes following TAVI in patients with previous cardiac surgery show, that this evolving approach may be particularly beneficial in this patient cohort. PMID:24915763

  15. Survival after aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis with low transvalvular gradients and severe left ventricular dysfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, Jeremy J.; Lauer, Michael S.; Bashir, Mohammad; Afridi, Imran; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Stewart, William J.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Thomas, James D.; Asher, Craig R.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess whether aortic valve replacement (AVR) among patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS), severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and a low transvalvular gradient (TVG) is associated with improved survival. BACKGROUND: The optimal management of patients with severe AS with severe LV dysfunction and a low TVG remains controversial. METHODS: Between 1990 and 1998, we evaluated 68 patients who underwent AVR at our institution (AVR group) and 89 patients who did not undergo AVR (control group), with an aortic valve area < or = 0.75 cm(2), LV ejection fraction < or = 35% and mean gradient < or = 30 mm Hg. Using propensity analysis, survival was compared between a cohort of 39 patients in the AVR group and 56 patients in the control group. RESULTS: Despite well-matched baseline characteristics among propensity-matched patients, the one- and four-year survival rates were markedly improved in patients in the AVR group (82% and 78%), as compared with patients in the control group (41% and 15%; p < 0.0001). By multivariable analysis, the main predictor of improved survival was AVR (adjusted risk ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.39; p < 0.0001). The only other predictors of mortality were age and the serum creatinine level. CONCLUSIONS: Among select patients with severe AS, severe LV dysfunction and a low TVG, AVR was associated with significantly improved survival.

  16. Improvement in left ventricular function assessed by tissue Doppler imaging after aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Nieh, Chih-Chiang; Teo, Alvin Yeng-Hok; Soo, Wern Miin; Lee, Glenn K; Singh, Devinder; Poh, Kian-Keong

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The effects of reduction of left ventricular (LV) systemic afterload following aortic valve replacement (AVR) for severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) were investigated, using echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). METHODS We compared the preoperative and postoperative echocardiographic assessments of 23 patients with severe AS who had undergone isolated AVR (n = 13) or concomitant AVR with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (n = 10). Conventional echocardiographic evaluations and TDI at the lateral mitral annulus were performed. RESULTS Echocardiography was performed at a median of 120 (interquartile range: 66141) days after AVR. There was significant reduction in aortic transvalvular mean pressure gradient after AVR. Although LV dimensions, mass and ejection fraction remained unchanged, LV diastolic and systolic functions improved (as observed on TDI). Early diastolic (E), late diastolic (A) and systolic (S) mitral annular velocities increased significantly (p < 0.05). There was significant improvement in TDI-derived parameters among the patients who had isolated AVR, while among the patients who had concomitant AVR with CABG, only S had significant improvement (p = 0.028). CONCLUSION TDI was able to detect improvements in LV systolic and diastolic function after AVR for severe AS. There was less improvement in the TDI-derived diastolic parameters among patients who underwent concomitant AVR with CABG than among patients who underwent isolated AVR. PMID:26702162

  17. A new type of aortic valved stent with good stability and no influence on coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluated the feasibility and safety of new aortic valved stents in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) using retrograde approach by in vitro testing and animal implantation. Materials and Methods The fluid passing test, expanding and releasing tests, static and releasing tests in tube were performed for new valved stents. Transvalvular pressure gradient, effective orifice area, pre-implantation and post-implantation regurgitant volume for the new stents were detected. Then, the new stents were implanted in six pigs using retrograde approach. These pigs were euthanized 12h after the implantation for anatomic evaluation. Results In vitro tests showed that the closure of the new stents leaflets were effective, and stents could be released through catheter, then expanded completely and fixed fast in the tube. The coronary artery flow rates did not changed significantly after implantation (P?>?0.05), while aortic regurgitant volumes were obviously reduced (P?valve leaflets was found (P?>?0.05). In vivo experiments indicated that TAVI was successfully performed in six pigs using retrograde approach. However, one pig was died 10h after the implantation since the stent was not expanded completely. The leaflets in stents were opening well and no valvular regurgitation was observed in the other five pigs. And thrombosis was not found. Discussion and Conclusion The new type of aortic valved stent designed in this study was characterized with good stability and could avoid the impact caused by valve leaflets on the coronary artery. PMID:24219844

  18. Cardiovascular Collapse During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Diagnosis and Treatment of the Perilous Pentad

    PubMed Central

    El-Gamel, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has, without a doubt, brought an unprecedented excitement to the field of interventional cardiology. The avoidance of a sternotomy by transfemoral or transapical aortic-valve implantation appears to come at the price of some serious complications, including an increased risk of embolic stroke and paravalvular leakage. The technical challenges of the procedure and the complex nature of the high-risk patient cohort make the learning curve for this procedure a steep one, with the potential for unexpected complications always looming. Although most commonly relating to vascular access, these complications can also result from prosthesis-related trauma or malposition, or from unanticipated trauma from the pacing wire or the super stiff wire. Sudden and unexplained hypotension is often the earliest indicator of major complication and must prompt an immediate and detailed exclusion of five major pathologies: retroperitoneal bleeding from access site rupture, aortic dissection or rupture, pericardial tamponade, coronary ostial obstruction, or acute severe aortic regurgitation. In most cases, these can be dealt with quickly, and by percutaneous means, although open surgery may occasionally be necessary. Increased operator and team experience should make prevention and recognition of these catastrophic complications more complete. For this reason, the importance of specific training, such as that provided by the valve manufacturers through workshops and proctorship, cannot be overemphasized. It is essential that all operators, and indeed all members of the implant team, exert extreme vigilance to the development of intraprocedural complications, which could have rapid and potentially lethal consequences. Greater experience with an improved understanding of these risks, along with the development of better devices, deliverable through smaller and less traumatic sheath technology, will undoubtedly improve the safety and, potentially, widen the applicability of TAVR in the future. Forthcoming innovations include a newer generation of the valves with operator-controlled steerability to facilitate negotiation of tortuous aortic anatomy, as well as fully retrievable and resheathable devices to accommodate the events of dislocation or embolization. The fact that Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is new implies learning from experience but also from mistakes. The TAVI team must be vigilant to recognize and diagnose intraprocedure severe hypotension. The perilous pentad of catastrophic causes must be constantly borne in mind: retroperitoneal bleeding from access site rupture, aortic dissection or rupture, pericardial tamponade, coronary ostial obstruction, and acute severe aortic insufficiency.

  19. Comparison of balloon-expandable versus self-expandable valves for transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with low-gradient severe aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Covolo, Elisa; Saia, Francesco; Napodano, Massimo; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Mojoli, Marco; Fraccaro, Chiara; Ciuca, Cristina; Presbitero, Patrizia; Moretti, Claudio; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Tarantini, Giuseppe

    2015-03-15

    A relevant proportion of patients, classified as severe aortic stenosis on the basis of valve area ?1cm(2), have a mean transvalvular gradient ?40mm Hg, despite a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LGSAS). We assessed the clinical and hemodynamic impact of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with symptomatic LGSAS at high risk for surgery or inoperable, according to the type of percutaneous valve implanted. Ninety-five patients received an Edwards SAPIEN valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California) and 51 received a Medtronic CoreValve (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota). The hemodynamic performance of the 2 valves was similar in term of final transvalvular gradients (10mm Hg, p= 0.069). Early mortality rate was 7% and was not different between the 2 valves (p= 0.73). During follow-up, cardiovascular mortality rate was similar between groups, and valve type was not a predictor of outcome (p= 0.72). Estimated survival by Kaplan-Meier at 2years was 70%. At multivariate analysis, life-threatening or major bleeding, postprocedural aortic insufficiency, and acute kidney injury were the major predictors of an adverse outcome. In patients with LGSAS treated by transcatheter aortic valve implantation, the use of balloon-expandable versus self-expandable valves resulted in similar hemodynamic, early, and long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:25620039

  20. Aortic stiffness as a marker of cardiac function and myocardial strain in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac function and myocardial strain are affected by cardiac afterload, which is in part due to the stiffness of the aortic wall. In this study, we hypothesize that aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of aortic stiffness correlates with conventional clinical and biochemical markers of cardiac function and perioperative myocardial strain in aortic valve replacement (AVR). Methods Patients undergoing AVR for aortic stenosis between June 2010 and August 2012 were recruited for inclusion in this study. PWV, NYHA class and left ventricular (LV) function were assessed pre-operatively. PWV was analysed both as a continuous and dichotomous variable according to age-standardized reference values. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) was measured pre-operatively, and at 3 h and 18-24 h after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). NYHA class, leg edema, and LV function were recorded at follow-up (409 ± 159 days). Results Fifty-six patients (16 females) with a mean age of 71 ± 8.4 years were included, with 50 (89%) patients completing follow-up. The NYHA class of PWV-norm patients was significantly lower than PWV-high patients both pre- and post-operatively. Multiple logistic regression also highlighted PWV-cut off as an independent predictor of NYHA class pre- and post-operatively (OR 8.3, 95%CI [2.27,33.33] and OR 14.44, 95%CI [1.49,139.31] respectively). No significant relationship was observed between PWV and either LV function or plasma BNP. Conclusion In patients undergoing AVR for aortic stenosis, PWV is independently related to pre- and post-operative NYHA class but not to LV function or BNP. These findings provisionally support the use of perioperative PWV as a non-invasive marker of clinical functional status, which when used in conjunction with biomarkers of myocardial strain such as BNP, may provide a holistic functional assessment of patients undergoing aortic valve surgery. However, in order for PWV assessment to be translated into clinical practice and utilised as more than simply a research tool, further validation is required in the form of larger prospective studies specifically designed to assess the relationship between PWV and these functional clinical outcomes. PMID:24938692

  1. Novel Use of an Apical-Femoral Wire Rail to Assist With Transfemoral Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Don, Creighton W.; Kim, Michael S.; Verrier, Edward D.; Aldea, Gabriel S.; Dean, Larry S.; Reisman, Mark; Mokadam, Nahush A.

    2015-01-01

    The inability to reposition or retrieve balloon-expandable transcatheter aortic valves once they have been deployed requires implantation of the valve in the descending aorta or open surgical procedures to extract the valve. We describe the challenging transfemoral delivery of an Edwards Lifesciences Sapien valve wherein we had difficulty crossing the aortic valve and the guidewire position was compromised. We performed a transapical puncture to snare the guidewire and create a left ventricular to femoral wire rail, allowing us to deliver the transfemoral transcatheter valve, salvaging a situation where we would have been required to implant the valve in the descending aorta. We believe this is the first time this technique has been reported and represents an important method to facilitate delivery of transcatheter valves where guidewire support is insufficient or lost. PMID:24907088

  2. Exercise Hemodynamics and Quality of Life after Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic Stenosis in the Elderly Using the Hancock II Bioprosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Long, Theodore; Lopez, Becky M.; Berberian, Christopher; Cunningham, Mark J.; Starnes, Vaughn A.; Cohen, Robbin G.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. While aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis can be performed safely in elderly patients, there is a need for hemodynamic and quality of life evaluation to determine the value of aortic valve replacement in older patients who may have age-related activity limitation. Materials and Methods. We conducted a prospective evaluation of patients who underwent aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis with the Hancock II porcine bioprosthesis. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and completed the RAND 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) preoperatively and six months postoperatively. Results. From 2004 to 2007, 33 patients were enrolled with an average age of 75.3??5.3 years (24 men and 9 women). Preoperatively, 27/33 (82%) were New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification 3, and postoperatively 27/33 (82%) were NYHA Functional Classification 1. Patients had a mean predicted maximum VO2 (mL/kg/min) of 19.5??4.3 and an actual max VO2 of 15.5??3.9, which was 80% of the predicted VO2. Patients were found to have significant improvements (P ? 0.01) in six of the nine SF-36 health parameters. Conclusions. In our sample of elderly patients with aortic stenosis, replacing the aortic valve with a Hancock II bioprosthesis resulted in improved hemodynamics and quality of life. PMID:25544931

  3. Annular rupture leading to fatal complications in an elderly patient with calcified aortic and mitral annulus undergoing transapical aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Haldenwang, Peter L; Bechtel, Matthias; Schlömicher, Markus; Lindstaedt, Michael; Strauch, Justus T

    2013-08-01

    This case illustrates the awareness that must be taken of the high morphological risk due to the calcifications of both, the aortic and mitral annulus in elderly patients when performing transapical aortic valve implantation. In an 86-year-old, multimorbid woman (logistic EuroSCORE = 27%) with symptomatic aortic stenosis (annular diameter = 23.4 mm) and severe mitral annular calcification, the implantation of a 26-mm Edwards SAPIEN (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California, United States) valve in aortic position was primary successful, with no paravalvular leakage, valve instability, or coronary malperfusion. Second, a persisting transmural bleeding led to hypovolemic shock, which could not be stabilized even after going on cardiopulmonary bypass, and the patient died in the operation room. The autopsy showed a subvalvular ventricular rupture due to a transmural perforation of the calcified fibrotic annulus during valvuloplasty. PMID:23169104

  4. Echocardiographic changes after aortic valve replacement: Does the failure rate of mitral valve change?

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Arezoo; Sheykhloo, Hadi; Karbasi-Afshar, Reza; Saburi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Since some degrees of functional mitral regurgitation (MR) may be seen in patients who are candidate for undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR), determining the effectiveness of AVR surgery on MR rate improvement can be effective in designing a protocol to deal with patients with functional MR. The purpose of this study was to examine the echocardiographic changes after AVR surgery with a focus on changes in MR. METHODS The research was conducted as a before-after observational study on patients hospitalized in Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran, Iran, who were undergone AVR surgery between 2011 and 2012. After selecting the patients and obtaining informed consent to participate in the project, transthoracic echocardiographic data were collected by a specialist in Cardiology Echocardiography using ViVid 7 device before and till one week after AVR surgery. The MR rate was measured using methods; including Color Flow Doppler, PISA, Vena Cava Width and Effective Regurgitant Orifice. RESULTS Finally, the study was conducted on 85 patients (mean age = 56.23 6.10 years, 27 women = 31.8%). Of 21 patients with preoperative MR more than mild (moderate, mild to moderate), 20 patients (95%) showed at least one degree decrease in MR. Among 64 patients who had mild MR before the surgery, 29 patients improved (45%), that this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION The study results showed that in patients with preoperative MR degree higher than mild, after AVR the MR rate improved 24 times more than those who had preoperative MR degree equivalent to mild and lower. However, these changes are not affected by other echocardiographic changes and patients demographic characteristics. PMID:26405444

  5. Stress Echocardiography in Aortic Stenosis: Insights into Valve Mechanics and Hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Javier; Garca-Fernndez, Miguel A.; Antoranz, J. Carlos; Moreno, M. Mar; Delcn, Juan Luis

    1999-10-01

    Stress interventions have been classically combined with cardiac catheterization recordings to understand the hemodynamic principles of valvular stenosis. Indices of aortic stenosis such as pressure gradient and valve area were based on simple hydraulic principles and have proved to be clinically useful for patient management during a number of decades. With the advent of Doppler echocardiography, these hemodynamic indices can be readily obtained noninvasively. Abundant evidence obtained using exercise and pharmacological stress echocardiography has demonstrated that the assumptions of classic hemodynamic models of aortic stenosis were wrong. Consequently, it is recognized that conventional indices may be misleading indicators of aortic stenosis significance in particular clinical situations. To improve diagnostic accuracy, several alternative hemodynamic models have been developed in the past few years, including valve resistance and left ventricular stroke work loss, among others. Nevertheless, these more-accurate indices should be obtainable noninvasively and need to demonstrate greater diagnostic and prognostic power than conventional indices; preliminary data suggest such superiority. Stress echocardiography is well established as the tool of choice for testing hypothesis and physical models of cardiac valve function. Although the final role of alternative indices is not yet well established, the new insights into valvular hemodynamics provided by this technique may change the clinical assessment of aortic stenosis. PMID:11175211

  6. Fluid Dynamics of Coarctation of the Aorta and Effect of Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Kadem, Lyes

    2013-01-01

    Up to 80% of patients with coarctation of the aorta (COA) have a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). Patients with COA and BAV have elevated risks of aortic complications despite successful surgical repair. The development of such complications involves the interplay between the mechanical forces applied on the artery and the biological processes occurring at the cellular level. The focus of this study is on hemodynamic modifications induced in the aorta in the presence of a COA and a BAV. For this purpose, numerical investigations and magnetic resonance imaging measurements were conducted with different configurations: (1) normal: normal aorta and normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: aorta with COA (75% reduction by area) and normal aortic valve; (3) complex COA: aorta with the same severity of COA (75% reduction by area) and BAV. The results show that the coexistence of COA and BAV significantly alters blood flow in the aorta with a significant increase in the maximal velocity, secondary flow, pressure loss, time-averaged wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index downstream of the COA. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of why patients with complex COA have adverse outcome even following a successful surgery. PMID:24015239

  7. Use of Circular Foldable Nitinol Blades for Resecting Calcified Aortic Heart Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, Florian; Wendt, Daniel; Stühle, Sebastian; Kawa, Emilia; Wendt, Hermann; Müller, Wiebke; Thielmann, Matthias; Kipfmüller, Brigitte; Vogel, Bernd; Jakob, Heinz

    2009-08-01

    The use of percutaneous aortic valve implantation is limited, as the native calcified valve is left in situ. A new device has been developed for resecting calcified aortic valves, using collapsible nickel-titanium blades: laser-cut T-structures of Nitinol sheet-material (Ni51Ti49 at.%) have been grinded on a high-speed milling cutter to produce cutting edges which have been given the shape of half-circles afterwards. These have been connected to each other and to struts by using rivets which also serve as articulating axes for the cutting ring. The blades are folded around these axes and retreated into a tube to be inserted in the heart through the calcified valve leaflets. Once released, the cutting edges regain their ring-shape. By combining rotation of the ring with a translating movement against a second ring of slightly greater diameter on the instrument, a punching process is created which cuts the calcified valve leaflets and leaves a circular annulus, where a prosthesis can be fixed. In vitro cutting of artificially calcified valves ( n = 6) resulted in a resection time of t = 22 ± 6.29 s with a maximum turning moment of M = 2.4 ± 1.27 Nm, proving the function and the feasibility of the concept.

  8. Hydrodynamic characteristics of porcine aortic valves cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and polyepoxy compounds.

    PubMed

    Soda, Aiko; Tanaka, Ryou; Saida, Yuuto; Takashima, Kazuaki; Hirayama, Tomohiro; Umezu, Mitsuo; Yamane, Yoshihisa

    2009-01-01

    Porcine aortic valve (AoF) tissues cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and epoxy compounds were reported to have high anticalcification properties, but their hydrodynamic characteristics have not been evaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hydrodynamic differences between porcine AoFs, cross-linked with concomitant use of an epoxy compound and glutaraldehyde, at different fixation periods. The valves were mounted on a pulsatile flow circulation mimicking a left heart. The left atrial and left ventricular pressures and mitral and aortic flows were measured at every 0.002 seconds, and the hydrodynamic factor of the valves mounted on the mitral position was estimated. Effective orifice area and the regurgitation volume, which are used as indicators of valve efficiency, failed to detect significant differences due to glutaraldehyde fixation time. In addition, the pressure gradient across the bioprosthetic valve and the variation of mitral flow also had no significant differences. The flow circuit model of the present study was mimicking of a left heart. The evaluation of the mitral valvular function with different glutaraldehyde fixation times was accomplished by relating the pressure with the flow, and by estimating the time lag between valve motion and transvalvular flow. PMID:19092670

  9. Comparison of the early haemodynamics of stented pericardial and porcine aortic valves.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Deo, Salil V; Altarabsheh, Salah E; Cho, Yan Hyun; Erwin, Patricia J; Park, Soon J

    2015-01-01

    Data comparing the haemodynamic performance of stented pericardial and porcine aortic valves are conflicting. Hence, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the early haemodynamic parameters of stented pericardial and porcine valves in patients undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement. Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science were queried for English language original publications from 2000 to 2013. Studies comparing porcine (PoV) and pericardial (PeV) with regard to their haemodynamic parameters were included in this review. Continuous data were pooled using the mean difference (MD) or the standardized mean difference (SMD). A random-effect inverse weighted analysis was conducted; a P-value<0.05 is considered statistically significant. Results are presented with 95% confidence intervals. Thirteen studies (1265 PeV patients and 871 PoV patients) were included in this analysis. The pooled transvalvular mean gradient was lower for PeV [MD -4.6 (-6.45 to -2.77) mmHg; P<0.01]. Limiting this analysis to small valves (19 and 21 mm; eight studies; 714 patients) revealed that the PeV gradients were significantly lower [MD -4.5 (-5.7 to -3.2); P=0.001]. The corresponding effective orifice area of PeV was significantly larger than PoV [SMD 0.42 (0.15-0.69); P<0.01]. A sensitivity analysis comprising only randomized controlled trials did not significantly alter results. When compared with porcine valves, stented pericardial aortic valves have lower mean transvalvular gradients early after implant. Even pericardial valves in smaller sizes (19 and 21 mm) have a better haemodynamic profile when compared with their counterparts. PMID:25123674

  10. Methodological inaccuracies in clinical aortic valve severity assessment: insights from computational fluid dynamic modeling of CT-derived aortic valve anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traeger, Brad; Srivatsa, Sanjay S.; Beussman, Kevin M.; Wang, Yechun; Suzen, Yildirim B.; Rybicki, Frank J.; Mazur, Wojciech; Miszalski-Jamka, Tomasz

    2015-11-01

    Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease. Assessing the contribution of the valve as a portion to total ventricular load is essential for the aging population. A CT scan for one patient was used to create one in vivo tricuspid aortic valve geometry and assessed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). CFD simulated the pressure, velocity, and flow rate, which were used to assess the Gorlin formula and continuity equation, current clinical diagnostic standards. The results demonstrate an underestimation of the anatomic orifice area (AOA) by Gorlin formula and overestimation of AOA by the continuity equation, using peak velocities, as would be measured clinically by Doppler echocardiography. As a result, we suggest that the Gorlin formula is unable to achieve the intended estimation of AOA and largely underestimates AOA at the critical low-flow states present in heart failure. The disparity in the use of echocardiography with the continuity equation is due to the variation in velocity profile between the outflow tract and the valve orifice. Comparison of time-averaged orifice areas by Gorlin and continuity with instantaneous orifice areas by planimetry can mask the errors of these methods, which is a result of the assumption that the blood flow is inviscid.

  11. Methodological inaccuracies in clinical aortic valve severity assessment: insights from computational fluid dynamic modeling of CT-derived aortic valve anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traeger, Brad; Srivatsa, Sanjay S.; Beussman, Kevin M.; Wang, Yechun; Suzen, Yildirim B.; Rybicki, Frank J.; Mazur, Wojciech; Miszalski-Jamka, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease. Assessing the contribution of the valve as a portion to total ventricular load is essential for the aging population. A CT scan for one patient was used to create one in vivo tricuspid aortic valve geometry and assessed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). CFD simulated the pressure, velocity, and flow rate, which were used to assess the Gorlin formula and continuity equation, current clinical diagnostic standards. The results demonstrate an underestimation of the anatomic orifice area (AOA) by Gorlin formula and overestimation of AOA by the continuity equation, using peak velocities, as would be measured clinically by Doppler echocardiography. As a result, we suggest that the Gorlin formula is unable to achieve the intended estimation of AOA and largely underestimates AOA at the critical low-flow states present in heart failure. The disparity in the use of echocardiography with the continuity equation is due to the variation in velocity profile between the outflow tract and the valve orifice. Comparison of time-averaged orifice areas by Gorlin and continuity with instantaneous orifice areas by planimetry can mask the errors of these methods, which is a result of the assumption that the blood flow is inviscid.

  12. Simulation of transcatheter aortic valve implantation through patient-specific finite element analysis: two clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Morganti, S; Conti, M; Aiello, M; Valentini, A; Mazzola, A; Reali, A; Auricchio, F

    2014-08-22

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a minimally invasive procedure introduced to treat aortic valve stenosis in elder patients. Its clinical outcomes are strictly related to patient selection, operator skills, and dedicated pre-procedural planning based on accurate medical imaging analysis. The goal of this work is to define a finite element framework to realistically reproduce TAVI and evaluate the impact of aortic root anatomy on procedure outcomes starting from two real patient datasets. Patient-specific aortic root models including native leaflets, calcific plaques extracted from medical images, and an accurate stent geometry based on micro-tomography reconstruction are key aspects included in the present study. Through the proposed simulation strategy we observe that, in both patients, stent apposition significantly induces anatomical configuration changes, while it leads to different stress distributions on the aortic wall. Moreover, for one patient, a possible risk of paravalvular leakage has been found while an asymmetric coaptation occurs in both investigated cases. Post-operative clinical data, that have been analyzed to prove reliability of the performed simulations, show a good agreement with analysis results. The proposed work thus represents a further step towards the use of realistic computer-based simulations of TAVI procedures, aiming at improving the efficacy of the operation technique and supporting device optimization. PMID:24998989

  13. Left ventricular function in patients with ventricular arrhythmias and aortic valve disease

    SciTech Connect

    Santinga, J.T.; Kirsh, M.M.; Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.; Pitt, B.

    1983-02-01

    Forty patients having aortic valve replacement were evaluated preoperatively for ventricular arrhythmia and left ventricular ejection fraction. Arrhythmias were classified as complex or simple using the Lown criteria on the 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram; ejection fractions were determined by radionuclide gated blood pool analysis and contrast angiography. The ejection fractions determined by radionuclide angiography were 59.1 +/- 13.1% for 26 patients with simple or no ventricular arrhythmias, and 43.9 +/- 20.3% for 14 patients with complex ventricular arrhythmias (p less than 0.01). Ejection fractions determined by angiography, available for 31 patients, were also lower in patients with complex ventricular arrhythmias (61.1 +/- 16.3% versus 51.4 +/- 13.4%; p less than 0.05). Seven of 9 patients showing conduction abnormalities on the electrocardiogram had complex ventricular arrhythmias. Eight of 20 patients with aortic stenosis had complex ventricular arrhythmias, while 2 of 13 patients with aortic insufficiency had such arrhythmias. It is concluded that decreased left ventricular ejection fraction, intraventricular conduction abnormalities, and aortic stenosis are associated with an increased frequency of complex ventricular arrhythmias in patients with aortic valve disease.

  14. Aorto-pulmonary fistula accompanied by root abscess and destruction of native aortic valve caused by brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Faraji, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis endocarditis is a zoonosis infection of cardiovascular system with world-wide distribution, which is endemic in many provinces of the Iran. The present report describes an exceptional case of fistulization between the aorta and pulmonary artery by Brucella melitensis in a 34-year-old patient. He presented with the complaints of fever and weight loss and congestive heart failure. He was strongly positive for Brucellosis by serological reaction and conventional microbiological cultures from blood and valve tissue were positive. Echocardiography revealed aortic root abscess, cavity formation in aortic ring, large vegetation and native aortic valve destruction with aortic regurgitation and fistula from non-coronary sinus to pulmonary artery and pericarditis. The patient underwent open heart surgery with aortic valve replacement and transpulmonary fistula repair. The patient had uneven full postoperative recovery and with good general condition discharged to home in 16th days of hospitalization. PMID:26322294

  15. The Early Variation of Left Ventricular Strain after Aortic Valve Replacement by Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Leilei; Fan, Li; Wang, Chunsheng; Shu, Xianhong

    2015-01-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) and aortic incompetence (AI) are common aortic valve diseases. Both may deteriorate into irreversible myocardial dysfunction and will increase the risk of sudden death. In this study, we aimed to investigate the early variation trend of left ventricular function by three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) in the patients who underwent cardiac surgeries for aortic valve disease. Twenty patients with severe aortic AS and 16 patients with severe AI were enrolled. All of them underwent the aortic valve replacement (AVR) procedures. The patients global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS) were evaluated by 3D-STE before surgery and at 1 week after surgery. In addition, GLS and GCS were followed at 1 month as well as 3 months after AVR. In AS patients, the GCS after AVR altered little both at 1 week (p = 0.562) and at 1 month (p = 0.953) compared with the data before the surgery. And it increased significantly at 3 months of follow-up observation compared to that before AVR (p<0.05). Meanwhile, GLS increased progressively after AVR and improved significantly at 3 months after surgery (p<0.05). For the AI patients, GLS as well as GCS decreased at 1 week after AVR compared to those data at baseline (p<0.05). However, these two parameters recovered at 1 month after AVR. Furthermore, GLS and GCS improved significantly at 3 months after the surgery (p<0.05). Therefore, both GLS and GCS were influenced by AVR and would be improved at 3 months after surgery both in AS patients or AI patients. GLS and GCS can be finely evaluated by 3D-STE, and they are helpful to determine the variation tendency of left ventricular function in patients with AVR. PMID:26473730

  16. Percutaneous Transcatheter One-Step Mechanical Aortic Disc Valve Prosthesis Implantation: A Preliminary Feasibility Study in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Sochman, Jan Peregrin, Jan H.; Rocek, Miloslav; Timmermans, Hans A.; Pavcnik, Dusan; Roesch, Josef

    2006-02-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility of one-step implantation of a new type of stent-based mechanical aortic disc valve prosthesis (MADVP) above and across the native aortic valve and its short-term function in swine with both functional and dysfunctional native valves. Methods. The MADVP consisted of a folding disc valve made of silicone elastomer attached to either a nitinol Z-stent (Z model) or a nitinol cross-braided stent (SX model). Implantation of 10 MADVPs (6 Z and 4 SX models) was attempted in 10 swine: 4 (2 Z and 2 SX models) with a functional native valve and 6 (4 Z and 2 SX models) with aortic regurgitation induced either by intentional valve injury or by MADVP placement across the native valve. MADVP function was observed for up to 3 hr after implantation. Results. MADVP implantation was successful in 9 swine. One animal died of induced massive regurgitation prior to implantation. Four MADVPs implanted above functioning native valves exhibited good function. In 5 swine with regurgitation, MADVP implantation corrected the induced native valve dysfunction and the device's continuous good function was observed in 4 animals. One MADVP (SX model) placed across native valve gradually migrated into the left ventricle. Conclusion. The tested MADVP can be implanted above and across the native valve in a one-step procedure and can replace the function of the regurgitating native valve. Further technical development and testing are warranted, preferably with a manufactured MADVP.

  17. Clinical Aspects and Current Evidence Base for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Grunau, Gilat Linn; Blanke, Philipp; Leipsic, Jonathon

    2015-11-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) is a common disorder that affects nearly 5% of individuals over 75 years of age. Many patients with AS are unable to undergo surgical valve replacement (SAVR) as they are commonly deemed to be of very high risk. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), introduced in 2002, is a new method for treatment of these patients. Computed tomography (CT) is becoming the gold standard imaging modality for preprocedural planning, including assessment of annular size and access. Since 2002, >100,000 procedures have been performed with either a balloon-expandable valve (Edwards SAPIEN valve) or the self-expanding valve (Medtronic CoreValve). A growing body of evidence supporting the effectiveness and safety of TAVI includes the PARTNER trial and the CoreValve pivotal trial. These have found significantly better survival for the TAVI arm compared with SAVR (CoreValve). There were no significant differences in all-cause mortality between TAVI and SAVR, whereas significantly reduced all-cause mortality was observed for TAVI when compared with standard therapy (PARTNER). Paravalvular regurgitation is increased in TAVI compared with SAVR; however, integration of CT into valve selection has shown to improve outcomes. There is conflicting evidence regarding increased risk for stroke after TAVI, and occurrence of conduction disturbances and the need for a pacemaker after TAVI remain a concern. Upcoming trials are focusing on assessing outcomes for use of TAVI in intermediate-operative risk patients. The future will likely include an increased choice of devices, smaller access sites, and further integration of CT for preprocedure planning. PMID:26164167

  18. A three-dimensional co-culture model of the aortic valve using magnetic levitation.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hubert; Balaoing, Liezl R; Grigoryan, Bagrat; Raphael, Robert M; Killian, T C; Souza, Glauco R; Grande-Allen, K Jane

    2014-01-01

    The aortic valve consists of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) and endothelial cells (VECs). While these cells are understood to work synergistically to maintain leaflet structure and valvular function, few co-culture models of these cell types exist. In this study, aortic valve co-cultures (AVCCs) were assembled using magnetic levitation and cultured for 3 days. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were used to assess the maintenance of cellular phenotype and function, and the formation of extracellular matrix. AVCCs stained positive for CD31 and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), demonstrating that the phenotype was maintained. Functional markers endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), von Willebrand factor (VWF) and prolyl-4-hydroxylase were present. Extracellular matrix components collagen type I, laminin and fibronectin also stained positive, with reduced gene expression of these proteins in three dimensions compared to two dimensions. Genes for collagen type I, lysyl oxidase and αSMA were expressed less in AVCCs than in 2-D cultures, indicating that VICs are quiescent. Co-localization of CD31 and αSMA in the AVCCs suggests that endothelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation might be occurring. Differences in VWF and eNOS in VECs cultured in two and three dimensions also suggests that the AVCCs possibly have anti-thrombotic potential. Overall, a co-culture model of the aortic valve was designed, and serves as a basis for future experiments to understand heart valve biology. PMID:24036238

  19. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression in Calcified Human Aortic Valves: A Histopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Study.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, Ida; Sciangula, Alfonso; Aquila, Saveria; Mazzulla, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    The hallmarks of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) are the significant quantitative and qualitative changes that occur in the extracellular matrix (ECM), which ultimately lead to increased leaflet stiffness and obstruction of left ventricular outflow. Mounting evidence suggests that ECM remodeling not only contribute to valve cell dysfunction but also alter certain cell signaling pathways responsible for the initiation and progression of the disease state. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), collectively called matrixins, are a family of enzymes known to participate in numerous ECM remodeling events during embryonic development and in disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether changes in MMP-9 expression might be involved in the pathophysiology of CAVD. For this purpose, we have analyzed a total of 19 pathologic valves from patients who underwent aortic valve replacement for calcific aortic stenosis. Microscopically, the cusp tissue showed diffuse fibrosis, neovascularization, and abnormal ECM remodeling with collagen disorganization and mineralization. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses have been performed on both the areas overlying and remote from the mineral deposits. Protein expression data evidenced a significant upregulation of MMP-9 in the calcified lesion area. Consistent with these observations, immunohistochemistry demonstrated that MMP-9 protein was almost exclusively localized near or around the mineralized nodules, whereas was generally quite weak or absent in areas devoid of any calcification. Our data suggest that MMP-9 may play a key role in CAVD probably by promoting the fibrotic and procalcific remodeling of the ECM. PMID:25390353

  20. A New Cone-Shaped Aortic Valve Prosthesis for Orthotopic Position: An Experimental Study in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Sochman, Jan; Peregrin, Jan H.; Pulda, Zdenek; Pavcnik, Dusan; Uchida, Barry T.; Timmermans, Hans A.; Roesch, Josef

    2010-04-15

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate a newly designed cone-shaped aortic valve prosthesis (CAVP) for one-step transcatheter placement in an orthotopic position. The study was conducted in 15 swine using either the transcarotid (11 animals) or the transfemoral (4 animals) artery approach. A 12- or 13-Fr sheath was inserted via arterial cutdown. The CAVP was deployed under fluoroscopic control and its struts, by design, induced significant native valve insufficiency. CAVP function was evaluated by aortography and aortic pressure curve tracing. In 11 of 15 swine the CAVP was properly deployed and functioned well throughout the scheduled period of 2-3 h. In three swine the CAVPs were placed lower than intended, however, they were functional even in the left ventricular outflow tract position. One swine expired due to inadvertent low CAVP placement that caused both aortic regurgitation and immobilization of the anterior mitral valve leaflet by the valve struts. We conclude that this design of CAVP is relatively easy to deploy, works well throughout a short time period (2-3 h), and, moreover, seems to be reliable even in a lower-than-orthotopic position (e.g., infra-annulary space). Longer-term studies are needed for its further evaluation.

  1. Long-Term Outcomes for Patients With Severe Symptomatic Aortic Stenosis Treated With Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Codner, Pablo; Orvin, Katia; Assali, Abid; Sharony, Ram; Vaknin-Assa, Hanna; Shapira, Yaron; Schwartzenberg, Shmuel; Bental, Tamir; Sagie, Alexander; Kornowski, Ran

    2015-11-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an established technique for the treatment of severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. Data on long-term TAVI outcomes, both hemodynamic and clinical, in real-world practice settings are limited. We aim to explore the long-term clinical results in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis using multiple catheter-based options: 360 TAVI-treated patients were followed up for ?5years. The Medtronic CoreValve was used in 71% and the Edwards SAPIEN in 26%. The primary end point was all-cause mortality during follow-up. Outcomes were assessed based on the Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 criteria. The mean SD patient age was 82.1 6.9years (56.4% women). The Society of Thoracic Surgeons score was 7.5 4.7. The clinical efficacy end point and time-related valve safety at 3years was 50% and 81.7%, respectively. The calculated 3- and 5-year survival rates were 71.6% and 56.4%, respectively. Five-year follow-up data were obtained for 54 patients alive; 96.2% of alive patients were in the New York Heart Association class I and II, 4years after TAVI. No gender differences in all-cause mortality rates were observed (p= 0.58). In multivariate analysis, hospitalization 6months previous to TAVI (hazard ratio [HR] 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17 to 3.15, p= 0.01), frailty (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.2, p= 0.02), acute kidney injury (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.03 to 3.61, p= 0.04), and moderate or more paravalvular aortic regurgitation after TAVI (HR 4.26, 95% CI 2.54 to 7.15, p <0.001) were independent predictors for all-cause mortality. In conclusion, long-term outcomes of TAVI are encouraging. Prevention and early identification of paravalvular leak and acute renal failure after the procedure would improve short- and long-term outcomes. PMID:26342515

  2. Aortic Valve Cyclic Stretch Causes Increased Remodeling Activity and Enhanced Serotonin Receptor Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Balachandran, Kartik; Bakay, Marina A.; Connolly, Jeanne M.; Zhang, Xuemei; Yoganathan, Ajit P.; Levy, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Increased serotonin(5HT) receptor(5HTR) signaling has been associated with cardiac valvulopathy. Prior cell culture studies of 5HTR signaling in heart valve interstitial cells have provided mechanistic insights concerning only static conditions. We investigated the hypothesis that aortic valve biomechanics participate in the regulation of both 5HTR expression and inter-related extracellular matrix remodeling events. Methods The effects of cyclic-stretch on aortic valve 5HTR, expression, signaling and extracellular matrix remodeling were investigated using a tensile stretch bioreactor in studies which also compared the effects of adding 5HT and/or the 5HT-transporter inhibitor, Fluoxetine. Results Cyclic-stretch alone increased both proliferation and collagen in porcine aortic valve cusp samples. However, with cyclic-stretch, unlike static conditions, 5HT plus Fluoxetine caused the greatest increase in proliferation (p<0.0001), and also caused significant increases in collagen(p<0.0001) and glycosaminoglycans (p<0.0001). DNA microarray data demonstrated upregulation of 5HTR2A and 5HTR2B (>4.5 fold) for cyclic-stretch versus static (p<0.001), while expression of the 5HT transporter was not changed significantly. Extracellular matrix genes (eg. Collagen Types I,II,III, and proteoglycans) were also upregulated by cyclic-stretch. Conclusions Porcine aortic valve cusp samples subjected to cyclic stretch upregulate 5HTR2A and 2B, and also initiate remodeling activity characterized by increased proliferation and collagen production. Importantly, enhanced 5HTR responsiveness, due to increased 5HTR2A and 2B expression, results in a significantly greater response in remodeling endpoints (proliferation, collagen and GAG production) to 5HT in the presence of 5HT transporter blockade. PMID:21718840

  3. Blood flow characteristics in the ascending aorta after TAVI compared to surgical aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Löbe, Ulrike; Barker, Alex J; Gelsinger, Carmen; Butter, Christian; Markl, Michael; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian

    2016-03-01

    Ascending aortic blood flow characteristics are altered after aortic valve surgery, but the effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unknown. Abnormal flow may be associated with aortic and cardiac remodeling. We analyzed blood flow characteristics in the ascending aorta after TAVI in comparison to conventional stented aortic bioprostheses (AVR) and healthy subjects using time-resolved three-dimensional flow-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (4D-flow MRI). Seventeen patients with TAVI (Edwards Sapien XT), 12 with AVR and 9 healthy controls underwent 4D-flow MRI of the ascending aorta. Target parameters were: severity of vortical and helical flow pattern (semiquantitative grading from 0 = none to 3 = severe) and the local distribution of systolic wall shear stress (WSSsystole). AVR revealed significantly more extensive vortical and helical flow pattern than TAVI (p = 0.042 and p = 0.002) and controls (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001). TAVI showed significantly more extensive vortical flow than controls (p < 0.001). Both TAVI and AVR revealed marked blood flow eccentricity (64.7 and 66.7 %, respectively), whereas controls showed central blood flow (88.9 %). TAVI and AVR exhibited an asymmetric distribution of WSSsystole in the mid-ascending aorta with local maxima at the right anterior aortic wall and local minima at the left posterior wall. In contrast, controls showed a symmetric distribution of WSSsystole along the aortic circumference. Blood flow was significantly altered in the ascending aorta after TAVI and AVR. Changes were similar regarding WSSsystole distribution, while TAVI resulted in less helical and vortical blood flow. PMID:26493195

  4. Improving Hemostasis during Replacement of the Ascending Aorta and Aortic Valve with a Composite Graft

    PubMed Central

    Pratali, Stefano; Milano, Aldo; Codecasa, Riccardo; De Carlo, Marco; Borzoni, Giancarlo; Bortolotti, Uberto

    2000-01-01

    The use of a composite graft is an established treatment for patients with aortic valve disease and ascending aortic aneurysms. Since bleeding from suture lines is a potential complication of this procedure, we modified the technique and evaluated the effect on hemostasis. From January 1994 through December 1998, 35 patients underwent composite aortic graft replacement for chronic aortic disease. In the first 16 patients (Group 1), we used the standard open technique, with excision of the aortic aneurysm and anastomosis of aortic buttons containing the coronary ostia to the vascular graft. In the next 19 patients (Group 2), we modified the technique by placing an additional suture at the proximal graft anastomosis and harvesting large coronary buttons that were then attached to the graft by an endo-button buttress method. There were no operative deaths; the actuarial survival rate at 36 months was 92% 5%. Between groups 1 and 2, a significant difference was found in postoperative bleeding (1,052 433 mL vs 806 257 mL, respectively; p = 0.02) and in number of blood transfusions required (2.1 2.0 units vs 0.4 0.7 units, respectively; p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that the surgical technique used in Group 1 was the only independent risk factor for postoperative bleeding of 1,000 mL or more (p = 0.01) and for transfusion requirements of 3 or more units of blood (p = 0.004). Composite aortic valve and root replacement can be accomplished with excellent results. Technical modifications may reduce bleeding complications and related morbidity significantly. PMID:11093407

  5. Improving hemostasis during replacement of the ascending aorta and aortic valve with a composite graft.

    PubMed

    Pratali, S; Milano, A; Codecasa, R; De Carlo, M; Borzoni, G; Bortolotti, U

    2000-01-01

    The use of a composite graft is an established treatment for patients with aortic valve disease and ascending aortic aneurysms. Since bleeding from suture lines is a potential complication of this procedure, we modified the technique and evaluated the effect on hemostasis. From January 1994 through December 1998, 35 patients underwent composite aortic graft replacement for chronic aortic disease. In the first 16 patients (Group 1), we used the standard open technique, with excision of the aortic aneurysm and anastomosis of aortic buttons containing the coronary ostia to the vascular graft. In the next 19 patients (Group 2), we modified the technique by placing an additional suture at the proximal graft anastomosis and harvesting large coronary buttons that were then attached to the graft by an "endo-button" buttress method. There were no operative deaths; the actuarial survival rate at 36 months was 92% +/- 5%. Between groups 1 and 2, a significant difference was found in postoperative bleeding (1,052 + 433 mL vs 806 +/- 257 mL, respectively; p = 0.02) and in number of blood transfusions required (2.1 +/- 2.0 units vs 0.4 +/- 0.7 units, respectively; p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that the surgical technique used in Group 1 was the only independent risk factor for postoperative bleeding of 1,000 mL or more (p = 0.01) and for transfusion requirements of 3 or more units of blood (p = 0.004). Composite aortic valve and root replacement can be accomplished with excellent results. Technical modifications may reduce bleeding complications and related morbidity significantly PMID:11093407

  6. The impact of age and severity of comorbid illness on outcomes after isolated aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Mark J; Iribarne, Alexander; Chen, Emily; Karanam, Ashwin; Pettit, Chris; Barili, Fabio; Shah, Atman P; Saunders, Craig R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examines outcomes in a national sample of patients undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis, with particular focus on advanced-age patients and those with extreme severity of comorbid illness (SOI). Methods Data were obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and included all patients undergoing AVRs performed from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. Patients with major concomitant cardiac procedures, as well as those aged, 20 years, and those with infective endocarditis or aortic insufficiency without aortic stenosis, were excluded from analysis. The analysis included 13,497 patients. Patients were stratified by age and further stratified by All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group SOI into mild/moderate, major, and extreme subgroups. Results Overall in-hospital mortality was 2.96% (n=399); in-hospital mortality for the ?80-year-old group (n=139, 4.78%) was significantly higher than the 20- to 49-year-old (n=9, 0.84%, P<0.001) or 50- to 79-year-old (n=251, 2.64%, P<0.001) groups. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the extreme SOI group (n=296, 15.33%) than in the minor/moderate (n=22, 0.35%, P<0.001) and major SOI groups (n=81, 1.51%, P<0.001). Median in-hospital costs in the mild/moderate, major, and extreme SOI strata were $29,202.08, $36,035.13, and $57,572.92, respectively. Conclusion In the minor, moderate, and major SOI groups, in-hospital mortality and costs are low regardless of age; these groups represent >85% of patients undergoing isolated AVR for aortic stenosis. Conversely, in patients classified as having extreme SOI, surgical therapy is associated with exceedingly high inpatient mortality, low home discharge rates, and high resource utilization, particularly in the advanced age group. PMID:26056500

  7. Comparison of aortic root anatomy and calcification distribution between Asian and Caucasian patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung-Han; Ohno, Yohei; Araki, Motoharu; Barbanti, Marco; Lin, Mao-Shin; Ahn, Jung-Min; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kim, Young-Hak; Imm, Sebastiano; Gulino, Simona; Tamburino, Claudia I; Sgroi, Carmelo; Park, Duk-Woo; Kang, Soo-Jin; Lee, Seung-Whan; Lee, Cheol Whan; Park, Seong-Wook; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Kao, Hsien-Li; Tamburino, Corrado; Park, Seung-Jung

    2015-11-15

    The current transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) devices have been designed to fit Caucasian and Latin American aortic root anatomies. We evaluated the racial differences in aortic root anatomy and calcium distribution in patients with aortic stenosis who underwent TAVI. We conducted a multicenter study of 4 centers in Asia and Europe, which includes consecutive patients who underwent TAVI with preprocedural multidetector computed tomography. Quantitative assessment of aortic root dimensions, calcium volume for leaflet, and left ventricular outflow tract were retrospectively performed in a centralized core laboratory. A total of 308 patients (Asian group, n = 202; Caucasian group, n = 106) were analyzed. Compared to Caucasian group, Asian group had smaller annulus area (406.3 69.8 vs 430.0 76.8 mm(2); p = 0.007) and left coronary cusp diameter (30.2 3.2 vs 31.1 3.4 mm; p = 0.02) and lower height of left coronary artery ostia (12.0 2.5 vs 13.4 3.4 mm; p <0.001). Of baseline anatomic characteristics, body height showed the highest correlation with annulus area (Pearson correlation r = 0.64; p <0.001). Co-existence of lower height of left coronary artery ostia (<12 mm) and small diameter of left coronary cusp (<30 mm) were more frequent in Asian group compared with Caucasian group (35.6% vs 20.8%; p = 0.02). In contrast, there were no differences in calcium volumes of leaflet (367.2 322.5 vs 359.1 325.7 mm(3); p = 0.84) and left ventricular outflow tract (8.9 23.4 vs 10.1 23.8 mm(3); p = 0.66) between 2 groups. In conclusion, judicious consideration will be required to perform TAVI for short patients with lower height of left coronary artery ostia and small sinus of Valsalva. PMID:26428022

  8. The impact of transcatheter aortic valve implantation on patients' profiles and outcomes of aortic valve surgery programmes: a multi-institutional appraisal†

    PubMed Central

    D'Onofrio, Augusto; Alfieri, Ottavio R.; Cioni, Micaela; Alamanni, Francesco; Fusari, Melissa; Tarzia, Vincenzo; Rizzoli, Giulio; Gerosa, Gino

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to assess how the development of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) influenced the characteristics and outcomes of patients undergoing aortic valve procedures. METHODS We reviewed 1395 patients who underwent isolated surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) or TAVI in three centres with a high-volume TAVI programme. Patients were divided into two groups: ‘Pre-TAVI’ (395 patients, 28.3%) and ‘Post-TAVI’ (1000 patients, 71.7%) operated on before and after the introduction of TAVI into clinical practice. We evaluated age, logistic EuroSCORE I (LES) and hospital mortality according to time periods and the procedure performed, whether SAVR or TAVI. RESULTS ‘Post-TAVI’ patients were older (78.2 ± 7.8 vs 76.8 ± 6.7 years; P = 0.002) and with a significantly higher LES (17.8 ± 14.7 vs 9.1 ± 9.2%; P < 0.001) than ‘Pre-TAVI’ patients. Hospital mortality was not significantly different between groups (‘Pre-TAVI’ vs ‘Post-TAVI’: 2 vs 3.4%; P = 0.17). Of the 1000 ‘Post-TAVI’ patients, 605 (60.5%) underwent TAVI and 395 (39.5%), SAVR. Patients undergoing TAVI were older (79.9 ± 7.1 vs 75.5 ± 9.2 years; P < 0.001) and with a higher LES (22.9 ± 15.3 vs 9.7 ± 9.3%; P < 0.001) than ‘Post-TAVI’ SAVR patients, but their hospital mortality was similar (3.9 vs 2.5%; P = 0.22). LES was similar between ‘Pre-TAVI’ and ‘Post-TAVI’ SAVR patients (9.1 ± 9.2 vs 9.7 ± 9.3%; P = 0.26). Furthermore, we did not find significant differences in the overall hospital mortality between SAVR and TAVI patients: 2.3 vs 3.9%, P = 0.08. CONCLUSIONS This analysis shows that the development of TAVI has caused an increase in the preoperative risk profile of patients scheduled for aortic valve procedures (SAVR or TAVI) without increasing hospital mortality. PMID:23360714

  9. Consequence of patient substitution of nattokinase for warfarin after aortic valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Elahi, Maqsood M.; Choi, Charles H.; Konda, Subbareddy

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a patient's self-substitution of nattokinase for the vitamin K antagonist warfarin after aortic valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis. Nattokinase is an enzyme derived from a popular fermented soybean preparation in Japan (natto), which has fibrinolytic properties and is gaining popularity in nontraditional health journals and nonmedical health websites as an over-the-counter thrombolytic. After nearly a year of use of nattokinase without warfarin, the patient developed thrombus on the mechanical valve and underwent successful repeat valve replacement. We believe this is the first documented case of nattokinase being used as a substitute for warfarin after valve replacement, and we strongly discourage its use for this purpose. PMID:25552810

  10. Consequence of patient substitution of nattokinase for warfarin after aortic valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Maqsood M; Choi, Charles H; Konda, Subbareddy; Shake, Jay G

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a patient's self-substitution of nattokinase for the vitamin K antagonist warfarin after aortic valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis. Nattokinase is an enzyme derived from a popular fermented soybean preparation in Japan (natto), which has fibrinolytic properties and is gaining popularity in nontraditional health journals and nonmedical health websites as an over-the-counter thrombolytic. After nearly a year of use of nattokinase without warfarin, the patient developed thrombus on the mechanical valve and underwent successful repeat valve replacement. We believe this is the first documented case of nattokinase being used as a substitute for warfarin after valve replacement, and we strongly discourage its use for this purpose. PMID:25552810

  11. Mitral valve prolapse, aortic compliance, and skin collagen in joint hypermobility syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Handler, C E; Child, A; Light, N D; Dorrance, D E

    1985-01-01

    Mitral valve prolapse was sought clinically and with phonocardiography and M mode and sector echocardiography in 15 women aged 22-57 years with joint hypermobility syndrome. The type III:III + I collagen ratio was measured in skin biopsy specimens and was found to be raised in seven of 10 patients sampled. Thirteen patients had increased aortic wall compliance measured by the continuous wave Doppler ultrasound technique. Ten (67%) patients had mitral valve prolapse shown by auscultatory signs or echocardiography or both--a prevalence at least three times greater than that in the general adult population. It is concluded that if the abnormality of collagen biosynthesis found in skin biopsy samples in these patients is also present in their mitral valve tissue this may predispose them to prolapse of the valve. Images PMID:3902069

  12. Transcatheter Valve-in-Valve and Valve-in-Ring for Treating Aortic and Mitral Surgical Prosthetic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Jean-Michel; Del Trigo, Maria; Puri, Rishi; Rods-Cabau, Josep

    2015-11-01

    Bioprosthetic valve use has increased significantly. Considering their limited durability, there will remain an ongoing clinical need for repairing or replacing these prostheses in the future. The current standard of care for treating bioprosthetic valve degeneration involves redo open-heart surgery. However, repeat cardiac surgery may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. With the rapid evolution of transcatheter heart valve therapies, the feasibility and safety of implanting a transcatheter heart valve within a failed tissue valve has been established. We review the historical perspective of transcatheter valve-in-valve therapy, as well as the main procedural challenges and clinical outcomes associated with this new less invasive treatment option. PMID:26516006

  13. Infective Endocarditis Associated with Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Potential Importance of Local Trauma for a Deadly Nidus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hak Seung; Jung, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hyue Mee; Kim, Chee Hae; Park, Jun-Bean; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Sohn, Dae-Won

    2014-01-01

    Recently, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as an alternative for the treatment of severe symptomatic aortic stenosis patients. Although experience with TAVR is increasing exponentially, few cases of post-TAVR endocarditis are reported. We present a case of 76-year-old man with infective endocarditis after TAVR who was definitely diagnosed by echocardiography. PMID:25309690

  14. MRI evaluation prior to Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI): When to acquire and how to interpret.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Abhishek; Hobbs, Susan K; Ling, Fred S; Chaturvedi, Apeksha; Knight, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) is increasingly being used in patients with severe aortic stenosis who are not candidates for surgery. ECG-gated CT angiography (CTA) plays an important role in the preoperative planning for these devices. As the number of patients undergoing these procedures increases, a subset of patients is being recognized who have contraindications to iodinated contrast medium, either due to a prior severe allergic type reaction or poor renal function. Another subgroup of patients with low flow and low gradient aortic stenosis is being recognized that are usually assessed for severity of aortic stenosis by stress echocardiography. There are contraindications to stress echocardiography and some of these patients may not be able to undergo this test. Non-contrast MRI can be a useful emerging modality for evaluating these patients. In this article, we discuss the emerging indications of non-contrast MRI in preoperative assessment for TAVI and describe the commonly used MRI sequences. A comparison of the most important measurements obtained for TAVI assessment on CTA and MRI from same subjects is included. Teaching Points • MRI can be used for preoperative assessment of aortic annulus. • MRI is an alternate to CTA when iodinated contrast is contraindicated. • Measurements obtained by non-contrast MRI are similar to contrast enhanced CTA. • MRI can be used to assess severity of aortic stenosis. PMID:26911969

  15. Cellular Changes during Renal Failure-Induced Inflammatory Aortic Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Mahmoud; Duvdevan, Nitsan; Meir, Karen; Beeri, Ronen; Lotan, Chaim

    2015-01-01

    Background Aortic valve calcification (AVC) secondary to renal failure (RF) is an inflammation-regulated process, but its pathogenesis remains unknown. We sought to assess the cellular processes that are involved in the early phases of aortic valve disease using a unique animal model of RF-associated AVC. Methods Aortic valves were obtained from rats that were fed a uremia-inducing diet exclusively for 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks as well as from controls. Pathological examination of the valves included histological characterization, von Kossa staining, and antigen expression analyses. Results After 2 weeks, we noted a significant increase in urea and creatinine levels, reflecting RF. RF parameters exacerbated until the Week 5 and plateaued. Whereas no histological changes or calcification was observed in the valves of any study group, macrophage accumulation became apparent as early as 2 weeks after the diet was started and rose after 3 weeks. By western blot, osteoblast markers were expressed after 2 weeks on the diet and decreased after 6 weeks. Collagen 3 was up-regulated after 3 weeks, plateauing at 4 weeks, whereas collagen 1 levels peaked at 2 and 4 weeks. Fibronectin levels increased gradually until Week 5 and decreased at 6 weeks. We observed early activation of the ERK pathway, whereas other pathways remained unchanged. Conclusions We concluded that RF induces dramatic changes at the cellular level, including macrophage accumulation, activation of cell signaling pathway and extracellular matrix modification. These changes precede valve calcification and may increase propensity for calcification, and have to be investigated further. PMID:26070132

  16. The change in mitral regurgitation severity after trans-catheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Almasood, Ali; Al Ahmari, Saeed; El-shurafa, Haytham; Alotaibi, Mohammed; al kasab, saad; AlAbdallah, Moheeb; Al-moghairi, abdulrahman; Al khushail, Abdullah; Al-Amri, Husain

    2014-01-01

    Background Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a frequent finding in patients with aortic stenosis (AS). The objective of this study is to assess the change in MR severity following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Methods MR changes were assessed by comparing transthoracic echocardiography before and after the procedure. Results The prosthetic aortic valve was successfully implanted in 65 patients. The number of patients with pre-procedure MR was reduced from 58 (85.3%) to 43 (63.2%) (p<0.001). Vena contracta width was decreased from 0.470.28 to 0.250.21, (p=0.043). About 59.4% (19/32) of those who had moderate to severe MR and 85.7% (12/14) of those with severe MR experienced a significant improvement in MR after the procedure (p<0.001). Improvement in MR was independent of prosthetic valve type with 54.2% in CoreValve and 43.9% in Edwards SAPIEN, p=0.424; valve sizes were 25.81.9 in those who improved vs. 25.01.9mm in those who did not improve, p=0.105; femoral approach was 51.2% and apical approach was 41.7%, p=0.457; MR etiology was 48.1% in organic and 48.6% in functional, p=0.968; and operative risk was 50.0% in EuroScore >20 and 48.6% in EuroScore <20, p=0.356. Conclusions TAVI is associated with a significant improvement in MR, especially in severe types. The lack of influence of MR improvement by the etiology of MR, the type of valve implanted, and the operative risk need to be confirmed in a larger multi-center study. PMID:25544817

  17. Increased systolic load causes adverse remodeling of fetal aortic and mitral valves.

    PubMed

    Tibayan, Frederick A; Louey, Samantha; Jonker, Sonnet; Espinoza, Herbert; Chattergoon, Natasha; You, Fanglei; Thornburg, Kent L; Giraud, George

    2015-12-15

    While abnormal hemodynamic forces alter fetal myocardial growth, little is known about whether such insults affect fetal cardiac valve development. We hypothesized that chronically elevated systolic load would detrimentally alter fetal valve growth. Chronically instrumented fetal sheep received either a continuous infusion of adult sheep plasma to increase fetal blood pressure, or a lactated Ringer's infusion as a volume control beginning on day 126 4 of gestation. After 8 days, mean arterial pressure was higher in the plasma infusion group (63.0 mmHg vs. 41.8 mmHg, P < 0.05). Mitral annular septal-lateral diameter (11.9 mm vs. 9.1 mm, P < 0.05), anterior leaflet length (7.7 mm vs. 6.4 mm, P < 0.05), and posterior leaflet length (P2; 4.0 mm vs. 3.0 mm, P < 0.05) were greater in the elevated load group. mRNA levels of Notch-1, TGF-?2, Wnt-2b, BMP-1, and versican were suppressed in aortic and mitral valve leaflets; elastin and ?1 type I collagen mRNA levels were suppressed in the aortic valves only. We conclude that sustained elevated arterial pressure load on the fetal heart valve leads to anatomic remodeling and, surprisingly, suppression of signaling and extracellular matrix genes that are important to valve development. These novel findings have important implications on the developmental origins of valve disease and may have long-term consequences on valve function and durability. PMID:26354842

  18. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) as a bridge to aortic valve replacement in cancer patients who require urgent non-cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kogoj, Polonca; Devjak, Rok; Bunc, Matjaz

    2014-01-01

    Background Balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) is a percutaneous treatment option for severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis. Due to early restenosis and failure to improve long term survival, BAV is considered a palliative measure in patients who are not suitable for open heart surgery due to increased perioperative risk. BAV can be used also as a bridge to surgical or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in haemodinamically unstable patients or in patients who require urgent major non-cardiac surgery. Patients and methods. We reported on 6 oncologic patients with severe aortic stenosis that required a major abdominal and gynaecological surgery. In 5 cases we performed BAV procedure alone; in one patient with concomitant coronary artery disease we combined BAV and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Results With angioplasty and BAV we achieved a good coronary artery flow and an increase in aortic valve area without any periprocedural complications. After the successful procedure, we observed a hemodynamic and symptomatic improvement. As a consequence the operative risk for non-cardiac surgery decreased and the surgical treatment of cancer was done without complications in all the 6 cases. Conclusions BAV can be utilized as a part of a complex therapy in severe aortic stenosis aimed to improve the quality of life, decrease the surgical risk for major non-cardiac surgery or as a bridge to surgical or transcatheter aortic valve implantation. PMID:24587781

  19. Supramolecular structure of human aortic valve and pericardial xenograft material: atomic force microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Jastrzebska, Maria; Mróz, Iwona; Barwiński, Bogdan; Zalewska-Rejdak, Justyna; Turek, Artur; Cwalina, Beata

    2008-01-01

    Pericardial tissue (bovine or porcine), chemically stabilized with glutaraldehyde (GA), is widely used in cardiovascular surgery in the form of bioprosthetic valves. GA reacts with tissue proteins and creates inter- and intra-molecular cross-links, resulting in improved durability. However, tissue calcification and mechanical damage are still unresolved problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the surface topography of normal human aortic valve and GA-stabilized porcine pericardium tissue in order to gain comparative insight into supramolecular structure of both tissues. The analysis was focused on morphologic evaluation of collagen constituents of the tissues. Atomic force microscopy working in the contact mode in air was employed in the study. Considerable diversity in the spatial orientation of collagen fibrils for the human aortic valve and pericardial tissue were observed. It was found that different forms of collagen fibril packing, i.e. dense and "in phase" or loose, could have an impact on the collagen D-banding pattern. Stabilization with GA introduced significant changes in the surface topography of collagen fibrils and in their spatial organization on the tissue surface. Strong disturbance in the fibril's D-spacing was observed. It was also suggested, that the observed structural changes at the supramolecular level might make an important contribution to the progressive damage and calcification of the tissue. The presented results demonstrate that the AFM method can be useful for non-destructive structural characterization of heart valves and bioprosthetic heart valve material. PMID:17597365

  20. Localization and tracking of aortic valve prosthesis in 2D fluoroscopic image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karar, M.; Chalopin, C.; Merk, D. R.; Jacobs, S.; Walther, T.; Burgert, O.; Falk, V.

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents a new method for localization and tracking of the aortic valve prosthesis (AVP) in 2D fluoroscopic image sequences to assist the surgeon to reach the safe zone of implantation during transapical aortic valve implantation. The proposed method includes four main steps: First, the fluoroscopic images are preprocessed using a morphological reconstruction and an adaptive Wiener filter to enhance the AVP edges. Second, a target window, defined by a user on the first image of the sequences which includes the AVP, is tracked in all images using a template matching algorithm. In a third step the corners of the AVP are extracted based on the AVP dimensions and orientation in the target window. Finally, the AVP model is generated in the fluoroscopic image sequences. Although the proposed method is not yet validated intraoperatively, it has been applied to different fluoroscopic image sequences with promising results.

  1. A Roadmap to Investigate the Genetic Basis of Bicuspid Aortic Valve and its Complications

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Siddharth K.; Boss, Yohan; Muehlschlegel, Jochen D.; Michelena, Hector I.; Limongelli, Giuseppe; Della Corte, Alessandro; Pluchinotta, Francesca R.; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Evangelista, Artur; Benson, D. Woodrow; Body, Simon C.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2015-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common adult congenital heart defect and is found in 0.5% to 2.0% of the general population. The term BAV refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by diverse aortic valve malformations with associated aortopathy, congenital heart defects, and genetic syndromes. Even after decades of investigation, the genetic determinants of BAV and its complications remain largely undefined. Just as BAV phenotypes are highly variable, the genetic etiologies of BAV are equally diverse and vary from complex inheritance in families to sporadic cases without any evidence of inheritance. In this paper, the authors discuss current concepts in BAV genetics and propose a roadmap for unraveling unanswered questions about BAV through the integrated analysis of genetic and clinical data. PMID:25145529

  2. Aortic valve myxoma at the extreme age: a review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Arshad; Zalawadiya, Sandip; Kovach, Julie; Afonso, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumours are a rare finding, with cardiac myxoma and fibroelastoma representing the majority of these tumours. Cardiac myxomas are most commonly found in the left atrium but are rarely found with attachment to the cardiac valves. The authors describe a case of aortic myxoma found in an 81-year-old man presented with peripheral arterial disease. CT angiogram of the thorax was performed to find the source of emboli and it showed a mass attached to the aortic valve and protruding into the aorta. Details of the location and texture were studied on transoesophageal echocardiography. Preoperative coronary angiography showed coronary artery disease and the patient underwent successful coronary artery bypass grafting and simultaneous resection of the mass. Histopathology revealed the mass as a myxoma. PMID:24642215

  3. Pre - Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Workup in the Cardiac Catheterisation Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Sarah; Gooley, Robert; McCormick, Liam; Harper, Richard; Meredith, Ian T

    2015-12-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a rapidly evolving field with exponential growth worldwide in TAVI numbers. One of the principle methods in improving outcomes with a new technique such as TAVI is to ensure that patients undergo efficient pre-procedural evaluation. Standard TAVI workup includes clinical assessment, surgical and frailty risk scoring, blood investigations, echocardiography, pulmonary function tests, computed tomography (CT) angiography and cardiac catheterisation. Patients sent to the cardiac catheterisation laboratory (CCL) for TAVI workup require a systematic and thorough approach. This can include iliofemoral angiography, aortography, aortic valve crossing, haemodynamic evaluation, coronary angiography and right heart catheterisation. In addition, several key steps are required to evaluate suitability for the percutaneous transfemoral TAVI approach. This is the first review to systematically describe steps to evaluate pre-TAVI patients in the CCL. Due to the rapidly rising TAVI numbers, this workup will likely be performed not only by TAVI operators but also by the general interventional cardiologist. PMID:26361818

  4. Recent Advances in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: Novel Devices and Potential Shortcomings

    PubMed Central

    Blumenstein, J.; Liebetrau, C.; Linden, A. Van; Moellmann, H.; Walther, T.; Kempfert, J.

    2013-01-01

    During the past years transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has evolved to a standard technique for the treatment of high risk patients suffering from severe aortic stenosis. Worldwide the number of TAVI procedures is increasing exponentially. In this context both the transapical antegrade (TA) and the transfemoral retrograde (TF) approach are predominantly used and can be considered as safe and reproducible access sites for TAVI interventions. As a new technology TAVI is in a constant progress regarding the development of new devices. While in the first years only the Edwards SAPIEN and the Medtronic CoreValve prostheses were commercial available, recently additional devices obtained CE-mark approval and others have entered initial clinical trials. In addition to enhance the treatment options in general, the main driving factor to further develop new device iterations is to solve the drawbacks of the current TAVI systems: paravalvular leaks, occurrence of AV-blocks and the lack of full repositionability. PMID:24313644

  5. Cardiac Hemodynamics in the Pathogenesis of Congenital Heart Disease and Aortic Valve Calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, Vishal

    2011-11-01

    An improved understanding of the roles of hemodynamic forces play in cardiac development and the pathogenesis of cardiac disease will have significant scientific and clinical impact. I will focus on the role of fluid dynamics in congenital heart disease and aortic valve calcification. Congenital heart defects are the most common form of birth defect. Aortic valve calcification/stenosis is the third leading cause of adult heart disease and the most common form of acquired valvular disease in developed countries. Given the high incidence of these diseases and their associated morbidity and mortality, the potential translational impact of an improved understanding of cardiac hemodynamic forces is very large. Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego

  6. Optimizing clinical outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation patients with comorbidities.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Crochan J; Wenaweser, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has revolutionized the management of high-risk or inoperable patients presenting with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS). There are several factors to consider to optimize patient outcomes from TAVI. Before TAVI, patient selection is key and an understanding the effects of common comorbidities on outcomes after TAVI is critical. Some comorbidities share common risk factors with AS (e.g. coronary artery disease), others are directly or indirectly caused or exacerbated by severe AS (e.g. atrial fibrillation, pulmonary hypertension, mitral regurgitation, tricuspid regurgitation and right ventricular dysfunction), whereas others are not directly related to severe AS (e.g. chronic kidney disease and chronic lung disease). Choice of transcatheter heart valve prosthesis, vascular access route and mode of anesthesia are important considerations during TAVI. New onset conduction disturbances and arrhythmias remain a vexing issue after TAVI. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of these issues. PMID:26479904

  7. Is cardiac magnetic resonance imaging as accurate as echocardiography in the assessment of aortic valve stenosis?

    PubMed

    Wong, Sophia; Spina, Roberto; Toemoe, Sianne; Dhital, Kumud

    2016-04-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: is cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging as accurate as echocardiography in the assessment of aortic valve stenosis? Altogether 239 papers were found using the reported search. Only 12 demonstrated the best evidence to answer the clinical question. Nine of these 12 papers found CMR to correlate well with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) or transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) in the evaluation of aortic valve stenosis. When aortic valve areas were measured with cardiac tomography (CT) or cardiac catheterization (CC), four papers found CMR to be more accurate than TTE. Eight of 12 papers found CMR to have excellent reliability and reproducibility, as demonstrated by the low inter- and intraobserver variability. Four papers did not estimate intra- or interobserver variability. One paper noted a sensitivity and specificity of 96 and 100%, respectively, when using CMR to detect severe aortic stenosis (AS) that had been diagnosed during CC. A second paper noted a lower sensitivity and specificity of 78 and 89%, respectively, but this was still better than the sensitivities and specificities found when using TOE or TTE to detect severe AS, as noted on CC. We conclude that current evidence finds echocardiography and CMR to be equally reliable in assessing aortic stenosis. CMR has better inter- and intraobserver reliability and demonstrates an advantage over echocardiography in the detection of severe AS with greater specificity and sensitivity. The final choice, however, is as likely to be influenced by the availability of magnetic resonance imaging and expertise in interpreting the results as by accuracy and reliability. PMID:26718319

  8. Progressive aortic valve calcification: three-dimensional visualization and biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Halevi, Rotem; Hamdan, Ashraf; Marom, Gil; Mega, Mor; Raanani, Ehud; Haj-Ali, Rami

    2015-02-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a progressive pathology characterized by calcification mainly within the cusps of the aortic valve (AV). As CAVD advances, the blood flow and associated hemodynamics are severely altered, thus influencing the mechanical performance of the AV. This study proposes a new method, termed reverse calcification technique (RCT) capable of re-creating the different calcification growth stages. The RCT is based on three-dimensional (3D) spatial computed tomography (CT) distributions of the calcification density from patient-specific scans. By repeatedly subtracting the calcification voxels with the lowest Hounsfield unit (HU), only high calcification density volume is presented. RCT posits that this volume re-creation represents earlier calcification stages and may help identify CAVD initiation sites. The technique has been applied to scans from 12 patients (36 cusps) with severe aortic stenosis who underwent CT before transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Four typical calcification geometries and growth patterns were identified. Finite elements (FE) analysis was applied to compare healthy AV structural response with two selected CAVD-RCT configurations. The orifice area decreased from 2.9cm(2) for the healthy valve to 1.4cm(2) for the moderate stenosis case. Local maximum strain magnitude of 0.24 was found on the edges of the calcification compared to 0.17 in the healthy AV, suggesting a direct relation between strain concentration and calcification geometries. The RCT may help predict CAVD progression in patients at early stages of the disease. The RCT allows a realistic FE mechanical simulation and performance of calcified AVs. PMID:25553668

  9. Artificial aortic valve dysfunction due to pannus and thrombus different methods of cardiac surgical management

    PubMed Central

    Marcinkiewicz, Anna; Ko?mider, Anna; Walczak, Andrzej; Zwoli?ski, Rados?aw; Jaszewski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 60 000 prosthetic valves are implanted annually in the USA. The risk of prosthesis dysfunction ranges from 0.1% to 4% per year. Prosthesis valve dysfunction is usually caused by a thrombus obstructing the prosthetic discs. However, 10% of prosthetic valves are dysfunctional due to pannus formation, and 12% of prostheses are damaged by both fibrinous and thrombotic components. The authors present two patients with dysfunctional aortic prostheses who were referred for cardiac surgery. Different surgical solutions were used in the treatment of each case. Case study 1 The first patient was a 71-year-old woman whose medical history included arterial hypertension, stable coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and hypercholesterolemia; she had previously undergone left-sided mastectomy and radiotherapy. The patient was admitted to the Cardiac Surgery Department due to aortic prosthesis dysfunction. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed complete obstruction of one disc and a severe reduction in the mobility of the second. The mean transvalvular gradient was very high. During the operation, pannus covering the discs surface was found. A biological aortic prosthesis was reimplanted without complications. Case study 2 The second patient was an 87-year-old woman with arterial hypertension, persistent atrial fibrillation, and COPD, whose past medical history included gastric ulcer disease and ischemic stroke. As in the case of the first patient, she was admitted due to valvular prosthesis dysfunction. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiography revealed an obstruction of the posterior prosthetic disc and significant aortic regurgitation. Transesophageal echocardiography and fluoroscopy confirmed the prosthetic dysfunction. During the operation, a thrombus growing around a minor pannus was found. The thrombus and pannus were removed, and normal functionality of the prosthetic valve was restored. Conclusions Precise and modern diagnostic methods facilitated selection of the treatment method. However, the intraoperative view also seems to be crucial in individualizing the surgical approach. PMID:26702274

  10. Left ventricular support adjustment to aortic valve opening with analysis of exercise capacity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background LVAD speed adjustment according to a functioning aortic valve has hypothetic advantages but could lead to submaximal support. The consequences of an open aortic valve policy on exercise capacity and hemodynamics have not yet been investigated systematically. Methods Ambulatory patients under LVAD support (INCOR, Berlin Heart, mean support time 465??257days, average flow 4.0??0.3L/min) adjusted to maintain a near normal aortic valve function underwent maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and right heart catheterization (RHC) at rest and during constant work rate exercise (20 Watt). Results Although patients (n?=?8, mean age 45??13years) were in NYHA class 2, maximum work-load and peak oxygen uptake on CPET were markedly reduced with 69??13 Watts (35% predicted) and 12??2mL/min/kg (38% predicted), respectively. All patients showed a typical cardiac limitation pattern and severe ventilatory inefficiency with a slope of ventilation to carbon dioxide output of 42??12. On RHC, patients showed an exercise-induced increase of mean pulmonary artery pressure (from 16??2.4 to 27??2.8mmHg, p?aortic valve strategy leads to impaired exercise capacity and hemodynamics, which is not reflected by NYHA-class. Unknown compensatory mechanisms can be suspected. Further studies comparing higher vs. lower support are needed for optimization of LVAD adjustment strategies. PMID:24884921

  11. Mechanisms of the in vivo inhibition of calcification of bioprosthetic porcine aortic valve cusps and aortic wall with triglycidylamine/mercapto bisphosphonate.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, H Scott; Connolly, Jeanne M; Fulmer, James; Dai, Ning; Murti, Brandon H; Gorman, Robert C; Gorman, Joseph H; Alferiev, Ivan; Levy, Robert J

    2007-02-01

    Heart valve replacements fabricated from glutaraldehyde (Glut)-crosslinked heterograft materials, porcine aortic valves or bovine pericardium, have been widely used in cardiac surgery to treat heart valve disease. However, these bioprosthetic heart valves often fail in long-term clinical implants due to pathologic calcification of the bioprosthetic leaflets, and for stentless porcine aortic valve bioprostheses, bioprosthetic aortic wall calcification also typically occurs. Previous use of the epoxide-based crosslinker, triglycidyl amine (TGA), on cardiac bioprosthetic valve materials demonstrated superior biocompatibility, mechanics, and calcification resistance for porcine aortic valve cusps (but not porcine aortic wall) and bovine pericardium, vs. Glut-prepared controls. However, TGA preparation did not completely prevent long-term calcification of cusps or pericardium. Herein we report further mechanistic investigations of an added therapeutic component to this system, 2-mercaptoethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonic acid (MABP), a custom synthesized thiol bisphosphonate, which has previously been shown in a preliminary report to prevent bioprosthetic heterograft biomaterial calcification when used in combination with initial TGA crosslinking for 7 days. In the present studies, we have further investigated the effectiveness of MABP in experiments that examined: (1) The use of MABP after optimal TGA crosslinking, in order to avoid any competitive interference of MABP-reactions with TGA during crosslinking; (2) Furthermore, recognizing the importance of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the formation of dystrophic calcific nodules, we have investigated the hypothesis that the mechanism by which MABP primarily functions is through the reduction of ALP activity. Results from cell-free model systems, cell culture studies, and rat subcutaneous implants, show that materials functionalized with MABP after TGA crosslinking have reduced ALP activity, and in vivo have no significant calcification in long-term implant studies. It is concluded that bioprosthetic heart valves prepared in this fashion are compelling alternatives for Glut-prepared bioprostheses. PMID:17027944

  12. MECHANISMS OF THE IN VIVO INHIBITION OF CALCIFICATION OF BIOPROSTHETIC PORCINE AORTIC VALVE CUSPS AND AORTIC WALL WITH TRIGLYCIDYLAMINE/MERCAPTO BISPHOSPHONATE

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, H. Scott; Connolly, Jeanne M.; Fulmer, James; Dai, Ning; Murti, Brandon H.; Gorman, Robert C.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Alferiev, Ivan; Levy, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Heart valve replacements fabricated from glutaraldehyde (Glut)-crosslinked heterograft materials, porcine aortic valves or bovine pericardium, have been widely used in cardiac surgery to treat heart valve disease. However, these bioprosthetic heart valves often fail in long-term clinical implants due to pathologic calcification of the bioprosthetic leaflets, and for stentless porcine aortic valve bioprostheses, bioprosthetic aortic wall calcification also typically occurs. Previous use of the epoxide-based crosslinker, Triglycidyl amine (TGA), on cardiac bioprosthetic valve materials demonstrated superior biocompatibility, mechanics, and calcification resistance for porcine aortic valve cusps (but not porcine aortic wall) and bovine pericardium, versus Glut-prepared controls. However, TGA preparation did not completely prevent long-term calcification of cusps or pericardium. Herein we report further mechanistic investigations of an added therapeutic component to this system, 2-Mercaptoethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonic acid (MABP), a custom synthesized thiol bisphosphonate, which has previously been shown in a preliminary report to prevent bioprosthetic heterograft biomaterial calcification when used in combination with initial TGA crosslinking for 7 days. In the present studies we have further investigated the effectiveness of MABP in experiments that examined: 1) The use of MABP after optimal TGA crosslinking, in order to avoid any competitive interference of MABP-reactions with TGA during crosslinking; 2) Furthermore, recognizing the importance of alkaline phosphatase in the formation of dystrophic calcific nodules, we have investigated the hypothesis that the mechanism by which MABP primarily functions is through the reduction of alkaline phosphatase activity. Results from cell-free model systems, cell culture studies, and rat subcutaneous implants, show that materials functionalized with MABP after TGA crosslinking have reduced alkaline phosphatase activity, and in vivo have no significant calcification in long term implant studies. It is concluded that bioprosthetic heart valves prepared in this fashion are compelling alternatives for Glut-prepared bioprostheses. PMID:17027944

  13. Long-term results of apico-aortic valved conduit for severe idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Renzulli, A; Gregorio, R; De Feo, M; Ismeno, G; Covino, F E; Cotrufo, M

    2000-01-01

    We report our long-term results of apico-aortic conduit implantation in patients with isolated idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. Between December 1977 and July 1983, apico-aortic prosthetic-valved conduits were implanted in 4 such patients (age range, 24-65 years) who had severe left ventricular hypertrophy and small left ventricular chambers. In this procedure, the distal end of the conduit was anastomosed to the ascending aorta in 3 patients and to the upper abdominal aorta in 1. Postoperative echocardiography showed relief of the left ventricle-aortic gradient and enlargement of the left ventricular chamber in all cases. One patient died of perioperative wound infection. One patient died of unnatural causes 13 years after the initial operation; in his case, the conduit was known to be occluded. Two patients are alive 15 and 19 years, respectively, after the initial operation. Three instances of conduit obstruction due to bioprosthetic calcification were observed. Despite the high incidence of reoperation due to conduit valve failure, apicoaortic conduit implantation has produced good hemodynamic outcome and has improved the quality of life in patients who have idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis and anatomic features unsuitable for Morrow's operation. Improvements in bioprostheses and in apical implantation techniques may allow a revival of apico-aortic conduit implantation in selected patients with idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. PMID:10830624

  14. Safety and feasibility of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with severe persistent thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Fox, Henrik; Hemmann, Katrin; Doss, Mirko; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Zeiher, Andreas M; Moritz, Anton; Fichtlscherer, Stephan; Lehmann, Ralf

    2013-10-01

    Untreated symptomatic high-grade aortic stenosis remains a lethal disease. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation is necessary to obtain the best individual treatment for each patient. Recently, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was developed as an innovative therapy for high-risk and inoperable patients. Persistent thrombocytopenia is an established risk for conventional open heart surgery, but is not covered by traditional surgical risk scores. The aim of the study was the investigation of safety and feasibility of TAVI in patients with severe thrombocytopenia. Because of the complicated outcome of patients with persistent thrombocytopenia undergoing heart surgery, we considered all patients with high-grade aortic stenosis and a thrombocyte count of less than 100 per nl as surgical high-risk patients. Out of these high-risk surgical patients, six patients with symptomatic high-grade aortic stenosis and severe thrombocytopenia were deemed to be TAVI candidates and underwent TAVI procedures in 2010 and 2011 (transfemoral: n = 4; transapical: n = 2) at the University Hospital of Frankfurt. The outcome of these patients was analyzed prospectively in order to document safety and feasibility of TAVI in such patients. All TAVI procedures were performed successfully with excellent functional results. There was no occurrence of major or minor bleeding complications, acute renal failure or nosocomial infection. One patient died of an ischemic stroke 12 days after the procedure. The five remaining patients were alive at the 12-month follow-up without relevant cardiovascular events and excellent valve performance. TAVI is an effective and well tolerated method to treat patients with chronic persistent thrombocytopenia and symptomatic high-grade aortic stenosis, and therefore a reasonable alternative to conventional heart surgery in such patients. The indication for TAVI in patients with thrombocytopenia and symptomatic high-grade aortic stenosis might be generated independently from conventional scoring systems. PMID:23719018

  15. The TriGuard embolic deflection device for prevention of stroke and cerebral embolization during transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Baumbach, Andreas; Pietras, Cody; Lansky, Alexandra

    2015-11-01

    The incidence of embolic ischemic cerebral events during transcatheter aortic valve implantation remains high. The effects range from clinically silent embolic lesions in the brain to severe disabling stroke. Memory loss and other functional neurocognitive impairment are a direct result of embolic strokes. The TriGuard embolic deflection device is a nitinol frame filter that is placed across all three aortic cerebral vessel ostia to prevent particles from entering the brain circulation during the procedure. The results of clinical studies suggest that this procedure can lead to a reduction of embolic events, and an improvement of neurocognitive function when compared with unprotected transcatheter aortic valve implantation. PMID:26364995

  16. Aortico-Left Atrial Fistula: A Rare Complication of Bioprosthetic Aortic Valve Endocarditis Secondary to Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Amor, Martin Miguel; Iyer, Deepa; Parikh, Manan; Cohen, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Paravalvular aortic root abscess with intracardiac fistula formation is an exceedingly rare complication of infective endocarditis. This condition is even more rarely encountered in patients with bioprosthetic valve endocarditis. We report an unusual case of a 68-year-old Bosnian female with a bioprosthetic aortic valve, who developed an extensive aortic root abscess, complicated by an aortico-left atrial intracardiac fistula. This case illustrates that a high index of suspicion, prompt diagnosis by echocardiography, proper antibiotic therapy, and early surgical intervention are crucial to improving treatment outcomes for this rare condition. PMID:26246917

  17. Monitored anesthesia care with dexmedetomidine in transfemoral percutaneous trans-catheter aortic valve implantation: two cases report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Joung, Kyoung-Woon; Choi, In-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is recommended for inoperable patients with severe aortic stenosis at high risk for conventional aortic valve replacement. Originally, TAVI was mostly performed under general anesthesia. Here we describe two cases of transfemoral TAVI performed under monitored anesthesia care (MAC) with dexmedetomidine. Dexmedetomidine provides sedation, analgesia with minimal respiratory depression. Although MAC during transfemoral TAVI has limitations, such as unexpected patient movement and difficulty in intra-procedural use of transesophageal echocardiography, MAC with dexmedetomidine is feasible with close monitoring, fluoroscopic guidance and the participation of experienced anesthesiologists. PMID:24851170

  18. MRI for diagnosing aortic valve stenosis: a comparison study of MRI and ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    van Pul, C.; de Jong, N.M.C.M.; van Beek, L.M.; Pasmans, H.L.M.; Wijn, P.F.F.; Visser, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Background In cases when Doppler ultrasound examinations are not reliable for determining the severity of aortic valve stenosis, patients undergo a catheterisation. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising tool for the determination of this disease. Aim We investigated the value of MRI as a substitute for catheterisation in such circumstances, by comparing MRI measurements with Doppler ultrasound measurements. Methods Five volunteers and ten patients entered this study, which was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. A 1.0T MRI scanner was used for cardiac MRI. On the same day, a Doppler ultrasound examination was performed. The maximum velocity and the orifice area of the aortic valve (called orifice) were compared. Results A good correlation was observed between the maximum velocity measured with MRI and that measured with ultrasound (r2=0.95) and between the orifice determined by MRI and by ultrasound (r2=0.94); however, the orifice determined by MRI is consistently larger than the orifice determined by ultrasound. Conclusion MRI measurements of velocity and orifice of the aortic valve correlate well with Doppler ultrasound measurement. MRI is a useful diagnostic tool and can be a good substitute for catheterisation, in particular because it allows simultaneous acquisition of anatomical and functional information. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696429

  19. Advanced age and the clinical outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Alsara, Osama; Alsarah, Ahmad; Laird-Fick, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is common in the elderly. Although surgical replacement of the valve has been the gold standard of management, many patients have been excluded from surgery because they were very old, frail, or had co-morbidities that increased operative risks. In the last decade, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as a new treatment option suitable for these patients. This article reviews the available literature on the role of TAVI in elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis. Published studies showed that elderly individuals who underwent TAVI experienced better in-hospital recovery, and similar short and mid-term mortality compared to those underwent surgical treatment of AS. However, long-term outcomes of TAVI in elderly patients are still unknown. The available data in the literature on the effect of advanced age on clinical outcomes of TAVI are limited, but the data that are available suggest that TAVI is a beneficial and tolerable procedure in very old patients. Some of the expected complications after TAVI are reported more in the oldest patients such as vascular injures. Other complications were comparable in TAVI patients regardless of their age group. However, very old patients may need closer monitoring to avoid further morbidities and mortality. PMID:25009568

  20. Acute inferior myocardial infarction in a patient with a prosthetic aortic valve and high international normalized ratio

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Ibrahim; Delil, Kenan; Ileri, Cigdem; Samadov, Fuad

    2014-01-01

    ST elevation acute myocardial infarction in patients with a mechanical prosthetic valve is rare and usually due to inadequate anticoagulation. We present a case of acute inferior myocardial infarction in a patient with a prosthetic aortic valve and high international normalized ratio, which has not been reported previously. PMID:24799934

  1. Aortic root compliance influences hemolysis in mechanical heart valve prostheses: an in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Linde, Torsten; Hamilton, Kathrin F; Navalon, Elena Cuenca; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2012-07-01

    Mechanical heart valve prostheses are known to activate coagulation and cause hemolysis. Both are particularly dependent on the leaflet dynamics, which in turn depends on the flow field in the aortic root influenced by the aortic root geometry and its compliance. Compliance reduction of large vessels occurs in aging patients, both in those who have atherosclerotic diseases and those who do not. In this study we investigated the correlation between hemolysis and the compliance of the proximal aorta in a novel, pulsatile in vitro blood tester using porcine blood. Two mechanical heart valves, the St Jude Medical (SJM) bileaflet valve and a trileaflet valve prototype (Triflo) were tested for hemolysis under physiological conditions (120/80 mm Hg, 4.5 l/min, 70 bpm) and using two different tester setups: with a stiff aorta and with a compliant aorta. Valve dynamics were subsequently analyzed via high-speed videos. In the tests with the Triflo valve, the free plasma hemoglobin increased by 13.4 mg/dl for the flexible and by 19.3 mg/dl for the stiff setup during the 3-hour test. The FFT spectra and closing speed showed slight differences for both setups. Free plasma hemoglobin for the SJM valve was up by 22.2 mg/dl in the flexible and 42.7 mg/dl in the stiff setup. Cavitation induced by the higher closing speed might be responsible for this, which is also indicated by the sound spectrum elevation above 16 kHz. PMID:22669587

  2. Differential expression of cartilage and bone-related proteins in pediatric and adult diseased aortic valves

    PubMed Central

    Wirrig, Elaine E.; Hinton, Robert B.; Yutzey, Katherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 5 million people are affected with aortic valve disease (AoVD) in the United States. The most common treatment is aortic valve (AoV) replacement surgery, however, replacement valves are susceptible to failure, necessitating additional surgeries. The molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression and late AoV calcification are not well understood. Recent studies suggest that genes involved in bone and cartilage development play an active role in osteogenic-like calcification in human calcific AoVD (CAVD). In an effort to define the molecular pathways involved in AoVD progression and calcification, expression of markers of valve mesenchymal progenitors, chondrogenic precursors, and osteogenic differentiation was compared in pediatric non-calcified and adult calcified AoV specimens. Valvular interstitial cell (VIC) activation, extracellular matrix (ECM) disorganization, and markers of valve mesenchymal and skeletal chondrogenic progenitor cells were observed in both pediatric and adult AoVD. However, activated BMP signaling, increased expression of cartilage and bone-type collagens, and increased expression of the osteogenic marker Runx2 are observed in adult diseased AoVs and are not observed in the majority of pediatric diseased valves, representing a marked distinction in the molecular profile between pediatric and adult diseased AoVs. The combined evidence suggests that an actively regulated osteochondrogenic disease process underlies the pathological changes affecting AoVD progression, ultimately resulting in stenotic AoVD. Both pediatric and adult diseased AoVs express protein markers of valve mesenchymal and chondrogenic progenitor cells while adult diseased AoVs also express proteins involved in osteogenic calcification. These findings provide specific molecular indicators of AoVD progression, which may lead to identification of early disease markers and the development of potential therapeutics. PMID:21163264

  3. Total ellipse of the heart valve: the impact of eccentric stent distortion on the regional dynamic deformation of pericardial tissue leaflets of a transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Paul S; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Yoganathan, Ajit P; McNamara, Laoise M

    2015-12-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacements (TAVRs) are a percutaneous alternative to surgical aortic valve replacements and are used to treat patients with aortic valve stenosis. This minimally invasive procedure relies on expansion of the TAVR stent to radially displace calcified aortic valve leaflets against the aortic root wall. However, these calcium deposits can impede the expansion of the device causing distortion of the valve stent and pericardial tissue leaflets. The objective of this study was to elucidate the impact of eccentric TAVR stent distortion on the dynamic deformation of the tissue leaflets of the prosthesis in vitro. Dual-camera stereophotogrammetry was used to measure the regional variation in strain in a leaflet of a TAVR deployed in nominal circular and eccentric (eccentricity index = 28%) orifices, representative of deployed TAVRs in vivo. It was observed that (i) eccentric stent distortion caused incorrect coaptation of the leaflets at peak diastole resulting in a 'peel-back' leaflet geometry that was not present in the circular valve and (ii) adverse bending of the leaflet, arising in the eccentric valve at peak diastole, caused significantly higher commissure strains compared with the circular valve in both normotensive and hypertensive pressure conditions (normotension: eccentric = 13.76 2.04% versus circular = 11.77 1.61%, p = 0.0014, hypertension: eccentric = 15.07 1.13% versus circular = 13.56 0.87%, p = 0.0042). This study reveals that eccentric distortion of a TAVR stent can have a considerable impact on dynamic leaflet deformation, inducing deleterious bending of the leaflet and increasing commissures strains, which might expedite leaflet structural failure compared to leaflets in a circular deployed valve. PMID:26674192

  4. Percutaneous implantation of the CoreValve aortic valve prosthesis in patients at high risk or rejected for surgical valve replacement: Clinical evaluation and feasibility of the procedure in the first 30 patients in the AMC-UvA.

    PubMed

    Baan, J; Yong, Z Y; Koch, K T; Henriques, J P S; Bouma, B J; de Hert, S G; van der Meulen, J; Tijssen, J G P; Piek, J J; de Mol, B A J M

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To report the feasibility, safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve implantation (PAVI) with the CoreValve self-expanding aortic valve bioprosthesis in elderly patients with aortic valve stenosis who are rejected for surgery or have a high surgical risk.Methods. PAVI using the CoreValve ReValving System was performed under general anaesthesia in 30 high-risk (surgical) patients with a symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis.Results. The patients had a mean age of 80.5+/-7.7 years, a mean aortic valve area of 0.71+/-0.19 cm(2), a peak transvalvular aortic gradient of 79+/-25 mmHg, as measured with echo Doppler, a logistic EuroSCORE of 15+/-10% and a Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score of 5.2+/-2.9%. Device success was achieved in all patients and acute procedural success in 27 patients (90%). In the surviving patients, there was in a reduction of the peak aortic pressure gradient from 76+/-24 mmHg to 22+/-7 mmHg (n=24, p<0.00001) 30 days after successful device implantation. At 30 days, major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events had occurred in seven patients (23%). This included mortality in six patients (20%), of which one death was cardiovascular. The other five non-cardiovascular deaths involved two patients who died of an exacerbation of severe pre-existent pulmonary disease and three of infectious complications.Conclusions. Percutaneous aortic valve implantation was successfully performed in our centre in highrisk patients, with a 30-day mortality of 20%. When successful, marked haemodynamic improvement and relief of symptoms was achieved. (Neth Heart J 2010;18:18-24.). PMID:20111639

  5. Simulation of transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a patient-specific finite element approach.

    PubMed

    Auricchio, F; Conti, M; Morganti, S; Reali, A

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, heart valve failure has been treated adopting open-heart surgical techniques and cardiopulmonary bypass. However, over the last decade, minimally invasive procedures have been developed to avoid high risks associated with conventional open-chest valve replacement techniques. Such a recent and innovative procedure represents an optimal field for conducting investigations through virtual computer-based simulations: in fact, nowadays, computational engineering is widely used to unravel many problems in the biomedical field of cardiovascular mechanics and specifically, minimally invasive procedures. In this study, we investigate a balloon-expandable valve and we propose a novel simulation strategy to reproduce its implantation using computational tools. Focusing on the Edwards SAPIEN valve in particular, we simulate both stent crimping and deployment through balloon inflation. The developed procedure enabled us to obtain the entire prosthetic device virtually implanted in a patient-specific aortic root created by processing medical images; hence, it allows evaluation of postoperative prosthesis performance depending on different factors (e.g. device size and prosthesis placement site). Notably, prosthesis positioning in two different cases (distal and proximal) has been examined in terms of coaptation area, average stress on valve leaflets as well as impact on the aortic root wall. The coaptation area is significantly affected by the positioning strategy (- 24%, moving from the proximal to distal) as well as the stress distribution on both the leaflets (+13.5%, from proximal to distal) and the aortic wall (- 22%, from proximal to distal). No remarkable variations of the stress state on the stent struts have been obtained in the two investigated cases. PMID:23402555

  6. Leaflet stress and strain distributions following incomplete transcatheter aortic valve expansion.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Mostafa; Azadani, Ali N

    2015-10-15

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an established treatment alternative to surgical valve replacement in high-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. The current guidelines for TAVR are to upsize transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) relative to the native annulus to secure the device and minimize paravalvular leakage. Unlike surgical stented bioprosthetic valves where leaflets are attached to a rigid frame, TAVs must expand to fit within the native annulus. Fully-expanded circular TAVs have consistent leaflet kinematics; however, subtle variations in the degree of stent expansion may affect leaflet coaptation. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of incomplete TAV expansion on leaflet stress and strain distributions. In this study, we developed finite element models of a 23mm homemade TAV expanded to diameters ranging from 18 to 23mm in 1mm increments. Through dynamic finite element simulations, we found that leaflet stress and strain distributions were dependent on the diameter of the inflated TAV. After complete expansion of the TAV to 23mm, high stress and strain regions were observed primarily in the commissures during diastole. However, 2-3mm incomplete TAV stent expansion induced localized high stress regions within the TAV commissures, while 4-5mm incomplete stent expansion induced localized high stress regions within the belly of the TAV leaflets during the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. Increased mechanical stress and flexural deformation on TAV leaflets due to incomplete stent expansion may lead to accelerated tissue degeneration and diminished long-term valve durability. PMID:26338100

  7. Costs and in-hospital outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation versus surgical aortic valve replacement in commercial cases using a propensity score matched model.

    PubMed

    Minutello, Robert M; Wong, S Chiu; Swaminathan, Rajesh V; Feldman, Dmitriy N; Kaple, Ryan K; Horn, Evelyn M; Devereux, Richard B; Salemi, Arash; Sun, Xuming; Singh, Harsimran; Bergman, Geoffrey; Kim, Luke K

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this study was to compare in-hospital cost and outcomes between transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). TAVI is an effective treatment option in patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis who are at high risk for traditional SAVR. Several studies using trial data or outside United States registry data have addressed TAVI cost issues, although there is a paucity of cost data involving commercial cases in the United States. Using Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample files, a propensity score-matched analysis of all commercial TAVI and SAVR cases performed in 2011 was conducted. Overall hospital cost and length of stay, as well as procedural complications, were compared between the 2 matched cohorts: 595 TAVI patients were matched to 1,785 SAVR patients in a 1:3 ratio. There was no difference in mean ($181,912 vs $196,298) or median ($152,993 vs $155,974) hospital cost between TAVI and SAVR (p = 0.60). The TAVI group had significantly shorter lengths of hospital stay than the SAVR group (mean 9.76 vs 12.01 days, p <0.001). There was no difference in postprocedural in-hospital death or stroke, but TAVI patients were more likely to have bleeding complications, to have vascular complications, and to require pacemakers. In conclusion, when analyzing in-hospital cost of commercial TAVI and SAVR cases using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample data set, TAVI is an economically satisfactory alternative to SAVR and results in an approximately 2-day shorter length of stay during the index hospitalization. PMID:25784513

  8. Implantation of transcatheter aortic valve prosthesis through the ascending aorta concomitant with coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Joo Carlos Ferreira; Avanci, Luis Ernesto; Abelaira Filho, Achilles; Almeida, Thiago Faria; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2014-01-01

    Introdution The transcatheter aortic valve implantation in the treatment of high-risk symptomatic aortic stenosis has increased the number of implants every year. The learning curve for transcatheter aortic valve implantation has improved since the last 12 years, allowing access alternatives. Objective The aim of this study is to approach the implantation of transcatheter aortic valve through transaortic via associated with off-pump cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in a 67-year-old man, with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arterial hypertension and kidney transplant. Methods Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery was performed and the valve in the aortic position was released successfully. Results There were no complications in the intraoperative and postoperative period. Gradient reduction, effective orifice increasing of the prosthesis and absence of valvular regurgitation after implantation were observed by transesophageal echocardiography. Conclusion Procedural success demonstrates that implantation of transcatheter aortic valve through the ascending aorta associated with coronary artery bypass surgery without CPB is a new option for these patients. PMID:25714221

  9. Multidetector row computed tomography assessment of the native aortic and mitral valve: a call for routine assessment of left-sided heart valves during coronary computed tomography.

    PubMed

    de Heer, Linda M; Habets, Jesse; Chamuleau, Steven A J; Mali, Willem P Th M; van Herwerden, Lex A; Kluin, Jolanda; Budde, Ricardo P J

    2012-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis and mitral valve regurgitation are the most common valvular heart diseases (VHD) in Western countries. In daily clinical practice, the diagnosis and evaluation of the severity of VHD is based on clinical findings and imaging. Transthoracic echocardiography is the preferred imaging technique for the initial evaluation of VHD. In patients with inconclusive transthoracic echocardiography, transoesophageal echocardiography can have additional diagnostic value. Cardiac multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) has proven to have diagnostic value in the evaluation of coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients with a low-to-intermediate pretest probability. The images acquired for coronary assessment also contain diagnostic information on heart valves. The purpose of this review was to discuss the diagnostic value of MDCT for the evaluation of left-sided VHD. We provide an overview of the literature comparing echocardiography and MDCT for VHD assessment focusing on aortic valve and mitral valve disease, and we present clinical recommendations. PMID:23045729

  10. Aortic valve replacement in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kansara, Bhuvnesh; Singh, Ajmer; Karlekar, Anil; Mishra, Yugal K

    2013-04-01

    Valvular heart disease in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Current therapy includes symptomatic measures and valve replacement. SLE can present major challenges because of accrued organ damage, coagulation defects and complex management regimes. The peri-operative goals are to maintain strict asepsis, avoid use of nephrotoxic drugs and thereby renal insult, and to promote early ambulation post-operatively. PMID:23878452

  11. Different techniques for aortic valve repair and the associated root reconstruction – prospective long-term follow-up of the first 100 patients

    PubMed Central

    Gocol, Radosław; Malinowski, Marcin; Hudziak, Damian; Duraj, Piotr; Frackiewicz, Joanna; Kargul, Tomasz; Deja, Marek A.; Woś, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The advantages of aortic valve and aortic root reconstructive surgery include the provision of natural postoperative valve hemodynamics and the avoidance of prosthetic valve-related complications. A systematic approach based on functional classification of aortic regurgitation allows standardization and reproducibility. Its potential applicability, however, is limited by the relative lack of long-term follow-up data. Aim To achieve the long term results of aortic valve and root repair in prospectively recruited group of 100 patients operated on during first seven years. Material and methods Between the years 2003 and 2013, 225 consecutive patients (175 male, 50 female, mean age 51.3 years) with severe aortic regurgitation and aortic root enlargement underwent aortic valve repair or sparing surgery. The first 100 patients operated between 2003 and 2009 were prospectively enrolled in the study in order to achieve a 105-month follow-up. They underwent aortic valve repair and associated aortic root reconstruction. This prospective study is aimed at assessing the major endpoints of overall survival and freedom from reoperation. Additionally, log-rank testing for the risk factors associated with overall mortality, reoperation, and aortic valve repair failure was performed. Results Among 225 patients, early mortality occurred in the case of 5 patients (2.2%), while 6 (2.5%) patients experienced early valve failure. In a prospective analysis performed on the first 100 patients, long-term results achieved with Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a survival rate of 93% and freedom from reoperation at the level of 91.3%. The risk factors for overall mortality included NYHA class, creatinine level, and perioperative root replacement as reimplantation. Redo operation was associated with bicuspid aortic valve and perioperative leaflet resection with pericardial patch repair. Conclusions One hundred and five month follow-up data from this prospectively analyzed cohort of patients prove that aortic valve repair associated with aortic root reconstruction can be performed with satisfactory results. PMID:26336452

  12. Segmentation of the Aortic Valve Apparatus in 3D Echocardiographic Images: Deformable Modeling of a Branching Medial Structure

    PubMed Central

    Pouch, Alison M.; Tian, Sijie; Takabe, Manabu; Wang, Hongzhi; Yuan, Jiefu; Cheung, Albert T.; Jackson, Benjamin M.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.; Yushkevich, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    3D echocardiographic (3DE) imaging is a useful tool for assessing the complex geometry of the aortic valve apparatus. Segmentation of this structure in 3DE images is a challenging task that benefits from shape-guided deformable modeling methods, which enable inter-subject statistical shape comparison. Prior work demonstrates the efficacy of using continuous medial representation (cm-rep) as a shape descriptor for valve leaflets. However, its application to the entire aortic valve apparatus is limited since the structure has a branching medial geometry that cannot be explicitly parameterized in the original cm-rep framework. In this work, we show that the aortic valve apparatus can be accurately segmented using a new branching medial modeling paradigm. The segmentation method achieves a mean boundary displacement of 0.6 ± 0.1 mm (approximately one voxel) relative to manual segmentation on 11 3DE images of normal open aortic valves. This study demonstrates a promising approach for quantitative 3DE analysis of aortic valve morphology. PMID:26247062

  13. Identification of fibrillin 1 gene mutations in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) without Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most frequent congenital heart disease with frequent involvement in thoracic aortic dilatation, aneurysm and dissection. Although BAV and Marfan syndrome (MFS) share some clinical features, and some MFS patients with BAV display mutations in FBN1, the gene encoding fibrillin-1, the genetic background of isolated BAV is poorly defined. Methods Ten consecutive BAV patients [8 men, age range 2442years] without MFS were clinically characterized. BAV phenotype and function, together with evaluation of aortic morphology, were comprehensively assessed by Doppler echocardiography. Direct sequencing of each FBN1 exon with flanking intron sequences was performed on eight patients. Results We detected three FBN1 mutations in two patients (aged 24 and 25years) displaying aortic root aneurysm ?50mm and moderate aortic regurgitation. In particular, one patient had two mutations (p.Arg2726Trp and p.Arg636Gly) one of which has been previously associated with variable Marfanoid phenotypes. The other patient showed a pArg529Gln substitution reported to be associated with an incomplete MFS phenotype. Conclusions The present findings enlarge the clinical spectrum of isolated BAV to include patients with BAV without MFS who have involvement of FBN1 gene. These results underscore the importance of accurate phenotyping of BAV aortopathy and of clinical characterization of BAV patients, including investigation of systemic connective tissue manifestations and genetic testing. PMID:24564502

  14. Technical Approach Determines Inflammatory Response after Surgical and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Erdoes, Gabor; Lippuner, Christoph; Kocsis, Istvan; Schiff, Marcel; Stucki, Monika; Carrel, Thierry; Windecker, Stephan; Eberle, Balthasar; Stueber, Frank; Book, Malte

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the periprocedural inflammatory response in patients with isolated aortic valve stenosis undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with different technical approaches. Material and Methods Patients were prospectively allocated to one of the following treatments: SAVR using conventional extracorporeal circulation (CECC, n = 47) or minimized extracorporeal circulation (MECC, n = 15), or TAVI using either transapical (TA, n = 15) or transfemoral (TF, n = 24) access. Exclusion criteria included infection, pre-procedural immunosuppressive or antibiotic drug therapy and emergency indications. We investigated interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR), white blood cell count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and soluble L-selectin (sCD62L) levels before the procedure and at 4, 24, and 48 h after aortic valve replacement. Data are presented for group interaction (p-values for inter-group comparison) as determined by the Greenhouse-Geisser correction. Results SAVR on CECC was associated with the highest levels of IL-8 and hs-CRP (p<0.017, and 0.007, respectively). SAVR on MECC showed the highest descent in levels of HLA-DR and sCD62L (both p<0.001) in the perioperative period. TA-TAVI showed increased intraprocedural concentration and the highest peak of IL-6 (p = 0.017). Significantly smaller changes in the inflammatory markers were observed in TF-TAVI. Conclusion Surgical and interventional approaches to aortic valve replacement result in inflammatory modulation which differs according to the invasiveness of the procedure. As expected, extracorporeal circulation is associated with the most marked pro-inflammatory activation, whereas TF-TAVI emerges as the approach with the most attenuated inflammatory response. Factors such as the pre-treatment patient condition and the extent of myocardial injury also significantly affect inflammatory biomarker patterns. Accordingly, TA-TAVI is to be classified not as an interventional but a true surgical procedure, with inflammatory biomarker profiles comparable to those found after SAVR. Our study could not establish an obvious link between the extent of the periprocedural inflammatory response and clinical outcome parameters. PMID:26599610

  15. Thromboinflammatory response and predictors of outcomes in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Travis R; Wallace, Eric L; Chen, Amy; Charnigo, Richard J; Reda, Hassan K; Ziada, Khaled M; Gurley, John C; Smyth, Susan S

    2016-04-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been increasingly used to treat patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis. Despite improvements in valve deployment, patients that have undergone TAVR are at high risk for major adverse events following the procedure. Blood cell numbers, platelet function, and biomarkers of systemic inflammation were analyzed in 58 patients undergoing TAVR with the Edward's SAPIEN valve. Following valve deployment, platelet count and agonist-induced platelet activity declined and plasma markers of systemic inflammation (interleukin-6 and S100A8/A9) increased. Baseline platelet activity prior to TAVR correlated with perioperative changes plasma interleukin-6 levels. Moreover, perioperative changes in plasma inflammatory markers predicted the decline in platelet count in the days following the TAVR procedure. Additionally, a significant effect of gender on platelet count following TAVR and was observed. Finally, post-procedural mortality was associated with sustained thrombocytopenia after TAVR. Our findings suggest that TAVR elicits a thromboinflammatory state that may contribute to post-procedural thrombocytopenia. Importantly, our results add to the growing body of literature that suggests the thromboinflammatory changes that occur early after TAVR may predict long-term outcomes. PMID:26743061

  16. FSI simulation of intra-ventricular flow in patient-specific ventricular model with both mitral and aortic valves.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Liang; Su, Boyang; Zhang, Jun-Mei; Leo, Hwa Liang; Tan, Ru San

    2013-01-01

    Investigating the intra-ventricular flow is the most important to understand the left ventricular function. In this study, we proposed a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach to simulate the blood flow in patient-specific model by combining both mitral an